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Sample records for activity trial adapt

  1. Population activity changes during a trial-to-trial adaptation of bullfrog retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Xiao, Lei; Jing, Wei; Zhang, Pu-Ming; Liang, Pei-Ji

    2014-07-09

    A 'trial-to-trial adaptation' of bullfrog retinal ganglion cells in response to a repetitive light stimulus was investigated in the present study. Using the multielectrode recording technique, we studied the trial-to-trial adaptive properties of ganglion cells and explored the activity of population neurons during this adaptation process. It was found that the ganglion cells adapted with different degrees: their firing rates were decreased in different extents from early-adaptation to late-adaptation stage, and this was accompanied by a decrease in cross-correlation strength. In addition, adaptation behavior was different for ON-response and OFF-response, which implied that the mechanism of the trial-to-trial adaptation might involve bipolar cells and/or their synapses with other neurons and the stronger adaptation in the ganglion cells' OFF-responses might reflect the requirement to avoid possible saturation in the OFF circuit.

  2. An adaptive physical activity intervention for overweight adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA interventions typically include components or doses that are static across participants. Adaptive interventions are dynamic; components or doses change in response to short-term variations in participant's performance. Emerging theory and technologies make adaptive goal setting and feedback interventions feasible. OBJECTIVE: To test an adaptive intervention for PA based on Operant and Behavior Economic principles and a percentile-based algorithm. The adaptive intervention was hypothesized to result in greater increases in steps per day than the static intervention. METHODS: Participants (N = 20 were randomized to one of two 6-month treatments: 1 static intervention (SI or 2 adaptive intervention (AI. Inactive overweight adults (85% women, M = 36.9 ± 9.2 years, 35% non-white in both groups received a pedometer, email and text message communication, brief health information, and biweekly motivational prompts. The AI group received daily step goals that adjusted up and down based on the percentile-rank algorithm and micro-incentives for goal attainment. This algorithm adjusted goals based on a moving window; an approach that responded to each individual's performance and ensured goals were always challenging but within participants' abilities. The SI group received a static 10,000 steps/day goal with incentives linked to uploading the pedometer's data. RESULTS: A random-effects repeated-measures model accounted for 180 repeated measures and autocorrelation. After adjusting for covariates, the treatment phase showed greater steps/day relative to the baseline phase (p<.001 and a group by study phase interaction was observed (p  .017. The SI group increased by 1,598 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment while the AI group increased by 2,728 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment; a significant between-group difference of 1,130 steps/day (Cohen's d = .74. CONCLUSIONS: The adaptive

  3. Alberta Diabetes and Physical Activity Trial (ADAPT: A randomized theory-based efficacy trial for adults with type 2 diabetes - rationale, design, recruitment, evaluation, and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkett Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three physical activity (PA behavioural intervention strategies in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. Method/Design Participants (N = 287 were randomly assigned to one of three groups consisting of the following intervention strategies: (1 standard printed PA educational materials provided by the Canadian Diabetes Association [i.e., Group 1/control group]; (2 standard printed PA educational materials as in Group 1, pedometers, a log book and printed PA information matched to individuals' PA stage of readiness provided every 3 months (i.e., Group 2; and (3 PA telephone counseling protocol matched to PA stage of readiness and tailored to personal characteristics, in addition to the materials provided in Groups 1 and 2 (i.e., Group 3. PA behaviour measured by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and related social-cognitive measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18-months (i.e., 6-month follow-up. Clinical (biomarkers and health-related quality of life assessments were conducted at baseline, 12-months, and 18-months. Linear Mixed Model (LMM analyses will be used to examine time-dependent changes from baseline across study time points for Groups 2 and 3 relative to Group 1. Discussion ADAPT will determine whether tailored but low-cost interventions can lead to sustainable increases in PA behaviours. The results may have implications for practitioners in designing and implementing theory-based physical activity promotion programs for this population. Clinical Trials Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00221234

  4. Physical performance and self-report outcomes associated with use of passive, adaptive, and active prosthetic knees in persons with unilateral, transfemoral amputation: Randomized crossover trial.

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    Hafner, Brian J; Askew, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic knees are a vital component in an artificial limb. Contemporary knees include passive, (mechanical), adaptive (computerized), or active (motorized) control systems and have the potential to mitigate amputation-related functional impairments and activity limitations. A 14 mo randomized crossover trial was conducted. Participants (n = 12, mean age = 58 yr) were tested under three conditions: passive control (existing knee), adaptive control (Ossur Rheo Knee II), and active control (Ossur Power Knee II). Training and acclimation time were provided to participants in the adaptive and active knees. Outcome measures included indoor tests (Timed Up and Go test [TUG], stairs, and ramp), outdoor tests (walking course and perceived exertion), step activity monitor, self-report surveys (mobility, balance confidence, physical function, fatigue, and general health), and fall incidence. Mixed-effects linear regression modeling was used to evaluate data. Compared with passive control, adaptive control significantly improved comfortable TUG time (difference = 0.91 s, p = 0.001) and reported physical function (difference = 1.26 [T-score], p = 0.03). Active control significantly increased comfortable TUG, fast TUG, and ramp times (difference = 3.02, 2.66, and 0.96 s, respectively, all p passive control. Findings suggest that adaptive knee control may enhance function compared with passive control but that active control can restrict mobility in middle-age or older users with transfemoral amputation. ClinicalTrials.gov; "Use of Passive, Adaptive, and Active Prosthetic Knees in Persons With Unilateral, Transfemoral Amputation": NCT02219230; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02219230.

  5. Physical performance and self-report outcomes associated with use of passive, adaptive, and active prosthetic knees in persons with unilateral, transfemoral amputation: Randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Hafner, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic knees are a vital component in an artificial limb. Contemporary knees include passive (mechanical, adaptive (computerized, or active (motorized control systems and have the potential to mitigate amputation-related functional impairments and activity limitations. A 14 mo randomized crossover trial was conducted. Participants (n = 12, mean age = 58 yr were tested under three conditions: passive control (existing knee, adaptive control (Ossur Rheo Knee II, and active control (Ossur Power Knee II. Training and acclimation time were provided to participants in the adaptive and active knees. Outcome measures included indoor tests (Timed Up and Go test [TUG], stairs, and ramp, outdoor tests (walking course and perceived exertion, step activity monitor, self-report surveys (mobility, balance confidence, physical function, fatigue, and general health, and fall incidence. Mixed-effects linear regression modeling was used to evaluate data. Compared with passive control, adaptive control significantly improved comfortable TUG time (difference = 0.91 s, p = 0.001 and reported physical function (difference = 1.26 [T-score], p = 0.03. Active control significantly increased comfortable TUG, fast TUG, and ramp times (difference = 3.02, 2.66, and 0.96 s, respectively, all p < 0.03 and increased balance confidence (difference = 3.77, p = 0.003 compared with passive control. Findings suggest that adaptive knee control may enhance function compared with passive control but that active control can restrict mobility in middle-age or older users with transfemoral amputation.

  6. Bayesian adaptive methods for clinical trials

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    Berry, Scott M; Muller, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Already popular in the analysis of medical device trials, adaptive Bayesian designs are increasingly being used in drug development for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, from Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis to obesity, diabetes, hepatitis C, and HIV. Written by leading pioneers of Bayesian clinical trial designs, Bayesian Adaptive Methods for Clinical Trials explores the growing role of Bayesian thinking in the rapidly changing world of clinical trial analysis. The book first summarizes the current state of clinical trial design and analysis and introduces the main ideas and potential benefits of a Bayesian alternative. It then gives an overview of basic Bayesian methodological and computational tools needed for Bayesian clinical trials. With a focus on Bayesian designs that achieve good power and Type I error, the next chapters present Bayesian tools useful in early (Phase I) and middle (Phase II) clinical trials as well as two recent Bayesian adaptive Phase II studies: the BATTLE and ISP...

  7. Some ethical implications of "adaptive" trials.

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    Petrini, C

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive trials are a new type of sequential trial, as yet not very widespread, in which each step can be modified on the basis of findings from the preceding step. In other words, the data accumulated during the study are used to modify the trial design. The potential of this type of trial is highly promising, especially for the development of therapies for rare diseases. The planning, conduct and management of data from adaptive trials are extremely complex processes and call for highly specialised skills. Without going into the merits of the experimental protocols, the aim of this article is to point out some ethical aspects that call for caution, as well as the need for ethics committees to be aware of the challenges posed by these trials.

  8. Working memory load-dependent spatio-temporal activity of single-trial P3 response detected with an adaptive wavelet denoiser.

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    Zhang, Qiushi; Yang, Xueqian; Yao, Li; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2017-03-27

    Working memory (WM) refers to the holding and manipulation of information during cognitive tasks. Its underlying neural mechanisms have been explored through both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). Trial-by-trial coupling of simultaneously collected EEG and fMRI signals has become an important and promising approach to study the spatio-temporal dynamics of such cognitive processes. Previous studies have demonstrated a modulation effect of the WM load on both the BOLD response in certain brain areas and the amplitude of P3. However, much remains to be explored regarding the WM load-dependent relationship between the amplitude of ERP components and cortical activities, and the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the EEG signal still poses a challenge to performing single-trial analyses. In this paper, we investigated the spatio-temporal activities of P3 during an n-back verbal WM task by introducing an adaptive wavelet denoiser into the extraction of single-trial P3 features and using general linear model (GLM) to integrate simultaneously collected EEG and fMRI data. Our results replicated the modulation effect of the WM load on the P3 amplitude. Additionally, the activation of single-trial P3 amplitudes was detected in multiple brain regions, including the insula, the cuneus, the lingual gyrus (LG), and the middle occipital gyrus (MOG). Moreover, we found significant correlations between P3 features and behavioral performance. These findings suggest that the single-trial integration of simultaneous EEG and fMRI signals may provide new insights into classical cognitive functions.

  9. Adaptive goal setting and financial incentives: a 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial to increase adults' physical activity.

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    Adams, Marc A; Hurley, Jane C; Todd, Michael; Bhuiyan, Nishat; Jarrett, Catherine L; Tucker, Wesley J; Hollingshead, Kevin E; Angadi, Siddhartha S

    2017-03-29

    Emerging interventions that rely on and harness variability in behavior to adapt to individual performance over time may outperform interventions that prescribe static goals (e.g., 10,000 steps/day). The purpose of this factorial trial was to compare adaptive vs. static goal setting and immediate vs. delayed, non-contingent financial rewards for increasing free-living physical activity (PA). A 4-month 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial tested main effects for goal setting (adaptive vs. static goals) and rewards (immediate vs. delayed) and interactions between factors to increase steps/day as measured by a Fitbit Zip. Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) minutes/day was examined as a secondary outcome. Participants (N = 96) were mainly female (77%), aged 41 ± 9.5 years, and all were insufficiently active and overweight/obese (mean BMI = 34.1 ± 6.2). Participants across all groups increased by 2389 steps/day on average from baseline to intervention phase (p rewards showed stronger improvement (2762 step/day increase) from baseline to intervention phase than those receiving delayed rewards (2016 steps/day increase; difference = 746 steps/day, p = .009). However, the adaptive goals group showed a slower decrease in steps/day from the beginning of the intervention phase to the end of the intervention phase (i.e. less than half the rate) compared to the static goals group (-7.7 steps vs. -18.3 steps each day; difference = 10.7 steps/day, p reward groups. Significant goal phase x goal setting x reward interactions were observed. Adaptive goals outperformed static goals (i.e., 10,000 steps) over a 4-month period. Small immediate rewards outperformed larger, delayed rewards. Adaptive goals with either immediate or delayed rewards should be preferred for promoting PA. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02053259 registered prospectively on January 31, 2014.

  10. Design of a randomised controlled trial of adapted physical activity during adjuvant treatment for localised breast cancer: the PASAPAS feasibility study.

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    Touillaud, M; Foucaut, A-M; Berthouze, S E; Reynes, E; Kempf-Lépine, A-S; Carretier, J; Pérol, D; Guillemaut, S; Chabaud, S; Bourne-Branchu, V; Perrier, L; Trédan, O; Fervers, B; Bachmann, P

    2013-10-28

    After a diagnosis of localised breast cancer, overweight, obesity and weight gain are negatively associated with prognosis. In contrast, maintaining an optimal weight through a balanced diet combined with regular physical activity appears to be effective protective behaviour against comorbidity or mortality after a breast cancer diagnosis. The primary aim of the Programme pour une Alimentation Saine et une Activité Physique Adaptée pour les patientes atteintes d'un cancer du Sein (PASAPAS) randomised controlled trial is to evaluate the feasibility of implementing an intervention of adapted physical activity (APA) for 6 months concomitant with the prescription of a first line of adjuvant chemotherapy. Secondary aims include assessing the acceptability of the intervention, compliance to the programme, process implementation, patients' satisfaction, evolution of biological parameters and the medicoeconomic impact of the intervention. The study population consists of 60 women eligible for adjuvant chemotherapy after a diagnosis of localised invasive breast cancer. They will be recruited during a 2-year inclusion period and randomly allocated between an APA intervention arm and a control arm following a 2:1 ratio. All participants should benefit from personalised dietetic counselling and patients allocated to the intervention arm will be offered an APA programme of two to three weekly sessions of Nordic walking and aerobic fitness. During the 6-month intervention and 6-month follow-up, four assessments will be performed including blood draw, anthropometrics and body composition measurements, and questionnaires about physical activity level, diet, lifestyle factors, psychological criteria, satisfaction with the intervention and medical data. The study was approved by the French Ethics Committee (Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud-Est IV) and the national agencies for biomedical studies and for privacy. All participants will give written informed consent. The study

  11. Adapted Active Appearance Models

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    Renaud Séguier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Appearance Models (AAMs are able to align efficiently known faces under duress, when face pose and illumination are controlled. We propose Adapted Active Appearance Models to align unknown faces in unknown poses and illuminations. Our proposal is based on the one hand on a specific transformation of the active model texture in an oriented map, which changes the AAM normalization process; on the other hand on the research made in a set of different precomputed models related to the most adapted AAM for an unknown face. Tests on public and private databases show the interest of our approach. It becomes possible to align unknown faces in real-time situations, in which light and pose are not controlled.

  12. Can emergency medicine research benefit from adaptive design clinical trials?

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    Flight, Laura; Julious, Steven A; Goodacre, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive design clinical trials use preplanned interim analyses to determine whether studies should be stopped or modified before recruitment is complete. Emergency medicine trials are well suited to these designs as many have a short time to primary outcome relative to the length of recruitment. We hypothesised that the majority of published emergency medicine trials have the potential to use a simple adaptive trial design. We reviewed clinical trials published in three emergency medicine journals between January 2003 and December 2013. We determined the proportion that used an adaptive design as well as the proportion that could have used a simple adaptive design based on the time to primary outcome and length of recruitment. Only 19 of 188 trials included in the review were considered to have used an adaptive trial design. A total of 154/165 trials that were fixed in design had the potential to use an adaptive design. Currently, there seems to be limited uptake in the use of adaptive trial designs in emergency medicine despite their potential benefits to save time and resources. Failing to take advantage of adaptive designs could be costly to patients and research. It is recommended that where practical and logistical considerations allow, adaptive designs should be used for all emergency medicine clinical trials. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

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    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges surrounding adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. Such knowledge could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time, both preflight and inflight, and provide better outcomes. The primary goal of this project is to look for a baseline performance metric that can forecast sensorimotor adaptability without exposure to an adaptive stimulus. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations in motor performance, as a predictor of individual sensorimotor adaptive capabilities. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations and adaptability in two oculomotor systems. For this project, we will explore an analogous predictive mechanism in the locomotion system. METHODS: Baseline Inter-trial Correlations: Inter-trial correlations specify the relationships among repeated trials of a given task that transpire as a consequence of correcting for previous performance errors over multiple timescales. We can quantify the strength of inter-trial correlations by measuring the decay of the autocorrelation function (ACF), which describes how rapidly information from past trials is "forgotten." Processes whose ACFs decay more slowly exhibit longer-term inter-trial correlations (longer memory processes), while processes whose ACFs decay more rapidly exhibit shorterterm inter-trial correlations (shorter memory processes). Longer-term correlations reflect low-frequency activity, which is more easily

  14. Practical considerations for adaptive trial design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Pinheiro, José; Kuznetsova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume is a definitive text on adaptive clinical trial designs from creation and customization to utilization. As this book covers the full spectrum of topics involved in the adaptive designs arena, it will serve as a valuable reference for researchers working in industry, government and academia. The target audience is anyone involved in the planning and execution of clinical trials, in particular, statisticians, clinicians, pharmacometricians, clinical operation specialists, drug supply managers, and infrastructure providers.  In spite of the increased efficiency of adaptive trials in saving costs and time, ultimately getting drugs to patients sooner, their adoption in clinical development is still relatively low.  One of the chief reasons is the higher complexity of adaptive design trials as compared to traditional trials. Barriers to the use of clinical trials with adaptive features include the concerns about the integrity of study design and conduct, the risk of regulatory non-acceptance, t...

  15. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

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    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  16. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  17. An overview of the adaptive designs accelerating promising trials into treatments (ADAPT-IT) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, William J; Lewis, Roger J; Tagle, Danilo; Fetters, Michael D; Legocki, Laurie; Berry, Scott; Connor, Jason; Durkalski, Valerie; Elm, Jordan; Zhao, Wenle; Frederiksen, Shirley; Silbergleit, Robert; Palesch, Yuko; Berry, Donald A; Barsan, William G

    2012-10-01

    Randomized clinical trials, which aim to determine the efficacy and safety of drugs and medical devices, are a complex enterprise with myriad challenges, stakeholders, and traditions. Although the primary goal is scientific discovery, clinical trials must also fulfill regulatory, clinical, and ethical requirements. Innovations in clinical trials methodology have the potential to improve the quality of knowledge gained from trials, the protection of human subjects, and the efficiency of clinical research. Adaptive clinical trial methods represent a broad category of innovations intended to address a variety of long-standing challenges faced by investigators, such as sensitivity to previous assumptions and delayed identification of ineffective treatments. The implementation of adaptive clinical trial methods, however, requires greater planning and simulation compared with a more traditional design, along with more advanced administrative infrastructure for trial execution. The value of adaptive clinical trial methods in exploratory phase (phase 2) clinical research is generally well accepted, but the potential value and challenges of applying adaptive clinical trial methods in large confirmatory phase clinical trials are relatively unexplored, particularly in the academic setting. In the Adaptive Designs Accelerating Promising Trials Into Treatments (ADAPT-IT) project, a multidisciplinary team is studying how adaptive clinical trial methods could be implemented in planning actual confirmatory phase trials in an established, National Institutes of Health-funded clinical trials network. The overarching objectives of ADAPT-IT are to identify and quantitatively characterize the adaptive clinical trial methods of greatest potential value in confirmatory phase clinical trials and to elicit and understand the enthusiasms and concerns of key stakeholders that influence their willingness to try these innovative strategies.

  18. Adaptable typologies for active roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quanjel, E.M.C.J.; Zeiler, W.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this part of the 6th framework Pan-European EUR-ACTIVE ROOF-er project is to improve the interaction between design participants of dynamic adaptable Active Roofs in product development and Active Roofs from an architects/ customers perspective. Improvements in Active Roof desi

  19. The role of visual awareness for conflict adaptation in the masked priming task: Comparing block-wise adaptation with trial-by-trial adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro eHasegawa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of participants’ visual awareness in the block-wise and the trial-by-trial adaptations. We employed a subliminal response compatibility task in which a prime arrow was briefly presented before the target arrow, and the participants were requested to indicate the direction of the target arrow. The direction of the prime and direction of the target were either the same (compatible trial or different (incompatible trial. To examine block-wise adaptation, two blocks were conducted, i.e., the Neutral block (50% compatible and 50% incompatible trials and the Incompatible block (10% compatible and 90% incompatible trials. The results showed the existence of the block-wise adaptation without participants’ visual awareness. The compatibility effect on both response time and error rate was smaller in the Incompatible block than in the Neutral block. Moreover, a separate data analysis based on the preceding trial type revealed that the trial-by-trial adaptation of cognitive control was observed only in the error rate. These results suggest the different role of visual awareness in the block-wise and trial-by-trial adaptations.

  20. Adaptive design clinical trials: Methodology, challenges and prospect

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    Mahajan Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New drug development is a time-consuming and expensive process. Recently, there has been stagnation in the development of novel compounds. Moreover, the attrition rate in clinical research is also on the rise. Fearing more stagnation, the Food and Drug Administration released the critical path initiative in 2004 and critical path opportunity list in 2006 thus highlighting the need of advancing innovative trial designs. One of the innovations suggested was the adaptive designed clinical trials, a method promoting introduction of pre-specified modifications in the design or statistical procedures of an on-going trial depending on the data generated from the concerned trial thus making a trial more flexible. The adaptive design trials are proposed to boost clinical research by cutting on the cost and time factor. Although the concept of adaptive designed clinical trials is round-the-corner for the last 40 years, there is still lack of uniformity and understanding on this issue. This review highlights important adaptive designed methodologies besides covering the regulatory positions on this issue.

  1. Benefits, challenges and obstacles of adaptive clinical trial designs

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    Chow Shein-Chung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, the use of adaptive design methods in pharmaceutical/clinical research and development has become popular due to its flexibility and efficiency for identifying potential signals of clinical benefit of the test treatment under investigation. The flexibility and efficiency, however, increase the risk of operational biases with resulting decrease in the accuracy and reliability for assessing the treatment effect of the test treatment under investigation. In its recent draft guidance, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA expresses regulatory concern of controlling the overall type I error rate at a pre-specified level of significance for a clinical trial utilizing adaptive design. The FDA classifies adaptive designs into categories of well-understood and less well-understood designs. For those less well-understood adaptive designs such as adaptive dose finding designs and two-stage phase I/II (or phase II/III seamless adaptive designs, statistical methods are not well established and hence should be used with caution. In practice, misuse of adaptive design methods in clinical trials is a concern to both clinical scientists and regulatory agencies. It is suggested that the escalating momentum for the use of adaptive design methods in clinical trials be slowed in order to allow time for development of appropriate statistical methodologies.

  2. A culturally adapted telecommunication system to improve physical activity, diet quality, and medication adherence among hypertensive African-Americans: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migneault, Jeffrey P; Dedier, Julien J; Wright, Julie A; Heeren, Timothy; Campbell, Marci Kramish; Morisky, Donald E; Rudd, Peter; Friedman, Robert H

    2012-02-01

    Hypertension is more prevalent and clinically severe among African-Americans than whites. Several health behaviors influence blood pressure (BP) control, but effective, accessible, culturally sensitive interventions that target multiple behaviors are lacking. We evaluated a culturally adapted, automated telephone system to help hypertensive, urban African-American adults improve their adherence to their antihypertensive medication regimen and to evidence-based guidelines for dietary behavior and physical activity. We randomized 337 hypertensive primary care patients to an 8-month automated, multi-behavior intervention or to an education-only control. Medication adherence, diet, physical activity, and BP were assessed at baseline and every 4 months for 1 year. Data were analyzed using longitudinal modeling. The intervention was associated with improvements in a measure of overall diet quality (+3.5 points, p telecommunications systems can promote self-management of diet and energy balance in urban African-Americans.

  3. Trial-by-Trial Motor Cortical Correlates of a Rapidly Adapting Visuomotor Internal Model.

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    Stavisky, Sergey D; Kao, Jonathan C; Ryu, Stephen I; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2017-02-15

    Accurate motor control is mediated by internal models of how neural activity generates movement. We examined neural correlates of an adapting internal model of visuomotor gain in motor cortex while two macaques performed a reaching task in which the gain scaling between the hand and a presented cursor was varied. Previous studies of cortical changes during visuomotor adaptation focused on preparatory and perimovement epochs and analyzed trial-averaged neural data. Here, we recorded simultaneous neural population activity using multielectrode arrays and focused our analysis on neural differences in the period before the target appeared. We found that we could estimate the monkey's internal model of the gain using the neural population state during this pretarget epoch. This neural correlate depended on the gain experienced during recent trials and it predicted the speed of the subsequent reach. To explore the utility of this internal model estimate for brain-machine interfaces, we performed an offline analysis showing that it can be used to compensate for upcoming reach extent errors. Together, these results demonstrate that pretarget neural activity in motor cortex reflects the monkey's internal model of visuomotor gain on single trials and can potentially be used to improve neural prostheses.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT When generating movement commands, the brain is believed to use internal models of the relationship between neural activity and the body's movement. Visuomotor adaptation tasks have revealed neural correlates of these computations in multiple brain areas during movement preparation and execution. Here, we describe motor cortical changes in a visuomotor gain change task even before a specific movement is cued. We were able to estimate the gain internal model from these pretarget neural correlates and relate it to single-trial behavior. This is an important step toward understanding the sensorimotor system's algorithms for updating its internal models

  4. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

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    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, as a predictor of individual adaptive capabilities.

  5. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter­-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a one-size-fits-all approach is inappropriate. Therefore it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, and adaptability in two oculomotor systems (see Preliminary Results). We now propose an analogous predictive mechanisms in the locomotor system.

  6. Trial-to-trial adaptation in control of arm reaching and standing posture.

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    Pienciak-Siewert, Alison; Horan, Dylan P; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2016-12-01

    Classical theories of motor learning hypothesize that adaptation is driven by sensorimotor error; this is supported by studies of arm and eye movements that have shown that trial-to-trial adaptation increases with error. Studies of postural control have shown that anticipatory postural adjustments increase with the magnitude of a perturbation. However, differences in adaptation have been observed between the two modalities, possibly due to either the inherent instability or sensory uncertainty in standing posture. Therefore, we hypothesized that trial-to-trial adaptation in posture should be driven by error, similar to what is observed in arm reaching, but the nature of the relationship between error and adaptation may differ. Here we investigated trial-to-trial adaptation of arm reaching and postural control concurrently; subjects made reaching movements in a novel dynamic environment of varying strengths, while standing and holding the handle of a force-generating robotic arm. We found that error and adaptation increased with perturbation strength in both arm and posture. Furthermore, in both modalities, adaptation showed a significant correlation with error magnitude. Our results indicate that adaptation scales proportionally with error in the arm and near proportionally in posture. In posture only, adaptation was not sensitive to small error sizes, which were similar in size to errors experienced in unperturbed baseline movements due to inherent variability. This finding may be explained as an effect of uncertainty about the source of small errors. Our findings suggest that in rehabilitation, postural error size should be considered relative to the magnitude of inherent movement variability.

  7. Group sequential and confirmatory adaptive designs in clinical trials

    CERN Document Server

    Wassmer, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date review of the general principles of and techniques for confirmatory adaptive designs. Confirmatory adaptive designs are a generalization of group sequential designs. With these designs, interim analyses are performed in order to stop the trial prematurely under control of the Type I error rate. In adaptive designs, it is also permissible to perform a data-driven change of relevant aspects of the study design at interim stages. This includes, for example, a sample-size reassessment, a treatment-arm selection or a selection of a pre-specified sub-population. Essentially, this adaptive methodology was introduced in the 1990s. Since then, it has become popular and the object of intense discussion and still represents a rapidly growing field of statistical research. This book describes adaptive design methodology at an elementary level, while also considering designing and planning issues as well as methods for analyzing an adaptively planned trial. This includes estimation methods...

  8. Reducing Reforestation Costs in Lebanon: Adaptive Field Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garabet (Garo Haroutunian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon’s Ministry of Environment initiated a project in 2009 to determine low-cost reforestation techniques for stone pine (Pinus pinea and Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani for large-scale land rehabilitation activities in the arid Middle East. Irrigation (several techniques vs. no water, planting (8- to 18-month-old seedlings, seeding, and soil preparation methods were evaluated in three sets of adaptive management field trials. The aim was to reduce reforestation costs while still achieving sufficient regeneration. A key result for management was that non-irrigated seed planting of stone pine and possibly of Lebanon cedar showed promise for cost-effective reforestation and could be competitive with seedlings, given correct seed source and planting conditions. Stone pine seeds collected from nearby mother trees and planted without irrigation on sandy soil showed 35% survival for <600 USD/ha; seedlings planted without irrigation cost about 2500 USD/ha and achieved 50–70% survival (costs based on 800 seedlings/ha. Water supplements increased establishment costs over 2 years without concomitant improvements to survival. Future studies should evaluate how soil texture and soil preparation interact with other factors to affect seed germination and survival for each species.

  9. Sequential monitoring of response-adaptive randomized clinical trials

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hongjian; 10.1214/10-AOS796

    2010-01-01

    Clinical trials are complex and usually involve multiple objectives such as controlling type I error rate, increasing power to detect treatment difference, assigning more patients to better treatment, and more. In literature, both response-adaptive randomization (RAR) procedures (by changing randomization procedure sequentially) and sequential monitoring (by changing analysis procedure sequentially) have been proposed to achieve these objectives to some degree. In this paper, we propose to sequentially monitor response-adaptive randomized clinical trial and study it's properties. We prove that the sequential test statistics of the new procedure converge to a Brownian motion in distribution. Further, we show that the sequential test statistics asymptotically satisfy the canonical joint distribution defined in Jennison and Turnbull (\\citeyearJT00). Therefore, type I error and other objectives can be achieved theoretically by selecting appropriate boundaries. These results open a door to sequentially monitor res...

  10. Potential of adaptive clinical trial designs in pharmacogenetic research, A simulation based on the IPASS trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Baan, Frederieke H.; Knol, Mirjam J.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Egberts, Toine C.G.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Roes, Kit C.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: An adaptive clinical trial design that allows population enrichment after interim analysis can be advantageous in pharmacogenetic research if previous evidence is not strong enough to exclude part of the patient population beforehand.With this design, underpowered studies or unnecessary

  11. On Two-stage Seamless Adaptive Design in Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shein-Chung Chow

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of adaptive design methods in clinical research and development based on accrued data has become very popular because of its efficiency and flexibility in modifying trial and/or statistical procedures of ongoing clinical trials. One of the most commonly considered adaptive designs is probably a two-stage seamless adaptive trial design that combines two separate studies into one single study. In many cases, study endpoints considered in a two-stage seamless adaptive design may be similar but different (e.g. a biomarker versus a regular clinical endpoint or the same study endpoint with different treatment durations. In this case, it is important to determine how the data collected from both stages should be combined for the final analysis. It is also of interest to know how the sample size calculation/allocation should be done for achieving the study objectives originally set for the two stages (separate studies. In this article, formulas for sample size calculation/allocation are derived for cases in which the study endpoints are continuous, discrete (e.g. binary responses, and contain time-to-event data assuming that there is a well-established relationship between the study endpoints at different stages, and that the study objectives at different stages are the same. In cases in which the study objectives at different stages are different (e.g. dose finding at the first stage and efficacy confirmation at the second stage and when there is a shift in patient population caused by protocol amendments, the derived test statistics and formulas for sample size calculation and allocation are necessarily modified for controlling the overall type I error at the prespecified level.

  12. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  13. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  14. Bayesian response-adaptive designs for basket trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventz, Steffen; Barry, William T; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Trippa, Lorenzo

    2017-02-17

    We develop a general class of response-adaptive Bayesian designs using hierarchical models, and provide open source software to implement them. Our work is motivated by recent master protocols in oncology, where several treatments are investigated simultaneously in one or multiple disease types, and treatment efficacy is expected to vary across biomarker-defined subpopulations. Adaptive trials such as I-SPY-2 (Barker et al., 2009) and BATTLE (Zhou et al., 2008) are special cases within our framework. We discuss the application of our adaptive scheme to two distinct research goals. The first is to identify a biomarker subpopulation for which a therapy shows evidence of treatment efficacy, and to exclude other subpopulations for which such evidence does not exist. This leads to a subpopulation-finding design. The second is to identify, within biomarker-defined subpopulations, a set of cancer types for which an experimental therapy is superior to the standard-of-care. This goal leads to a subpopulation-stratified design. Using simulations constructed to faithfully represent ongoing cancer sequencing projects, we quantify the potential gains of our proposed designs relative to conventional non-adaptive designs.

  15. Adaptive Activity and Environment Recognition for Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Parviainen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive activity and environment recognition algorithm running on a mobile phone is presented. The algorithm makes inferences based on sensor and radio receiver data provided by the phone. A wide set of features that can be extracted from these data sources were investigated, and a Bayesian maximum a posteriori classifier was used for classifying between several user activities and environments. The accuracy of the method was evaluated on a dataset collected in a real-life trial. In addition, comparison to other state-of-the-art classifiers, namely support vector machines and decision trees, was performed. To make the system adaptive for individual user characteristics, an adaptation algorithm for context model parameters was designed. Moreover, a confidence measure for the classification correctness was designed. The proposed adaptation algorithm and confidence measure were evaluated on a second dataset obtained from another real-life trial, where the users were requested to provide binary feedback on the classification correctness. The results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm is effective at improving the classification accuracy.

  16. Adaptive activity and environment recognition for mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Jussi; Bojja, Jayaprasad; Collin, Jussi; Leppänen, Jussi; Eronen, Antti

    2014-11-03

    In this paper, an adaptive activity and environment recognition algorithm running on a mobile phone is presented. The algorithm makes inferences based on sensor and radio receiver data provided by the phone. A wide set of features that can be extracted from these data sources were investigated, and a Bayesian maximum a posteriori classifier was used for classifying between several user activities and environments. The accuracy of the method was evaluated on a dataset collected in a real-life trial. In addition, comparison to other state-of-the-art classifiers, namely support vector machines and decision trees, was performed. To make the system adaptive for individual user characteristics, an adaptation algorithm for context model parameters was designed. Moreover, a confidence measure for the classification correctness was designed. The proposed adaptation algorithm and confidence measure were evaluated on a second dataset obtained from another real-life trial, where the users were requested to provide binary feedback on the classification correctness. The results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm is effective at improving the classification accuracy.

  17. Design of Sequentially Randomized Trials for Testing Adaptive Treatment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbagaber, Semhar B.; Karp, Jordan; Wahed, Abdus S.

    2016-01-01

    An adaptive treatment strategy (ATS) is an outcome-guided algorithm that allows personalized treatment of complex diseases based on patients’ disease status and treatment history. Conditions such as AIDS, depression, and cancer usually require several stages of treatment due to the chronic, multifactorial nature of illness progression and management. Sequential multiple assignment randomized (SMAR) designs permit simultaneous inference about multiple ATSs, where patients are sequentially randomized to treatments at different stages depending upon response status. The purpose of the article is to develop a sample size formula to ensure adequate power for comparing two or more ATSs. Based on a Wald-type statistic for comparing multiple ATSs with a continuous endpoint, we develop a sample size formula and test it through simulation studies. We show via simulation that the proposed sample size formula maintains the nominal power. The proposed sample size formula is not applicable to designs with time-to-event endpoints but the formula will be useful for practitioners while designing SMAR trials to compare adaptive treatment strategies. PMID:26412033

  18. The CONSORT Statement: Application within and adaptations for orthodontic trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Fleming, Padhraig S; Hopewell, Sally; Altman, Douglas G

    2015-06-01

    High-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are an integral part of evidence-based medicine. RCTs are the bricks and mortar of high-quality systematic reviews, which are important determinants of health care policy and clinical practice. For published research to be used most effectively, investigators and authors should follow the guidelines for accurate and transparent reporting of RCTs. The consolidated standards of reporting trials (CONSORT) statement and its extensions are among the most widely used reporting guidelines in biomedical research. CONSORT was adopted by the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics in 2004. Since 2011, this Journal has been actively implementing compliance with the CONSORT reporting guidelines. The objective of this explanatory article is to highlight the relevance and implications of the various CONSORT items to help authors to achieve CONSORT compliance in their research submissions of RCTs to this and other orthodontic journals. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  20. Defining Adapted Physical Activity: International Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative…

  1. Biomarker-Guided Adaptive Trial Designs in Phase II and Phase III: A Methodological Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranta Antoniou

    Full Text Available Personalized medicine is a growing area of research which aims to tailor the treatment given to a patient according to one or more personal characteristics. These characteristics can be demographic such as age or gender, or biological such as a genetic or other biomarker. Prior to utilizing a patient's biomarker information in clinical practice, robust testing in terms of analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility is necessary. A number of clinical trial designs have been proposed for testing a biomarker's clinical utility, including Phase II and Phase III clinical trials which aim to test the effectiveness of a biomarker-guided approach to treatment; these designs can be broadly classified into adaptive and non-adaptive. While adaptive designs allow planned modifications based on accumulating information during a trial, non-adaptive designs are typically simpler but less flexible.We have undertaken a comprehensive review of biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs proposed in the past decade. We have identified eight distinct biomarker-guided adaptive designs and nine variations from 107 studies. Substantial variability has been observed in terms of how trial designs are described and particularly in the terminology used by different authors. We have graphically displayed the current biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs and summarised the characteristics of each design.Our in-depth overview provides future researchers with clarity in definition, methodology and terminology for biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs.

  2. Adaptive Piezoelectric Absorber for Active Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Herold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive vibration control solutions are often limited to working reliably at one design point. Especially applied to lightweight structures, which tend to have unwanted vibration, active vibration control approaches can outperform passive solutions. To generate dynamic forces in a narrow frequency band, passive single-degree-of-freedom oscillators are frequently used as vibration absorbers and neutralizers. In order to respond to changes in system properties and/or the frequency of excitation forces, in this work, adaptive vibration compensation by a tunable piezoelectric vibration absorber is investigated. A special design containing piezoelectric stack actuators is used to cover a large tuning range for the natural frequency of the adaptive vibration absorber, while also the utilization as an active dynamic inertial mass actuator for active control concepts is possible, which can help to implement a broadband vibration control system. An analytical model is set up to derive general design rules for the system. An absorber prototype is set up and validated experimentally for both use cases of an adaptive vibration absorber and inertial mass actuator. Finally, the adaptive vibration control system is installed and tested with a basic truss structure in the laboratory, using both the possibility to adjust the properties of the absorber and active control.

  3. Adapting social neuroscience measures for schizophrenia clinical trials, Part 1: ferrying paradigms across perilous waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael F; Lee, Junghee; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2013-11-01

    Social cognitive impairment is prominent in schizophrenia, and it is closely related to functional outcome. Partly for these reasons, it has rapidly become a target for both training and psychopharmacological interventions. However, there is a paucity of reliable and valid social cognitive endpoints that can be used to evaluate treatment response in clinical trials. Also, clinical studies in schizophrenia have benefited rather little from the surge of activity and knowledge in nonclinical social neuroscience. The National Institute of Mental Health-sponsored study, "Social Cognition and Functioning in Schizophrenia" (SCAF), attempted to address this translational challenge by selecting paradigms from social neuroscience that could be adapted for use in schizophrenia. The project also evaluated the psychometric properties and external validity of the tasks to determine their suitability for multisite clinical trials. This first article in the theme section presents the goals, conceptual background, and rationale for the SCAF project.

  4. Active vibration isolation by adaptive proportional control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Hui; Wu, Wei-Hao; Chu, Chih-Liang

    2013-01-01

    An active vibration isolation system that applies proportional controller incorporated with an adaptive filter to reduce the transmission of base excitations to a precision instrument is proposed in this work. The absolute vibration velocity signal acquired from an accelerator and being processed through an integrator is input to the controller as a feedback signal, and the controller output signal drives the voice coil actuator to produce a sky-hook damper force. In practice, the phase response of integrator at low frequency such as 2~5 Hz deviate from the 90 degree which is the exact phase difference between the vibration velocity and acceleration. Therefore, an adaptive filter is used to compensate the phase error in this paper. An analysis of this active vibration isolation system is presented, and model predictions are compared to experimental results. The results show that the proposed method significantly reduces transmissibility at resonance without the penalty of increased transmissibility at higher frequencies.

  5. Defining adapted physical activity: international perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative methodology. Data sources were online surveys, APA literature, and expertise of researchers. Findings, with the identification of further considerations, were provided for each APA component to stimulate reflection and further inquiry among international professionals with diverse backgrounds.

  6. SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION TO PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ivanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the factors of successful adaptation of employees to professional work in the new environment. Under the new conditions of professional development and employee having professional experience and young professional may encounter, with the presentation not only new professional requirements and tasks, but also new working conditions, the system of building relationships in the team, discovering with some discrepancies between obtained them in the learning process theoretical knowledge and skills available to the real practice of professional activities. At the level of interpersonal relations of the process of social cognition, is account of the special knowledge of the process of social facilities and construction of social reality, such an important parameter defi nes as "emotional intelligence" – construct is proposed for study in 1990 by American psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer. Initially, the concept of "emotional intelligence" was linked to the notion of social intelligence. The effectiveness of social and psychological adaptation to the professional activity can be enhanced through the development of emotional intelligence. Implementation of the basic functions of emotional intelligence improves communication efficiency, optimization of interpersonal relationships, social and psychological adaptation of personality.

  7. The Adaptive Optics Summer School Laboratory Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Ammons, S Mark; Armstrong, J D; Crossfield, Ian; Do, Tuan; Fitzgerald, Mike; Harrington, David; Hickenbotham, Adam; Hunter, Jennifer; Johnson, Jess; Johnson, Luke; Li, Kaccie; Lu, Jessica; Maness, Holly; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Putnam, Nicole; Roorda, Austin; Rossi, Ethan; Yelda, Sylvana

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is a new and rapidly expanding field of instrumentation, yet astronomers, vision scientists, and general AO practitioners are largely unfamiliar with the root technologies crucial to AO systems. The AO Summer School (AOSS), sponsored by the Center for Adaptive Optics, is a week-long course for training graduate students and postdoctoral researchers in the underlying theory, design, and use of AO systems. AOSS participants include astronomers who expect to utilize AO data, vision scientists who will use AO instruments to conduct research, opticians and engineers who design AO systems, and users of high-bandwidth laser communication systems. In this article we describe new AOSS laboratory sessions implemented in 2006-2009 for nearly 250 students. The activity goals include boosting familiarity with AO technologies, reinforcing knowledge of optical alignment techniques and the design of optical systems, and encouraging inquiry into critical scientific questions in vision science using AO sys...

  8. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

  9. Acute neglect rehabilitation using repetitive prism adaptation: A randomized placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nys, G.M.S.; de Haan, E.H.F.; Kunneman, A.; de Kort, P.L.M.; Dijkerman, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: At present, prism adaptation is probably the most promising rehabilitation procedure for hemi-neglect. However, randomised controlled trials are lacking and no data are available on the effectiveness of prism adaptation in the treatment of acute neglect. Methods: We followed sixteen neglect

  10. Adaptive trial designs: a review of barriers and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairalla John A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adaptive designs allow planned modifications based on data accumulating within a study. The promise of greater flexibility and efficiency stimulates increasing interest in adaptive designs from clinical, academic, and regulatory parties. When adaptive designs are used properly, efficiencies can include a smaller sample size, a more efficient treatment development process, and an increased chance of correctly answering the clinical question of interest. However, improper adaptations can lead to biased studies. A broad definition of adaptive designs allows for countless variations, which creates confusion as to the statistical validity and practical feasibility of many designs. Determining properties of a particular adaptive design requires careful consideration of the scientific context and statistical assumptions. We first review several adaptive designs that garner the most current interest. We focus on the design principles and research issues that lead to particular designs being appealing or unappealing in particular applications. We separately discuss exploratory and confirmatory stage designs in order to account for the differences in regulatory concerns. We include adaptive seamless designs, which combine stages in a unified approach. We also highlight a number of applied areas, such as comparative effectiveness research, that would benefit from the use of adaptive designs. Finally, we describe a number of current barriers and provide initial suggestions for overcoming them in order to promote wider use of appropriate adaptive designs. Given the breadth of the coverage all mathematical and most implementation details are omitted for the sake of brevity. However, the interested reader will find that we provide current references to focused reviews and original theoretical sources which lead to details of the current state of the art in theory and practice.

  11. A Response Adaptive Randomization Platform Trial for Efficient Evaluation of Ebola Virus Treatments: A Model for Pandemic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Scott M.; Petzold, Elizabeth A.; Dull, Peter; Thielman, Nathan M.; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Corey, G. Ralph; McClain, Micah T.; Hoover, David L.; Russell, James; Griffiss, J. McLeod; Woods, Christopher W.

    2017-01-01

    The outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa is the largest ever recorded. Numerous treatment alternatives for EVD have been considered, including widely available re-purposed drugs, but initiation of enrollment into clinical trials has been limited. The proposed trial is an adaptive platform design. Multiple agents and combinations will be investigated simultaneously. Additionally, new agents may enter the trial as they become available, and failing agents may be removed. In order to accommodate the many possible agents and combinations, a critical feature of this design is the use of response adaptive randomization to assign treatment regimens. As the trial progresses, the randomization ratio evolves to favor the arms that are performing better, making the design also suitable for all-cause pandemic preparedness planning. The study was approved by US and Sierra Leone ethics committees, and reviewed by the US FDA. Additionally, data management, drug supply lines, and local sites were prepared. However, in response to the declining epidemic seen in February 2015, the trial was not initiated. Sierra Leone remains ready to rapidly activate the protocol as an emergency response trial in the event of a resurgence of EVD. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02380625) In summary, we have designed a single controlled trial capable of efficiently identifying highly effective or failing regimens among a rapidly evolving list of proposed therapeutic alternatives for EVD and to treat the patients within the trial effectively based on accruing data. Provision of these regimens, if found safe and effective, would have a major impact on future epidemics by providing effective treatment options. PMID:26768569

  12. A free gift: an adaptive strategy in a single-arm trial using an exact test through the binomial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    For medical product development within the same generation, single-arm trial designs are commonly implemented to test the performance of the new product against an objective performance criterion. When the primary endpoint is binary and the sample size is moderate, an exact test through the binomial distribution is usually used. This article shows that it is a free gift to add an adaptive component to a fixed-sample-size design so that when the interim result is marginal, the adaptive feature can be activated without any penalty. A hypothetical example is used to illustrate the application of this method.

  13. 75 FR 8968 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... current thinking on adaptive design clinical trials for drugs and biologics. It does not create or confer... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical... entitled ``Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics.'' The draft guidance provides...

  14. Adaptive Programming Improves Outcomes in Drug Court: An Experimental Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Benasutti, Kathleen M; Fox, Gloria; Croft, Jason R

    2012-04-01

    Prior studies in Drug Courts reported improved outcomes when participants were matched to schedules of judicial status hearings based on their criminological risk level. The current experiment determined whether incremental efficacy could be gained by periodically adjusting the schedule of status hearings and clinical case-management sessions in response to participants' ensuing performance in the program. The adjustments were made pursuant to a priori criteria specified in an adaptive algorithm. Results confirmed that participants in the full adaptive condition (n = 62) were more than twice as likely as those assigned to baseline-matching only (n = 63) to be drug-abstinent during the first 18 weeks of the program; however, graduation rates and the average time to case resolution were not significantly different. The positive effects of the adaptive program appear to have stemmed from holding noncompliant participants more accountable for meeting their attendance obligations in the program. Directions for future research and practice implications are discussed.

  15. Generalized Likelihood Ratio Statistics and Uncertainty Adjustments in Efficient Adaptive Design of Clinical Trials

    CERN Document Server

    Bartroff, Jay

    2011-01-01

    A new approach to adaptive design of clinical trials is proposed in a general multiparameter exponential family setting, based on generalized likelihood ratio statistics and optimal sequential testing theory. These designs are easy to implement, maintain the prescribed Type I error probability, and are asymptotically efficient. Practical issues involved in clinical trials allowing mid-course adaptation and the large literature on this subject are discussed, and comparisons between the proposed and existing designs are presented in extensive simulation studies of their finite-sample performance, measured in terms of the expected sample size and power functions.

  16. Detection of User Independent Single Trial ERPs in Brain Computer Interfaces: An Adaptive Spatial Filtering Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leza, Cristina; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan

    2017-01-01

    Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) use brain signals to communicate with the external world. The main challenges to address are speed, accuracy and adaptability. Here, a novel algorithm for P300 based BCI spelling system is presented, specifically suited for single-trial detection of Event...

  17. Introduction of online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer through a multicentre clinical trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 10.01: Lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer is a novel radiotherapy technique that was found feasible in a pilot study at a single academic institution. In September 2010 this technique was opened as a multicenter study through the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 10.01 bladder online adaptive radiotherapy treatment. Twelve centers across Australia and New-Zealand registered interest into the trial. A multidisciplinary team of radiation oncologists, radiation therapists and medical physicists represented the trial credentialing and technical support team. To provide timely activation and proper implementation of the adaptive technique the following key areas were addressed at each site: Staff education/training; Practical image guided radiotherapy assessment; provision of help desk and feedback. The trial credentialing process involved face-to-face training and technical problem solving via full day site visits. A dedicated "help-desk" team was developed to provide support for the clinical trial. 26% of the workload occurred at the credentialing period while the remaining 74% came post-center activation. The workload was made up of the following key areas; protocol clarification (36%, technical problems (46% while staff training was less than 10%. Clinical trial credentialing is important to minimizing trial deviations. It should not only focus on site activation quality assurance but also provide ongoing education and technical support.

  18. Adapting web-based instruction to residents' knowledge improves learning efficiency: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Beckman, Thomas J; Thomas, Kris G; Thompson, Warren G

    2008-07-01

    Increased clinical demands and decreased available time accentuate the need for efficient learning in postgraduate medical training. Adapting Web-based learning (WBL) to learners' prior knowledge may improve efficiency. We hypothesized that time spent learning would be shorter and test scores not adversely affected for residents who used a WBL intervention that adapted to prior knowledge. Randomized, crossover trial. Academic internal medicine residency program continuity clinic. 122 internal medicine residents. Four WBL modules on ambulatory medicine were developed in standard and adaptive formats. The adaptive format allowed learners who correctly answered case-based questions to skip the corresponding content. The measurements were knowledge posttest, time spent on modules, and format preference. One hundred twenty-two residents completed at least 1 module, and 111 completed all 4. Knowledge scores were similar between the adaptive format (mean +/- standard error of the mean, 76.2 +/- 0.9) and standard (77.2 +/- 0.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference -3.0 to 1.0, P = .34). However, time spent was lower for the adaptive format (29.3 minutes [CI 26.0 to 33.0] per module) than for the standard (35.6 [31.6 to 40.3]), an 18% decrease in time (CI 9 to 26%, P = .0003). Seventy-two of 96 respondents (75%) preferred the adaptive format. Adapting WBL to learners' prior knowledge can reduce learning time without adversely affecting knowledge scores, suggesting greater learning efficiency. In an era where reduced duty hours and growing clinical demands on trainees and faculty limit the time available for learning, such efficiencies will be increasingly important. For clinical trial registration, see http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00466453 ( http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00466453?order=1 ).

  19. Adapting a program to inform African American and Hispanic American women about cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Gonzalez, Jenny; Mumman, Manpreet; Cullen, Lisa; Lahousse, Sheila F; Malcarne, Vanessa; Conde, Viridiana; Riley, Natasha

    2010-06-01

    The dearth of evidence-based clinical trial education programs may contribute to the under-representation of African American and Hispanic American women in cancer research studies. This study used focus group-derived data from 80 women distributed among eight Spanish- and English-language focus groups. These data guided the researchers' adaptation and refinement of the National Cancer Institute's various clinical trials education programs into a program that was specifically focused on meeting the information needs of minority women and addressing the barriers to study participation that they perceived. A "sisterhood" theme was adopted and woven throughout the presentation.

  20. Developing a Bayesian adaptive design for a phase I clinical trial: a case study for a novel HIV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Alexina J; Gonzalez-Maffe, Juan; Quinn, Killian; Doyle, Nicki; Legg, Ken; Norsworthy, Peter; Trevelion, Roy; Winston, Alan; Ashby, Deborah

    2017-02-28

    The design of phase I studies is often challenging, because of limited evidence to inform study protocols. Adaptive designs are now well established in cancer but much less so in other clinical areas. A phase I study to assess the safety, pharmacokinetic profile and antiretroviral efficacy of C34-PEG4 -Chol, a novel peptide fusion inhibitor for the treatment of HIV infection, has been set up with Medical Research Council funding. During the study workup, Bayesian adaptive designs based on the continual reassessment method were compared with a more standard rule-based design, with the aim of choosing a design that would maximise the scientific information gained from the study. The process of specifying and evaluating the design options was time consuming and required the active involvement of all members of the trial's protocol development team. However, the effort was worthwhile as the originally proposed rule-based design has been replaced by a more efficient Bayesian adaptive design. While the outcome to be modelled, design details and evaluation criteria are trial specific, the principles behind their selection are general. This case study illustrates the steps required to establish a design in a novel context. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Walking Interventions Through Texting (WalkIT) Trial: Rationale, Design, and Protocol for a Factorial Randomized Controlled Trial of Adaptive Interventions for Overweight and Obese, Inactive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Jane C; Hollingshead, Kevin E; Todd, Michael; Jarrett, Catherine L; Tucker, Wesley J; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Adams, Marc A

    2015-09-11

    Walking is a widely accepted and frequently targeted health promotion approach to increase physical activity (PA). Interventions to increase PA have produced only small improvements. Stronger and more potent behavioral intervention components are needed to increase time spent in PA, improve cardiometabolic risk markers, and optimize health. Our aim is to present the rationale and methods from the WalkIT Trial, a 4-month factorial randomized controlled trial (RCT) in inactive, overweight/obese adults. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate whether intensive adaptive components result in greater improvements to adults' PA compared to the static intervention components. Participants enrolled in a 2x2 factorial RCT and were assigned to one of four semi-automated, text message-based walking interventions. Experimental components included adaptive versus static steps/day goals, and immediate versus delayed reinforcement. Principles of percentile shaping and behavioral economics were used to operationalize experimental components. A Fitbit Zip measured the main outcome: participants' daily physical activity (steps and cadence) over the 4-month duration of the study. Secondary outcomes included self-reported PA, psychosocial outcomes, aerobic fitness, and cardiorespiratory risk factors assessed pre/post in a laboratory setting. Participants were recruited through email listservs and websites affiliated with the university campus, community businesses and local government, social groups, and social media advertising. This study has completed data collection as of December 2014, but data cleaning and preliminary analyses are still in progress. We expect to complete analysis of the main outcomes in late 2015 to early 2016. The Walking Interventions through Texting (WalkIT) Trial will further the understanding of theory-based intervention components to increase the PA of men and women who are healthy, insufficiently active and are overweight or obese. WalkIT is one of

  2. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  3. Changes in cortical activity associated with adaptive behavior during repeated balance perturbation of unpredictable timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierau, Andreas; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Strüder, Heiko K

    2015-01-01

    The compensation for a sudden balance perturbation, unpracticed and unpredictable in timing and magnitude is accompanied by pronounced postural instability that is suggested to be causal to falls. However, subsequent presentations of an identical perturbation are characterized by a marked decrease of the amplitude of postural reactions; a phenomenon called adaptation or habituation. This study aimed to identify cortical characteristics associated with adaptive behavior during repetitive balance perturbations based on single-trial analyses of the P1 and N1 perturbation-evoked potentials. Thirty-seven young men were exposed to ten transient balance perturbations while balancing on the dominant leg. Thirty two-channel electroencephalography (EEG), surface electromyography (EMG) of the ankle plantar flexor muscles and postural sway (i.e., Euclidean distance of the supporting platform) were recorded simultaneously. The P1 and N1 potentials were localized and the amplitude/latency was analyzed trial by trial. The best match sources for P1 and N1 potentials were located in the parietal (Brodmann area (BA) 5) and midline fronto-central cortex (BA 6), respectively. The amplitude and latency of the P1 potential remained unchanged over trials. In contrast, a significant adaptation of the N1 amplitude was observed. Similar adaptation effects were found with regard to postural sway and ankle plantarflexors EMG activity of the non-dominant (free) leg; i.e., an indicator for reduced muscular co-contraction and/or less temporary bipedal stance to regain stability. Significant but weak correlations were found between N1 amplitude and postural sway as well as EMG activity. These results highlight the important role of the midline fronto-central cortex for adaptive behavior associated with balance control.

  4. Changes in cortical activity associated with adaptive behavior during repeated balance perturbation of unpredictable timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eMierau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The compensation for a sudden balance perturbation, unpracticed and unpredictable in timing and magnitude is accompanied by pronounced postural instability that is suggested to be causal to falls. However, subsequent presentations of an identical perturbation are characterized by a marked decrease of the amplitude of postural reactions; a phenomenon called adaptation or habituation. This study aimed to identify cortical characteristics associated with adaptive behavior during repetitive balance perturbations based on single-trial analyses of the P1 and N1 perturbation-evoked potentials. Thirty-seven young men were exposed to ten transient balance perturbations while balancing on the dominant leg. 32-channel EEG, surface EMG of the ankle plantar flexor muscles and postural sway (i.e. Euclidean distance of the supporting platform were recorded simultaneously. The P1 and N1 potentials were localized and the amplitude/latency was analyzed trial by trial. The best match sources for P1 and N1 potentials were located in the parietal (Brodmann area 5 and midline fronto-central cortex (Brodmann area 6, respectively. The amplitude and latency of the P1 potential remained unchanged over trials. In contrast, a significant adaptation of the N1 amplitude was observed. Similar adaptation effects were found with regard to postural sway and m. peroneus longus EMG activity of the non-dominant (free leg; an indicator reduced muscular co-contraction and/or less temporary bipedal stance to regain stability. Significant but weak correlations were found between N1 amplitude and postural sway as well as EMG activity. These results highlight the important role of the midline fronto-central cortex for adaptive behavior associated with balance control.

  5. RARtool: A MATLAB Software Package for Designing Response-Adaptive Randomized Clinical Trials with Time-to-Event Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryeznik, Yevgen; Sverdlov, Oleksandr; Wong, Weng Kee

    2015-08-01

    Response-adaptive randomization designs are becoming increasingly popular in clinical trial practice. In this paper, we present RARtool, a user interface software developed in MATLAB for designing response-adaptive randomized comparative clinical trials with censored time-to-event outcomes. The RARtool software can compute different types of optimal treatment allocation designs, and it can simulate response-adaptive randomization procedures targeting selected optimal allocations. Through simulations, an investigator can assess design characteristics under a variety of experimental scenarios and select the best procedure for practical implementation. We illustrate the utility of our RARtool software by redesigning a survival trial from the literature.

  6. Adapting Social Neuroscience Measures for Schizophrenia Clinical Trials, Part 2: Trolling the Depths of Psychometric Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, RS; Penn, DL; Lee, J; Horan, WP; Reise, SP; Ochsner, KN; Marder, SR; Green, Mf

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of 4 paradigms adapted from the social neuroscience literature were evaluated to determine their suitability for use in clinical trials of schizophrenia. This 2-site study (University of California, Los Angeles and University of North Carolina) included 173 clinically stable schizophrenia outpatients and 88 healthy controls. The social cognition battery was administered twice to the schizophrenia group (baseline, 4-week retest) and once to the control group. The 4 ...

  7. Phase I/II adaptive design for drug combination oncology trials

    OpenAIRE

    Wages, Nolan A.; Conaway, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Existing statistical methodology on dose finding for combination chemotherapies has focused on toxicity considerations alone in finding a maximum tolerated dose combination to recommend for further testing of efficacy in a phase II setting. Recently, there has been increasing interest in integrating phase I and phase II trials in order to facilitate drug development. In this article, we propose a new adaptive phase I/II method for dual-agent combinations that takes into account both toxicity ...

  8. A modified varying-stage adaptive phase II/III clinical trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Gaohong; Vandemeulebroecke, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Conventionally, adaptive phase II/III clinical trials are carried out with a strict two-stage design. Recently, a varying-stage adaptive phase II/III clinical trial design has been developed. In this design, following the first stage, an intermediate stage can be adaptively added to obtain more data, so that a more informative decision can be made. Therefore, the number of further investigational stages is determined based upon data accumulated to the interim analysis. This design considers two plausible study endpoints, with one of them initially designated as the primary endpoint. Based on interim results, another endpoint can be switched as the primary endpoint. However, in many therapeutic areas, the primary study endpoint is well established. Therefore, we modify this design to consider one study endpoint only so that it may be more readily applicable in real clinical trial designs. Our simulations show that, the same as the original design, this modified design controls the Type I error rate, and the design parameters such as the threshold probability for the two-stage setting and the alpha allocation ratio in the two-stage setting versus the three-stage setting have a great impact on the design characteristics. However, this modified design requires a larger sample size for the initial stage, and the probability of futility becomes much higher when the threshold probability for the two-stage setting gets smaller. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Introduction: Reflexions on Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causgrove Dunn, Janice; Goodwin, Donna; Bouffard, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    The articles included in this special issue of Quest emerged from a research workshop entitled "Thinking About Our Thinking in Adapted Physical Activity," held at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada, from June 18-19, 2013. The aim of the workshop was to examine different worldviews that contribute to the adapted physical…

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Adapted Form of Individual Critical Incident Stress Debriefing for Victims of an Armed Robbery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marchand, Andre; Guay, Stephane; Boyer, Richard; Iucci, Soledad; Martin, Annick; St-Hilaire, Marie-Helene

    2006-01-01

    Victims of an armed robbery are at great risk of psychological distress. This research is a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial of an adapted form of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD...

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Pharmacologically active: clinical trials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-01-22

    Jan 22, 2008 ... Manufacturers Association, on the basis of a survey of its members ... from this information. The US database, on the other hand, clearly identifies 172 ... workforce involved in clinical trials outside the public sector. This figure ...

  12. Micro-Randomized Trials: An Experimental Design for Developing Just-in-Time Adaptive Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasnja, Predrag; Hekler, Eric B.; Shiffman, Saul; Boruvka, Audrey; Almirall, Daniel; Tewari, Ambuj; Murphy, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper presents an experimental design, the micro-randomized trial, developed to support optimization of just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs). JITAIs are mHealth technologies that aim to deliver the right intervention components at the right times and locations to optimally support individuals’ health behaviors. Micro-randomized trials offer a way to optimize such interventions by enabling modeling of causal effects and time-varying effect moderation for individual intervention components within a JITAI. Methods The paper describes the micro-randomized trial design, enumerates research questions that this experimental design can help answer, and provides an overview of the data analyses that can be used to assess the causal effects of studied intervention components and investigate time-varying moderation of those effects. Results Micro-randomized trials enable causal modeling of proximal effects of the randomized intervention components and assessment of time-varying moderation of those effects. Conclusions Micro-randomized trials can help researchers understand whether their interventions are having intended effects, when and for whom they are effective, and what factors moderate the interventions’ effects, enabling creation of more effective JITAIs. PMID:26651463

  13. Sequential causal inference: application to randomized trials of adaptive treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ree; Lavori, Philip W

    2008-05-10

    Clinical trials that randomize subjects to decision algorithms, which adapt treatments over time according to individual response, have gained considerable interest as investigators seek designs that directly inform clinical decision making. We consider designs in which subjects are randomized sequentially at decision points, among adaptive treatment options under evaluation. We present a sequential method to estimate the comparative effects of the randomized adaptive treatments, which are formalized as adaptive treatment strategies. Our causal estimators are derived using Bayesian predictive inference. We use analytical and empirical calculations to compare the predictive estimators to (i) the 'standard' approach that allocates the sequentially obtained data to separate strategy-specific groups as would arise from randomizing subjects at baseline; (ii) the semi-parametric approach of marginal mean models that, under appropriate experimental conditions, provides the same sequential estimator of causal differences as the proposed approach. Simulation studies demonstrate that sequential causal inference offers substantial efficiency gains over the standard approach to comparing treatments, because the predictive estimators can take advantage of the monotone structure of shared data among adaptive strategies. We further demonstrate that the semi-parametric asymptotic variances, which are marginal 'one-step' estimators, may exhibit significant bias, in contrast to the predictive variances. We show that the conditions under which the sequential method is attractive relative to the other two approaches are those most likely to occur in real studies.

  14. Efficient adaptive designs with mid-course sample size adjustment in clinical trials

    CERN Document Server

    Bartroff, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive designs have been proposed for clinical trials in which the nuisance parameters or alternative of interest are unknown or likely to be misspecified before the trial. Whereas most previous works on adaptive designs and mid-course sample size re-estimation have focused on two-stage or group sequential designs in the normal case, we consider here a new approach that involves at most three stages and is developed in the general framework of multiparameter exponential families. Not only does this approach maintain the prescribed type I error probability, but it also provides a simple but asymptotically efficient sequential test whose finite-sample performance, measured in terms of the expected sample size and power functions, is shown to be comparable to the optimal sequential design, determined by dynamic programming, in the simplified normal mean case with known variance and prespecified alternative, and superior to the existing two-stage designs and also to adaptive group sequential designs when the al...

  15. Dynamically optimized Wang-Landau sampling with adaptive trial moves and modification factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Yang Wei; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Okabe, Yutaka

    2013-11-01

    The density of states of continuous models is known to span many orders of magnitudes at different energies due to the small volume of phase space near the ground state. Consequently, the traditional Wang-Landau sampling which uses the same trial move for all energies faces difficulties sampling the low-entropic states. We developed an adaptive variant of the Wang-Landau algorithm that very effectively samples the density of states of continuous models across the entire energy range. By extending the acceptance ratio method of Bouzida, Kumar, and Swendsen such that the step size of the trial move and acceptance rate are adapted in an energy-dependent fashion, the random walker efficiently adapts its sampling according to the local phase space structure. The Wang-Landau modification factor is also made energy dependent in accordance with the step size, enhancing the accumulation of the density of states. Numerical simulations show that our proposed method performs much better than the traditional Wang-Landau sampling.

  16. Invasion of the Zebra Mussels: A Mock Trial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Judy A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2005-01-01

    In this activity, students learn about the important topic of invasive species, specifically Zebra Mussels. Students role-play different characters in a real-life situation: the trial of the Zebra Mussel for unlawful disruption of the Great Lakes ecosystem. Students will also learn about jurisprudential inquiry by examining the trial process. This…

  17. The influence of catch trials on the consolidation of motor memory in force field adaptation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eFocke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In computational neuroscience it is generally accepted that human motor memory contains neural representations of the physics of the musculoskeletal system and the objects in the environment. These representations are called internal models. Force field studies, in which subjects have to adapt to dynamic perturbations induced by a robotic manipulandum, are an established tool to analyze the characteristics of such internal models. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether catch trials during force field learning could influence the consolidation of motor memory in more complex tasks. Thereby, the force field was more than double the force field of previous studies (35 Ns/m. Moreover, the arm of the subjects was not supported. A total of forty-six subjects participated in this study and performed center-out movements at a robotic manipulandum in two different force fields. Two control groups learned force field A on day 1 and were retested in the same force field on day 3 (AA. Two test groups additionally learned an interfering force field B (=-A on day 2 (ABA. The difference between the two test and control groups, respectively, was the absence (0% or presence (19% of catch trials, in which the force field was turned off suddenly. The results showed consolidation of force field A on day 3 for both control groups. Test groups showed no consolidation of force field A (19% catch trials and even poorer performance on day 3 (0% catch trials. In conclusion, it can be stated that catch trials seem to have a positive effect on the performance on day 3 but do not trigger a consolidation process as shown in previous studies that used a lower force field viscosity with supported arm. These findings indicate that the results of previous studies in which less complex tasks were analyzed, cannot be fully transferred to more complex tasks. Moreover, the effects of catch trials in these situations are insufficiently understood and further research

  18. I-SPY 2: an adaptive breast cancer trial design in the setting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, A D; Sigman, C C; Kelloff, G J; Hylton, N M; Berry, D A; Esserman, L J

    2009-07-01

    I-SPY 2 (investigation of serial studies to predict your therapeutic response with imaging and molecular analysis 2) is a process targeting the rapid, focused clinical development of paired oncologic therapies and biomarkers. The framework is an adaptive phase II clinical trial design in the neoadjuvant setting for women with locally advanced breast cancer. I-SPY 2 is a collaborative effort among academic investigators, the National Cancer Institute, the US Food and Drug Administration, and the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries under the auspices of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Biomarkers Consortium.

  19. Adaptive active vibration isolation – A control perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landau Ioan Doré

    2015-01-01

    The paper will review a number of recent developments for adaptive feedback compensation of multiple unknown and time-varying narrow band disturbances and for adaptive feedforward compensation of broad band disturbances in the presence of the inherent internal positive feedback caused by the coupling between the compensator system and the measurement of the image of the disturbance. Some experimental results obtained on a relevant active vibration control system will illustrate the performance of the various algorithms presented.

  20. Control of sound radiation with active/adaptive structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. R.; Rogers, C. A.; Robertshaw, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    Recent research is discussed in the area of active structural acoustic control with active/adaptive structures. Progress in the areas of structural acoustics, actuators, sensors, and control approaches is presented. Considerable effort has been given to the interaction of these areas with each other due to the coupled nature of the problem. A discussion is presented on actuators bonded to or embedded in the structure itself. The actuators discussed are piezoceramic actuators and shape memory alloy actuators. The sensors discussed are optical fiber sensors, Nitinol fiber sensors, piezoceramics, and polyvinylidene fluoride sensors. The active control techniques considered are state feedback control techniques and least mean square adaptive algorithms. Results presented show that significant progress has been made towards controlling structurally radiated noise by active/adaptive means applied directly to the structure.

  1. Gradual mechanics-dependent adaptation of medial gastrocnemius activity during human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellinghoff, Molly A; Bunchman, Alison M; Dean, Jesse C

    2014-03-01

    While performing a simple bouncing task, humans modify their preferred movement period and pattern of plantarflexor activity in response to changes in system mechanics. Over time, the preferred movement pattern gradually adapts toward the resonant frequency. The purpose of the present experiments was to determine whether humans undergo a similar process of gradually adapting their stride period and plantarflexor activity after a change in mechanical demand while walking. Participants walked on a treadmill while we measured stride period and plantarflexor activity (medial gastrocnemius and soleus). Plantarflexor activity during stance was divided into a storage phase (30-65% stance) and a return phase (65-100% stance) based on when the Achilles tendon has previously been shown to store and return mechanical energy. Participants walked either on constant inclines (0%, 1%, 5%, 9%) or on a variable incline (0-1%) for which they were unaware of the incline changes. For variable-incline trials, participants walked under both single-task and dual-task conditions in order to vary the cognitive load. Both stride period and plantarflexor activity increased at steeper inclines. During single-task walking, small changes in incline were followed by gradual adaptation of storage-phase medial gastrocnemius activity. However, this adaptation was not present during dual-task walking, indicating some level of cognitive involvement. The observed adaptation may be the result of using afferent feedback in order to optimize the contractile conditions of the plantarflexors during the stance phase. Such adaptation could serve to improve metabolic economy but may be limited in clinical populations with disrupted proprioception.

  2. Effects of Yoga on Stress, Stress Adaption, and Heart Rate Variability Among Mental Health Professionals--A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Ling; Huang, Ching-Ya; Shiu, Shau-Ping; Yeh, Shu-Hui

    2015-08-01

    Mental health professionals experiencing work-related stress may experience burn out, leading to a negative impact on their organization and patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of yoga classes on work-related stress, stress adaptation, and autonomic nerve activity among mental health professionals. A randomized controlled trial was used, which compared the outcomes between the experimental (e.g., yoga program) and the control groups (e.g., no yoga exercise) for 12 weeks. Work-related stress and stress adaptation were assessed before and after the program. Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured at baseline, midpoint through the weekly yoga classes (6 weeks), and postintervention (after 12 weeks of yoga classes). The results showed that the mental health professionals in the yoga group experienced a significant reduction in work-related stress (t = -6.225, p yoga and control groups, we found the yoga group significantly decreased work-related stress (t = -3.216, p = .002), but there was no significant change in stress adaptation (p = .084). While controlling for the pretest scores of work-related stress, participants in yoga, but not the control group, revealed a significant increase in autonomic nerve activity at midpoint (6 weeks) test (t = -2.799, p = .007), and at posttest (12 weeks; t = -2.099, p = .040). Because mental health professionals experienced a reduction in work-related stress and an increase in autonomic nerve activity in a weekly yoga program for 12 weeks, clinicians, administrators, and educators should offer yoga classes as a strategy to help health professionals reduce their work-related stress and balance autonomic nerve activities. © 2015 The Authors. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing.

  3. Physiological adaptation of growth kinetics in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, M; Takács, I; Tränckner, J

    2015-11-15

    Physiological adaptation as it occurs in bacterial cells at variable environmental conditions influences characteristic properties of growth kinetics significantly. However, physiological adaptation to growth related parameters in activated sludge modelling is not yet recognised. Consequently these parameters are regarded to be constant. To investigate physiological adaptation in activated sludge the endogenous respiration in an aerobic degradation batch experiment and simultaneous to that the maximum possible respiration in an aerobic growth batch experiment was measured. The activated sludge samples were taken from full scale wastewater treatment plants with different sludge retention times (SRTs). It could be shown that the low SRT sludge adapts by growth optimisation (high maximum growth rate and high decay rate) to its particular environment where a high SRT sludge adapts by survival optimization (low maximum growth rate and low decay rate). Thereby, both the maximum specific growth rate and the decay rate vary in the same pattern and are strongly correlated to each other. To describe the physiological state of mixed cultures like activated sludge quantitatively a physiological state factor (PSF) is proposed as the ratio of the maximum specific growth rate and the decay rate. The PSF can be expressed as an exponential function with respect to the SRT.

  4. Error-preceding brain activity reflects (mal-)adaptive adjustments of cognitive control: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Marco; Eichele, Heike; Juvodden, Hilde T; Huster, Rene J; Ullsperger, Markus; Eichele, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Errors in choice tasks are preceded by gradual changes in brain activity presumably related to fluctuations in cognitive control that promote the occurrence of errors. In the present paper, we use connectionist modeling to explore the hypothesis that these fluctuations reflect (mal-)adaptive adjustments of cognitive control. We considered ERP data from a study in which the probability of conflict in an Eriksen-flanker task was manipulated in sub-blocks of trials. Errors in these data were preceded by a gradual decline of N2 amplitude. After fitting a connectionist model of conflict adaptation to the data, we analyzed simulated N2 amplitude, simulated response times (RTs), and stimulus history preceding errors in the model, and found that the model produced the same pattern as obtained in the empirical data. Moreover, this pattern is not found in alternative models in which cognitive control varies randomly or in an oscillating manner. Our simulations suggest that the decline of N2 amplitude preceding errors reflects an increasing adaptation of cognitive control to specific task demands, which leads to an error when these task demands change. Taken together, these results provide evidence that error-preceding brain activity can reflect adaptive adjustments rather than unsystematic fluctuations of cognitive control, and therefore, that these errors are actually a consequence of the adaptiveness of human cognition.

  5. Adapting social neuroscience measures for schizophrenia clinical trials, Part 2: trolling the depths of psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Robert S; Penn, David L; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Ochsner, Kevin N; Marder, Stephen R; Green, Michael F

    2013-11-01

    The psychometric properties of 4 paradigms adapted from the social neuroscience literature were evaluated to determine their suitability for use in clinical trials of schizophrenia. This 2-site study (University of California, Los Angeles and University of North Carolina) included 173 clinically stable schizophrenia outpatients and 88 healthy controls. The social cognition battery was administered twice to the schizophrenia group (baseline, 4-week retest) and once to the control group. The 4 paradigms included 2 that assess perception of nonverbal social and action cues (basic biological motion and emotion in biological motion) and 2 that involve higher level inferences about self and others' mental states (self-referential memory and empathic accuracy). Each paradigm was evaluated on (1) patient vs healthy control group differences, (2) test-retest reliability, (3) utility as a repeated measure, and (4) tolerability. Of the 4 paradigms, empathic accuracy demonstrated the strongest characteristics, including large between-group differences, adequate test-retest reliability (.72), negligible practice effects, and good tolerability ratings. The other paradigms showed weaker psychometric characteristics in their current forms. These findings highlight challenges in adapting social neuroscience paradigms for use in clinical trials.

  6. Edge Adapted Wavelets, Solar Magnetic Activity, and Climate Change

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    The continuous wavelet transform is adapted to account for signal truncation through renormalization and by modifying the shape of the analyzing window. Comparison is made of the instant and integrated wavelet power with previous algorithms. The edge adapted and renormalized admissible wavelet transforms are used to estimate the level of solar magnetic activity from the sunspot record. The solar activity is compared to Oerlemans' temperature reconstruction and to the Central England Temperature record. A correlation is seen for years between 1610 and 1990, followed by a strong deviation as the recently observed temperature increases.

  7. The role of adapter proteins in T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretzky, G A; Boerth, N J

    1999-12-01

    Engagement of antigen receptors on lymphocytes leads to a myriad of complex signal transduction cascades. Recently, work from several laboratories has led to the identification and characterization of novel adapter molecules, proteins with no intrinsic enzymatic activity but which integrate signal transduction pathways by mediating protein-protein interactions. Interestingly, it appears that many of these adapter proteins play as critical a role as the effector enzymes themselves in both lymphocyte development and activation. This review describes some of the biochemical and molecular features of several of these newly identified hematopoietic cell-specific adapter molecules highlighting their importance in regulating (both positively and negatively) signal transduction mediated by the T cell antigen receptor.

  8. ADAPTATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES TO SOCIAL AND HOUSEHOLD ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Akhtaov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of adaptation of children with disabilities to social and domestic activities. An adaptation for disabled children to social and domestic activities is an important part of their socialization in the society. Owning Self skills allow the child to be relatively independent existence; it allows doing without the help of others, which in turn reduces the tension in the family, increases the confidence in the safety and security of the child itself. The authors have developed and tested the technology adaptation of disabled  children  to  social  and  domestic  activities, which is a step by step solution of tasks aimed at learning the implementation of social action. Participants in the experimental work were children aged 7-10 years with a diagnosis: cerebral palsy, congenital hydrocephalus with moderate spastic paraparesis lower, mental retardation, etc., and their parents. Lesson Content adaptation of disabled children to social and domestic activity was aimed at the formation of the child's conception of themselves, their families, etc. Babies skills instilled in personal hygiene and self-service. During the implementation of the children have acquired a certain social technology independence and confidence in their actions, self-reliance, which has a positive impact on the mood of children and psychological climate in the family. The results of the experimental work allow us to conclude about the effectiveness of the technology proposed by the authors.

  9. Adaptive Compensation of Reactive Power With Shunt Active Power Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Asiminoaei, Lucian; Hansen, Steffan;

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive method for compensating the reactive power with an active power filter (APF), which is initially rated for mitigation of only the harmonic currents given by a nonlinear industrial load. It is proven that, if the harmonic currents do not load the APF at the rated...

  10. Adaptation of the international physical activity questionnarie for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia R. Bertoldo Benedetti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ estimates the weekly energy expenditure for physical activities (PA. This instrument was validated for use with Brazilian older adults. The need to adapt the structure and application of the IPAQ arose from the difficulties of older adults to correctly measure the number of days, time and intensity of PA (domains during a normal week and the difficulties encountered by the interviewers in field research. The adapted IPAQ consists of five domains and 15 questions and is applied by interview because of the low educational level of Brazilian older adults. The instrument is applied in its long form to permit better discrimination of PA in each domain and refers to a normal week to help recall morning, afternoon and evening activities. In addition, it includes details about mild, moderate and vigorous intensity. The training of the interviewers is fundamental. The report of the IPAQ adapted for older adults should be delivered in minutes per week and should use the classification active (≤ 150 min/week. The IPAQ adapted for older adults is an international instrument that is valid for the Brazilian elderly population. The instrument is a noninvasive easily applied method of low cost that reaches large population groups, among other advantages.

  11. Thinking Ethically about Professional Practice in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Donna L.; Rossow-Kimball, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    There has been little critical exploration of the ethical issues that arise in professional practice common to adapted physical activity. We cannot avoid moral issues as we inevitably will act in ways that will negatively affect the well-being of others. We will make choices, which in our efforts to support others, may hurt by violating dignity or…

  12. Power of an Adaptive Trial Design for Endovascular Stroke Studies: Simulations Using IMS (Interventional Management of Stroke) III Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansberg, Maarten G; Bhat, Ninad S; Yeatts, Sharon D; Palesch, Yuko Y; Broderick, Joseph P; Albers, Gregory W; Lai, Tze L; Lavori, Philip W

    2016-12-01

    Adaptive trial designs that allow enrichment of the study population through subgroup selection can increase the chance of a positive trial when there is a differential treatment effect among patient subgroups. The goal of this study is to illustrate the potential benefit of adaptive subgroup selection in endovascular stroke studies. We simulated the performance of a trial design with adaptive subgroup selection and compared it with that of a traditional design. Outcome data were based on 90-day modified Rankin Scale scores, observed in IMS III (Interventional Management of Stroke III), among patients with a vessel occlusion on baseline computed tomographic angiography (n=382). Patients were categorized based on 2 methods: (1) according to location of the arterial occlusive lesion and onset-to-randomization time and (2) according to onset-to-randomization time alone. The power to demonstrate a treatment benefit was based on 10 000 trial simulations for each design. The treatment effect was relatively homogeneous across categories when patients were categorized based on arterial occlusive lesion and time. Consequently, the adaptive design had similar power (47%) compared with the fixed trial design (45%). There was a differential treatment effect when patients were categorized based on time alone, resulting in greater power with the adaptive design (82%) than with the fixed design (57%). These simulations, based on real-world patient data, indicate that adaptive subgroup selection has merit in endovascular stroke trials as it substantially increases power when the treatment effect differs among subgroups in a predicted pattern. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Adaptive working memory strategy training in early Alzheimer's disease: randomised controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Huntley, J. D.; Hampshire, A; Bor, D.; Owen, A.; Howard, R J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interventions that improve cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease are urgently required. AIMS: To assess whether a novel cognitive training paradigm based on 'chunking' improves working memory and general cognitive function, and is associated with reorganisation of functional activity in prefrontal and parietal cortices (trial registration: ISRCTN43007027). METHOD: Thirty patients with mild Alzheimer's disease were randomly allocated to receive 18 sessions of 30 min of eit...

  14. On optimal allocation in binary response trials; is adaptive design really necessary?

    CERN Document Server

    Azriel, David; Rinott, Yosef

    2011-01-01

    We consider the classical problem of selecting the best of two treatments in clinical trials with binary response. The target is to find the design that maximizes the power of the relevant test. Many papers use a normal approximation to the power function and claim that \\textit{Neyman allocation} that assigns subjects to treatment groups according to the ratio of the responses' standard deviations, should be used. As the standard deviations are unknown, an adaptive design is often recommended. The asymptotic justification of this approach is arguable, since it uses the normal approximation in tails where the error in the approximation is larger than the estimated quantity. We consider two different approaches for optimality of designs that are related to Pitman and Bahadur definitions of relative efficiency of tests. We prove that the optimal allocation according to the Pitman criterion is the balanced allocation and that the optimal allocation according to the Bahadur approach depends on the unknown paramete...

  15. Climate Change Adaptation Science Activities at NASA Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Lulla, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC), located in the southeast metropolitan region of Houston, TX is the prime NASA center for human spaceflight operations and astronaut training, but it also houses the unique collection of returned extraterrestrial samples, including lunar samples from the Apollo missions. The Center's location adjacent to Clear Lake and the Clear Creek watershed, an estuary of Galveston Bay, puts it at direct annual risk from hurricanes, but also from a number of other climate-related hazards including drought, floods, sea level rise, heat waves, and high wind events all assigned Threat Levels of 2 or 3 in the most recent NASA Center Disaster/Risk Matrix produced by the Climate Adaptation Science Investigator Working Group. Based on prior CASI workshops at other NASA centers, it is recognized that JSC is highly vulnerable to climate-change related hazards and has a need for adaptation strategies. We will present an overview of prior CASI-related work at JSC, including publication of a climate change and adaptation informational data brochure, and a Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Risks Workshop that was held at JSC in early March 2012. Major outcomes of that workshop that form a basis for work going forward are 1) a realization that JSC is embedded in a regional environmental and social context, and that potential climate change effects and adaptation strategies will not, and should not, be constrained by the Center fence line; 2) a desire to coordinate data collection and adaptation planning activities with interested stakeholders to form a regional climate change adaptation center that could facilitate interaction with CASI; 3) recognition that there is a wide array of basic data (remotely sensed, in situ, GIS/mapping, and historical) available through JSC and other stakeholders, but this data is not yet centrally accessible for planning purposes.

  16. Sensor Activation and Radius Adaptation (SARA) in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Novella; la Porta, Thomas; Petrioli, Chiara; Silvestri, Simone

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of prolonging the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) deployed to monitor an area of interest. In this scenario, a helpful approach is to reduce coverage redundancy and therefore the energy expenditure due to coverage. We introduce the first algorithm which reduces coverage redundancy by means of Sensor Activation and sensing Radius Adaptation (SARA)in a general applicative scenario with two classes of devices: sensors that can adapt their sensing range (adjustable sensors) and sensors that cannot (fixed sensors). In particular, SARA activates only a subset of all the available sensors and reduces the sensing range of the adjustable sensors that have been activated. In doing so, SARA also takes possible heterogeneous coverage capabilities of sensors belonging to the same class into account. It specifically addresses device heterogeneity by modeling the coverage problem in the Laguerre geometry through Voronoi-Laguerre diagrams. SARA executes quickly and is guarante...

  17. Adaptive Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Initial Clinical Outcomes From a Prospective Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, David L., E-mail: dschwartz3@nshs.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hofstra North Shore-Long Island Jewish School of Medicine, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Garden, Adam S.; Thomas, Jimmy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chen Yipei; Zhang Yongbin [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Lewin, Jan; Chambers, Mark S. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To present pilot toxicity and survival outcomes for a prospective trial investigating adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 24 patients were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved clinical trial; data for 22 of these patients were analyzed. Daily CT-guided setup and deformable image registration permitted serial mapping of clinical target volumes and avoidance structures for ART planning. Primary site was base of tongue in 15 patients, tonsil in 6 patient, and glossopharyngeal sulcus in 1 patient. Twenty patients (91%) had American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Stage IV disease. T stage distribution was 2 T1, 12 T2, 3 T3, 5 T4. N stage distribution was 1 N0, 2 N1, 5 N2a, 12 N2b, and 2 N2c. Of the patients, 21 (95%) received systemic therapy. Results: With a 31-month median follow-up (range, 13-45 months), there has been no primary site failure and 1 nodal relapse, yielding 100% local and 95% regional disease control at 2 years. Baseline tumor size correlated with absolute volumetric treatment response (p = 0.018). Parotid volumetric change correlated with duration of feeding tube placement (p = 0.025). Acute toxicity was comparable to that observed with conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Chronic toxicity and functional outcomes beyond 1 year were tabulated. Conclusion: This is the first prospective evaluation of morbidity and survival outcomes in patients with locally advanced head-and-neck cancer treated with automated adaptive replanning. ART can provide dosimetric benefit with only one or two mid-treatment replanning events. Our preliminary clinical outcomes document functional recovery and preservation of disease control at 1-year follow-up and beyond.

  18. Preparatory EMG activity reveals a rapid adaptation pattern in humans performing landing movements in blindfolded condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Fernando Henrique; Goroso, Daniel Gustavo

    2009-10-01

    The main questions addressed in this work were whether and how adaptation to suppression of visual information occurs in a free-fall paradigm, and the extent to which vision availability influences the control of landing movements. The prelanding modulation of EMG timing and amplitude of four lower-limb muscles was investigated. Participants performed six consecutive drop-landings from four different heights in two experimental conditions: with and without vision. Experimental design precluded participants from estimating the height of the drop. Since cues provided by proprioceptive and vestibular information acquired during the first trials were processed, the nervous system rapidly adapted to the lack of visual information, and hence produced a motor output (i.e., prelanding EMG modulation) similar to that observed when performing the activity with vision available.

  19. Decreased PDH activation and glycogenolysis during exercise following fat adaptation with carbohydrate restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Spriet, Lawrence L; Watt, Matthew J; Kimber, Nicholas E; Hargreaves, Mark; Hawley, John A; Burke, Louise M

    2006-02-01

    Five days of a high-fat diet while training, followed by 1 day of carbohydrate (CHO) restoration, increases rates of whole body fat oxidation and decreases CHO oxidation during aerobic cycling. The mechanisms responsible for these shifts in fuel oxidation are unknown but involve up- and downregulation of key regulatory enzymes in the pathways of skeletal muscle fat and CHO metabolism, respectively. This study measured muscle PDH and HSL activities before and after 20 min of cycling at 70% VO2peak and 1 min of sprinting at 150% peak power output (PPO). Estimations of muscle glycogenolysis were made during the initial minute of exercise at 70% VO2peak and during the 1-min sprint. Seven male cyclists undertook this exercise protocol on two occasions. For 5 days, subjects consumed in random order either a high-CHO (HCHO) diet (10.3 g x kg(-1) x day(-1) CHO, or approximately 70% of total energy intake) or an isoenergetic high-fat (FAT-adapt) diet (4.6 g x kg(-1) x day(-1) FAT, or 67% of total energy) while undertaking supervised aerobic endurance training. On day 6 for both treatments, subjects ingested an HCHO diet and rested before their experimental trials on day 7. This CHO restoration resulted in similar resting glycogen contents (FAT-adapt 873 +/- 121 vs. HCHO 868 +/- 120 micromol glucosyl units/g dry wt). However, the respiratory exchange ratio was lower during cycling at 70% VO2peak in the FAT-adapt trial, which resulted in an approximately 45% increase and an approximately 30% decrease in fat and CHO oxidation, respectively. PDH activity was lower at rest and throughout exercise at 70% VO2peak (1.69 +/- 0.25 vs. 2.39 +/- 0.19 mmol x kg wet wt(-1) x min(-1)) and the 1-min sprint in the FAT-adapt vs. the HCHO trial. Estimates of glycogenolysis during the 1st min of exercise at 70% VO2peak and the 1-min sprint were also lower after FAT-adapt (9.1 +/- 1.1 vs. 13.4 +/- 2.1 and 37.3 +/- 5.1 vs. 50.5 +/- 2.7 glucosyl units x kg dry wt(-1) x min(-1)). HSL activity was

  20. An open trial assessment of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Laurent

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a companion article 1, we described the development and evaluation of software designed to remediate dyscalculia. This software is based on the hypothesis that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in its access via symbolic information. Here we review the evidence for this hypothesis, and present results from an initial open-trial test of the software in a sample of nine 7–9 year old children with mathematical difficulties. Methods Children completed adaptive training on numerical comparison for half an hour a day, four days a week over a period of five-weeks. They were tested before and after intervention on their performance in core numerical tasks: counting, transcoding, base-10 comprehension, enumeration, addition, subtraction, and symbolic and non-symbolic numerical comparison. Results Children showed specific increases in performance on core number sense tasks. Speed of subitizing and numerical comparison increased by several hundred msec. Subtraction accuracy increased by an average of 23%. Performance on addition and base-10 comprehension tasks did not improve over the period of the study. Conclusion Initial open-trial testing showed promising results, and suggested that the software was successful in increasing number sense over the short period of the study. However these results need to be followed up with larger, controlled studies. The issues of transfer to higher-level tasks, and of the best developmental time window for intervention also need to be addressed.

  1. Seeking mathematics success for college students: a randomized field trial of an adapted approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, Taras; Hoessler, Carolyn; Maciejewski, Wes

    2015-11-01

    Many students enter the Canadian college system with insufficient mathematical ability and leave the system with little improvement. Those students who enter with poor mathematics ability typically take a developmental mathematics course as their first and possibly only mathematics course. The educational experiences that comprise a developmental mathematics course vary widely and are, too often, ineffective at improving students' ability. This trend is concerning, since low mathematics ability is known to be related to lower rates of success in subsequent courses. To date, little attention has been paid to the selection of an instructional approach to consistently apply across developmental mathematics courses. Prior research suggests that an appropriate instructional method would involve explicit instruction and practising mathematical procedures linked to a mathematical concept. This study reports on a randomized field trial of a developmental mathematics approach at a college in Ontario, Canada. The new approach is an adaptation of the JUMP Math program, an explicit instruction method designed for primary and secondary school curriculae, to the college learning environment. In this study, a subset of courses was assigned to JUMP Math and the remainder was taught in the same style as in the previous years. We found consistent, modest improvement in the JUMP Math sections compared to the non-JUMP sections, after accounting for potential covariates. The findings from this randomized field trial, along with prior research on effective education for developmental mathematics students, suggest that JUMP Math is a promising way to improve college student outcomes.

  2. Ethnic differences in the adaptation rate of HIV gp120 from a vaccine trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Phillip W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Differences in HIV-1 gp120 sequence variation were examined in North American volunteers who became infected during a phase III vaccine trial using the rgp120 vaccine. Molecular adaptation of the virus in vaccine and placebo recipients from different ethnic subgroups was compared by estimating the dN/dS ratios in viruses sampled from each individual using three different methods. ANOVA analyses detected significant differences in dN/dS ratios among races (P dN/dS ratios for all estimators (1.24–1.45 than in other races (0.66–1.35, and several pairwise comparisons involving blacks remained significant (P P dN/dS ratios (1.3–1.66 than placebo individuals from the other races (0.65–1.56. These results suggest intrinsic differences among races in immune response and highlight the need for including multiple ethnicities in the design of future HIV-1 vaccine studies and trials.

  3. Accurate single-trial detection of movement intention made possible using adaptive wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanzar, Alireza; Malekmohammadi, Alireza; Bahrani, Masih; Shabany, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    The outlook of brain-computer interfacing (BCI) is very bright. The real-time, accurate detection of a motor movement task is critical in BCI systems. The poor signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) of EEG signals and the ambiguity of noise generator sources in brain renders this task quite challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel algorithm for precise detection of the onset of a motor movement through identification of event-related-desynchronization (ERD) patterns. Using an adaptive matched filter technique implemented based on an optimized continues Wavelet transform by selecting an appropriate basis, we can detect single-trial ERDs. Moreover, we use a maximum-likelihood (ML), electrooculography (EOG) artifact removal method to remove eye-related artifacts to significantly improve the detection performance. We have applied this technique to our locally recorded Emotiv(®) data set of 6 healthy subjects, where an average detection selectivity of 85 ± 6% and sensitivity of 88 ± 7.7% is achieved with a temporal precision in the range of -1250 to 367 ms in onset detections of single-trials.

  4. ERP adaptation provides direct evidence for early mirror neuron activation in the inferior parietal lobule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhring, Nicole; Brandt, Emily S L; Mohr, Bettina; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2014-10-01

    Mirror neuron systems are frequently investigated by assessing overlapping brain activity during observation and execution of actions; however, distinct neuronal subpopulations may be activated that fall below the spatial resolution of magnetic resonance techniques. This shortfall can be resolved using repetition suppression paradigms that identify physiological adaptation processes caused by repeated activation of identical neuronal circuits. Here, event-related potentials were used to investigate the time course of mirror neuron circuit activation using repetition suppression within and across action observation and action execution modalities. In a lip-reading and speech production paradigm, the N170 component indexed stimulus repetition by adapting to both cross-modal and intra-modal repetitions in the left hemisphere. Neuronal source localization revealed activation of the left inferior parietal lobule during cross-modal relative to intra-modal trials. These results provide support for the position that the same neuronal circuits are activated in perceiving and performing articulatory actions. Moreover, our data strongly suggest that inferior parietal lobule mirror neurons are activated relatively early in time, which indicates partly automatic processes of linguistic perception and mirroring. Repetition suppression paradigms therefore help to elucidate neuronal correlates of different cognitive processes and may serve as a starting point for advanced electrophysiological research on mirror neurons.

  5. Applications of active adaptive noise control to jet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoureshi, Rahmat; Brackney, Larry

    1993-01-01

    During phase 2 research on the application of active noise control to jet engines, the development of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) active adaptive noise control algorithms and acoustic/controls models for turbofan engines were considered. Specific goals for this research phase included: (1) implementation of a MIMO adaptive minimum variance active noise controller; and (2) turbofan engine model development. A minimum variance control law for adaptive active noise control has been developed, simulated, and implemented for single-input/single-output (SISO) systems. Since acoustic systems tend to be distributed, multiple sensors, and actuators are more appropriate. As such, the SISO minimum variance controller was extended to the MIMO case. Simulation and experimental results are presented. A state-space model of a simplified gas turbine engine is developed using the bond graph technique. The model retains important system behavior, yet is of low enough order to be useful for controller design. Expansion of the model to include multiple stages and spools is also discussed.

  6. [Activated protein C (the impact of PROWESS trial)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iba, Toshiaki; Kidokoro, Akio

    2004-12-01

    The inflammatory response in severe sepsis is integrally linked to procoagulant activity and endothelial activation. The abnormalities in the microcirculation results in the development of septic organ dysfunction. The natural anticoagulant activated protein C is expected not only to improve the unbalanced coagulation/fibrinolysis system, but also to modulate the endothelial function, and to express the anti-inflammatory properties. To certify these effects, a large scale, multiple center, randomized, placebo controlled phase 3 trial (PROWESS trial) has been conducted. The results showed the statistically significant improved survival in patients with sepsis induced organ dysfunction (absolute risk reduction in 6.1%). As a result, activated protein C is recommended in patients at high risk of death such as Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II > or = 25. However, since bleeding risk is reported as an adverse effect, activated protein C is contraindicated in patients with bleeding tendency.

  7. Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trials Education Program for African American and Latina/o Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Debra J.; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Riley, Natasha E.; Behar, Alma I.; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was…

  8. Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting Adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne BA; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the early intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI) with 78 primary caregivers and their child (16-61 months) with Autism Spectrum Disorder. VIPP-AUTI is a brief attachment-based intervention program, focusing on improving parent-child…

  9. Adapted physical activity in the prevention and therapy of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Ksenija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by the progressive loss of bone tissue, is one of the most common complications of aging. Epidemiology. According to some calculations, there were 25% of women and 4% of men older than 50 years with osteoporosis in the world in 2010. It is assumed that the number of patients with osteoporosis will increase by 30% in every 10 years in the 21st century. There are many reasons for that: the world’s population is growing older, diet is getting poorer in vitamins and minerals and physical activity is decreasing. The Quality and Quantity of Bone Tissue. Developing bones are much more responsive to mechanical loading and physical activity than mature bones. This suggests that training in early childhood may be an important factor in the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. It is important to note that the quality of bone achieved by training at younger age cannot be maintained permanently if it is not supported by physical activity later in life. Adapted physical activity represents physical activity individually tailored according to the psychosomatic capabilities of a person and the goal to be achieved. It can be applied at any age in order to maintain strong bones and reduce the risk of fracture. Adapted physical activity is different for men and women, for different age, as well as for the individuals. Aerobic exercises, which lead to an acceleration of breathing, increased heart rate and mild perspiration, as well as resistance exercises and exercises against resistance done by stretching elastic bands, for hands, legs and torso have been proven to increase bone density and improve bone strength. Coordination and balance exercises are important in an individual workout program. An explanation of the action of adapted physical activity is the basis for the theory of control and modulation of bone loss, muscle strength, coordination and balance. Physical activity is very effective in

  10. Increased adaptation rates and reduction in trial-by-trial variability in subjects with Cerebral Palsy following a multi-session locomotor adaptation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas eMawase

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral Palsy (CP results from an insult to the developing brain and is associated with deficits in locomotor and manual skills and in sensorimotor adaptation. We hypothesized that the poor sensorimotor adaptation in persons with CP is related to their high execution variability and does not reflect a general impairment in adaptation learning. We studied the interaction between performance variability and adaptation deficits using a multi-session locomotor adaptation design in persons with CP. Six adolescents with diplegic CP were exposed, during a period of 15 weeks, to a repeated split-belt treadmill perturbation spread over 30 sessions and were tested again 6 months after the end of training. Compared to age-matched healthy controls, subjects with CP showed poor adaptation and high execution variability in the first exposure to the perturbation. Following training they showed marked reduction in execution variability and an increase in learning rates. The reduction in variability and the improvement in adaptation were highly correlated in the CP group and were retained 6 months after training. Interestingly, despite reducing their variability in the washout phase, subjects with CP did not improve learning rates during washout phases that were introduced only 4 times during the experiment. Our results suggest that locomotor adaptation in subjects with CP is related to their execution variability. Nevertheless, while variability reduction is generalized to other locomotor contexts, the development of savings requires both reduction in execution variability and multiple exposures to the perturbation.

  11. Adaptive control of an active magnetic bearing with external disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lili; You, Silu

    2014-09-01

    Adaptive back stepping control (ABC) is originally applied to a linearized model of an active magnetic bearing (AMB) system. Our control goal is to regulate the deviation of the magnetic bearing from its equilibrium position in the presence of an external disturbance and system uncertainties. Two types of ABC methods are developed on the AMB system. One is based on full state feedback, for which displacement, velocity, and current states are assumed available. The other one is adaptive observer based back stepping controller (AOBC) where only displacement output is measurable. An observer is designed for AOBC to estimate velocity and current states of AMB. Lyapunov approach proves the stabilities of both regular ABC and AOBC. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of two controllers. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Frontostriatal and behavioral adaptations to daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S

    2017-03-01

    Background: Current obesity theories suggest that the repeated intake of highly palatable high-sugar foods causes adaptions in the striatum, parietal lobe, and prefrontal and visual cortices in the brain that may serve to perpetuate consumption in a feed-forward manner. However, the data for humans are cross-sectional and observational, leaving little ability to determine the temporal precedence of repeated consumption on brain response.Objective: We tested the impact of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake on brain and behavioral responses to beverage stimuli.Design: We performed an experiment with 20 healthy-weight individuals who were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 sugar-sweetened beverages daily for 21 d, underwent 2 functional MRI sessions, and completed behavioral and explicit hedonic assessments.Results: Consistent with preclinical experiments, daily beverage consumption resulted in decreases in dorsal striatal response during receipt of the consumed beverage (r = -0.46) and decreased ventromedial prefrontal response during logo-elicited anticipation (r = -0.44). This decrease in the prefrontal response correlated with increases in behavioral disinhibition toward the logo of the consumed beverage (r = 0.54; P = 0.02). Daily beverage consumption also increased precuneus response to both juice logos compared with a tasteless control (r = 0.45), suggesting a more generalized effect toward beverage cues. Last, the repeated consumption of 1 beverage resulted in an explicit hedonic devaluation of a similar nonconsumed beverage (P sugar-sweetened beverage intake in altering neurobehavioral responses to the regularly consumed beverage that may also extend to other beverage stimuli. Future research is required to provide evidence of replication in a larger sample and to establish whether the neurobehavioral adaptations observed herein are specific to high-sugar and/or nonnutritive-sweetened beverages or more generally related to the repeated consumption of

  13. Alternatively activated macrophages produce catecholamines to sustain adaptive thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khoa D.; Qiu, Yifu; Cui, Xiaojin; Goh, Y.P. Sharon; Mwangi, Julia; David, Tovo; Mukundan, Lata; Brombacher, Frank; Locksley, Richard M.; Chawla, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    All homeotherms utilize thermogenesis to maintain core body temperature, ensuring that cellular functions and physiologic processes can ensue in cold environments1-3. In the prevailing model, when the hypothalamus senses cold temperatures, it triggers sympathetic discharge, resulting in the release of noradrenaline in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT)4,5. Acting via the β3-adrenergic receptors, noradrenaline induces lipolysis in white adipocytes6, whereas it stimulates the expression of thermogenic genes, such as PPARγ coactivator 1a (Ppargc1a), uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (Acsl1), in brown adipocytes7-9. However, the precise nature of all the cell types involved in this efferent loop is not well established. Here we report an unexpected requirement for the interleukin 4 (IL4)-stimulated program of alternative macrophage activation in adaptive thermogenesis. Cold exposure rapidly promoted alternative activation of adipose tissue macrophages, which secrete catecholamines to induce thermogenic gene expression in BAT and lipolysis in WAT. Absence of alternatively activated macrophages impaired metabolic adaptations to cold, whereas administration of IL4 increased thermogenic gene expression, fatty acid mobilization, and energy expenditure, all in a macrophage-dependent manner. We have thus discovered a surprising role for alternatively activated macrophages in the orchestration of an important mammalian stress response, the response to cold. PMID:22101429

  14. Effectiveness of Cultural Adaptations of Interventions Aimed at Smoking Cessation, Diet, and/or Physical Activity in Ethnic Minorities. A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierkens, Vera; Hartman, Marieke A.; Nicolaou, Mary; Vissenberg, Charlotte; Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Hosper, Karen; van Valkengoed, Irene G.; Stronks, Karien

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of cultural adaptations in behavioral interventions targeting ethnic minorities in high-income societies is widely recognized. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in such interventions. Aim To systematically review the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in interventions that target smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity and to explore features of such adaptations that may account for their effectiveness. Methods Systematic review using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials registers (1997–2009). Inclusion criteria: a) effectiveness study of a lifestyle intervention targeted to ethnic minority populations living in a high income society; b) interventions included cultural adaptations and a control group that was exposed to the intervention without the cultural adaptation under study; c) primary outcome measures included smoking cessation, diet, or physical activity. Results Out of 44904 hits, we identified 17 studies, all conducted in the United States. In five studies, specific cultural adaptations had a statistically significant effect on primary outcomes. The remaining studies showed no significant effects on primary outcomes, but some presented trends favorable for cultural adaptations. We observed that interventions incorporating a package of cultural adaptations, cultural adaptations that implied higher intensity and those incorporating family values were more likely to report statistically significant effects. Adaptations in smoking cessation interventions seem to be more effective than adaptations in interventions aimed at diet and physical activity. Conclusion This review indicates that culturally targeted behavioral interventions may be more effective if cultural adaptations are implemented as a package of adaptations, the adaptation includes family level, and where the adaptation results in a higher intensity of the

  15. Adapting Animal-Assisted Therapy Trials to Prison-Based Animal Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Molly; Ramaswamy, Megha

    2016-09-01

    Prison-based animal programs have shown promise when it comes to increased sociability, responsibility, and levels of patience for inmates who participate in these programs. Yet there remains a dearth of scientific research that demonstrates the impact of prison-based animal programs on inmates' physical and mental health. Trials of animal-assisted therapy interventions, a form of human-animal interaction therapy most often used with populations affected by depression/anxiety, mental illness, and trauma, may provide models of how prison-based animal program research can have widespread implementation in jail and prison settings, whose populations have high rates of mental health problems. This paper reviews the components of prison-based animal programs most commonly practiced in prisons today, presents five animal-assisted therapy case studies, evaluates them based on their adaptability to prison-based animal programs, and discusses the institutional constraints that act as barriers for rigorous prison-based animal program research implementation. This paper can serve to inform the development of a research approach to animal-assisted therapy that nurses and other public health researchers can use in working with correctional populations.

  16. A literature review of applied adaptive design methodology within the field of oncology in randomised controlled trials and a proposed extension to the CONSORT guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Pankaj; Dunn, Janet A; Marshall, Andrea

    2017-07-18

    The application of adaptive design methodology within a clinical trial setting is becoming increasingly popular. However the application of these methods within trials is not being reported as adaptive designs hence making it more difficult to capture the emerging use of these designs. Within this review, we aim to understand how adaptive design methodology is being reported, whether these methods are explicitly stated as an 'adaptive design' or if it has to be inferred and to identify whether these methods are applied prospectively or concurrently. Three databases; Embase, Ovid and PubMed were chosen to conduct the literature search. The inclusion criteria for the review were phase II, phase III and phase II/III randomised controlled trials within the field of Oncology that published trial results in 2015. A variety of search terms related to adaptive designs were used. A total of 734 results were identified, after screening 54 were eligible. Adaptive designs were more commonly applied in phase III confirmatory trials. The majority of the papers performed an interim analysis, which included some sort of stopping criteria. Additionally only two papers explicitly stated the term 'adaptive design' and therefore for most of the papers, it had to be inferred that adaptive methods was applied. Sixty-five applications of adaptive design methods were applied, from which the most common method was an adaptation using group sequential methods. This review indicated that the reporting of adaptive design methodology within clinical trials needs improving. The proposed extension to the current CONSORT 2010 guidelines could help capture adaptive design methods. Furthermore provide an essential aid to those involved with clinical trials.

  17. Re-adapting T cells for cancer therapy: from mouse models to clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromnes, Ingunn M; Schmitt, Thomas M; Chapuis, Aude G; Hingorani, Sunil R; Greenberg, Philip D

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy involves the isolation, expansion, and reinfusion of T lymphocytes with a defined specificity and function as a means to eradicate cancer. Our research has focused on specifying the requirements for tumor eradication with antigen-specific T cells and T cells transduced to express a defined T-cell receptor (TCR) in mouse models and then translating these strategies to clinical trials. Our design of T-cell-based therapy for cancer has reflected efforts to identify the obstacles that limit sustained effector T-cell activity in mice and humans, design approaches to enhance T-cell persistence, develop methods to increase TCR affinity/T-cell functional avidity, and pursue strategies to overcome tolerance and immunosuppression. With the advent of genetic engineering, a highly functional population of T cells can now be rapidly generated and tailored for the targeted malignancy. Preclinical studies in faithful and informative mouse models, in concert with knowledge gained from analyses of successes and limitations in clinical trials, are shaping how we continue to develop, refine, and broaden the applicability of this approach for cancer therapy.

  18. Dynamics of adaptive and innate immunity in patients treated during primary human immunodeficiency virus infection: results from Maraviroc in HIV Acute Infection (MAIN) randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa, M; Pogliaghi, M; Chiappetta, S; Galli, L; Pensieroso, S; Cavarelli, M; Scarlatti, G; De Biasi, S; Cossarizza, A; De Battista, D; Malnati, M; Lazzarin, A; Nozza, S; Tambussi, G

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the dynamics of innate and adaptive immunity in patients treated with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) during primary human immunodeficiency virus infection (PHI), enrolled in a prospective randomized trial (MAIN, EUDRACT 2008-007004-29). After 48 weeks of cART, we documented a reduction in activated B cells and CD8(+) T cells. Natural killer cell and dendritic cell frequencies were measured and a decrease in CD16(+) CD56(dim) with a reciprocal rise in CD56(high) natural killer cells and an increase in myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were recorded. In conclusion, 48 weeks of cART during PHI showed significant benefits for both innate and adaptive immunity.

  19. The microglial "activation" continuum: from innate to adaptive responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolic Veljko

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microglia are innate immune cells of myeloid origin that take up residence in the central nervous system (CNS during embryogenesis. While classically regarded as macrophage-like cells, it is becoming increasingly clear that reactive microglia play more diverse roles in the CNS. Microglial "activation" is often used to refer to a single phenotype; however, in this review we consider that a continuum of microglial activation exists, with phagocytic response (innate activation at one end and antigen presenting cell function (adaptive activation at the other. Where activated microglia fall in this spectrum seems to be highly dependent on the type of stimulation provided. We begin by addressing the classical roles of peripheral innate immune cells including macrophages and dendritic cells, which seem to define the edges of this continuum. We then discuss various types of microglial stimulation, including Toll-like receptor engagement by pathogen-associated molecular patterns, microglial challenge with myelin epitopes or Alzheimer's β-amyloid in the presence or absence of CD40L co-stimulation, and Alzheimer disease "immunotherapy". Based on the wide spectrum of stimulus-specific microglial responses, we interpret these cells as immune cells that demonstrate remarkable plasticity following activation. This interpretation has relevance for neurodegenerative/neuroinflammatory diseases where reactive microglia play an etiological role; in particular viral/bacterial encephalitis, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer disease.

  20. Ethnic differences in thermoregulatory responses during resting, passive and active heating: application of Werner's adaptation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Saat, Mohamed; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-12-01

    For the coherent understanding of heat acclimatization in tropical natives, we compared ethnic differences between tropical and temperate natives during resting, passive and active heating conditions. Experimental protocols included: (1) a resting condition (an air temperature of 28°C with 50% RH), (2) a passive heating condition (28°C with 50% RH; leg immersion in a hot tub at a water temperature of 42°C), and (3) an active heating condition (32°C with 70% RH; a bicycle exercise). Morphologically and physically matched tropical natives (ten Malaysian males, MY) and temperate natives (ten Japanese males, JP) participated in all three trials. The results saw that: tropical natives had a higher resting rectal temperature and lower hand and foot temperatures at rest, smaller rise of rectal temperature and greater temperature rise in bodily extremities, and a lower sensation of thirst during passive and active heating than the matched temperate natives. It is suggested that tropical natives' homeostasis during heating is effectively controlled with the improved stability in internal body temperature and the increased capability of vascular circulation in extremities, with a lower thirst sensation. The enhanced stability of internal body temperature and the extended thermoregulatory capability of vascular circulation in the extremities of tropical natives can be interpreted as an interactive change to accomplish a thermal dynamic equilibrium in hot environments. These heat adaptive traits were explained by Wilder's law of initial value and Werner's process and controller adaptation model.

  1. Building efficient comparative effectiveness trials through adaptive designs, utility functions, and accrual rate optimization: finding the sweet spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Byron J; Berry, Scott M; Quintana, Melanie; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen; Herbelin, Laura; Barohn, Richard

    2015-03-30

    The time is right for the use of Bayesian Adaptive Designs (BAD) in comparative effectiveness trials. For example, Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute has joined the Food and Drug Administration and National Intitutes of Health in adopting policies/guidelines encouraging their use. There are multiple aspects to BAD that need to be considered when designing a comparative effectiveness design. First, the adaptation rules can determine the expected size of the trial. Second, a utility function can be used to combine extremely important co-endpoints (e.g., efficacy and tolerability) and is a valuable tool for incorporating clinical expertise and potentially patient preference. Third, accrual rate is also very, very important. Specifically, there is a juxtaposition related to accrual and BAD. If accrual rate is too fast we never gain efficient information for adapting. If accrual rate is too slow we never finish the clinical trial. We propose methodology for finding the 'sweet spot' for BAD that addresses these as design parameters. We demonstrate the methodology on a comparative effectiveness BAD of pharmaceutical agents in cryptogenic sensory polyneuropathy. The study has five arms with two endpoints that are combined with a utility function. The accrual rate is assumed to stem from multiple sites. We perform simulations from which the composite accrual rates across sites result in various piecewise Poisson distributions as parameter inputs. We balance both average number of patients needed and average length of time to finish the study.

  2. Meditation-induced cognitive-control states regulate response-conflict adaptation: Evidence from trial-to-trial adjustments in the Simon task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Sellaro, Roberta; Samara, Iliana; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    Here we consider the possibility that meditation has an immediate impact on information processing. Moreover, we were interested to see whether this impact affects attentional input control, as previous observations suggest, or the handling of response conflict. Healthy adults underwent a brief single session of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing a Simon task-which assesses conflict-resolution efficiency. While the size of the Simon effect (reflecting the efficiency of handling response conflict) was unaffected by type of meditation, the amount of dynamic behavioral adjustments (i.e., trial-to-trial variability of the Simon effect: the Gratton effect) was considerably smaller after OMM than after FAM. Our findings suggest that engaging in meditation instantly creates a cognitive-control state that has a specific impact on conflict-driven control adaptations.

  3. Skeletal Adaptation to Daily Activity: A Biochemical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Musculoskeletal forces generated by normal daily activity on Earth maintain the functional and structural properties of muscle and bone throughout most of one's adult life. A reduction in the level of cumulative daily loading caused by space flight, bed rest or spinal cord injury induces rapid muscle atrophy, functional changes in muscle, and bone resorption in regions subjected to the reduced loading. Bone cells in culture and bone tissue reportedly respond to a wide variety of non-mechanical and mechanical stimuli ranging, from electromagnetic fields, and hormones to small amplitude, high frequency vibrations, fluid flow, strain rate, and stress/strain magnitude. However, neither the transduction mechanism that transforms the mechanical input into a muscle or bone metabolic response nor the characteristics, of the loading history that directly or indirectly stimulates the cell is known. Identifying the factors contributing to the input stimulus will have a major impact on the design of effective countermeasures for long duration space flight. This talk will present a brief overview of current theories of bone remodeling and functional adaptation to mechanical loading. Work from our lab will be presented from the perspective of daily cumulative loading on Earth and its relationship to bone density and structure. Our objective is to use the tibia and calcaneus as model bone sites of cortical and cancellous bone adaptation, loaded daily by musculoskeletal forces in equilibrium with the ground reaction force. All materials that will be discussed are in the open scientific literature.

  4. Walking adaptability therapy after stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, C.; Roerdink, M.; Ooijen, van M.W.; Meskens, C.G.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Beek, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Walking in everyday life requires the ability to adapt walking to the environment. This adaptability is often impaired after stroke, and this might contribute to the increased fall risk after stroke. To improve safe community ambulation, walking adaptability training might be beneficial

  5. Dietary and physical activity adaptations to alternate day modified fasting: implications for optimal weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempel Monica C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternate day modified fasting (ADMF is an effective strategy for weight loss in obese adults. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the dietary and physical activity adaptations that occur during short-term ADMF, and to determine how these modulations affect rate of weight loss. Methods Sixteen obese subjects (12 women/4 men completed a 10-week trial consisting of 3 phases: 1 2-week control phase, 2 4-week ADMF controlled feeding phase, and 3 4-week ADMF self-selected feeding phase. Results Body weight decreased (P r = 0.42, P = 0.01. Dietary fat intake decreased (36% to 33% of kcal, P r = 0.38, P = 0.03. Hunger on the fast day decreased (P Conclusion These findings indicate that obese subjects quickly adapt to ADMF, and that changes in energy/macronutrient intake, hunger, and maintenance of physical activity play a role in influencing rate of weight loss by ADMF.

  6. Vitamin C and E supplementation hampers cellular adaptation to endurance training in humans: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Gøran; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Holden, Geir; Hallén, Jostein; Rønnestad, Bent Ronny; Sveen, Ole; Skaug, Arne; Paur, Ingvild; Bastani, Nasser E; Østgaard, Hege Nymo; Buer, Charlotte; Midttun, Magnus; Freuchen, Fredrik; Wiig, Havard; Ulseth, Elisabeth Tallaksen; Garthe, Ina; Blomhoff, Rune; Benestad, Haakon B; Raastad, Truls

    2014-04-15

    In this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, we investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on endurance training adaptations in humans. Fifty-four young men and women were randomly allocated to receive either 1000 mg of vitamin C and 235 mg of vitamin E or a placebo daily for 11 weeks. During supplementation, the participants completed an endurance training programme consisting of three to four sessions per week (primarily of running), divided into high-intensity interval sessions [4-6 × 4-6 min; >90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax)] and steady state continuous sessions (30-60 min; 70-90% of HRmax). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max ), submaximal running and a 20 m shuttle run test were assessed and blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected, before and after the intervention. Participants in the vitamin C and E group increased their VO2 max (mean ± s.d.: 8 ± 5%) and performance in the 20 m shuttle test (10 ± 11%) to the same degree as those in the placebo group (mean ± s.d.: 8 ± 5% and 14 ± 17%, respectively). However, the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX4) and cytosolic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α) increased in the m. vastus lateralis in the placebo group by 59 ± 97% and 19 ± 51%, respectively, but not in the vitamin C and E group (COX4: -13 ± 54%; PGC-1α: -13 ± 29%; P ≤ 0.03, between groups). Furthermore, mRNA levels of CDC42 and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) in the trained muscle were lower in the vitamin C and E group than in the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Daily vitamin C and E supplementation attenuated increases in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis following endurance training. However, no clear interactions were detected for improvements in VO2 max and running performance. Consequently, vitamin C and E supplementation hampered cellular adaptations in the exercised muscles, and although this did not translate to the performance tests

  7. Development of large aperture elements for active and adaptive optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stranakova E.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Large-aperture elements for laser active and adaptive optics are investigated in collaboration within IOP AcSci CR, FEng CTU and 5M. A bimorph deformable mirror for high-power lasers based on a lightweight structure with a composite core is currently in development. In order to realize a sufficiently large working aperture we are using new technologies for production of core, bimorph actuator and DM reflector. Detailed simulation of components and structure is validated by measurement and testing. A research of DM actuation and response of a complicated mirror structure needed for an accurate control of a deformation is performed. Testing of samples and subscale measurements are currently performed, measurement of a complete structure is in preparation.

  8. Adaptive Current Control Method for Hybrid Active Power Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Minh Thuyen

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive current control method for Hybrid Active Power Filter (HAPF). It consists of a fuzzy-neural controller, identification and prediction model and cost function. The fuzzy-neural controller parameters are adjusted according to the cost function minimum criteria. For this reason, the proposed control method has a capability on-line control clings to variation of the load harmonic currents. Compared to the single fuzzy logic control method, the proposed control method shows the advantages of better dynamic response, compensation error in steady-state is smaller, able to online control is better and harmonics cancelling is more effective. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  9. Phenomenology and adapted physical activity: philosophy and professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F

    2014-01-01

    Through the increased use of qualitative research methods, the term phenomenology has become a quite familiar notion for researchers in adapted physical activity (APA). In contrast to this increasing interest in phenomenology as methodology, relatively little work has focused on phenomenology as philosophy or as an approach to professional practice. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of phenomenology as philosophy and as pedagogy to the field of APA. First, phenomenology as philosophy is introduced through three key notions, namely the first-person perspective, embodiment, and life-world. The relevance of these terms to APA is then outlined. Second, the concept of phenomenological pedagogy is introduced, and its application and potential for APA are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that phenomenology can help theorize ways of understanding human difference in movement contexts and form a basis of action-oriented research aiming at developing professional practice.

  10. Fostering Engagement Activities To Advance Adaptation And Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissen, J.; Owen, T.; Brewer, M.; Hollingshead, A.; Mecray, E. L.; Werner, K.

    2015-12-01

    As the understanding of climate risks grows for public and private companies, the dissemination of meaningful climate and environmental information becomes important for improved risk management practices and innovation. In a broader effort to build capacity for adaptation and demonstrate the value of investment in resiliency, NCEI and its partners have made several shifts to showcase an improved understanding of uses and applications of climate and environmental data and information. The NOAA NCEI engagement initiative includes actively exploring ways to: 1) identify opportunities in data use and applications and 2) characterize needs and requirements from customers to help inform investment in the relevant science. This presentation will highlight: 1) NCEI's engagement initiative strategy, 2) our regional and national partnerships as agents of engagement in the region, 3) a few examples of uses of climate information with select stakeholders and 4) justification of customer engagement and requirements as a critical component in informing the science agenda.

  11. Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental Retardation (MR is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in adaptive daily life skills and difficulties in social and interpersonal functioning. Since multiple causes may contribute to MR, associated clinical pictures may vary accordingly. Nevertheless, when psychiatric disorders as Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD and/or alcohol abuse co-exist, their proper detection and management is often troublesome, essentially due to a limited vocabulary MR people could use to describe their symptoms, feelings and concerns, and the lack of reliable screening tools. Furthermore, MR people are among the most medicated subjects, with (over prescription of antidepressants and/or typical antipsychotics being the rule rather than exception. Thus, treatment resistance or even worsening of depression, constitute frequent occurrences. This report describes the case of a person with MR who failed to respond to repetitive trials of antidepressant monotherapies, finally recovering using aripiprazole to fluvoxamine augmentation upon consideration of a putative bipolar diathesis for “agitated” TRD. Although further controlled investigations are needed to assess a putative bipolar diathesis in some cases of MR associated to TRD, prudence is advised in the long-term prescription of antidepressant monotherapies in such conditions.

  12. Participant Preferences for Pharmacologic Chronic Pain Treatment Trial Characteristics: An ACTTION Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shannon M; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Kitt, Rachel A; Markman, John D; Vaughan, Janet A; Cowan, Penney; Kopecky, Ernest A; Malamut, Richard; Sadosky, Alesia; Tive, Leslie; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2016-11-01

    Barriers to clinical trial recruitment can delay study completion, potentially resulting in increased costs and an unrepresentative sample. In the current study of 150 participants with chronic pain, we used a computerized adaptive choice-based conjoint survey that included 8 characteristics that may affect enrollment in pharmacologic pain treatment trials (ie, treatment allocation, frequency of pain ratings, treatment administration method, current medications, number of study visits, availability of evening and weekend visits, invasiveness of laboratory procedures, payment). These data were analyzed using Sawtooth Software ver. 8.4.8 (Sawtooth Software, Inc, Orem, UT), which identifies the characteristics that dominate participants' decisions across multiple sets of potential trials. Three characteristics had the largest relative importance in participants' trial preferences: 1) invasiveness of required laboratory procedures (ie, 22%), with no procedures or blood tests preferred over ice-water sensory testing or skin biopsy; 2) ability to continue current pain medications (21%); and 3) payment for study participation (21%), with higher payment preferred. The fourth most important characteristic was number of study visits (13%), with participants preferring fewer in-person visits and more phone contacts. Understanding the preferences of potential participants is an important step toward enhancing enrollment in pain treatment trials.

  13. MRED: A New Adaptive Active Queue Management Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGMing; WUChunming; ZHUMiaoliang

    2004-01-01

    To address the problems of TCP (Transport control protocol) end-to-end congestion control mechanism, the IETF (Internet engineering task force) advocates deploying active queue management mechanisms in the network. RED is a popular AQM algorithm. It uses average queue size to detect the incipient network congestion. RED can effectively resolve the problems of traditional Drop-Tail. However, there are still some problems with RED. RED is too sensitive to its parameters and the changes of the number of active TCP connections. On the other hand, the congestion notification sending rate of RED algorithm is determined by maxp and the value of maxp is fixed. As a result, these will lead to queue size oscillation which causes queuing delay and jitter. This paper proposes a new adaptive AQM algorithm named “MRED”(Modified RED). Our goal is to stabilized the queue size in a wide variety of traffic scenarios. MRED can adjust the value of maxp to the changes of the traffic load so that the congestion notification can be sent to sufficient TCP sources to mitigate the congestion level. Simulation results indicate that MRED can effectively avoid the queue overfiow and stabilize the queue occupation independent of the number of active TCP connections thus resulting in a more predictable packet delay in the network.

  14. Extracting patterns of single-trial EEG using an adaptive learning algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Wang, Yu-Kai; Fang, Chieh-Ning; Yu, Yi-Hsin; King, Jung-Tai

    2015-01-01

    The improvement of brain imaging technique brings about an opportunity for developing and investigating brain-computer interface (BCI) which is a way to interact with computer and environment. The measured brain activities usually constitute the signals of interest and noises. Applying the portable device and removing noise are the benefits to real-world BCI. In this study, one portable electroencephalogram (EEG) system non-invasively acquired brain dynamics through wireless transmission while six subjects participated in the rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. The event-related potential (ERP) was traditionally estimated by ensemble averaging (EA) to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. One adaptive filter of data-reusing radial basis function network (DR-RBFN) was also utilized as the estimator. The results showed that this portable EEG system stably acquired brain activities. Furthermore, the task-related potentials could be clearly explored from the limited samples of EEG data through DR-RBFN. According to the artifact-free data from the portable device, this study demonstrated the potential to move the BCI from laboratory research to real-life application in the near future.

  15. Adaptation of active tone in the mouse descending thoracic aorta under acute changes in loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtada, S-I; Lewin, S; Arner, A; Humphrey, J D

    2016-06-01

    Arteries can adapt to sustained changes in blood pressure and flow, and it is thought that these adaptive processes often begin with an altered smooth muscle cell activity that precedes any detectable changes in the passive wall components. Yet, due to the intrinsic coupling between the active and passive properties of the arterial wall, it has been difficult to delineate the adaptive contributions of active smooth muscle. To address this need, we used a novel experimental-computational approach to quantify adaptive functions of active smooth muscle in arterial rings excised from the proximal descending thoracic aorta of mice and subjected to short-term sustained circumferential stretches while stimulated with various agonists. A new mathematical model of the adaptive processes was derived and fit to data to describe and predict the effects of active tone adaptation. It was found that active tone was maintained when the artery was adapted close to the optimal stretch for maximal active force production, but it was reduced when adapted below the optimal stretch; there was no significant change in passive behavior in either case. Such active adaptations occurred only upon smooth muscle stimulation with phenylephrine, however, not stimulation with KCl or angiotensin II. Numerical simulations using the proposed model suggested further that active tone adaptation in vascular smooth muscle could play a stabilizing role for wall stress in large elastic arteries.

  16. An active vibration isolation system using adaptive proportional control method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Hui; Hsieh, Hung-En; Wu, Wei-Hao

    2014-03-01

    This paper is concerned with a six-degree-of-freedom active vibration isolation system using voice coil actuators with absolute velocity feedback control for highly sensitive measurement equipment, e.g. atomic force microscopes, suffering from building vibration. The main differences between this type of system and traditional isolator, is that there are no isolator resonance. The absolute vibration velocity signal acquired from an accelerator and being processed through an integrator is input to the controller as a feedback signal, and the controller output signal drives the voice coil actuator to produce a sky-hook damper force. In practice, the phase response of integrator at low frequency such as 2~6 Hz deviate from the 90 degree which is the exact phase difference between the vibration velocity and acceleration. Therefore, an adaptive filter is used to compensate the phase error in this paper. An analysis of this active vibration isolation system is presented, and model predictions are compared to experimental results. The results show that the proposed method significantly reduces transmissibility at resonance without the penalty of increased transmissibility at higher frequencies.

  17. Biomarker-based adaptive trials for patients with glioblastoma--lessons from I-SPY 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Brian M; Wen, Patrick Y; Trippa, Lorenzo; Reardon, David A; Yung, Wai-Kwan Alfred; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Berry, Donald A

    2013-08-01

    The traditional clinical trials infrastructure may not be ideally suited to evaluate the numerous therapeutic hypotheses that result from the increasing number of available targeted agents combined with the various methodologies to molecularly subclassify patients with glioblastoma. Additionally, results from smaller screening studies are rarely translated to successful larger confirmatory studies, potentially related to a lack of efficient control arms or the use of unvalidated surrogate endpoints. Streamlining clinical trials and providing a flexible infrastructure for biomarker development is clearly needed for patients with glioblastoma. The experience developing and implementing the I-SPY studies in breast cancer may serve as a guide to developing such trials in neuro-oncology.

  18. Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by one-trial and multi-trial classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, T; Xue-Bian, J J; Siddiqi, V; Kang, Y; Neary, J T

    1998-05-01

    The pathway supporting the conditioned stimulus (CS) is one site of plasticity that has been studied extensively in conditioned Hermissenda. Several signal transduction pathways have been implicated in classical conditioning of this preparation, although the major emphasis has been on protein kinase C. Here we provide evidence for the activation and phosphorylation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by one-trial and multi-trial conditioning. A one-trial in vitro conditioning procedure consisting of light (CS) paired with the application of 5-HT results in the increased incorporation of 32PO4 into proteins detected with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Two of the phosphoproteins have molecular weights of 44 and 42 kDa, consistent with extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1 and ERK2). Phosphorylation of the 44 and 42 kDa proteins by one-trial conditioning was inhibited by pretreatment with PD098059, A MEK1 (ERK-Activating kinase) inhibitor. Assays of ERK activity with brain myelin basic protein as a substrate revealed greater ERK activity for the group that received one-trial conditioning compared with an unpaired control group. Western blot analysis of phosphorylated ERK using antibodies recognizing the dually phosphorylated forms of ERK1 and ERK2 showed an increase in phosphorylation after one-trial conditioning compared with unpaired controls. The increased phosphorylation of ERK after one-trial conditioning was blocked by pretreatment with PD098059. Hermissenda that received 10 or 15 conditioning trials showed significant behavioral suppression compared with pseudo-random controls. After conditioning and behavioral testing, the conditioned animals showed significantly greater phosphorylation of ERK compared with the pseudo-random controls. These results show that the ERK-MAPK signaling pathway is activated in Pavlovian conditioning of Hermissenda.

  19. New evidence-based adaptive clinical trial methods for optimally integrating predictive biomarkers into oncology clinical development programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert A.Beckman; Cong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Predictive biomarkers are important to the future of oncology; they can be used to identify patient populations who will benefit from therapy,increase the value of cancer medicines,and decrease the size and cost of clinical trials while increasing their chance of success.But predictive biomarkers do not always work.When unsuccessful,they add cost,complexity,and time to drug development.This perspective describes phases 2 and 3 development methods that efficiently and adaptively check the ability of a biomarker to predict clinical outcomes.In the end,the biomarker is emphasized to the extent that it can actually predict.

  20. Adaptive forecasting of aftershock activity after the main shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Takahiro; Ogata, Yosihiko; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-05-01

    Forecasting aftershock activity is useful to reduce seismic risks in the affected area after the main shock. The difficulties to forecast aftershocks are (i) a forecasting model should be tailored to each aftershock sequence because the statistical property varies greatly according to an individual aftershock sequence and (ii) the forecasting model has to be estimated from highly deficient data where a significant fraction of early small aftershocks are missing from seismic records. To overcome this difficulty, we have been developing a statistical model to deal with incompletely detected aftershocks, in which the detection rate of aftershocks is sequentially estimated in a state-space modeling approach. Our method enables us to robustly estimate the forecasting model of underlying aftershocks including not only observed aftershocks but also missing ones from the incomplete catalog. We show that the Omori-Utsu formula can be well estimated only from a few hours of the data, and then it can be revised by the epidemic type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model to adaptively forecast an aftershock sequence with the individual cascading feature as the data size increases in real-time. We demonstrate that how these estimated models can effectively forecast the aftershock activity. We also discuss how these models can be implemented in an operational system for earthquake forecasting. References: T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata, and K. Aihiara, "Forecasting large aftershocks within one day after the main shock", Scientific Reports, 3, 2218 (2013). T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata, and K. Aihiara, "Estimating the ETAS model from an early aftershock sequence", (In submission).

  1. Adaptation to short photoperiods augments circadian food anticipatory activity in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Sean P; Prendergast, Brian J

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Both the light-dark cycle and the timing of food intake can entrain circadian rhythms. Entrainment to food is mediated by a food entrainable circadian oscillator (FEO) that is formally and mechanistically separable from the hypothalamic light-entrainable oscillator. This experiment examined whether seasonal changes in day length affect the function of the FEO in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Hamsters housed in long (LD; 15 h light/day) or short (SD; 9h light/day) photoperiods were subjected to a timed-feeding schedule for 10 days, during which food was available only during a 5h interval of the light phase. Running wheel activity occurring within a 3h window immediately prior to actual or anticipated food delivery was operationally-defined as food anticipatory activity (FAA). After the timed-feeding interval, hamsters were fed ad libitum, and FAA was assessed 2 and 7 days later via probe trials of total food deprivation. During timed-feeding, all hamsters exhibited increases FAA, but FAA emerged more rapidly in SD; in probe trials, FAA was greater in magnitude and persistence in SD. Gonadectomy in LD did not induce the SD-like FAA phenotype, indicating that withdrawal of gonadal hormones is not sufficient to mediate the effects of photoperiod on FAA. Entrainment of the circadian system to light markedly affects the functional output of the FEO via gonadal hormone-independent mechanisms. Rapid emergence and persistent expression of FAA in SD may reflect a seasonal adaptation that directs behavior toward sources of nutrition with high temporal precision at times of year when food is scarce.

  2. Dark-adaptation functions in molecularly confirmed achromatopsia and the implications for assessment in retinal therapy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshiha, Jonathan; Luong, Vy; Cowing, Jill; Dubis, Adam M; Bainbridge, James W; Ali, Robin R; Webster, Andrew R; Moore, Anthony T; Fitzke, Frederick W; Michaelides, Michel

    2014-08-28

    To describe the dark-adaptation (DA) functions in subjects with molecularly proven achromatopsia (ACHM) using refined testing conditions with a view to guiding assessment in forthcoming gene therapy trials. The DA functions of nine subjects with ACHM were measured and compared with those of normal observers. The size and retinal location of the stimuli used to measure DA sensitivities were varied in four distinct testing condition sets, and the effect of altering these parameters assessed. In three of the four testing condition sets, achromats had significantly higher mean final thresholds than normal observers, whereas in the fourth condition set they did not. A larger, more central stimulus revealed the greatest difference between the final DA thresholds of achromat and normal subjects, and also demonstrated the slowest rate of recovery among the achromat group. In this, the largest study of DA functions in molecularly proven ACHM to date, we have identified optimal testing conditions that accentuate the relative difference between achromats and normal observers. These findings can help optimize DA testing in future trials, as well as help resolve the dichotomy in the literature regarding the normality or otherwise of DA functions in ACHM. Furthermore, the shorter testing time and less intense adaptation light used in these experiments may prove advantageous for more readily and reliably probing scotopic function in retinal disease, and be particularly valuable in the frequent post therapeutic assessments required in the context of the marked photophobia in ACHM. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. Adaptive genetic variability and differentiation of Croatian and Austrian Quercus robur L. populations at a drought prone field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Bogdan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Provenance trials, where populations of different geographical origin are tested in a common environment (common garden test, are a tool suited to allow the study of intraspecific adaptive genetic variation. Research of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L. adaptive genetic variability through analyses of populations in common garden tests has a long tradition. However, pedunculated oak populations originating south-eastern from the Alps have been scarcely studied in this way. This study addresses the adaptive genetic variability and differentiation of pedunculate oak populations originating from Austria and Croatia in a provenance/progeny field trial. Studied plants were six years old and were growing at the trial for three years. After two years of unusually low precipitations height and survival were analysed. The total mean height of all plants in the trial was 137.8 cm and ranged from 123.0 cm to 151.8 cm. The overall mean survival rate was rather high (0.85. Mean population survival ranged from 0.64 to 0.94. Individual narrow-sense heritabilities (hi2, family mean heritabilities (hf2, the coefficients of additive genetic variation (CVA and quantitative genetic differentiation coefficients (QST were calculated. A multivariate regression tree (MRT analysis was used to determine the pattern of genetic differentiation of the populations. Individual heritabilities for height ranged between 0.00 and 0.39. Family mean heritabilities for height were rather low in most populations as well (<0.5. Family mean heritabilities for survival were higher than for height (ranging between 0.00 and 0.77. Calculated QST coefficients (0.25 for height and 0.14 for survival indicated between-population genetic differentiation. The populations were separated into two clusters by MRT analysis regarding a climatic variable, namely Hargreaves’ reference evapotranspiration. Populations originating from comparatively more humid habitats were grouped in the first

  4. A Generic Adaptive Method for Corruption Mitigation in Trial Monitoring System with Restful Authorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanaraayan.B1 , Subramanian.M2 , Saikrishna.K.K3 , Sujitha.G4

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of a Trial Monitoring System is to provide a comprehensive suite where cases are created. Trial proceedings are monitored progressively to make informed decisions that include assignment of investigating entities and requesting advisors for opinions to take over the prosecution of the case. It provides a platform for applying counter petitions against an allegation's disposal and integrate proceedings in different levels of scrutiny and across tribunal entities. The outcome is the aggregation of such a data, to classify cases for statistical information and relaying the information in presentable format.

  5. Perspectives on the Contribution of Social Science to Adapted Physical Activity: Looking Forward, Looking Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causgrove Dunn, Janice; Cairney, John; Zimmer, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we reflect on the contributions of the social sciences to the field of adapted physical activity by examining the theories and methods that have been adopted from the social science disciplines. To broaden our perspective on adapted physical activity and provide new avenues for theoretical and empirical exploration, we discuss and…

  6. Perspectives on the Contribution of Social Science to Adapted Physical Activity: Looking Forward, Looking Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causgrove Dunn, Janice; Cairney, John; Zimmer, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we reflect on the contributions of the social sciences to the field of adapted physical activity by examining the theories and methods that have been adopted from the social science disciplines. To broaden our perspective on adapted physical activity and provide new avenues for theoretical and empirical exploration, we discuss and…

  7. Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y. (2009). Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling. Paper presented at workshop "Adapting Activities Modeled by CSCL Scripts" of the 8th International Conference “Computer Supported Collaborative Learning” (CSCL’09). June, 8-13, 2009, Rhodes, Greece.

  8. Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y. (2009). Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling. Presentation at workshop "Adapting Activities Modeled by CSCL Scripts" of the 8th International Conference “Computer Supported Collaborative Learning” (CSCL’09). June, 8-13, 2009, Rhodes, Greece.

  9. A single blinded randomised controlled pilot trial of prism adaptation for improving self-care in stroke patients with neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Ailie J; O'Leary, Kelly; Gabb, Judith; Woodward, Rebecca; Gilchrist, Iain D

    2010-04-01

    Prism adaptation has been shown to alleviate the symptoms of unilateral spatial neglect following stroke in single case and small group studies. The purposes of this single blinded pilot randomised controlled trial were to determine the feasibility of delivering prism adaptation treatment in a clinically valid sample and to assess its impact on self-care. Thirty seven right hemisphere stroke patients with unilateral spatial neglect were randomised into either prism adaptation (using 10 dioptre, 6 degree prisms) or sham treatment (using plain glasses) groups. Treatment was delivered each weekday for two weeks. Pointing accuracy, without vision of the finger, was recorded each day before treatment. Outcome was measured, by blinded assessors, four days and eight weeks after the end of treatment using the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) and the conventional neuropsychological tests from the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT). Thirty four patients received treatment: 16 with prisms, 18 sham. Mean compliance was 99% and 97%, respectively. Over the treatment days only the prism treated group showed increased leftward bias in open loop pointing to targets on a touch screen. However, despite the group level changes in pointing behaviour no overall effect of the treatment on self-care or BIT were found.

  10. Exercise training and habitual physical activity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Earnest, Conrad P; Johnson, William D; Blair, Steven N; Sénéchal, Martin; Church, Timothy S

    2012-12-01

    Exercise training reduces adiposity and risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the combined effects of habitual free-living physical activity and aerobic training on waist circumference, weight, fitness, and blood pressure in postmenopausal women are unknown. To evaluate the effects of habitual physical activity levels during aerobic training on weight, waist circumference, fitness, and blood pressure. Secondary analysis of an RCT. Original data collected April 2001 to June 2005 and analyzed in 2012. Postmenopausal women in a supervised exercise trial. Women (n=325) were randomized to 4, 8, or 12 kcal/kg per week of aerobic training or a control group for 6 months. All outcome measures were collected at baseline and follow-up. Changes in dependent variables within each training group were evaluated across tertiles of pedometer-determined habitual physical activity outside exercise training sessions. Changes in waist circumference and weight. Reductions in waist circumference were significantly greater with higher steps/day accumulated outside exercise training compared to lower levels in the 4 (high: -4.8 cm vs low: -1.4 cm, p=0.03); 8 (high: -4.2 cm vs low: -0.4 cm, p=0.03), and 12 kcal/kg per week groups (high: -4.1 cm vs low: -0.7 cm, p=0.05). For all groups, p-trend≤0.03. A trend was observed for greater weight reduction with higher steps/day in the 4 kcal/kg per week group (p-trend=0.04) but not for the other exercise doses. No effects were observed for blood pressure or fitness measures (all p>0.05). In postmenopausal women, higher habitual physical activity while participating in aerobic training was associated with greater reductions in central adiposity, and was supportive of weight loss compared to lower levels. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adaptive Notch filter based active damping for power converters using LCL filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, M.; Rossé, A.; Bede, L.;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an active damping technique for grid-connected converters using inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) filters. The technique relies on a discrete-time adaptive notch filter (NF) which is able to adapt its resonance frequency and bandwidth in real-time. The tuning function of this ......This paper proposes an active damping technique for grid-connected converters using inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) filters. The technique relies on a discrete-time adaptive notch filter (NF) which is able to adapt its resonance frequency and bandwidth in real-time. The tuning function...

  12. An Intelligent Man-Machine Interface-Multi-Robot Control Adapted for Task Engagement Based on Single-Trial Detectability of P300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Elsa A; Kim, Su K; Tabie, Marc; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Maurus, Michael; Kirchner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Advanced man-machine interfaces (MMIs) are being developed for teleoperating robots at remote and hardly accessible places. Such MMIs make use of a virtual environment and can therefore make the operator immerse him-/herself into the environment of the robot. In this paper, we present our developed MMI for multi-robot control. Our MMI can adapt to changes in task load and task engagement online. Applying our approach of embedded Brain Reading we improve user support and efficiency of interaction. The level of task engagement was inferred from the single-trial detectability of P300-related brain activity that was naturally evoked during interaction. With our approach no secondary task is needed to measure task load. It is based on research results on the single-stimulus paradigm, distribution of brain resources and its effect on the P300 event-related component. It further considers effects of the modulation caused by a delayed reaction time on the P300 component evoked by complex responses to task-relevant messages. We prove our concept using single-trial based machine learning analysis, analysis of averaged event-related potentials and behavioral analysis. As main results we show (1) a significant improvement of runtime needed to perform the interaction tasks compared to a setting in which all subjects could easily perform the tasks. We show that (2) the single-trial detectability of the event-related potential P300 can be used to measure the changes in task load and task engagement during complex interaction while also being sensitive to the level of experience of the operator and (3) can be used to adapt the MMI individually to the different needs of users without increasing total workload. Our online adaptation of the proposed MMI is based on a continuous supervision of the operator's cognitive resources by means of embedded Brain Reading. Operators with different qualifications or capabilities receive only as many tasks as they can perform to avoid mental

  13. An Intelligent Man-Machine Interface—Multi-Robot Control Adapted for Task Engagement Based on Single-Trial Detectability of P300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Elsa A.; Kim, Su K.; Tabie, Marc; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Maurus, Michael; Kirchner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Advanced man-machine interfaces (MMIs) are being developed for teleoperating robots at remote and hardly accessible places. Such MMIs make use of a virtual environment and can therefore make the operator immerse him-/herself into the environment of the robot. In this paper, we present our developed MMI for multi-robot control. Our MMI can adapt to changes in task load and task engagement online. Applying our approach of embedded Brain Reading we improve user support and efficiency of interaction. The level of task engagement was inferred from the single-trial detectability of P300-related brain activity that was naturally evoked during interaction. With our approach no secondary task is needed to measure task load. It is based on research results on the single-stimulus paradigm, distribution of brain resources and its effect on the P300 event-related component. It further considers effects of the modulation caused by a delayed reaction time on the P300 component evoked by complex responses to task-relevant messages. We prove our concept using single-trial based machine learning analysis, analysis of averaged event-related potentials and behavioral analysis. As main results we show (1) a significant improvement of runtime needed to perform the interaction tasks compared to a setting in which all subjects could easily perform the tasks. We show that (2) the single-trial detectability of the event-related potential P300 can be used to measure the changes in task load and task engagement during complex interaction while also being sensitive to the level of experience of the operator and (3) can be used to adapt the MMI individually to the different needs of users without increasing total workload. Our online adaptation of the proposed MMI is based on a continuous supervision of the operator's cognitive resources by means of embedded Brain Reading. Operators with different qualifications or capabilities receive only as many tasks as they can perform to avoid mental

  14. Assessment of Active Video Gaming Using Adapted Controllers by Individuals With Physical Disabilities: A Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Laurie A; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; McCroskey, Justin; Thirumalai, Mohanraj

    2017-06-16

    Individuals with disabilities are typically more sedentary and less fit compared to their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, engaging in physical activity can be extremely challenging due to physical impairments associated with disability and fewer opportunities to participate. One option for increasing physical activity is playing active video games (AVG), a category of video games that requires much more body movement for successful play than conventional push-button or joystick actions. However, many current AVGs are inaccessible or offer limited play options for individuals who are unable to stand, have balance issues, poor motor control, or cannot use their lower body to perform game activities. Making AVGs accessible to people with disabilities offers an innovative approach to overcoming various barriers to participation in physical activity. Our aim was to compare the effect of off-the-shelf and adapted game controllers on quality of game play, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video gaming in persons with physical disabilities, specifically those with mobility impairments (ie, unable to stand, balance issues, poor motor control, unable to use lower extremity for gameplay). The gaming controllers to be evaluated include off-the-shelf and adapted versions of the Wii Fit balance board and gaming mat. Participants (10-60 years old) came to the laboratory a total of three times. During the first visit, participants completed a functional assessment and became familiar with the equipment and games to be played. For the functional assessment, participants performed 18 functional movement tasks from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. They also answered a series of questions from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System and Quality of Life in Neurological Conditions measurement tools, to provide a personal perspective regarding their own functional ability. For Visit 2, metabolic data were

  15. An adaptive model switching approach for phase I dose-finding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daimon, Takashi; Zohar, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Model-based phase I dose-finding designs rely on a single model throughout the study for estimating the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Thus, one major concern is about the choice of the most suitable model to be used. This is important because the dose allocation process and the MTD estimation depend on whether or not the model is reliable, or whether or not it gives a better fit to toxicity data. The aim of our work was to propose a method that would remove the need for a model choice prior to the trial onset and then allow it sequentially at each patient's inclusion. In this paper, we described model checking approach based on the posterior predictive check and model comparison approach based on the deviance information criterion, in order to identify a more reliable or better model during the course of a trial and to support clinical decision making. Further, we presented two model switching designs for a phase I cancer trial that were based on the aforementioned approaches, and performed a comparison between designs with or without model switching, through a simulation study. The results showed that the proposed designs had the advantage of decreasing certain risks, such as those of poor dose allocation and failure to find the MTD, which could occur if the model is misspecified. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Adapting social neuroscience measures for schizophrenia clinical trials, part 3: fathoming external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbert, Charles M; Penn, David L; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Ochsner, Kevin N; Marder, Stephen R; Green, Michael F

    2013-11-01

    It is unknown whether measures adapted from social neuroscience linked to specific neural systems will demonstrate relationships to external variables. Four paradigms adapted from social neuroscience were administered to 173 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia to determine their relationships to functionally meaningful variables and to investigate their incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition. The 4 paradigms included 2 that assess perception of nonverbal social and action cues (basic biological motion and emotion in biological motion) and 2 that involve higher level inferences about self and others' mental states (self-referential memory and empathic accuracy). Overall, social neuroscience paradigms showed significant relationships to functional capacity but weak relationships to community functioning; the paradigms also showed weak correlations to clinical symptoms. Evidence for incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition was mixed with additional predictive power shown for functional capacity but not community functioning. Of the newly adapted paradigms, the empathic accuracy task had the broadest external validity. These results underscore the difficulty of translating developments from neuroscience into clinically useful tasks with functional significance.

  17. Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Baruth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meghan Baruth1, Sara Wilcox1, James F Sallis3, Abby C King4,5, Bess H Marcus6, Steven N Blair1,21Department of Exercise Science, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Public Health Research Center, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Health Research and Policy, 5Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 6Behavioral and Social Sciences Section, Brown University Program in Public Health, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in

  18. The ACTIVE cognitive training trial and predicted medical expenditures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith David M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care expenditures for older adults are disproportionately high and increasing at both the individual and population levels. We evaluated the effects of the three cognitive training interventions (memory, reasoning, or speed of processing in the ACTIVE study on changes in predicted medical care expenditures. Methods ACTIVE was a multisite randomized controlled trial of older adults (≥ 65. Five-year follow-up data were available for 1,804 of the 2,802 participants. Propensity score weighting was used to adjust for potential attrition bias. Changes in predicted annualmedical expenditures were calculated at the first and fifth annual follow-up assessments using a new method for translating functional status scores. Multiple linear regression methods were used in this cost-offset analysis. Results At one and five years post-training, annual predicted expenditures declinedby $223 (p = .024 and $128 (p = .309, respectively, in the speed of processing treatment group, but there were no statistically significant changes in the memory or reasoning treatment groups compared to the no-contact control group at either period. Statistical adjustment for age, race, education, MMSE scores, ADL and IADL performance scores, EPT scores, chronic condition counts, and the SF-36 PCS and MCS scores at baseline did not alter the one-year ($244; p = .012 or five-year ($143; p = .250 expenditure declines in the speed of processing treatment group. Conclusion The speed of processing intervention significantly reduced subsequent annual predicted medical care expenditures at the one-year post-baseline comparison, but annual savings were no longer statistically significant at the five-year post-baseline comparison.

  19. Validation of self-reported weights and heights in the avoiding diabetes after pregnancy trial (ADAPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Kathryn A; Griffey, Susan J; Thompson, Jennifer; Gillman, Matthew W

    2014-05-13

    Randomized controlled trials that test the effectiveness of mobile health-based weight loss programs are attractive to participants, funders, and researchers because of the low implementation cost, minimal participant burden, and the ability to recruit participants from longer distances. Collecting weight data from geographically dispersed participants is a challenge. Relying on participant self-report is one approach to data collection, but epidemiologic studies indicate that self-reported anthropometric data may be inaccurate. We provided women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of postpartum weight loss after gestational diabetes with a digital scale and training to collect and report weight via a web-based survey. To validate self-reported weights and heights, we visited 30 randomly selected women in their homes, with a reference scale and stadiometer, a mean of 34 days after the self-report. We ran linear regression models to identify characteristics that were associated with underreporting or overreporting of anthropometric measures. Of the 30 women we visited, 11 women (37%) were assigned to the weight loss intervention group and 19 women (63%) were in the control group. Mean age was 38.5 years (SD 4.5). The overall mean difference between participants' self-reported weights and the weights obtained at their home visit was 0.70 kg (+1.92). Women assigned to the intervention group underreported their weight in comparison with the control group by 1.29 kg (95% CI -2.52, -0.06). The overall difference in collected to self-reported height was -0.56 cm (±1.91). No characteristics were associated with underreporting or overreporting of height. Our research suggests that by providing a digital scale and developing a weight collection protocol, researchers can train women to collect and record their own study weights with reasonable validity. To achieve the level of validity required for clinical trials, researchers should consider additional

  20. Evaluation of multicentre clinical trial data using adaptations of the Mosteller-Tukey procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciminera, J L; Heyse, J F; Nguyen, H H; Tukey, J W

    1993-06-15

    Two procedures, based on proposals discussed by Mosteller and Tukey, are described for obtaining a combined estimate of the difference between two treatment means and its confidence interval from multicentre clinical trial data. Both procedures provide estimates in the possible presence of heteroscedasticity. The first procedure is designated the primary analysis for efficacy assessment. It omits treatment-by-centre interaction from the error term for treatment, unless there is substantial evidence of qualitative interaction (Ciminera et al.) or other special circumstances. The second procedure is the primary analysis whenever there is substantial evidence of qualitative interaction, and can be used whenever there are other reasons to make an analysis allowing for interaction.

  1. A pilot randomized trial of technology-assisted goal setting to improve physical activity among primary care patients with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Devin M; Palmisano, Joseph; Lin, Jenny J

    2016-12-01

    Lifestyle behavior changes can prevent progression of prediabetes to diabetes but providers often are not able to effectively counsel about preventive lifestyle changes. We developed and pilot tested the Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting (ADAPT) program to enhance primary care providers' counseling about behavior change for patients with prediabetes. Primary care providers in two urban academic practices and their patients with prediabetes were recruited to participate in the ADAPT study, an unblinded randomized pragmatic trial to test the effectiveness of the ADAPT program, including a streamlined electronic medical record-based goal setting tool. Providers were randomized to intervention or control arms; eligible patients whose providers were in the intervention arm received the ADAPT program. Physical activity (the primary outcome) was measured using pedometers, and data were gathered about patients' diet, weight and glycemic control. A total of 54 patients were randomized and analyzed as part of the 6-month ADAPT study (2010-2012, New York, NY). Those in the intervention group showed an increase total daily steps compared to those in the control group (+ 1418 vs - 598, p = 0.007) at 6 months. There was also a trend towards weight loss in the intervention compared to the control group (- 1.0 lbs. vs. 3.0 lbs., p = 0.11), although no change in glycemic control. The ADAPT study is among the first to use standard electronic medical record tools to embed goal setting into realistic primary care workflows and to demonstrate a significant improvement in prediabetes patients' physical activity.

  2. Multiple-objective response-adaptive repeated measurement designs in clinical trials for binary responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yin; Wang, Jing; Carriere, Keumhee C

    2014-02-20

    A multiple-objective allocation strategy was recently proposed for constructing response-adaptive repeated measurement designs for continuous responses. We extend the allocation strategy to constructing response-adaptive repeated measurement designs for binary responses. The approach with binary responses is quite different from the continuous case, as the information matrix is a function of responses, and it involves nonlinear modeling. To deal with these problems, we first build the design on the basis of success probabilities. Then we illustrate how various models can accommodate carryover effects on the basis of logits of response profiles as well as any correlation structure. Through computer simulations, we find that the allocation strategy developed for continuous responses also works well for binary responses. As expected, design efficiency in terms of mean squared error drops sharply, as more emphasis is placed on increasing treatment benefit than estimation precision. However, we find that it can successfully allocate more patients to better treatment sequences without sacrificing much estimation precision.

  3. Length adaptation of smooth muscle contractile filaments in response to sustained activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhand, Jonas; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2016-05-21

    Airway and bladder smooth muscles are known to undergo length adaptation under sustained contraction. This adaptation process entails a remodelling of the intracellular actin and myosin filaments which shifts the peak of the active force-length curve towards the current length. Smooth muscles are therefore able to generate the maximum force over a wide range of lengths. In contrast, length adaptation of vascular smooth muscle has attracted very little attention and only a handful of studies have been reported. Although their results are conflicting on the existence of a length adaptation process in vascular smooth muscle, it seems that, at least, peripheral arteries and arterioles undergo such adaptation. This is of interest since peripheral vessels are responsible for pressure regulation, and a length adaptation will affect the function of the cardiovascular system. It has, e.g., been suggested that the inward remodelling of resistance vessels associated with hypertension disorders may be related to smooth muscle adaptation. In this study we develop a continuum mechanical model for vascular smooth muscle length adaptation by assuming that the muscle cells remodel the actomyosin network such that the peak of the active stress-stretch curve is shifted towards the operating point. The model is specialised to hamster cheek pouch arterioles and the simulated response to stepwise length changes under contraction. The results show that the model is able to recover the salient features of length adaptation reported in the literature.

  4. Substance Use Prevention for Urban American Indian Youth: A Efficacy Trial of the Culturally Adapted Living in 2 Worlds Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen S; Ayers, Stephanie L; Harthun, Mary L

    2017-04-01

    This article describes a small efficacy trial of the Living in 2 Worlds (L2W) substance use prevention curriculum, a culturally adapted version of keepin' it REAL (kiR) redesigned for urban American Indian (AI) middle school students. Focused on strengthening resiliency and AI cultural engagement, L2W teaches drug resistance skills, decision making, and culturally grounded prevention messages. Using cluster random assignment, the research team randomized three urban middle schools with enrichment classes for AI students. AI teachers of these classes delivered the L2W curriculum in two schools; the remaining school implemented kiR, unadapted, and became the comparison group. AI students (N = 107) completed a pretest questionnaire before they received the manualized curriculum lessons, and a posttest (85% completion) 1 month after the final lesson. We assessed the adapted L2W intervention, compared to kiR, with paired t tests, baseline adjusted general linear models, and effect size estimates (Cohen's d). Differences between the L2W and kiR groups reached statistically significant thresholds for four outcomes. Youth receiving L2W, compared to kiR, reported less growth in cigarette use from pretest to posttest, less frequent use of the Leave drug resistance strategy, and less loss of connections to AI spirituality and cultural traditions. For other substance use behaviors and antecedents, the direction of the non-significant effects in small sample tests was toward more positive outcomes in L2W and small to medium effect sizes. Results suggest that evidence-based substance use prevention programs that are culturally adapted for urban AI adolescents, like L2W, can be a foundation for prevention approaches to help delay initiation and slow increases in substance use. In addition to study limitations, we discuss implementation challenges in delivering school-based interventions for urban AI populations.

  5. Brief culturally adapted CBT for psychosis (CaCBTp): A randomized controlled trial from a low income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Farooq; Saeed, Sofiya; Irfan, Muhammad; Kiran, Tayyeba; Mehmood, Nasir; Gul, Mirrat; Munshi, Tariq; Ahmad, Sohail; Kazmi, Ajmal; Husain, Nusrat; Farooq, Saeed; Ayub, Muhammad; Kingdon, David

    2015-05-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of Culturally adapted CBT for psychosis in Low And Middle Income Countries (LAMIC) is limited. Therefore, brief Culturally adapted CBT for psychosis (CaCBTp) targeted at symptoms of schizophrenia for outpatients plus treatment as usual (TAU) is compared with TAU. A total of 116 participants with schizophrenia were recruited from 2 hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, and randomized into two groups with 1:1 allocation (CaCBTp plus TAU=59, TAU=57). A brief version of CaCBTp (6 individual sessions with the involvement of main carer, plus one session for the family) was provided over 4months. Psychopathology was measured using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale of Schizophrenia (PANSS), Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS), and the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI) at baseline and end of therapy. Participants in treatment group, showed statistically significant improvement in all measures of psychopathology at the end of the study compared with control group. Participants in treatment group showed statistically significant improvement in Positive Symptoms (PANSS, Positive Symptoms Subscale; p=0.000), Negative Symptoms (PANSS, Negative Symptoms subscales; p=0.000), Delusions (PSYRATS, Delusions Subscale; p=0.000), Hallucinations (PSYRATS, Hallucination Subscale; p=0.000) and Insight (SAI; p=0.007). The results suggest that brief, Culturally adapted CBT for psychosis can be an effective treatment when provided in combination with TAU, for patients with schizophrenia in a LAMIC setting. This is the first trial of CBT for psychosis from outside the western world. These findings need replicating in other low and middle income countries.

  6. Effects of culture-sensitive adaptation of patient information material on usefulness in migrants: a multicentre, blinded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Lars P; Ries, Zivile; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Zill, Jördis M; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Niebling, Wilhelm; Bermejo, Isaac; Härter, Martin

    2016-11-23

    To evaluate the usefulness of culture-sensitive patient information material compared with standard translated material. Multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial. 37 primary care practices. 435 adult primary care patients with a migration background with unipolar depressive disorder or non-specific chronic low back pain were randomised. Patients who were unable to read in the language of their respective migration background were excluded. Sufficient data were obtained from 203 women and 106 men. The largest group was of Russian origin (202 patients), followed by those of Turkish (52), Polish (30) and Italian (25) origin. Intervention group: provision of culture-sensitive adapted material. provision of standard translated material. Primary outcome: patient-rated usefulness (USE) assessed immediately after patients received the material. patient-rated usefulness after 8 weeks and 6 months, symptoms of depression (PHQ-9), back pain (Back Pain Core Set) and quality of life (WHO-5) assessed at all time points. Usefulness was found to be significantly higher (t=1.708, one-sided p=0.04) in the intervention group (USE-score=65.08, SE=1.43), compared with the control group (61.43, SE=1.63), immediately after patients received the material, in the intention-to-treat analysis, with a mean difference of 3.65 (one-sided 95% lower confidence limit=0.13). No significant differences were found for usefulness at follow-up (p=0.16, p=0.71). No significant effect was found for symptom severity in depression (p=0.95, p=0.66, p=0.58), back pain (p=0.40, p=0.45, p=0.32) or quality of life (p=0.76, p=0.86, p=0.21), either immediately after receiving the material, or at follow-up (8 weeks; 6 months). Patients with a lower level of dominant society immersion benefited substantially and significantly more from the intervention than patients with a high level of immersion (p=0.005). Cultural adaptation of patient information material provides benefits over high quality

  7. Cardiac rehabilitation adapted to transient ischaemic attack and stroke (CRAFTS: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Catherine

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary Heart Disease and Cerebrovascular Disease share many predisposing, modifiable risk factors (hypertension, abnormal blood lipids and lipoproteins, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy are recognised as the cornerstones of secondary prevention. Cochrane review has proven the benefits of programmes incorporating exercise and lifestyle counselling in the cardiac disease population. A Cochrane review highlighted as priority, the need to establish feasibility and efficacy of exercise based interventions for Cerebrovascular Disease. Methods A single blind randomised controlled trial is proposed to examine a primary care cardiac rehabilitation programme for adults post transient ischemic attack (TIA and stroke in effecting a positive change in the primary outcome measures of cardiac risk scores derived from Blood Pressure, lipid profile, smoking and diabetic status and lifestyle factors of habitual smoking, exercise and healthy eating participation. Secondary outcomes of interest include health related quality of life as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Stroke Specific Quality of Life scale and WONCA COOP Functional Health Status charts and cardiovascular fitness as measured by a sub-maximal fitness test. A total of 144 patients, over 18 years of age with confirmed diagnosis of ischaemic stroke or TIA, will be recruited from Dublin community stroke services and two tertiary T.I.A clinics. Exclusion criteria will include oxygen dependence, unstable cardiac conditions, uncontrolled diabetes, major medical conditions, claudication, febrile illness, pregnancy or cognitive impairment. Participants will be block-statified, randomly allocated to one of two groups using a pre-prepared computer generated randomisation schedule. Both groups will receive a two hour education class on risk reduction post stroke. The

  8. Adaptive Submodularity: A New Approach to Active Learning and Stochastic Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Golovin, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Solving stochastic optimization problems under partial observability, where we need to adaptively make decisions with uncertain outcomes, is a fundamental but notoriously difficult challenge. In this paper, we introduce the concept of adaptive submodularity, generalizing submodular set functions to adaptive policies. We prove that if a problem satisfies this property, a simple adaptive greedy algorithm is guaranteed to be competitive with the optimal policy. We illustrate the usefulness of the concept by giving several examples of adaptive submodular objectives arising in diverse applications including sensor placement, viral marketing and pool-based active learning. Proving adaptive submodularity for these problems allows us to recover existing results in these applications as special cases and leads to natural generalizations.

  9. Application of Adaptive Filters to Active Noise Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Bingnan; LI Chuanguang

    2001-01-01

    A modified LMS algorithm for noise-control is suggested after a mathematical model ofsound-cancellation is established, on the basis of thesound wave interference principle and the physicalmodel of progressive waves in a duct. Its applicationin controlling noise with the frequency range from 100to 800 Hz can be implemented by using the adaptivedigital signal processing technique. The experimentson a pink noise, a broadband noise and a noise takenfrom a tank were made, which show that there existsan attenuation of 11 dB at the frequency of 500 Hzor so, and that the proposed adaptive noise controltechnique is very effective and valid.

  10. Aero-Effected Distributed Adaptive Control of Flexible Aircraft Using Active Bleed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research focuses on the development of a new adaptive control methodology for active control of wing aerodynamic shape to effect distributed aerodynamic...

  11. Progressive adaptation in physical activity and neuromuscular performance during 520d confinement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belavý, Daniel L; Gast, Ulf; Daumer, Martin; Fomina, Elena; Rawer, Rainer; Schießl, Hans; Schneider, Stefan; Schubert, Harald; Soaz, Cristina; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    To understand whether prolonged confinement results in reductions in physical activity and adaptation in the musculoskeletal system, six subjects were measured during 520 d isolation in the Mars500 study...

  12. The Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program: Adapting Behavioral Activation as a Treatment for Depression in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.

  13. Adapted physical activity as an occupation, study program and academic discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Kudláček

    2011-01-01

    Adapted Physical Activity (APA) is the area focused on providing services to persons with special needs (e. g. disabilities) and the academic discipline, which supports acceptance of individual differences and promotes provision of services and integration of persons with disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity includes among others physical education, sport, recreation and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities. The aim of this presentation is to describe basic historical and conceptual...

  14. Exoskeleton control for lower-extremity assistance based on adaptive frequency oscillators: adaptation of muscle activation and movement frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Ollinger, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyze a novel strategy for assisting the lower extremities based on adaptive frequency oscillators. Our aim is to use the control algorithm presented here as a building block for the control of powered lower-limb exoskeletons. The algorithm assists cyclic movements of the human extremities by synchronizing actuator torques with the estimated net torque exerted by the muscles. Synchronization is produced by a nonlinear dynamical system combining an adaptive frequency oscillator with a form of adaptive Fourier analysis. The system extracts, in real time, the fundamental frequency component of the net muscle torque acting on a specific joint. Said component, nearly sinusoidal in shape, is the basis for the assistive torque waveform delivered by the exoskeleton. The action of the exoskeleton can be interpreted as a virtual reduction in the mechanical impedance of the leg. We studied the ability of human subjects to adapt their muscle activation to the assistive torque. Ten subjects swung their extended leg while coupled to a stationary hip joint exoskeleton. The experiment yielded a significant decrease, with respect to unassisted movement, of the activation levels of an agonist/antagonist pair of muscles controlling the hip joint's motion, which suggests the exoskeleton control has potential for assisting human gait. A moderate increase in swing frequency was observed as well. We theorize that the increase in frequency can be explained by the impedance model of the assisted leg. Per this model, subjects adjust their swing frequency in order to control the amount of reduction in net muscle torque.

  15. Educational Activities for Acquiring Skills in the EEES adapted Degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Tolosa

    2017-09-01

    The results of the experience is that students achieve most of the skills considered in the title. Likewise, the results from the activities considered show that not all skills are achieved and other activities should be considered to cover those deficiencies. The activity that most contributes to the acquisition of transversal competences are laboratory practices, while for specific skills, the activities developed with large group of students (T and P are the most significant. TFG is the activity that best covers most of competences, especially Basic and General.

  16. Fundamental Active Current Adaptive Linear Neural Networks for Photovoltaic Shunt Active Power Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ammirrul Atiqi Mohd Zainuri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents improvement of a harmonics extraction algorithm, known as the fundamental active current (FAC adaptive linear element (ADALINE neural network with the integration of photovoltaic (PV to shunt active power filters (SAPFs as active current source. Active PV injection in SAPFs should reduce dependency on grid supply current to supply the system. In addition, with a better and faster harmonics extraction algorithm, the SAPF should perform well, especially under dynamic PV and load conditions. The role of the actual injection current from SAPF after connecting PVs will be evaluated, and the better effect of using FAC ADALINE will be confirmed. The proposed SAPF was simulated and evaluated in MATLAB/Simulink first. Then, an experimental laboratory prototype was also developed to be tested with a PV simulator (CHROMA 62100H-600S, and the algorithm was implemented using a TMS320F28335 Digital Signal Processor (DSP. From simulation and experimental results, significant improvements in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD, time response and reduction of source power from grid have successfully been verified and achieved.

  17. Variations in reporting of outcomes in randomized trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogozińska, Ewelina; Marlin, Nadine; Yang, Fen

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy report on various outcomes. We aimed to assess the variations in outcomes reported and their quality in trials on lifestyle interventions in pregnancy. METHODS: We searched major databases without language restrictions for randomized controll...

  18. An adaptive, dose-finding, seamless phase 2/3 study of a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 analog (dulaglutide): trial design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Mary Jane; Skrivanek, Zachary; Gaydos, Brenda; Chien, Jenny; Berry, Scott; Berry, Donald

    2012-11-01

    Dulaglutide (dula, LY2189265) is a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 analog in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. An adaptive, dose-finding, inferentially seamless phase 2/3 study was designed to support the development of this novel diabetes therapeutic. The study is divided into two stages based on two randomization schemes: a Bayesian adaptive scheme (stage 1) and a fixed scheme (stage 2). Stage 1 of the trial employs an adaptive, dose-finding design to lead to a dula dose-selection decision or early study termination due to futility. If dose selection occurs, the study proceeds to stage 2 to allow continued evaluation of the selected dula doses. At completion, the entire study will serve as a confirmatory phase 3 trial. The final study design is discussed, along with specifics pertaining to the actual execution of this study and selected baseline characteristics of the participants.

  19. [Exercise-referral to a specialist in adapted physical activity (APA) : a pilot project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnerotto, Adeline; Cardinaux, Regula; Ueltschi, Yan; Bauwens, Marine; Nanchen, David; Cornuz, Jacques; Bize, Raphaël; Auer, Reto

    2016-11-02

    Family physicians have a key role in the promotion of physical activity, in particular in identifying and counseling persons who have a sedentary lifestyle. Some patients could benefit from intensive individual counseling. Physicians are often not aware of all physical activity promotion activities in the community that they could recommend their patients. In a pilot study, we have tested and adapted the referral of patients from family physicians to specialists in adapted physical activity (APAs). APAs are trained to assess and guide persons towards physical activities adapted to their needs and pathologies and thus towards an increase in physical activity. Pilot data suggest that, while few patients were oriented to the APAs in the pilot project, family physicians appreciate the possibility of collaborating with the APAs.

  20. Adaptation to New Microphones Using Artificial Neural Networks With Trainable Activation Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Sabato Marco; Salerno, Valerio Mario

    2016-04-14

    Model adaptation is a key technique that enables a modern automatic speech recognition (ASR) system to adjust its parameters, using a small amount of enrolment data, to the nuances in the speech spectrum due to microphone mismatch in the training and test data. In this brief, we investigate four different adaptation schemes for connectionist (also known as hybrid) ASR systems that learn microphone-specific hidden unit contributions, given some adaptation material. This solution is made possible adopting one of the following schemes: 1) the use of Hermite activation functions; 2) the introduction of bias and slope parameters in the sigmoid activation functions; 3) the injection of an amplitude parameter specific for each sigmoid unit; or 4) the combination of 2) and 3). Such a simple yet effective solution allows the adapted model to be stored in a small-sized storage space, a highly desirable property of adaptation algorithms for deep neural networks that are suitable for large-scale online deployment. Experimental results indicate that the investigated approaches reduce word error rates on the standard Spoke 6 task of the Wall Street Journal corpus compared with unadapted ASR systems. Moreover, the proposed adaptation schemes all perform better than simple multicondition training and comparable favorably against conventional linear regression-based approaches while using up to 15 orders of magnitude fewer parameters. The proposed adaptation strategies are also effective when a single adaptation sentence is available.

  1. [Adaptation of acrylic resin dentures polymerized using various activation modes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamata, T; Inoue, Y; Hashimoto, K; Sugitou, S; Arakawa, H; Kurasawa, I

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the dimensional accuracy of maxillary dentures made using a conventional heat-activated PMMA resin, a pour resin, a visible light-activated resin, and a microwave-activated acrylic resin. Two simple methods for measuring dimensional accuracy were used: (1) weight of impression material entrapped between the base and master die and (2) measurement of the posterior border gap at five locations. The volume of space between the denture base and the master die was determined by (1) computation and (2) estimation. Statistical analysis (Bartlett, ANOVA and Tukey's Tests) supported the following conclusions: (1) all groups showed a processing contraction, most apparent from buccal flange to buccal flange, (2) the poorest fitting group was processed in a brass flask and a water bath at a temperature which rose from 70 to 100 degrees C, using a heat activated resin (Acron), (3) the visible light activated resin (Triad) produced dentures of intermediate accuracy, as did Acupac 20 when either heat or microwave activated, (4) the two best fitting groups were prepared from a chemically activated resin system using pressure at low heat (PER form), and the resin developed for microwave activation (Acron MC).

  2. Two separate mechanisms of enforced viral replication balance innate and adaptive immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaabani, Namir; Khairnar, Vishal; Duhan, Vikas; Zhou, Fan; Tur, Rita Ferrer; Häussinger, Dieter; Recher, Mike; Tumanov, Alexei V; Hardt, Cornelia; Pinschewer, Daniel; Christen, Urs; Lang, Philipp A; Honke, Nadine; Lang, Karl S

    2016-02-01

    The induction of innate and adaptive immunity is essential for controlling viral infections. Limited or overwhelming innate immunity can negatively impair the adaptive immune response. Therefore, balancing innate immunity separately from activating the adaptive immune response would result in a better antiviral immune response. Recently, we demonstrated that Usp18-dependent replication of virus in secondary lymphatic organs contributes to activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Whether specific mechanisms can balance innate and adaptive immunity separately remains unknown. In this study, using lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and replication-deficient single-cycle LCMV vectors, we found that viral replication of the initial inoculum is essential for activating virus-specific CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, extracellular distribution of virus along the splenic conduits is necessary for inducing systemic levels of type I interferon (IFN-I). Although enforced virus replication is driven primarily by Usp18, B cell-derived lymphotoxin beta contributes to the extracellular distribution of virus along the splenic conduits. Therefore, lymphotoxin beta regulates IFN-I induction independently of CD8(+) T-cell activity. We found that two separate mechanisms act together in the spleen to guarantee amplification of virus during infection, thereby balancing the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system.

  3. Physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy (LEAP trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ussher Michael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women try to stop smoking in pregnancy but fail. One difficulty is that there is insufficient evidence that medications for smoking cessation are effective and safe in pregnancy and thus many women prefer to avoid these. Physical activity (PA interventions may assist cessation; however, trials examining these interventions have been too small to detect or exclude plausible beneficial effects. The London Exercise And Pregnant smokers (LEAP trial is investigating whether a PA intervention is effective and cost-effective when used for smoking cessation by pregnant women, and will be the largest study of its kind to date. Methods/design The LEAP study is a pragmatic, multi-center, two-arm, randomized, controlled trial that will target pregnant women who smoke at least one cigarette a day (and at least five cigarettes a day before pregnancy, and are between 10 and 24 weeks pregnant. Eligible patients are individually randomized to either usual care (that is, behavioral support for smoking cessation or usual care plus a intervention (entailing supervised exercise on a treadmill plus PA consultations. The primary outcome of the trial is self-reported and biochemically validated continuous abstinence from smoking between a specified quit date and the end of pregnancy. The secondary outcomes, measured at 1 and 4 weeks after the quit date, and at the end of pregnancy and 6 months after childbirth, are PA levels, depression, self-confidence, and cigarette withdrawal symptoms. Smoking status will also be self-reported at 6 months after childbirth. In addition, perinatal measures will be collected, including antenatal complications, duration of labor, mode of delivery, and birth and placental weight. Outcomes will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, and logistic regression models used to compare treatment effects on the primary outcome. Discussion This trial will assess whether a PA intervention is effective when used for

  4. Robot-mediated Active Rehabilitation (ACRE) : A user trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoone, M.; Os, P. van; Campagne, A.

    2007-01-01

    ACRE is a robotic training device for rehabilitation of the upper limbs. ACRE stimulates patients to train their affected arm more frequently and repetitively, via so called game based therapy. A prototype of ACRE (ACRE2) was tested in a user trial with patients who had recently suffered a stroke. T

  5. Detrended fluctuation analysis and adaptive fractal analysis of stride time data in Parkinson's disease: stitching together short gait trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Marietta; Schubert, Patric; Liebherr, Magnus; Haas, Christian T

    2014-01-01

    Variability indicates motor control disturbances and is suitable to identify gait pathologies. It can be quantified by linear parameters (amplitude estimators) and more sophisticated nonlinear methods (structural information). Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is one method to measure structural information, e.g., from stride time series. Recently, an improved method, Adaptive Fractal Analysis (AFA), has been proposed. This method has not been applied to gait data before. Fractal scaling methods (FS) require long stride-to-stride data to obtain valid results. However, in clinical studies, it is not usual to measure a large number of strides (e.g., [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] strides). Amongst others, clinical gait analysis is limited due to short walkways, thus, FS seem to be inapplicable. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate FS under clinical conditions. Stride time data of five self-paced walking trials ([Formula: see text] strides each) of subjects with PD and a healthy control group (CG) was measured. To generate longer time series, stride time sequences were stitched together. The coefficient of variation (CV), fractal scaling exponents [Formula: see text] (DFA) and [Formula: see text] (AFA) were calculated. Two surrogate tests were performed: A) the whole time series was randomly shuffled; B) the single trials were randomly shuffled separately and afterwards stitched together. CV did not discriminate between PD and CG. However, significant differences between PD and CG were found concerning [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Surrogate version B yielded a higher mean squared error and empirical quantiles than version A. Hence, we conclude that the stitching procedure creates an artificial structure resulting in an overestimation of true [Formula: see text]. The method of stitching together sections of gait seems to be appropriate in order to distinguish between PD and CG with FS. It provides an approach to integrate FS as

  6. Physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy (LEAP) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ussher, M; Aveyard, P; Manyonda, I; Lewis, S.; West, R.; Lewis, B.; Marcus, B.; Taylor, AH; Barton, P.; Coleman, T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many women try to stop smoking in pregnancy but fail. One difficulty is that there is insufficient evidence that medications for smoking cessation are effective and safe in pregnancy and thus many women prefer to avoid these. Physical activity (PA) interventions may assist cessation; however, trials examining these interventions have been too small to detect or exclude plausible beneficial effects. The London Exercise And ...

  7. Active adaptive management for reintroduction of an animal population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Captive animals are frequently reintroduced to the wild in the face of uncertainty, but that uncertainty can often be reduced over the course of the reintroduction effort, providing the opportunity for adaptive management. One common uncertainty in reintroductions is the short-term survival rate of released adults (a release cost), an important factor because it can affect whether releasing adults or juveniles is better. Information about this rate can improve the success of the reintroduction program, but does the expected gain offset the costs of obtaining the information? I explored this question for reintroduction of the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) by framing the management question as a belief Markov decision process, characterizing uncertainty about release cost with 2 information state variables, and finding the solution using stochastic dynamic programming. For a reintroduction program of fixed length (e.g., 5 years of releases), the optimal policy in the final release year resembles the deterministic solution: release either all adults or all juveniles depending on whether the point estimate for the survival rate in question is above or below a specific threshold. But the optimal policy in the earlier release years 1) includes release of a mixture of juveniles and adults under some circumstances, and 2) recommends release of adults even when the point estimate of survival is much less than the deterministic threshold. These results show that in an iterated decision setting, the optimal decision in early years can be quite different from that in later years because of the value of learning. 

  8. Promotion of physical activity and fitness in sedentary patients with Parkinson's disease : randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, Marlies; Speelman, Arlene D.; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van de Warrenburg, Bart P.; Smulders, Katrijn; Dontje, Manon L.; Borm, George F.; Backx, Frank J. G.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Munneke, Marten

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a multifaceted behavioural change programme increases physical activities in patients with Parkinson's disease. Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial. Setting 32 community hospitals in the Netherlands, collaborating in a nationwide network (ParkinsonNet). Parti

  9. Promotion of physical activity and fitness in sedentary patients with Parkinson's disease : randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, Marlies; Speelman, Arlene D.; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van de Warrenburg, Bart P.; Smulders, Katrijn; Dontje, Manon L.; Borm, George F.; Backx, Frank J. G.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Munneke, Marten

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a multifaceted behavioural change programme increases physical activities in patients with Parkinson's disease. Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial. Setting 32 community hospitals in the Netherlands, collaborating in a nationwide network (ParkinsonNet). Parti

  10. Plasticity-Based Adaptive Cognitive Remediation (PACR) for OIF/OEF Veterans: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    patient enrollment. As expected , this process has been time-consuming; however four out of five sites are now IRB approved, and the fifth (Tripler) is...cognitive symptoms following TBI for active military personnel, veterans, their families , and for American society as a whole is only now beginning to...with VA and military hospital sites funded through the CDMRP process, and launching patient enrollment. As expected , this process has been time

  11. [The physiological analysis of cross adaptation to regular cold exposure and physical activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son'kin, V D; Iakushkin, A V; Akimov, E B; Andreev, R S; Kalenov, Iu N; Kozlov, A V

    2014-01-01

    Research is devoted to the comparative analysis of results of cold adaptation and physical training. The adaptive shifts occurring in an organism under the influence of a hardening (douche by a cold shower 2 times a day 2 minutes long within 6 weeks) and running training on the treadmill (30 minutes at 70-80% of individual VO2max, 3 times a week, within 6 weeks) were compared at 6 the same subjects. The interval between the two cycles of training was no less than 3 months. The indicators registered during ramp test and standard cold exposure test before and after each cycle of trainings were compared. It is shown that patterns of adaptive shifts at adaptation to factors of various modality strongly differ. Shifts at adaptation to physical activities were as a whole more expressed, than at adaptation to regular cold exposition. An individual variety of adaptive reactions suggests the feasibility of developing new approaches to the theory of the adaptation, connected with studying of physiological individuality.

  12. A new approach to physical activity maintenance: Rationale, design, and baseline data from the Keep Active Minnesota trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crain A Lauren

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since many individuals who initiate physical activity programs are highly likely to return to a sedentary lifestyle, innovative strategies to efforts to increase the number of physically active older adults who successfully maintain beneficial levels of PA for a substantial length of time are needed. Methods/Design The Keep Active Minnesota Trial is a randomized controlled trial of an interactive phone- and mail-based intervention to help 50–70 year old adults who have recently increased their physical activity level, maintain that activity level over a 24-month period in comparison to usual care. Baseline, 6, 12, and 24 month measurement occurred via phone surveys with kilocalories expended per week in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (CHAMPS Questionnaire as the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcomes include hypothesized mediators of physical activity change (e.g., physical activity enjoyment, self-efficacy, physical activity self-concept, body mass index, and depression. Seven day accelerometry data were collected on a sub-sample of participants at baseline and 24-month follow-up. Discussion The Keep Active Minnesota study offers an innovative approach to the perennial problem of physical activity relapse; by focusing explicitly on physical activity maintenance, the intervention holds considerable promise for modifying the typical relapse curve. Moreover, if shown to be efficacious, the use of phone- and mail-based intervention delivery offers potential for widespread dissemination. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00283452.

  13. Changed activation, oxygenation, and pain response of chronically painful muscles to repetitive work after training interventions: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karen; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess changes in myalgic trapezius activation, muscle oxygenation, and pain intensity during repetitive and stressful work tasks in response to 10 weeks of training. In total, 39 women with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia were randomly...... assigned to: (1) general fitness training performed as leg-bicycling (GFT); (2) specific strength training of the neck/shoulder muscles (SST) or (3) reference intervention without physical exercise. Electromyographic activity (EMG), tissue oxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy), and pain intensity were...... to improved oxygenation of the painful muscles. SST lowered the overall level of pain both during rest and work, possibly due to a lowered relative exposure as evidenced by a lowered relative EMG. The results demonstrate differential adaptive mechanisms of contrasting physical exercise interventions...

  14. Adaptive/nonadaptive proton radiation planning and outcomes in a phase II trial for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, Eugene J; Lege, David; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D; Chang, Joe Y

    2012-12-01

    To analyze dosimetric variables and outcomes after adaptive replanning of radiation therapy during concurrent high-dose protons and chemotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nine of 44 patients with stage III NSCLC in a prospective phase II trial of concurrent paclitaxel/carboplatin with proton radiation [74 Gy(RBE) in 37 fractions] had modifications to their original treatment plans after re-evaluation revealed changes that would compromise coverage of the target volume or violate dose constraints; plans for the other 35 patients were not changed. We compared patients with adaptive plans with those with nonadaptive plans in terms of dosimetry and outcomes. At a median follow-up of 21.2 months (median overall survival, 29.6 months), no differences were found in local, regional, or distant failure or overall survival between groups. Adaptive planning was used more often for large tumors that shrank to a greater extent (median, 107.1 cm(3) adaptive and 86.4 cm(3) nonadaptive; median changes in volume, 25.3% adaptive and 1.2% nonadaptive; Padaptive planning was 13 (range, 4-22). Adaptive planning generally improved sparing of the esophagus (median absolute decrease in V(70), 1.8%; range, 0%-22.9%) and spinal cord (median absolute change in maximum dose, 3.7 Gy; range, 0-13.8 Gy). Without adaptive replanning, target coverage would have been compromised in 2 cases (57% and 82% coverage without adaptation vs 100% for both with adaptation); neither patient experienced local failure. Radiation-related grade 3 toxicity rates were similar between groups. Adaptive planning can reduce normal tissue doses and prevent target misses, particularly for patients with large tumors that shrink substantially during therapy. Adaptive plans seem to have acceptable toxicity and achieve similar local, regional, and distant control and overall survival, even in patients with larger tumors, vs nonadaptive plans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of Hypertension: Adapting New Guidelines for Active Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Jeffrey L.; Batt, Mark E.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses recent guidelines on hypertension from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and details the latest management protocols for patients with high blood pressure. The article helps physicians interpret the guidelines for treating active patients, highlighting diagnosis, step care revision, pharmacology, and sports participation…

  16. Experiments on active precision isolation with a smart conical adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Li, H. Y.; Chen, Z. B.; Tzou, H. S.

    2016-07-01

    Based on a conical shell adaptor, an active vibration isolator for vibration control of precision payload is designed and tested in this study. Flexible piezoelectric sensors and actuators are bonded on the adaptor surface for active vibration monitoring and control. The mathematical model of a piezoelectric laminated conical shell is derived and then optimal design of the actuators is performed for the first axial vibration mode of the isolation system. A scaled conical adaptor is manufactured with four MFC actuators laminating on its outer surface. Active vibration isolation efficiency is then evaluated on a vibration shaker. The control model is built in Matlab/Simulink and programmed into the dSPACE control board. Experimental results show that, the proposed active isolator is effective in vibration suppression of payloads with the negative velocity feedback control. In contrast, the amplitude responses increase with positive feedback control. Furthermore, the amplitude responses increases when time delay is added into the control signals, and gets the maximum when the delay is close to one quarter of one cycle time.

  17. Physical activity and pregnancy: cardiovascular adaptations, recommendations and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Katarina; Schutz, Yves; Boulvain, Michel; Kayser, Bengt

    2010-06-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with improved physiological, metabolic and psychological parameters, and with reduced risk of morbidity and mortality. Current recommendations aimed at improving the health and well-being of nonpregnant subjects advise that an accumulation of > or =30 minutes of moderate physical activity should occur on most, if not all, days of the week. Regardless of the specific physiological changes induced by pregnancy, which are primarily developed to meet the increased metabolic demands of mother and fetus, pregnant women benefit from regular physical activity the same way as nonpregnant subjects. Changes in submaximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)) during pregnancy depend on the type of exercise performed. During maternal rest or submaximal weight-bearing exercise (e.g. walking, stepping, treadmill exercise), absolute maternal VO(2) is significantly increased compared with the nonpregnant state. The magnitude of change is approximately proportional to maternal weight gain. When pregnant women perform submaximal weight-supported exercise on land (e.g. level cycling), the findings are contradictory. Some studies reported significantly increased absolute VO(2), while many others reported unchanged or only slightly increased absolute VO(2) compared with the nonpregnant state. The latter findings may be explained by the fact that the metabolic demand of cycle exercise is largely independent of the maternal body mass, resulting in no absolute VO(2) alteration. Few studies that directly measured changes in maternal maximal VO(2) (VO(2max)) showed no difference in the absolute VO(2max) between pregnant and nonpregnant subjects in cycling, swimming or weight-bearing exercise. Efficiency of work during exercise appears to be unchanged during pregnancy in non-weight-bearing exercise. During weight-bearing exercise, the work efficiency was shown to be improved in athletic women who continue exercising and those who stop exercising during pregnancy. When

  18. Extraction of single-trial cortical beta oscillatory activities in EEG signals using empirical mode decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chi-Hsun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain oscillatory activities are stochastic and non-linearly dynamic, due to their non-phase-locked nature and inter-trial variability. Non-phase-locked rhythmic signals can vary from trial-to-trial dependent upon variations in a subject's performance and state, which may be linked to fluctuations in expectation, attention, arousal, and task strategy. Therefore, a method that permits the extraction of the oscillatory signal on a single-trial basis is important for the study of subtle brain dynamics, which can be used as probes to study neurophysiology in normal brain and pathophysiology in the diseased. Methods This paper presents an empirical mode decomposition (EMD-based spatiotemporal approach to extract neural oscillatory activities from multi-channel electroencephalograph (EEG data. The efficacy of this approach manifests in extracting single-trial post-movement beta activities when performing a right index-finger lifting task. In each single trial, an EEG epoch recorded at the channel of interest (CI was first separated into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs. Sensorimotor-related oscillatory activities were reconstructed from sensorimotor-related IMFs chosen by a spatial map matching process. Post-movement beta activities were acquired by band-pass filtering the sensorimotor-related oscillatory activities within a trial-specific beta band. Signal envelopes of post-movement beta activities were detected using amplitude modulation (AM method to obtain post-movement beta event-related synchronization (PM-bERS. The maximum amplitude in the PM-bERS within the post-movement period was subtracted by the mean amplitude of the reference period to find the single-trial beta rebound (BR. Results The results showed single-trial BRs computed by the current method were significantly higher than those obtained from conventional average method (P Conclusions The EMD-based method is effective for artefact removal and extracting

  19. Evaluation of a culturally-adapted lifestyle intervention to treat elevated cardiometabolic risk of Latino adults in primary care (Vida Sana): A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G; Lv, Nan; Xiao, Lan; Lewis, Megan A; Zavella, Patricia; Kramer, M Kaye; Luna, Veronica; Ma, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Latinos bear a disproportionate burden of the dual pandemic of obesity and diabetes. However, successful interventions addressing this disparity through primary care are lacking. To address this gap, the 5-year Vida Sana (Healthy Life) study tests a culturally adapted and technology-enhanced group-based Diabetes Prevention Program intervention in a randomized controlled trial with overweight/obese Latino adults who have metabolic syndrome and/or pre-diabetes. Eligible, consenting patients (n=186) from a large community-based multispecialty group practice in Northern California will be randomly assigned to receive the culturally-adapted intervention or usual care. The RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework guided the planned evaluations. The primary aim is to determine the effectiveness of the intervention (the "E" in RE-AIM). We hypothesize that the intervention will lead to a greater mean reduction in weight at 24months (primary endpoint) vs. usual care. Secondary outcomes will include measures of cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g., blood pressure), psychosocial well-being (e.g., health-related quality of life), and behavior change (e.g., physical activity). The secondary aim is to evaluate the other RE-AIM dimensions using mixed methods: reach (e.g., participation rate of the target population), adoption (e.g., participating clinic and provider characteristics), implementation (e.g., intervention fidelity), and maintenance (e.g., sustainability in the practice setting). These findings have real word applicability with value to clinicians, patients, and other decision makers considering effective diabetes prevention programs for primary care that would support the millions of Latino adults who experience a disproportionate burden of diabetes. NCT02459691. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Activity monitor intervention to promote physical activity of physicians-in-training: randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne N Thorndike

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physicians are expected to serve as role models for healthy lifestyles, but long work hours reduce time for healthy behaviors. A hospital-based physical activity intervention could improve physician health and increase counseling about exercise. METHODS: We conducted a two-phase intervention among 104 medical residents at a large hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. Phase 1 was a 6-week randomized controlled trial comparing daily steps of residents assigned to an activity monitor displaying feedback about steps and energy consumed (intervention or to a blinded monitor (control. Phase 2 immediately followed and was a 6-week non-randomized team steps competition in which all participants wore monitors with feedback. Phase 1 outcomes were: 1 median steps/day and 2 proportion of days activity monitor worn. The Phase 2 outcome was mean steps/day on days monitor worn (≥500 steps/day. Physiologic measurements were collected at baseline and study end. Median steps/day were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Mean steps were compared using repeated measures regression analyses. RESULTS: In Phase 1, intervention and control groups had similar activity (6369 vs. 6063 steps/day, p = 0.16 and compliance with wearing the monitor (77% vs. 77% of days, p = 0.73. In Phase 2 (team competition, residents recorded more steps/day than during Phase 1 (CONTROL: 7,971 vs. 7,567, p = 0.002; INTERVENTION: 7,832 vs. 7,739, p = 0.13. Mean compliance with wearing the activity monitor decreased for both groups during Phase 2 compared to Phase 1 (60% vs. 77%, p<0.001. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased (p = 0.004 and HDL cholesterol increased (p<0.001 among all participants at end of study compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Although the activity monitor intervention did not have a major impact on activity or health, the high participation rates of busy residents and modest changes in steps, blood pressure, and HDL suggest that more

  1. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates during novel…

  2. Adaptive and robust active vibration control methodology and tests

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, Ioan Doré; Castellanos-Silva, Abraham; Constantinescu, Aurelian

    2017-01-01

    This book approaches the design of active vibration control systems from the perspective of today’s ideas of computer control. It formulates the various design problems encountered in the active management of vibration as control problems and searches for the most appropriate tools to solve them. The experimental validation of the solutions proposed on relevant tests benches is also addressed. To promote the widespread acceptance of these techniques, the presentation eliminates unnecessary theoretical developments (which can be found elsewhere) and focuses on algorithms and their use. The solutions proposed cannot be fully understood and creatively exploited without a clear understanding of the basic concepts and methods, so these are considered in depth. The focus is on enhancing motivations, algorithm presentation and experimental evaluation. MATLAB®routines, Simulink® diagrams and bench-test data are available for download and encourage easy assimilation of the experimental and exemplary material. Thre...

  3. Adaptation of muscle gene expression to changes in contractile activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.; Babij, P.; Thomason, D. B.; Wong, T. S.; Morrison, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the existing literature regarding the effects of different types of physical activities on the gene expression of adult skeletal muscles leads us to conclude that each type of exercise training program has, as a result, a different phenotype, which means that there are multiple mechanisms, each producing a unique phenotype. A portion of the facts which support this position is presented and interpreted here. [Abstract translated from the original French by NASA].

  4. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: Cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Karen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT aims to determine the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents. The intervention, conducted with parents over the infant's first 18 months of life, will use existing social networks (first-time parent's groups and an anticipatory guidance framework focusing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behaviours, and reduced sedentary behaviours in infancy. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised controlled trial, with first-time parent groups as the unit of randomisation, will be conducted with a sample of 600 first-time parents and their newborn children who attend the first-time parents' group at Maternal and Child Health Centres. Using a two-stage sampling process, local government areas in Victoria, Australia will be randomly selected at the first stage. At the second stage, a proportional sample of first-time parent groups within selected local government areas will be randomly selected and invited to participate. Informed consent will be obtained and groups will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Discussion The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge this will be the first randomised trial internationally to demonstrate whether an early health promotion program delivered to first-time parents in their existing social groups

  5. Is adaptation or transformation needed? Active nanomaterials and risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Roberts, John Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology has been a key area of funding and policy for the United States and globally for the past two decades. Since nanotechnology research and development became a focus and nanoproducts began to permeate the market, scholars and scientists have been concerned about how to assess the risks that they may pose to human health and the environment. The newest generation of nanomaterials includes biomolecules that can respond to and influence their environments, and there is a need to explore whether and how existing risk-analysis frameworks are challenged by such novelty. To fill this niche, we used a modified approach of upstream oversight assessment (UOA), a subset of anticipatory governance. We first selected case studies of "active nanomaterials," that are early in research and development and designed for use in multiple sectors, and then considered them under several, key risk-analysis frameworks. We found two ways in which the cases challenge the frameworks. The first category relates to how to assess risk under a narrow framing of the term (direct health and environmental harm), and the second involves the definition of what constitutes a "risk" worthy of assessment and consideration in decision making. In light of these challenges, we propose some changes for risk analysis in the face of active nanostructures in order to improve risk governance.

  6. Active listening room compensation for massive multichannel sound reproduction systems using wave-domain adaptive filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spors, Sascha; Buchner, Herbert; Rabenstein, Rudolf; Herbordt, Wolfgang

    2007-07-01

    The acoustic theory for multichannel sound reproduction systems usually assumes free-field conditions for the listening environment. However, their performance in real-world listening environments may be impaired by reflections at the walls. This impairment can be reduced by suitable compensation measures. For systems with many channels, active compensation is an option, since the compensating waves can be created by the reproduction loudspeakers. Due to the time-varying nature of room acoustics, the compensation signals have to be determined by an adaptive system. The problems associated with the successful operation of multichannel adaptive systems are addressed in this contribution. First, a method for decoupling the adaptation problem is introduced. It is based on a generalized singular value decomposition and is called eigenspace adaptive filtering. Unfortunately, it cannot be implemented in its pure form, since the continuous adaptation of the generalized singular value decomposition matrices to the variable room acoustics is numerically very demanding. However, a combination of this mathematical technique with the physical description of wave propagation yields a realizable multichannel adaptation method with good decoupling properties. It is called wave domain adaptive filtering and is discussed here in the context of wave field synthesis.

  7. Adapted physical activity as an occupation, study program and academic discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kudláček

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Adapted Physical Activity (APA is the area focused on providing services to persons with special needs (e. g. disabilities and the academic discipline, which supports acceptance of individual differences and promotes provision of services and integration of persons with disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity includes among others physical education, sport, recreation and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities. The aim of this presentation is to describe basic historical and conceptual position of APA in kinanthropology in Europe, world and the Czech Republic. The article serves as an introduction to the special issue of this journal about APA and outcomes of project projektu EUSAPA (European Standards in Physical Activities. The project EUSAPA aimed to define professional standards in three areas of APA: (a Adapted physical education; (b APA in rehabilitation and (c APA in sports.

  8. ADAPTIVE AND ACTIVE COMPUTING PARADIGM FOR PERSONALIZED INFORMATION SERVICE IN DISTRIBUTED HETERONGEOUS ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兆丰; 冯博琴

    2003-01-01

    To solve the problem that traditional pull-based information service can't meet the demand of long-term users getting domain information timely and properly, an adaptive and active computing paradigm (AACP) for personalized information service in heterogeneous environment is proposed to provide user-centered, push-based higsh quality information service timely in a proper way, the motivation of which is generalized as R4 Service: the right information at the right time in the right way to the right person, upon which formalized algorithms framework of adaptive user profile management, incremental information retrieval, information filtering, and active delivery mechanism are discussed in details. The AACP paradigm serves users in a push-based, event-driven, interest-related, adaptive and active information service mode, which is useful and promising for long-term user to gain fresh information instead of polling from kinds of information sources.

  9. Online Event Segmentation in Active Perception using Adaptive Strong Anticipation

    CERN Document Server

    Nery, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Most cognitive architectures rely on discrete representation, both in space (e.g., objects) and in time (e.g., events). However, a robot interaction with the world is inherently continuous, both in space and in time. The segmentation of the stream of perceptual inputs a robot receives into discrete and meaningful events poses as a challenge in bridging the gap between internal cognitive representations, and the external world. Event Segmentation Theory, recently proposed in the context of cognitive systems research, sustains that humans segment time into events based on matching perceptual input with predictions. In this work we propose a framework for online event segmentation, targeting robots endowed with active perception. Moreover, sensory processing systems have an intrinsic latency, resulting from many factors such as sampling rate, and computational processing, and which is seldom accounted for. This framework is founded on the theory of dynamical systems synchronization, where the system considered i...

  10. Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART in at risk individuals: A randomised double blind, sham controlled, longitudinal trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which mental and physical exercise may slow cognitive decline in adults with early signs of cognitive impairment is unknown. This article provides the rationale and methodology of the first trial to investigate the isolated and combined effects of cognitive training (CT and progressive resistance training (PRT on general cognitive function and functional independence in older adults with early cognitive impairment: Study of Mental and Regular Training (SMART. Our secondary aim is to quantify the differential adaptations to these interventions in terms of brain morphology and function, cardiovascular and metabolic function, exercise capacity, psychological state and body composition, to identify the potential mechanisms of benefit and broader health status effects. Methods SMART is a double-blind randomized, double sham-controlled trial. One hundred and thirty-two community-dwelling volunteers will be recruited. Primary inclusion criteria are: at risk for cognitive decline as defined by neuropsychology assessment, low physical activity levels, stable disease, and age over 55 years. The two active interventions are computerized CT and whole body, high intensity PRT. The two sham interventions are educational videos and seated calisthenics. Participants are randomized into 1 of 4 supervised training groups (2 d/wk × 6 mo in a fully factorial design. Primary outcomes measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months are the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog, neuropsychological test scores, and Bayer Informant Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (B-IADLs. Secondary outcomes are psychological well-being, quality of life, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function, body composition, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and anabolic/neurotrophic hormones, and brain morphology and function via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (fMRS. Discussion SMART will provide a novel evaluation of the

  11. Adaptive RBF Neural Network Control for Three-Phase Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Fei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An adaptive radial basis function (RBF neural network control system for three-phase active power filter (APF is proposed to eliminate harmonics. Compensation current is generated to track command current so as to eliminate the harmonic current of non-linear load and improve the quality of the power system. The asymptotical stability of the APF system can be guaranteed with the proposed adaptive neural network strategy. The parameters of the neural network can be adaptively updated to achieve the desired tracking task. The simulation results demonstrate good performance, for example showing small current tracking error, reduced total harmonic distortion (THD, improved accuracy and strong robustness in the presence of parameters variation and nonlinear load. It is shown that the adaptive RBF neural network control system for three-phase APF gives better control than hysteresis control.

  12. Research on adaptive segmentation and activity classification method of filamentous fungi image in microbe fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaochun; Hu, Yihua; Wang, Peng; Sun, Dujuan; Hu, Guilan

    2009-10-01

    The paper presents an adaptive segmentation and activity classification method for filamentous fungi image. Firstly, an adaptive structuring element (SE) construction algorithm is proposed for image background suppression. Based on watershed transform method, the color labeled segmentation of fungi image is taken. Secondly, the fungi elements feature space is described and the feature set for fungi hyphae activity classification is extracted. The growth rate evaluation of fungi hyphae is achieved by using SVM classifier. Some experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective for filamentous fungi image processing.

  13. Child Centred Approach to Climate Change and Health Adaptation through Schools in Bangladesh: A Cluster Randomised Intervention Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Iqbal Kabir

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. People are getting educated at different levels on how to deal with potential impacts. One such educational mode was the preparation of a school manual, for high school students on climate change and health protection endorsed by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board, which is based on a 2008 World Health Organization manual. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the manual in increasing the knowledge level of the school children about climate change and health adaptation.This cluster randomized intervention trial involved 60 schools throughout Bangladesh, with 3293 secondary school students participating. School upazilas (sub-districts were randomised into intervention and control groups, and two schools from each upazila were randomly selected. All year seven students from both groups of schools sat for a pre-test of 30 short questions of binary response. A total of 1515 students from 30 intervention schools received the intervention through classroom training based on the school manual and 1778 students of the 30 control schools did not get the manual but a leaflet on climate change and health issues. Six months later, a post-intervention test of the same questionnaire used in the pre-test was performed at both intervention and control schools. The pre and post test scores were analysed along with the demographic data by using random effects model.None of the various school level and student level variables were significantly different between the control and intervention group. However, the intervention group had a 17.42% (95% CI: 14.45 to 20.38, P = <0.001 higher score in the post-test after adjusting for pre-test score and other covariates in a multi-level linear regression model.These results suggest that school-based intervention for climate change and health adaptation is effective for increasing the knowledge level of school children on

  14. Adherence to AHA Guidelines When Adapted for Augmented Reality Glasses for Assisted Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Johan N; Ehrler, Frederic; Gervaix, Alain; Haddad, Kevin; Lacroix, Laurence; Schrurs, Philippe; Sahin, Ayhan; Lovis, Christian; Manzano, Sergio

    2017-05-29

    The American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are nowadays recognized as the world's most authoritative resuscitation guidelines. Adherence to these guidelines optimizes the management of critically ill patients and increases their chances of survival after cardiac arrest. Despite their availability, suboptimal quality of CPR is still common. Currently, the median hospital survival rate after pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest is 36%, whereas it falls below 10% for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Among emerging information technologies and devices able to support caregivers during resuscitation and increase adherence to AHA guidelines, augmented reality (AR) glasses have not yet been assessed. In order to assess their potential, we adapted AHA Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) guidelines for AR glasses. The study aimed to determine whether adapting AHA guidelines for AR glasses increased adherence by reducing deviation and time to initiation of critical life-saving maneuvers during pediatric CPR when compared with the use of PALS pocket reference cards. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups of voluntary pediatric residents, comparing AR glasses to PALS pocket reference cards during a simulation-based pediatric cardiac arrest scenario-pulseless ventricular tachycardia (pVT). The primary outcome was the elapsed time in seconds in each allocation group, from onset of pVT to the first defibrillation attempt. Secondary outcomes were time elapsed to (1) initiation of chest compression, (2) subsequent defibrillation attempts, and (3) administration of drugs, as well as the time intervals between defibrillation attempts and drug doses, shock doses, and number of shocks. All these outcomes were assessed for deviation from AHA guidelines. Twenty residents were randomized into 2 groups. Time to first defibrillation attempt (mean: 146 s) and adherence to AHA guidelines in terms of time to other

  15. The Brave New World of clinical cancer research: Adaptive biomarker-driven trials integrating clinical practice with clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Donald A

    2015-05-01

    Clinical trials are the final links in the chains of knowledge and for determining the roles of therapeutic advances. Unfortunately, in an important sense they are the weakest links. This article describes two designs that are being explored today: platform trials and basket trials. Both are attempting to merge clinical research and clinical practice.

  16. Activities of Tannins--From In Vitro Studies to Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieniawska, Elwira

    2015-11-01

    Tannins are considered as valuable plant secondary metabolites providing many benefits for human health. In this review information was gathered about bioactivity in vitro and in vivo, as well as about conducted clinical trials. The literature research was based on ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Cochrane databases and presents a wide range of tested activities of tannins. The described clinical trials verify laboratory tests and show the effective health benefits taken from supplementation with tannins.

  17. The Devon Active Villages Evaluation (DAVE trial: Study protocol of a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a community-level physical activity intervention in rural southwest England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Emma

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical inactivity has been linked with numerous chronic health conditions and overall mortality, the majority of English adults report doing insufficient physical activity. To increase population physical activity levels, researchers have called for more community-level interventions. To evaluate these complex public health interventions, innovative study designs are required. This study protocol describes Devon Active Villages, a community-level intervention providing physical activity opportunities to 128 rural villages in southwest England, and the methods used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing physical activity levels. Methods/Design A stepped wedge cluster randomised trial will be used to evaluate whether Devon Active Villages leads to increased physical activity levels in rural communities. Community engagement will help tailor activity programmes for each village; communities will then be supported for a further twelve months. The intervention will be delivered over four periods, each lasting twelve weeks. Data collection consists of a postal survey of a random sample of adults aged 18 years and over, at baseline and after each of the four intervention periods. The questionnaire includes questions on participant demographics, physical activity behaviour, local environment characteristics, awareness of local activity programmes, and psychosocial factors. Based on detecting an increase in the proportion of people who meet physical activity guidelines (from 25% to 30%, at least ten respondents are needed from each of the 128 villages at each stage (80% power at the 5% level of significance. Anticipating a 20% response rate, 6,400 questionnaires will be sent out at each stage (i.e., 50 surveys to each village. Using data from all five periods, a comparison of study outcomes between intervention and control arms will be performed, allowing for time period (as a fixed effect and the random effect

  18. Analysis and Anti-Synchronization of a Novel Chaotic System via Active and Adaptive Controllers

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    V. Sundarapandian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anti-synchronization of chaotic systems deals with the problem of asymptotically synchronizing the sum of states of a pair of chaotic systems called master and slave systems with the help of controllers attached to the slave system. When two chaotic systems are anti-synchronized, then their states are asymptotically equal in magnitude, but opposite in phase. Anti-synchronization of chaotic systems has applications in many engineering areas such as secure communications, secure data encryption, cryptosystems, etc. This paper announces a novel 3-D chaotic system and describes its qualitative properties. Next, this paper deals with the design of active and adaptive controllers for synchronizing the states of identical novel chaotic systems. Active controllers are used when the system parameters are available for measurement and the synchronization result is established using Lyapunov stability theory. Adaptive controllers are used when the system parameters are unknown. In this case, estimates are used in lieu of the unknown system parameters and adaptive controllers are designed using adaptive control theory and Lyapunov stability theory. Numerical simulations using MATLAB have been shown to demonstrate the proposed active and adaptive synchronization results for novel chaotic systems.

  19. Adaptive Controller for Vehicle Active Suspension Generated Through LMS Filter Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jianmin; SHU Gequn

    2006-01-01

    The least means squares (LMS) adaptive filter algorithm was used in active suspension system.By adjusting the weight of adaptive filter, the minimum quadratic performance index was obtained.For two-degree-of-freedom vehicle suspension model, LMS adaptive controller was designed.The acceleration of the sprung mass,the dynamic tyre load between wheels and road,and the dynamic deflection between sprung mass and unsprung mass were determined as the evaluation targets of suspension performance.For LMS adaptive control suspension, compared with passive suspension, acceleration power spectral density of sprung mass acceleration under the road input model decreased 8-10 times in high frequency resonance band or low frequency resonance band.The simulation results show that LMS adaptive control is simple and remarkably effective.It further proves that the active control suspension system can improve both the riding comfort and handling safety in various operation conditions, and the method is fit for the active control of the suspension system.

  20. Consumption of Sutherlandia frutescens by HIV-Seropositive South African Adults: An Adaptive Double-Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Wilson

    Full Text Available Sutherlandia frutescens (L. R. Br. is widely used as an over the counter complementary medicine and in traditional medications by HIV seropositive adults living in South Africa; however the plant's safety has not been objectively studied. An adaptive two-stage randomized double-blind placebo controlled study was used to evaluate the safety of consuming dried S. frutescens by HIV seropositive adults with CD4 T-lymphocyte count of >350 cells/μL.In Stage 1 56 participants were randomized to S. frutescens 400, 800 or 1,200 mg twice daily or matching placebo for 24 weeks. In Stage 2 77 additional participants were randomized to either 1,200 mg S. frutescens or placebo. In the final analysis data from Stage 1 and Stage 2 were combined such that 107 participants were analysed (54 in the S. frutescens 1,200 mg arm and 53 in the placebo arm.S. frutescens did not change HIV viral load, and CD4 T-lymphocyte count was similar in the two arms at 24 weeks; however, mean and total burden of infection (BOI; defined as days of infection-related events in each participant was greater in the S. frutescens arm: mean (SD 5.0 (5.5 vs. 9.0 (12.7 days (p = 0.045, attributed to two tuberculosis cases in subjects taking isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT.A possible interaction between S. frutescens and IPT needs further evaluation, and may presage antagonistic interactions with other herbs having similar biochemical (antioxidant properties. No other safety issues relating to consumption of S. frutescens in this cohort were identified.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00549523.

  1. Alcohol-Adapted Anger Management Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Therapy for Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walitzer, Kimberly S; Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Shyhalla, Kathleen

    2015-12-01

    A randomized controlled trial for an innovative alcohol-adapted anger management treatment (AM) for outpatient alcohol dependent individuals scoring moderate or above on anger is described. AM treatment outcomes were compared to those of an empirically-supported intervention, Alcoholics Anonymous Facilitation treatment (AAF). Clients in AM, relative to clients in AAF, were hypothesized to have greater improvement in anger and anger-related cognitions and lesser AA involvement during the 6-month follow-up. Anger-related variables were hypothesized to be stronger predictors of improved alcohol outcomes in the AM treatment condition and AA involvement was hypothesized to be a stronger predictor of alcohol outcomes in the AAF treatment group. Seventy-six alcohol dependent men and women were randomly assigned to treatment condition and followed for 6 months after treatment end. Both AM and AAF treatments were followed by significant reductions in heavy drinking days, alcohol consequences, anger, and maladaptive anger-related thoughts and increases in abstinence and self-confidence regarding not drinking to anger-related triggers. Treatment with AAF was associated with greater AA involvement relative to treatment with AM. Changes in anger and AA involvement were predictive of posttreatment alcohol outcomes for both treatments. Change in trait anger was a stronger predictor of posttreatment alcohol consequences for AM than for AAF clients; during-treatment AA meeting attendance was a stronger predictor of posttreatment heavy drinking and alcohol consequences for AAF than for AM clients. Anger-related constructs and drinking triggers should be foci in treatment of alcohol dependence for anger-involved clients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. On the placement of active members in adaptive truss structures for vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L.-Y.; Utku, S.; Wada, B. K.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of optimal placement of active members which are used for vibration control in adaptive truss structures is investigated. The control scheme is based on the method of eigenvalue assignment as a means of shaping the transient response of the controlled adaptive structures, and the minimization of required control action is considered as the optimization criterion. To this end, a performance index which measures the control strokes of active members is formulated in an efficient way. In order to reduce the computation burden, particularly for the case where the locations of active members have to be selected from a large set of available sites, several heuristic searching schemes are proposed for obtaining the near-optimal locations. The proposed schemes significantly reduce the computational complexity of placing multiple active members to the order of that when a single active member is placed.

  3. Disruption of locomotor adaptation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia Tsok Lam; Bouyer, Laurent J; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Locomotor patterns are adapted on a trial-and-error basis to account for predictable dynamics. Once a walking pattern is adapted, the new calibration is stored and must be actively de-adapted. Here, we tested the hypothesis that storage of newly acquired ankle adaptation in walking is dependent o...

  4. Adaptive Current Control with PI-Fuzzy Compound Controller for Shunt Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Fei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive control technology and PI-fuzzy compound control technology are proposed to control an active power filter (APF. AC side current compensation and DC capacitor voltage tracking control strategy are discussed and analyzed. Model reference adaptive controller for the AC side current compensation is derived and established based on Lyapunov stability theory; proportional and integral (PI fuzzy compound controller is designed for the DC side capacitor voltage control. The adaptive current controller based on PI-fuzzy compound system is compared with the conventional PI controller for active power filter. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and satisfactory performance of the proposed control strategies. It is shown that the proposed control method has an excellent dynamic performance such as small current tracking error, reduced total harmonic distortion (THD, and strong robustness in the presence of parameters variation and nonlinear load.

  5. Mammalian sleep may have no adaptive advantage over simple activity-rest cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamundí, Antoni; Akaârir, Mourad; Coenen, Anton M L; Esteban, Susana; Rial, Rubén V; Nicolau, María C

    2005-01-01

    The adaptive value of sleep remains unknown in spite of the intense research performed throughout the last decades. However, few sleep researchers are aware of the difficulties posed by the blind acceptance of an extreme adaptationist viewpoint. Under this philosophy, every anatomical and functional detail present in a living being should have a positive adaptive value, a position that has been considered as rather doubtful. In this report, it is proposed that most of the physiological changes used for mammalian sleep definition could be mere by-products of other true adaptations, such as the ontogenetic and phylogenetic development of the nervous system. As a result, complex mammalian sleep could have no adaptive value over that of the simplest forms of rest-activity cycles present in all living forms. In addition, it is proposed that the absence of adaptive value should, by default, be the first option regarding the function of sleep. Besides, the burden of the proof should be always charged over the proponents of every particular adaptive function. As this proof has not been reached, it is the absence of function for sleep which should be taken for granted.

  6. Self Management Activation Randomised Trial for Prostatitis (SMART-P: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochester Mark

    2011-09-01

    . Discussion If this group administered self management programme is shown to be effective in the treatment of men with chronic prostatitis it may become the new standard of care for these patients. Furthermore, it may be adapted for use in women with interstitial cystitis, a condition which is analogous to chronic prostatitis in men. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN21012555

  7. AccesSports: A Model for Adapting Mainstream Sports Activities for Individuals with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchilla, Paul E.

    1995-01-01

    The AccesSports Model allows professionals with basic knowledge of visual impairments and mainstream sports to analyze any sports activity and design adaptations needed for targets or goals, boundaries, and rules to enable individuals with visual impairments to participate. Suggestions for modifying baseball, table tennis, swim racing, wrestling,…

  8. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION LEVELS OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine whether regular application of physical education and sports activities was effective on psychological adaptation levels of children or not. The research group was constituted of 80 students in the range of 10-11 years old who take education in Ankara Keçioren Hacı Sabancı Secondary School. The research was designed as a test-module with pretest-posttest control group. Physical education and sports activities were performed with application group as 2 hours a day, 4 days a week throughout 20 weeks. The data were collected by Hacettepe Psychological Adaptation Scale. For the statistical evaluation of the data, SPSS 15.0 statistical software program was used and significance was tested at levels of 0.05 and 0.01. In accordance with findings of the research, while psychological adaptation levels of application and control groups showed similarity before physical education and sports activity program, significant differences in favour of application group were determined positively after 20-week program. In the light of findings, it can be significantly resulted from this research that physical education and sports activities might have positive effect on psychological adaptation levels of children.

  9. Leg muscle activation during gait in Parkinson's disease : Adaptation and interlimb coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, [No Value; Zijlstra, W; Prokop, T; Berger, W

    1995-01-01

    Adaptation in leg muscle activity and coordination between lower limbs were studied during walking on a treadmill with split belts in one group of parkinsonian patients and one of age-matched healthy subjects. Four different belt speeds (0.25/0.5/0.75/1.0 m/sec) were applied in selected combinations

  10. Emergent Literacy Activities, Instructional Adaptations and School Absence of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Marieke; de Moor, Jan; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to get an overview of the emergent literacy activities, instructional adaptations and school absence of children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to normally developing peers. The results showed that there were differences between the groups regarding the amount of emergent literacy instruction. While time…

  11. Adaptive and innate immune reactions regulating mast cell activation: from receptor-mediated signaling to responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tkaczyk, Christine; Jensen, Bettina M; Iwaki, Shoko

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we have described studies that have demonstrated that mast cells can be activated as a consequence of adaptive and innate immune reactions and that these responses can be modified by ligands for other receptors expressed on the surface of mast cells. These various stimuli...

  12. An Examination of Current Adapted Physical Activity Provision in Primary and Special Schools in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Disability in Sport Taskforce report examining adapted physical activity (APA) in the Irish context (Department of Education and Science, 1999) found that teachers involved in primary mainstream and specialist settings expressed a grave lack of self-confidence, due to lack of training, in the delivery of APA programmes to children with special…

  13. Abdominal fat mass is associated with adaptive immune activation: the CODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thewissen, M.M.; Damoiseaux, J.G.; Duijvestijn, A.M.; Greevenbroek, M.M.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Blaak, E.E.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Cohen Tervaert, J.W.; Ferreira, I.

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal fat-related activation of the innate immune system and insulin resistance (IR) are implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Recent data support an important role of the adaptive immune system as well. In this study, we investigate the association between waist circumferen

  14. Adaptability and Prediction of Anticipatory Muscular Activity Parameters to Different Movements in the Sitting Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikh, Soufien; Watelain, Eric; Faupin, Arnaud; Pinti, Antonio; Jarraya, Mohamed; Garnier, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary movement often causes postural perturbation that requires an anticipatory postural adjustment to minimize perturbation and increase the efficiency and coordination during execution. This systematic review focuses specifically on the relationship between the parameters of anticipatory muscular activities and movement finality in sitting position among adults, to study the adaptability and predictability of anticipatory muscular activities parameters to different movements and conditions in sitting position in adults. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Springer-Link, Engineering Village, and EbscoHost. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to retain the most rigorous and specific studies, yielding 76 articles, Seventeen articles were excluded at first reading, and after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 were retained. In a sitting position, central nervous system activity precedes movement by diverse anticipatory muscular activities and shows the ability to adapt anticipatory muscular activity parameters to the movement direction, postural stability, or charge weight. In addition, these parameters could be adapted to the speed of execution, as found for the standing position. Parameters of anticipatory muscular activities (duration, order, and amplitude of muscle contractions constituting the anticipatory muscular activity) could be used as a predictive indicator of forthcoming movement. In addition, this systematic review may improve methodology in empirical studies and assistive technology for people with disabilities.

  15. Characterization of Adapter Protein NRBP as a Negative Regulator of T Cell Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; LIN Zhi-xin; WU Jun

    2008-01-01

    Adapter proteins can regulate the gene transcriptions in disparate signaling pathway by interacting with multiple signaling molecules, including T cell activation signaling. Nuclear receptor binding protein (NRBP), a novel adapter protein, represents a small family of evolutionarily conserved proteins with homologs in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), Drosophila melanogaster (D.melanogaster), mouse and human. Here, we demonstrated that overexpression of NRBP in Jurkat TAg cells specifically impairs T cell receptor (TCR) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/ionomycin-mediated signaling leading to nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) promoter activation. Furthermore, the N-terminal of NRBP is necessary for its regulation of NFAT activation. Finally, we showed that NRBP has minimal effect on both TCR- and PMA-induced CD69 up-regulation in Jurkat TAg cells, which suggests that NRBP may function downstream of protein kinase C (PKC)/Ras pathway.

  16. Adaptive Sensor Activity Scheduling in Distributed Sensor Networks: A Statistical Mechanics Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Srivastav; Asok Ray; Shashi Phoha

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an algorithm for adaptive sensor activity scheduling (A-SAS) in distributed sensor networks to enable detection and dynamic footprint tracking of spatial-temporal events. The sensor network is modeled as a Markov random field on a graph, where concepts of Statistical Mechanics are employed to stochastically activate the sensor nodes. Using an Ising-like formulation, the sleep and wake modes of a sensor node are modeled as spins with ferromagnetic neighborhood interaction...

  17. Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT: A cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of an activity intervention in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenz Dorothea

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and motor skills acquisition are of high importance for health-related prevention and a normal development in childhood. However, few intervention studies exist in preschool children focussing on an increase in physical activity and motor skills. Proof of positive effects is available but not consistent. Methods/Design The design, curriculum, and evaluation strategy of a cluster randomised intervention study in preschool children are described in this manuscript. In the Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT, 41 of 131 kindergartens of Wuerzburg and Kitzingen, Germany, were randomised into an intervention and a control group by a random number table stratified for the location of the kindergarten in an urban (more than 20.000 inhabitants or rural area. The aims of the intervention were to increase physical activity and motor skills in the participating children, and to reduce health risk factors as well as media use. The intervention was designed to involve children, parents and teachers, and lasted one academic year. It contained daily 30-min sessions of physical education in kindergarten based on a holistic pedagogic approach termed the "early psychomotor education". The sessions were instructed by kindergarten teachers under regular supervision by the research team. Parents were actively involved by physical activity homework cards. The kindergarten teachers were trained in workshops and during the supervision. Assessments were performed at baseline, 3-5 months into the intervention, at the end of the intervention and 2-4 months after the intervention. The primary outcomes of the study are increases in physical activity (accelerometry and in motor skills performance (composite score of obstacle course, standing long jump, balancing on one foot, jumping sidewise to and fro between baseline and the two assessments during the intervention. Secondary outcomes include decreases in body

  18. Meursault on Trial: Multi-Skills Activities for Teaching "L'Etranger."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly, Lyle R.; Buscaglia, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a unit of activities based on a reading of Albert Camus'""L'Etranger." The activities, which can be adapted to various levels and abilities in an intermediate French class, incorporate reading, writing, listening and speaking skills. Sample materials and a bibliography are appended. (AM)

  19. Rethinking growth and decay kinetics in activated sludge - towards a new adaptive kinetics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Michael; Jimenez, Jose; Pruden, Amy; Miller, Jennifer H; Metch, Jacob; Takács, Imre

    2017-02-01

    Growth kinetics in activated sludge modelling (ASM) are typically assumed to be the result of intrinsic growth and decay properties and thus process parameters are deemed to be constant. The activity change in a microbial population is expressed in terms of variance of the active biomass fraction and not actual shifts in bacterial cellular activities. This approach is limited, in that it does not recognise the reality that active biomass is highly physiologically adaptive. Here, a strong correlation between maximum specific growth rate (μmax) and decay rate (be) of ordinary heterotrophic organisms was revealed in both low solids retention times (SRT) and high SRT activated sludge systems. This relationship is indicative of physiological adaptation either for growth (high μmax and be) or survival optimization (low μmax and be). Further, the nitrifier decay process was investigated using molecular techniques to measure decay rates of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrite oxidizing bacteria over a range of temperatures. This approach revealed decay rates 10-12% lower than values previously accepted and used in ASM. These findings highlight potential benefits of incorporating physiological adaptation of heterotrophic and nitrifying populations in future ASM.

  20. On the stability of adaptation process in active noise control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardekani, Iman Tabatabaei; Abdulla, Waleed H

    2011-01-01

    The stability analysis of the adaptation process, performed by the filtered-x least mean square algorithm on weights of active noise controllers, has not been fully investigated. The main contribution of this paper is conducting a theoretical stability analysis for this process without utilizing commonly used simplifying assumptions regarding the secondary electro-acoustic channel. The core of this analysis is based on the root locus theory. The general rules for constructing the root locus plot of the adaptation process are derived by obtaining root locus parameters, including start points, end points, asymptote lines, and breakaway points. The conducted analysis leads to the derivation of a general upper-bound for the adaptation step-size beyond which the mean weight vector of the active noise controller becomes unstable. Also, this analysis yields the optimum step-size for which the adaptive active noise controller has its fastest dynamic performance. The proposed upper-bound and optimum values apply to general secondary electro-acoustic channels, unlike the commonly used ones which apply to only pure delay channels. The results are found to agree very well with those obtained from numerical analyses and computer simulation experiments.

  1. Effect of physical activity councelling on disability in older people: A 2-year randomized controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Leinonen, Raija; Kujala, Urho; Heikkinen, Eino; Törmäkangas, Timo; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Rasinaho, Minna; Karhula, Sirkka; Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of a physical activity counseling intervention on instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) disability. DESIGN: Primary care–based, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: City of Jyväskylä, central Finland. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred thirty-two people aged 75 to 81 who were able to walk 500 meters without assistance, were at most moderately physically active, had a Mini-Mental State Examination score greater than 21, had no med...

  2. Reporting disease activity in clinical trials of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: EULAR/ACR collaborative recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletaha, D; Landewe, R; Karonitsch, T; Bathon, J; Boers, M; Bombardier, C; Bombardieri, S; Choi, H; Combe, B; Dougados, M; Emery, P; Gomez-Reino, J; Keystone, E; Koch, G; Kvien, T K; Martin-Mola, E; Matucci-Cerinic, M; Michaud, K; O'Dell, J; Paulus, H; Pincus, T; Richards, P; Simon, L; Siegel, J; Smolen, J S; Sokka, T; Strand, V; Tugwell, P; van der Heijde, D; van Riel, P; Vlad, S; van Vollenhoven, R; Ward, M; Weinblatt, M; Wells, G; White, B; Wolfe, F; Zhang, B; Zink, A; Felson, D

    2008-10-15

    To make recommendations on how to report disease activity in clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) endorsed by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). The project followed the EULAR standardized operating procedures, which use a three-step approach: 1) expert-based definition of relevant research questions (November 2006); 2) systematic literature search (November 2006 to May 2007); and 3) expert consensus on recommendations based on the literature search results (May 2007). In addition, since this is the first joint EULAR/ACR publication on recommendations, an extra step included a meeting with an ACR panel to approve the recommendations elaborated by the expert group (August 2007). Eleven relevant questions were identified for the literature search. Based on the evidence from the literature, the expert panel recommended that each trial should report the following items: 1) disease activity response and disease activity states; 2) appropriate descriptive statistics of the baseline, the endpoints and change of the single variables included in the core set; 3) baseline disease activity levels (in general); 4) the percentage of patients achieving a low disease activity state and remission; 5) time to onset of the primary outcome; 6) sustainability of the primary outcome; 7) fatigue. These recommendations endorsed by EULAR and ACR will help harmonize the presentations of results from clinical trials. Adherence to these recommendations will provide the readership of clinical trials with more details of important outcomes, while the higher level of homogeneity may facilitate the comparison of outcomes across different trials and pooling of trial results, such as in meta-analyses.

  3. Behavioral Activation for Moderately Depressed University Students: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrysiak, Michael; Nicholas, Christopher; Hopko, Derek R.

    2009-01-01

    Although depression is prevalent among university students, limited and dated research has examined the efficacy of behavioral interventions in treating this population (C. Lee, 2005). On the basis of a modified version of the Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD; D. R. Hopko & C. W. Lejuez, 2007; C. W. Lejuez, D. R. Hopko, & S. D.…

  4. Influence of physical education on the level of adaptation of students to educational activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolinska S.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Examined and summarized problems of adaptation of students to educational activity. 100 students took part in research. Found out a row socially psychological factors which determine efficiency of process of adaptation of students to the scientific process. Practical recommendations are developed on organization of educational process of students. It is recommended widely to utillize a physical culture as mean of reduction of adaptation period and increase of level of physical and mental capacity. It is marked that almost 90% students have rejections in a health. Also over 50% - unsatisfactory physical preparedness. It is set that for the students of the II course the indexes of low situation anxiety prevail as compared to the I course. It is set that the characteristic feature of the psychological state during an examination session is emotionally volitional instability.

  5. Adapt or die: how eukaryotic cells respond to prolonged activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossio, Valentina; Galati, Elena; Piatti, Simonetta

    2010-12-01

    Many cancer-treating compounds used in chemotherapies, the so-called antimitotics, target the mitotic spindle. Spindle defects in turn trigger activation of the SAC (spindle assembly checkpoint), a surveillance mechanism that transiently arrests cells in mitosis to provide the time for error correction. When the SAC is satisfied, it is silenced. However, after a variable amount of time, cells escape from the mitotic arrest, even if the SAC is not satisfied, through a process called adaptation or mitotic slippage. Adaptation weakens the killing properties of antimitotics, ultimately giving rise to resistant cancer cells. We summarize here the mechanisms underlying this process and propose a strategy to identify the factors involved using budding yeast as a model system. Inhibition of factors involved in SAC adaptation could have important therapeutic applications by potentiating the ability of antimitotics to cause cell death.

  6. Materials learning from life: concepts for active, adaptive and autonomous molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merindol, Rémi; Walther, Andreas

    2017-01-30

    Bioinspired out-of-equilibrium systems will set the scene for the next generation of molecular materials with active, adaptive, autonomous, emergent and intelligent behavior. Indeed life provides the best demonstrations of complex and functional out-of-equilibrium systems: cells keep track of time, communicate, move, adapt, evolve and replicate continuously. Stirred by the understanding of biological principles, artificial out-of-equilibrium systems are emerging in many fields of soft matter science. Here we put in perspective the molecular mechanisms driving biological functions with the ones driving synthetic molecular systems. Focusing on principles that enable new levels of functionalities (temporal control, autonomous structures, motion and work generation, information processing) rather than on specific material classes, we outline key cross-disciplinary concepts that emerge in this challenging field. Ultimately, the goal is to inspire and support new generations of autonomous and adaptive molecular devices fueled by self-regulating chemistry.

  7. Some Improvements on Active Queue Management Mechanism Based on Adaptive Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Kim Quoc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active queue management operates at network nodes to control the number of packets in the queue of nodes, by actively receiving packets when the queue is not full, removing packets when the queue is full or notifying bottlenecks even in the embryonic period of the bottlenecks due to to-be-full queue. In recent years, scientists have used fuzzy logic to improve queue management mechanisms. Overall, these improvements have used Mamdani fuzzy system with a fixed structure with triangular functions for input and output variables, so they do not adapt to the changing state of the network. We propose a adaptive fuzzy control (AFC model to improve the effectiveness of active queue management mechanisms.

  8. How adaptation and mass transfer control the biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmann, B E; Tularak, P; Lee, K C; Federle, T W; Itrich, N R; Kaiser, S K; Shi, J; McAvoy, D C

    2001-01-01

    We use a nonsteady-state model to evaluate the effects of community adaptation and sorption kinetics on the fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in batch experiments conducted with activated sludge that was continuously fed different concentrations of LAS. We observed a sharp decrease in the biodegradation rate between 30 and 60 minutes and the presence of an LAS residual at the end of the batch experiments. The modeling analysis indicates that these phenomena were caused by relatively slow inter-phase mass transport of LAS. The modeling analyses also showed that the amount of LAS-degrading biomass increased when the continuous activated sludge was fed a higher LAS concentration. Although community adaptation to LAS involved accumulation of more LAS degraders, the increase was not proportional to the feed concentration of LAS, which supports the concept that LAS degraders also utilized portions of the general biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) fed to the continuous activated sludge systems.

  9. Increasing efficacy of primary care-based counseling for diabetes prevention: Rationale and design of the ADAPT (Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Devin M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that lifestyle behavior changes are most effective to prevent onset of diabetes in high-risk patients. Primary care providers are charged with encouraging behavior change among their patients at risk for diabetes, yet the practice environment and training in primary care often do not support effective provider counseling. The goal of this study is to develop an electronic health record-embedded tool to facilitate shared patient-provider goal setting to promote behavioral change and prevent diabetes. Methods The ADAPT (Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting trial leverages an innovative system that integrates evidence-based interventions for behavioral change with already-existing technology to enhance primary care providers' effectiveness to counsel about lifestyle behavior changes. Using principles of behavior change theory, the multidisciplinary design team utilized in-depth interviews and in vivo usability testing to produce a prototype diabetes prevention counseling system embedded in the electronic health record. Results The core element of the tool is a streamlined, shared goal-setting module within the electronic health record system. The team then conducted a series of innovative, "near-live" usability testing simulations to refine the tool and enhance workflow integration. The system also incorporates a pre-encounter survey to elicit patients' behavior-change goals to help tailor patient-provider goal setting during the clinical encounter and to encourage shared decision making. Lastly, the patients interact with a website that collects their longitudinal behavior data and allows them to visualize their progress over time and compare their progress with other study members. The finalized ADAPT system is now being piloted in a small randomized control trial of providers using the system with prediabetes patients over a six-month period. Conclusions The ADAPT system combines the influential

  10. Salinity fluctuation influencing biological adaptation: growth dynamics and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity in a euryhaline bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Meng, Yang; Song, Youxin; Tan, Yalin; Warren, Alan; Li, Jiqiu; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2017-07-01

    Although salinity fluctuation is a prominent characteristic of many coastal ecosystems, its effects on biological adaptation have not yet been fully recognized. To test the salinity fluctuations on biological adaptation, population growth dynamics and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity were investigated in the euryhaline bacterium Idiomarina sp. DYB, which was acclimated at different salinity exposure levels, exposure times, and shifts in direction of salinity. Results showed: (1) bacterial population growth dynamics and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity changed significantly in response to salinity fluctuation; (2) patterns of variation in bacterial growth dynamics were related to exposure times, levels of salinity, and shifts in direction of salinity change; (3) significant tradeoffs were detected between growth rate (r) and carrying capacity (K) on the one hand, and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity on the other; and (4) beneficial acclimation was confirmed in Idiomarina sp. DYB. In brief, this study demonstrated that salinity fluctuation can change the population growth dynamics, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity, and tradeoffs between r, K, and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity, thus facilitating bacterial adaption in a changing environment. These findings provide constructive information for determining biological response patterns to environmental change. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Evidence for sex differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptive responses to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Beth A; Kalasky, Martha J; Proctor, David N

    2010-09-01

    There are considerable data addressing sex-related differences in cardiovascular system aging and disease risk/progression. Sex differences in cardiovascular aging are evident during resting conditions, exercise, and other acute physiological challenges (e.g., orthostasis). In conjunction with these sex-related differences-or perhaps even as an underlying cause-the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and/or physical activity on the aging cardiovascular system also appears to be sex-specific. Potential mechanisms contributing to sex-related differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptability include changes in sex hormones with age as well as sex differences in baseline fitness and the dose of activity needed to elicit cardiovascular adaptations. The purpose of the present paper is thus to review the primary research regarding sex-specific plasticity of the cardiovascular system to fitness and physical activity in older adults. Specifically, the paper will (1) briefly review known sex differences in cardiovascular aging, (2) detail emerging evidence regarding observed cardiovascular outcomes in investigations of exercise and physical activity in older men versus women, (3) explore mechanisms underlying the differing adaptations to exercise and habitual activity in men versus women, and (4) discuss implications of these findings with respect to chronic disease risk and exercise prescription.

  12. Performance study of Active Queue Management methods: Adaptive GRED, REDD, and GRED-Linear analytical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Abdel-jaber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Congestion control is one of the hot research topics that helps maintain the performance of computer networks. This paper compares three Active Queue Management (AQM methods, namely, Adaptive Gentle Random Early Detection (Adaptive GRED, Random Early Dynamic Detection (REDD, and GRED Linear analytical model with respect to different performance measures. Adaptive GRED and REDD are implemented based on simulation, whereas GRED Linear is implemented as a discrete-time analytical model. Several performance measures are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the compared methods mainly mean queue length, throughput, average queueing delay, overflow packet loss probability, and packet dropping probability. The ultimate aim is to identify the method that offers the highest satisfactory performance in non-congestion or congestion scenarios. The first comparison results that are based on different packet arrival probability values show that GRED Linear provides better mean queue length; average queueing delay and packet overflow probability than Adaptive GRED and REDD methods in the presence of congestion. Further and using the same evaluation measures, Adaptive GRED offers a more satisfactory performance than REDD when heavy congestion is present. When the finite capacity of queue values varies the GRED Linear model provides the highest satisfactory performance with reference to mean queue length and average queueing delay and all the compared methods provide similar throughput performance. However, when the finite capacity value is large, the compared methods have similar results in regard to probabilities of both packet overflowing and packet dropping.

  13. Energy transfer in light-adapted photosynthetic membranes: from active to saturated photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassioli, Francesca; Olaya-Castro, Alexandra; Scheuring, Simon; Sturgis, James N; Johnson, Neil F

    2009-11-04

    In bacterial photosynthesis light-harvesting complexes, LH2 and LH1 absorb sunlight energy and deliver it to reaction centers (RCs) with extraordinarily high efficiency. Submolecular resolution images have revealed that both the LH2:LH1 ratio, and the architecture of the photosynthetic membrane itself, adapt to light intensity. We investigate the functional implications of structural adaptations in the energy transfer performance in natural in vivo low- and high-light-adapted membrane architectures of Rhodospirillum photometricum. A model is presented to describe excitation migration across the full range of light intensities that cover states from active photosynthesis, where all RCs are available for charge separation, to saturated photosynthesis where all RCs are unavailable. Our study outlines three key findings. First, there is a critical light-energy density, below which the low-light adapted membrane is more efficient at absorbing photons and generating a charge separation at RCs, than the high-light-adapted membrane. Second, connectivity of core complexes is similar in both membranes, suggesting that, despite different growth conditions, a preferred transfer pathway is through core-core contacts. Third, there may be minimal subareas on the membrane which, containing the same LH2:LH1 ratio, behave as minimal functional units as far as excitation transfer efficiency is concerned.

  14. Adaptation to nursing home: The role of leisure activities in light of motivation and relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Emin; De Benedetto, Giorgio; Gallouj, Karim

    Based on the motivational sequence described in Self-Determination Theory, this study explored the relationship between relatedness, motivation, adaptation and leisure in nursing homes. We formulated the hypothesis that the variables of the study would be found in an integrative mediational sequence: Participation in leisure activities→Relatedness→Self-determined motivation→Adaptation to nursing homes. Participants (N=112, mean age=84.17) were invited to complete questionnaires assessing these variables. Results of the path analysis found an unsatisfactory fit for this model but revealed another model (Model 2) with a good fit index: Relatedness→Participation in leisure activities→Self-determined motivation→Adaptation to nursing homes→Relatedness. Model 2 fitted better than model 1: the Chi-square values were not significant, Chi(2) (df=2)=5.1, p=0.078 and other indices were satisfactory (CFI=0.930, RMSEA=0.049 and NFI=0.918). These results suggest that feeling connected and secure in the relationships with others, and integrated as an individual to the group contribute to enhance leisure practice, self-determined motivation, and finally adaptation to life environment. Consequently, the relatedness promotes leisure activities practice which represents a central adaptive behavior in nursing homes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recruitment and enrollment of caregivers for a lifestyle physical activity clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etkin, Caryn D; Farran, Carol J; Barnes, Lisa L; Shah, Raj C

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the efficacy of the recruitment framework used for a clinical trial with sedentary family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease. An integrated social marketing approach with principles of community-based participatory research provided the theoretical framework for organizing recruitment activities. This multi-pronged approach meant that caregivers were identified from a range of geographic locations and numerous sources including a federally funded Alzheimer's disease center, health care providers, community based and senior organizations, and broad-based media. Study enrollment projections were exceeded by 11% and resulted in enrolling n = 211 caregivers into this clinical trial. We conclude that social marketing and community-based approaches provide a solid foundation for organizing recruitment activities for clinical trials with older adults. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A randomised trial of adaptive pacing therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, graded exercise, and specialist medical care for chronic fatigue syndrome (PACE): statistical analysis plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The publication of protocols by medical journals is increasingly becoming an accepted means for promoting good quality research and maximising transparency. Recently, Finfer and Bellomo have suggested the publication of statistical analysis plans (SAPs).The aim of this paper is to make public and to report in detail the planned analyses that were approved by the Trial Steering Committee in May 2010 for the principal papers of the PACE (Pacing, graded Activity, and Cognitive behaviour therapy: a randomised Evaluation) trial, a treatment trial for chronic fatigue syndrome. It illustrates planned analyses of a complex intervention trial that allows for the impact of clustering by care providers, where multiple care-providers are present for each patient in some but not all arms of the trial. Results The trial design, objectives and data collection are reported. Considerations relating to blinding, samples, adherence to the protocol, stratification, centre and other clustering effects, missing data, multiplicity and compliance are described. Descriptive, interim and final analyses of the primary and secondary outcomes are then outlined. Conclusions This SAP maximises transparency, providing a record of all planned analyses, and it may be a resource for those who are developing SAPs, acting as an illustrative example for teaching and methodological research. It is not the sum of the statistical analysis sections of the principal papers, being completed well before individual papers were drafted. Trial registration ISRCTN54285094 assigned 22 May 2003; First participant was randomised on 18 March 2005. PMID:24225069

  17. Self Management Activation Randomised Trial for Prostatitis (SMART-P): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochester, Mark; Armitage, James; Sanders, Mark; Christmas, Paula

    2011-09-26

    shown to be effective in the treatment of men with chronic prostatitis it may become the new standard of care for these patients. Furthermore, it may be adapted for use in women with interstitial cystitis, a condition which is analogous to chronic prostatitis in men. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN21012555.

  18. INTERACTIVE DOMAIN ADAPTION FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF REMOTE SENSING IMAGES USING ACTIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.Pushpa Lingam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Interactive Domain Adaptation (IDA technique based on active learning for the classification of remote sensing images. Interactive domain adaptation method is used for adapting the supervised classifier trained on a given remote sensing source image to make it suitable for classifying a different but related target image. The two images can be acquired in different locations and at different times. This method iteratively selects the most informative samples of the target image to be labeled and included in the training set and the source image samples are reweighted or removed from the training set on the basis of their disagreement with the target image classification problem. The consistent information available from the source image can be effectively exploited for the classification of the target image and for guiding the selection of new samples to be labeled, whereas the inconsistent information is automatically detected and removed. This approach significantly reduces the number of new labeled samples to be collected from the target image. Experimental results on both a multispectral very high resolution and a hyper spectral data set confirm the effectiveness of the interactive domain adaptation for theclassification of remote sensing using active learning method.

  19. Brain serotonergic activation in growth-stunted farmed salmon: adaption versus pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Folkedal, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Signalling systems activated under stress are highly conserved, suggesting adaptive effects of their function. Pathologies arising from continued activation of such systems may represent a mismatch between evolutionary programming and current environments. Here, we use Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar......) in aquaculture as a model to explore this stance of evolutionary-based medicine, for which empirical evidence has been lacking. Growth-stunted (GS) farmed fish were characterized by elevated brain serotonergic activation, increased cortisol production and behavioural inhibition. We make the novel observation...

  20. Strength training and physical activity in boys: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Udo; Witassek, Fabienne; Petrò, Renato; Fritz, Chris; Eiholzer, Urs

    2013-12-01

    In developed societies levels of daily physical activity (PA) among school-age children are decreasing. This implies risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Specific strategies to improve levels of PA are needed. In prepubertal boys there is evidence that strength training increases spontaneous PA outside of training. A total of 102 schoolchildren (age 10-14 years) in Switzerland were randomly assigned to physical education classes or to participate twice weekly at a guided strength training program for 19 weeks. Spontaneous PA energy expenditure (PAEE; 3axial accelerometry for 7 days), leg and arm strength, and body composition (dual energy radiograph absorptiometry) were measured at baseline, after 19 weeks of training intervention, and after 3 months of washout. There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline. In the intervention group, PAEE increased by 10% from baseline to end of training in boys (P = .02), but not in girls. Leg and arm strength were increased owing to training intervention in both boys and girls. All other variables were unchanged. Baseline PAEE was significantly negatively correlated with changes of PAEE. Targeted strength training significantly increases daily spontaneous PA behavior in boys. The less active children showed the greatest increase in spontaneous PAEE. Girls showed a similar increase in strength, but not in spontaneous PAEE. This may be explained by their earlier pubertal development. Strength training may be a promising strategy in schools to counteract decreasing levels of PA.

  1. Improving aerobic capacity through active videogames: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz de Brito-Gomes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe rate of peak workload improvement between different types of Active Video Games (AVG in young sedentary adults was investigated. Aerobic capacity improvement after a 6-week intervention between AVG types was also compared. Twenty participants, after baseline assessments, were randomized into one of three parallel groups: structured AVG (n= 6, unstructured AVG (n= 7 and a control group (n= 7. Participants played their respective AVG 3 times a week for 6-weeks (30 minutes-session. The control group maintained normal activities. Both structured and unstructured AVG improved peak workload after four weeks but only the structured group maintained this improvement through week five and six. Aerobic capacity improved in the unstructured (Pre: 36.0 ± 5.2ml.kg.min-¹,Post: 39.7 ± 4.9ml.kg.min-¹, p = .038 and structured AVG (Pre: 39.0 ± 5.9ml.kg.min-¹,Post: 47.8 ± 4.3ml.kg.min-¹, p = .006 groups. Structured AVG provide greater health benefits to aerobic capacity and peak workload in young sedentary but otherwise healthy males relative to unstructured AVG.

  2. Virulent Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium evades adaptive immunity by preventing dendritic cells from activating T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Jaime A; Carreño, Leandro J; Bueno, Susan M; González, Pablo A; Mora, Jorge E; Quezada, Sergio A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2006-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute the link between innate and adaptive immunity by directly recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in bacteria and by presenting bacterial antigens to T cells. Recognition of PAMPs renders DCs as professional antigen-presenting cells able to prime naïve T cells and initiate adaptive immunity against bacteria. Therefore, interfering with DC function would promote bacterial survival and dissemination. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that have evolved in virulent bacteria to evade activation of adaptive immunity requires the characterization of virulence factors that interfere with DC function. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the causative agent of typhoid-like disease in the mouse, can prevent antigen presentation to T cells by avoiding lysosomal degradation in DCs. Here, we show that this feature of virulent Salmonella applies in vivo to prevent activation of adaptive immunity. In addition, this attribute of virulent Salmonella requires functional expression of a type three secretion system (TTSS) and effector proteins encoded within the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). In contrast to wild-type virulent Salmonella, mutant strains carrying specific deletions of SPI-2 genes encoding TTSS components or effectors proteins are targeted to lysosomes and are no longer able to prevent DCs from activating T cells in vitro or in vivo. SPI-2 mutant strains are attenuated in vivo, showing reduced tissue colonization and enhanced T-cell activation, which confers protection against a challenge with wild-type virulent Salmonella. Our data suggest that impairment of DC function by the activity of SPI-2 gene products is crucial for Salmonella pathogenesis.

  3. Fabrication and Testing of Active and Adaptive Cyanate Ester Composite Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, H. E.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the NASA/Bennett Optical Research Inc. (BOR) NAS8-02008 Phase II Program, which also incorporated ideas developed under the earlier NASA NAS8-01035 Phase 1 Program, was to develop a large mirror fabrication and test facility with emphasis on producing large, light weight active and adaptive optics. A principle objective was to develop mandrels on which to make large composite graphite-filled cyanate ester mirrors, Deliverables were two of these superpolished lightweight active/adaptive optic composite mirrors, one 12" (approx.1/3 meter) in diameter and one 22" (approx.1/2 meter) in diameter. In addition optical superpolishers for mandrels up to 1.2 meters in diameter, test instruments for determining optical figure and scattered light, novel design actuators for making the composite mirrors both active and adaptive, and passive and active means for measuring actuator performance were developed at BOR. We are now installing a superpolisher capable of producing 3 meter diameter mirror/mandrels. All polishers utilize the principle of centrifugal elutriation and produce superpolished mandrels with surface microroughnesses under 1 nm rms.

  4. Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT): a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of an activity intervention in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Kristina; Mauer, Sonja; Obinger, Matthias; Ruf, Katharina C; Graf, Christine; Kriemler, Susi; Lenz, Dorothea; Lehmacher, Walter; Hebestreit, Helge

    2010-07-12

    Physical activity and motor skills acquisition are of high importance for health-related prevention and a normal development in childhood. However, few intervention studies exist in preschool children focussing on an increase in physical activity and motor skills. Proof of positive effects is available but not consistent. The design, curriculum, and evaluation strategy of a cluster randomised intervention study in preschool children are described in this manuscript. In the Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT), 41 of 131 kindergartens of Wuerzburg and Kitzingen, Germany, were randomised into an intervention and a control group by a random number table stratified for the location of the kindergarten in an urban (more than 20,000 inhabitants) or rural area. The aims of the intervention were to increase physical activity and motor skills in the participating children, and to reduce health risk factors as well as media use. The intervention was designed to involve children, parents and teachers, and lasted one academic year. It contained daily 30-min sessions of physical education in kindergarten based on a holistic pedagogic approach termed the "early psychomotor education". The sessions were instructed by kindergarten teachers under regular supervision by the research team. Parents were actively involved by physical activity homework cards. The kindergarten teachers were trained in workshops and during the supervision. Assessments were performed at baseline, 3-5 months into the intervention, at the end of the intervention and 2-4 months after the intervention. The primary outcomes of the study are increases in physical activity (accelerometry) and in motor skills performance (composite score of obstacle course, standing long jump, balancing on one foot, jumping sidewise to and fro) between baseline and the two assessments during the intervention. Secondary outcomes include decreases in body adiposity (BMI, skin folds), media use (questionnaire

  5. 21 CFR 312.87 - Active monitoring of conduct and evaluation of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Active monitoring of conduct and evaluation of clinical trials. 312.87 Section 312.87 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Drugs Intended to Treat Life-threatening...

  6. Initial Open Trial of a Computerized Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spates, C. Richard; Kalata, Alyssa H.; Ozeki, Satoshi; Stanton, Cory E.; Peters, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This article presents preliminary findings from use of a novel computer program that implements an evidence-based psychological intervention to treat depression based on behavioral activation (BA) therapy. The program is titled “Building a Meaningful Life Through Behavioral Activation”. The findings derive from an open trial with moderate to…

  7. Reporting disease activity in clinical trials of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: EULAR/ACR collaborative recommendations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aletaha, D.; Landewe, R.B.; Karonitsch, T.; Bathon, J.; Boers, M.; Bombardier, C.; Bombardieri, S.; Choi, H.; Combe, B.; Dougados, M.; Emery, P.; Gomez-Reino, J.; Keystone, E.C.; Koch, G.; Kvien, T.K.; Martin-Mola, E.; Matucci-Cerinic, M.; Michaud, K.; O'Dell, J.; Paulus, H.; Pincus, T.; Richards, P.; Simon, L.; Siegel, J.; Smolen, J.S.; Sokka, T.; Strand, V.; Tugwell, P.; Heijde, D. van der; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Vlad, S.; Vollenhoven, R. van; Ward, M.; Weinblatt, M.; Wells, G.A.; White, B.; Wolfe, F.; Zhang, B.; Zink, A.; Felson, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make recommendations on how to report disease activity in clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) endorsed by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: The project followed the EULAR standardized operating procedures, w

  8. Reporting disease activity in clinical trials of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: EULAR/ACR collaborative recommendations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aletaha, D.; Landewe, R.B.; Karonitsch, T.; Bathon, J.; Boers, M.; Bombardier, C.; Bombardieri, S.; Choi, H.; Combe, B.; Dougados, M.; Emery, P.; Gomez-Reino, J.; Keystone, E.C.; Koch, G.; Kvien, T.K.; Martin-Mola, E.; Matucci-Cerinic, M.; Michaud, K.; O'Dell, J.; Paulus, H.; Pincus, T.; Richards, P.; Simon, L.; Siegel, J.; Smolen, J.S.; Sokka, T.; Strand, V.; Tugwell, P.; Heijde, D. van der; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Vlad, S.; Vollenhoven, R. van; Ward, M.; Weinblatt, M.; Wells, G.A.; White, B.; Wolfe, F.; Zhang, B.; Zink, A.; Felson, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make recommendations on how to report disease activity in clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) endorsed by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: The project followed the EULAR standardised operating procedures, w

  9. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan, J.E.; de Vente, W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; de Bruin, E.I.

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing

  10. Initial Open Trial of a Computerized Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spates, C. Richard; Kalata, Alyssa H.; Ozeki, Satoshi; Stanton, Cory E.; Peters, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This article presents preliminary findings from use of a novel computer program that implements an evidence-based psychological intervention to treat depression based on behavioral activation (BA) therapy. The program is titled “Building a Meaningful Life Through Behavioral Activation”. The findings derive from an open trial with moderate to…

  11. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwan, van der J.E.; Vente, de W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; Bruin, de E.I.

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing

  12. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-08

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  13. Regulatory T Cell Responses in Participants with Type 1 Diabetes after a Single Dose of Interleukin-2: A Non-Randomised, Open Label, Adaptive Dose-Finding Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, John A.; Porter, Linsey; Smyth, Deborah J.; Rainbow, Daniel B.; Ferreira, Ricardo C.; Yang, Jennie H.; Bell, Charles J. M.; Schuilenburg, Helen; Challis, Ben; Clarke, Pamela; Coleman, Gillian; Dawson, Sarah; Goymer, Donna; Kennet, Jane; Brown, Judy; Greatorex, Jane; Goodfellow, Ian; Evans, Mark; Mander, Adrian P.; Bond, Simon; Wicker, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has an essential role in the expansion and function of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs reduce tissue damage by limiting the immune response following infection and regulate autoreactive CD4+ effector T cells (Teffs) to prevent autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). Genetic susceptibility to T1D causes alterations in the IL-2 pathway, a finding that supports Tregs as a cellular therapeutic target. Aldesleukin (Proleukin; recombinant human IL-2), which is administered at high doses to activate the immune system in cancer immunotherapy, is now being repositioned to treat inflammatory and autoimmune disorders at lower doses by targeting Tregs. Methods and Findings To define the aldesleukin dose response for Tregs and to find doses that increase Tregs physiologically for treatment of T1D, a statistical and systematic approach was taken by analysing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single doses of subcutaneous aldesleukin in the Adaptive Study of IL-2 Dose on Regulatory T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes (DILT1D), a single centre, non-randomised, open label, adaptive dose-finding trial with 40 adult participants with recently diagnosed T1D. The primary endpoint was the maximum percentage increase in Tregs (defined as CD3+CD4+CD25highCD127low) from the baseline frequency in each participant measured over the 7 d following treatment. There was an initial learning phase with five pairs of participants, each pair receiving one of five pre-assigned single doses from 0.04 × 106 to 1.5 × 106 IU/m2, in order to model the dose-response curve. Results from each participant were then incorporated into interim statistical modelling to target the two doses most likely to induce 10% and 20% increases in Treg frequencies. Primary analysis of the evaluable population (n = 39) found that the optimal doses of aldesleukin to induce 10% and 20% increases in Tregs were 0.101 × 106 IU/m2 (standard error [SE] = 0.078, 95% CI = −0

  14. Testing a workplace physical activity intervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Cath

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased physical activity levels benefit both an individuals' health and productivity at work. The purpose of the current study was to explore the impact and cost-effectiveness of a workplace physical activity intervention designed to increase physical activity levels. Methods A total of 1260 participants from 44 UK worksites (based within 5 organizations were recruited to a cluster randomized controlled trial with worksites randomly allocated to an intervention or control condition. Measurement of physical activity and other variables occurred at baseline, and at 0 months, 3 months and 9 months post-intervention. Health outcomes were measured during a 30 minute health check conducted in worksites at baseline and 9 months post intervention. The intervention consisted of a 3 month tool-kit of activities targeting components of the Theory of Planned Behavior, delivered in-house by nominated facilitators. Self-reported physical activity (measured using the IPAQ short-form and health outcomes were assessed. Results and discussion Multilevel modelling found no significant effect of the intervention on MET minutes of activity (from the IPAQ at any of the follow-up time points controlling for baseline activity. However, the intervention did significantly reduce systolic blood pressure (B = -1.79 mm/Hg and resting heart rate (B = -2.08 beats and significantly increased body mass index (B = .18 units compared to control. The intervention was found not to be cost-effective, however the substantial variability round this estimate suggested that further research is warranted. Conclusions The current study found mixed support for this worksite physical activity intervention. The paper discusses some of the tensions involved in conducting rigorous evaluations of large-scale randomized controlled trials in real-world settings. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN08807396

  15. Reductions in disease activity in the AMPLE trial: clinical response by baseline disease duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Michael; Weinblatt, Michael E; Valente, Robert; Citera, Gustavo; Maldonado, Michael; Massarotti, Elena; Yazici, Yusuf; Fleischmann, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate clinical response by baseline disease duration using 2-year data from the AMPLE trial. Methods Patients were randomised to subcutaneous abatacept 125 mg weekly or adalimumab 40 mg bi-weekly, with background methotrexate. As part of a post hoc analysis, the achievement of validated definitions of remission (Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) ≤2.8, Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) ≤3.3, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3) ≤3.0, Boolean score ≤1), low disease activity (CDAI 6 months). Disease Activity Score 28 (C-reactive protein) 6 months) across multiple clinical measures. Conclusions Abatacept or adalimumab with background methotrexate were associated with similar onset and sustainability of response over 2 years. Patients treated early or later in the disease course achieved comparable clinical responses. Trial registration number NCT00929864, Post-results. PMID:27110385

  16. Inactive experiments for advanced separation processes prior to high activity trials in ATALANTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamet, Jean; Lanoe, Jean-Yves; Rivalier, Patrick; Borda, Gilles [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), CEA/DEN/VRH/DTEC/SGCS, Centre de Marcoule - BP 17171, 302007 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Many trials have been performed in ATALANTE's shielded cells to demonstrate the technical feasibility of processes involving minor actinide separation. They required developments of new extractors as well as a step by step procedure have been used to lower the risks of malfunction during high active operation. The design of the extractors developed by Cea has included shielded cells restrictions, miniaturization to lower the quantity of high active material and wastes and the care for being representative of industrial equipment. After individual shake down inactive tests, with actual phases, each process experiment scheduled in ATALANTE has been tested at G1 Facility in Marcoule. The objective was to reproduce as much as possible all the equipment chosen for active tests. This procedure has demonstrated its efficiency to detect many problems that would have heavy impact if they have been discovered during active trials. It was also used for operators'training. (authors)

  17. Disturbance observer based active and adaptive synchronization of energy resource chaotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Meng; Li, Donghai; Zuo, Min; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, synchronization of a three-dimensional energy resource chaotic system is considered. For the sake of achieving the synchronization between the drive and response systems, two different nonlinear control approaches, i.e. active control with known parameters and adaptive control with unknown parameters, have been designed. In order to guarantee the transient performance, finite-time boundedness (FTB) and finite-time stability (FTS) are introduced in the design of active control and adaptive control, respectively. Simultaneously, in view of the existence of disturbances, a new disturbance observer is proposed to estimate the disturbance. The conditions of the asymptotic stability for the closed-loop system are obtained. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the proposed approaches.

  18. Periodic activations of behaviours and emotional adaptation in behaviour-based robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, Ernesto; Rossi, Silvia

    2010-09-01

    The possible modulatory influence of motivations and emotions is of great interest in designing robotic adaptive systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to connect the concept of periodic behaviour activations to emotional modulation, in order to link the variability of behaviours to the circumstances in which they are activated. The impact of emotion is studied, described as timed controlled structures, on simple but conflicting reactive behaviours. Through this approach it is shown that the introduction of such asynchronies in the robot control system may lead to an adaptation in the emergent behaviour without having an explicit action selection mechanism. The emergent behaviours of a simple robot designed with both a parallel and a hierarchical architecture are evaluated and compared.

  19. Say what you mean: rethinking disability language in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Danielle; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Eales, Lindsay

    2014-07-01

    Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (APAQ) currently mandates that authors use person-first language in their publications. In this viewpoint article, we argue that although this policy is well intentioned, it betrays a very particular cultural and disciplinary approach to disability: one that is inappropriate given the international and multidisciplinary mandate of the journal. Further, we contend that APAQ's current language policy may serve to delimit the range of high-quality articles submitted and to encourage both theoretical inconsistency and the erasure of the ways in which research participants self-identify. The article begins with narrative accounts of each of our negotiations with disability terminology in adapted physical activity research and practice. We then provide historical and theoretical contexts for person-first language, as well as various other widely circulated alternative English-language disability terminology. We close with four suggested revisions to APAQ's language policy.

  20. Physical activity and nutrition program for seniors (PANS: protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Andy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along with reduced levels of physical activity, older Australian's mean energy consumption has increased. Now over 60% of older Australians are considered overweight or obese. This study aims to confirm if a low-cost, accessible physical activity and nutrition program can improve levels of physical activity and diet of insufficiently active 60-70 year-olds. Methods/Design This 12-month home-based randomised controlled trial (RCT will consist of a nutrition and physical activity intervention for insufficiently active people aged 60 to 70 years from low to medium socio-economic areas. Six-hundred participants will be recruited from the Australian Federal Electoral Role and randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 300 and control (n = 300 groups. The study is based on the Social Cognitive Theory and Precede-Proceed Model, incorporating voluntary cooperation and self-efficacy. The intervention includes a specially designed booklet that provides participants with information and encourages dietary and physical activity goal setting. The booklet will be supported by an exercise chart, calendar, bi-monthly newsletters, resistance bands and pedometers, along with phone and email contact. Data will be collected over three time points: pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention and 6-months post-study. Discussion This trial will provide valuable information for community-based strategies to improve older adults' physical activity and dietary intake. The project will provide guidelines for appropriate sample recruitment, and the development, implementation and evaluation of a minimal intervention program, as well as information on minimising barriers to participation in similar programs. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000735257

  1. Intelligent Electric Power Systems with Active-Adaptive Electric Networks: Challenges for Simulation Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufa Ruslan A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of the presented research is based on the needs for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of intelligent electric power systems with active-adaptive electric networks (IES including Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS devices. The key requirements for the simulation were formed. The presented analysis of simulation results of IES confirms the need to use a hybrid modelling approach.

  2. Adaptations in muscle activity to induced, short-term hindlimb lameness in trotting dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Fischer

    Full Text Available Muscle tissue has a great intrinsic adaptability to changing functional demands. Triggering more gradual responses such as tissue growth, the immediate responses to altered loading conditions involve changes in the activity. Because the reduction in a limb's function is associated with marked deviations in the gait pattern, understanding the muscular responses in laming animals will provide further insight into their compensatory mechanisms as well as help to improve treatment options to prevent musculoskeletal sequelae in chronic patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the changes in muscle activity in adaptation to a moderate, short-term, weight-bearing hindlimb lameness in two leg and one back muscle using surface electromyography (SEMG. In eight sound adult dogs that trotted on an instrumented treadmill, bilateral, bipolar recordings of the m. triceps brachii, the m. vastus lateralis and the m. longissimus dorsi were obtained before and after lameness was induced. Consistent with the unchanged vertical forces as well as temporal parameters, neither the timing nor the level of activity changed significantly in the m. triceps brachii. In the ipsilateral m. vastus lateralis, peak activity and integrated SEMG area were decreased, while they were significantly increased in the contralateral hindlimb. In both sides, the duration of the muscle activity was significantly longer due to a delayed offset. These observations are in accordance with previously described kinetic and kinematic changes as well as changes in muscle mass. Adaptations in the activity of the m. longissimus dorsi concerned primarily the unilateral activity and are discussed regarding known alterations in trunk and limb motions.

  3. A cluster-randomized controlled trial of strategies to increase adolescents’ physical activity and motivation during physical education lessons: the Motivating Active Learning in Physical Education (MALP trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenkranz Richard R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical activity (PA levels of many children and adolescents in Australia are currently insufficient to promote health benefits. Physical education (PE programs aim to promote PA and reach nearly all school-aged children, but PA levels within PE lessons are often low. PE teachers may influence children’s motivation to be physically active in PE lessons, but little is known about teacher strategies that effectively motivate children to participate in PA, and few intervention studies have examined motivational strategies in PE. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three motivational strategies, each based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT, on PA levels, and their hypothesized antecedents, during year 8 PE lessons. Methods/design This study employed a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Following a familiarization session, PA levels and hypothesized PA antecedents were measured during a baseline lesson and a post-intervention or control lesson. Teachers (n = 16 and their classes from five secondary schools in Sydney, Australia were randomly assigned into four blocks and instructed to provide one of four 20-min lesson teaching strategy conditions: (1 explaining the relevance of activities; (2 providing choice from PA options selected by the teacher; (3 providing equipment and free choice of activities; or (4 usual practice. The primary outcomes were lesson time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA, and motivation towards the lesson. Secondary outcomes were perceptions of teacher behavior, psychological needs satisfaction, and lesson time spent in sedentary behavior. PA and sedentary behavior were measured during baseline and post-intervention lessons with waist-mounted Actigraph GT3X accelerometers. Teacher behavior, psychological needs satisfaction, and motivation were assessed via questionnaires at the end of each lesson. Linear mixed-model analyses will be run on all outcomes, with students nested

  4. Effect of Roy’s Adaptation Model-Guided Education on Coping Strategies of the Veterans with Lower Extremities Amputation: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Zahra; Azarmi, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Any defect in the extremities of the body can affect different life aspects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Roy’s adaptation model-guided education on coping strategies of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. Methods: In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 veterans with lower extremities amputation referring to Kowsar Orthotics and Prosthetics Center of Veterans Clinic in Tehran, Iran were recruited using convenience method and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups in 2013-2014. Lazarus and Folkman coping strategies questionnaire was used to collect the data. After completing the questionnaires in both groups, maladaptive behaviours were determined in the intervention group and an education program based on Roy’s adaptation model was implemented. After 2 months, both groups completed the questionnaires again. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Independent T-test showed that the score of the dimensions of coping strategies did not have a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the pre-intervention stage (P>0.05). This test showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the post-intervention stage in terms of the scores of different dimensions of coping strategies (P>0.05), except in dimensions of social support seeking and positive appraisal (P>0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this research indicated that the Roy’s adaptation model-guided education improved the majority of coping strategies in veterans with lower extremities amputation. It is recommended that further interventions based on Roy’s adaptation model should be performed to improve the coping of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014081118763N1 PMID:27218110

  5. A heart-brain-kidney network controls adaptation to cardiac stress through tissue macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiu, Katsuhito; Shibata, Munehiko; Nakayama, Yukiteru; Ogata, Fusa; Matsumoto, Sahohime; Noshita, Koji; Iwami, Shingo; Nakae, Susumu; Komuro, Issei; Nagai, Ryozo; Manabe, Ichiro

    2017-05-01

    Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome characterized by insufficient cardiac function. In addition to abnormalities intrinsic to the heart, dysfunction of other organs and dysregulation of systemic factors greatly affect the development and consequences of heart failure. Here we show that the heart and kidneys function cooperatively in generating an adaptive response to cardiac pressure overload. In mice subjected to pressure overload in the heart, sympathetic nerve activation led to activation of renal collecting-duct (CD) epithelial cells. Cell-cell interactions among activated CD cells, tissue macrophages and endothelial cells within the kidney led to secretion of the cytokine CSF2, which in turn stimulated cardiac-resident Ly6C(lo) macrophages, which are essential for the myocardial adaptive response to pressure overload. The renal response to cardiac pressure overload was disrupted by renal sympathetic denervation, adrenergic β2-receptor blockade or CD-cell-specific deficiency of the transcription factor KLF5. Moreover, we identified amphiregulin as an essential cardioprotective mediator produced by cardiac Ly6C(lo) macrophages. Our results demonstrate a dynamic interplay between the heart, brain and kidneys that is necessary for adaptation to cardiac stress, and they highlight the homeostatic functions of tissue macrophages and the sympathetic nervous system.

  6. A pilot randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for perinatal depression adapted for women with low incomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahen, Heather; Himle, Joseph A; Fedock, Gina; Henshaw, Erin; Flynn, Heather

    2013-07-01

    Perinatal women with identified depression in prenatal care settings have low rates of engagement and adherence with depression-specific psychotherapy. We report the feasibility and symptom outcomes of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) modified (mCBT) to address the needs of perinatal, low-income women with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Pregnant women (n = 1421) were screened for depressive symptoms in obstetrics clinics in conjunction with prenatal care visits. A total of 59 women met diagnostic criteria for MDD; 55 women were randomly assigned to mCBT or Treatment as Usual (TAU). The mCBT intervention included an initial engagement session, outreach, specific perinatal content and interpersonal components. Measures were gathered at pre-treatment, 16 week post-randomization, and 3-month follow-up. Most participants attended at least one CBT session and met study criteria for treatment adherence. Active research staff outreach promoted engagement and retention in the trial. Treatment satisfaction was rated as very good. In both observed and multiple imputation results, women who received mCBT demonstrated greater improvement in depressed mood than those in TAU at 16-week post-randomization and 3-month follow-up, Cohen's d = -0.71 (95% CI -4.93, -5.70). Modified CBT offers promise as a feasible and acceptable treatment for perinatal women with low-incomes in prenatal care settings. Targeted delivery and content modifications are needed to engage populations tailored to setting and psychosocial challenges specific to the perinatal period. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A trial-by-trial analysis reveals more intense physical activity is associated with better cognitive control performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, T A; Krafft, C E; Iosif, A M; Schweitzer, J B

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivity is a key symptom and the most observable manifestation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The over-activity associated with ADHD can cause specific challenges in academic settings, extracurricular activities and social relationships. Cognitive control challenges are also well established in ADHD. The current study included 44 children between the ages of 10 and 17 diagnosed with ADHD or who were typically developing (TD), all of whom had no psychiatric co-morbidity or significant learning disorders. Participants wore an actometer on their ankle while performing a flanker paradigm in order to objectively measure their rates of activity in association with cognitive control. Analyses assessed the relationship between frequency and intensity of activity to task accuracy on a trial-by-trial basis. A significant interaction effect between group and performance revealed that more intense movement was associated with better performance in the ADHD group but not in the TD group. The ADHD group demonstrated more intense activity than the TD group during correct (but not error) trials. Within-group, children with ADHD generated higher intensity movements in their correct trials compared to their error trials, whereas the TD group did not demonstrate any within-group differences. These findings suggest that excessive motoric activity associated with clinically significant ADHD symptoms may reflect compensatory efforts to modulate attention and alertness. Future research should systematically explore the relationship between motion in ADHD and how it might be used to improve cognitive performance.

  8. An efficient topology adaptation system for parametric active contour segmentation of 3D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhau, Jochen; Scherzer, Otmar

    2008-03-01

    Active contour models have already been used succesfully for segmentation of organs from medical images in 3D. In implicit models, the contour is given as the isosurface of a scalar function, and therefore topology adaptations are handled naturally during a contour evolution. Nevertheless, explicit or parametric models are often preferred since user interaction and special geometric constraints are usually easier to incorporate. Although many researchers have studied topology adaptation algorithms in explicit mesh evolutions, no stable algorithm is known for interactive applications. In this paper, we present a topology adaptation system, which consists of two novel ingredients: A spatial hashing technique is used to detect self-colliding triangles of the mesh whose expected running time is linear with respect to the number of mesh vertices. For the topology change procedure, we have developed formulas by homology theory. During a contour evolution, we just have to choose between a few possible mesh retriangulations by local triangle-triangle intersection tests. Our algorithm has several advantages compared to existing ones: Since the new algorithm does not require any global mesh reparametrizations, it is very efficient. Since the topology adaptation system does not require constant sampling density of the mesh vertices nor especially smooth meshes, mesh evolution steps can be performed in a stable way with a rather coarse mesh. We apply our algorithm to 3D ultrasonic data, showing that accurate segmentation is obtained in some seconds.

  9. A randomised trial of adaptive pacing therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, graded exercise, and specialist medical care for chronic fatigue syndrome (PACE): statistical analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwyn, Rebecca; Potts, Laura; McCrone, Paul; Johnson, Anthony L; DeCesare, Julia C; Baber, Hannah; Goldsmith, Kimberley; Sharpe, Michael; Chalder, Trudie; White, Peter D

    2013-11-13

    The publication of protocols by medical journals is increasingly becoming an accepted means for promoting good quality research and maximising transparency. Recently, Finfer and Bellomo have suggested the publication of statistical analysis plans (SAPs).The aim of this paper is to make public and to report in detail the planned analyses that were approved by the Trial Steering Committee in May 2010 for the principal papers of the PACE (Pacing, graded Activity, and Cognitive behaviour therapy: a randomised Evaluation) trial, a treatment trial for chronic fatigue syndrome. It illustrates planned analyses of a complex intervention trial that allows for the impact of clustering by care providers, where multiple care-providers are present for each patient in some but not all arms of the trial. The trial design, objectives and data collection are reported. Considerations relating to blinding, samples, adherence to the protocol, stratification, centre and other clustering effects, missing data, multiplicity and compliance are described. Descriptive, interim and final analyses of the primary and secondary outcomes are then outlined. This SAP maximises transparency, providing a record of all planned analyses, and it may be a resource for those who are developing SAPs, acting as an illustrative example for teaching and methodological research. It is not the sum of the statistical analysis sections of the principal papers, being completed well before individual papers were drafted. ISRCTN54285094 assigned 22 May 2003; First participant was randomised on 18 March 2005.

  10. Effect of dronabinol therapy on physical activity in anorexia nervosa: a randomised, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Alin; Gram, Bibi; Støving, René Klinkby

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The level of physical activity is inappropriately high in up to 80 % of the patients suffering of anorexia nervosa (AN), as a result of conscious efforts to lose weight, affect regulation and biological adaptive changes to starvation induced by hypothermia and neuroendocrine mechanisms. ...

  11. Adaptive-Fuzzy Controller Based Shunt Active Filter for Power Line Conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KamalaKanta Mahapatra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC in conjunction with Phase Locked Loop (PLL based shunt active filter for Power Line Conditioners (PLCs to improve the power quality in the distribution system. The active filter is implemented with current controlled Voltage Source Inverter (VSI for compensating current harmonics and reactive power at the point of common coupling. The VSI gate control switching pulses are derived from proposed Adaptive-Fuzzy-Hysteresis Current Controller (HCC and this method calculates the hysteresis bandwidth effectively using fuzzy logic. The bandwidth can be adjusted based on compensation current variation, which is used to optimize the required switching frequency and improves active filter substantially. These shunt active power filter system is investigated and verified under steady and transient-state with non-linear load conditions. This shunt active filter is in compliance with IEEE 519 and IEC 61000-3 recommended harmonic standards.

  12. Cyclic 3', 5'-AMP relay in Dictyostelium discoideum: adaptation is independent of activation of adenylate cyclase

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    In Dictyostelium discoideum, binding of cAMP to high affinity surface receptors leads to a rapid activation of adenylate cyclase followed by subsequent adaptation within several minutes. The rate of secretion of [ 3H ]cAMP, which reflects the state of activation of the enzyme, was measured. Caffeine noncompetitively inhibited the response to cAMP. Inhibition was rapidly reversible and pretreatment of cells with caffeine for up to 22 min had little effect on the subsequent responsiveness to cA...

  13. Variability of single trial brain activation predicts fluctuations in reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Stephan; Banaschewski, Tobias; Roessner, Veit; Klein, Christoph; Rietschel, Marcella; Feige, Bernd; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Brain activation stability is crucial to understanding attention lapses. EEG methods could provide excellent markers to assess neuronal response variability with respect to temporal (intertrial coherence) and spatial variability (topographic consistency) as well as variations in activation intensity (low frequency variability of single trial global field power). We calculated intertrial coherence, topographic consistency and low frequency amplitude variability during target P300 in a continuous performance test in 263 15-year-olds from a cohort with psychosocial and biological risk factors. Topographic consistency and low frequency amplitude variability predicted reaction time fluctuations (RTSD) in a linear model. Higher RTSD was only associated with higher psychosocial adversity in the presence of the homozygous 6R-10R dopamine transporter haplotype. We propose that topographic variability of single trial P300 reflects noise as well as variability in evoked cortical activation patterns. Dopaminergic neuromodulation interacted with environmental and biological risk factors to predict behavioural reaction time variability.

  14. Regulatory T Cell Responses in Participants with Type 1 Diabetes after a Single Dose of Interleukin-2: A Non-Randomised, Open Label, Adaptive Dose-Finding Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, John A; Evangelou, Marina; Cutler, Antony J; Pekalski, Marcin L; Walker, Neil M; Stevens, Helen E; Porter, Linsey; Smyth, Deborah J; Rainbow, Daniel B; Ferreira, Ricardo C; Esposito, Laura; Hunter, Kara M D; Loudon, Kevin; Irons, Kathryn; Yang, Jennie H; Bell, Charles J M; Schuilenburg, Helen; Heywood, James; Challis, Ben; Neupane, Sankalpa; Clarke, Pamela; Coleman, Gillian; Dawson, Sarah; Goymer, Donna; Anselmiova, Katerina; Kennet, Jane; Brown, Judy; Caddy, Sarah L; Lu, Jia; Greatorex, Jane; Goodfellow, Ian; Wallace, Chris; Tree, Tim I; Evans, Mark; Mander, Adrian P; Bond, Simon; Wicker, Linda S; Waldron-Lynch, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has an essential role in the expansion and function of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs reduce tissue damage by limiting the immune response following infection and regulate autoreactive CD4+ effector T cells (Teffs) to prevent autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). Genetic susceptibility to T1D causes alterations in the IL-2 pathway, a finding that supports Tregs as a cellular therapeutic target. Aldesleukin (Proleukin; recombinant human IL-2), which is administered at high doses to activate the immune system in cancer immunotherapy, is now being repositioned to treat inflammatory and autoimmune disorders at lower doses by targeting Tregs. To define the aldesleukin dose response for Tregs and to find doses that increase Tregs physiologically for treatment of T1D, a statistical and systematic approach was taken by analysing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single doses of subcutaneous aldesleukin in the Adaptive Study of IL-2 Dose on Regulatory T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes (DILT1D), a single centre, non-randomised, open label, adaptive dose-finding trial with 40 adult participants with recently diagnosed T1D. The primary endpoint was the maximum percentage increase in Tregs (defined as CD3+CD4+CD25highCD127low) from the baseline frequency in each participant measured over the 7 d following treatment. There was an initial learning phase with five pairs of participants, each pair receiving one of five pre-assigned single doses from 0.04 × 106 to 1.5 × 106 IU/m2, in order to model the dose-response curve. Results from each participant were then incorporated into interim statistical modelling to target the two doses most likely to induce 10% and 20% increases in Treg frequencies. Primary analysis of the evaluable population (n = 39) found that the optimal doses of aldesleukin to induce 10% and 20% increases in Tregs were 0.101 × 106 IU/m2 (standard error [SE] = 0.078, 95% CI = -0.052, 0.254) and 0.497 × 106 IU/m2

  15. Regulatory T Cell Responses in Participants with Type 1 Diabetes after a Single Dose of Interleukin-2: A Non-Randomised, Open Label, Adaptive Dose-Finding Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Todd

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL-2 has an essential role in the expansion and function of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs. Tregs reduce tissue damage by limiting the immune response following infection and regulate autoreactive CD4+ effector T cells (Teffs to prevent autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D. Genetic susceptibility to T1D causes alterations in the IL-2 pathway, a finding that supports Tregs as a cellular therapeutic target. Aldesleukin (Proleukin; recombinant human IL-2, which is administered at high doses to activate the immune system in cancer immunotherapy, is now being repositioned to treat inflammatory and autoimmune disorders at lower doses by targeting Tregs.To define the aldesleukin dose response for Tregs and to find doses that increase Tregs physiologically for treatment of T1D, a statistical and systematic approach was taken by analysing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single doses of subcutaneous aldesleukin in the Adaptive Study of IL-2 Dose on Regulatory T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes (DILT1D, a single centre, non-randomised, open label, adaptive dose-finding trial with 40 adult participants with recently diagnosed T1D. The primary endpoint was the maximum percentage increase in Tregs (defined as CD3+CD4+CD25highCD127low from the baseline frequency in each participant measured over the 7 d following treatment. There was an initial learning phase with five pairs of participants, each pair receiving one of five pre-assigned single doses from 0.04 × 106 to 1.5 × 106 IU/m2, in order to model the dose-response curve. Results from each participant were then incorporated into interim statistical modelling to target the two doses most likely to induce 10% and 20% increases in Treg frequencies. Primary analysis of the evaluable population (n = 39 found that the optimal doses of aldesleukin to induce 10% and 20% increases in Tregs were 0.101 × 106 IU/m2 (standard error [SE] = 0.078, 95% CI = -0.052, 0.254 and 0.497

  16. Protocol for a randomized controlled trial on risk adapted damage control orthopedic surgery of femur shaft fractures in multiple trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rixen Dieter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the long bones and femur fractures in particular are common in multiple trauma patients, but the optimal management of femur fractures in these patients is not yet resolved. Although there is a trend towards the concept of "Damage Control Orthopedics" (DCO in the management of multiple trauma patients with long bone fractures as reflected by a significant increase in primary external fixation of femur fractures, current literature is insufficient. Thus, in the era of "evidence-based medicine", there is the need for a more specific, clarifying trial. Methods/Design The trial is designed as a randomized controlled open-label multicenter study. Multiple trauma patients with femur shaft fractures and a calculated probability of death between 20 and 60% will be randomized to either temporary fracture fixation with fixateur externe and defined secondary definitive treatment (DCO or primary reamed nailing (early total care. The primary objective is to reduce the extent of organ failure as measured by the maximum sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA score. Discussion The Damage Control Study is the first to evaluate the risk adapted damage control orthopedic surgery concept of femur shaft fractures in multiple trauma patients in a randomized controlled design. The trial investigates the differences in clinical outcome of two currently accepted different ways of treating multiple trauma patients with femoral shaft fractures. This study will help to answer the question whether the "early total care" or the „damage control” concept is associated with better outcome. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN10321620

  17. Differential and conditional activation of PKC-isoforms dictates cardiac adaptation during physiological to pathological hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaon Naskar

    Full Text Available A cardiac hypertrophy is defined as an increase in heart mass which may either be beneficial (physiological hypertrophy or detrimental (pathological hypertrophy. This study was undertaken to establish the role of different protein kinase-C (PKC isoforms in the regulation of cardiac adaptation during two types of cardiac hypertrophy. Phosphorylation of specific PKC-isoforms and expression of their downstream proteins were studied during physiological and pathological hypertrophy in 24 week male Balb/c mice (Mus musculus models, by reverse transcriptase-PCR, western blot analysis and M-mode echocardiography for cardiac function analysis. PKC-δ was significantly induced during pathological hypertrophy while PKC-α was exclusively activated during physiological hypertrophy in our study. PKC-δ activation during pathological hypertrophy resulted in cardiomyocyte apoptosis leading to compromised cardiac function and on the other hand, activation of PKC-α during physiological hypertrophy promoted cardiomyocyte growth but down regulated cellular apoptotic load resulting in improved cardiac function. Reversal in PKC-isoform with induced activation of PKC-δ and simultaneous inhibition of phospho-PKC-α resulted in an efficient myocardium to deteriorate considerably resulting in compromised cardiac function during physiological hypertrophy via augmentation of apoptotic and fibrotic load. This is the first report where PKC-α and -δ have been shown to play crucial role in cardiac adaptation during physiological and pathological hypertrophy respectively thereby rendering compromised cardiac function to an otherwise efficient heart by conditional reversal of their activation.

  18. Differential and Conditional Activation of PKC-Isoforms Dictates Cardiac Adaptation during Physiological to Pathological Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Shaon; Datta, Kaberi; Mitra, Arkadeep; Pathak, Kanchan; Datta, Ritwik; Bansal, Trisha; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2014-01-01

    A cardiac hypertrophy is defined as an increase in heart mass which may either be beneficial (physiological hypertrophy) or detrimental (pathological hypertrophy). This study was undertaken to establish the role of different protein kinase-C (PKC) isoforms in the regulation of cardiac adaptation during two types of cardiac hypertrophy. Phosphorylation of specific PKC-isoforms and expression of their downstream proteins were studied during physiological and pathological hypertrophy in 24 week male Balb/c mice (Mus musculus) models, by reverse transcriptase-PCR, western blot analysis and M-mode echocardiography for cardiac function analysis. PKC-δ was significantly induced during pathological hypertrophy while PKC-α was exclusively activated during physiological hypertrophy in our study. PKC-δ activation during pathological hypertrophy resulted in cardiomyocyte apoptosis leading to compromised cardiac function and on the other hand, activation of PKC-α during physiological hypertrophy promoted cardiomyocyte growth but down regulated cellular apoptotic load resulting in improved cardiac function. Reversal in PKC-isoform with induced activation of PKC-δ and simultaneous inhibition of phospho-PKC-α resulted in an efficient myocardium to deteriorate considerably resulting in compromised cardiac function during physiological hypertrophy via augmentation of apoptotic and fibrotic load. This is the first report where PKC-α and -δ have been shown to play crucial role in cardiac adaptation during physiological and pathological hypertrophy respectively thereby rendering compromised cardiac function to an otherwise efficient heart by conditional reversal of their activation. PMID:25116170

  19. Evidence for altered amygdala activation in schizophrenia in an adaptive emotion recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Daniela; Lis, Stefanie; Zygrodnik, Karina; Sauer, Carina; Ulferts, Jens; Gallhofer, Bernd; Kirsch, Peter

    2014-03-30

    Deficits in social cognition seem to present an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia, and are known to be associated with an altered amygdala response to faces. However, current results are heterogeneous with respect to whether this altered amygdala response in schizophrenia is hypoactive or hyperactive in nature. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate emotion-specific amygdala activation in schizophrenia using a novel adaptive emotion recognition paradigm. Participants comprised 11 schizophrenia outpatients and 16 healthy controls who viewed face stimuli expressing emotions of anger, fear, happiness, and disgust, as well as neutral expressions. The adaptive emotion recognition approach allows the assessment of group differences in both emotion recognition performance and associated neuronal activity while also ensuring a comparable number of correctly recognized emotions between groups. Schizophrenia participants were slower and had a negative bias in emotion recognition. In addition, they showed reduced differential activation during recognition of emotional compared with neutral expressions. Correlation analyses revealed an association of a negative bias with amygdala activation for neutral facial expressions that was specific to the patient group. We replicated previous findings of affected emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Furthermore, we demonstrated that altered amygdala activation in the patient group was associated with the occurrence of a negative bias. These results provide further evidence for impaired social cognition in schizophrenia and point to a central role of the amygdala in negative misperceptions of facial stimuli in schizophrenia.

  20. Physical activity: benefit or weakness in metabolic adaptations in a mouse model of chronic food restriction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méquinion, Mathieu; Caron, Emilie; Zgheib, Sara; Stievenard, Aliçia; Zizzari, Philippe; Tolle, Virginie; Cortet, Bernard; Lucas, Stéphanie; Prévot, Vincent; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile

    2015-02-01

    In restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, physical activity is usually associated with food restriction, but its physiological consequences remain poorly characterized. In female mice, we evaluated the impact of voluntary physical activity with/without chronic food restriction on metabolic and endocrine parameters that might contribute to AN. In this protocol, FRW mice (i.e., food restriction with running wheel) reached a crucial point of body weight loss (especially fat mass) faster than FR mice (i.e., food restriction only). However, in contrast to FR mice, their body weight stabilized, demonstrating a protective effect of a moderate, regular physical activity. Exercise delayed meal initiation and duration. FRW mice displayed food anticipatory activity compared with FR mice, which was strongly diminished with the prolongation of the protocol. The long-term nature of the protocol enabled assessment of bone parameters similar to those observed in AN patients. Both restricted groups adapted their energy metabolism differentially in the short and long term, with less fat oxidation in FRW mice and a preferential use of glucose to compensate for the chronic energy imbalance. Finally, like restrictive AN patients, FRW mice exhibited low leptin levels, high plasma concentrations of corticosterone and ghrelin, and a disruption of the estrous cycle. In conclusion, our model suggests that physical activity has beneficial effects on the adaptation to the severe condition of food restriction despite the absence of any protective effect on lean and bone mass. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Art Activity and Personal Intelligence: Its Influence to Children Adaptation Skill (Experiments at Hidayatullah Islamic School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana, M. Pd

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Art, one of the elements of human culture has been evolving over a long time. It is a product of working which involving skills, creative, sense, thought and heart sensibility to produce a piece of work, beauty, and harmony. The aim of this research was to find art activities for children with personal intelligence. In term of my hypothesis, children have ability to adapt and confidence to show their feelings, also demonstrate cooperated work with others. Singing and drawing were used as treatments to present how it all works to show any influence for children in the classroom. These activities were chosen in order to capture the condition as singing and drawing were rarely used by teachers in managing children in the first time they came into the classroom. Researcher discovered that drawing was one of the activities teachers used only in a spare time, otherwise as a stimuli to adjust children in the new place. This condition also happened in singing activity, teachers tend to introduce national anthem and let students only to memorise the songs. Using T-test for analysing the data, researcher found out that Fsum= 3,604 and Ftable = 2,861. It meant that there was a significant interaction between singing and drawing activity with personal intelligence to children adaptation skill.

  2. Differential and conditional activation of PKC-isoforms dictates cardiac adaptation during physiological to pathological hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Shaon; Datta, Kaberi; Mitra, Arkadeep; Pathak, Kanchan; Datta, Ritwik; Bansal, Trisha; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2014-01-01

    A cardiac hypertrophy is defined as an increase in heart mass which may either be beneficial (physiological hypertrophy) or detrimental (pathological hypertrophy). This study was undertaken to establish the role of different protein kinase-C (PKC) isoforms in the regulation of cardiac adaptation during two types of cardiac hypertrophy. Phosphorylation of specific PKC-isoforms and expression of their downstream proteins were studied during physiological and pathological hypertrophy in 24 week male Balb/c mice (Mus musculus) models, by reverse transcriptase-PCR, western blot analysis and M-mode echocardiography for cardiac function analysis. PKC-δ was significantly induced during pathological hypertrophy while PKC-α was exclusively activated during physiological hypertrophy in our study. PKC-δ activation during pathological hypertrophy resulted in cardiomyocyte apoptosis leading to compromised cardiac function and on the other hand, activation of PKC-α during physiological hypertrophy promoted cardiomyocyte growth but down regulated cellular apoptotic load resulting in improved cardiac function. Reversal in PKC-isoform with induced activation of PKC-δ and simultaneous inhibition of phospho-PKC-α resulted in an efficient myocardium to deteriorate considerably resulting in compromised cardiac function during physiological hypertrophy via augmentation of apoptotic and fibrotic load. This is the first report where PKC-α and -δ have been shown to play crucial role in cardiac adaptation during physiological and pathological hypertrophy respectively thereby rendering compromised cardiac function to an otherwise efficient heart by conditional reversal of their activation.

  3. Adaptation rearrangements of heart of young sportsmen depending on the orientation of the training activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Lastochkin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: studying of the main parameters of morphofunctional condition of the left ventricular cavity of heart of sportsmen in the conditions of the training and competitive activity. Material & Methods: three groups of children (n=30 of 7–9, 10–12, 13–14 years old, who begin to train in sports with the manifestation of endurance and high-speed and power qualities, the qualified sportsmen at the age of 15–16 years old, who are engaged in run on 400 m with barriers, and karatekas (n=15+n=15, not engaged children of the same aged groups (n=40. The following methods of the research were applied: analysis of special literature, pedagogical supervisions, pedagogical experiment, echocardiological methods of the research. Results: the considerable connection of types of heart of young sportsmen with indicators of exercise stress of various orientations is established. Sportsmen with the optimum vegeto-rhythmic indicators have the essential advantages in adaptation morphofunctional displacements in heart and warm productivity at sportsmen with satisfactory vegetative-rhythmic indicators. Conclusions: adaptation morphofunctional displacements in activity of the cardio-respiratory system are closely connected with the prevailing orientation of the training process and can be used as the objective test of adaptation to the special loadings in sport.

  4. A Web-Based, Social Networking Physical Activity Intervention for Insufficiently Active Adults Delivered via Facebook App: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Carol; Ferguson, Monika; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Plotnikoff, Ron; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Thomas, Samantha; Nelson-Field, Karen; Olds, Tim

    2015-07-13

    Online social networks offer considerable potential for delivery of socially influential health behavior change interventions. To determine the efficacy, engagement, and feasibility of an online social networking physical activity intervention with pedometers delivered via Facebook app. A total of 110 adults with a mean age of 35.6 years (SD 12.4) were recruited online in teams of 3 to 8 friends. Teams were randomly allocated to receive access to a 50-day online social networking physical activity intervention which included self-monitoring, social elements, and pedometers ("Active Team" Facebook app; n=51 individuals, 12 teams) or a wait-listed control condition (n=59 individuals, 13 teams). Assessments were undertaken online at baseline, 8 weeks, and 20 weeks. The primary outcome measure was self-reported weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes were weekly walking, vigorous physical activity time, moderate physical activity time, overall quality of life, and mental health quality of life. Analyses were undertaken using random-effects mixed modeling, accounting for potential clustering at the team level. Usage statistics were reported descriptively to determine engagement and feasibility. At the 8-week follow-up, the intervention participants had significantly increased their total weekly MVPA by 135 minutes relative to the control group (P=.03), due primarily to increases in walking time (155 min/week increase relative to controls, Pnetworking physical activity intervention with pedometers can produce sizable short-term physical activity changes. Future work is needed to determine how to maintain behavior change in the longer term, how to reach at-need populations, and how to disseminate such interventions on a mass scale. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12614000488606; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366239 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ZVtu6TMz).

  5. Total lactate dehydrogenase activity of tail muscle is not cold-adapted in nocturnal lizards from cool-temperate habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, K M; Miller, J H; Clark, A G; Daugherty, C H

    2005-12-01

    The dependence of metabolic processes on temperature constrains the behavior, physiology and ecology of many ectothermic animals. The evolution of nocturnality in lizards, especially in temperate regions, requires adaptations for activity at low temperatures when optimal body temperatures are unlikely to be obtained. We examined whether nocturnal lizards have cold-adapted lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). LDH was chosen as a representative metabolic enzyme. We measured LDH activity of tail muscle in six lizard species (n=123: three nocturnal, two diurnal and one crepuscular) between 5 and 35 degrees C and found no differences in LDH-specific activity or thermal sensitivity among the species. Similarly, the specific activity and thermal sensitivity of LDH were similar between skinks and geckos. Similar enzyme activities among nocturnal and diurnal lizards indicate that there is no selection of temperature specific LDH enzyme activity at any temperature. As many nocturnal lizards actively thermoregulate during the day, LDH may be adapted for a broad range of temperatures rather than adapted specifically for the low temperatures encountered when the animals are active. The total activity of LDH in tropical and temperate lizards is not cold-adapted. More data are required on biochemical adaptations and whole animal thermal preferences before trends can be established.

  6. Synchronization of cells with activator-inhibitor pathways through adaptive environment-mediated coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghomsi, P Guemkam; Kakmeni, F M Moukam; Tchawoua, C; Kofane, T C

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synchronized dynamics of cells with activator-inhibitor pathways via an adaptive environment-mediated coupling scheme with feedbacks and control mechanisms. The adaptive character of the extracellular medium is modeled via its damping parameter as a physiological response aiming at annihilating the cellular differentiation existing between the chaotic biochemical pathways of the cells, in order to preserve homeostasis. We perform an investigation on the existence and stability of the synchronization manifold of the coupled system under the proposed coupling pattern. Both mathematical and computational tools suggest the accessibility of conducive prerequisites (conditions) for the emergence of a robust synchronous regime. The relevance of a phase-synchronized dynamics is appraised and several numerical indicators advocate for the prevalence of this fascinating phenomenon among the interacting cells in the phase space.

  7. Application of Feedforward Adaptive Active-Noise Control for Reducing Blade Passing Noise in Centrifugal Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, J.-D.; BAI, M. R.

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes two configurations of feedforward adaptive active-noise control (ANC) technique for reducing blade passing noise in centrifugal fans. In one configuration, the control speaker is installed at the cut-off region of the fan, while in the other configuration at the exit duct. The proposed ANC system is based on the filtered-x least-mean-squares (FXLMS) algorithm with multi-sine synthesized reference signal and frequency counting and is implemented by using a digital signal processor (DSP). Experiments are carried out to evaluate the proposed system for reducing the noise at the blade passing frequency (BPF) and its harmonics at various flow speeds. The results of the experiment indicated that the ANC technique is effective in reducing the blade passing noise for two configurations by using the feedforward adaptive control.

  8. Adaptively Active Contours Based on Variable Exponent Lp(|∇I| Norm for Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an Lp(|∇I|-based adaptively active contours model for image segmentation which is derived from the well-known Chan-Vese (C-V model. Unlike the C-V model, the proposed model uses the Lp(|∇I| (p(|∇I|>2 norm instead of the L2 norm to define the external energy and incorporates an extra internal energy into the overall energy. Due to the variable exponent p(|∇I|  which could fit the image gradient information adaptively, the proposed Lp(|∇I|-based model has the hope of segmenting those images with low contrast and blurred boundaries. Experimental results show that the proposed model with p(|∇I|>2 really can effectively and quickly segment those images with low contrast and blurred boundaries.

  9. Synchronization of cells with activator-inhibitor pathways through adaptive environment-mediated coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghomsi, P. Guemkam; Moukam Kakmeni, F. M.; Tchawoua, C.; Kofane, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we report the synchronized dynamics of cells with activator-inhibitor pathways via an adaptive environment-mediated coupling scheme with feedbacks and control mechanisms. The adaptive character of the extracellular medium is modeled via its damping parameter as a physiological response aiming at annihilating the cellular differentiation existing between the chaotic biochemical pathways of the cells, in order to preserve homeostasis. We perform an investigation on the existence and stability of the synchronization manifold of the coupled system under the proposed coupling pattern. Both mathematical and computational tools suggest the accessibility of conducive prerequisites (conditions) for the emergence of a robust synchronous regime. The relevance of a phase-synchronized dynamics is appraised and several numerical indicators advocate for the prevalence of this fascinating phenomenon among the interacting cells in the phase space.

  10. Active tension adaptation at a shortened arterial muscle length: inhibition by cytochalasin-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, Melissa L; Speich, John E; Miner, Amy S; Ratz, Paul H

    2011-04-01

    Unlike the static length-tension curve of striated muscle, airway and urinary bladder smooth muscles display a dynamic length-tension curve. Much less is known about the plasticity of the length-tension curve of vascular smooth muscle. The present study demonstrates that there were significant increases of ∼15% in the phasic phase and ∼10% in the tonic phase of a third KCl-induced contraction of a rabbit femoral artery ring relative to the first contraction after a 20% decrease in length from an optimal muscle length (L(0)) to 0.8-fold L(0). Typically, three repeated contractions were necessary for full length adaptation to occur. The tonic phase of a third KCl-induced contraction was increased by ∼50% after the release of tissues from 1.25-fold to 0.75-fold L(o). The mechanism for this phenomenon did not appear to lie in thick filament regulation because there was no increase in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation to support the increase in tension nor was length adaptation abolished when Ca(2+) entry was limited by nifedipine and when Rho kinase (ROCK) was blocked by H-1152. However, length adaptation of both the phasic and tonic phases was abolished when actin polymerization was inhibited through blockade of the plus end of actin by cytochalasin-D. Interestingly, inhibition of actin polymerization when G-actin monomers were sequestered by latrunculin-B increased the phasic phase and had no effect on the tonic phase of contraction during length adaptation. These data suggest that for a given level of cytosolic free Ca(2+), active tension in the femoral artery can be sensitized not only by regulation of MLC phosphatase via ROCK and protein kinase C, as has been reported by others, but also by a nonmyosin regulatory mechanism involving actin polymerization. Dysregulation of this form of active tension modulation may provide insight into alterations of large artery stiffness in hypertension.

  11. The role of CNS TLR2 activation in mediating innate versus adaptive neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Avital; Fainstein, Nina; Einstein, Ofira; Ben-Hur, Tamir

    2015-11-01

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is expressed on immune cells in the periphery and the CNS and mediates both innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent studies have implicated TLR2 in systemic pathogenesis of adaptive immunity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In addition, TLR2 is expressed on oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and its activation inhibits their differentiation and myelination. We investigated the roles of CNS TLR2 activation in mediating neuro-inflammatory responses in intact versus EAE animals. We examined the effects of intra-cerebro-ventricular (ICV) injection of Zymosan, a TLR2 agonist, on naive versus EAE animals. The neuro-inflammatory response was characterized by immune-fluorescent staining for IBA-1+ microglia/macrophages and CD3+ T cells, and by semi-quantitative real time PCR for TLR2 and immune cytokines. The nature of the immune cells isolated from EAE brain tissue was assessed by their proliferative response to the PLP peptide autoantigen. Survival and clinical scores were monitored; demyelination and axonal loss were quantified by Gold-Black and Bielschowsky stains. Our findings showed that Zymosan injection in naïve mice induced a massive neuro-inflammatory response without any clinical manifestations. In EAE mice, ICV Zymosan induced a severe acute toxic response with 80% mortality. Surviving animals returned to pre-injection clinical score, and their course of disease was not altered as compared to control EAE group. Demyelination and axonal loss were not affected by ICV Zymosan injection. Quantification of immune response in the brain by real time PCR, immunofluorescent stains and proliferative response to PLP peptide suggested that TLR2 activation induces innate but not adaptive immune response. We conclude that EAE mice are hypersensitive to CNS TLR2 activation with a severe toxic response. This might represent the susceptibility of multiple sclerosis patients to even trivial infections. As CNS TLR2 activation

  12. Selection pressure, cropping system and rhizosphere proximity affect atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soils are likely affected by interactions among and (or) between s-triazine application frequency, crop production system, and proximity to the rhizosphere. A field study was conducted on an s-triazine adapted soil to determine the ef...

  13. Progressive adaptation in physical activity and neuromuscular performance during 520d confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belavý, Daniel L; Gast, Ulf; Daumer, Martin; Fomina, Elena; Rawer, Rainer; Schießl, Hans; Schneider, Stefan; Schubert, Harald; Soaz, Cristina; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    To understand whether prolonged confinement results in reductions in physical activity and adaptation in the musculoskeletal system, six subjects were measured during 520 d isolation in the Mars500 study. We tested the hypothesis that physical activity reduces in prolonged confinement and that this would be associated with decrements of neuromuscular performance. Physical activity, as measured by average acceleration of the body's center of mass ("activity temperature") using the actibelt® device, decreased progressively over the course of isolation (p<0.00001). Concurrently, countermovement jump power and single-leg hop force decreased during isolation (p<0.001) whilst grip force did not change (p≥0.14). Similar to other models of inactivity, greater decrements of neuromuscular performance occurred in the lower-limb than in the upper-limb. Subject motivational state increased non-significantly (p = 0.20) during isolation, suggesting reductions in lower-limb neuromuscular performance were unrelated to motivation. Overall, we conclude that prolonged confinement is a form of physical inactivity and is associated with adaptation in the neuromuscular system.

  14. Progressive adaptation in physical activity and neuromuscular performance during 520d confinement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Belavý

    Full Text Available To understand whether prolonged confinement results in reductions in physical activity and adaptation in the musculoskeletal system, six subjects were measured during 520 d isolation in the Mars500 study. We tested the hypothesis that physical activity reduces in prolonged confinement and that this would be associated with decrements of neuromuscular performance. Physical activity, as measured by average acceleration of the body's center of mass ("activity temperature" using the actibelt® device, decreased progressively over the course of isolation (p<0.00001. Concurrently, countermovement jump power and single-leg hop force decreased during isolation (p<0.001 whilst grip force did not change (p≥0.14. Similar to other models of inactivity, greater decrements of neuromuscular performance occurred in the lower-limb than in the upper-limb. Subject motivational state increased non-significantly (p = 0.20 during isolation, suggesting reductions in lower-limb neuromuscular performance were unrelated to motivation. Overall, we conclude that prolonged confinement is a form of physical inactivity and is associated with adaptation in the neuromuscular system.

  15. Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Activation of the Primary Visual Cortex Predicts Size Adaptation Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Arrighi, Roberto; Biagi, Laura; Morrone, Maria Concetta

    2016-01-01

    In natural scenes, objects rarely occur in isolation but appear within a spatiotemporal context. Here, we show that the perceived size of a stimulus is significantly affected by the context of the scene: brief previous presentation of larger or smaller adapting stimuli at the same region of space changes the perceived size of a test stimulus, with larger adapting stimuli causing the test to appear smaller than veridical and vice versa. In a human fMRI study, we measured the blood oxygen level-dependent activation (BOLD) responses of the primary visual cortex (V1) to the contours of large-diameter stimuli and found that activation closely matched the perceptual rather than the retinal stimulus size: the activated area of V1 increased or decreased, depending on the size of the preceding stimulus. A model based on local inhibitory V1 mechanisms simulated the inward or outward shifts of the stimulus contours and hence the perceptual effects. Our findings suggest that area V1 is actively involved in reshaping our perception to match the short-term statistics of the visual scene. PMID:24089504

  16. A new robust adaptive controller for vibration control of active engine mount subjected to large uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Vahid; Choi, Seung-Bok; Cho, Chang-Hyun

    2015-04-01

    This work presents a new robust model reference adaptive control (MRAC) for vibration control caused from vehicle engine using an electromagnetic type of active engine mount. Vibration isolation performances of the active mount associated with the robust controller are evaluated in the presence of large uncertainties. As a first step, an active mount with linear solenoid actuator is prepared and its dynamic model is identified via experimental test. Subsequently, a new robust MRAC based on the gradient method with σ-modification is designed by selecting a proper reference model. In designing the robust adaptive control, structured (parametric) uncertainties in the stiffness of the passive part of the mount and in damping ratio of the active part of the mount are considered to investigate the robustness of the proposed controller. Experimental and simulation results are presented to evaluate performance focusing on the robustness behavior of the controller in the face of large uncertainties. The obtained results show that the proposed controller can sufficiently provide the robust vibration control performance even in the presence of large uncertainties showing an effective vibration isolation.

  17. Comparison of disease activity in SPMS and PPMS in the context of multicenter clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotem Orbach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retrospective single center natural history studies have shown that times to reach disability milestones and ages at which they are reached are similar in primary (PPMS and secondary (SPMS progressive multiple sclerosis suggesting that they may be phenotypic variations of the same disease. OBJECTIVE: Here we compared longitudinal disease activity in SPMS and PPMS in the context of international multicenter clinical trials. METHODS: We analyzed all objective outcome measures that were systematically collected over 2 years for all subjects randomized to placebo arms in one SPMS and one PPMS clinical trial over the last decade. Conventional and exploratory definitions of clinical disease activity were used. Disease activity was analyzed in 3 different categories intermittent activity, progression, and improvement. Conventional MRI measures and one patient reported outcome measure of quality of life were included when available for comparison. Heat maps were drawn for all results followed by hierarchical clustering. RESULTS: There were 101 outcome variables from 206 SPMS subjects and 79 outcome variables from 135 PPMS subjects. The comparison revealed that SPMS and PPMS subjects exhibited similar disease activity over 2 years in all but two of the variables in common worsening in the EDSS sensory system was more common in PPMS while worsening on the 9 hole PEG was more common in SPMS. Intermittent activity was the most common pattern of disease activity in SPMS and PPMS. Clinical worsening and improvement occurred at similar frequency in both. CONCLUSION: Longitudinal disease activity was nearly identical in SPMS and PPMS subjects in the context of the two multicenter international clinical trials we examined.

  18. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zwan, van der, G.; Vente, de, W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; Bruin,, Henk

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and a...

  19. Engineering Online and In-Person Social Networks for Physical Activity: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovniak, Liza S; Kong, Lan; Hovell, Melbourne F; Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F; Ray, Chester A; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Matthews, Stephen A; Kiser, Elizabeth; Chinchilli, Vernon M; George, Daniel R; Sciamanna, Christopher N

    2016-12-01

    Social networks can influence physical activity, but little is known about how best to engineer online and in-person social networks to increase activity. The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized trial based on the Social Networks for Activity Promotion model to assess the incremental contributions of different procedures for building social networks on objectively measured outcomes. Physically inactive adults (n = 308, age, 50.3 (SD = 8.3) years, 38.3 % male, 83.4 % overweight/obese) were randomized to one of three groups. The Promotion group evaluated the effects of weekly emailed tips emphasizing social network interactions for walking (e.g., encouragement, informational support); the Activity group evaluated the incremental effect of adding an evidence-based online fitness walking intervention to the weekly tips; and the Social Networks group evaluated the additional incremental effect of providing access to an online networking site for walking as well as prompting walking/activity across diverse settings. The primary outcome was mean change in accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), assessed at 3 and 9 months from baseline. Participants increased their MVPA by 21.0 min/week, 95 % CI [5.9, 36.1], p = .005, at 3 months, and this change was sustained at 9 months, with no between-group differences. Although the structure of procedures for targeting social networks varied across intervention groups, the functional effect of these procedures on physical activity was similar. Future research should evaluate if more powerful reinforcers improve the effects of social network interventions. The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01142804).

  20. Effect of different aerodynamic time trial cycling positions on muscle activation and crank torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintelman, D M; Sterling, M; Hemida, H; Li, F-X

    2016-05-01

    To reduce air resistance, time trial cyclists and triathletes lower their torso angle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lowering time trial torso angle positions on muscle activation patterns and crank torque coordination. It was hypothesized that small torso angles yield a forward shift of the muscle activation timing and crank torque. Twenty-one trained cyclists performed three exercise bouts at 70% maximal aerobic power in a time trial position at three different torso angles (0°, 8°, and 16°) at a fixed cadence of 85 rpm. Measurements included surface electromyography, crank torques and gas exchange. A significant increase in crank torque range and forward shift in peak torque timing was found at smaller torso angles. This relates closely with the later onset and duration of the muscle activation found in the gluteus maximus muscle. Torso angle effects were only observed in proximal monoarticular muscles. Moreover, all measured physiological variables (oxygen consumption, breathing frequency, minute ventilation) were significantly increased with lowering torso angle and hence decreased the gross efficiency. The findings provide support for the notion that at a cycling intensity of 70% maximal aerobic power, the aerodynamic gains outweigh the physiological/biomechanical disadvantages in trained cyclists.

  1. Community dynamics and glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, J.M.; Allgaier, M.; Miller, C.S.; Hazen, T.C.; VanderGheynst, J.S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Simmons, B.A.; Singer, S.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60 C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80 C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

  2. Adaptive wave field synthesis for broadband active sound field reproduction: signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert; Berry, Alain

    2008-04-01

    Sound field reproduction is a physical approach to the reproduction of the natural spatial character of hearing. It is also useful in experimental acoustics and psychoacoustics. Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a known open-loop technology which assumes that the reproduction environment is anechoic. A real reflective reproduction space thus reduces the objective accuracy of WFS. Recently, adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS) was defined as a combination of WFS and active compensation. AWFS is based on the minimization of reproduction errors and on the penalization of departure from the WFS solution. This paper focuses on signal processing for AWFS. A classical adaptive algorithm is modified for AWFS: filtered-reference least-mean-square. This modified algorithm and the classical equivalent leaky algorithm have similar convergence properties except that the WFS solution influences the adaptation rule of the modified algorithm. The paper also introduces signal processing for independent radiation mode control of AWFS on the basis of plant decoupling. Simulation results for AWFS are introduced for free-field and reflective spaces. The two algorithms effectively reproduce the sound field and compensate for the reproduction errors at the error sensors. The independent radiation mode control allows a more flexible tuning of the algorithm.

  3. Plant adaptation to extreme environments: the example of Cistus salviifolius of an active geothermal alteration field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Giacomo; Bottega, Stefania; Forino, Laura M C; Ciccarelli, Daniela; Spanò, Carmelina

    2014-02-01

    Cistus salviifolius is able to colonise one of the most extreme active geothermal alteration fields in terms of both soil acidity and hot temperatures. The analyses of morpho-functional and physiological characters, investigated in leaves of plants growing around fumaroles (G leaves) and in leaves developed by the same plants after transfer into growth chamber under controlled conditions (C leaves) evidenced the main adaptive traits developed by this pioneer plant in a stressful environment. These traits involved leaf shape and thickness, mesophyll compactness, stomatal and trichome densities, chloroplast size. Changes of functional and physiological traits concerned dry matter content, peroxide and lipid peroxidation, leaf area, relative water and pigment contents. A higher reducing power and antioxidant enzymatic activity were typical of G leaves. Though the high levels of stress parameters, G leaves showed stress-induced specific morphogenic and physiological responses putatively involved in their surviving in active geothermal habitats.

  4. Multi-GPU adaptation of a simulator of heart electric activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. García

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of the electrical activity of the heart is calculated by solving a large system of ordinary differential equations; this takes an enormous amount of computation time. In recent years graphics processing unit (GPU are being introduced in the field of high performance computing. These powerful computing devices have attracted research groups requiring simulate the electrical activity of the heart. The research group signing this paper has developed a simulator of cardiac electrical activity that runs on a single GPU. This article describes the adaptation and modification of the simulator to run on multiple GPU. The results confirm that the technique significantly reduces the execution time compared to those obtained with a single GPU, and allows the solution of larger problems.

  5. Active eye-tracking for an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Christy K.; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Sabesan, Ramkumar; Roorda, Austin

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a system that combines a tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO) and an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) system resulting in both optical (hardware) and digital (software) eye-tracking capabilities. The hybrid system employs the TSLO for active eye-tracking at a rate up to 960 Hz for real-time stabilization of the AOSLO system. AOSLO videos with active eye-tracking signals showed, at most, an amplitude of motion of 0.20 arcminutes for horizontal motion and 0.14 arcminutes for vertical motion. Subsequent real-time digital stabilization limited residual motion to an average of only 0.06 arcminutes (a 95% reduction). By correcting for high amplitude, low frequency drifts of the eye, the active TSLO eye-tracking system enabled the AOSLO system to capture high-resolution retinal images over a larger range of motion than previously possible with just the AOSLO imaging system alone. PMID:26203370

  6. Active eye-tracking for an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Christy K; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Sabesan, Ramkumar; Roorda, Austin

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate a system that combines a tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO) and an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) system resulting in both optical (hardware) and digital (software) eye-tracking capabilities. The hybrid system employs the TSLO for active eye-tracking at a rate up to 960 Hz for real-time stabilization of the AOSLO system. AOSLO videos with active eye-tracking signals showed, at most, an amplitude of motion of 0.20 arcminutes for horizontal motion and 0.14 arcminutes for vertical motion. Subsequent real-time digital stabilization limited residual motion to an average of only 0.06 arcminutes (a 95% reduction). By correcting for high amplitude, low frequency drifts of the eye, the active TSLO eye-tracking system enabled the AOSLO system to capture high-resolution retinal images over a larger range of motion than previously possible with just the AOSLO imaging system alone.

  7. ELISPOT Assay for Monitoring Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL Activity in Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Sayers

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The profiling and monitoring of immune responses are key elements in the evaluation of the efficacy and development of new biotherapies, and a number of assays have been introduced for analyzing various immune parameters before, during, and after immunotherapy. The choice of immune assays for a given clinical trial depends on the known or suggested immunomodulating mechanisms associated with the tested therapeutic modality. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity represents a key mechanism in the immune response to various pathogens and tumors. Therefore, the selection of monitoring methods for the appropriate assessment of cell-mediated cytotoxicity is thought to be crucial. Assays that can detect both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL frequency and function, such as the IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT have gained increasing popularity for monitoring clinical trials and in basic research. Results from various clinical trials, including peptide and whole tumor cell vaccination and cytokine treatment, have shown the suitability of the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay for monitoring T cell responses. However, the Granzyme B ELISPOT assay and Perforin ELISPOT assay may represent a more direct analysis of cell-mediated cytotoxicity as compared to the IFN-γ ELISPOT, since Granzyme B and perforin are the key mediators of target cell death via the granule-mediated pathway. In this review we analyze our own data and the data reported by others with regard to the application of various modifications of ELISPOT assays for monitoring CTL activity in clinical vaccine trials.

  8. Adaptive tracking control for active suspension systems with non-ideal actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huihui; Sun, Weichao; Jing, Xingjian; Gao, Huijun; Yao, Jianyong

    2017-07-01

    As a critical component of transportation vehicles, active suspension systems are instrumental in the improvement of ride comfort and maneuverability. However, practical active suspensions commonly suffer from parameter uncertainties (e.g., the variations of payload mass and suspension component parameters), external disturbances and especially the unknown non-ideal actuators (i.e., dead-zone and hysteresis nonlinearities), which always significantly deteriorate the control performance in practice. To overcome these issues, this paper synthesizes an adaptive tracking control strategy for vehicle suspension systems to achieve suspension performance improvements. The proposed control algorithm is formulated by developing a unified framework of non-ideal actuators rather than a separate way, which is a simple yet effective approach to remove the unexpected nonlinear effects. From the perspective of practical implementation, the advantages of the presented controller for active suspensions include that the assumptions on the measurable actuator outputs, the prior knowledge of nonlinear actuator parameters and the uncertain parameters within a known compact set are not required. Furthermore, the stability of the closed-loop suspension system is theoretically guaranteed by rigorous mathematical analysis. Finally, the effectiveness of the presented adaptive control scheme is confirmed using comparative numerical simulation validations.

  9. A comparison of two adaptive algorithms for the control of active engine mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, A. J.; Harrison, A. J. L.; Stoten, D. P.

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes work conducted in order to control automotive active engine mounts, consisting of a conventional passive mount and an internal electromagnetic actuator. Active engine mounts seek to cancel the oscillatory forces generated by the rotation of out-of-balance masses within the engine. The actuator generates a force dependent on a control signal from an algorithm implemented with a real-time DSP. The filtered-x least-mean-square (FXLMS) adaptive filter is used as a benchmark for comparison with a new implementation of the error-driven minimal controller synthesis (Er-MCSI) adaptive controller. Both algorithms are applied to an active mount fitted to a saloon car equipped with a four-cylinder turbo-diesel engine, and have no a priori knowledge of the system dynamics. The steady-state and transient performance of the two algorithms are compared and the relative merits of the two approaches are discussed. The Er-MCSI strategy offers significant computational advantages as it requires no cancellation path modelling. The Er-MCSI controller is found to perform in a fashion similar to the FXLMS filter—typically reducing chassis vibration by 50-90% under normal driving conditions.

  10. A New Approach to Teaching Biomechanics Through Active, Adaptive, and Experiential Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anita

    2017-07-01

    Demand of biomedical engineers continues to rise to meet the needs of healthcare industry. Current training of bioengineers follows the traditional and dominant model of theory-focused curricula. However, the unmet needs of the healthcare industry warrant newer skill sets in these engineers. Translational training strategies such as solving real world problems through active, adaptive, and experiential learning hold promise. In this paper, we report our findings of adding a real-world 4-week problem-based learning unit into a biomechanics capstone course for engineering students. Surveys assessed student perceptions of the activity and learning experience. While students, across three cohorts, felt challenged to solve a real-world problem identified during the simulation lab visit, they felt more confident in utilizing knowledge learned in the biomechanics course and self-directed research. Instructor evaluations indicated that the active and experiential learning approach fostered their technical knowledge and life-long learning skills while exposing them to the components of adaptive learning and innovation.

  11. Physical activity stimulation program for children with cerebral palsy did not improve physical activity: a randomised trial

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    Leontien Van Wely

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Question: In children with cerebral palsy, does a 6-month physical activity stimulation program improve physical activity, mobility capacity, fitness, fatigue and attitude towards sports more than usual paediatric physiotherapy? Design: Multicentre randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation, blinded assessments and intention-to-treat analysis. Participants: Forty-nine walking children (28 males aged 7–13 years with spastic cerebral palsy and severity of the disability classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System level I–III. Intervention: The intervention group followed a 6-month physical activity stimulation program involving counselling through motivational interviewing, home-based physiotherapy, and 4 months of fitness training. The control group continued their usual paediatric physiotherapy. Outcome measures: Primary outcomes were walking activity (assessed objectively with an activity monitor and parent-reported physical activity (Activity Questionnaire for Adults and Adolescents. Secondary outcomes were: mobility capacity, consisting of Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66, walking capacity and functional strength, fitness (aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscle strength, self-reported fatigue, and attitude towards sport (child and parent. Assessments were performed at baseline, 4 months, 6 months and 12 months. Results: There were no significant intervention effects for physical activity or secondary outcomes at any assessment time. Positive trends were found for parent-reported time at moderate-to-vigorous intensity (between-group change ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.4 and GMFM-66 (mean between-group difference = 2.8 points, 95% CI 0.2 to 5.4 at 6 months, but not at 12 months. There was a trend for a small, but clinically irrelevant, improvement in the children's attitudes towards the disadvantages of sports at 6 months, and towards the advantages of sports at 12 months. Conclusions: This physical

  12. Anti-biofilm activities from marine cold adapted bacteria against staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Rosanna ePapa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms have great negative impacts on the world’s economy and pose serious problems to industry, public health and medicine. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation has increased. Since, bacterial pathogens living in biofilm induce persistent chronic infections due to the resistance to antibiotics and host immune system. A viable approach should target adhesive properties without affecting bacterial vitality in order to avoid the appearance of resistant mutants. Many bacteria secrete anti-biofilm molecules that function in regulating biofilm architecture or mediating the release of cells from it during the dispersal stage of biofilm life cycle. Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules.The anti-biofilm activity of cell-free supernatants derived from sessile and planktonic cultures of cold-adapted bacteria belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter and Psychromonas species were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Reported results demonstrate that we have selected supernatants, from cold-adapted marine bacteria, containing non-biocidal agents able to destabilize biofilm matrix of all tested pathogens without killing cells. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of supernatants was also performed, and these analyses highlighted the presence of molecules of different nature that act by inhibiting biofilm formation. Some of them are also able to impair the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface, thus likely containing molecules acting as anti-biofilm surfactant molecules.The described ability of cold-adapted bacteria to produce effective anti-biofilm molecules paves the way to further characterization of the most promising molecules

  13. Anti-Biofilm Activities from Marine Cold Adapted Bacteria Against Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Rosanna; Selan, Laura; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Tilotta, Marco; Sannino, Filomena; Feller, Georges; Tutino, Maria L; Artini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Microbial biofilms have great negative impacts on the world's economy and pose serious problems to industry, public health and medicine. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation has increased. Since, bacterial pathogens living in biofilm induce persistent chronic infections due to the resistance to antibiotics and host immune system. A viable approach should target adhesive properties without affecting bacterial vitality in order to avoid the appearance of resistant mutants. Many bacteria secrete anti-biofilm molecules that function in regulating biofilm architecture or mediating the release of cells from it during the dispersal stage of biofilm life cycle. Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules. The anti-biofilm activity of cell-free supernatants derived from sessile and planktonic cultures of cold-adapted bacteria belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, and Psychromonas species were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Reported results demonstrate that we have selected supernatants, from cold-adapted marine bacteria, containing non-biocidal agents able to destabilize biofilm matrix of all tested pathogens without killing cells. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of supernatants was also performed, and these analyses highlighted the presence of molecules of different nature that act by inhibiting biofilm formation. Some of them are also able to impair the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface, thus likely containing molecules acting as anti-biofilm surfactant molecules. The described ability of cold-adapted bacteria to produce effective anti-biofilm molecules paves the way to further characterization of the most promising molecules and to test their

  14. Cross-sector surveys assessing perceptions of key stakeholders towards barriers, concerns and facilitators to the appropriate use of adaptive designs in confirmatory trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimairo, Munyaradzi; Julious, Steven A; Todd, Susan; Nicholl, Jonathan P; Boote, Jonathan

    2015-12-23

    Appropriately conducted adaptive designs (ADs) offer many potential advantages over conventional trials. They make better use of accruing data, potentially saving time, trial participants, and limited resources compared to conventional, fixed sample size designs. However, one can argue that ADs are not implemented as often as they should be, particularly in publicly funded confirmatory trials. This study explored barriers, concerns, and potential facilitators to the appropriate use of ADs in confirmatory trials among key stakeholders. We conducted three cross-sectional, online parallel surveys between November 2014 and January 2015. The surveys were based upon findings drawn from in-depth interviews of key research stakeholders, predominantly in the UK, and targeted Clinical Trials Units (CTUs), public funders, and private sector organisations. Response rates were as follows: 30(55 %) UK CTUs, 17(68 %) private sector, and 86(41 %) public funders. A Rating Scale Model was used to rank barriers and concerns in order of perceived importance for prioritisation. Top-ranked barriers included the lack of bridge funding accessible to UK CTUs to support the design of ADs, limited practical implementation knowledge, preference for traditional mainstream designs, difficulties in marketing ADs to key stakeholders, time constraints to support ADs relative to competing priorities, lack of applied training, and insufficient access to case studies of undertaken ADs to facilitate practical learning and successful implementation. Associated practical complexities and inadequate data management infrastructure to support ADs were reported as more pronounced in the private sector. For funders of public research, the inadequate description of the rationale, scope, and decision-making criteria to guide the planned AD in grant proposals by researchers were all viewed as major obstacles. There are still persistent and important perceptions of individual and organisational obstacles

  15. Disease activity indices in coeliac disease: systematic review and recommendations for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindryckx, Pieter; Levesque, Barrett G; Holvoet, Tom; Durand, Serina; Tang, Ceen-Ming; Parker, Claire; Khanna, Reena; Shackelton, Lisa M; D'Haens, Geert; Sandborn, William J; Feagan, Brian G; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Leffler, Daniel A; Jairath, Vipul

    2016-10-31

    Although several pharmacological agents have emerged as potential adjunctive therapies to a gluten-free diet for coeliac disease, there is currently no widely accepted measure of disease activity used in clinical trials. We conducted a systematic review of coeliac disease activity indices to evaluate their operating properties and potential as outcome measures in registration trials. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane central library were searched from 1966 to 2015 for eligible studies in adult and/or paediatric patients with coeliac disease that included coeliac disease activity markers in their outcome measures. The operating characteristics of histological indices, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and endoscopic indices were evaluated for content and construct validity, reliability, responsiveness and feasibility using guidelines proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Of 19 123 citations, 286 studies were eligible, including 24 randomised-controlled trials. Three of five PROs identified met most key evaluative criteria but only the Celiac Disease Symptom Diary (CDSD) and the Celiac Disease Patient-Reported Outcome (CeD PRO) have been approved by the FDA. All histological and endoscopic scores identified lacked content validity. Quantitative morphometric histological analysis had better reliability and responsiveness compared with qualitative scales. Endoscopic indices were infrequently used, and only one index demonstrated responsiveness to effective therapy. Current best evidence suggests that the CDSD and the CeD PRO are appropriate for use in the definition of primary end points in coeliac disease registration trials. Morphometric histology should be included as a key secondary or co-primary end point. Further work is needed to optimise end point configuration to inform efficient drug development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Management of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity: research and optimization

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    Erugina M.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Objective: research of regularities of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity and justification of the directions of optimization of management by this process. Material and Methods. Object of research included functioning of system of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity. Are carried out: The study of reports of the Saratov region for 2006-2012, documentation of 16 treatment-and-prophylactic medical organizations and 84 responses on graduates of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky; anonymous retrospective questioning of 164 doctors after professional retraining at the faculty of professional development; expert questionnaire of 15 persons of the faculty of organizational chairs have been carried out. Results. In the work "complex adaptation factor"; dynamics of level of social and psychological, psychophysiological, organizational and professional indicators of adaptation of graduates to conditions of independent professional activity; the characteristic of "lagging behind" doctors; purposes of management of adaptation, importance of stages of its organizational support have been established. The ways to evaluate the success of individual adaptation and management of this process have been worked out, which are designed on the basis of the corresponding authorized optimization technology. Conclusion. Results of the conducted research allowed to expand idea of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity and to solve a number of applied problems of its optimization.

  17. Effect of Roy’s Adaptation Model-Guided Education on Coping Strategies of the Veterans with Lower Extremities Amputation: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Zahra Farsi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Any defect in the extremities of the body can affect different life aspects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Roy’s adaptation model-guided education on coping strategies of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. Methods: In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 veterans with lower extremities amputation referring to Kowsar Orthotics and Prosthetics Center of Veterans Clinic in Tehran, Iran were recruited using convenience method and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups in 2013-2014. Lazarus and Folkman coping strategies questionnaire was used to collect the data. After completing the questionnaires in both groups, maladaptive behaviours were determined in the intervention group and an education program based on Roy’s adaptation model was implemented. After 2 months, both groups completed the questionnaires again. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Independent T-test showed that the score of the dimensions of coping strategies did not have a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the pre-intervention stage (P>0.05. This test showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the post-intervention stage in terms of the scores of different dimensions of coping strategies (P>0.05, except in dimensions of social support seeking and positive appraisal (P>0.05. Conclusion: The findings of this research indicated that the Roy’s adaptation model-guided education improved the majority of coping strategies in veterans with lower extremities amputation. It is recommended that further interventions based on Roy’s adaptation model should be performed to improve the coping of the veterans with lower extremities amputation.

  18. Optimizing trial design in pharmacogenetics research: comparing a fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection design on sample size requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessen, Ruud; van der Baan, Frederieke; Groenwold, Rolf; Egberts, Antoine; Klungel, Olaf; Grobbee, Diederick; Knol, Mirjam; Roes, Kit

    2013-01-01

    Two-stage clinical trial designs may be efficient in pharmacogenetics research when there is some but inconclusive evidence of effect modification by a genomic marker. Two-stage designs allow to stop early for efficacy or futility and can offer the additional opportunity to enrich the study population to a specific patient subgroup after an interim analysis. This study compared sample size requirements for fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection designs with equal overall power and control of the family-wise type I error rate. The designs were evaluated across scenarios that defined the effect sizes in the marker positive and marker negative subgroups and the prevalence of marker positive patients in the overall study population. Effect sizes were chosen to reflect realistic planning scenarios, where at least some effect is present in the marker negative subgroup. In addition, scenarios were considered in which the assumed 'true' subgroup effects (i.e., the postulated effects) differed from those hypothesized at the planning stage. As expected, both two-stage designs generally required fewer patients than a fixed parallel group design, and the advantage increased as the difference between subgroups increased. The adaptive selection design added little further reduction in sample size, as compared with the group sequential design, when the postulated effect sizes were equal to those hypothesized at the planning stage. However, when the postulated effects deviated strongly in favor of enrichment, the comparative advantage of the adaptive selection design increased, which precisely reflects the adaptive nature of the design. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Electroencephalographic identifiers of motor adaptation learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdenizci, Ozan; Yalçın, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Ahmetcan; Patoğlu, Volkan; Grosse-Wentrup, Moritz; Çetin, Müjdat

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Recent brain-computer interface (BCI) assisted stroke rehabilitation protocols tend to focus on sensorimotor activity of the brain. Relying on evidence claiming that a variety of brain rhythms beyond sensorimotor areas are related to the extent of motor deficits, we propose to identify neural correlates of motor learning beyond sensorimotor areas spatially and spectrally for further use in novel BCI-assisted neurorehabilitation settings. Approach. Electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded from healthy subjects participating in a physical force-field adaptation task involving reaching movements through a robotic handle. EEG activity recorded during rest prior to the experiment and during pre-trial movement preparation was used as features to predict motor adaptation learning performance across subjects. Main results. Subjects learned to perform straight movements under the force-field at different adaptation rates. Both resting-state and pre-trial EEG features were predictive of individual adaptation rates with relevance of a broad network of beta activity. Beyond sensorimotor regions, a parieto-occipital cortical component observed across subjects was involved strongly in predictions and a fronto-parietal cortical component showed significant decrease in pre-trial beta-powers for users with higher adaptation rates and increase in pre-trial beta-powers for users with lower adaptation rates. Significance. Including sensorimotor areas, a large-scale network of beta activity is presented as predictive of motor learning. Strength of resting-state parieto-occipital beta activity or pre-trial fronto-parietal beta activity can be considered in BCI-assisted stroke rehabilitation protocols with neurofeedback training or volitional control of neural activity for brain-robot interfaces to induce plasticity.

  20. A behavioural intervention increases physical activity in people with subacute spinal cord injury: a randomised trial

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    Carla FJ Nooijen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions: For people with subacute spinal cord injury, does rehabilitation that is reinforced with the addition of a behavioural intervention to promote physical activity lead to a more active lifestyle than rehabilitation alone? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and blinded assessors. Participants: Forty-five adults with subacute spinal cord injury who were undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and were dependent on a manual wheelchair. The spinal cord injuries were characterised as: tetraplegia 33%; motor complete 62%; mean time since injury 150 days (SD 74. Intervention: All participants received regular rehabilitation, including handcycle training. Only the experimental group received a behavioural intervention promoting an active lifestyle after discharge. This intervention involved 13 individual sessions delivered by a coach who was trained in motivational interviewing; it began 2 months before and ended 6 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was physical activity, which was objectively measured with an accelerometer-based activity monitor 2 months before discharge, at discharge, and 6 and 12 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. The accelerometry data were analysed as total wheeled physical activity, sedentary time and motility. Self-reported physical activity was a secondary outcome. Results: The behavioural intervention significantly increased wheeled physical activity (overall between-group difference from generalised estimating equation 21 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 35. This difference was evident 6 months after discharge (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 48 and maintained at 12 months after discharge (25 minutes per day, 95% CI 1 to 50. No significant intervention effect was found for sedentary time or motility. Self-reported physical activity also significantly improved. Conclusion: The behavioural

  1. A Mixed-Methods Trial of Broad Band Noise and Nature Sounds for Tinnitus Therapy: Group and Individual Responses Modeled under the Adaptation Level Theory of Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, Mithila; Searchfield, Grant D

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: A randomized cross-over trial in 18 participants tested the hypothesis that nature sounds, with unpredictable temporal characteristics and high valence would yield greater improvement in tinnitus than constant, emotionally neutral broadband noise. Study Design: The primary outcome measure was the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Secondary measures were: loudness and annoyance ratings, loudness level matches, minimum masking levels, positive and negative emotionality, attention reaction and discrimination time, anxiety, depression and stress. Each sound was administered using MP3 players with earbuds for 8 continuous weeks, with a 3 week wash-out period before crossing over to the other treatment sound. Measurements were undertaken for each arm at sound fitting, 4 and 8 weeks after administration. Qualitative interviews were conducted at each of these appointments. Results: From a baseline TFI score of 41.3, sound therapy resulted in TFI scores at 8 weeks of 35.6; broadband noise resulted in significantly greater reduction (8.2 points) after 8 weeks of sound therapy use than nature sounds (3.2 points). The positive effect of sound on tinnitus was supported by secondary outcome measures of tinnitus, emotion, attention, and psychological state, but not interviews. Tinnitus loudness level match was higher for BBN at 8 weeks; while there was little change in loudness level matches for nature sounds. There was no change in minimum masking levels following sound therapy administration. Self-reported preference for one sound over another did not correlate with changes in tinnitus. Conclusions: Modeled under an adaptation level theory framework of tinnitus perception, the results indicate that the introduction of broadband noise shifts internal adaptation level weighting away from the tinnitus signal, reducing tinnitus magnitude. Nature sounds may modify the affective components of tinnitus via a secondary, residual pathway, but this appears to be less important

  2. A Mixed-Methods Trial of Broad Band Noise and Nature Sounds for Tinnitus Therapy: Group and Individual Responses Modeled under the Adaptation Level Theory of Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, Mithila; Searchfield, Grant D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: A randomized cross-over trial in 18 participants tested the hypothesis that nature sounds, with unpredictable temporal characteristics and high valence would yield greater improvement in tinnitus than constant, emotionally neutral broadband noise. Study Design: The primary outcome measure was the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Secondary measures were: loudness and annoyance ratings, loudness level matches, minimum masking levels, positive and negative emotionality, attention reaction and discrimination time, anxiety, depression and stress. Each sound was administered using MP3 players with earbuds for 8 continuous weeks, with a 3 week wash-out period before crossing over to the other treatment sound. Measurements were undertaken for each arm at sound fitting, 4 and 8 weeks after administration. Qualitative interviews were conducted at each of these appointments. Results: From a baseline TFI score of 41.3, sound therapy resulted in TFI scores at 8 weeks of 35.6; broadband noise resulted in significantly greater reduction (8.2 points) after 8 weeks of sound therapy use than nature sounds (3.2 points). The positive effect of sound on tinnitus was supported by secondary outcome measures of tinnitus, emotion, attention, and psychological state, but not interviews. Tinnitus loudness level match was higher for BBN at 8 weeks; while there was little change in loudness level matches for nature sounds. There was no change in minimum masking levels following sound therapy administration. Self-reported preference for one sound over another did not correlate with changes in tinnitus. Conclusions: Modeled under an adaptation level theory framework of tinnitus perception, the results indicate that the introduction of broadband noise shifts internal adaptation level weighting away from the tinnitus signal, reducing tinnitus magnitude. Nature sounds may modify the affective components of tinnitus via a secondary, residual pathway, but this appears to be less important

  3. Temperature dependence of rapidly adapting mechanically activated currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhanfeng; Ling, Jennifer; Gu, Jianguo G

    2012-08-01

    Rapidly adapting mechanically activated channels (RA) are expressed on somatosensory neurons and thought to play a role in mechanical transduction. Because mechanical sensations can be significantly affected by temperatures, we examined thermal sensitivity of RA currents in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to see if RA channel activity is highly temperature-dependent. RA currents were evoked from DRG neurons by membrane displacements and recorded by the whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique. We found that RA currents were significantly enhanced by warming temperatures from 22 to 32 °C and reduced by cooling temperatures from 24 to 14 °C. RA channel activation exhibited steep temperature-dependence with a large temperature coefficient (Q10>5) and a high activation energy (Ea>30 kcal/mol). We further showed that RA channel activation by mechanical stimulation led to membrane depolarization, which could result in action potential firing at 22 °C or 32 °C but not at 14 °C. Taken together, our results provide the measurements of thermal dynamics and activation energy of RA channels, and suggest that a high energy barrier is present for RA channels to open. These findings are in agreement with temperature sensitivity of mechanical sensations in mammals.

  4. Estimation of the Adaptive Capacities of the Cardiovascular System in Pregnant Females by Active Orthostatic Test

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    Yu. V. Struk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was undertaken to study the adaptive capacities of the cardiovascular system (CVS in physiological full-term pregnancy, by using the active orthostatic test (AOT and to analyze cardiac rhythm variability (CRV. The study covered 49 low-risk group females during 38—39-week physiological pregnancy, who had indications for planned surgery -cesarean section. Before surgery, during an anesthesiological examination, all the pregnant females performed AOT during which ECG was continuously recorded. For CRV estimation, 5-min ECG fragments recorded in the standing and lying positions. AOT could reveal a normal orthostatic response (NOR in 37 pregnant females, postural orthostatic tachycardia (POT in 8 and orthostatic hypotension in 4. No relationship was found between the clinical characteristics and the types of responses to AOT. At the same time, comparison of CVS demonstrated that the baseline enhanced activity of the sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system was typical of females with POT as compared with females showing a NOR. Thus, estimation of CRV parameters in pregnant females permits predetermination of adaptive CVS capacities, which is important to be taken into account in choosing an anesthesiological support and modes of hemodynamic correction when cesarean section is performed.

  5. Adaptive Neural-Sliding Mode Control of Active Suspension System for Camera Stabilization

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    Feng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The camera always suffers from image instability on the moving vehicle due to the unintentional vibrations caused by road roughness. This paper presents a novel adaptive neural network based on sliding mode control strategy to stabilize the image captured area of the camera. The purpose is to suppress vertical displacement of sprung mass with the application of active suspension system. Since the active suspension system has nonlinear and time varying characteristics, adaptive neural network (ANN is proposed to make the controller robustness against systematic uncertainties, which release the model-based requirement of the sliding model control, and the weighting matrix is adjusted online according to Lyapunov function. The control system consists of two loops. The outer loop is a position controller designed with sliding mode strategy, while the PID controller in the inner loop is to track the desired force. The closed loop stability and asymptotic convergence performance can be guaranteed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the simulation results show that the employed controller effectively suppresses the vibration of the camera and enhances the stabilization of the entire camera, where different excitations are considered to validate the system performance.

  6. Speech Waveform Compression Using Robust Adaptive Voice Activity Detection for Nonstationary Noise

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    Hsiao-Chun Wu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The voice activity detection (VAD is crucial in all kinds of speech applications. However, almost all existing VAD algorithms suffer from the nonstationarity of both speech and noise. To combat this difficulty, we propose a new voice activity detector, which is based on the Mel-energy features and an adaptive threshold related to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR estimates. In this paper, we first justify the robustness of the Bayes classifier using the Mel-energy features over that using the Fourier spectral features in various noise environments. Then, we design an algorithm using the dynamic Mel-energy estimator and the adaptive threshold, which depends on the SNR estimates. In addition, a realignment scheme is incorporated to correct the sparse-and-spurious noise estimates. Numerous simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of our proposed VAD method and the comparisons are made with a couple of existing representative schemes, namely, the VAD using the likelihood ratio test with Fourier spectral energy features and that based on the enhanced time-frequency parameters. Three types of noises, namely, white noise (stationary, babble noise (nonstationary, and vehicular noise (nonstationary were artificially added by the computer for our experiments. As a result, our proposed VAD algorithm significantly outperforms other existing methods as illustrated by the corresponding receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves. Finally, we demonstrate one of the major applications, namely, speech waveform compression associated with our new robust VAD scheme and quantify the effectiveness in terms of compression efficiency.

  7. IIR filtering based adaptive active vibration control methodology with online secondary path modeling using PZT actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, Utku; Basdogan, Ipek

    2015-12-01

    Structural vibrations is a major cause for noise problems, discomfort and mechanical failures in aerospace, automotive and marine systems, which are mainly composed of plate-like structures. In order to reduce structural vibrations on these structures, active vibration control (AVC) is an effective approach. Adaptive filtering methodologies are preferred in AVC due to their ability to adjust themselves for varying dynamics of the structure during the operation. The filtered-X LMS (FXLMS) algorithm is a simple adaptive filtering algorithm widely implemented in active control applications. Proper implementation of FXLMS requires availability of a reference signal to mimic the disturbance and model of the dynamics between the control actuator and the error sensor, namely the secondary path. However, the controller output could interfere with the reference signal and the secondary path dynamics may change during the operation. This interference problem can be resolved by using an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter which considers feedback of the one or more previous control signals to the controller output and the changing secondary path dynamics can be updated using an online modeling technique. In this paper, IIR filtering based filtered-U LMS (FULMS) controller is combined with online secondary path modeling algorithm to suppress the vibrations of a plate-like structure. The results are validated through numerical and experimental studies. The results show that the FULMS with online secondary path modeling approach has more vibration rejection capabilities with higher convergence rate than the FXLMS counterpart.

  8. Adaptive neural networks control for camera stabilization with active suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The camera always suffers from image instability on the moving vehicle due to unintentional vibrations caused by road roughness. This article presents an adaptive neural network approach mixed with linear quadratic regulator control for a quarter-car active suspension system to stabilize the image captured area of the camera. An active suspension system provides extra force through the actuator which allows it to suppress vertical vibration of sprung mass. First, to deal with the road disturbance and the system uncertainties, radial basis function neural network is proposed to construct the map between the state error and the compensation component, which can correct the optimal state-feedback control law. The weights matrix of radial basis function neural network is adaptively tuned online. Then, the closed-loop stability and asymptotic convergence performance is guaranteed by Lyapunov analysis. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller effectively suppresses the vibration of the camera and enhances the stabilization of the entire camera, where different excitations are considered to validate the system performance.

  9. The cold adaptability of microorganisms with different carbon source in activated sludge treating synthetical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chuan; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke

    2012-11-01

    The cold adaptability of microorganisms with different carbon source under 5°C was studied in activated sludge for treating synthetical wastewater. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis indicated contents of unsaturated fatty acids in cell membrane at 5°C were 13.66% and 24.96% higher for glucose and sodium acetate source than that at 25°C. PLFA biomarkers showed more Gram-negative bacteria enriched than Gram-positive bacteria in low-temperature activated sludge. The Shannon-Wiener diversity analysis demonstrated glucose fed reactor in low temperature had lower PLFA diversity index (1.21-1.30) than that at 25°C and sodium acetate source was reverse (1.08-0.69). The 16S rRNA analysis manifested certain microbes were considerably suitable for existence under cold environment, most of which belong to Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. Difference, adapted physical activity and human development: potential contribution of capabilities approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla Filomena; Howe, P David

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a call to Adapted Physical Activity (APA) professionals to increase the reflexive nature of their practice. Drawing upon Foucault's concept of governmentality (1977) APA action may work against its own publicized goals of empowerment and self-determination. To highlight these inconsistencies, we will draw upon historical and social factors that explain the implicit dangers of practice not following policy. We propose that APA practitioners work according to ethical guidelines, based upon a capabilities approach (Nussbaum, 2006, 2011; Sen, 2009) to counteract possible adverse effects of APA practitioner action. A capabilities approach is conducive to the development of each individual's human potential, by holistically considering the consequences of physical activity (i.e., biological, cultural, social, and psychological dimensions). To conclude, this paper will offer suggestions that may lead to an ethical reflection aligned with the best interest of APA's users.

  11. Functional Based Adaptive and Fuzzy Sliding Controller for Non-Autonomous Active Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiuh-Jer; Chen, Hung-Yi

    In this paper, an adaptive sliding controller is developed for controlling a vehicle active suspension system. The functional approximation technique is employed to substitute the unknown non-autonomous functions of the suspension system and release the model-based requirement of sliding mode control algorithm. In order to improve the control performance and reduce the implementation problem, a fuzzy strategy with online learning ability is added to compensate the functional approximation error. The update laws of the functional approximation coefficients and the fuzzy tuning parameters are derived from the Lyapunov theorem to guarantee the system stability. The proposed controller is implemented on a quarter-car hydraulic actuating active suspension system test-rig. The experimental results show that the proposed controller suppresses the oscillation amplitude of the suspension system effectively.

  12. Optimal and Adaptive Virtual Unidirectional Sound Source in Active Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Bismor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems concerned with active noise control is the existence of acoustical feedback between the control value (“active” loudspeaker output and the reference signal. Various experiments show that such feedback can seriously decrease effects of attenuation or even make the whole ANC system unstable. This paper presents a detailed analysis of one of possible approaches allowing to deal with acoustical feedback, namely, virtual unidirectional sound source. With this method, two loudspeakers are used together with control algorithm assuring that the combined behaviour of the pair makes virtual propagation of sound only in one direction. Two different designs are presented for the application of active noise control in an acoustic duct: analytical (leading to fixed controller and adaptive. The algorithm effectiveness in simulations and real experiments for both solutions is showed, discussed, and compared.

  13. Negotiated meanings of disability simulations in an adapted physical activity course: learning from student reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Jennifer; Goodwin, Donna

    2014-04-01

    Disability simulations have been used as a pedagogical tool to simulate the functional and cultural experiences of disability. Despite their widespread application, disagreement about their ethical use, value, and efficacy persists. The purpose of this study was to understand how postsecondary kinesiology students experienced participation in disability simulations. An interpretative phenomenological approach guided the study's collection of journal entries and clarifying one-on-one interviews with four female undergraduate students enrolled in a required adapted physical activity course. The data were analyzed thematically and interpreted using the conceptual framework of situated learning. Three themes transpired: unnerving visibility, negotiating environments differently, and tomorrow I'll be fine. The students described emotional responses to the use of wheelchairs as disability artifacts, developed awareness of environmental barriers to culturally and socially normative activities, and moderated their discomfort with the knowledge they could end the simulation at any time.

  14. Cell Cycle Regulators Guide Mitochondrial Activity in Radiation-Induced Adaptive Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Aris T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: There are accruing concerns on potential genotoxic agents present in the environment including low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) that naturally exists on earth's surface and atmosphere and is frequently used in medical diagnosis and nuclear industry. Although its long-term health risk is being evaluated and remains controversial, LDIR is shown to induce temporary but significant adaptive responses in mammalian cells and animals. The mechanisms guiding the mitochondrial function in LDIR-induced adaptive response represent a unique communication between DNA damage and cellular metabolism. Elucidation of the LDIR-regulated mitochondrial activity may reveal new mechanisms adjusting cellular function to cope with hazardous environmental stress. Recent Advances: Key cell cycle regulators, including Cyclin D1/CDK4 and Cyclin B1/cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) complexes, are actively involved in the regulation of mitochondrial functions via phosphorylation of their mitochondrial targets. Accumulating new evidence supports a concept that the Cyclin B1/CDK1 complex acts as a mediator in the cross talk between radiation-induced DNA damage and mitochondrial functions to coordinate cellular responses to low-level genotoxic stresses. Critical Issues: The LDIR-mediated mitochondrial activity via Cyclin B1/CDK1 regulation is an irreplaceable network that is able to harmonize vital cellular functions with adjusted mitochondrial metabolism to enhance cellular homeostasis. Future Directions: Further investigation of the coordinative mechanism that regulates mitochondrial activities in sublethal stress conditions, including LDIR, will reveal new insights of how cells cope with genotoxic injury and will be vital for future targeted therapeutic interventions that reduce environmental injury and cancer risk. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1463–1480. PMID:24180340

  15. Cell cycle regulators guide mitochondrial activity in radiation-induced adaptive response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Aris T; Li, Jian Jian

    2014-03-20

    There are accruing concerns on potential genotoxic agents present in the environment including low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) that naturally exists on earth's surface and atmosphere and is frequently used in medical diagnosis and nuclear industry. Although its long-term health risk is being evaluated and remains controversial, LDIR is shown to induce temporary but significant adaptive responses in mammalian cells and animals. The mechanisms guiding the mitochondrial function in LDIR-induced adaptive response represent a unique communication between DNA damage and cellular metabolism. Elucidation of the LDIR-regulated mitochondrial activity may reveal new mechanisms adjusting cellular function to cope with hazardous environmental stress. Key cell cycle regulators, including Cyclin D1/CDK4 and Cyclin B1/cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) complexes, are actively involved in the regulation of mitochondrial functions via phosphorylation of their mitochondrial targets. Accumulating new evidence supports a concept that the Cyclin B1/CDK1 complex acts as a mediator in the cross talk between radiation-induced DNA damage and mitochondrial functions to coordinate cellular responses to low-level genotoxic stresses. The LDIR-mediated mitochondrial activity via Cyclin B1/CDK1 regulation is an irreplaceable network that is able to harmonize vital cellular functions with adjusted mitochondrial metabolism to enhance cellular homeostasis. Further investigation of the coordinative mechanism that regulates mitochondrial activities in sublethal stress conditions, including LDIR, will reveal new insights of how cells cope with genotoxic injury and will be vital for future targeted therapeutic interventions that reduce environmental injury and cancer risk.

  16. A parallel group randomised open blinded evaluation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for depression after psychosis: Pilot trial outcomes (ADAPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumley, Andrew; White, Ross; Briggs, Andy; Ford, Ian; Barry, Sarah; Stewart, Corinna; Beedie, Sara; McTaggart, Jacqueline; Clarke, Caoimhe; MacLeod, Rachel; Lidstone, Emma; Riveros, Bruno Salgado; Young, Robin; McLeod, Hamish

    2017-05-01

    Depression is one of the major contributors to poorer quality of life amongst individuals with psychosis and schizophrenia. The study was designed as a Pilot Trial to determine the parameters of a larger, definitive pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for depression after psychosis (ACTdp) for individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia who also meet diagnostic criteria for major depression. Participants were required to meet criteria for schizophrenia and major depression. Blinded follow-ups were undertaken at 5-months (end of treatment) and at 10-months (5-months posttreatment). Primary outcomes were depression as measured by the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A total of 29 participants were randomised to ACTdp + Standard Care (SC) (n=15) or SC alone (n=14). We did not observe significant differences between groups on the CDSS total score at 5-months (Coeff=-1.43, 95%CI -5.17, 2.32, p=0.45) or at 10-months (Coeff=1.8, 95%CI -2.10, 5.69, p=0.36). In terms of BDI, we noted a statistically significant effect in favour of ACTdp+SC at 5-months (Coeff=-8.38, 95%CI -15.49, -1.27, p=0.02) but not at 10-months (Coeff=-4.85, 95%CI -12.10, 2.39, p=0.18). We also observed significant effects on psychological flexibility at 5-months (Coeff=-8.83, 95%CI -14.94, -2.71, ptherapy with depression as the primary outcome, ACT is a promising intervention for depression in the context of psychosis. A further large-scale definitive randomised controlled trial is required to determine effectiveness. ISRCTN: 33306437. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Adapting the Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) approach to explore the acceptability and feasibility of nutrition and parenting recommendations: what works for low-income families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickin, Katherine L; Seim, Gretchen

    2015-10-01

    Interventions to prevent childhood obesity must consider not only how child feeding behaviours are related to child weight status but also which behaviours parents are willing and able to change. This study adapted Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) to assess acceptability and feasibility of nutrition and parenting recommendations, using in-depth interviews and household trials to explore families' experiences over time. A diverse sample of 23 low-income parents of 3-11-year-olds was recruited following participation in nutrition and parenting education. Parents chose nutrition and parenting practices to try at home and were interviewed 2 weeks and 4-6 months later about behaviour change efforts. Qualitative analysis identified emergent themes, and acceptability and feasibility were rated based on parents' willingness and ability to try new practices. The nutrition goal parents chose most frequently was increasing children's vegetable intake, followed by replacing sweetened beverages with water or milk, and limiting energy-dense foods. Parents were less inclined to reduce serving sizes. The parenting practices most often selected as applicable to nutrition goals were role-modelling; shaping home environments, often with other adults; involving children in decisions; and providing positive feedback. Most recommendations were viewed as acceptable by meaningful numbers of parents, many of whom tried and sustained new behaviours. Food preferences, habits and time were common barriers; family resistance or food costs also constrained some parents. Despite challenges, TIPs was successfully adapted to evaluate complex nutrition and parenting practices. Information on parents' willingness and ability to try practices provides valuable guidance for childhood obesity prevention programmes.

  18. Study Protocol: A randomized controlled trial of patient navigation-activation to reduce cancer health disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau Sally

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer health disparities affecting low-income and minority patients are well documented. Root-causes are multifactorial, including diagnostic and treatment delays, social and financial barriers, and poor communication. Patient navigation and communication coaching (activation are potential interventions to address disparities in cancer treatment. The purpose of this clinical trial is to test the effectiveness of an intervention combining patient navigation and activation to improve cancer treatment. Methods/Design The Rochester Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP is a National Cancer Institute-sponsored, patient-level randomized trial (RCT of patient navigation and activation, targeting newly-diagnosed breast and colorectal cancer patients in Rochester, NY. The goal of the program is to decrease cancer health disparities by addressing barriers to receipt of cancer care and promoting patient self-efficacy. The intervention uses trained, paraprofessional patient navigators recruited from the target community, and a detailed training and supervisory program. Recruited patients are randomly assigned to receive either usual care (except for baseline and follow-up questionnaires and interviews or intervention. The intervention patients receive tailored assistance from their patient navigators, including phone calls, in-person meetings, and behind-the-scenes coordination of care. A total of 344 patients have been recruited. Outcomes measured at three month intervals include timeliness of care, patient adherence, patient satisfaction, quality of life, self-efficacy, health literacy, and cancer knowledge. Discussion This unique intervention combining patient navigation and patient activation is designed to address the multifactorial problem of cancer health disparities. If successful, this study will affect the design and implementation of patient navigation programs. Trials Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT

  19. Enhancing physical activity and reducing obesity through smartcare and financial incentives: A pilot randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Wook; Yun, Jae Moon; Shin, Jung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Min, Hye Yeon; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Chung, Won Joo; Park, Jin Ho; Jung, Kee-Taig; Cho, BeLong

    2017-02-01

    A pilot randomized trial assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of an intervention combining Smartcare (activity tracker with a smartphone application) and financial incentives. A three-arm, open-label randomized controlled trial design involving traditional education, Smartcare, and Smartcare with financial incentives was involved in this study. The latter group received financial incentives depending on the achievement of daily physical activity goals (process incentive) and weight loss targets (outcome incentive). Male university students (N = 105) with body mass index of ≥27 were enrolled. The average weight loss in the traditional education, Smartcare, and Smartcare with financial incentives groups was -0.4, -1.1, and -3.1 kg, respectively, with significantly greater weight loss in the third group (both Ps incentives groups (odds ratio for the Smartcare with financial incentive vs. Smartcare = 7.27, 95% confidence interval: 1.45-36.47). Levels of physical activity were significantly higher in this group. The addition of financial incentives to Smartcare was effective in increasing physical activity and reducing obesity. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  20. Liver Afferents Contribute to Water Drinking-Induced Sympathetic Activation in Human Subjects: A Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Marcus; Gueler, Faikah; Barg-Hock, Hannelore; Heiringhoff, Karl-Heinz; Engeli, Stefan; Heusser, Karsten; Diedrich, André; Brandt, André; Strassburg, Christian P.; Tank, Jens; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Jordan, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Water drinking acutely increases sympathetic activity in human subjects. In animals, the response appears to be mediated through transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 activation on osmosensitive hepatic spinal afferents, described as osmopressor response. We hypothesized that hepatic denervation attenuates water drinking-induced sympathetic activation. We studied 20 liver transplant recipients (44±2.6 years, 1.2±0.1 years post transplant) as model of hepatic denervation and 20 kidney transplant recipients (43±2.6 years, 0.8±0.1 years post transplant) as immunosuppressive drug matched control group. Before and after 500 ml water ingestion, we obtained venous blood samples for catecholamine analysis. We also monitored brachial and finger blood pressure, ECG, and thoracic bioimpedance. Plasma norepinephrine concentration had changed by 0.01±0.07 nmol/l in liver and by 0.21±0.07 nmol/l in kidney transplant recipients (pwater drinking. While blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased in both groups, the responses tended to be attenuated in liver transplant recipients. Our findings support the idea that osmosensitive hepatic afferents are involved in water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01237431 PMID:22016786

  1. Liver afferents contribute to water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects: a clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus May

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Water drinking acutely increases sympathetic activity in human subjects. In animals, the response appears to be mediated through transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 activation on osmosensitive hepatic spinal afferents, described as osmopressor response. We hypothesized that hepatic denervation attenuates water drinking-induced sympathetic activation. We studied 20 liver transplant recipients (44±2.6 years, 1.2±0.1 years post transplant as model of hepatic denervation and 20 kidney transplant recipients (43±2.6 years, 0.8±0.1 years post transplant as immunosuppressive drug matched control group. Before and after 500 ml water ingestion, we obtained venous blood samples for catecholamine analysis. We also monitored brachial and finger blood pressure, ECG, and thoracic bioimpedance. Plasma norepinephrine concentration had changed by 0.01±0.07 nmol/l in liver and by 0.21±0.07 nmol/l in kidney transplant recipients (p<0.05 between groups after 30-40 minutes of water drinking. While blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased in both groups, the responses tended to be attenuated in liver transplant recipients. Our findings support the idea that osmosensitive hepatic afferents are involved in water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01237431.

  2. Coordinated activity of ventral tegmental neurons adapts to appetitive and aversive learning.

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    Yunbok Kim

    Full Text Available Our understanding of how value-related information is encoded in the ventral tegmental area (VTA is based mainly on the responses of individual putative dopamine neurons. In contrast to cortical areas, the nature of coordinated interactions between groups of VTA neurons during motivated behavior is largely unknown. These interactions can strongly affect information processing, highlighting the importance of investigating network level activity. We recorded the activity of multiple single units and local field potentials (LFP in the VTA during a task in which rats learned to associate novel stimuli with different outcomes. We found that coordinated activity of VTA units with either putative dopamine or GABA waveforms was influenced differently by rewarding versus aversive outcomes. Specifically, after learning, stimuli paired with a rewarding outcome increased the correlation in activity levels between unit pairs whereas stimuli paired with an aversive outcome decreased the correlation. Paired single unit responses also became more redundant after learning. These response patterns flexibly tracked the reversal of contingencies, suggesting that learning is associated with changing correlations and enhanced functional connectivity between VTA neurons. Analysis of LFP recorded simultaneously with unit activity showed an increase in the power of theta oscillations when stimuli predicted reward but not an aversive outcome. With learning, a higher proportion of putative GABA units were phase locked to the theta oscillations than putative dopamine units. These patterns also adapted when task contingencies were changed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VTA neurons organize flexibly as functional networks to support appetitive and aversive learning.

  3. Study protocol for "Study of Practices Enabling Implementation and Adaptation in the Safety Net (SPREAD-NET)": a pragmatic trial comparing implementation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Rachel; Hollombe, Celine; Bunce, Arwen; Nelson, Christine; Davis, James V; Cowburn, Stuart; Perrin, Nancy; DeVoe, Jennifer; Mossman, Ned; Boles, Bruce; Horberg, Michael; Dearing, James W; Jaworski, Victoria; Cohen, Deborah; Smith, David

    2015-10-16

    Little research has directly compared the effectiveness of implementation strategies in any setting, and we know of no prior trials directly comparing how effectively different combinations of strategies support implementation in community health centers. This paper outlines the protocol of the Study of Practices Enabling Implementation and Adaptation in the Safety Net (SPREAD-NET), a trial designed to compare the effectiveness of several common strategies for supporting implementation of an intervention and explore contextual factors that impact the strategies' effectiveness in the community health center setting. This cluster-randomized trial compares how three increasingly hands-on implementation strategies support adoption of an evidence-based diabetes quality improvement intervention in 29 community health centers, managed by 12 healthcare organizations. The strategies are as follows: (arm 1) a toolkit, presented in paper and electronic form, which includes a training webinar; (arm 2) toolkit plus in-person training with a focus on practice change and change management strategies; and (arm 3) toolkit, in-person training, plus practice facilitation with on-site visits. We use a mixed methods approach to data collection and analysis: (i) baseline surveys on study clinic characteristics, to explore how these characteristics impact the clinics' ability to implement the tools and the effectiveness of each implementation strategy; (ii) quantitative data on change in rates of guideline-concordant prescribing; and (iii) qualitative data on the "how" and "why" underlying the quantitative results. The outcomes of interest are clinic-level results, categorized using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework, within an interrupted time-series design with segmented regression models. This pragmatic trial will compare how well each implementation strategy works in "real-world" practices. Having a better understanding of how different

  4. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Induces Remission in Patients With Active Ulcerative Colitis in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyedi, Paul; Surette, Michael G; Kim, Peter T; Libertucci, Josie; Wolfe, Melanie; Onischi, Catherine; Armstrong, David; Marshall, John K; Kassam, Zain; Reinisch, Walter; Lee, Christine H

    2015-07-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is difficult to treat, and standard therapy does not always induce remission. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an alternative approach that induced remission in small series of patients with active UC. We investigated its safety and efficacy in a placebo-controlled randomized trial. We performed a parallel study of patients with active UC without infectious diarrhea. Participants were examined by flexible sigmoidoscopy when the study began and then were randomly assigned to groups that received FMT (50 mL, via enema, from healthy anonymous donors; n = 38) or placebo (50 mL water enema; n = 37) once weekly for 6 weeks. Patients, clinicians, and investigators were blinded to the groups. The primary outcome was remission of UC, defined as a Mayo score ≤2 with an endoscopic Mayo score of 0, at week 7. Patients provided stool samples when the study began and during each week of FMT for microbiome analysis. The trial was stopped early for futility by the Data Monitoring and Safety Committee, but all patients already enrolled in the trial were allowed to complete the study. Seventy patients completed the trial (3 dropped out from the placebo group and 2 from the FMT group). Nine patients who received FMT (24%) and 2 who received placebo (5%) were in remission at 7 weeks (a statistically significant difference in risk of 17%; 95% confidence interval, 2%-33%). There was no significant difference in adverse events between groups. Seven of the 9 patients in remission after FMT received fecal material from a single donor. Three of the 4 patients with UC ≤1 year entered remission, compared with 6 of 34 of those with UC >1 year (P = .04, Fisher's exact test). Stool from patients receiving FMT had greater microbial diversity, compared with baseline, than that of patients given the placebo (P = .02, Mann-Whitney U test). FMT induces remission in a significantly greater percentage of patients with active UC than placebo, with no difference in

  5. Physical activity as a treatment for depression: the TREAD randomised trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawlor Debbie A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common reasons for consulting a General Practitioner (GP within the UK. Whilst antidepressants have been shown to be clinically effective, many patients and healthcare professionals would like to access other forms of treatment as an alternative or adjunct to drug therapy for depression. A recent systematic review presented some evidence that physical activity could offer one such option, although further investigation is needed to test its effectiveness within the context of the National Health Service. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a randomised, controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate an intervention developed to increase physical activity as a treatment for depression within primary care. Methods/design The TREAD study is a pragmatic, multi-centre, two-arm RCT which targets patients presenting with a new episode of depression. Patients were approached if they were aged 18-69, had recently consulted their GP for depression and, where appropriate, had been taking antidepressants for less than one month. Only those patients with a confirmed diagnosis of a depressive episode as assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R, a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score of at least 14 and informed written consent were included in the study. Eligible patients were individually randomised to one of two treatment groups; usual GP care or usual GP care plus facilitated physical activity. The primary outcome of the trial is clinical symptoms of depression assessed using the BDI four months after randomisation. A number of secondary outcomes are also measured at the 4-, 8- and 12-month follow-up points including quality of life, attitude to and involvement in physical activity and antidepressant use/adherence. Outcomes will be analysed on an intention-to-treat (ITT basis and will use linear and logistic regression models to compare treatments. Discussion The results of

  6. Effect of a governmentally-led physical activity program on motor skills in young children attending child care centers: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Antoine; Barral, Jérôme; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Kriemler, Susi; Longchamp, Anouk; Schindler, Christian; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J

    2013-07-08

    To assess the effect of a governmentally-led center based child care physical activity program (Youp'là Bouge) on child motor skills. We conducted a single blinded cluster randomized controlled trial in 58 Swiss child care centers. Centers were randomly selected and 1:1 assigned to a control or intervention group. The intervention lasted from September 2009 to June 2010 and included training of the educators, adaptation of the child care built environment, parental involvement and daily physical activity. Motor skill was the primary outcome and body mass index (BMI), physical activity and quality of life secondary outcomes. The intervention implementation was also assessed. At baseline, 648 children present on the motor test day were included (age 3.3 ± 0.6, BMI 16.3 ± 1.3 kg/m2, 13.2% overweight, 49% girls) and 313 received the intervention. Relative to children in the control group (n = 201), children in the intervention group (n = 187) showed no significant increase in motor skills (delta of mean change (95% confidence interval: -0.2 (-0.8 to 0.3), p = 0.43) or in any of the secondary outcomes. Not all child care centers implemented all the intervention components. Within the intervention group, several predictors were positively associated with trial outcomes: (1) free-access to a movement space and parental information session for motor skills (2) highly motivated and trained educators for BMI (3) free-access to a movement space and purchase of mobile equipment for physical activity (all p physical activity program in child care centers confirms the complexity of implementing an intervention outside a study setting and identified potentially relevant predictors that could improve future programs. Clinical trials.gov NCT00967460.

  7. Use of the Crohn's disease activity index in clinical trials of biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) has been commonly used to assess the effects of treatment with different agents in Crohn's disease (CD). However, these studies may be compromised, if the results compared to a placebo or standard therapy group (in the absence of a placebo) substantially differ from the expected response. In addition, significant concerns have been raised regarding the reliability and validity of the CDAI. Reproducibility of the CDAI may be limited as significant inter-observer error has been recorded, even if measurements are done by experienced clinicians with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of CD. Finally, many CDAI endpoints are open to subjective interpretation and have the potential for manipulation. This is worrisome as there is the potential for significant financial gain, if the results of a clinical trial appear to provide a positive result. Physicians caring for patients should be concerned about the positive results in clinical trials that are sponsored by industry, even if the trials involve respected centers and the results appear in highly ranked medical journals.

  8. Adaptation of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirG response regulator to activate transcription in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka-Verner, Eva; Salem, Tarek A; Gurley, William B

    2016-02-01

    The Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirG response regulator of the VirA/VirG two-component system was adapted to function in tobacco protoplasts. The subcellular localization of VirG and VirA proteins transiently expressed in onion cells was determined using GFP fusions. Preliminary studies using Gal4DBD-VP16 fusions with VirG and Escherichia coli UhpA, and NarL response regulators indicated compatibility of these bacterial proteins with the eukaryotic transcriptional apparatus. A strong transcriptional activator based on tandem activation domains from the Drosophila fushi tarazu and Herpes simplex VP16 was created. Selected configurations of the two-site Gal4-vir box GUS reporters were activated by chimeric effectors dependent on either the yeast Gal4 DNA-binding domain or that of VirG. Transcriptional induction of the GUS reporter was highest for the VirE19-element promoter with both constitutive and wild-type VirG-tandem activation domain effectors. Multiple VirE19 elements increased the reporter activity proportionately, indicating that the VirG DNA binding domain was functional in plants. The VirG constitutive-Q-VP16 effector was more active than the VirG wild-type. In both the constitutive and wild-type forms of VirG, Q-VP16 activated transcription of the GUS reporter best when located at the C-terminus, i.e. juxtaposed to the VirG DNA binding domain. These results demonstrate the possibility of using DNA binding domains from bacterial response regulators and their cognate binding elements in the engineering of plant gene expression.

  9. Capturing the Active Ingredients of Multicomponent Participatory Organizational Stress Interventions Using an Adapted Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, Caroline; Ivers, Hans; Brun, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Adapted study designs use process evaluation to incorporate a measure of intervention exposure and create an artificial control and intervention groups. Taking into account exposure levels to interventions combines process and outcome evaluation and strengthens the design of the study when exposure levels cannot be controlled. This study includes longitudinal data (two assessments) with added process measures at time 2 gathered from three complex participatory intervention projects in Canada in a hospital and a university. Structural equation modelling was used to explore the specific working mechanisms of particular interventions on stress outcomes. Results showed that higher exposure to interventions aiming to modify tasks and working conditions reduced demands and improved social support, but not job control, which in turn, reduced psychological distress. Exposure to interventions aiming to improve relationships was not related to psychosocial risks. Most studies cannot explain how interventions produce their effects on outcomes, especially when there are multiple concurrent interventions delivered in several contexts. This study advances knowledge on process evaluation by using an adapted study design to capture the active ingredients of multicomponent interventions and suggesting some mechanisms by which the interventions produce their effects on stress outcomes. It provides an illustration of how to conduct process evaluation and relate exposure levels to observed outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Adaptive and Context-Aware Reconciliation of Reactive and Pro-active Behavior in Evolving Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajcevski, Goce; Scheuermann, Peter

    One distinct characteristics of the context-aware systems is their ability to react and adapt to the evolution of the environment, which is often a result of changes in the values of various (possibly correlated) attributes. Based on these changes, reactive systems typically take corrective actions, e.g., adjusting parameters in order to maintain the desired specifications of the system's state. Pro-active systems, on the other hand, may change the mode of interaction with the environment as well as the desired goals of the system. In this paper we describe our (ECA)2 paradigm for reactive behavior with proactive impact and we present our ongoing work and vision for a system that is capable of context-aware adaptation, while ensuring the maintenance of a set of desired behavioral policies. Our main focus is on developing a formalism that provides tools for expressing normal, as well as defeasible and/or exceptional specification. However, at the same time, we insist on a sound semantics and the capability of answering hypothetical "what-if" queries. Towards this end, we introduce the high-level language L_{ EAR} that can be used to describe the dynamics of the problem domain, specify triggers under the (ECA)2 paradigm, and reason about the consequences of the possible evolutions.

  11. Multiple Iteration of Weight Updates for Least Mean Square Adaptive Filter in Active Noise Control Application

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    Mustafa Rahimie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of least mean square (LMS is the commonly used algorithm in Adaptive filter due to its simplicity and robustness in implementation. In Active Noise Control application, a filtered reference signal is used prior to LMS algorithm to overcome the constraint on stability and convergence performance of the system due to the existence of the auxiliary path. This is known as Filtered-X LMS algorithm. In conventional Filtered-X LMS algorithm, each filter weight is updated once on every audio sample. This paper proposes the improved version of Filtered-X LMS algorithm with the use of multiple iteration of filter weight on every sample of audio signal. The proposed work uses field programmable gate arrays to realize real-time simulation on hardware for the noise signal of 500 Hz. Results from the real-time hardware simulations have shown much faster error convergence and better adaptation performance for different selections of learning constant μ, as compared with the conventional method.

  12. Exploiting clinical trial data drastically narrows the window of possible solutions to the problem of clinical adaptation of a multiscale cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios S Stamatakos

    Full Text Available The development of computational models for simulating tumor growth and response to treatment has gained significant momentum during the last few decades. At the dawn of the era of personalized medicine, providing insight into complex mechanisms involved in cancer and contributing to patient-specific therapy optimization constitute particularly inspiring pursuits. The in silico oncology community is facing the great challenge of effectively translating simulation models into clinical practice, which presupposes a thorough sensitivity analysis, adaptation and validation process based on real clinical data. In this paper, the behavior of a clinically-oriented, multiscale model of solid tumor response to chemotherapy is investigated, using the paradigm of nephroblastoma response to preoperative chemotherapy in the context of the SIOP/GPOH clinical trial. A sorting of the model's parameters according to the magnitude of their effect on the output has unveiled the relative importance of the corresponding biological mechanisms; major impact on the result of therapy is credited to the oxygenation and nutrient availability status of the tumor and the balance between the symmetric and asymmetric modes of stem cell division. The effect of a number of parameter combinations on the extent of chemotherapy-induced tumor shrinkage and on the tumor's growth rate are discussed. A real clinical case of nephroblastoma has served as a proof of principle study case, demonstrating the basics of an ongoing clinical adaptation and validation process. By using clinical data in conjunction with plausible values of model parameters, an excellent fit of the model to the available medical data of the selected nephroblastoma case has been achieved, in terms of both volume reduction and histological constitution of the tumor. In this context, the exploitation of multiscale clinical data drastically narrows the window of possible solutions to the clinical adaptation problem.

  13. PECULIAR FEATURES CONCERNING 1-ST-YEAR STUDENT ADAPTATION TO LIFE-ACTIVITY AT ENGINEERING HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Klimenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of peculiar features concerning a 1-st-year student adaptation to new conditions of life-activity  on the basis of self-evaluation made by 212 persons.  In order to obtain the data a methodology for diagnostics of social and psychological adaptation developed by K.Rodgers and R.Diamond has been applied with the purpose to study such integral indices as adaptivity, emotional comfort, friendly attitude, internality, tolerance and domination symptom.

  14. Physical Activity during Cancer Treatment (PACT Study: design of a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wit G Ardine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is a major problem of cancer patients. Thirty percent of cancer survivors report serious fatigue three years after finishing treatment. There is evidence that physical exercise during cancer treatment reduces fatigue. This may also lead to an improvement of quality of life. Such findings may result in a decrease of healthcare related expenditures and societal costs due to sick leave. However, no studies are known that investigated these hypotheses. Therefore, the primary aim of our study is to assess the effect of exercise during cancer treatment on reducing complaints of fatigue and on reducing health service utilisation and sick leave. Methods/Design The Physical Activity during Cancer Treatment study is a multicentre randomised controlled trial in 150 breast and 150 colon cancer patients undergoing cancer treatment. Participants will be randomised to an exercise or a control group. In addition to the usual care, the exercise group will participate in an 18-week supervised group exercise programme. The control group will be asked to maintain their habitual physical activity pattern. Study endpoints will be assessed after 18 weeks (short term and after 9 months (long term. Validated questionnaires will be used. Primary outcome: fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Fatigue Quality List and cost-effectiveness, health service utilisation and sick leave. Secondary outcome: health related quality of life (European Organisation Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life questionnaire-C30, Short Form 36 healthy survey, impact on functioning and autonomy (Impact on functioning and autonomy questionnaire, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, physical fitness (aerobic peak capacity, muscle strength, body composition and cognitive-behavioural aspects. To register health service utilisation and sick leave, participants will keep diaries including the EuroQuol-5D. Physical activity level

  15. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  16. Effectiveness of a smartphone app in increasing physical activity amongst male adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Tim; Eslambolchilar, Parisa; Rettie, Ruth; Stride, Chris; Walton, Simon; van Woerden, Hugo C

    2016-09-02

    Smartphones are ideal for promoting physical activity in those with little intrinsic motivation for exercise. This study tested three hypotheses: H1 - receipt of social feedback generates higher step-counts than receipt of no feedback; H2 - receipt of social feedback generates higher step-counts than only receiving feedback on one's own walking; H3 - receipt of feedback on one's own walking generates higher step-counts than no feedback (H3). A parallel group randomised controlled trial measured the impact of feedback on steps-counts. Healthy male participants (n = 165) aged 18-40 were given phones pre-installed with an app that recorded steps continuously, without the need for user activation. Participants carried these with them as their main phones for a two-week run-in and six-week trial. Randomisation was to three groups: no feedback (control); personal feedback on step-counts; group feedback comparing step-counts against those taken by others in their group. The primary outcome measure, steps per day, was assessed using longitudinal multilevel regression analysis. Control variables included attitude to physical activity and perceived barriers to physical activity. Fifty-five participants were allocated to each group; 152 completed the study and were included in the analysis: n = 49, no feedback; n = 53, individual feedback; n = 50, individual and social feedback. The study provided support for H1 and H3 but not H2. Receipt of either form of feedback explained 7.7 % of between-subject variability in step-count (F = 6.626, p smartphone apps that provide step-counts can increase physical activity in young to early-middle-aged men but the provision of social feedback has no apparent incremental impact. This approach may be particularly suitable for inactive people with low levels of physical activity; it should now be tested with this population.

  17. Combined MIMO adaptive and decentralized controllers for broadband active noise and vibration control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, A.P.; Wesselink, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent implementations of multiple-input multiple-output adaptive controllers for reduction of broadband noise and vibrations provide considerably improved performance over traditional adaptive algorithms. The most significant performance improvements are in terms of speed of convergence, the amount

  18. Combined MIMO adaptive and decentralized controllers for broadband active noise and vibration control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Wesselink, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent implementations of multiple-input multiple-output adaptive controllers for reduction of broadband noise and vibrations provide considerably improved performance over traditional adaptive algorithms. The most significant performance improvements are in terms of speed of convergence, the amount

  19. Emergent literacy activities, instructional adaptations and school absence of children with cerebral palsy in special education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Marieke; de Moor, Jan; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to get an overview of the emergent literacy activities, instructional adaptations and school absence of children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to normally developing peers. The results showed that there were differences between the groups regarding the amount of emergent literacy instruction. While time dedicated to storybook reading and independent picture-book reading was comparable, the children with CP received fewer opportunities to work with educational software and more time was dedicated to rhyming games and singing. For the children with CP, the level of speech, intellectual, and physical impairments were all related to the amount of time in emergent literacy instruction. Additionally, the amount of time reading precursors is trained and the number of specific reading precursors that is trained is all related to skills of emergent literacy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Peers as resources for learning: a situated learning approach to adapted physical activity in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F; Jespersen, Ejgil

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning that takes place when people with disabilities interact in a rehabilitation context. Data were generated through in-depth interviews and close observations in a 2 (1/2) week-long rehabilitation program, where the participants learned both wheelchair skills and adapted physical activities. The findings from the qualitative data analysis are discussed in the context of situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998). The results indicate that peer learning extends beyond skills and techniques, to include ways for the participants to make sense of their situations as wheelchair users. Also, it was found that the community of practice established between the participants represented a critical corrective to instructions provided by rehabilitation professionals.

  1. In vitro activity assays for MYST histone acetyltransferases and adaptation for high-throughput inhibitor screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Cheryl E.; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification that is carried out by acetyltransferases. The MYST proteins form the largest and most diverse family of acetyltransferases, which regulate gene expression, DNA repair, and cell cycle homeostasis, among other activities, by acetylating both histone and non-histone proteins. This chapter will describe methods for the preparation and biochemical characterization of MYST family acetyltransferases, including protocols for the preparation of recombinant protein, enzyme assays for measuring steady state parameters and binding assays to measure cofactor and inhibitor binding. We also provide details on adapting these assays for high throughput screening for small molecule MYST inhibitors. This chapter seeks to prepare researchers for some hurdles that they may encounter when studying the MYST proteins so that there may be better opportunity to plan appropriate controls and obtain high quality data. PMID:27372752

  2. The food pyramid adapted to physically active adolescents as a nutrition education tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Brandão Gonçalves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the understanding of the Food Pyramid Adapted to Physically Active Adolescents as an educational tool to improve nutrition knowledge. Adolescents engaged in sport training responded to a nutrition knowledge questionnaire before and after the intervention. The pyramid intervention group received the printed educational material, and the broad intervention group received the printed material followed by a lecture. As a result, mean initial nutrition knowledge was average (59.9 ± 18 points, increasing (p<0.001 after the intervention (69.1 ± 20 points without significant difference between interventions. In conclusion, adolescents' nutrition knowledge improved, even with the use of the Food Pyramid alone, indicating its use to promote nutritional knowledge.

  3. Active Clustering: Robust and Efficient Hierarchical Clustering using Adaptively Selected Similarities

    CERN Document Server

    Eriksson, Brian; Singh, Aarti; Nowak, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical clustering based on pairwise similarities is a common tool used in a broad range of scientific applications. However, in many problems it may be expensive to obtain or compute similarities between the items to be clustered. This paper investigates the hierarchical clustering of N items based on a small subset of pairwise similarities, significantly less than the complete set of N(N-1)/2 similarities. First, we show that if the intracluster similarities exceed intercluster similarities, then it is possible to correctly determine the hierarchical clustering from as few as 3N log N similarities. We demonstrate this order of magnitude savings in the number of pairwise similarities necessitates sequentially selecting which similarities to obtain in an adaptive fashion, rather than picking them at random. We then propose an active clustering method that is robust to a limited fraction of anomalous similarities, and show how even in the presence of these noisy similarity values we can resolve the hierar...

  4. Development of adaptive IIR filtered-e LMS algorithm for active noise control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xu; MENG Guang; TENG Pengxiao; CHEN Duanshi

    2003-01-01

    Compared to finite impulse response (FIR) filters, infinite impulse response (IIR)filters can match the system better with much fewer coefficients, and hence the computationload is saved and the performance improves. Therefore, it is attractive to use IIR filters insteadof FIR filters in active noise control (ANC). However, filtered-U LMS (FULMS) algorithm, theIIR filter-based algorithm commonly used so far cannot ensure global convergence. A new IIRfilter based adaptive algorithm, which can ensure global convergence with computation loadonly slightly increasing, is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm is called as filtered-eLMS algorithm since the error signal of which need to be filtered. Simulation results show thatthe FELMS algorithm presents better performance than the FULMS algorithm.

  5. BCG vaccination induces HIV target cell activation in HIV-exposed infants in a randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, Melanie A.; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Mohar, Isaac; Myer, Landon; Azenkot, Tali; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Hanekom, Willem; Cotton, Mark F.; Crispe, I. Nicholas; Sodora, Donald L.; Jaspan, Heather B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered at birth to protect infants against tuberculosis throughout Africa, where most perinatal HIV-1 transmission occurs. We examined whether BCG vaccination alters the levels of activated HIV target T cells in HIV-exposed South African infants. METHODS. HIV-exposed infants were randomized to receive routine (at birth) or delayed (at 8 weeks) BCG vaccination. Activated and CCR5-expressing peripheral blood CD4+ T cell, monocyte, and NK cell frequencies were evaluated by flow cytometry and immune gene expression via PCR using Biomark (Fluidigm). RESULTS. Of 149 infants randomized, 92% (n = 137) were retained at 6 weeks: 71 in the routine BCG arm and 66 in the delayed arm. Routine BCG vaccination led to a 3-fold increase in systemic activation of HIV target CD4+CCR5+ T cells (HLA-DR+CD38+) at 6 weeks (0.25% at birth versus 0.08% in delayed vaccination groups; P = 0.029), which persisted until 8 weeks of age when the delayed arm was vaccinated. Vaccination of the infants in the delayed arm at 8 weeks resulted in a similar increase in activated CD4+CCR5+ T cells. The increase in activated T cells was associated with increased levels of MHC class II transactivator (CIITA), IL12RB1, and IFN-α1 transcripts within peripheral blood mononuclear cells but minimal changes in innate cells. CONCLUSION. BCG vaccination induces immune changes in HIV-exposed infants, including an increase in the proportion of activated CCR5+CD4+ HIV target cells. These findings provide insight into optimal BCG vaccine timing to minimize the risks of HIV transmissions to exposed infants while preserving potential benefits conferred by BCG vaccination. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02062580. FUNDING. This trial was sponsored by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (MV-00-9-900-01871-0-00) and the Thrasher Foundation (NR-0095); for details, see Acknowledgments. PMID:28405623

  6. Physical activity program for patients with dementia and their relative caregivers: randomized clinical trial in Primary Health Care (AFISDEMyF study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sánchez, Emiliano; Criado-Gutiérrez, José María; Mora-Simón, Sara; Muriel-Diaz, M Paz; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Patino-Alonso, M Carmen; Valero-Juan, Luis F; Maderuelo-Fernandez, José A; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-04-01

    The aging of the population has led to the increase of chronic diseases, especially dementia and cardiovascular diseases, and it has become necessary for their relatives to dedicate more time in caregiving.The objective in the first phase of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a Primary Health Care procedure to increase the physical activity of people with dementia and their relative caregivers. Also the effect on the cognitive state and cardiovascular risk will be assessed. Clinical, multicentric and randomized trial. A simple random sampling to select 134 patients diagnosed with dementia will be carried out. After contacting their relatives, his/her participation in the trial will be requested. A basal assessment will be made and the participants will be asigned to control or intervention group (1:1). The main measure will be the assessment of physical activity (podometer and 7-PAR) in patients and caregivers. In patients with dementia: ADAS-cog, functional degree and cardiovascular risk. In caregivers: cardiovascular risk, general health and quality of life. For 3 months, participants will receive instructions to do physical activity with an adapted program. This program will be designed and applied by Primary Health Care professionals in patients with dementia and their caregivers. The control group will receive regular care. An intention-to-treat analysis will be carried out by comparing the observed differences between basal, 6 and 12 months measures. Change in the mean of daily steps assessed with the podometer and 7-PAR will be the main result. If the main hypothesis is confirmed, it could be useful to improve the cognitive state of patients with dementia, as well as the cardiovascular risk of all of them. The results can be good to improve technical features of the devices that register the physical activity in the patients with dementia, and it could facilitate its commercialization. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT02044887.

  7. Decreased frontal, striatal and cerebellar activation in adults with ADHD during an adaptive delay discounting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Nick; Parsons, Aisling; Whelan, Robert; Brennan, Katie; Agan, Maria L F; O'Connell, Redmond; Bramham, Jessica; Garavan, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    An important characteristic of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a bias towards small immediate versus larger delayed rewards, but it is not known if this symptom is also a feature of adult ADHD. A delay-discounting task was administered to participants with adult ADHD and a comparison group in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants responded to a series of questions that required judgments between small sums of money available immediately and larger sums obtained after a temporal delay. Question parameters were adjusted by an adaptive algorithm designed to converge on each participant's discounting indifference point, an individual set point at which there is equal valuation of both choices. In all participants, robust task activation was observed in regions previously identified in functional imaging studies of delay discounting. However, adults with ADHD showed less task activation in a number of regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate nucleus and declive of the cerebellum. Additionally, the degree to which a participant discounted delayed rewards was inversely related to task activation in the cerebellum. The results suggest that the bias towards immediate rewards in childhood ADHD may not persist behaviorally, but instead present in adulthood as alterations in frontostriatal and frontocerebellar networks.

  8. Intelligent Speed Adaptation for involuntary drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Juhl, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The Danish Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) trial ISA C included 26 commercial cars and 51 drivers a number of whom were involuntary. After a baseline period, ISA was activated for one year. The drivers should identify themselves with a personal key ID before driving. As well as being informative...

  9. mActive: A Randomized Clinical Trial of an Automated mHealth Intervention for Physical Activity Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Seth S; Feldman, David I; Blumenthal, Roger S; Jones, Steven R; Post, Wendy S; McKibben, Rebeccah A; Michos, Erin D; Ndumele, Chiadi E; Ratchford, Elizabeth V; Coresh, Josef; Blaha, Michael J

    2015-11-09

    We hypothesized that a fully automated mobile health (mHealth) intervention with tracking and texting components would increase physical activity. mActive enrolled smartphone users aged 18 to 69 years at an ambulatory cardiology center in Baltimore, Maryland. We used sequential randomization to evaluate the intervention's 2 core components. After establishing baseline activity during a blinded run-in (week 1), in phase I (weeks 2 to 3), we randomized 2:1 to unblinded versus blinded tracking. Unblinding allowed continuous access to activity data through a smartphone interface. In phase II (weeks 4 to 5), we randomized unblinded participants 1:1 to smart texts versus no texts. Smart texts provided smartphone-delivered coaching 3 times/day aimed at individual encouragement and fostering feedback loops by a fully automated, physician-written, theory-based algorithm using real-time activity data and 16 personal factors with a 10 000 steps/day goal. Forty-eight outpatients (46% women, 21% nonwhite) enrolled with a mean±SD age of 58±8 years, body mass index of 31±6 kg/m(2), and baseline activity of 9670±4350 steps/day. Daily activity data capture was 97.4%. The phase I change in activity was nonsignificantly higher in unblinded participants versus blinded controls by 1024 daily steps (95% confidence interval [CI], -580 to 2628; P=0.21). In phase II, participants receiving texts increased their daily steps over those not receiving texts by 2534 (95% CI, 1318 to 3750; Pintervention increased physical activity with, but not without, the texting component. These results support new mHealth tracking technologies as facilitators in need of behavior change drivers. URL: http://ClinicalTrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01917812. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. Active materials for automotive adaptive forward lighting Part 1: system requirements vs. material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Andrew C.; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy L.

    2011-04-01

    Adaptive Frontlighting Systems (AFS in GM usage) improve visibility by automatically optimizing the beam pattern to accommodate road, driving and environmental conditions. By moving, modifying, and/or adding light during nighttime, inclement weather, or in sharp turns, the driver is presented with dynamic illumination not possible with static lighting systems The objective of this GM-HRL collaborative research project was to assess the potential of active materials to decrease the cost, mass, and packaging volume of current electric stepper-motor AFS designs. Solid-state active material actuators, if proved suitable for this application, could be less expensive than electric motors and have lower part count, reduced size and weight, and lower acoustic and EMF noise1. This paper documents Part 1 of the collaborative study, assessing technically mature, commercially available active materials for use as actuators. Candidate materials should reduce cost and improve AFS capabilities, such as increased angular velocity on swivel. Additional benefits to AFS resulting from active materials actuators were to be identified as well such as lower part count. In addition, several notional approaches to AFS were documented to illustrate the potential function, which is developed more fully in Part 2. Part 1 was successful in verifying the feasibility of using two active materials for AFS: shape memory alloys, and piezoelectrics. In particular, this demonstration showed that all application requirements including those on actuation speed, force, and cyclic stability to effect manipulation of the filament assembly and/or the reflector could be met by piezoelectrics (as ultrasonic motors) and SMA wire actuators.

  11. Physical Activity and Early Rehabilitation in Hospitalized Elderly Medical Patients: Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Velilla, N; Cadore, L; Casas-Herrero, Á; Idoate-Saralegui, F; Izquierdo, M

    2016-01-01

    To critically review the effect of interventions incorporating exercise and early rehabilitation (physical therapy, occupational therapy, and physical activity) in the functional outcomes (i.e., active daily living tests, such as Barthel Index Scores, Timed-up-and go, mobility tests), and feasibility in hospitalized elderly medical patients. Systematic review of the literature. A literature search was conducted using the following databases and medical resources from 1966 to January 2014: PubMed (Medline), PEDro, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov, Clinical Evidence, SportsDiscus, EMBASE and UptoDate. Studies must have mentioned the effects of early rehabilitation on the above mentioned functional outcomes and feasibility. Data on the mortality, economic profile and average stay were also described. From the 6564 manuscripts potentially related to exercise performance in hospitalized elderly patients, the review focused on 1086, and 17 articles were ultimately included. Regarding functional outcomes after discharge, four studies observed significant improvement in functional outcomes following early rehabilitation, even up to twelve months after discharge. Eight studies directly or indirectly assessed the economic impact of exercise intervention. Five of them did not show any increase in costs, while three concluded that the intervention was cost effective. No adverse effect related with the interventions were mentioned. The introduction of an exercise program for hospitalized elderly patients may be feasible, and may not increase costs. Importantly, early rehabilitation may also improve the functional and healthcare.

  12. Promotion of Physical Activity Among High-School Girls: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Felton, Gwen; Dishman, Rod K.; Dowda, Marsha

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. Many adolescent girls fail to meet national guidelines for physical activity, and the prevalence of obesity is increasing among this group. Our study examined the effects of a comprehensive school-based intervention on physical activity among high-school girls. Methods. A group-randomized controlled field trial was conducted at 24 high schools. A school-based sample of 2744 girls (48.7% African American, 46.7% White) participated in a measurement protocol when they were in eighth and then ninth grade. A comprehensive physical activity intervention was designed to change the instructional program and the school environment to increase support for physical activity among girls. Results. At follow-up, 45% of girls in the intervention schools and 36% of girls in the control schools reported vigorous physical activity during an average of 1 or more 30-minute time blocks per day over a 3-day period. Conclusions. A comprehensive school-based intervention can increase regular participation in vigorous physical activity among high-school girls. PMID:16118370

  13. The habenulo-raphe serotonergic circuit encodes an aversive expectation value essential for adaptive active avoidance of danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Ryunosuke; Fredes, Felipe; Kinoshita, Masae; Aoki, Ryo; Aizawa, Hidenori; Agetsuma, Masakazu; Aoki, Tazu; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Kakinuma, Hisaya; Matsuda, Masaru; Yamazaki, Masako; Takahoko, Mikako; Tsuboi, Takashi; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Miyasaka, Nobuhiko; Koide, Tetsuya; Yabuki, Yoichi; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Fukai, Tomoki; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2014-12-03

    Anticipation of danger at first elicits panic in animals, but later it helps them to avoid the real threat adaptively. In zebrafish, as fish experience more and more danger, neurons in the ventral habenula (vHb) showed tonic increase in the activity to the presented cue and activated serotonergic neurons in the median raphe (MR). This neuronal activity could represent the expectation of a dangerous outcome and be used for comparison with a real outcome when the fish is learning how to escape from a dangerous to a safer environment. Indeed, inhibiting synaptic transmission from vHb to MR impaired adaptive avoidance learning, while panic behavior induced by classical fear conditioning remained intact. Furthermore, artificially triggering this negative outcome expectation signal by optogenetic stimulation of vHb neurons evoked place avoidance behavior. Thus, vHb-MR circuit is essential for representing the level of expected danger and behavioral programming to adaptively avoid potential hazard.

  14. What are the health benefits of active travel? A systematic review of trials and cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda E Saunders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing active travel (primarily walking and cycling has been widely advocated for reducing obesity levels and achieving other population health benefits. However, the strength of evidence underpinning this strategy is unclear. This study aimed to assess the evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. METHODS: The study design was a systematic review of (i non-randomised and randomised controlled trials, and (ii prospective observational studies examining either (a the effects of interventions to promote active travel or (b the association between active travel and health outcomes. Reports of studies were identified by searching 11 electronic databases, websites, reference lists and papers identified by experts in the field. Prospective observational and intervention studies measuring any health outcome of active travel in the general population were included. Studies of patient groups were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies from 12 countries were included, of which six were studies conducted with children. Five studies evaluated active travel interventions. Nineteen were prospective cohort studies which did not evaluate the impact of a specific intervention. No studies were identified with obesity as an outcome in adults; one of five prospective cohort studies in children found an association between obesity and active travel. Small positive effects on other health outcomes were found in five intervention studies, but these were all at risk of selection bias. Modest benefits for other health outcomes were identified in five prospective studies. There is suggestive evidence that active travel may have a positive effect on diabetes prevention, which may be an important area for future research. CONCLUSIONS: Active travel may have positive effects on health outcomes, but there is little robust evidence to date of the effectiveness of active transport interventions for reducing obesity. Future evaluations of such

  15. Two preclinical tests to evaluate anticancer activity and to help validate drug candidates for clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Current approaches to assessing preclinical anticancer activity do not reliably predict drug efficacy in cancer patients. Most of the compounds that show remarkable anticancer effects in preclinical models actually fail when tested in clinical trials. We blame these failures on the complexity of the disease and on the limitations of the preclinical tools we require for our research. This manuscript argues that this lack of clinical response may also be caused by poor in vitro and in vivo preclinical designs, in which cancer patients' needs are not fully considered. Then, it proposes two patient-oriented tests to assess in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity and to help validate drug candidates for clinical evaluation. PMID:25859551

  16. Healing Touch with Guided Imagery for PTSD in returning active duty military: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shamini; McMahon, George F; Hasen, Patricia; Kozub, Madelyn P; Porter, Valencia; King, Rauni; Guarneri, Erminia M

    2012-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a significant problem in returning military and warrants swift and effective treatment. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether a complementary medicine intervention (Healing Touch with Guided Imagery [HT+GI]) reduced PTSD symptoms as compared to treatment as usual (TAU) returning combat-exposed active duty military with significant PTSD symptoms. Active duty military (n = 123) were randomized to 6 sessions (within 3 weeks) of HT+GI vs. TAU. The primary outcome was PTSD symptoms; secondary outcomes were depression, quality of life, and hostility. Repeated measures analysis of covariance with intent-to-treat analyses revealed statistically and clinically significant reduction in PTSD symptoms (p biofield therapy approaches for mitigating PTSD in military populations is warranted.

  17. Improving physical activity in arthritis clinical trial (IMPAACT): study design, rationale, recruitment, and baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rowland W; Semanik, Pamela A; Lee, Jungwha; Feinglass, Joseph; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Dunlop, Dorothy D

    2014-11-01

    Over 21 million Americans report an arthritis-attributable activity limitation. Knee osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are two of the most common/disabling forms of arthritis. Various forms of physical activity (PA) can improve a variety of health outcomes and reduce health care costs, but the proportion of the US population engaging in the recommended amount of PA is low and even lower among those with arthritis. The Improving Motivation for Physical Activity in Arthritis Clinical Trial (IMPAACT) is a randomized clinical trial that studied the effects of a lifestyle PA promotion intervention on pain and physical function outcomes. The IMPAACT intervention was based on a chronic care/disease management model in which allied health professionals promote patient self-management activities outside of traditional physician office encounters. The program was a motivational interviewing-based, individualized counseling and referral intervention, directed by a comprehensive assessment of individual patient barriers and strengths related to PA performance. The specific aims of IMPAACT were to test the efficacy of the IMPAACT intervention for persons with arthritis (N=185 persons with RA and 155 persons with knee OA) in improving arthritis-specific and generic self-reported pain and Physical Function outcomes, observed measures of function, and objectively measured and self-reported PA levels. Details of the stratified-randomized study design, subject recruitment, and data collection are described. The results from IMPAACT will generate empiric evidence pertaining to increasing PA levels in persons with arthritis and result in widely applicable strategies for health behavior change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breyer Marie-Kathrin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with COPD progressive dyspnoea leads to a sedentary lifestyle. To date, no studies exist investigating the effects of Nordic Walking in patients with COPD. Therefore, the aim was to determine the feasibility of Nordic Walking in COPD patients at different disease stages. Furthermore we aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of Nordic Walking on COPD patients' daily physical activity pattern as well as on patients exercise capacity. Methods Sixty COPD patients were randomised to either Nordic Walking or to a control group. Patients of the Nordic Walking group (n = 30; age: 62 ± 9 years; FEV1: 48 ± 19% predicted underwent a three-month outdoor Nordic Walking exercise program consisting of one hour walking at 75% of their initial maximum heart rate three times per week, whereas controls had no exercise intervention. Primary endpoint: daily physical activities (measured by a validated tri-axial accelerometer; secondary endpoint: functional exercise capacity (measured by the six-minute walking distance; 6MWD. Assessment time points in both groups: baseline, after three, six and nine months. Results After three month training period, in the Nordic Walking group time spent walking and standing as well as intensity of walking increased (Δ walking time: +14.9 ± 1.9 min/day; Δ standing time: +129 ± 26 min/day; Δ movement intensity: +0.40 ± 0.14 m/s2 while time spent sitting decreased (Δ sitting time: -128 ± 15 min/day compared to baseline (all: p Conclusions Nordic Walking is a feasible, simple and effective physical training modality in COPD. In addition, Nordic Walking has proven to positively impact the daily physical activity pattern of COPD patients under short- and long-term observation. Clinical trial registration Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial - ISRCTN31525632

  19. Intervention effects on adolescent physical activity in the multicomponent SPACE study: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Toftager

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multicomponent school-based interventions have the potential to reduce the age-related decline in adolescents' physical activity (PA, yet there is not consistent evidence to guide non-curricular and school environment interventions. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a multicomponent environmental school-based intervention, designed to reduce the age-related decline in PA among adolescents. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with 7 intervention and 7 control schools. Baseline measurements were carried out in spring 2010 with 2 years of follow-up. A total of 1,348 students (11-13 years, in grade 5 and 6 enrolled in the study at baseline. The 14 schools included in the study were located in the Region of Southern Denmark. The intervention consisted of organizational and physical changes in the school environment with a total of 11 intervention components. The primary outcome measure was overall PA (cpm, counts per minute and was supported by analyses of time spent in MVPA, and time spent sedentary. Furthermore, a secondary outcome measure was PA in school time and during recess. PA was measured using accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X. RESULTS: A total of 797 students completed the trial and had valid accelerometer data. No significant difference was found for overall PA with an adjusted difference of -19.1 cpm (95% CI: -93, 53 or for school time activity with an adjusted difference of 6 cpm (95% CI: -73, 85. A sensitivity analysis revealed a positive significant intervention effect of PA in recess with an adjusted difference of 95 cpm. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence was found of the overall effect of a non-curricular multicomponent school-based intervention on PA among Danish adolescents. The intervention was positively associated with PA during school time and recess, however, with small estimates. Lack of effect on overall PA could be due to both program theory and different degrees of

  20. Approaches to Adaptive Active Acoustic Noise Control at a Point Using Feedforward Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulch, Peter A.

    Active acoustic noise control systems have been of interest since their birth in the 1930's. The principle is to superimpose on an unwanted noise wave shape its inverse with the intention of destructive interference. This work presents two approaches to this idea. The first approach uses a direct design method to develop a controller using an auto-regressive moving-average (ARMA) model that will be used to condition the primary noise to produce the required anti-noise for cancellation. The development of this approach has shown that the stability of the controller relies heavily on a non-minimum phase model of the secondary noise path. For this reason, a second approach, using a controller consisting of two parts was developed. The first part of the controller is designed to cancel broadband noise and the second part is an adaptive controller designed to cancel periodic noise. A simple technique for identifying the parameters of the broadband controller is developed. An ARMA model is used, and it is shown that its stability is improved by prefiltering the test signal with a minimum-phase inverse of the secondary noise channel. The periodic controller uses an estimate of the fundamental frequency to cancel the first few harmonics of periodic noise. A computationally efficient adaptive technique based on least squares is developed for updating the harmonic controller gains at each time step. Experimental results are included for the broadband controller, the harmonic controller, and the combination of the two algorithms. The advantages of using both techniques in conjunction are shown using test cases involving both broadband noise and periodic noise.

  1. NEWBORNS OF HIGH RISK GROUPS AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CARDIAC ACTIVITY DURING THE PERIOD OF EARLY ADAPTATION

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    T. S. Tumaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study characteristics of electrophysiological cardiac activity in children of risk groups and to assess possibilities of Holter-electrocardiography (H-ECG in revealing of cardiac dysfunction during the period of early adaptation. Patients and methods: 250 newborns were examined. The main group consisted of 200 children with cerebral ischemia (CI. This group was divided into 2 subgroups: 100 full-term and 100 premature (at various gestation age infants. Control group contained 50 children born at 38–40th weeks of gestation with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery, APGAR score of 8–9 points. Complex examination included H-ECG according the standard technic with evaluation of the hearth rate (HR during sleep and wakefulness; HRmin, HRmax; arrhythmias, conductivity disorders, duration of the intervals; rhythm variability. Results: according to the ECG children with CI, especially premature ones, and children delivered via Cesarean section more often had ST-T disturbances, arrhythmias (sinus tachycardia, less often — sinus bradycardia and conductivity disorders, Q-Tc prolongation. H-EGC revealed decrease of sleep HR, HRmin and HRmax in children with CI especially in delivered via Cesarean section. The most common arrhythmia was supraventricular extrasystole.  Pauses in rhythms and variability were the highest in premature children delivered via Cesarean section. Conclusions: hypoxia/ischemia is a trigger for development of cardiovascular dysfuncion in newborns. Premature and children delivered via Cesarean section form a group of high risk. H-ECG widens possibilities of revealing of symptoms of cardiac dysfunction (disturbances at the basal level of functioning, of adaptation resources of the sinus node, electric instability of the myocardium and heart rate variability in children of risk group for development of cardiovascular disorders. 

  2. Physiological adaptation of anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters on physical activity of elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đelić Marina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Specific morphological and functional characteristics of athletes have a significant role in determining athletes’ sports results and can be also used to assess the athlete’s individual potential. Objective. The aim of the study was to compare anthropometric characteristics and cardiovascular parameters in trained subjects to those of untrained subjects. Methods. A total number of 25 trained (17.30±0.83 years and 21 (18.52±1.52 years untrained male subjects participated in this study. Body weight and height were measured and these values were used to compute body mass index (BMI. The bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method was used to estimate body fat percentage (%BF. Cardiovascular parameters were monitored in rest (rest heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure during ergospirometric testing (maximal oxygen consumption, maximal heart rate and in recovery (heart rate in the first and third minute of recovery. Results. Body mass, height and BMI (p<0.01 were significantly higher, although BF% was lower in trained group when compared to untrained, but the difference was not statistically significant. Heart rate in rest and recovery were significantly lower (p<0.05 in trained group when compared to untrained, although maximal oxygen consumption and maximal heart rate were significantly higher in trained group (p<0.01, p<0.05, respectevely. Conclusion. Our results show that in trained subjects, water polo players, regular intense physical activity lead to adaptive changes of anthropometric parameters and adaptive changes on the cardiovascular system.

  3. Development of active/adaptive lightweight optics for the next generation of telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, M.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Mazzoleni, F.; Vernani, D.

    2006-02-01

    The future large optical telescopes will have such large dimensions to require innovative technical solutions either in the engineering and optical fields. Their optics will have dimensions ranging from 30 to 100 m. and will be segmented. It is necessary to develop a cost effective industrial process, fast and efficient, to create the thousands of segments neeededs to assemble the mirrors of these instruments. INAF-OAB (Astronomical Observatory of Brera) is developing with INAF-Arcetri (Florence Astronomical Observatory) a method of production of lightweight glass optics that is suitable for the manufacturing of these segments. These optics will be also probably active and therefore the segments have to be thin, light and relatively flexible. The same requirements are valid also for the secondary adaptive mirrors foreseen for these telescopes and that therefore will benefit from the same technology. The technique under investigation foresees the thermal slumping of thin glass segments using a high quality ceramic mold (master). The sheet of glass is placed onto the mold and then, by means of a suitable thermal cycle, the glass is softened and its shape is changed copying the master shape. At the end of the slumping the correction of the remaining errors will be performed using the Ion Beam Figuring technique, a non-contact deterministic technique. To reduce the time spent for the correction it will be necessary to have shape errors on the segments as small as possible. A very preliminary series of experiments already performed on reduced size segments have shown that it is possible to copy a master shape with high accuracy (few microns PV) and it is very likely that copy accuracies of 1 micron or less are possible. The paper presents in detail the concepts of the proposed process and describes our current efforts that are aimed at the production of a scaled demonstrative adaptive segment of 50 cm of diameter.

  4. Active chinese mistletoe lectin-55 enhances colon cancer surveillance through regulating innate and adaptive immune responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Hui Ma; Wei-Zhi Cheng; Fang Gong; An-Lun Ma; Qi-Wen Yu; Ji-Ying Zhang; Chao-Ying Hu; Xue-Hua Chen; Dong-Qing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the potential role of Active Chinese mistletoe lectin-55 (ACML-55) in tumor immune surveillance.METHODS:In this study,an experimental model was established by hypodermic inoculating the colon cancer cell line CT26 (5×105 cells) into BALB/c mice.The experimental treatment was orally administered with ACML-55 or PBS,followed by the inoculation of colon cancer cell line CT26.Intracellular cytokine staining was used to detect IFN-y production by tumor antigen specific CD8+ T cells.FACS analysis was employed to profile composition and activation of CD4+,CD8+,γδ T and NK cells.RESULTS:Our results showed,compared to PBS treated mice,ACML-55 treatment significantly delayed colon cancer development in colon cancer-bearing Balb/c mice in vivo.Treatment with ACML-55 enhanced both Ag specific activation and proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells,and increased the number of tumor Ag specific CD8+ T cells,it was more important to increase the frequency of tumor Ag specific IFN-γ producing-CD8+ T cells.Interestingly,ACML-55 treatment also showed increased cell number of NK,and γδT cells,indicating the role of ACML-55 in activation of innate lymphooltes.CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrate that ACML-55therapy can enhance function in immune surveillance in colon cancer-bearing mice through regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses.

  5. Improving the recruitment activity of clinicians in randomised controlled trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Ben; Gheorghe, Adrian; Moore, David; Wilson, Sue; Damery, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor recruitment to randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is a widespread problem. Provision of interventions aimed at supporting or incentivising clinicians may improve recruitment to RCTs. Objectives To quantify the effects of strategies aimed at improving the recruitment activity of clinicians in RCTs, complemented with a synthesis of qualitative evidence related to clinicians' attitudes towards recruiting to RCTs. Data sources A systematic review of English and non-English articles identified from: The Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, Ebsco CINAHL, Index to Theses and Open SIGLE from 2001 to March 2011. Additional reports were identified through citation searches of included articles. Study eligibility criteria Quantitative studies were included if they evaluated interventions aimed at improving the recruitment activity of clinicians or compared recruitment by different groups of clinicians. Information about host trial, study design, participants, interventions, outcomes and host RCT was extracted by one researcher and checked by another. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for quality using a standardised tool, the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. Qualitative studies were included if they investigated clinicians' attitudes to recruiting patients to RCTs. All results/findings were extracted, and content analysis was carried out. Overarching themes were abstracted, followed by a metasummary analysis. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for quality using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative checklist. Data extraction Data extraction was carried out by one researcher using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators, and verified by another. Results Eight quantitative studies were included describing four interventions and a comparison of recruiting clinicians. One study was rated as strong, one as moderate and the remaining six as weak when

  6. Symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction calculation of the photoelectron spectra of famous biological active steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyar, Fatemeh; Farrokhpour, Hossein

    2014-11-01

    The photoelectron spectra of some famous steroids, important in biology, were calculated in the gas phase. The selected steroids were 5α-androstane-3,11,17-trione, 4-androstane-3,11,17-trione, cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, dexamethasone, estradiol and cholesterol. The calculations were performed employing symmetry-adapted cluster/configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method using the 6-311++G(2df,pd) basis set. The population ratios of conformers of each steroid were calculated and used for simulating the photoelectron spectrum of steroid. It was found that more than one conformer contribute to the photoelectron spectra of some steroids. To confirm the calculated photoelectron spectra, they compared with their corresponding experimental spectra. There were no experimental gas phase Hesbnd I photoelectron spectra for some of the steroids of this work in the literature and their calculated spectra can show a part of intrinsic characteristics of this molecules in the gas phase. The canonical molecular orbitals involved in the ionization of each steroid were calculated at the HF/6-311++g(d,p) level of theory. The spectral bands of each steroid were assigned by natural bonding orbital (NBO) calculations. Knowing the electronic structures of steroids helps us to understand their biological activities and find which sites of steroid become active when a modification is performing under a biological pathway.

  7. Sequentially Adapted Parallel Feedforward Active Noise Control of Noisy Sinusoidal Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Kannan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of acoustic noise sources has an underlying periodic process that generates a periodic noise component, and thus their acoustic noise can in general be modeled as the sum of a periodic signal and a randomly fluctuating signal (usually a broadband background noise. Active control of periodic noise (i.e., for a mixture of sinusoids is more effective than that of random noise. For mixtures of sinusoids in a background broadband random noise, conventional FXLMS-based single filter method does not reach the maximum achievable Noise Attenuation Level (NALmax⁡. In this paper, an alternative approach is taken and the idea of a parallel active noise control (ANC architecture for cancelling mixtures of periodic and random signals is presented. The proposed ANC system separates the noise into periodic and random components and generates corresponding antinoises via separate noise cancelling filters, and tends to reach NALmax⁡ consistently. The derivation of NALmax⁡ is presented. Both the separation and noise cancellation are based on adaptive filtering. Experimental results verify the analytical development by showing superior performance of the proposed method, over the single-filter approach, for several cases of sinusoids in white noise.

  8. Reciprocal Degradation of YME1L and OMA1 Adapts Mitochondrial Proteolytic Activity during Stress

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    T. Kelly Rainbolt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial inner membrane proteases YME1L and OMA1 are critical regulators of essential mitochondrial functions, including inner membrane proteostasis maintenance and mitochondrial dynamics. Here, we show that YME1L and OMA1 are reciprocally degraded in response to distinct types of cellular stress. OMA1 is degraded through a YME1L-dependent mechanism in response to toxic insults that depolarize the mitochondrial membrane. Alternatively, insults that depolarize mitochondria and deplete cellular ATP stabilize active OMA1 and promote YME1L degradation. We show that the differential degradation of YME1L and OMA1 alters their proteolytic processing of the dynamin-like GTPase OPA1, a critical regulator of mitochondrial inner membrane morphology, which influences the recovery of tubular mitochondria following membrane-depolarization-induced fragmentation. Our results reveal the differential stress-induced degradation of YME1L and OMA1 as a mechanism for sensitively adapting mitochondrial inner membrane protease activity and function in response to distinct types of cellular insults.

  9. Active vibration control for piezoelectricity cantilever beam: an adaptive feedforward control method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiao; Yue, Jun-Zhou; Liu, Wei-Qun; Wang, Xu-Dong; Chen, Jun; Hu, Guang-Di

    2017-04-01

    This work is focused on the active vibration control of piezoelectric cantilever beam, where an adaptive feedforward controller (AFC) is utilized to reject the vibration with unknown multiple frequencies. First, the experiment setup and its mathematical model are introduced. Due to that the channel between the disturbance and the vibration output is unknown in practice, a concept of equivalent input disturbance (EID) is employed to put an equivalent disturbance into the input channel. In this situation, the vibration control can be achieved by setting the control input be the identified EID. Then, for the EID with known multiple frequencies, the AFC is introduced to perfectly reject the vibration but is sensitive to the frequencies. In order to accurately identify the unknown frequencies of EID in presence of the random disturbances and un-modeled nonlinear dynamics, the time-frequency-analysis (TFA) method is employed to precisely identify the unknown frequencies. Consequently, a TFA-based AFC algorithm is proposed to the active vibration control with unknown frequencies. Finally, four cases are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed TFA-based AFC algorithm by experiment.

  10. Cold Adaptation, Ca2+ Dependency and Autolytic Stability Are Related Features in a Highly Active Cold-Adapted Trypsin Resistant to Autoproteolysis Engineered for Biotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera-Nappa, Alvaro; Reyes, Fernando; Andrews, Barbara A.; Asenjo, Juan A.

    2013-01-01

    Pig trypsin is routinely used as a biotechnological tool, due to its high specificity and ability to be stored as an inactive stable zymogen. However, it is not an optimum enzyme for conditions found in wound debriding for medical uses and trypsinization processes for protein analysis and animal cell culturing, where low Ca2+ dependency, high activity in mild conditions and easy inactivation are crucial. We isolated and thermodynamically characterized a highly active cold-adapted trypsin for medical and laboratory use that is four times more active than pig trypsin at 10° C and at least 50% more active than pig trypsin up to 50° C. Contrary to pig trypsin, this enzyme has a broad optimum pH between 7 and 10 and is very insensitive to Ca2+ concentration. The enzyme is only distantly related to previously described cryophilic trypsins. We built and studied molecular structure models of this trypsin and performed molecular dynamic calculations. Key residues and structures associated with calcium dependency and cryophilicity were identified. Experiments indicated that the protein is unstable and susceptible to autoproteolysis. Correlating experimental results and structural predictions, we designed mutations to improve the resistance to autoproteolysis and conserve activity for longer periods after activation. One single mutation provided around 25 times more proteolytic stability. Due to its cryophilic nature, this trypsin is easily inactivated by mild denaturation conditions, which is ideal for controlled proteolysis processes without requiring inhibitors or dilution. We clearly show that cold adaptation, Ca2+ dependency and autolytic stability in trypsins are related phenomena that are linked to shared structural features and evolve in a concerted fashion. Hence, both structurally and evolutionarily they cannot be interpreted and studied separately as previously done. PMID:23951314

  11. Cold adaptation, ca2+ dependency and autolytic stability are related features in a highly active cold-adapted trypsin resistant to autoproteolysis engineered for biotechnological applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Olivera-Nappa

    Full Text Available Pig trypsin is routinely used as a biotechnological tool, due to its high specificity and ability to be stored as an inactive stable zymogen. However, it is not an optimum enzyme for conditions found in wound debriding for medical uses and trypsinization processes for protein analysis and animal cell culturing, where low Ca(2+ dependency, high activity in mild conditions and easy inactivation are crucial. We isolated and thermodynamically characterized a highly active cold-adapted trypsin for medical and laboratory use that is four times more active than pig trypsin at 10(° C and at least 50% more active than pig trypsin up to 50(° C. Contrary to pig trypsin, this enzyme has a broad optimum pH between 7 and 10 and is very insensitive to Ca(2+ concentration. The enzyme is only distantly related to previously described cryophilic trypsins. We built and studied molecular structure models of this trypsin and performed molecular dynamic calculations. Key residues and structures associated with calcium dependency and cryophilicity were identified. Experiments indicated that the protein is unstable and susceptible to autoproteolysis. Correlating experimental results and structural predictions, we designed mutations to improve the resistance to autoproteolysis and conserve activity for longer periods after activation. One single mutation provided around 25 times more proteolytic stability. Due to its cryophilic nature, this trypsin is easily inactivated by mild denaturation conditions, which is ideal for controlled proteolysis processes without requiring inhibitors or dilution. We clearly show that cold adaptation, Ca(2+ dependency and autolytic stability in trypsins are related phenomena that are linked to shared structural features and evolve in a concerted fashion. Hence, both structurally and evolutionarily they cannot be interpreted and studied separately as previously done.

  12. A Non-Inferiority Trial of an Evidence-Based Secondary HIV Prevention Behavioral Intervention Compared to an Adapted, Abbreviated Version: Rationale and Intervention Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roman; Krishnan, Archana; Altice, Frederick L.; Copenhaver, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Real-world clinical settings like addiction treatment programs are ill-equipped to deploy and sustain the existing-resource-demanding evidence-based interventions (EBIs) that target HIV-infected people who use drugs (PWUDs), and this has left a critical void in current HIV prevention efforts. In response to this unmet need, we have conducted formative research in addiction treatment settings that has resulted in Holistic Health for HIV (3H+) – an empirically adapted, substantially abbreviated version of Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+), a CDC-recommended EBI targeting HIV-infected PWUDs. Methods Using a non-inferiority randomized controlled trial design, we will determine whether the abbreviated 3H+ intervention is comparable (i.e., within a 10% margin) and cost-effective relative to the original HHRP+ intervention in terms of reducing HIV risk behaviors and improving antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among HIV-infected PWUDs in addiction treatment who report drug- or sex-related HIV risk behaviors. Conclusions This article provides a description of the development and adaptation of the 3H+ intervention, the innovative non-inferiority comparative experimental design for testing the 3H+ to the HHRP+. Furthermore, it provides empirical evidence from a formal cost-effectiveness analysis justifying the cost-effectiveness of the 3H+ intervention when compared to the HHRP+ intervention. If confirmed to be comparable and more cost-effective, as hypothesized, the 3H+ intervention has the potential to be readily and immediately integrated within common clinical settings where large numbers of HIV-infected PWUDs receive clinical services. PMID:26253181

  13. HIV Prevalence and Incidence among Sexually Active Females in Two Districts of South Africa to Determine Microbicide Trial Feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nel, A.; Louw, C.; Hellstrom, E.; Braunstein, S.L.; Treadwell, I.; Marais, M.; de Villiers, M.; Hugo, J.; Paschke, I.; Andersen, C.; van de Wijgert, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The suitability of populations of sexually active women in Madibeng (North-West Province) and Mbekweni (Western Cape), South Africa, for a Phase III vaginal microbicide trial was evaluated. Methods: Sexually active women 18-35 years not known to be HIV-positive or pregnant were tested cr

  14. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity injury prevention program: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Dorine C M; Verhagen, Evert A L M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Knol, Dirk L; van Mechelen, Willem

    2010-02-01

    To study the effects of a school-based injury prevention program on physical activity injury incidence and severity. Cluster randomized controlled trial performed from January 1, 2006, through July 31, 2007. Forty Dutch primary schools. A total of 2210 children (aged 10-12 years). Schools were randomized to receive either the regular curriculum or an intervention program that targeted physical activity injuries. Incidence and severity of physical activity injuries per 1000 hours of physical activity participation. A total of 100 injuries in the intervention group and 104 injuries in the control group were registered. Nonresponse at baseline or follow-up was minimal (8.7%). The Cox regression analyses adjusted for clustering showed a small nonsignificant intervention effect on total (HR, 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-1.59), sports club (0.69; 0.28-1.68), and leisure time injuries (0.75; 0.36-1.55). However, physical activity appeared to be an effect modifier. In those who were less physically active, the intervention had a larger effect. The intervention reduced the total and leisure time injury incidence (HR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.21-1.06; and 0.43; 0.16-1.14; respectively). Sports club injury incidence was significantly reduced (HR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.07-0.75). We found a substantial and relevant reduction in physical activity injuries, especially in children in the low active group, because of the intervention. This school-based injury prevention program is promising, but future large-scale research is needed.

  15. Increasing Recreational Physical Activity in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain: A Pragmatic Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Noa; Chodick, Gabriel; Mirovsky, Yigal; Pincus, Tamar; Shapiro, Yair

    2017-02-01

    Study Design Prospective, pragmatic, nonrandomized controlled clinical trial. Background Clinical guidelines recommend physical activity for the treatment of chronic low back pain. But engaging patients in physical activity has proven difficult. Known obstacles to physical activity include low self-efficacy and fear avoidance. Objectives This study tested the effectiveness of an enhanced transtheoretical model intervention (ETMI) aimed at increasing recreational physical activity in patients with chronic low back pain, in comparison to usual physical therapy. Methods Patients (n = 220) referred to physical therapy for chronic low back pain were allocated to ETMI or to a control group. The ETMI was delivered by physical therapists and based on behavior-change principles, combined with increased reassurance, therapeutic alliance, and exposure to reduce fear avoidance. The primary outcome was back pain-related disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire). Secondary outcomes included pain intensity, mental and physical health, and levels of physical activity. Results Intention-to-treat analysis in 189 patients at 12 months indicated that patients in the ETMI group had significantly lower disability compared to usual physical therapy. The difference in mean change from baseline between the interventions was 2.7 points (95% confidence interval: 0.9, 4.5) on the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. At 12 months, worst pain, physical activity, and physical health were all significantly better in patients receiving ETMI. The average number of sessions was 3.5 for the ETMI group and 5.1 for controls. Conclusion Targeting obstacles to physical activity with an intervention that includes components to address self-efficacy and fear avoidance appears to be more effective than usual physical therapy care in reducing long-term disability. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms that impact outcomes in this intervention package. Level of Evidence Therapy

  16. Energy Transfer in Light-Adapted Photosynthetic Membranes: From Active to Saturated Photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fassioli, Francesca; Olaya-Castro, Alexandra; Scheuring, Simon; Sturgis, James N.; Johnson, Neil F.

    2009-01-01

    In bacterial photosynthesis light-harvesting complexes, LH2 and LH1 absorb sunlight energy and deliver it to reaction centers (RCs) with extraordinarily high efficiency. Submolecular resolution images have revealed that both the LH2:LH1 ratio, and the architecture of the photosynthetic membrane itself, adapt to light intensity. We investigate the functional implications of structural adaptations in the energy transfer performance in natural in vivo low- and high-light-adapted membrane archite...

  17. A randomized hybrid efficacy and effectiveness trial of behavioral activation for Latinos with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L; Santos, María M; Nagy, Gabriela; López, Marisela; Hurtado, Gabriela Diéguez; West, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Depression presents a significant public health burden for Latinos, the largest and fastest-growing minority group in the United States. The current study performed a randomized controlled trial of Behavioral Activation (BA) for Latinos (BAL, n=21), with relatively minor modifications, compared to treatment as usual (TAU, n=22) in a community mental health clinic setting with a sample of depressed, Spanish-speaking Latinos. TAU was a strong comparison condition, taking place at the same clinic, under the same guidelines and clinic protocols, with similar levels of ongoing consultation, and using the same pool of therapists as BAL. Results indicated that BAL performed well with respect to treatment engagement and retention. Regarding acute treatment outcomes, an interaction emerged between number of sessions attended and condition. Specifically, only BAL clients who were engaged in treatment and attended more sessions demonstrated significant reductions in depression and improvements in quality of life and mental health functioning. Results are discussed in terms of the balance of efficacy and effectiveness issues addressed in this trial.

  18. The Model Reference Adaptive Fuzzy Control for the Vehicle Semi-Active Suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管继富; 侯朝桢; 顾亮; 武云鹏

    2003-01-01

    The LQG control system is employed as vehicle suspension's optimal target system, which has an adaptive ability to the road conditions and vehicle speed in a limited bandwidth. In order to keep the optimal performances when the suspension parameters change, a model reference adaptive fuzzy control (MRAFC) strategy is presented. The LQG control system serves as the reference model in the MRAFC system. The simulation results indicate that the presented MRAFC system can adapt to the parameters variation of vehicle suspension and track the optimality of the LQG control system, the presented vehicle suspension MRAFC system has the ability to adapt to road conditions and suspension parameters change.

  19. Limb and back muscle activity adaptations to tripedal locomotion in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Aniela; Anders, Alexandra; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja

    2015-10-01

    Alterations in muscle recruitment are key to the functional plasticity of the mammalian locomotor system. One particularly challenging situation quadrupeds may face is when the functionality of a limb is reduced or lost. To better understand how mammals manage in such situations and which muscular adaptations they exhibit when locomoting on three legs, we recorded the activity patterns of two limb and one back extensor muscle in nine dogs using surface electromyography. We compared the timing and the level of recruitment before and after the loss of a hindlimb was simulated. Both the intensity and the timing of the activity changed significantly in the m. vastus lateralis of the remaining hindlimb, consistent with this limb bearing a greater proportion of the body weight as well as with previously reported kinematic changes. In accordance with the greater body weight supported by the forelimbs, the m. triceps brachii showed first and foremost an increased level of excitation. The very asymmetrical changes in the timing and the level of activity in the m. longissimus dorsi reflects the highly asymmetrical functional requirements imposed on the trunk and the pelvis when one hindlimb is no longer involved in the production of locomotor work while the other hindlimb partially compensates the loss. Integration of our electromyographical findings with kinetic and kinematic results illustrates that dogs exhibited a well-coordinated response to the functional requirements of tripedalism and underlines the importance of moment-to-moment modulation in muscular recruitment for the functional plasticity of the mammalian locomotor system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Movement skills and physical activity in obese children: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Morgan, Philip J; Steele, Julie R; Jones, Rachel A; Colyvas, Kim; Baur, Louise A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support physical activity program in overweight children. A multisite randomized controlled trial was conducted with three intervention arms: 1) child-centered physical activity skill development program (Activity), 2) parent-centered dietary modification program (DIET), or 3) both programs combined (PA+DIET). Movement skill proficiency, perceived athletic competence, accelerometer-assessed physical activity, and parent-reported time spent in screen behaviors were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months in 165 prepubertal children aged 5.5-9 yr (59% girls, 78% obese). Differences in changes in outcomes between groups were assessed using linear mixed models. Compared with the diet group, the activity group (mean (95% confidence interval): +7.7 units (3.8-11.6 units)) and the activity + diet group (+6.7 units (2.9-10.5 units)) displayed 11%-13% greater improvement in overall movement skill proficiency (gross motor quotient) at 6 months. Perceived athletic competence increased across groups at follow-up (across groups: 6 months = +0.21 units (0.11-0.31 units), 12 months = +0.21 units (0.07-0.35 units)). Groups did not differ statistically for change in physical activity outcomes. Total screen time (min·wk(-1)) decreased in all groups at 6 months (across groups: -385.4 (-501.0 to -269.8)) and in the activity group (-261.8 (-470.5 to -53.1)) and activity + diet group (-340.5 (-534.6 to -146.4)) at 12 months. The diet group reported greater reductions in TV or DVD viewing time at 6 months compared with the activity group (248.6 (24.0-473.3)). The activity and the activity + diet programs were efficacious in improving overweight children's movement skill proficiency. All programs were efficacious in reducing time spent in screen behaviors. Other correlates may need to be targeted in addition to movement skills to increase physical activity among overweight children.

  1. Testing the comparative effects of physical activity advice by humans vs. computers in underserved populations: The COMPASS trial design, methods, and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Abby C; Campero, Ines; Sheats, Jylana L; Castro Sweet, Cynthia M; Garcia, Dulce; Chazaro, Aldo; Blanco, German; Hauser, Michelle; Fierros, Fernando; Ahn, David K; Diaz, Jose; Done, Monica; Fernandez, Juan; Bickmore, Timothy

    2017-10-01

    While physical inactivity is a key risk factor for a range of chronic diseases and conditions associated with aging, a significant proportion of midlife and older adults remain insufficiently active. This is particularly true for ethnic minority populations such as Latino adults for whom few culturally adapted programs have been developed and tested. The major objective of this 12-month cluster-randomized controlled trial is to test the comparative effectiveness of two linguistically and culturally adapted, community-based physical activity interventions with the potential for broad reach and translation. Ten local community centers serving a sizable number of Latino residents were randomized to receive one of two physical activity interventions. The Virtual Advisor program employs a computer-based embodied conversational agent named "Carmen" to deliver interactive, individually tailored physical activity advice and support. A similar intervention program is delivered by trained Peer Advisors. The target population consists of generally healthy, insufficiently active Latino adults ages 50years and older living within proximity to a designated community center. The major outcomes are changes in walking and other forms of physical activity measured via self-report and accelerometry. Secondary outcomes include physical function and well-being variables. In addition to these outcome analyses, comparative cost analysis of the two programs, potential mediators of intervention success, and baseline moderators of intervention effects will be explored to better determine which subgroups do best with which type of intervention. Here we present the study design and methods, including recruitment strategies and yield as well as study baseline characteristics. clinicaltrial.gov Identifier=NCT02111213. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management activation research trial (COPD-SMART): design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Jamile; Russo, Rennie; Peoples, Jennifer; Sloan, John; Jackson, Bradford E; Bae, Sejong; Singh, Karan P; Blair, Steven N; Coultas, David

    2013-07-01

    Treatment of COPD requires multiple pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention strategies. One target is physical inactivity because it leads to disability and contributes to poor physical and mental health. Unfortunately, less than 1% of eligible patients have access to gold-standard pulmonary rehabilitation. A single-site parallel group randomized trial was designed to determine if a self-management lifestyle physical activity intervention would improve physical functioning and dyspnea. During the first six weeks after enrollment patients receive COPD self-management education delivered by a health coach using a workbook and weekly telephone calls. Patients are then randomized to usual care or the physical activity intervention. The 20 week physical activity intervention is delivered by the health coach using a workbook supported by alternating one-on-one telephone counseling and computer assisted telephone calls. Theoretical foundations include social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model. Primary outcomes include change in Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) dyspnea domain and 6-minute walk distance measured at 6-, 12-, and 18-months after randomization. Secondary outcomes include other CRQ domains (fatigue, emotion, and mastery), SF-12, and health care utilization. Other measures include process outcomes and clinical characteristics. This theory driven self-management lifestyle physical activity intervention is designed to reach patients unable to complete center-based pulmonary rehabilitation. Results will advance knowledge and methods for dissemination of a potentially cost-effective program for patients with COPD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Topp, Robert; Behm, David G

    2013-12-01

    Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours later, at which the participants (a) received 10 minutes of massage of the trapezius muscle or (b) performed 10 minutes of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 × 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, 1 treatment was randomly applied to 1 shoulder while the contralateral shoulder served as a passive control. Two hours later, the contralateral resting shoulder received the other treatment. The participants rated the intensity of soreness (scale 0-10), and a blinded examiner took measures of pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the upper trapezius immediately before treatment and 0, 10, 20, and 60 minutes after treatment 48 hours posteccentric exercise. Immediately before treatment, the intensity of soreness was 5.0 (SD 2.2) and PPT was 138 (SD 78) kPa. In response to treatment, a significant treatment by time interaction was found for the intensity of soreness (p < 0.001) and PPT (p < 0.05). Compared with control, both active exercise and massage significantly reduced the intensity of soreness and increased PPT (i.e., reduced pain sensitivity). For both types of treatment, the greatest effect on perceived soreness occurred immediately after treatment, whereas the effect on PPT peaked 20 minutes after treatment. In conclusion, active exercise using elastic resistance provides similar acute relief of muscle soreness as compared with that using massage

  4. Anger expression and natural killer cell activity in family caregivers participating in a physical activity trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, S; King, A C; Vitaliano, P P; Brassington, G S

    2000-07-01

    Associations between psychological functioning and natural killer cell activity (NKA) were examined in 23 older (62.2 ± 7.5 years) family caregivers randomized to a moderate intensity four-month exercise program or to a wait-list control condition. At baseline, although NKA was related to anger-control (r = -.42; trend p caregiver burden. After controlling for baseline NKA, changes in anger-control explained 14 percent of the variance in NKA four months later. Decreases in anger-control predicted increases in NKA. Group assignment (exercise vs control) was unrelated to changes in NKA over the four-month period; however, the study was not powered to detect this effect. These results are consistent with reported relationships of anger expression with other physiological measures, and extend the importance of anger expression to immune functioning in older family caregivers.

  5. Effects of dihydrocapsiate on adaptive and diet-induced thermogenesis with a high protein very low calorie diet: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerlin Alona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrocapsiate (DCT is a natural safe food ingredient which is structurally related to capsaicin from chili pepper and is found in the non-pungent pepper strain, CH-19 Sweet. It has been shown to elicit the thermogenic effects of capsaicin but without its gastrointestinal side effects. Methods The present study was designed to examine the effects of DCT on both adaptive thermogenesis as the result of caloric restriction with a high protein very low calorie diet (VLCD and to determine whether DCT would increase post-prandial energy expenditure (PPEE in response to a 400 kcal/60 g protein liquid test meal. Thirty-three subjects completed an outpatient very low calorie diet (800 kcal/day providing 120 g/day protein over 4 weeks and were randomly assigned to receive either DCT capsules three times per day (3 mg or 9 mg or placebo. At baseline and 4 weeks, fasting basal metabolic rate and PPEE were measured in a metabolic hood and fat free mass (FFM determined using displacement plethysmography (BOD POD. Results PPEE normalized to FFM was increased significantly in subjects receiving 9 mg/day DCT by comparison to placebo (p Conclusions These data provide evidence for postprandial increases in thermogenesis and fat oxidation secondary to administration of dihydrocapsiate. Trial registration clinicaltrial.govNCT01142687

  6. Behavioural activation: a pilot trial of transdiagnostic treatment for excessive worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junwen; Liu, Xi; Rapee, Ronald M; Pillay, Pallavi

    2013-09-01

    Transdiagnostic interventions present pragmatic benefits in treatment dissemination and training of mental health professionals when faced with emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression. Excessive worry is a common feature across emotional disorders and represents an ideal candidate target for transdiagnostic intervention. The current pilot trial examined the efficacy of a behavioural activation treatment for worry (BAW) in a community population. 49 individuals experiencing excessive worry were randomised to waitlist or BAW receiving an 8 week group based intervention. Results demonstrated that BAW was successful in reducing excessive worry, depressive symptoms, cognitive avoidance, Intolerance of Uncertainty and improving problem solving orientation. Twice as many individuals showed clinically significant reductions in excessive worry after treatment compared to the waitlist control. Despite limitations to sample size and power, this study presents promising support for BAW as a practical transdiagnostic treatment for worry.

  7. Steps Ahead: Adaptation of physical activity and dietary guidelines for reducing unhealthy weight gain in the Lower Misissippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of our study was to test the effectiveness of adapting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010) (DG), with and without a physical activity (PA) component, in reducing weight gain in the Lower Mississippi Delta region (LMD) of the United States. A sample of 121 White and African-Americ...

  8. The Effects of Unilateral Adaptation of Hearing Aids on Symptoms of Depression and Social Activity Constraints of Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Fernanda Dutra dos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hearing loss is one of the most common problems in the elderly population. Besides compromising oral communication, it directly affects social relations and prevents elderly patients from living actively in society, possibly leading to the onset of depression or other conditions. Objective To analyze the effects of unilateral adaptation of hearing aids on symptoms of depression and the social activity constraints of elderly subjects with hearing impairment. Methods The sample consisted of elderly subjects with hearing loss who did not use hearing aids. Data were collected in two phases. Initially, all participants underwent an audiological assessment and answered the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly (summarized version and the Geriatric Depression Scale. All subjects participated in the selection and hearing aid adaptation processes and became monaural hearing aid users. After 30 days of hearing aid use, they were assessed with the same instruments. The results of the questionnaires before and after hearing aid adaptation were compared. Results The sample consisted of 13 individuals, between 60 and 90 years old (mean 72.85 ± 11.05 years. Data analysis showed that there was significant improvement in social activity constraints (p < 0.001 and in symptoms of depression (p = 0.031. Conclusion Results show that, in the sample studied, unilateral hearing aid adaptation reduced social activity constraints and depression symptoms.

  9. The Effects of Unilateral Adaptation of Hearing Aids on Symptoms of Depression and Social Activity Constraints of Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fernanda Dutra Dos; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Introduction Hearing loss is one of the most common problems in the elderly population. Besides compromising oral communication, it directly affects social relations and prevents elderly patients from living actively in society, possibly leading to the onset of depression or other conditions. Objective To analyze the effects of unilateral adaptation of hearing aids on symptoms of depression and the social activity constraints of elderly subjects with hearing impairment. Methods The sample consisted of elderly subjects with hearing loss who did not use hearing aids. Data were collected in two phases. Initially, all participants underwent an audiological assessment and answered the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly (summarized version) and the Geriatric Depression Scale. All subjects participated in the selection and hearing aid adaptation processes and became monaural hearing aid users. After 30 days of hearing aid use, they were assessed with the same instruments. The results of the questionnaires before and after hearing aid adaptation were compared. Results The sample consisted of 13 individuals, between 60 and 90 years old (mean 72.85 ± 11.05 years). Data analysis showed that there was significant improvement in social activity constraints (p depression (p = 0.031). Conclusion Results show that, in the sample studied, unilateral hearing aid adaptation reduced social activity constraints and depression symptoms.

  10. Adaptive Response Induced by Pre-Exposure to 915 MHz Radiofrequency: A Possible Role for Antioxidant Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, S M J; Mostafavi-Pour, Z; Daneshmand, M; Zal, F; Zare, R; Mosleh-Shirazi, M A

    2017-06-01

    Over the past few years, the rapid use of high frequency electromagnetic fields like mobile phones has raised global concerns about the negative health effects of its use. Adaptive response is the ability of a cell or tissue to better resist stress damage by prior exposure to a lesser amount of stress. This study aimed to assess whether radiofrequency radiation can induce adaptive response by changing the antioxidant balance. In order to assess RF-induced adaptive response in tissues, we evaluated the level of GSH and the activity of GR in liver. 50 rats were divided into 5 groups. Three groups were pre-exposed to 915 MHz RF radiation, 4 hours per day for one week at different powers, as low, medium and high. 24 hours after the last exposure to radiation, they were exposed to 4 Gy sublethal dose of gamma radiation and then sacrificed after 5 hours. Their livers were removed, washed and were kept at -80o C until used. Our finding showed that pre-exposure to 915 MHz radiofrequency radiation with specific power could induce adaptive response in liver by inducing changes in the activity and level of antioxidant enzymes. It can be concluded that pre-exposure to microwave radiation could increase the level of GSH and the activity of GR enzyme, although these increases were seen just in low power group, and the GR activity was indicated in medium power group. This increase protects tissue from oxidative damage induced by sublethal dose of gamma radiation.

  11. Experience, Intersubjectivity, and Reflection: A Human Science Perspective on Preparation of Future Professionals in Adaptive Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F.; Rugseth, Gro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show that and how philosophy and philosophical thinking can be of relevance for the preparation of future professionals in adaptive physical activity. To this end we utilize philosophical insights from the human science perspective on two central issues, namely experience and intersubjectivity, which are weaved…

  12. Performance of a multi-channel adaptive Kalman algorithm for active noise control of non-stationary sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ophem, S. van; Berkhoff, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Commonly used adaptive algorithms which determine the coefficients of a finite impulse response feed-forward filter in an active noise control application, as the filtered reference least mean squares algorithm, are not performing well when the sound source is non-stationary. A multiple input and

  13. Enhancing Cognitive Abilities with Comprehensive Training: A Large, Online, Randomized, Active-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Joseph L.; Nelson, Rolf A.; Thomason, Moriah E.; Sternberg, Daniel A.; Katovich, Kiefer; Farzin, Faraz; Scanlon, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background A variety of studies have demonstrated gains in cognitive ability following cognitive training interventions. However, other studies have not shown such gains, and questions remain regarding the efficacy of specific cognitive training interventions. Cognitive training research often involves programs made up of just one or a few exercises, targeting limited and specific cognitive endpoints. In addition, cognitive training studies typically involve small samples that may be insufficient for reliable measurement of change. Other studies have utilized training periods that were too short to generate reliable gains in cognitive performance. Methods The present study evaluated an online cognitive training program comprised of 49 exercises targeting a variety of cognitive capacities. The cognitive training program was compared to an active control condition in which participants completed crossword puzzles. All participants were recruited, trained, and tested online (N = 4,715 fully evaluable participants). Participants in both groups were instructed to complete one approximately 15-minute session at least 5 days per week for 10 weeks. Results Participants randomly assigned to the treatment group improved significantly more on the primary outcome measure, an aggregate measure of neuropsychological performance, than did the active control group (Cohen’s d effect size = 0.255; 95% confidence interval = [0.198, 0.312]). Treatment participants showed greater improvements than controls on speed of processing, short-term memory, working memory, problem solving, and fluid reasoning assessments. Participants in the treatment group also showed greater improvements on self-reported measures of cognitive functioning, particularly on those items related to concentration compared to the control group (Cohen’s d = 0.249; 95% confidence interval = [0.191, 0.306]). Conclusion Taken together, these results indicate that a varied training program composed of a number of

  14. Subversion of innate and adaptive immune activation induced by structurally modified lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Pérez-Shibayama, Christian I; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Cervantes-Barragán, Luisa; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ludewig, Burkhard; Cunningham, Adam F; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A; Becker, Ingeborg; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Bonifaz, Laura; Gunn, John S; Isibasi, Armando; López-Macías, Constantino

    2011-08-01

    Salmonella are successful pathogens that infect millions of people every year. During infection, Salmonella typhimurium changes the structure of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in response to the host environment, rendering bacteria resistant to cationic peptide lysis in vitro. However, the role of these structural changes in LPS as in vivo virulence factors and their effects on immune responses and the generation of immunity are largely unknown. We report that modified LPS are less efficient than wild-type LPS at inducing pro-inflammatory responses. The impact of this LPS-mediated subversion of innate immune responses was demonstrated by increased mortality in mice infected with a non-lethal dose of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain mixed with the modified LPS moieties. Up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells and CD4(+) T-cell activation were affected by these modified LPS. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing specific antibody responses. Immunization with modified LPS moiety preparations combined with experimental antigens, induced an impaired Toll-like receptor 4-mediated adjuvant effect. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing immunity against challenge with virulent S. typhimurium. Hence, changes in S. typhimurium LPS structure impact not only on innate immune responses but also on both humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses.

  15. Betacoronavirus Adaptation to Humans Involved Progressive Loss of Hemagglutinin-Esterase Lectin Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkers, Mark J G; Lang, Yifei; Feitsma, Louris J; Hulswit, Ruben J G; de Poot, Stefanie A H; van Vliet, Arno L W; Margine, Irina; de Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda D F; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Langereis, Martijn A; Huizinga, Eric G; de Groot, Raoul J

    2017-03-08

    Human beta1-coronavirus (β1CoV) OC43 emerged relatively recently through a single zoonotic introduction. Like related animal β1CoVs, OC43 uses 9-O-acetylated sialic acid as receptor determinant. β1CoV receptor binding is typically controlled by attachment/fusion spike protein S and receptor-binding/receptor-destroying hemagglutinin-esterase protein HE. We show that following OC43's introduction into humans, HE-mediated receptor binding was selected against and ultimately lost through progressive accumulation of mutations in the HE lectin domain. Consequently, virion-associated receptor-destroying activity toward multivalent glycoconjugates was reduced and altered such that some clustered receptor populations are no longer cleaved. Loss of HE lectin function was also observed for another respiratory human coronavirus, HKU1. This thus appears to be an adaptation to the sialoglycome of the human respiratory tract and for replication in human airways. The findings suggest that the dynamics of virion-glycan interactions contribute to host tropism. Our observations are relevant also to other human respiratory viruses of zoonotic origin, particularly influenza A virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Active Side of Stereopsis: Fixation Strategy and Adaptation to Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaldi, Agostino; Canessa, Andrea; Sabatini, Silvio P.

    2017-01-01

    Depth perception in near viewing strongly relies on the interpretation of binocular retinal disparity to obtain stereopsis. Statistical regularities of retinal disparities have been claimed to greatly impact on the neural mechanisms that underlie binocular vision, both to facilitate perceptual decisions and to reduce computational load. In this paper, we designed a novel and unconventional approach in order to assess the role of fixation strategy in conditioning the statistics of retinal disparity. We integrated accurate realistic three-dimensional models of natural scenes with binocular eye movement recording, to obtain accurate ground-truth statistics of retinal disparity experienced by a subject in near viewing. Our results evidence how the organization of human binocular visual system is finely adapted to the disparity statistics characterizing actual fixations, thus revealing a novel role of the active fixation strategy over the binocular visual functionality. This suggests an ecological explanation for the intrinsic preference of stereopsis for a close central object surrounded by a far background, as an early binocular aspect of the figure-ground segregation process. PMID:28317909

  17. Refinement and evaluation of helicopter real-time self-adaptive active vibration controller algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    A Real-Time Self-Adaptive (RTSA) active vibration controller was used as the framework in developing a computer program for a generic controller that can be used to alleviate helicopter vibration. Based upon on-line identification of system parameters, the generic controller minimizes vibration in the fuselage by closed-loop implementation of higher harmonic control in the main rotor system. The new generic controller incorporates a set of improved algorithms that gives the capability to readily define many different configurations by selecting one of three different controller types (deterministic, cautious, and dual), one of two linear system models (local and global), and one or more of several methods of applying limits on control inputs (external and/or internal limits on higher harmonic pitch amplitude and rate). A helicopter rotor simulation analysis was used to evaluate the algorithms associated with the alternative controller types as applied to the four-bladed H-34 rotor mounted on the NASA Ames Rotor Test Apparatus (RTA) which represents the fuselage. After proper tuning all three controllers provide more effective vibration reduction and converge more quickly and smoothly with smaller control inputs than the initial RTSA controller (deterministic with external pitch-rate limiting). It is demonstrated that internal limiting of the control inputs a significantly improves the overall performance of the deterministic controller.

  18. Novel vibration-exercise instrument with dedicated adaptive filtering for electromyographic investigation of neuromuscular activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Rabotti, Chiara; Mischi, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Vibration exercise (VE) has been suggested as an effective methodology to improve muscle strength and power performance. Several studies link the effects of vibration training to enhanced neuromuscular demand, typically ascribed to involuntary reflex mechanisms. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, limiting the identification of the most appropriate vibration training protocols. This study concerns the realization of a new vibration exercise system for the upper limbs. Amplitude, frequency, and baseline of the vibrating force, which is generated by an electromechanical actuator, can be adjusted independently. A second order model is employed to identify the relation between the generated force and the input voltage driving the actuator. Our results show a high correlation (0.99) between the second order model fit and the measured data, ensuring accurate control on the supplied force. The level of neuromuscular demand imposed by the system on the targeted muscles can be estimated by electromyography (EMG). However, EMG measurements during VE can be severely affected by motion artifacts. An adaptive least mean square algorithm is proposed to remove motion artifacts from the measured EMG data. Preliminary validation with seven volunteers showed excellent motion artifact removal, enabling reliable evaluation of the neuromuscular activation.

  19. Subversion of innate and adaptive immune activation induced by structurally modified lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Pérez-Shibayama, Christian I; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Cervantes-Barragán, Luisa; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ludewig, Burkhard; Cunningham, Adam F; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A; Becker, Ingeborg; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Bonifaz, Laura; Gunn, John S; Isibasi, Armando; López-Macías, Constantino

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella are successful pathogens that infect millions of people every year. During infection, Salmonella typhimurium changes the structure of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in response to the host environment, rendering bacteria resistant to cationic peptide lysis in vitro. However, the role of these structural changes in LPS as in vivo virulence factors and their effects on immune responses and the generation of immunity are largely unknown. We report that modified LPS are less efficient than wild-type LPS at inducing pro-inflammatory responses. The impact of this LPS-mediated subversion of innate immune responses was demonstrated by increased mortality in mice infected with a non-lethal dose of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain mixed with the modified LPS moieties. Up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells and CD4+ T-cell activation were affected by these modified LPS. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing specific antibody responses. Immunization with modified LPS moiety preparations combined with experimental antigens, induced an impaired Toll-like receptor 4-mediated adjuvant effect. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing immunity against challenge with virulent S. typhimurium. Hence, changes in S. typhimurium LPS structure impact not only on innate immune responses but also on both humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses. PMID:21631497

  20. Adaptive wave field synthesis for active sound field reproduction: experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert; Berry, Alain

    2008-04-01

    Sound field reproduction has applications in music reproduction, spatial audio, sound environment reproduction, and experimental acoustics. Sound field reproduction can be used to artificially reproduce the spatial character of natural hearing. The objective is then to reproduce a sound field in a real reproduction environment. Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a known open-loop technology which assumes that the reproduction environment is anechoic. The room response thus reduces the quality of the physical sound field reproduction by WFS. In recent research papers, adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS) was defined as a potential solution to compensate for these quality reductions from which WFS objective performance suffers. In this paper, AWFS is experimentally investigated as an active sound field reproduction system with a limited number of reproduction error sensors to compensate for the response of the listening environment. Two digital signal processing algorithms for AWFS are used for comparison purposes, one of which is based on independent radiation mode control. AWFS performed propagating sound field reproduction better than WFS in three tested reproduction spaces (hemianechoic chamber, standard laboratory space, and reverberation chamber).

  1. Simulation of adaptive semi-active magnetorheological seat damper for vehicle occupant blast protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hyeong; Murugan, Muthuvel; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates a lumped-parameter human body model which includes lower leg in seated posture within a quarter-car model for blast injury assessment simulation. To simulate the shock acceleration of the vehicle, mine blast analysis was conducted on a generic land vehicle crew compartment (sand box) structure. For the purpose of simulating human body dynamics with non-linear parameters, a physical model of a lumped-parameter human body within a quarter car model was implemented using multi-body dynamic simulation software. For implementing the control scheme, a skyhook algorithm was made to work with the multi-body dynamic model by running a co-simulation with the control scheme software plug-in. The injury criteria and tolerance levels for the biomechanical effects are discussed for each of the identified vulnerable body regions, such as the relative head displacement and the neck bending moment. The desired objective of this analytical model development is to study the performance of adaptive semi-active magnetorheological damper that can be used for vehicle-occupant protection technology enhancements to the seat design in a mine-resistant military vehicle.

  2. A-FABP mediates adaptive thermogenesis by promoting intracellular activation of thyroid hormones in brown adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lingling; Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Wu, Xiaoping; Pan, Yong; Lee, Ida P. C.; Cheong, Lai Yee; Bornstein, Stefan R; Rong, Xianglu; Guo, Jiao; Xu, Aimin

    2017-01-01

    The adipokine adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) has been implicated in obesity-related cardio-metabolic complications. Here we show that A-FABP increases thermogenesis by promoting the conversion of T4 to T3 in brown adipocytes. We find that A-FABP levels are increased in both white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues and the bloodstream in response to thermogenic stimuli. A-FABP knockout mice have reduced thermogenesis and whole-body energy expenditure after cold stress or after feeding a high-fat diet, which can be reversed by infusion of recombinant A-FABP. Mechanistically, A-FABP induces the expression of type-II iodothyronine deiodinase in BAT via inhibition of the nuclear receptor liver X receptor α, thereby leading to the conversion of thyroid hormone from its inactive form T4 to active T3. The thermogenic responses to T4 are abrogated in A-FABP KO mice, but enhanced by A-FABP. Thus, A-FABP acts as a physiological stimulator of BAT-mediated adaptive thermogenesis. PMID:28128199

  3. The Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5 school based cluster randomised controlled trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Rona

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behaviour and low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption are common in children and are associated with adverse health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate a school-based intervention that aims to increase levels of physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviour and increase consumption of fruit and vegetables in school children. Methods/design The Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5 study is a school-based, cluster RCT that targets school children in Year 5 (age 9-10 years. All state junior/primary schools in the area covered by Bristol City and North Somerset Council are invited to participate; special schools are excluded. Eligible schools are randomised to one of two arms: intervention arm (receive the intervention 2011-2012 and control arm (receive the intervention after the final follow-up assessment, 2013-2014. The primary outcomes of the trial are levels of accelerometer assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour and questionnaire assessed fruit and vegetable consumption. A number of secondary outcomes will also be measured, including body mass index, waist circumference and overweight/obesity. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline (prior to intervention when the children are in Year 4, at the end of intervention 'immediate follow-up' and '12 months long-term' follow-up. We will use random effects linear and logistic regression models to compare outcomes by randomised arm. The economic evaluation from a societal perspective will take the form of a cost consequence analysis. Data from focus groups and interviews with pupils, parents and teachers will be used to increase understanding of how the intervention has any effect and is integrated into normal school activity. Discussion The results of the trial will provide information about the public health effectiveness

  4. The Effects of Unilateral Adaptation of Hearing Aids on Symptoms of Depression and Social Activity Constraints of Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Fernanda Dutra dos; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hearing loss is one of the most common problems in the elderly population. Besides compromising oral communication, it directly affects social relations and prevents elderly patients from living actively in society, possibly leading to the onset of depression or other conditions. Objective To analyze the effects of unilateral adaptation of hearing aids on symptoms of depression and the social activity constraints of elderly subjects with hearing impairment. Methods The samp...

  5. Hedonic "adaptation"

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to d...

  6. Behavioral and Psychological Factors Associated with 12-Month Weight Change in a Physical Activity Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Napolitano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining behavioral and psychological factors relating to weight stability over a 1-year period is of public health importance. We conducted a physical activity (PA intervention trial for women (N=247; mean age=47.5±10.7; mean BMI=28.6±5.3 in which participants were assigned to one of three groups (two PA and one contact-control. By Month 12, participants achieved 140.4±14.82 min of PA/week, with no group differences. Weight status change from baseline to Month 12 was categorized: no change (N=154; 62.4%; increase (N=34; 13.8%; decrease (N=59; 23.9%. Discriminant function analyses indentified two statistically significant dimensions associated with weight change. Dimension 1 was positively weighted by mood (0.73 and self-efficacy (0.79; dimension 2 was positively weighted to change in physical activity (0.58 and fat consumption (0.55. Results provide further evidence for the importance of behavior in long-term weight maintenance, particularly physical activity and dietary fat. These findings also provide evidence for the importance of addressing psychosocial variables, in particular depressed mood and self-efficacy.

  7. The mPED randomized controlled clinical trial: applying mobile persuasive technologies to increase physical activity in sedentary women protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuoka Yoshimi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the significant health benefits of regular physical activity, approximately half of American adults, particularly women and minorities, do not meet the current physical activity recommendations. Mobile phone technologies are readily available, easily accessible and may provide a potentially powerful tool for delivering physical activity interventions. However, we need to understand how to effectively apply these mobile technologies to increase and maintain physical activity in physically inactive women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design and protocol of the mPED (mobile phone based physical activity education randomized controlled clinical trial that examines the efficacy of a 3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and compares two different 6-month maintenance interventions. Methods A randomized controlled trial (RCT with three arms; 1 PLUS (3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and 6-month mobile phone diary maintenance intervention, 2 REGULAR (3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and 6-month pedometer maintenance intervention, and 3 CONTROL (pedometer only, but no intervention will be conducted. A total of 192 physically inactive women who meet all inclusion criteria and successfully complete a 3-week run-in will be randomized into one of the three groups. The mobile phone serves as a means of delivering the physical activity intervention, setting individualized weekly physical activity goals, and providing self-monitoring (activity diary, immediate feedback and social support. The mobile phone also functions as a tool for communication and real-time data capture. The primary outcome is objectively measured physical activity. Discussion If efficacy of the intervention with a mobile phone is demonstrated, the results of this RCT will be able to provide new insights for current behavioral

  8. Feasibility of the adaptive and automatic presentation of tasks (ADAPT system for rehabilitation of upper extremity function post-stroke

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    Choi Younggeun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidelines for rehabilitation of arm and hand function after stroke recommend that motor training focus on realistic tasks that require reaching and manipulation and engage the patient intensively, actively, and adaptively. Here, we investigated the feasibility of a novel robotic task-practice system, ADAPT, designed in accordance with such guidelines. At each trial, ADAPT selects a functional task according to a training schedule and with difficulty based on previous performance. Once the task is selected, the robot picks up and presents the corresponding tool, simulates the dynamics of the tasks, and the patient interacts with the tool to perform the task. Methods Five participants with chronic stroke with mild to moderate impairments (> 9 months post-stroke; Fugl-Meyer arm score 49.2 ± 5.6 practiced four functional tasks (selected out of six in a pre-test with ADAPT for about one and half hour and 144 trials in a pseudo-random schedule of 3-trial blocks per task. Results No adverse events occurred and ADAPT successfully presented the six functional tasks without human intervention for a total of 900 trials. Qualitative analysis of trajectories showed that ADAPT simulated the desired task dynamics adequately, and participants reported good, although not excellent, task fidelity. During training, the adaptive difficulty algorithm progressively increased task difficulty leading towards an optimal challenge point based on performance; difficulty was then continuously adjusted to keep performance around the challenge point. Furthermore, the time to complete all trained tasks decreased significantly from pretest to one-hour post-test. Finally, post-training questionnaires demonstrated positive patient acceptance of ADAPT. Conclusions ADAPT successfully provided adaptive progressive training for multiple functional tasks based on participant's performance. Our encouraging results establish the feasibility of ADAPT; its

  9. Effects of a Worksite Supervised Adapted Physical Activity Program on Trunk Muscle Endurance, Flexibility, and Pain Sensitivity Among Vineyard Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguier, Romain; Madeleine, Pascal; Rose-Dulcina, Kévin; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    In viticulture, the prevalence of low back pain is particularly high among vineyard workers exposed to sustained and awkward postures. One promising setting for low back pain prevention resides in the implementation of workplace physical activity. This nonrandomized pilot study aims at evaluating the effects of a worksite supervised adapted physical activity program among 17 vineyard workers volunteered to enter either an intervention group (n = 10) or a control group (n = 7).The intervention group followed a physical activity program for 8 weeks involving (1) 15 minutes of warm-up every working day and (2) two weekly 1-hour adapted physical activity sessions targeting trunk muscle endurance and flexibility. The control group was advised to continue normal physical activity. Evaluations were carried out at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12. Physical capacity was assessed using flexibility tests for the trunk, along with trunk muscle flexor and extensor endurance tests. Finally, pain sensitivity was evaluated by assessing pressure pain thresholds over 14 anatomical locations in the low back region. For the intervention group, the endurance of the trunk extensor and flexor significantly increased from baseline to week 8 as well as the pressure pain thresholds. No change was observed for the control group over the same period. These encouraging results in combination with the high adherence rate set interesting foundations for the promotion of worksite supervised adapted physical activity and, most likely, offer a new promising approach to prevent low back pain among vineyard workers.

  10. Comparison of adaptive pacing therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, graded exercise therapy, and specialist medical care for chronic fatigue syndrome (PACE): a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P D; Goldsmith, K A; Johnson, A L; Potts, L; Walwyn, R; DeCesare, J C; Baber, H L; Burgess, M; Clark, L V; Cox, D L; Bavinton, J; Angus, B J; Murphy, G; Murphy, M; O'Dowd, H; Wilks, D; McCrone, P; Chalder, T; Sharpe, M

    2011-03-05

    Trial findings show cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and graded exercise therapy (GET) can be effective treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome, but patients' organisations have reported that these treatments can be harmful and favour pacing and specialist health care. We aimed to assess effectiveness and safety of all four treatments. In our parallel-group randomised trial, patients meeting Oxford criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome were recruited from six secondary-care clinics in the UK and randomly allocated by computer-generated sequence to receive specialist medical care (SMC) alone or with adaptive pacing therapy (APT), CBT, or GET. Primary outcomes were fatigue (measured by Chalder fatigue questionnaire score) and physical function (measured by short form-36 subscale score) up to 52 weeks after randomisation, and safety was assessed primarily by recording all serious adverse events, including serious adverse reactions to trial treatments. Primary outcomes were rated by participants, who were necessarily unmasked to treatment assignment; the statistician was masked to treatment assignment for the analysis of primary outcomes. We used longitudinal regression models to compare SMC alone with other treatments, APT with CBT, and APT with GET. The final analysis included all participants for whom we had data for primary outcomes. This trial is registered at http://isrctn.org, number ISRCTN54285094. We recruited 641 eligible patients, of whom 160 were assigned to the APT group, 161 to the CBT group, 160 to the GET group, and 160 to the SMC-alone group. Compared with SMC alone, mean fatigue scores at 52 weeks were 3·4 (95% CI 1·8 to 5·0) points lower for CBT (p = 0·0001) and 3·2 (1·7 to 4·8) points lower for GET (p = 0·0003), but did not differ for APT (0·7 [-0·9 to 2·3] points lower; p = 0·38). Compared with SMC alone, mean physical function scores were 7·1 (2·0 to 12·1) points higher for CBT (p = 0·0068) and 9·4 (4·4 to 14·4) points higher

  11. Activity Increase Despite Arthritis (AÏDA: design of a Phase II randomised controlled trial evaluating an active management booklet for hip and knee osteoarthritis [ISRCTN24554946

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    Edwards Rhiannon T

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip and knee osteoarthritis is a common cause of pain and disability, which can be improved by exercise interventions. However, regular exercise is uncommon in this group because the low physical activity level in the general population is probably reduced even further by pain related fear of movement. The best method of encouraging increased activity in this patient group is not known. A booklet has been developed for patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis. It focuses on changing disadvantageous beliefs and encouraging increased physical activity. Methods/Design This paper describes the design of a Phase II randomised controlled trial (RCT to test the effectiveness of this new booklet for patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis in influencing illness and treatment beliefs, and to assess the feasibility of conducting a larger definitive RCT in terms of health status and exercise behaviour. A computerised search of four general medical practice patients' record databases will identify patients older than 50 years of age who have consulted with hip or knee pain in the previous twelve months. A random sample of 120 will be invited to participate in the RCT comparing the new booklet with a control booklet, and we expect 100 to return final questionnaires. This trial will assess the feasibility of recruitment and randomisation, the suitability of the control intervention and outcome measurement tools, and will provide an estimate of effect size. Outcomes will include beliefs about hip and knee pain, beliefs about exercise, fear avoidance, level of physical activity, health status and health service costs. They will be measured at baseline, one month and three months. Discussion We discuss the merits of testing effectiveness in a phase II trial, in terms of intermediate outcome measures, whilst testing the processes for a larger definitive trial. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of testing the psychometric

  12. Effects of an adapted physical activity program on psychophysical health in elderly women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bellafiore, Marianna; Alesi, Marianna; Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown the positive effects of adapted physical activity (APA) on physical and mental health (MH) during the lifetime. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a specific APA intervention program in the improvement of the health-related quality of life (QOL) and functional condition of spine in elderly women. Methods Thirty women were recruited from a senior center and randomly assigned to two groups: control group (CG; age: 69.69±7.94 years, height: 1.57±0.06 m, weight: 68.42±8.18 kg, body mass index [BMI]: 27.88±2.81) and trained group (TG; age: 68.35±6.04 years, height: 1.55±0.05 m, weight: 64.78±10.16 kg, BMI: 26.98±3.07). The APA program was conducted for 8 weeks, with two training sessions/week. CG did not perform any physical activity during the study. Spinal angles were evaluated by SpinalMouse® (Idiag, Volkerswill, Switzerland); health-related QOL was evaluated by SF-36 Health Survey, which assesses physical component summary (PCS-36), mental component summary (MCS-36), and eight subscales: physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health perception, role-emotional, social functioning, vitality, and MH. All measures were recorded before and after the experimental period. Results In TG, compared to CG, the two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures with Bonferroni post hoc test showed a relevant improvement in lumbar spinal angle (°) and in SF-36 outcomes after the intervention period. We showed a significant increase in physical functioning, bodily pain, and MH subscales and in PCS-36 and MCS-36 scores in TG compared to CG. In particular, from baseline to posttest, we found that in TG, the PCS-36 and MCS-36 scores increased by 13.20% and 11.64%, respectively. Conclusion We believe that an 8-week APA intervention program is able to improve psychophysical heath in elderly people. During the aging process, a dynamic lifestyle, including regular physical activity, is a crucial

  13. Adaptation to Damaging Dance and Repeated-Sprint Activity in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meghan A; Howatson, Glyn; Keane, Karen M; Stevenson, Emma J

    2016-09-01

    Brown, MA, Howatson, G, Keane, KM, and Stevenson, EJ. Adaptation to damaging dance and repeated-sprint activity in women. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2574-2581, 2016-The repeated bout effect (RBE) refers to the prophylactic effect from damaging exercise after a single previous bout of exercise. There is a paucity of data examining the RBE in women, and investigations using exercise paradigms beyond isolated eccentric contractions are scarce. In light of the limited literature, this investigation aimed to determine whether 2 different sport-specific exercise bouts would elicit a RBE in women. Twenty-one female dancers (19 ± 1 years) completed either a dance-specific protocol (n = 10) or sport-specific repeated-sprint protocol (n = 11). Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), limb girths, creatine kinase (CK), countermovement jump height, reactive strength index, maximal voluntary contraction, and 30-meter sprint time were recorded before and 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. An identical exercise bout was conducted approximately 4 weeks after the initial bout, during which time the subjects maintained habitual training and dietary behaviors. DOMS and 30-meter sprint time decreased after a second bout of both activities (p = 0.003; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.38 and p = 0.008; and (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.31, respectively). Circulating CK was also lower at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the second bout, independent of group (p = 0.010 and (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.23). Compared with the repeated-sprint protocol, the magnitude of change in DOMS was greater after a subsequent bout of the dance protocol (p = 0.010 and (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.19). These data are the first to demonstrate that dance and repeated-sprint activity resulting in muscle damage in women confers a protective effect against muscle damage after a subsequent bout.

  14. The extended Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT Extend) Program: a cluster-randomized controlled trial of an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen J; Hesketh, Kylie D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Ball, Kylie; McCallum, Zoë; Lynch, John; Crawford, David A

    2016-02-18

    Understanding how we can prevent childhood obesity in scalable and sustainable ways is imperative. Early RCT interventions focused on the first two years of life have shown promise however, differences in Body Mass Index between intervention and control groups diminish once the interventions cease. Innovative and cost-effective strategies seeking to continue to support parents to engender appropriate energy balance behaviours in young children need to be explored. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Extend Program builds on the early outcomes of the Melbourne InFANT Program. This cluster randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of an extended (33 versus 15 month) and enhanced (use of web-based materials, and Facebook® engagement), version of the original Melbourne InFANT Program intervention in a new cohort. Outcomes at 36 months of age will be compared against the control group. This trial will provide important information regarding capacity and opportunities to maximize early childhood intervention effectiveness over the first three years of life. This study continues to build the evidence base regarding the design of cost-effective, scalable interventions to promote protective energy balance behaviors in early childhood, and in turn, promote improved child weight and health across the life course. ACTRN12611000386932. Registered 13 April 2011.

  15. The HIKCUPS trial: a multi-site randomized controlled trial of a combined physical activity skill-development and dietary modification program in overweight and obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Janet M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is one of the most pressing health issues of our time. Key health organizations have recommended research be conducted on the effectiveness of well-designed interventions to combat childhood obesity that can be translated into a variety of settings. This paper describes the design and methods used in the Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support (HIKCUPS trial, an ongoing multi-site randomized controlled trial, in overweight/obese children comparing the efficacy of three interventions: 1 a parent-centered dietary modification program; 2 a child-centered physical activity skill-development program; and 3 a program combining both 1 and 2 above. Methods/Design Each intervention consists of three components: i 10-weekly face-to-face group sessions; ii a weekly homework component, completed between each face-to-face session and iii three telephone calls at monthly intervals following completion of the 10-week program. Details of the programs' methodological aspects of recruitment, randomization and statistical analyses are described here a priori. Discussion Importantly this paper describes how HIKCUPS addresses some of the short falls in the current literature pertaining to the efficacy of child obesity interventions. The HIKCUPS trial is funded by the National Medical Research Council, Australia.

  16. Protocol for the PACE trial: a randomised controlled trial of adaptive pacing, cognitive behaviour therapy, and graded exercise, as supplements to standardised specialist medical care versus standardised specialist medical care alone for patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis or encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peter D; Sharpe, Michael C; Chalder, Trudie; DeCesare, Julia C; Walwyn, Rebecca

    2007-03-08

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, also called myalgic encephalomyelitis /encephalopathy or ME) is a debilitating condition with no known cause or cure. Improvement may occur with medical care and additional therapies of pacing, cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy. The latter two therapies have been found to be efficacious in small trials, but patient organisations surveys have reported adverse effects. Although pacing has been advocated by patient organisations, it lacks empirical support. Specialist medical care is commonly provided but its efficacy when given alone is not established. This trial compares the efficacy of the additional therapies when added to specialist medical care against specialist medical care alone. 600 patients, who meet operationalised diagnostic criteria for CFS, will be recruited from secondary care into a randomised trial of four treatments, stratified by current co morbid depressive episode and different CFS/ME criteria. The four treatments are standardised specialist medical care either given alone, or with adaptive pacing therapy or cognitive behaviour therapy or graded exercise therapy. Supplementary therapies will involve fourteen sessions over 23 weeks and a booster session at 36 weeks. Outcome will be assessed at 12, 24, and 52 weeks after randomisation. Two primary outcomes of self-rated fatigue and physical function will assess differential effects of each treatment on these measures. Secondary outcomes include adverse events and reactions, subjective measures of symptoms, mood, sleep and function and objective measures of physical activity, fitness, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. The primary analysis will be based on intention to treat and will use logistic regression models to compare treatments. Secondary outcomes will be analysed by repeated measures analysis of variance with a linear mixed model. All analyses will allow for stratification factors. Mediators and moderators will be explored using

  17. Protocol for the PACE trial: A randomised controlled trial of adaptive pacing, cognitive behaviour therapy, and graded exercise as supplements to standardised specialist medical care versus standardised specialist medical care alone for patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis or encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeCesare Julia C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, also called myalgic encephalomyelitis/encephalopathy or ME is a debilitating condition with no known cause or cure. Improvement may occur with medical care and additional therapies of pacing, cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy. The latter two therapies have been found to be efficacious in small trials, but patient organisations' surveys have reported adverse effects. Although pacing has been advocated by patient organisations, it lacks empirical support. Specialist medical care is commonly provided but its efficacy when given alone is not established. This trial compares the efficacy of the additional therapies when added to specialist medical care against specialist medical care alone. Methods/Design 600 patients, who meet operationalised diagnostic criteria for CFS, will be recruited from secondary care into a randomised trial of four treatments, stratified by current comorbid depressive episode and different CFS/ME criteria. The four treatments are standardised specialist medical care either given alone, or with adaptive pacing therapy or cognitive behaviour therapy or graded exercise therapy. Supplementary therapies will involve fourteen sessions over 23 weeks and a 'booster session' at 36 weeks. Outcome will be assessed at 12, 24, and 52 weeks after randomisation. Two primary outcomes of self-rated fatigue and physical function will assess differential effects of each treatment on these measures. Secondary outcomes include adverse events and reactions, subjective measures of symptoms, mood, sleep and function and objective measures of physical activity, fitness, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. The primary analysis will be based on intention to treat and will use logistic regression models to compare treatments. Secondary outcomes will be analysed by repeated measures analysis of variance with a linear mixed model. All analyses will allow for stratification

  18. Smartphone-Supported versus Full Behavioural Activation for Depression: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kien Hoa Ly

    Full Text Available There is need for more cost and time effective treatments for depression. This is the first randomised controlled trial in which a blended treatment--including four face-to-face sessions and a smartphone application--was compared against a full behavioural treatment. Hence, the aim of the current paper was to examine whether a blended smartphone treatment was non-inferior to a full behavioural activation treatment for depression.This was a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial (NCT01819025 comparing a blended treatment (n=46 against a full ten-session treatment (n=47 for people suffering from major depression. Primary outcome measure was the BDI-II, that was administered at pre- and post-treatment, as well as six months after the treatment.Results showed significant improvements in both groups across time on the primary outcome measure (within-group Cohen's d=1.35; CI [-0.82, 3.52] to d=1.47; CI [-0.41, 3.35]; between group d=-0.13 CI [-2.37, 2.09] and d=-0.10 CI [-2.53, 2.33]. At the same time, the blended treatment reduced the therapist time with an average of 47%.We could not establish whether the blended treatment was non-inferior to a full BA treatment. Nevertheless, this study points to that the blended treatment approach could possibly treat nearly twice as many patients suffering from depression by using a smartphone application as add-on. More studies are needed before we can suggest that the blended treatment method is a promising cost-effective alternative to regular face-to-face treatment for depression.Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treatment of Depression With Smartphone Support NCT01819025.

  19. Rift Valley fever dynamics in Senegal: a project for pro-active adaptation and improvement of livestock raising management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaye, Murielle; Sall, Baba; Ndiaye, Youssou; Vignolles, Cecile; Tourre, Yves M; Borchi, Franc Ois; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Diallo, Mawlouth; Dia, Ibrahima; Ba, Yamar; Faye, Abdoulaye; Ba, Taibou; Ka, Alioune; Ndione, Jacques-André; Gauthier, Hélène; Lacaux, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    The multi-disciplinary French project "Adaptation à la Fiévre de la Vallée du Rift" (AdaptFVR) has concluded a 10-year constructive interaction between many scientists/partners involved with the Rift Valley fever (RVF) dynamics in Senegal. The three targeted objectives reached were (i) to produce--in near real-time--validated risk maps for parked livestock exposed to RVF mosquitoes/vectors bites; (ii) to assess the impacts on RVF vectors from climate variability at different time-scales including climate change; and (iii) to isolate processes improving local livestock management and animal health. Based on these results, concrete, pro-active adaptive actions were taken on site, which led to the establishment of a RVF early warning system (RVFews). Bulletins were released in a timely fashion during the project, tested and validated in close collaboration with the local populations, i.e. the primary users. Among the strategic, adaptive methods developed, conducted and evaluated in terms of cost/benefit analyses are the larvicide campaigns and the coupled bio-mathematical (hydrological and entomological) model technologies, which are being transferred to the staff of the "Centre de Suivi Ecologique" (CSE) in Dakar during 2013. Based on the results from the AdaptFVR project, other projects with similar conceptual and modelling approaches are currently being implemented, e.g. for urban and rural malaria and dengue in the French Antilles.

  20. Rift Valley fever dynamics in Senegal: a project for pro-active adaptation and improvement of livestock raising management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murielle Lafaye

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The multi-disciplinary French project “Adaptation à la Fièvre de la Vallée du Rift” (AdaptFVR has concluded a 10-year constructive interaction between many scientists/partners involved with the Rift Valley fever (RVF dynamics in Senegal. The three targeted objectives reached were (i to produce - in near real-time - validated risk maps for parked livestock exposed to RVF mosquitoes/vectors bites; (ii to assess the impacts on RVF vectors from climate variability at different time-scales including climate change; and (iii to isolate processes improving local livestock management and animal health. Based on these results, concrete, pro-active adaptive actions were taken on site, which led to the establishment of a RVF early warning system (RVFews. Bulletins were released in a timely fashion during the project, tested and validated in close collaboration with the local populations, i.e. the primary users. Among the strategic, adaptive methods developed, conducted and evaluated in terms of cost/benefit analyses are the larvicide campaigns and the coupled bio-mathematical (hydrological and entomological model technologies, which are being transferred to the staff of the “Centre de Suivi Ecologique” (CSE in Dakar during 2013. Based on the results from the AdaptFVR project, other projects with similar conceptual and modelling approaches are currently being implemented, e.g. for urban and rural malaria and dengue in the French Antilles.

  1. Functional changes in adipose tissue in a randomised controlled trial of physical activity

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    Sjögren Per

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sedentary lifestyle predisposes to cardiometabolic diseases. Lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity improve a range of cardiometabolic risk factors. The objective of this study was to examine whether functional changes in adipose tissue were related to these improvements. Methods Seventy-three sedentary, overweight (mean BMI 29.9 ± 3.2 kg/m2 and abdominally obese, but otherwise healthy men and women (67.6 ± 0.5 years from a randomised controlled trial of physical activity on prescription over a 6-month period were included (control n = 43, intervention n = 30. Detailed examinations were carried out at baseline and at follow-up, including fasting blood samples, a comprehensive questionnaire and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies for fatty acid composition analysis (n = 73 and quantification of mRNA expression levels of 13 candidate genes (n = 51, including adiponectin, leptin and inflammatory cytokines. Results At follow-up, the intervention group had a greater increase in exercise time (+137 min/week and a greater decrease in body fat mass (−1.5 kg compared to the control subjects (changes of 0 min/week and −0.5 kg respectively. Circulating concentrations of adiponectin were unchanged, but those of leptin decreased significantly more in the intervention group (−1.8 vs −1.1 ng/mL for intervention vs control, P P P  Conclusions After a 6-month period of increased physical activity in overweight elderly individuals, circulating leptin concentrations decreased despite increased levels of leptin mRNA in adipose tissue. Otherwise, only minor changes occurred in adipose tissue, although several improvements in metabolic parameters accompanied the modest increase in physical activity.

  2. USE OF SUBCUTANEOUS METHOTREXATE FOR THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ACTIVE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: THE REMARCA TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Karateev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The early administration of methotrexate (MTX and the use of its high (by the rheumatology practice standards doses contribute to the enhanced efficiency of therapy and the reduced severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. One of the important merits of MTX in the treatment of RA is the possibility of adjusting its dose and choosing its (oral or subcutaneous administration routes, which makes it possible to individualize treatment. Particular emphasis has been recently placed just on a subcutaneous MTX formulation that creates prerequisites for substantially improving the efficiency of RA therapy. The paper gives the data of the REMARCA (Russian investigation of methotrexate and biologicals for early active arthritis trial assessing the results of RA treatment in the use of the subcutaneous MTX dosage form as a first-line drug and in the elaboration of management tactics for this disease.Subjects and methods. The investigation included 191 patients (34 men and 157 women with active RA; of whom 51.8% had very early RA (< 6 months' disease duration. 115 patients with RA completed a 24-month follow-up period; and their data were analyzed in more detail.Results and discussion. The findings may substantiate treatment policy based on the prescription of subcutaneous MTX (without previously administering its oral formulation in patients with early RA and high disease activity, starting the drug at 15 mg/week and rapidly escalating with the highest tolerable doses during 4-8 weeks, which allows remission (or low disease activity in the majority of patients without using glucocorticoids and biological agents.

  3. The influence of physical activity in water on sleep quality in pregnant women: A randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Blanque, R; Sánchez-García, J C; Sánchez-López, A M; Mur-Villar, N; Aguilar-Cordero, M J

    2017-07-07

    Sleep is a physiological state of self-regulation. The international classification of sleep disorders now includes as a new category those occurring during pregnancy. Regular physical activity is known to improve the quality of life, one aspect of which is sleep quality. During pregnancy, physical activity is decreased but should not be eliminated, as studies have reported a high correlation between sleep disorders and the absence of physical activity. Regular physical exercise during pregnancy, whether performed in water or out of it, provides greater control of gestational weight gain. Furthermore, the reduced weight gain during pregnancy, as a result of physical exercise, is associated with greater physical resistance to the demands of childbirth, combats the fatigue caused by pregnancy and reduces back pain. All of these outcomes tend to enhance sleep quality, among other beneficial effects. To determine whether, in pregnant women, there is an association between moderate-intensity physical activity in an aquatic environment and sleep quality. A randomised clinical trial was conducted with a sample of 140 pregnant women aged 21-43 years, divided into two groups; Intervention Group and Control Group. The women were recruited in the twelfth week of gestation and took part in the [Study of] Water Exercise in Pregnancy programme from week 20 to week 37. Sleep quality was evaluated in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. The Mann-Whitney U test showed that the results obtained were statistically significant (pWater Exercise in Pregnancy method improves the quality of sleep in pregnant women, both subjectively and in terms of latency, duration and efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy intake adaptations to acute isoenergetic active video games and exercise are similar in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, J P; Schwartz, C; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Tremblay, A; Thivel, D

    2015-11-01

    Although the impact of passive video games (PVGs) on energy intake has been previously explored in lean adolescents, data are missing on the nutritional adaptations to passive and active video games (AVGs) in obese adolescents. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic AVGs and exercise (EX) differently affect food consumption in youth. Nineteen obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-hour sessions in a crossover manner: control (CON; sitting on a chair), PVG (boxing game on Xbox 360), AVG (boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and EX (cycling). The EX was calibrated to generate the same energy expenditure as the AVG session. Energy expenditure was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake (buffet-style meal) and appetite sensations (visual analogue scales) were assessed after the sessions. As expected, mean energy expenditure was similar between AVG (370±4 kcal) and EX (358±3 kcal), both of which were significantly higher than PVG (125±7 kcal) and CON (98±5 kcal) (Plibitum food intake after the sessions was not significantly different between CON (1174±282 kcal), PVG (1124±281 kcal), AVG (1098±265 kcal) and EX (1091±290 kcal). Likewise, the energy derived from fat, carbohydrate and protein was not significantly different between sessions, and appetite sensations were not affected. Energy intake and food preferences after an hour of AVG or PVG playing remain unchanged, and isoenergetic sessions of AVG and EX at moderate intensity induce similar nutritional responses in obese adolescent boys.

  5. Sexually dimorphic adaptation of cardiac function: roles of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun; Le, Yicong; Froogh, Ghezal; Kandhi, Sharath; Jiang, Houli; Luo, Meng; Sun, Dong; Huang, An

    2016-06-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cardioprotective mediators metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to form corresponding diols (DHETs). As a sex-susceptible target, sEH is involved in the sexually dimorphic regulation of cardiovascular function. Thus, we hypothesized that the female sex favors EET-mediated potentiation of cardiac function via downregulation of sEH expression, followed by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Hearts were isolated from male (M) and female (F) wild-type (WT) and sEH-KO mice, and perfused with constant flow at different preloads. Basal coronary flow required to maintain the perfusion pressure at 100 mmHg was significantly greater in females than males, and sEH-KO than WT mice. All hearts displayed a dose-dependent decrease in coronary resistance and increase in cardiac contractility, represented as developed tension in response to increases in preload. These responses were also significantly greater in females than males, and sEH-KO than WT 14,15-EEZE abolished the sex-induced (F vs. M) and transgenic model-dependent (KO vs. WT) differences in the cardiac contractility, confirming an EET-driven response. Compared with M-WT controls, F-WT hearts expressed downregulation of sEH, associated with increased EETs and reduced DHETs, a pattern comparable to that observed in sEH-KO hearts. Coincidentally, F-WT and sEH-KO hearts exhibited increased PPARα expression, but comparable expression of eNOS, PPARβ, and EET synthases. In conclusion, female-specific downregulation of sEH initiates an EET-dependent adaptation of cardiac function, characterized by increased coronary flow via reduction in vascular resistance, and promotion of cardiac contractility, a response that could be further intensified by PPARα. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  6. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelim L F D Gomes

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma.A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20 or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16. Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO, maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol and lung function.No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05. Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG.The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvement in their exercise capacity and a reduction in pulmonary inflammation.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294.

  7. Behavioral activation for late adolescents with subthreshold depression: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagaki, Koki; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Jinnin, Ran; Mori, Asako; Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Yamamura, Takanao; Yokoyama, Satoshi; Shiota, Syouichi; Okamoto, Yuri; Miyake, Yoshie; Ogata, Akiko; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Shimoda, Haruki; Kawakami, Norito; Furukawa, Toshi A; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2016-11-01

    The main behavioral characteristic of subthreshold depression that is observed in adolescents is the low frequency of exposure to environmental rewards. Therefore, it was considered that a simple intervention conducted in short sessions, focusing on increasing access to positively reinforcing activities, would be efficacious in increasing the availability of rewards. We conduct a randomized controlled trial to examine the efficacy of such a behavioral activation program that was conducted weekly for 5 weeks in 60-min sessions. Late adolescent university students aged 18-19 years with subthreshold depression were randomly allocated to a treatment (n = 62) or a control group (n = 56). The primary outcome of the study was the Beck Depression Inventory-II score. Results indicated that late adolescent students in the treatment group showed significant improvements in their depressive symptoms (effect size -0.90, 95 % CI -1.28 to -0.51) compared to the control group. Students in the treatment group also showed significant improvements in self-reported rating of quality of life and in behavioral characteristics. It is concluded that this intervention had a large and significant effect despite being short and simple and that this low-intensity cognitive behavioral therapy program could be conducted in many different types of institutions. It is suggested that the long-term effects of the treatment program should be targeted for investigation in future studies.

  8. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Judith Esi; de Vente, Wieke; Huizink, Anja C; Bögels, Susan M; de Bruin, Esther I

    2015-12-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and an introduction to the specific intervention techniques and 5 weeks of daily exercises at home. The PA exercises consisted of a vigorous-intensity activity of free choice. The MM exercises consisted of guided mindfulness meditation. The HRV-BF exercises consisted of slow breathing with a heart rate variability biofeedback device. Participants received daily reminders for their exercises and were contacted weekly to monitor their progress. They completed questionnaires prior to, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention. Results indicated an overall beneficial effect consisting of reduced stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improved psychological well-being and sleep quality. No significant between-intervention effect was found, suggesting that PA, MM, and HRV-BF are equally effective in reducing stress and its related symptoms. These self-help interventions provide easily accessible help for people with stress complaints.

  9. HIV Vaccine Trials Network: activities and achievements of the first decade and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Kublin, James G.; Morgan, Cecilia A.; Day, Tracey A.; Gilbert, Peter B.; Self, Steve G.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Corey, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) is an international collaboration of scientists and educators facilitating the development of HIV/AIDS preventive vaccines. The HVTN conducts all phases of clinical trials, from evaluating experimental vaccines for safety and immunogenicity, to testing vaccine efficacy. Over the past decade, the HVTN has aimed to improve the process of designing, implementing and analyzing vaccine trials. Several major achievements include streamlining protocol developmen...