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Sample records for activity trial adapt

  1. An adaptive physical activity intervention for overweight adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA interventions typically include components or doses that are static across participants. Adaptive interventions are dynamic; components or doses change in response to short-term variations in participant's performance. Emerging theory and technologies make adaptive goal setting and feedback interventions feasible. OBJECTIVE: To test an adaptive intervention for PA based on Operant and Behavior Economic principles and a percentile-based algorithm. The adaptive intervention was hypothesized to result in greater increases in steps per day than the static intervention. METHODS: Participants (N = 20 were randomized to one of two 6-month treatments: 1 static intervention (SI or 2 adaptive intervention (AI. Inactive overweight adults (85% women, M = 36.9 ± 9.2 years, 35% non-white in both groups received a pedometer, email and text message communication, brief health information, and biweekly motivational prompts. The AI group received daily step goals that adjusted up and down based on the percentile-rank algorithm and micro-incentives for goal attainment. This algorithm adjusted goals based on a moving window; an approach that responded to each individual's performance and ensured goals were always challenging but within participants' abilities. The SI group received a static 10,000 steps/day goal with incentives linked to uploading the pedometer's data. RESULTS: A random-effects repeated-measures model accounted for 180 repeated measures and autocorrelation. After adjusting for covariates, the treatment phase showed greater steps/day relative to the baseline phase (p<.001 and a group by study phase interaction was observed (p  .017. The SI group increased by 1,598 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment while the AI group increased by 2,728 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment; a significant between-group difference of 1,130 steps/day (Cohen's d = .74. CONCLUSIONS: The adaptive

  2. Alberta Diabetes and Physical Activity Trial (ADAPT: A randomized theory-based efficacy trial for adults with type 2 diabetes - rationale, design, recruitment, evaluation, and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkett Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three physical activity (PA behavioural intervention strategies in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. Method/Design Participants (N = 287 were randomly assigned to one of three groups consisting of the following intervention strategies: (1 standard printed PA educational materials provided by the Canadian Diabetes Association [i.e., Group 1/control group]; (2 standard printed PA educational materials as in Group 1, pedometers, a log book and printed PA information matched to individuals' PA stage of readiness provided every 3 months (i.e., Group 2; and (3 PA telephone counseling protocol matched to PA stage of readiness and tailored to personal characteristics, in addition to the materials provided in Groups 1 and 2 (i.e., Group 3. PA behaviour measured by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and related social-cognitive measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18-months (i.e., 6-month follow-up. Clinical (biomarkers and health-related quality of life assessments were conducted at baseline, 12-months, and 18-months. Linear Mixed Model (LMM analyses will be used to examine time-dependent changes from baseline across study time points for Groups 2 and 3 relative to Group 1. Discussion ADAPT will determine whether tailored but low-cost interventions can lead to sustainable increases in PA behaviours. The results may have implications for practitioners in designing and implementing theory-based physical activity promotion programs for this population. Clinical Trials Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00221234

  3. Physical performance and self-report outcomes associated with use of passive, adaptive, and active prosthetic knees in persons with unilateral, transfemoral amputation: Randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Hafner, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic knees are a vital component in an artificial limb. Contemporary knees include passive (mechanical, adaptive (computerized, or active (motorized control systems and have the potential to mitigate amputation-related functional impairments and activity limitations. A 14 mo randomized crossover trial was conducted. Participants (n = 12, mean age = 58 yr were tested under three conditions: passive control (existing knee, adaptive control (Ossur Rheo Knee II, and active control (Ossur Power Knee II. Training and acclimation time were provided to participants in the adaptive and active knees. Outcome measures included indoor tests (Timed Up and Go test [TUG], stairs, and ramp, outdoor tests (walking course and perceived exertion, step activity monitor, self-report surveys (mobility, balance confidence, physical function, fatigue, and general health, and fall incidence. Mixed-effects linear regression modeling was used to evaluate data. Compared with passive control, adaptive control significantly improved comfortable TUG time (difference = 0.91 s, p = 0.001 and reported physical function (difference = 1.26 [T-score], p = 0.03. Active control significantly increased comfortable TUG, fast TUG, and ramp times (difference = 3.02, 2.66, and 0.96 s, respectively, all p < 0.03 and increased balance confidence (difference = 3.77, p = 0.003 compared with passive control. Findings suggest that adaptive knee control may enhance function compared with passive control but that active control can restrict mobility in middle-age or older users with transfemoral amputation.

  4. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges surrounding adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. Such knowledge could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time, both preflight and inflight, and provide better outcomes. The primary goal of this project is to look for a baseline performance metric that can forecast sensorimotor adaptability without exposure to an adaptive stimulus. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations in motor performance, as a predictor of individual sensorimotor adaptive capabilities. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations and adaptability in two oculomotor systems. For this project, we will explore an analogous predictive mechanism in the locomotion system. METHODS: Baseline Inter-trial Correlations: Inter-trial correlations specify the relationships among repeated trials of a given task that transpire as a consequence of correcting for previous performance errors over multiple timescales. We can quantify the strength of inter-trial correlations by measuring the decay of the autocorrelation function (ACF), which describes how rapidly information from past trials is "forgotten." Processes whose ACFs decay more slowly exhibit longer-term inter-trial correlations (longer memory processes), while processes whose ACFs decay more rapidly exhibit shorterterm inter-trial correlations (shorter memory processes). Longer-term correlations reflect low-frequency activity, which is more easily

  5. Practical considerations for adaptive trial design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Pinheiro, José; Kuznetsova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume is a definitive text on adaptive clinical trial designs from creation and customization to utilization. As this book covers the full spectrum of topics involved in the adaptive designs arena, it will serve as a valuable reference for researchers working in industry, government and academia. The target audience is anyone involved in the planning and execution of clinical trials, in particular, statisticians, clinicians, pharmacometricians, clinical operation specialists, drug supply managers, and infrastructure providers.  In spite of the increased efficiency of adaptive trials in saving costs and time, ultimately getting drugs to patients sooner, their adoption in clinical development is still relatively low.  One of the chief reasons is the higher complexity of adaptive design trials as compared to traditional trials. Barriers to the use of clinical trials with adaptive features include the concerns about the integrity of study design and conduct, the risk of regulatory non-acceptance, t...

  6. Two-stage adaptive designs in early phase clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiajing; 徐佳静

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of clinical trials is to collect enough scientific evidence for a new intervention. Despite the widespread use of equal randomization in clinical trials, response-adaptive randomization has attracted considerable interest in terms of ethical concerns. In this thesis, delayed response problems and innovative designs for cytostatic agents in oncology clinical trials are studied. There is typically a prerun of equal randomization before the implementation of response-adaptiv...

  7. The role of visual awareness for conflict adaptation in the masked priming task: Comparing block-wise adaptation with trial-by-trial adaptation

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    Kunihiro eHasegawa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of participants’ visual awareness in the block-wise and the trial-by-trial adaptations. We employed a subliminal response compatibility task in which a prime arrow was briefly presented before the target arrow, and the participants were requested to indicate the direction of the target arrow. The direction of the prime and direction of the target were either the same (compatible trial or different (incompatible trial. To examine block-wise adaptation, two blocks were conducted, i.e., the Neutral block (50% compatible and 50% incompatible trials and the Incompatible block (10% compatible and 90% incompatible trials. The results showed the existence of the block-wise adaptation without participants’ visual awareness. The compatibility effect on both response time and error rate was smaller in the Incompatible block than in the Neutral block. Moreover, a separate data analysis based on the preceding trial type revealed that the trial-by-trial adaptation of cognitive control was observed only in the error rate. These results suggest the different role of visual awareness in the block-wise and trial-by-trial adaptations.

  8. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  9. Benefits, challenges and obstacles of adaptive clinical trial designs

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    Chow Shein-Chung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, the use of adaptive design methods in pharmaceutical/clinical research and development has become popular due to its flexibility and efficiency for identifying potential signals of clinical benefit of the test treatment under investigation. The flexibility and efficiency, however, increase the risk of operational biases with resulting decrease in the accuracy and reliability for assessing the treatment effect of the test treatment under investigation. In its recent draft guidance, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA expresses regulatory concern of controlling the overall type I error rate at a pre-specified level of significance for a clinical trial utilizing adaptive design. The FDA classifies adaptive designs into categories of well-understood and less well-understood designs. For those less well-understood adaptive designs such as adaptive dose finding designs and two-stage phase I/II (or phase II/III seamless adaptive designs, statistical methods are not well established and hence should be used with caution. In practice, misuse of adaptive design methods in clinical trials is a concern to both clinical scientists and regulatory agencies. It is suggested that the escalating momentum for the use of adaptive design methods in clinical trials be slowed in order to allow time for development of appropriate statistical methodologies.

  10. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, as a predictor of individual adaptive capabilities.

  11. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter­-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a one-size-fits-all approach is inappropriate. Therefore it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, and adaptability in two oculomotor systems (see Preliminary Results). We now propose an analogous predictive mechanisms in the locomotor system.

  12. Adaptable typologies for active roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quanjel, E.M.C.J.; Zeiler, W.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this part of the 6th framework Pan-European EUR-ACTIVE ROOF-er project is to improve the interaction between design participants of dynamic adaptable Active Roofs in product development and Active Roofs from an architects/ customers perspective. Improvements in Active Roof desi

  13. Group sequential and confirmatory adaptive designs in clinical trials

    CERN Document Server

    Wassmer, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date review of the general principles of and techniques for confirmatory adaptive designs. Confirmatory adaptive designs are a generalization of group sequential designs. With these designs, interim analyses are performed in order to stop the trial prematurely under control of the Type I error rate. In adaptive designs, it is also permissible to perform a data-driven change of relevant aspects of the study design at interim stages. This includes, for example, a sample-size reassessment, a treatment-arm selection or a selection of a pre-specified sub-population. Essentially, this adaptive methodology was introduced in the 1990s. Since then, it has become popular and the object of intense discussion and still represents a rapidly growing field of statistical research. This book describes adaptive design methodology at an elementary level, while also considering designing and planning issues as well as methods for analyzing an adaptively planned trial. This includes estimation methods...

  14. Sequential monitoring of response-adaptive randomized clinical trials

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hongjian; 10.1214/10-AOS796

    2010-01-01

    Clinical trials are complex and usually involve multiple objectives such as controlling type I error rate, increasing power to detect treatment difference, assigning more patients to better treatment, and more. In literature, both response-adaptive randomization (RAR) procedures (by changing randomization procedure sequentially) and sequential monitoring (by changing analysis procedure sequentially) have been proposed to achieve these objectives to some degree. In this paper, we propose to sequentially monitor response-adaptive randomized clinical trial and study it's properties. We prove that the sequential test statistics of the new procedure converge to a Brownian motion in distribution. Further, we show that the sequential test statistics asymptotically satisfy the canonical joint distribution defined in Jennison and Turnbull (\\citeyearJT00). Therefore, type I error and other objectives can be achieved theoretically by selecting appropriate boundaries. These results open a door to sequentially monitor res...

  15. Trial-by-Trial Adaptation of Movements during Mental Practice under Force Field

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    Muhammad Nabeel Anwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human nervous system tries to minimize the effect of any external perturbing force by bringing modifications in the internal model. These modifications affect the subsequent motor commands generated by the nervous system. Adaptive compensation along with the appropriate modifications of internal model helps in reducing human movement errors. In the current study, we studied how motor imagery influences trial-to-trial learning in a robot-based adaptation task. Two groups of subjects performed reaching movements with or without motor imagery in a velocity-dependent force field. The results show that reaching movements performed with motor imagery have relatively a more focused generalization pattern and a higher learning rate in training direction.

  16. Rationale and design of the Adapted Physical Activity in advanced Pancreatic Cancer patients (APACaP) GERCOR (Groupe Coopérateur Multidisciplinaire en Oncologie) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Neuzillet, Cindy; Vergnault, Mathieu; Bonnetain, Franck; Hammel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise during chemotherapy is a promising strategy to reduce fatigue and improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL). It has been shown to be feasible and efficient in various cancers, including advanced-stage cancers. Effects of physical activity have never been explored in advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We aim to evaluate the effects of an exercise intervention in this setting. Methods This randomized, national, multicenter, interventional study will exami...

  17. Biomarker-Guided Adaptive Trial Designs in Phase II and Phase III: A Methodological Review.

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    Miranta Antoniou

    Full Text Available Personalized medicine is a growing area of research which aims to tailor the treatment given to a patient according to one or more personal characteristics. These characteristics can be demographic such as age or gender, or biological such as a genetic or other biomarker. Prior to utilizing a patient's biomarker information in clinical practice, robust testing in terms of analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility is necessary. A number of clinical trial designs have been proposed for testing a biomarker's clinical utility, including Phase II and Phase III clinical trials which aim to test the effectiveness of a biomarker-guided approach to treatment; these designs can be broadly classified into adaptive and non-adaptive. While adaptive designs allow planned modifications based on accumulating information during a trial, non-adaptive designs are typically simpler but less flexible.We have undertaken a comprehensive review of biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs proposed in the past decade. We have identified eight distinct biomarker-guided adaptive designs and nine variations from 107 studies. Substantial variability has been observed in terms of how trial designs are described and particularly in the terminology used by different authors. We have graphically displayed the current biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs and summarised the characteristics of each design.Our in-depth overview provides future researchers with clarity in definition, methodology and terminology for biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs.

  18. Catch trials in force field learning influence adaptation and consolidation of human motor memory

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    Christian eStockinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Force field studies are a common tool to investigate motor adaptation and consolidation. Thereby, subjects usually adapt their reaching movements to force field perturbations induced by a robotic device. In this context, so-called catch trials, in which the disturbing forces are randomly turned off, are commonly used to detect after-effects of motor adaptation. However, catch trials also produce sudden large motor errors that might influence the motor adaptation and the consolidation process. Yet, the detailed influence is far from clear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of catch trials on motor adaptation and consolidation in force field experiments. Therefore, 105 subjects adapted their reaching movements to robot-generated force fields. The test groups adapted their reaching movements to a force field A followed by learning a second interfering force field B before retest of A (ABA. The control groups were not exposed to force field B (AA. To examine the influence of diverse catch trial ratios, subjects received catch trials during force field adaptation with a probability of either 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40%, depending on the group. First, the results on motor adaptation revealed significant differences between the diverse catch trial ratio groups. With increasing amount of catch trials, the subjects’ motor performance decreased and subjects’ ability to accurately predict the force field – and therefore internal model formation – was impaired. Second, our results revealed that adapting with catch trials can influence the following consolidation process as indicated by a partial reduction to interference. Here, the optimal catch trial ratio was 30%. However, detection of consolidation seems to be biased by the applied measure of performance.

  19. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  20. Adapting social neuroscience measures for schizophrenia clinical trials, Part 1: ferrying paradigms across perilous waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael F; Lee, Junghee; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2013-11-01

    Social cognitive impairment is prominent in schizophrenia, and it is closely related to functional outcome. Partly for these reasons, it has rapidly become a target for both training and psychopharmacological interventions. However, there is a paucity of reliable and valid social cognitive endpoints that can be used to evaluate treatment response in clinical trials. Also, clinical studies in schizophrenia have benefited rather little from the surge of activity and knowledge in nonclinical social neuroscience. The National Institute of Mental Health-sponsored study, "Social Cognition and Functioning in Schizophrenia" (SCAF), attempted to address this translational challenge by selecting paradigms from social neuroscience that could be adapted for use in schizophrenia. The project also evaluated the psychometric properties and external validity of the tasks to determine their suitability for multisite clinical trials. This first article in the theme section presents the goals, conceptual background, and rationale for the SCAF project.

  1. Adaptive activity and environment recognition for mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Jussi; Bojja, Jayaprasad; Collin, Jussi; Leppänen, Jussi; Eronen, Antti

    2014-11-03

    In this paper, an adaptive activity and environment recognition algorithm running on a mobile phone is presented. The algorithm makes inferences based on sensor and radio receiver data provided by the phone. A wide set of features that can be extracted from these data sources were investigated, and a Bayesian maximum a posteriori classifier was used for classifying between several user activities and environments. The accuracy of the method was evaluated on a dataset collected in a real-life trial. In addition, comparison to other state-of-the-art classifiers, namely support vector machines and decision trees, was performed. To make the system adaptive for individual user characteristics, an adaptation algorithm for context model parameters was designed. Moreover, a confidence measure for the classification correctness was designed. The proposed adaptation algorithm and confidence measure were evaluated on a second dataset obtained from another real-life trial, where the users were requested to provide binary feedback on the classification correctness. The results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm is effective at improving the classification accuracy.

  2. Adaptive Activity and Environment Recognition for Mobile Phones

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    Jussi Parviainen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive activity and environment recognition algorithm running on a mobile phone is presented. The algorithm makes inferences based on sensor and radio receiver data provided by the phone. A wide set of features that can be extracted from these data sources were investigated, and a Bayesian maximum a posteriori classifier was used for classifying between several user activities and environments. The accuracy of the method was evaluated on a dataset collected in a real-life trial. In addition, comparison to other state-of-the-art classifiers, namely support vector machines and decision trees, was performed. To make the system adaptive for individual user characteristics, an adaptation algorithm for context model parameters was designed. Moreover, a confidence measure for the classification correctness was designed. The proposed adaptation algorithm and confidence measure were evaluated on a second dataset obtained from another real-life trial, where the users were requested to provide binary feedback on the classification correctness. The results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm is effective at improving the classification accuracy.

  3. Adaptation to sudden unexpected loading of the low back - the effects of repeated trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skotte, J.H.; Fallentin, N.; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen;

    2004-01-01

    spinae muscles and trunk movement data were recorded during 10 trials for 19 subjects. The analysis included EMG reaction time, mean rectified EMG amplitude during the period 50-250 ms after the sudden loading, and time elapsed until stopping of the forward movement of the trunk (stopping time). Reaction...... time means ranged from 66 to 97 ms (79+/-9 ms), and no difference was found between the trials. Conversely, the mean stopping time for the first trial (468 ms) was significantly higher than for trials 3-10 (359- 371 ms), and the average EMG amplitude during the period 50-250 ms after the sudden loading...... was lower for the first trial. This study showed that some subjects adapted to sudden unexpected loadings of the low back through a reduction in stopping time and a progression in EMG response during the first few trials. This possible adaptation to repeated trials have been overlooked in previous...

  4. Adaptive trial designs: a review of barriers and opportunities

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    Kairalla John A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adaptive designs allow planned modifications based on data accumulating within a study. The promise of greater flexibility and efficiency stimulates increasing interest in adaptive designs from clinical, academic, and regulatory parties. When adaptive designs are used properly, efficiencies can include a smaller sample size, a more efficient treatment development process, and an increased chance of correctly answering the clinical question of interest. However, improper adaptations can lead to biased studies. A broad definition of adaptive designs allows for countless variations, which creates confusion as to the statistical validity and practical feasibility of many designs. Determining properties of a particular adaptive design requires careful consideration of the scientific context and statistical assumptions. We first review several adaptive designs that garner the most current interest. We focus on the design principles and research issues that lead to particular designs being appealing or unappealing in particular applications. We separately discuss exploratory and confirmatory stage designs in order to account for the differences in regulatory concerns. We include adaptive seamless designs, which combine stages in a unified approach. We also highlight a number of applied areas, such as comparative effectiveness research, that would benefit from the use of adaptive designs. Finally, we describe a number of current barriers and provide initial suggestions for overcoming them in order to promote wider use of appropriate adaptive designs. Given the breadth of the coverage all mathematical and most implementation details are omitted for the sake of brevity. However, the interested reader will find that we provide current references to focused reviews and original theoretical sources which lead to details of the current state of the art in theory and practice.

  5. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  6. 75 FR 8968 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... entitled ``Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics.'' The draft guidance provides sponsors... Evaluation and Research (CBER) with information regarding adaptive design clinical trials when used in drug... design clinical trials (i.e., clinical, statistical, regulatory) call for special consideration, when...

  7. Adaptive Piezoelectric Absorber for Active Vibration Control

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    Sven Herold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive vibration control solutions are often limited to working reliably at one design point. Especially applied to lightweight structures, which tend to have unwanted vibration, active vibration control approaches can outperform passive solutions. To generate dynamic forces in a narrow frequency band, passive single-degree-of-freedom oscillators are frequently used as vibration absorbers and neutralizers. In order to respond to changes in system properties and/or the frequency of excitation forces, in this work, adaptive vibration compensation by a tunable piezoelectric vibration absorber is investigated. A special design containing piezoelectric stack actuators is used to cover a large tuning range for the natural frequency of the adaptive vibration absorber, while also the utilization as an active dynamic inertial mass actuator for active control concepts is possible, which can help to implement a broadband vibration control system. An analytical model is set up to derive general design rules for the system. An absorber prototype is set up and validated experimentally for both use cases of an adaptive vibration absorber and inertial mass actuator. Finally, the adaptive vibration control system is installed and tested with a basic truss structure in the laboratory, using both the possibility to adjust the properties of the absorber and active control.

  8. Generalized Likelihood Ratio Statistics and Uncertainty Adjustments in Efficient Adaptive Design of Clinical Trials

    CERN Document Server

    Bartroff, Jay

    2011-01-01

    A new approach to adaptive design of clinical trials is proposed in a general multiparameter exponential family setting, based on generalized likelihood ratio statistics and optimal sequential testing theory. These designs are easy to implement, maintain the prescribed Type I error probability, and are asymptotically efficient. Practical issues involved in clinical trials allowing mid-course adaptation and the large literature on this subject are discussed, and comparisons between the proposed and existing designs are presented in extensive simulation studies of their finite-sample performance, measured in terms of the expected sample size and power functions.

  9. Introduction of online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer through a multicentre clinical trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 10.01): lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer is a novel radiotherapy technique that was found feasible in a pilot study at a single academic institution. In September 2010 this technique was opened as a multicenter study through the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 10.01 bladder online adaptive radiotherapy treatment). Twelve centers across Australia and New-Zealand registered interest into the trial. A multidisciplinary team of radiation oncologists, radiation therapists and medical physicists represented the trial credentialing and technical support team. To provide timely activation and proper implementation of the adaptive technique the following key areas were addressed at each site: Staff education/training; Practical image guided radiotherapy assessment; provision of help desk and feedback. The trial credentialing process involved face-to-face training and technical problem solving via full day site visits. A dedicated 'help-desk' team was developed to provide support for the clinical trial. 26% of the workload occurred at the credentialing period while the remaining 74% came post-center activation. The workload was made up of the following key areas; protocol clarification (36%), technical problems (46%) while staff training was less than 10%. Clinical trial credentialing is important to minimizing trial deviations. It should not only focus on site activation quality assurance but also provide ongoing education and technical support. (author)

  10. Introduction of online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer through a multicentre clinical trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 10.01: Lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer is a novel radiotherapy technique that was found feasible in a pilot study at a single academic institution. In September 2010 this technique was opened as a multicenter study through the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 10.01 bladder online adaptive radiotherapy treatment. Twelve centers across Australia and New-Zealand registered interest into the trial. A multidisciplinary team of radiation oncologists, radiation therapists and medical physicists represented the trial credentialing and technical support team. To provide timely activation and proper implementation of the adaptive technique the following key areas were addressed at each site: Staff education/training; Practical image guided radiotherapy assessment; provision of help desk and feedback. The trial credentialing process involved face-to-face training and technical problem solving via full day site visits. A dedicated "help-desk" team was developed to provide support for the clinical trial. 26% of the workload occurred at the credentialing period while the remaining 74% came post-center activation. The workload was made up of the following key areas; protocol clarification (36%, technical problems (46% while staff training was less than 10%. Clinical trial credentialing is important to minimizing trial deviations. It should not only focus on site activation quality assurance but also provide ongoing education and technical support.

  11. Between-Trial Forgetting Due to Interference and Time in Motor Adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungshin Kim

    Full Text Available Learning a motor task with temporally spaced presentations or with other tasks intermixed between presentations reduces performance during training, but can enhance retention post training. These two effects are known as the spacing and contextual interference effect, respectively. Here, we aimed at testing a unifying hypothesis of the spacing and contextual interference effects in visuomotor adaptation, according to which forgetting between trials due to either spaced presentations or interference by another task will promote between-trial forgetting, which will depress performance during acquisition, but will promote retention. We first performed an experiment with three visuomotor adaptation conditions: a short inter-trial-interval (ITI condition (SHORT-ITI; a long ITI condition (LONG-ITI; and an alternating condition with two alternated opposite tasks (ALT, with the same single-task ITI as in LONG-ITI. In the SHORT-ITI condition, there was fastest increase in performance during training and largest immediate forgetting in the retention tests. In contrast, in the ALT condition, there was slowest increase in performance during training and little immediate forgetting in the retention tests. Compared to these two conditions, in the LONG-ITI, we found intermediate increase in performance during training and intermediate immediate forgetting. To account for these results, we fitted to the data six possible adaptation models with one or two time scales, and with interference in the fast, or in the slow, or in both time scales. Model comparison confirmed that two time scales and some degree of interferences in either time scale are needed to account for our experimental results. In summary, our results suggest that retention following adaptation is modulated by the degree of between-trial forgetting, which is due to time-based decay in single adaptation task and interferences in multiple adaptation tasks.

  12. Between-Trial Forgetting Due to Interference and Time in Motor Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungshin; Oh, Youngmin; Schweighofer, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Learning a motor task with temporally spaced presentations or with other tasks intermixed between presentations reduces performance during training, but can enhance retention post training. These two effects are known as the spacing and contextual interference effect, respectively. Here, we aimed at testing a unifying hypothesis of the spacing and contextual interference effects in visuomotor adaptation, according to which forgetting between trials due to either spaced presentations or interference by another task will promote between-trial forgetting, which will depress performance during acquisition, but will promote retention. We first performed an experiment with three visuomotor adaptation conditions: a short inter-trial-interval (ITI) condition (SHORT-ITI); a long ITI condition (LONG-ITI); and an alternating condition with two alternated opposite tasks (ALT), with the same single-task ITI as in LONG-ITI. In the SHORT-ITI condition, there was fastest increase in performance during training and largest immediate forgetting in the retention tests. In contrast, in the ALT condition, there was slowest increase in performance during training and little immediate forgetting in the retention tests. Compared to these two conditions, in the LONG-ITI, we found intermediate increase in performance during training and intermediate immediate forgetting. To account for these results, we fitted to the data six possible adaptation models with one or two time scales, and with interference in the fast, or in the slow, or in both time scales. Model comparison confirmed that two time scales and some degree of interferences in either time scale are needed to account for our experimental results. In summary, our results suggest that retention following adaptation is modulated by the degree of between-trial forgetting, which is due to time-based decay in single adaptation task and interferences in multiple adaptation tasks. PMID:26599075

  13. Defining adapted physical activity: international perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative methodology. Data sources were online surveys, APA literature, and expertise of researchers. Findings, with the identification of further considerations, were provided for each APA component to stimulate reflection and further inquiry among international professionals with diverse backgrounds.

  14. Cytopathology whole slide images and adaptive tutorials for postgraduate pathology trainees: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Es, Simone L; Kumar, Rakesh K; Pryor, Wendy M; Salisbury, Elizabeth L; Velan, Gary M

    2015-09-01

    To determine whether cytopathology whole slide images and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials aid learning by postgraduate trainees, we designed a randomized crossover trial to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative impact of whole slide images and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials compared with traditional glass slide and textbook methods of learning cytopathology. Forty-three anatomical pathology registrars were recruited from Australia, New Zealand, and Malaysia. Online assessments were used to determine efficacy, whereas user experience and perceptions of efficiency were evaluated using online Likert scales and open-ended questions. Outcomes of online assessments indicated that, with respect to performance, learning with whole slide images and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials was equivalent to using traditional methods. High-impact learning, efficiency, and equity of learning from virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials were strong themes identified in open-ended responses. Participants raised concern about the lack of z-axis capability in the cytopathology whole slide images, suggesting that delivery of z-stacked whole slide images online may be important for future educational development. In this trial, learning cytopathology with whole slide images and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials was found to be as effective as and perceived as more efficient than learning from glass slides and textbooks. The use of whole slide images and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials has the potential to provide equitable access to effective learning from teaching material of consistently high quality. It also has broader implications for continuing professional development and maintenance of competence and quality assurance in specialist practice. PMID:26093936

  15. The Adaptive Optics Summer School Laboratory Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Ammons, S Mark; Armstrong, J D; Crossfield, Ian; Do, Tuan; Fitzgerald, Mike; Harrington, David; Hickenbotham, Adam; Hunter, Jennifer; Johnson, Jess; Johnson, Luke; Li, Kaccie; Lu, Jessica; Maness, Holly; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Putnam, Nicole; Roorda, Austin; Rossi, Ethan; Yelda, Sylvana

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is a new and rapidly expanding field of instrumentation, yet astronomers, vision scientists, and general AO practitioners are largely unfamiliar with the root technologies crucial to AO systems. The AO Summer School (AOSS), sponsored by the Center for Adaptive Optics, is a week-long course for training graduate students and postdoctoral researchers in the underlying theory, design, and use of AO systems. AOSS participants include astronomers who expect to utilize AO data, vision scientists who will use AO instruments to conduct research, opticians and engineers who design AO systems, and users of high-bandwidth laser communication systems. In this article we describe new AOSS laboratory sessions implemented in 2006-2009 for nearly 250 students. The activity goals include boosting familiarity with AO technologies, reinforcing knowledge of optical alignment techniques and the design of optical systems, and encouraging inquiry into critical scientific questions in vision science using AO sys...

  16. RARtool : A MATLAB Software Package for Designing Response-Adaptive Randomized Clinical Trials with Time-to-Event Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Yevgen Ryeznik; Oleksandr Sverdlov; Weng Kee Wong

    2015-01-01

    Response-adaptive randomization designs are becoming increasingly popular in clinical trial practice. In this paper, we present RARtool, a user interface software developed in MATLAB for designing response-adaptive randomized comparative clinical trials with censored time-to-event outcomes. The RARtool software can compute different types of optimal treatment allocation designs, and it can simulate response-adaptive randomization procedures targeting selected optimal allocations. Through simu...

  17. An adaptive strategy for active debris removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Adam E.; Lewis, Hugh G.

    2014-04-01

    Many parameters influence the evolution of the near-Earth debris population, including launch, solar, explosion and mitigation activities, as well as other future uncertainties such as advances in space technology or changes in social and economic drivers that effect the utilisation of space activities. These factors lead to uncertainty in the long-term debris population. This uncertainty makes it difficult to identify potential remediation strategies, involving active debris removal (ADR), that will perform effectively in all possible future cases. Strategies that cannot perform effectively, because of this uncertainty, risk either not achieving their intended purpose, or becoming a hindrance to the efforts of spacecraft manufactures and operators to address the challenges posed by space debris. One method to tackle this uncertainty is to create a strategy that can adapt and respond to the space debris population. This work explores the concept of an adaptive strategy, in terms of the number of objects required to be removed by ADR, to prevent the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris population from growing in size. This was demonstrated by utilising the University of Southampton’s Debris Analysis and Monitoring Architecture to the Geosynchronous Environment (DAMAGE) tool to investigate ADR rates (number of removals per year) that change over time in response to the current space environment, with the requirement of achieving zero growth of the LEO population. DAMAGE was used to generate multiple Monte Carlo projections of the future LEO debris environment. Within each future projection, the debris removal rate was derived at five-year intervals, by a new statistical debris evolutionary model called the Computational Adaptive Strategy to Control Accurately the Debris Environment (CASCADE) model. CASCADE predicted the long-term evolution of the current DAMAGE population with a variety of different ADR rates in order to identify a removal rate that produced a zero net

  18. The ADAPTABLE Trial and Aspirin Dosing in Secondary Prevention for Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Abigail; Jones, W Schuyler; Hernandez, Adrian F

    2016-08-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the underlying cause of death in one out of seven deaths in the USA. Aspirin therapy has been proven to decrease mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with CAD. Despite a plethora of studies showing the benefit of aspirin in secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, debate remains regarding the optimal dose due to relatively small studies that had disparate results when comparing patients taking different aspirin dosages. More recently, aspirin dosing has been thoroughly studied in the CAD population with concomitant therapy (such as P2Y12 inhibitors); however, patients in these studies were not randomized to aspirin dose. No randomized controlled trial has directly measured aspirin dosages in a population of patients with established coronary artery disease. In 2015, the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) developed a network, called PCORnet, that includes patient-powered research networks (PPRN) and clinical data research networks (CDRN). The main objective of PCORnet is to conduct widely generalizable observational studies and clinical trials (including large, pragmatic clinical trials) at a low cost. The first clinical trial, called Aspirin Dosing: A Patient-centric Trial Assessing Benefits and Long-term Effectiveness (ADAPTABLE), will randomly assign 20,000 subjects with established coronary heart disease to either low dose (81 mg) or high dose (325 mg) and should be able to finally answer which dosage of aspirin is best for patients with established cardiovascular disease. PMID:27423939

  19. The influence of catch trials on the consolidation of motor memory in force field adaptation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eFocke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In computational neuroscience it is generally accepted that human motor memory contains neural representations of the physics of the musculoskeletal system and the objects in the environment. These representations are called internal models. Force field studies, in which subjects have to adapt to dynamic perturbations induced by a robotic manipulandum, are an established tool to analyze the characteristics of such internal models. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether catch trials during force field learning could influence the consolidation of motor memory in more complex tasks. Thereby, the force field was more than double the force field of previous studies (35 Ns/m. Moreover, the arm of the subjects was not supported. A total of forty-six subjects participated in this study and performed center-out movements at a robotic manipulandum in two different force fields. Two control groups learned force field A on day 1 and were retested in the same force field on day 3 (AA. Two test groups additionally learned an interfering force field B (=-A on day 2 (ABA. The difference between the two test and control groups, respectively, was the absence (0% or presence (19% of catch trials, in which the force field was turned off suddenly. The results showed consolidation of force field A on day 3 for both control groups. Test groups showed no consolidation of force field A (19% catch trials and even poorer performance on day 3 (0% catch trials. In conclusion, it can be stated that catch trials seem to have a positive effect on the performance on day 3 but do not trigger a consolidation process as shown in previous studies that used a lower force field viscosity with supported arm. These findings indicate that the results of previous studies in which less complex tasks were analyzed, cannot be fully transferred to more complex tasks. Moreover, the effects of catch trials in these situations are insufficiently understood and further research

  20. Efficient adaptive designs with mid-course sample size adjustment in clinical trials

    CERN Document Server

    Bartroff, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive designs have been proposed for clinical trials in which the nuisance parameters or alternative of interest are unknown or likely to be misspecified before the trial. Whereas most previous works on adaptive designs and mid-course sample size re-estimation have focused on two-stage or group sequential designs in the normal case, we consider here a new approach that involves at most three stages and is developed in the general framework of multiparameter exponential families. Not only does this approach maintain the prescribed type I error probability, but it also provides a simple but asymptotically efficient sequential test whose finite-sample performance, measured in terms of the expected sample size and power functions, is shown to be comparable to the optimal sequential design, determined by dynamic programming, in the simplified normal mean case with known variance and prespecified alternative, and superior to the existing two-stage designs and also to adaptive group sequential designs when the al...

  1. Adapting social neuroscience measures for schizophrenia clinical trials, Part 2: trolling the depths of psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Robert S; Penn, David L; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Ochsner, Kevin N; Marder, Stephen R; Green, Michael F

    2013-11-01

    The psychometric properties of 4 paradigms adapted from the social neuroscience literature were evaluated to determine their suitability for use in clinical trials of schizophrenia. This 2-site study (University of California, Los Angeles and University of North Carolina) included 173 clinically stable schizophrenia outpatients and 88 healthy controls. The social cognition battery was administered twice to the schizophrenia group (baseline, 4-week retest) and once to the control group. The 4 paradigms included 2 that assess perception of nonverbal social and action cues (basic biological motion and emotion in biological motion) and 2 that involve higher level inferences about self and others' mental states (self-referential memory and empathic accuracy). Each paradigm was evaluated on (1) patient vs healthy control group differences, (2) test-retest reliability, (3) utility as a repeated measure, and (4) tolerability. Of the 4 paradigms, empathic accuracy demonstrated the strongest characteristics, including large between-group differences, adequate test-retest reliability (.72), negligible practice effects, and good tolerability ratings. The other paradigms showed weaker psychometric characteristics in their current forms. These findings highlight challenges in adapting social neuroscience paradigms for use in clinical trials.

  2. Clinical Trial Adaptation by Matching Evidence in Complementary Patient Sub-groups of Auxiliary Blinding Questionnaire Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Arandjelović

    Full Text Available Clinical trial adaptation refers to any adjustment of the trial protocol after the onset of the trial. Such adjustment may take on various forms, including the change in the dose of administered medicines, the frequency of administering an intervention, the number of trial participants, or the duration of the trial, to name just some possibilities. The main goal is to make the process of introducing new medical interventions to patients more efficient, either by reducing the cost or the time associated with evaluating their safety and efficacy. The principal challenge, which is an outstanding research problem, is to be found in the question of how adaptation should be performed so as to minimize the chance of distorting the outcome of the trial. In this paper we propose a novel method for achieving this. Unlike most of the previously published work, our approach focuses on trial adaptation by sample size adjustment i.e. by reducing the number of trial participants in a statistically informed manner. We adopt a stratification framework recently proposed for the analysis of trial outcomes in the presence of imperfect blinding and based on the administration of a generic auxiliary questionnaire that allows the participants to express their belief concerning the assigned intervention (treatment or control. We show that this data, together with the primary measured variables, can be used to make the probabilistically optimal choice of the particular sub-group a participant should be removed from if trial size reduction is desired. Extensive experiments on a series of simulated trials are used to illustrate the effectiveness of our method.

  3. Feasibility and effects of adapted cardiac rehabilitation after stroke: a prospective trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzolini Susan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the cardiovascular etiology of stroke, exercise and risk factor modification programs akin to cardiac rehabilitation (CR are not available. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of adapting a CR model for individuals with mild to moderate stroke disability. A secondary objective was to determine the program's effects on aerobic and walking capacity, and stroke risk factors. Methods A repeated measures design was used with a 3-month baseline period and 6-month adapted CR intervention (n = 43, mean ± SD age 65 ± 12 years, 30 ± 28 months post stroke. Feasibility was determined by the number of participants who completed the study, occurrence of adverse events and frequency, duration and intensity of exercise performed. To determine effectiveness of the program, outcomes measured included aerobic capacity (VO2peak, ventilatory threshold, 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT distance, and risk factors. Descriptive statistics characterized the classes attended and number and intensity of exercise sessions. Paired t-tests, one-factor repeated measures analyses of variance contrasts and chi-square analyses were used to compare changes over time. Results Two participants withdrew during the baseline period. Of the remaining 41 participants who commenced the program, 38 (93% completed all aspects. No serious adverse effects occurred. Post-intervention, VO2peak improved relative to the stable baseline period (P = 0.046 and the increase in ventilatory threshold approached significance (P = 0.062. Conclusions CR is feasible after stroke and may be adapted to accommodate for those with a range of post-stroke disability. It is effective in increasing aerobic capacity. CR may be an untapped opportunity for stroke survivors to access programs of exercise and risk factor modification to lower future event risk. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT01067495

  4. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    OpenAIRE

    Marlen Lopez; Ramon Rubio; Santiago Martın; Ben Croxford; Richard Jackson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and nee...

  5. Passive and active adaptive management: Approaches and an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management is a framework for resource conservation that promotes iterative learning-based decision making. Yet there remains considerable confusion about what adaptive management entails, and how to actually make resource decisions adaptively. A key but somewhat ambiguous distinction in adaptive management is between active and passive forms of adaptive decision making. The objective of this paper is to illustrate some approaches to active and passive adaptive management with a simple example involving the drawdown of water impoundments on a wildlife refuge. The approaches are illustrated for the drawdown example, and contrasted in terms of objectives, costs, and potential learning rates. Some key challenges to the actual practice of AM are discussed, and tradeoffs between implementation costs and long-term benefits are highlighted. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  7. On optimal allocation in binary response trials; is adaptive design really necessary?

    CERN Document Server

    Azriel, David; Rinott, Yosef

    2011-01-01

    We consider the classical problem of selecting the best of two treatments in clinical trials with binary response. The target is to find the design that maximizes the power of the relevant test. Many papers use a normal approximation to the power function and claim that \\textit{Neyman allocation} that assigns subjects to treatment groups according to the ratio of the responses' standard deviations, should be used. As the standard deviations are unknown, an adaptive design is often recommended. The asymptotic justification of this approach is arguable, since it uses the normal approximation in tails where the error in the approximation is larger than the estimated quantity. We consider two different approaches for optimality of designs that are related to Pitman and Bahadur definitions of relative efficiency of tests. We prove that the optimal allocation according to the Pitman criterion is the balanced allocation and that the optimal allocation according to the Bahadur approach depends on the unknown paramete...

  8. Flexible design of two-stage adaptive procedures for phase III clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tatsuki

    2007-07-01

    The recent popularity of two-stage adaptive designs has fueled a number of proposals for their use in phase III clinical trials. Many of these designs assign certain restrictive functional forms to the design elements of stage 2, such as sample size, critical value and conditional power functions. We propose a more flexible method of design without imposing any particular functional forms on these design elements. Our methodology permits specification of a design based on either conditional or unconditional characteristics, and allows accommodation of sample size limit. Furthermore, we show how to compute the P value, confidence interval and a reasonable point estimate for any design that can be placed under the proposed framework. PMID:17307399

  9. Adaptive Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Initial Clinical Outcomes From a Prospective Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present pilot toxicity and survival outcomes for a prospective trial investigating adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 24 patients were enrolled in an institutional review board–approved clinical trial; data for 22 of these patients were analyzed. Daily CT-guided setup and deformable image registration permitted serial mapping of clinical target volumes and avoidance structures for ART planning. Primary site was base of tongue in 15 patients, tonsil in 6 patient, and glossopharyngeal sulcus in 1 patient. Twenty patients (91%) had American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Stage IV disease. T stage distribution was 2 T1, 12 T2, 3 T3, 5 T4. N stage distribution was 1 N0, 2 N1, 5 N2a, 12 N2b, and 2 N2c. Of the patients, 21 (95%) received systemic therapy. Results: With a 31-month median follow-up (range, 13–45 months), there has been no primary site failure and 1 nodal relapse, yielding 100% local and 95% regional disease control at 2 years. Baseline tumor size correlated with absolute volumetric treatment response (p = 0.018). Parotid volumetric change correlated with duration of feeding tube placement (p = 0.025). Acute toxicity was comparable to that observed with conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Chronic toxicity and functional outcomes beyond 1 year were tabulated. Conclusion: This is the first prospective evaluation of morbidity and survival outcomes in patients with locally advanced head-and-neck cancer treated with automated adaptive replanning. ART can provide dosimetric benefit with only one or two mid-treatment replanning events. Our preliminary clinical outcomes document functional recovery and preservation of disease control at 1-year follow-up and beyond.

  10. Adaptive Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Initial Clinical Outcomes From a Prospective Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, David L., E-mail: dschwartz3@nshs.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hofstra North Shore-Long Island Jewish School of Medicine, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Garden, Adam S.; Thomas, Jimmy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chen Yipei; Zhang Yongbin [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Lewin, Jan; Chambers, Mark S. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To present pilot toxicity and survival outcomes for a prospective trial investigating adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 24 patients were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved clinical trial; data for 22 of these patients were analyzed. Daily CT-guided setup and deformable image registration permitted serial mapping of clinical target volumes and avoidance structures for ART planning. Primary site was base of tongue in 15 patients, tonsil in 6 patient, and glossopharyngeal sulcus in 1 patient. Twenty patients (91%) had American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Stage IV disease. T stage distribution was 2 T1, 12 T2, 3 T3, 5 T4. N stage distribution was 1 N0, 2 N1, 5 N2a, 12 N2b, and 2 N2c. Of the patients, 21 (95%) received systemic therapy. Results: With a 31-month median follow-up (range, 13-45 months), there has been no primary site failure and 1 nodal relapse, yielding 100% local and 95% regional disease control at 2 years. Baseline tumor size correlated with absolute volumetric treatment response (p = 0.018). Parotid volumetric change correlated with duration of feeding tube placement (p = 0.025). Acute toxicity was comparable to that observed with conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Chronic toxicity and functional outcomes beyond 1 year were tabulated. Conclusion: This is the first prospective evaluation of morbidity and survival outcomes in patients with locally advanced head-and-neck cancer treated with automated adaptive replanning. ART can provide dosimetric benefit with only one or two mid-treatment replanning events. Our preliminary clinical outcomes document functional recovery and preservation of disease control at 1-year follow-up and beyond.

  11. Accurate single-trial detection of movement intention made possible using adaptive wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanzar, Alireza; Malekmohammadi, Alireza; Bahrani, Masih; Shabany, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    The outlook of brain-computer interfacing (BCI) is very bright. The real-time, accurate detection of a motor movement task is critical in BCI systems. The poor signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) of EEG signals and the ambiguity of noise generator sources in brain renders this task quite challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel algorithm for precise detection of the onset of a motor movement through identification of event-related-desynchronization (ERD) patterns. Using an adaptive matched filter technique implemented based on an optimized continues Wavelet transform by selecting an appropriate basis, we can detect single-trial ERDs. Moreover, we use a maximum-likelihood (ML), electrooculography (EOG) artifact removal method to remove eye-related artifacts to significantly improve the detection performance. We have applied this technique to our locally recorded Emotiv(®) data set of 6 healthy subjects, where an average detection selectivity of 85 ± 6% and sensitivity of 88 ± 7.7% is achieved with a temporal precision in the range of -1250 to 367 ms in onset detections of single-trials.

  12. Seeking mathematics success for college students: a randomized field trial of an adapted approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, Taras; Hoessler, Carolyn; Maciejewski, Wes

    2015-11-01

    Many students enter the Canadian college system with insufficient mathematical ability and leave the system with little improvement. Those students who enter with poor mathematics ability typically take a developmental mathematics course as their first and possibly only mathematics course. The educational experiences that comprise a developmental mathematics course vary widely and are, too often, ineffective at improving students' ability. This trend is concerning, since low mathematics ability is known to be related to lower rates of success in subsequent courses. To date, little attention has been paid to the selection of an instructional approach to consistently apply across developmental mathematics courses. Prior research suggests that an appropriate instructional method would involve explicit instruction and practising mathematical procedures linked to a mathematical concept. This study reports on a randomized field trial of a developmental mathematics approach at a college in Ontario, Canada. The new approach is an adaptation of the JUMP Math program, an explicit instruction method designed for primary and secondary school curriculae, to the college learning environment. In this study, a subset of courses was assigned to JUMP Math and the remainder was taught in the same style as in the previous years. We found consistent, modest improvement in the JUMP Math sections compared to the non-JUMP sections, after accounting for potential covariates. The findings from this randomized field trial, along with prior research on effective education for developmental mathematics students, suggest that JUMP Math is a promising way to improve college student outcomes.

  13. A nonlinear neural fir filter with an adaptive activation function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Su Goh

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive amplitude normalized nonlinear gradient descent (AANNGD algorithm for the class of nonlinear finite impulse response (FIR adaptive filters (dynamical perception is introduced. This is achieved by making the amplitude of the nonlinear activation function gradient adaptive. The proposed learning algorithm is suitable for processing of nonlinear and nonstationary signals with a large dynamical range, and removes the unwanted effect of saturation nonlinearities. For rigor, sensitivity analysis is performed and the improved performance of the AANNGD algorithm over the standard LMS, NGD, NNGD, the fully adaptive NNGD (FANNGD and the sign algorithm is verified by simulations on nonlinear and nonstationary inputs with large dynamics.

  14. Removal of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Artifacts with an Enhanced Adaptive Filtering Method: An Experimental Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushun Gong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current automated external defibrillators mandate interruptions of chest compression to avoid the effect of artifacts produced by CPR for reliable rhythm analyses. But even seconds of interruption of chest compression during CPR adversely affects the rate of restoration of spontaneous circulation and survival. Numerous digital signal processing techniques have been developed to remove the artifacts or interpret the corrupted ECG with promising result, but the performance is still inadequate, especially for nonshockable rhythms. In the present study, we suppressed the CPR artifacts with an enhanced adaptive filtering method. The performance of the method was evaluated by comparing the sensitivity and specificity for shockable rhythm detection before and after filtering the CPR corrupted ECG signals. The dataset comprised 283 segments of shockable and 280 segments of nonshockable ECG signals during CPR recorded from 22 adult pigs that experienced prolonged cardiac arrest. For the unfiltered signals, the sensitivity and specificity were 99.3% and 46.8%, respectively. After filtering, a sensitivity of 93.3% and a specificity of 96.0% were achieved. This animal trial demonstrated that the enhanced adaptive filtering method could significantly improve the detection of nonshockable rhythms without compromising the ability to detect a shockable rhythm during uninterrupted CPR.

  15. Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trials Education Program for African American and Latina/o Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Debra J.; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Riley, Natasha E.; Behar, Alma I.; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was…

  16. An adaptive strategy for active debris removal

    OpenAIRE

    White, Adam E.; Lewis, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Many parameters influence the evolution of the near-Earth debris population, including launch, solar, explosion and mitigation activities, as well as other future uncertainties such as advances in space technology or changes in social and economic drivers that effect the utilisation of space activities. These factors lead to uncertainty in the long-term debris population. This uncertainty makes it difficult to identify potential remediation strategies, involving active debris removal (ADR), t...

  17. Increased adaptation rates and reduction in trial-by-trial variability in subjects with Cerebral Palsy following a multi-session locomotor adaptation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas eMawase

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral Palsy (CP results from an insult to the developing brain and is associated with deficits in locomotor and manual skills and in sensorimotor adaptation. We hypothesized that the poor sensorimotor adaptation in persons with CP is related to their high execution variability and does not reflect a general impairment in adaptation learning. We studied the interaction between performance variability and adaptation deficits using a multi-session locomotor adaptation design in persons with CP. Six adolescents with diplegic CP were exposed, during a period of 15 weeks, to a repeated split-belt treadmill perturbation spread over 30 sessions and were tested again 6 months after the end of training. Compared to age-matched healthy controls, subjects with CP showed poor adaptation and high execution variability in the first exposure to the perturbation. Following training they showed marked reduction in execution variability and an increase in learning rates. The reduction in variability and the improvement in adaptation were highly correlated in the CP group and were retained 6 months after training. Interestingly, despite reducing their variability in the washout phase, subjects with CP did not improve learning rates during washout phases that were introduced only 4 times during the experiment. Our results suggest that locomotor adaptation in subjects with CP is related to their execution variability. Nevertheless, while variability reduction is generalized to other locomotor contexts, the development of savings requires both reduction in execution variability and multiple exposures to the perturbation.

  18. Adaptive active vibration isolation – A control perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landau Ioan Doré

    2015-01-01

    The paper will review a number of recent developments for adaptive feedback compensation of multiple unknown and time-varying narrow band disturbances and for adaptive feedforward compensation of broad band disturbances in the presence of the inherent internal positive feedback caused by the coupling between the compensator system and the measurement of the image of the disturbance. Some experimental results obtained on a relevant active vibration control system will illustrate the performance of the various algorithms presented.

  19. Adaptive memory: Stereotype activation is not enough

    OpenAIRE

    Otgaar, H.; Smeets, T; Merckelbach, H.; Jelicic, M.; Verschuere, B.; Galliot, A.M.; Riel, van, A.C.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that survival processing leads to superior memorability. The aim of the present study was to examine whether this survival recall advantage might result from stereotype activation. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a pilot study and two experiments in which participants were primed with stereotypes (Experiment 1, professor and elderly person; Experiment 2, survival-stereotype). In Experiment 1, 120 undergraduates were randomly assigned to a survival, professor stereotyp...

  20. An optimal adaptive design to address local regulations in global clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaolong; Shih, Weichung Joe; Ouyang, S Peter; Delap, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    After multi-regional clinical trials (MRCTs) have demonstrated overall significant effects, evaluation for a region-specific effect is often important. Recent guidance from regulatory authorities regarding evaluation for possible country-specific effects has led to research on statistical designs that incorporate such evaluations in MRCTs. These statistical designs are intended to use the MRCTs to address the requirements for global registration of a medicinal product. Adding a regional requirement could change the probability for declaring positive effect for the region when there is indeed no treatment difference as well as when there is in fact a true difference within the region. In this paper, we first quantify those probability structures based on the guidance issued by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) of Japan. An adaptive design is proposed to consider those probabilities and to optimize the efficiency for regional objectives. This two-stage approach incorporates comprehensive global objectives into an integrated study design and may mitigate the need for a separate local bridging study. A procedure is used to optimize region-specific enrollment based on an objective function. The overall sample size requirement is assessed. We will use simulation analyses to illustrate the performance of the proposed study design. PMID:20872620

  1. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  2. Framing Cross-Cultural Ethical Practice in Adapt[ive] Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Donna; Howe, P. David

    2016-01-01

    Academics and practitioners are often at a loss when it comes to understanding the ethical socio-political and cultural contexts that invade the world of adapted physical activity. Ethical practice is situated in the local and the specific. In this article we highlight the reality that both academics and practitioners need to be ever mindful that…

  3. Credentialing of radiotherapy centres for a clinical trial of adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer (TROG 10.01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Daily variations in bladder filling make conformal treatment of bladder cancer challenging. On-line adaptive radiotherapy with a choice of plans has been demonstrated to reduce small bowel irradiation in single institution trials. In order to support a multicentre feasibility clinical trial on adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer (TROG 10.01) a credentialing programme was developed for centres wishing to participate. Methods: The credentialing programme entails three components: a facility questionnaire; a planning exercise which tests the ability of centres to create three adaptive plans based on a planning and five cone beam CTs; and a site visit during which image quality, imaging dose and image guidance procedures are assessed. Image quality and decision making were tested using customised inserts for a Perspex phantom (Modus QUASAR) that mimic different bladder sizes. Dose was assessed in the same phantom using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). Results: All 12 centres participating in the full credentialing programme were able to generate appropriate target volumes in the planning exercise and identify the correct target volume and position the bladder phantom in the phantom within 3 mm accuracy. None of the imaging doses exceeded the limit of 5 cGy with a CT on rails system having the lowest overall dose. Conclusion: A phantom mimicking the decision making process for adaptive radiotherapy was found to be well suited during site visits for credentialing of centres participating in a clinical trial of adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer. Combined with a planning exercise the site visit allowed testing the ability of centres to create adaptive treatment plans and make appropriate decisions based on the volumetric images acquired at treatment.

  4. Edge Adapted Wavelets, Solar Magnetic Activity, and Climate Change

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    The continuous wavelet transform is adapted to account for signal truncation through renormalization and by modifying the shape of the analyzing window. Comparison is made of the instant and integrated wavelet power with previous algorithms. The edge adapted and renormalized admissible wavelet transforms are used to estimate the level of solar magnetic activity from the sunspot record. The solar activity is compared to Oerlemans' temperature reconstruction and to the Central England Temperature record. A correlation is seen for years between 1610 and 1990, followed by a strong deviation as the recently observed temperature increases.

  5. Adaptation and Dissemination of an Evidence-Based Obesity Prevention Intervention: Design of a Comparative Effectiveness Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Buscemi, Joanna; Odoms-Young, Angela; Stolley, Melinda L.; Blumstein, Lara; Schiffer, Linda; Berbaum, Michael L.; McCaffrey, Jennifer; Montoya, Anastasia McGee; Braunschweig, Carol; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2014-01-01

    Low-income youth are at increased risk for excess weight gain. Although evidence-based prevention programs exist, successful adaptation to provide wide dissemination presents a challenge. Hip-Hop to Health (HH) is a school-based obesity prevention intervention that targets primarily preschool children of low-income families. In a large randomized controlled trial, HH was found to be efficacious for prevention of excessive weight gain. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Educatio...

  6. Building efficient comparative effectiveness trials through adaptive designs, utility functions, and accrual rate optimization: finding the sweet spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Byron J; Berry, Scott M; Quintana, Melanie; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen; Herbelin, Laura; Barohn, Richard

    2015-03-30

    The time is right for the use of Bayesian Adaptive Designs (BAD) in comparative effectiveness trials. For example, Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute has joined the Food and Drug Administration and National Intitutes of Health in adopting policies/guidelines encouraging their use. There are multiple aspects to BAD that need to be considered when designing a comparative effectiveness design. First, the adaptation rules can determine the expected size of the trial. Second, a utility function can be used to combine extremely important co-endpoints (e.g., efficacy and tolerability) and is a valuable tool for incorporating clinical expertise and potentially patient preference. Third, accrual rate is also very, very important. Specifically, there is a juxtaposition related to accrual and BAD. If accrual rate is too fast we never gain efficient information for adapting. If accrual rate is too slow we never finish the clinical trial. We propose methodology for finding the 'sweet spot' for BAD that addresses these as design parameters. We demonstrate the methodology on a comparative effectiveness BAD of pharmaceutical agents in cryptogenic sensory polyneuropathy. The study has five arms with two endpoints that are combined with a utility function. The accrual rate is assumed to stem from multiple sites. We perform simulations from which the composite accrual rates across sites result in various piecewise Poisson distributions as parameter inputs. We balance both average number of patients needed and average length of time to finish the study.

  7. Dynamics of adaptive and innate immunity in patients treated during primary human immunodeficiency virus infection: results from Maraviroc in HIV Acute Infection (MAIN) randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa, M; Pogliaghi, M; Chiappetta, S; Galli, L; Pensieroso, S; Cavarelli, M; Scarlatti, G; De Biasi, S; Cossarizza, A; De Battista, D; Malnati, M; Lazzarin, A; Nozza, S; Tambussi, G

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the dynamics of innate and adaptive immunity in patients treated with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) during primary human immunodeficiency virus infection (PHI), enrolled in a prospective randomized trial (MAIN, EUDRACT 2008-007004-29). After 48 weeks of cART, we documented a reduction in activated B cells and CD8(+) T cells. Natural killer cell and dendritic cell frequencies were measured and a decrease in CD16(+) CD56(dim) with a reciprocal rise in CD56(high) natural killer cells and an increase in myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were recorded. In conclusion, 48 weeks of cART during PHI showed significant benefits for both innate and adaptive immunity.

  8. Adaptive Compensation of Reactive Power With Shunt Active Power Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Asiminoaei, Lucian; Hansen, Steffan;

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive method for compensating the reactive power with an active power filter (APF), which is initially rated for mitigation of only the harmonic currents given by a nonlinear industrial load. It is proven that, if the harmonic currents do not load the APF at the rated...

  9. Thinking Ethically about Professional Practice in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Donna L.; Rossow-Kimball, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    There has been little critical exploration of the ethical issues that arise in professional practice common to adapted physical activity. We cannot avoid moral issues as we inevitably will act in ways that will negatively affect the well-being of others. We will make choices, which in our efforts to support others, may hurt by violating dignity or…

  10. Familiar Sports and Activities Adapted for Multiply Impaired Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Means of adapting some familiar and popular physical activities for multiply impaired persons are described. Games reviewed are dice baseball, one base baseball, in-house bowling, wheelchair bowling, ramp bowling, swing-ball bowling, table tennis, shuffleboard, beanbag bingo and tic-tac-toe, balloon basketball, circle football, and wheelchair…

  11. Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by one-trial and multi-trial classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, T; Xue-Bian, J J; Siddiqi, V; Kang, Y; Neary, J T

    1998-05-01

    The pathway supporting the conditioned stimulus (CS) is one site of plasticity that has been studied extensively in conditioned Hermissenda. Several signal transduction pathways have been implicated in classical conditioning of this preparation, although the major emphasis has been on protein kinase C. Here we provide evidence for the activation and phosphorylation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by one-trial and multi-trial conditioning. A one-trial in vitro conditioning procedure consisting of light (CS) paired with the application of 5-HT results in the increased incorporation of 32PO4 into proteins detected with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Two of the phosphoproteins have molecular weights of 44 and 42 kDa, consistent with extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1 and ERK2). Phosphorylation of the 44 and 42 kDa proteins by one-trial conditioning was inhibited by pretreatment with PD098059, A MEK1 (ERK-Activating kinase) inhibitor. Assays of ERK activity with brain myelin basic protein as a substrate revealed greater ERK activity for the group that received one-trial conditioning compared with an unpaired control group. Western blot analysis of phosphorylated ERK using antibodies recognizing the dually phosphorylated forms of ERK1 and ERK2 showed an increase in phosphorylation after one-trial conditioning compared with unpaired controls. The increased phosphorylation of ERK after one-trial conditioning was blocked by pretreatment with PD098059. Hermissenda that received 10 or 15 conditioning trials showed significant behavioral suppression compared with pseudo-random controls. After conditioning and behavioral testing, the conditioned animals showed significantly greater phosphorylation of ERK compared with the pseudo-random controls. These results show that the ERK-MAPK signaling pathway is activated in Pavlovian conditioning of Hermissenda.

  12. Adaptive significance of right hemisphere activation in aphasic language comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Meltzer, Jed A.; Wagage, Suraji; Ryder, Jennifer; Solomon, Beth; Braun, Allen R.

    2013-01-01

    Aphasic patients often exhibit increased right hemisphere activity during language tasks. This may represent takeover of function by regions homologous to the left-hemisphere language networks, maladaptive interference, or adaptation of alternate compensatory strategies. To distinguish between these accounts, we tested language comprehension in 25 aphasic patients using an online sentence-picture matching paradigm while measuring brain activation with MEG. Linguistic conditions included seman...

  13. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control

    OpenAIRE

    Pezzulo, G; Rigoli, F.; Friston, K.

    2015-01-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a...

  14. ERP adaptation provides direct evidence for early mirror neuron activation in the inferior parietal lobule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhring, Nicole; Brandt, Emily S L; Mohr, Bettina; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2014-10-01

    Mirror neuron systems are frequently investigated by assessing overlapping brain activity during observation and execution of actions; however, distinct neuronal subpopulations may be activated that fall below the spatial resolution of magnetic resonance techniques. This shortfall can be resolved using repetition suppression paradigms that identify physiological adaptation processes caused by repeated activation of identical neuronal circuits. Here, event-related potentials were used to investigate the time course of mirror neuron circuit activation using repetition suppression within and across action observation and action execution modalities. In a lip-reading and speech production paradigm, the N170 component indexed stimulus repetition by adapting to both cross-modal and intra-modal repetitions in the left hemisphere. Neuronal source localization revealed activation of the left inferior parietal lobule during cross-modal relative to intra-modal trials. These results provide support for the position that the same neuronal circuits are activated in perceiving and performing articulatory actions. Moreover, our data strongly suggest that inferior parietal lobule mirror neurons are activated relatively early in time, which indicates partly automatic processes of linguistic perception and mirroring. Repetition suppression paradigms therefore help to elucidate neuronal correlates of different cognitive processes and may serve as a starting point for advanced electrophysiological research on mirror neurons.

  15. Sensor Activation and Radius Adaptation (SARA) in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Novella; la Porta, Thomas; Petrioli, Chiara; Silvestri, Simone

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of prolonging the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) deployed to monitor an area of interest. In this scenario, a helpful approach is to reduce coverage redundancy and therefore the energy expenditure due to coverage. We introduce the first algorithm which reduces coverage redundancy by means of Sensor Activation and sensing Radius Adaptation (SARA)in a general applicative scenario with two classes of devices: sensors that can adapt their sensing range (adjustable sensors) and sensors that cannot (fixed sensors). In particular, SARA activates only a subset of all the available sensors and reduces the sensing range of the adjustable sensors that have been activated. In doing so, SARA also takes possible heterogeneous coverage capabilities of sensors belonging to the same class into account. It specifically addresses device heterogeneity by modeling the coverage problem in the Laguerre geometry through Voronoi-Laguerre diagrams. SARA executes quickly and is guarante...

  16. Applications of active adaptive noise control to jet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoureshi, Rahmat; Brackney, Larry

    1993-01-01

    During phase 2 research on the application of active noise control to jet engines, the development of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) active adaptive noise control algorithms and acoustic/controls models for turbofan engines were considered. Specific goals for this research phase included: (1) implementation of a MIMO adaptive minimum variance active noise controller; and (2) turbofan engine model development. A minimum variance control law for adaptive active noise control has been developed, simulated, and implemented for single-input/single-output (SISO) systems. Since acoustic systems tend to be distributed, multiple sensors, and actuators are more appropriate. As such, the SISO minimum variance controller was extended to the MIMO case. Simulation and experimental results are presented. A state-space model of a simplified gas turbine engine is developed using the bond graph technique. The model retains important system behavior, yet is of low enough order to be useful for controller design. Expansion of the model to include multiple stages and spools is also discussed.

  17. Adapted physical activity in the prevention and therapy of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Ksenija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by the progressive loss of bone tissue, is one of the most common complications of aging. Epidemiology. According to some calculations, there were 25% of women and 4% of men older than 50 years with osteoporosis in the world in 2010. It is assumed that the number of patients with osteoporosis will increase by 30% in every 10 years in the 21st century. There are many reasons for that: the world’s population is growing older, diet is getting poorer in vitamins and minerals and physical activity is decreasing. The Quality and Quantity of Bone Tissue. Developing bones are much more responsive to mechanical loading and physical activity than mature bones. This suggests that training in early childhood may be an important factor in the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. It is important to note that the quality of bone achieved by training at younger age cannot be maintained permanently if it is not supported by physical activity later in life. Adapted physical activity represents physical activity individually tailored according to the psychosomatic capabilities of a person and the goal to be achieved. It can be applied at any age in order to maintain strong bones and reduce the risk of fracture. Adapted physical activity is different for men and women, for different age, as well as for the individuals. Aerobic exercises, which lead to an acceleration of breathing, increased heart rate and mild perspiration, as well as resistance exercises and exercises against resistance done by stretching elastic bands, for hands, legs and torso have been proven to increase bone density and improve bone strength. Coordination and balance exercises are important in an individual workout program. An explanation of the action of adapted physical activity is the basis for the theory of control and modulation of bone loss, muscle strength, coordination and balance. Physical activity is very effective in

  18. Active reflective components for adaptive optical zoom systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, Matthew Edward Lewis

    This dissertation presents the theoretical and experimental exploration of active reflective components specifically for large-aperture adaptive optical zoom systems. An active reflective component can change its focal length by physically deforming its reflecting surface. Adaptive optical zoom (AOZ) utilizes active components in order to change magnification and achieve optical zoom, as opposed to traditional zooming systems that move elements along the optical axis. AOZ systems are theoretically examined using a novel optical design theory that enables a full-scale tradespace analysis, where optical design begins from a broad perspective and optimizes to a particular system. The theory applies existing strategies for telescope design and aberration simulation to AOZ, culminating in the design of a Cassegrain objective with a 3.3X zoom ratio and a 375mm entrance aperture. AOZ systems are experimentally examined with the development of a large-aperture active mirror constructed of a composite material called carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). The active CFRP mirror uses a novel actuation method to change radius of curvature, where actuators press against two annular rings placed on the mirror's back. This method enables the radius of curvature to increase from 2000mm to 2010mm. Closed-loop control maintains good optical performance of 1.05 waves peak-to-valley (with respect to a HeNe laser) when the active CFRP mirror is used in conjunction with a commercial deformable mirror.

  19. A 12-month controlled trial of methadone medical maintenance integrated into an adaptive treatment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Van L; Kidorf, Michael S; Stoller, Kenneth B; Schwartz, Robert; Kolodner, Kenneth; Brooner, Robert K

    2006-12-01

    Methadone medical maintenance (MMM) reduces the reporting schedule for stable and well-functioning methadone maintenance patients to once a month, with counseling provided by medical staff. We report on the 12-month outcomes of 92 highly stable methadone maintenance patients randomly assigned to one of three study conditions: routine care, MMM at the methadone maintenance program, and MMM at a physician's office. Methadone medical maintenance patients received a 28-day supply of methadone, whereas routine care patients received five or six take-home methadone doses each week. All patients performed a medication recall once a month and submitted two urine samples each month. An adaptive stepped-care system of treatment intensification was used for patients who failed recall or who had drug-positive urine specimens. Seventy-seven patients completed the 12-month study period. Dropout was caused primarily by problems with handling methadone and disliking the recall frequency. There were low rates of drug use or failed medication recall. Treatment satisfaction was high in all groups, but the MMM patients initiated more new employment or family/social activities than did routine care patients over the study period. The stepped-care approach was well tolerated and matched patients to an appropriate step of service within a continuum of treatment intensity. PMID:17084792

  20. Cognitive Adaptation Training combined with assertive community treatment: A Randomised Longitudinal Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Hansen, J. P.; Østergaard, B.;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) targets the adaptive behaviour of patients with schizophrenia and has shown promising results regarding the social aspects of psychosocial treatment. As yet, no reports have appeared on the use of CAT in combination with assertive community treatment...

  1. New evidence-based adaptive clinical trial methods for optimally integrating predictive biomarkers into oncology clinical development programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert A.Beckman; Cong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Predictive biomarkers are important to the future of oncology; they can be used to identify patient populations who will benefit from therapy,increase the value of cancer medicines,and decrease the size and cost of clinical trials while increasing their chance of success.But predictive biomarkers do not always work.When unsuccessful,they add cost,complexity,and time to drug development.This perspective describes phases 2 and 3 development methods that efficiently and adaptively check the ability of a biomarker to predict clinical outcomes.In the end,the biomarker is emphasized to the extent that it can actually predict.

  2. Using Assistive Technology Adaptations To Include Students with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a process for integrating technology adaptations for students with learning disabilities into cooperative-learning activities in terms of three components: (1) selecting adaptations; (2) monitoring use of adaptations during cooperative-learning activities; and (3) evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. Barriers to and support systems…

  3. Adapted physical activity in rehabilitating work activity for adults with intellectual disability : case Monituote

    OpenAIRE

    Heinola, Jenni

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to describe adapted physical activities (APA) offered for adults with intellectual disability in rehabilitating work activity and to spread information concerning the topic to colleagues in Finland as well as to those working abroad. The thesis is a part of research and development project of Satakunta University of Applied Sciences. The University works as an associate partner in EUSAPA-project which is a European level attempt to explore and develop adapted ph...

  4. A Generic Adaptive Method for Corruption Mitigation in Trial Monitoring System with Restful Authorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanaraayan.B1 , Subramanian.M2 , Saikrishna.K.K3 , Sujitha.G4

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of a Trial Monitoring System is to provide a comprehensive suite where cases are created. Trial proceedings are monitored progressively to make informed decisions that include assignment of investigating entities and requesting advisors for opinions to take over the prosecution of the case. It provides a platform for applying counter petitions against an allegation's disposal and integrate proceedings in different levels of scrutiny and across tribunal entities. The outcome is the aggregation of such a data, to classify cases for statistical information and relaying the information in presentable format.

  5. Active Inference, epistemic value, and vicarious trial and error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Cartoni, Emilio; Rigoli, Francesco; Pio-Lopez, Léo; Friston, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Balancing habitual and deliberate forms of choice entails a comparison of their respective merits-the former being faster but inflexible, and the latter slower but more versatile. Here, we show that arbitration between these two forms of control can be derived from first principles within an Active Inference scheme. We illustrate our arguments with simulations that reproduce rodent spatial decisions in T-mazes. In this context, deliberation has been associated with vicarious trial and error (VTE) behavior (i.e., the fact that rodents sometimes stop at decision points as if deliberating between choice alternatives), whose neurophysiological correlates are "forward sweeps" of hippocampal place cells in the arms of the maze under consideration. Crucially, forward sweeps arise early in learning and disappear shortly after, marking a transition from deliberative to habitual choice. Our simulations show that this transition emerges as the optimal solution to the trade-off between policies that maximize reward or extrinsic value (habitual policies) and those that also consider the epistemic value of exploratory behavior (deliberative or epistemic policies)-the latter requiring VTE and the retrieval of episodic information via forward sweeps. We thus offer a novel perspective on the optimality principles that engender forward sweeps and VTE, and on their role on deliberate choice. PMID:27317193

  6. Adaptive top-down suppression of hippocampal activity and the purging of intrusive memories from consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Roland G; Hulbert, Justin C; Huddleston, Ean; Anderson, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    When reminded of unwanted memories, people often attempt to suppress these experiences from awareness. Prior work indicates that control processes mediated by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) modulate hippocampal activity during such retrieval suppression. It remains unknown whether this modulation plays a role in purging an intrusive memory from consciousness. Here, we combined fMRI and effective connectivity analyses with phenomenological reports to scrutinize a role for adaptive top-down suppression of hippocampal retrieval processes in terminating mnemonic awareness of intrusive memories. Participants either suppressed or recalled memories of pictures depicting faces or places. After each trial, they reported their success at regulating awareness of the memory. DLPFC activation was greatest when unwanted memories intruded into consciousness and needed to be purged, and this increased engagement predicted superior control of intrusive memories over time. However, hippocampal activity was decreased during the suppression of place memories only. Importantly, the inhibitory influence of the DLPFC on the hippocampus was linked to the ensuing reduction in intrusions of the suppressed memories. Individuals who exhibited negative top-down coupling during early suppression attempts experienced fewer involuntary memory intrusions later on. Over repeated suppressions, the DLPFC-hippocampus connectivity grew less negative with the degree that they no longer had to purge unwanted memories from awareness. These findings support a role of DLPFC in countermanding the unfolding recollection of an unwanted memory via the suppression of hippocampal processing, a mechanism that may contribute to adaptation in the aftermath of traumatic experiences. PMID:25100219

  7. Ethnic differences in thermoregulatory responses during resting, passive and active heating: application of Werner's adaptation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Saat, Mohamed; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-12-01

    For the coherent understanding of heat acclimatization in tropical natives, we compared ethnic differences between tropical and temperate natives during resting, passive and active heating conditions. Experimental protocols included: (1) a resting condition (an air temperature of 28°C with 50% RH), (2) a passive heating condition (28°C with 50% RH; leg immersion in a hot tub at a water temperature of 42°C), and (3) an active heating condition (32°C with 70% RH; a bicycle exercise). Morphologically and physically matched tropical natives (ten Malaysian males, MY) and temperate natives (ten Japanese males, JP) participated in all three trials. The results saw that: tropical natives had a higher resting rectal temperature and lower hand and foot temperatures at rest, smaller rise of rectal temperature and greater temperature rise in bodily extremities, and a lower sensation of thirst during passive and active heating than the matched temperate natives. It is suggested that tropical natives' homeostasis during heating is effectively controlled with the improved stability in internal body temperature and the increased capability of vascular circulation in extremities, with a lower thirst sensation. The enhanced stability of internal body temperature and the extended thermoregulatory capability of vascular circulation in the extremities of tropical natives can be interpreted as an interactive change to accomplish a thermal dynamic equilibrium in hot environments. These heat adaptive traits were explained by Wilder's law of initial value and Werner's process and controller adaptation model.

  8. Adaptive significance of right hemisphere activation in aphasic language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Jed A; Wagage, Suraji; Ryder, Jennifer; Solomon, Beth; Braun, Allen R

    2013-06-01

    Aphasic patients often exhibit increased right hemisphere activity during language tasks. This may represent takeover of function by regions homologous to the left-hemisphere language networks, maladaptive interference, or adaptation of alternate compensatory strategies. To distinguish between these accounts, we tested language comprehension in 25 aphasic patients using an online sentence-picture matching paradigm while measuring brain activation with MEG. Linguistic conditions included semantically irreversible ("The boy is eating the apple") and reversible ("The boy is pushing the girl") sentences at three levels of syntactic complexity. As expected, patients performed well above chance on irreversible sentences, and at chance on reversible sentences of high complexity. Comprehension of reversible non-complex sentences ranged from nearly perfect to chance, and was highly correlated with offline measures of language comprehension. Lesion analysis revealed that comprehension deficits for reversible sentences were predicted by damage to the left temporal lobe. Although aphasic patients activated homologous areas in the right temporal lobe, such activation was not correlated with comprehension performance. Rather, patients with better comprehension exhibited increased activity in dorsal fronto-parietal regions. Correlations between performance and dorsal network activity occurred bilaterally during perception of sentences, and in the right hemisphere during a post-sentence memory delay. These results suggest that effortful reprocessing of perceived sentences in short-term memory can support improved comprehension in aphasia, and that strategic recruitment of alternative networks, rather than homologous takeover, may account for some findings of right hemisphere language activation in aphasia. PMID:23566891

  9. Activation of the reward system boosts innate and adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shaanan, Tamar L; Azulay-Debby, Hilla; Dubovik, Tania; Starosvetsky, Elina; Korin, Ben; Schiller, Maya; Green, Nathaniel L; Admon, Yasmin; Hakim, Fahed; Shen-Orr, Shai S; Rolls, Asya

    2016-08-01

    Positive expectations contribute to the clinical benefits of the placebo effect. Such positive expectations are mediated by the brain's reward system; however, it remains unknown whether and how reward system activation affects the body's physiology and, specifically, immunity. Here we show that activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key component of the reward system, strengthens immunological host defense. We used 'designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs' (DREADDs) to directly activate dopaminergic neurons in the mouse VTA and characterized the subsequent immune response after exposure to bacteria (Escherichia coli), using time-of-flight mass cytometry (CyTOF) and functional assays. We found an increase in innate and adaptive immune responses that were manifested by enhanced antibacterial activity of monocytes and macrophages, reduced in vivo bacterial load and a heightened T cell response in the mouse model of delayed-type hypersensitivity. By chemically ablating the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), we showed that the reward system's effects on immunity are, at least partly, mediated by the SNS. Thus, our findings establish a causal relationship between the activity of the VTA and the immune response to bacterial infection. PMID:27376577

  10. A single blinded randomised controlled pilot trial of prism adaptation for improving self-care in stroke patients with neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Ailie J; O'Leary, Kelly; Gabb, Judith; Woodward, Rebecca; Gilchrist, Iain D

    2010-04-01

    Prism adaptation has been shown to alleviate the symptoms of unilateral spatial neglect following stroke in single case and small group studies. The purposes of this single blinded pilot randomised controlled trial were to determine the feasibility of delivering prism adaptation treatment in a clinically valid sample and to assess its impact on self-care. Thirty seven right hemisphere stroke patients with unilateral spatial neglect were randomised into either prism adaptation (using 10 dioptre, 6 degree prisms) or sham treatment (using plain glasses) groups. Treatment was delivered each weekday for two weeks. Pointing accuracy, without vision of the finger, was recorded each day before treatment. Outcome was measured, by blinded assessors, four days and eight weeks after the end of treatment using the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) and the conventional neuropsychological tests from the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT). Thirty four patients received treatment: 16 with prisms, 18 sham. Mean compliance was 99% and 97%, respectively. Over the treatment days only the prism treated group showed increased leftward bias in open loop pointing to targets on a touch screen. However, despite the group level changes in pointing behaviour no overall effect of the treatment on self-care or BIT were found.

  11. Dietary and physical activity adaptations to alternate day modified fasting: implications for optimal weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempel Monica C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternate day modified fasting (ADMF is an effective strategy for weight loss in obese adults. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the dietary and physical activity adaptations that occur during short-term ADMF, and to determine how these modulations affect rate of weight loss. Methods Sixteen obese subjects (12 women/4 men completed a 10-week trial consisting of 3 phases: 1 2-week control phase, 2 4-week ADMF controlled feeding phase, and 3 4-week ADMF self-selected feeding phase. Results Body weight decreased (P r = 0.42, P = 0.01. Dietary fat intake decreased (36% to 33% of kcal, P r = 0.38, P = 0.03. Hunger on the fast day decreased (P Conclusion These findings indicate that obese subjects quickly adapt to ADMF, and that changes in energy/macronutrient intake, hunger, and maintenance of physical activity play a role in influencing rate of weight loss by ADMF.

  12. An Intelligent Man-Machine Interface-Multi-Robot Control Adapted for Task Engagement Based on Single-Trial Detectability of P300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Elsa A; Kim, Su K; Tabie, Marc; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Maurus, Michael; Kirchner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Advanced man-machine interfaces (MMIs) are being developed for teleoperating robots at remote and hardly accessible places. Such MMIs make use of a virtual environment and can therefore make the operator immerse him-/herself into the environment of the robot. In this paper, we present our developed MMI for multi-robot control. Our MMI can adapt to changes in task load and task engagement online. Applying our approach of embedded Brain Reading we improve user support and efficiency of interaction. The level of task engagement was inferred from the single-trial detectability of P300-related brain activity that was naturally evoked during interaction. With our approach no secondary task is needed to measure task load. It is based on research results on the single-stimulus paradigm, distribution of brain resources and its effect on the P300 event-related component. It further considers effects of the modulation caused by a delayed reaction time on the P300 component evoked by complex responses to task-relevant messages. We prove our concept using single-trial based machine learning analysis, analysis of averaged event-related potentials and behavioral analysis. As main results we show (1) a significant improvement of runtime needed to perform the interaction tasks compared to a setting in which all subjects could easily perform the tasks. We show that (2) the single-trial detectability of the event-related potential P300 can be used to measure the changes in task load and task engagement during complex interaction while also being sensitive to the level of experience of the operator and (3) can be used to adapt the MMI individually to the different needs of users without increasing total workload. Our online adaptation of the proposed MMI is based on a continuous supervision of the operator's cognitive resources by means of embedded Brain Reading. Operators with different qualifications or capabilities receive only as many tasks as they can perform to avoid mental

  13. An Intelligent Man-Machine Interface—Multi-Robot Control Adapted for Task Engagement Based on Single-Trial Detectability of P300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Elsa A.; Kim, Su K.; Tabie, Marc; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Maurus, Michael; Kirchner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Advanced man-machine interfaces (MMIs) are being developed for teleoperating robots at remote and hardly accessible places. Such MMIs make use of a virtual environment and can therefore make the operator immerse him-/herself into the environment of the robot. In this paper, we present our developed MMI for multi-robot control. Our MMI can adapt to changes in task load and task engagement online. Applying our approach of embedded Brain Reading we improve user support and efficiency of interaction. The level of task engagement was inferred from the single-trial detectability of P300-related brain activity that was naturally evoked during interaction. With our approach no secondary task is needed to measure task load. It is based on research results on the single-stimulus paradigm, distribution of brain resources and its effect on the P300 event-related component. It further considers effects of the modulation caused by a delayed reaction time on the P300 component evoked by complex responses to task-relevant messages. We prove our concept using single-trial based machine learning analysis, analysis of averaged event-related potentials and behavioral analysis. As main results we show (1) a significant improvement of runtime needed to perform the interaction tasks compared to a setting in which all subjects could easily perform the tasks. We show that (2) the single-trial detectability of the event-related potential P300 can be used to measure the changes in task load and task engagement during complex interaction while also being sensitive to the level of experience of the operator and (3) can be used to adapt the MMI individually to the different needs of users without increasing total workload. Our online adaptation of the proposed MMI is based on a continuous supervision of the operator's cognitive resources by means of embedded Brain Reading. Operators with different qualifications or capabilities receive only as many tasks as they can perform to avoid mental

  14. An Intelligent Man-Machine Interface-Multi-Robot Control Adapted for Task Engagement Based on Single-Trial Detectability of P300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Elsa A; Kim, Su K; Tabie, Marc; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Maurus, Michael; Kirchner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Advanced man-machine interfaces (MMIs) are being developed for teleoperating robots at remote and hardly accessible places. Such MMIs make use of a virtual environment and can therefore make the operator immerse him-/herself into the environment of the robot. In this paper, we present our developed MMI for multi-robot control. Our MMI can adapt to changes in task load and task engagement online. Applying our approach of embedded Brain Reading we improve user support and efficiency of interaction. The level of task engagement was inferred from the single-trial detectability of P300-related brain activity that was naturally evoked during interaction. With our approach no secondary task is needed to measure task load. It is based on research results on the single-stimulus paradigm, distribution of brain resources and its effect on the P300 event-related component. It further considers effects of the modulation caused by a delayed reaction time on the P300 component evoked by complex responses to task-relevant messages. We prove our concept using single-trial based machine learning analysis, analysis of averaged event-related potentials and behavioral analysis. As main results we show (1) a significant improvement of runtime needed to perform the interaction tasks compared to a setting in which all subjects could easily perform the tasks. We show that (2) the single-trial detectability of the event-related potential P300 can be used to measure the changes in task load and task engagement during complex interaction while also being sensitive to the level of experience of the operator and (3) can be used to adapt the MMI individually to the different needs of users without increasing total workload. Our online adaptation of the proposed MMI is based on a continuous supervision of the operator's cognitive resources by means of embedded Brain Reading. Operators with different qualifications or capabilities receive only as many tasks as they can perform to avoid mental

  15. Physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy (LEAP trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ussher Michael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women try to stop smoking in pregnancy but fail. One difficulty is that there is insufficient evidence that medications for smoking cessation are effective and safe in pregnancy and thus many women prefer to avoid these. Physical activity (PA interventions may assist cessation; however, trials examining these interventions have been too small to detect or exclude plausible beneficial effects. The London Exercise And Pregnant smokers (LEAP trial is investigating whether a PA intervention is effective and cost-effective when used for smoking cessation by pregnant women, and will be the largest study of its kind to date. Methods/design The LEAP study is a pragmatic, multi-center, two-arm, randomized, controlled trial that will target pregnant women who smoke at least one cigarette a day (and at least five cigarettes a day before pregnancy, and are between 10 and 24 weeks pregnant. Eligible patients are individually randomized to either usual care (that is, behavioral support for smoking cessation or usual care plus a intervention (entailing supervised exercise on a treadmill plus PA consultations. The primary outcome of the trial is self-reported and biochemically validated continuous abstinence from smoking between a specified quit date and the end of pregnancy. The secondary outcomes, measured at 1 and 4 weeks after the quit date, and at the end of pregnancy and 6 months after childbirth, are PA levels, depression, self-confidence, and cigarette withdrawal symptoms. Smoking status will also be self-reported at 6 months after childbirth. In addition, perinatal measures will be collected, including antenatal complications, duration of labor, mode of delivery, and birth and placental weight. Outcomes will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, and logistic regression models used to compare treatment effects on the primary outcome. Discussion This trial will assess whether a PA intervention is effective when used for

  16. An Adaptive Security Model for Multi-agent Systems and Application to a Clinical Trials Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Liang; Peet, Andrew; Lewis, Paul; Dashmapatra, Srinandan; Sáez, Carlos; Croitoru, Madalina; de Vicente, Javier; Gonzalez-Velez, Horacio; Lluch i Ariet, Magí

    2007-01-01

    We present in this paper an adaptive security model for Multi-agent systems. A security meta-model has been developed in which the traditional role concept has been extended. The new concept incorporates the need of both security management as used by role-based access control (RBAC) and agent functional behaviour in agent-oriented Software Engineering (AOSE). Our approach avoids weaknesses of traditional RBAC approaches and provides a practically usable security model for Multi-agent Systems...

  17. Adapting social neuroscience measures for schizophrenia clinical trials, part 3: fathoming external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbert, Charles M; Penn, David L; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Ochsner, Kevin N; Marder, Stephen R; Green, Michael F

    2013-11-01

    It is unknown whether measures adapted from social neuroscience linked to specific neural systems will demonstrate relationships to external variables. Four paradigms adapted from social neuroscience were administered to 173 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia to determine their relationships to functionally meaningful variables and to investigate their incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition. The 4 paradigms included 2 that assess perception of nonverbal social and action cues (basic biological motion and emotion in biological motion) and 2 that involve higher level inferences about self and others' mental states (self-referential memory and empathic accuracy). Overall, social neuroscience paradigms showed significant relationships to functional capacity but weak relationships to community functioning; the paradigms also showed weak correlations to clinical symptoms. Evidence for incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition was mixed with additional predictive power shown for functional capacity but not community functioning. Of the newly adapted paradigms, the empathic accuracy task had the broadest external validity. These results underscore the difficulty of translating developments from neuroscience into clinically useful tasks with functional significance.

  18. Skeletal Adaptation to Daily Activity: A Biochemical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Musculoskeletal forces generated by normal daily activity on Earth maintain the functional and structural properties of muscle and bone throughout most of one's adult life. A reduction in the level of cumulative daily loading caused by space flight, bed rest or spinal cord injury induces rapid muscle atrophy, functional changes in muscle, and bone resorption in regions subjected to the reduced loading. Bone cells in culture and bone tissue reportedly respond to a wide variety of non-mechanical and mechanical stimuli ranging, from electromagnetic fields, and hormones to small amplitude, high frequency vibrations, fluid flow, strain rate, and stress/strain magnitude. However, neither the transduction mechanism that transforms the mechanical input into a muscle or bone metabolic response nor the characteristics, of the loading history that directly or indirectly stimulates the cell is known. Identifying the factors contributing to the input stimulus will have a major impact on the design of effective countermeasures for long duration space flight. This talk will present a brief overview of current theories of bone remodeling and functional adaptation to mechanical loading. Work from our lab will be presented from the perspective of daily cumulative loading on Earth and its relationship to bone density and structure. Our objective is to use the tibia and calcaneus as model bone sites of cortical and cancellous bone adaptation, loaded daily by musculoskeletal forces in equilibrium with the ground reaction force. All materials that will be discussed are in the open scientific literature.

  19. Fostering Engagement Activities To Advance Adaptation And Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissen, J.; Owen, T.; Brewer, M.; Hollingshead, A.; Mecray, E. L.; Werner, K.

    2015-12-01

    As the understanding of climate risks grows for public and private companies, the dissemination of meaningful climate and environmental information becomes important for improved risk management practices and innovation. In a broader effort to build capacity for adaptation and demonstrate the value of investment in resiliency, NCEI and its partners have made several shifts to showcase an improved understanding of uses and applications of climate and environmental data and information. The NOAA NCEI engagement initiative includes actively exploring ways to: 1) identify opportunities in data use and applications and 2) characterize needs and requirements from customers to help inform investment in the relevant science. This presentation will highlight: 1) NCEI's engagement initiative strategy, 2) our regional and national partnerships as agents of engagement in the region, 3) a few examples of uses of climate information with select stakeholders and 4) justification of customer engagement and requirements as a critical component in informing the science agenda.

  20. Phenomenology and adapted physical activity: philosophy and professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F

    2014-01-01

    Through the increased use of qualitative research methods, the term phenomenology has become a quite familiar notion for researchers in adapted physical activity (APA). In contrast to this increasing interest in phenomenology as methodology, relatively little work has focused on phenomenology as philosophy or as an approach to professional practice. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of phenomenology as philosophy and as pedagogy to the field of APA. First, phenomenology as philosophy is introduced through three key notions, namely the first-person perspective, embodiment, and life-world. The relevance of these terms to APA is then outlined. Second, the concept of phenomenological pedagogy is introduced, and its application and potential for APA are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that phenomenology can help theorize ways of understanding human difference in movement contexts and form a basis of action-oriented research aiming at developing professional practice.

  1. Cardiac rehabilitation adapted to transient ischaemic attack and stroke (CRAFTS: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Catherine

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary Heart Disease and Cerebrovascular Disease share many predisposing, modifiable risk factors (hypertension, abnormal blood lipids and lipoproteins, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy are recognised as the cornerstones of secondary prevention. Cochrane review has proven the benefits of programmes incorporating exercise and lifestyle counselling in the cardiac disease population. A Cochrane review highlighted as priority, the need to establish feasibility and efficacy of exercise based interventions for Cerebrovascular Disease. Methods A single blind randomised controlled trial is proposed to examine a primary care cardiac rehabilitation programme for adults post transient ischemic attack (TIA and stroke in effecting a positive change in the primary outcome measures of cardiac risk scores derived from Blood Pressure, lipid profile, smoking and diabetic status and lifestyle factors of habitual smoking, exercise and healthy eating participation. Secondary outcomes of interest include health related quality of life as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Stroke Specific Quality of Life scale and WONCA COOP Functional Health Status charts and cardiovascular fitness as measured by a sub-maximal fitness test. A total of 144 patients, over 18 years of age with confirmed diagnosis of ischaemic stroke or TIA, will be recruited from Dublin community stroke services and two tertiary T.I.A clinics. Exclusion criteria will include oxygen dependence, unstable cardiac conditions, uncontrolled diabetes, major medical conditions, claudication, febrile illness, pregnancy or cognitive impairment. Participants will be block-statified, randomly allocated to one of two groups using a pre-prepared computer generated randomisation schedule. Both groups will receive a two hour education class on risk reduction post stroke. The

  2. MRED: A New Adaptive Active Queue Management Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGMing; WUChunming; ZHUMiaoliang

    2004-01-01

    To address the problems of TCP (Transport control protocol) end-to-end congestion control mechanism, the IETF (Internet engineering task force) advocates deploying active queue management mechanisms in the network. RED is a popular AQM algorithm. It uses average queue size to detect the incipient network congestion. RED can effectively resolve the problems of traditional Drop-Tail. However, there are still some problems with RED. RED is too sensitive to its parameters and the changes of the number of active TCP connections. On the other hand, the congestion notification sending rate of RED algorithm is determined by maxp and the value of maxp is fixed. As a result, these will lead to queue size oscillation which causes queuing delay and jitter. This paper proposes a new adaptive AQM algorithm named “MRED”(Modified RED). Our goal is to stabilized the queue size in a wide variety of traffic scenarios. MRED can adjust the value of maxp to the changes of the traffic load so that the congestion notification can be sent to sufficient TCP sources to mitigate the congestion level. Simulation results indicate that MRED can effectively avoid the queue overfiow and stabilize the queue occupation independent of the number of active TCP connections thus resulting in a more predictable packet delay in the network.

  3. A pilot randomized trial of technology-assisted goal setting to improve physical activity among primary care patients with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Devin M; Palmisano, Joseph; Lin, Jenny J

    2016-12-01

    Lifestyle behavior changes can prevent progression of prediabetes to diabetes but providers often are not able to effectively counsel about preventive lifestyle changes. We developed and pilot tested the Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting (ADAPT) program to enhance primary care providers' counseling about behavior change for patients with prediabetes. Primary care providers in two urban academic practices and their patients with prediabetes were recruited to participate in the ADAPT study, an unblinded randomized pragmatic trial to test the effectiveness of the ADAPT program, including a streamlined electronic medical record-based goal setting tool. Providers were randomized to intervention or control arms; eligible patients whose providers were in the intervention arm received the ADAPT program. Physical activity (the primary outcome) was measured using pedometers, and data were gathered about patients' diet, weight and glycemic control. A total of 54 patients were randomized and analyzed as part of the 6-month ADAPT study (2010-2012, New York, NY). Those in the intervention group showed an increase total daily steps compared to those in the control group (+ 1418 vs - 598, p = 0.007) at 6 months. There was also a trend towards weight loss in the intervention compared to the control group (- 1.0 lbs. vs. 3.0 lbs., p = 0.11), although no change in glycemic control. The ADAPT study is among the first to use standard electronic medical record tools to embed goal setting into realistic primary care workflows and to demonstrate a significant improvement in prediabetes patients' physical activity.

  4. A pilot randomized trial of technology-assisted goal setting to improve physical activity among primary care patients with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Devin M; Palmisano, Joseph; Lin, Jenny J

    2016-12-01

    Lifestyle behavior changes can prevent progression of prediabetes to diabetes but providers often are not able to effectively counsel about preventive lifestyle changes. We developed and pilot tested the Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting (ADAPT) program to enhance primary care providers' counseling about behavior change for patients with prediabetes. Primary care providers in two urban academic practices and their patients with prediabetes were recruited to participate in the ADAPT study, an unblinded randomized pragmatic trial to test the effectiveness of the ADAPT program, including a streamlined electronic medical record-based goal setting tool. Providers were randomized to intervention or control arms; eligible patients whose providers were in the intervention arm received the ADAPT program. Physical activity (the primary outcome) was measured using pedometers, and data were gathered about patients' diet, weight and glycemic control. A total of 54 patients were randomized and analyzed as part of the 6-month ADAPT study (2010-2012, New York, NY). Those in the intervention group showed an increase total daily steps compared to those in the control group (+ 1418 vs - 598, p = 0.007) at 6 months. There was also a trend towards weight loss in the intervention compared to the control group (- 1.0 lbs. vs. 3.0 lbs., p = 0.11), although no change in glycemic control. The ADAPT study is among the first to use standard electronic medical record tools to embed goal setting into realistic primary care workflows and to demonstrate a significant improvement in prediabetes patients' physical activity. PMID:27413670

  5. Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trials Education Program for African American and Latina/o Community Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Debra J; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Riley, Natasha E; Behar, Alma I; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-08-01

    The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was chosen for adaptation because it was perceived to fit the CORRECT model of innovation (credible, observable, relevant, relatively advantageous, easy to understand, compatible, and testable) and because of the potential to customize any components not identified as core, allowing them to be revised for cultural and linguistic alignment in New York City. Most of the 143 community participants (76.2%) were female; most (54.6%) were older than 59 years. More than half (78.3%) preferred to speak English or were bilingual in English and Spanish. A large proportion (41.3%) had not completed high school. Knowledge and perceived benefits and barriers regarding CCT showed small, though statistically significant, increases. There were no statistically significant group differences for changes in mean knowledge, perceived benefits, or perceived barriers when examined by ethnicity, education level, language, or other included sociodemographic variables. However, a small, but statistically significant difference in perceived barriers was observed when examined by country of origin, with the foreign born score worsening 0.08 points (SD = 0.47, p = .007) on the 5-point Likert-type scale administered posteducation compared to preeducation. Participants' open-ended comments demonstrated the acceptability of the topic and intervention. This adaptation resulted in an intervention with the potential to educate African American and Latina/o general community members in a new geographic region about the purpose, methods, and benefits of CCTs. PMID:26493870

  6. Brief culturally adapted CBT for psychosis (CaCBTp): A randomized controlled trial from a low income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Farooq; Saeed, Sofiya; Irfan, Muhammad; Kiran, Tayyeba; Mehmood, Nasir; Gul, Mirrat; Munshi, Tariq; Ahmad, Sohail; Kazmi, Ajmal; Husain, Nusrat; Farooq, Saeed; Ayub, Muhammad; Kingdon, David

    2015-05-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of Culturally adapted CBT for psychosis in Low And Middle Income Countries (LAMIC) is limited. Therefore, brief Culturally adapted CBT for psychosis (CaCBTp) targeted at symptoms of schizophrenia for outpatients plus treatment as usual (TAU) is compared with TAU. A total of 116 participants with schizophrenia were recruited from 2 hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, and randomized into two groups with 1:1 allocation (CaCBTp plus TAU=59, TAU=57). A brief version of CaCBTp (6 individual sessions with the involvement of main carer, plus one session for the family) was provided over 4months. Psychopathology was measured using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale of Schizophrenia (PANSS), Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS), and the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI) at baseline and end of therapy. Participants in treatment group, showed statistically significant improvement in all measures of psychopathology at the end of the study compared with control group. Participants in treatment group showed statistically significant improvement in Positive Symptoms (PANSS, Positive Symptoms Subscale; p=0.000), Negative Symptoms (PANSS, Negative Symptoms subscales; p=0.000), Delusions (PSYRATS, Delusions Subscale; p=0.000), Hallucinations (PSYRATS, Hallucination Subscale; p=0.000) and Insight (SAI; p=0.007). The results suggest that brief, Culturally adapted CBT for psychosis can be an effective treatment when provided in combination with TAU, for patients with schizophrenia in a LAMIC setting. This is the first trial of CBT for psychosis from outside the western world. These findings need replicating in other low and middle income countries.

  7. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: Cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Karen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT aims to determine the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents. The intervention, conducted with parents over the infant's first 18 months of life, will use existing social networks (first-time parent's groups and an anticipatory guidance framework focusing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behaviours, and reduced sedentary behaviours in infancy. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised controlled trial, with first-time parent groups as the unit of randomisation, will be conducted with a sample of 600 first-time parents and their newborn children who attend the first-time parents' group at Maternal and Child Health Centres. Using a two-stage sampling process, local government areas in Victoria, Australia will be randomly selected at the first stage. At the second stage, a proportional sample of first-time parent groups within selected local government areas will be randomly selected and invited to participate. Informed consent will be obtained and groups will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Discussion The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge this will be the first randomised trial internationally to demonstrate whether an early health promotion program delivered to first-time parents in their existing social groups

  8. Adaptive active control of periodic vibration using maglev actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fengyan; Sun, Hongling; Li, Xiaodong

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, active control of periodic vibration is implemented using maglev actuators which exhibit inherent nonlinear behaviors. A multi-channel feedforward control algorithm is proposed to solve these nonlinear problems, in which maglev actuators are treated as single-input-single-output systems with unknown time-varying nonlinearities. A radial basis function network is used by the algorithm as its controller, whose parameters are adapted only with the model of the linear system in the secondary path. Compared with the strategies in the conventional magnetic-levitation system control as well as nonlinear active noise/vibration control, the proposed algorithm has the advantage that the nonlinear modeling procedure of maglev actuators and the usage of displacement sensors could be both avoided. Numerical simulations and real-time experiments are carried out based on a multiple-degree-of-freedom vibration isolation system. The results show that the proposed algorithm not only could efficiently compensate for the actuators' time-varying nonlinearities, but also has the ability to greatly attenuate the energy of periodic vibration.

  9. Adaptation of active tone in the mouse descending thoracic aorta under acute changes in loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtada, S-I; Lewin, S; Arner, A; Humphrey, J D

    2016-06-01

    Arteries can adapt to sustained changes in blood pressure and flow, and it is thought that these adaptive processes often begin with an altered smooth muscle cell activity that precedes any detectable changes in the passive wall components. Yet, due to the intrinsic coupling between the active and passive properties of the arterial wall, it has been difficult to delineate the adaptive contributions of active smooth muscle. To address this need, we used a novel experimental-computational approach to quantify adaptive functions of active smooth muscle in arterial rings excised from the proximal descending thoracic aorta of mice and subjected to short-term sustained circumferential stretches while stimulated with various agonists. A new mathematical model of the adaptive processes was derived and fit to data to describe and predict the effects of active tone adaptation. It was found that active tone was maintained when the artery was adapted close to the optimal stretch for maximal active force production, but it was reduced when adapted below the optimal stretch; there was no significant change in passive behavior in either case. Such active adaptations occurred only upon smooth muscle stimulation with phenylephrine, however, not stimulation with KCl or angiotensin II. Numerical simulations using the proposed model suggested further that active tone adaptation in vascular smooth muscle could play a stabilizing role for wall stress in large elastic arteries.

  10. Extraction of single-trial cortical beta oscillatory activities in EEG signals using empirical mode decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chi-Hsun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain oscillatory activities are stochastic and non-linearly dynamic, due to their non-phase-locked nature and inter-trial variability. Non-phase-locked rhythmic signals can vary from trial-to-trial dependent upon variations in a subject's performance and state, which may be linked to fluctuations in expectation, attention, arousal, and task strategy. Therefore, a method that permits the extraction of the oscillatory signal on a single-trial basis is important for the study of subtle brain dynamics, which can be used as probes to study neurophysiology in normal brain and pathophysiology in the diseased. Methods This paper presents an empirical mode decomposition (EMD-based spatiotemporal approach to extract neural oscillatory activities from multi-channel electroencephalograph (EEG data. The efficacy of this approach manifests in extracting single-trial post-movement beta activities when performing a right index-finger lifting task. In each single trial, an EEG epoch recorded at the channel of interest (CI was first separated into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs. Sensorimotor-related oscillatory activities were reconstructed from sensorimotor-related IMFs chosen by a spatial map matching process. Post-movement beta activities were acquired by band-pass filtering the sensorimotor-related oscillatory activities within a trial-specific beta band. Signal envelopes of post-movement beta activities were detected using amplitude modulation (AM method to obtain post-movement beta event-related synchronization (PM-bERS. The maximum amplitude in the PM-bERS within the post-movement period was subtracted by the mean amplitude of the reference period to find the single-trial beta rebound (BR. Results The results showed single-trial BRs computed by the current method were significantly higher than those obtained from conventional average method (P Conclusions The EMD-based method is effective for artefact removal and extracting

  11. Adaptation to short photoperiods augments circadian food anticipatory activity in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Sean P; Prendergast, Brian J

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Both the light-dark cycle and the timing of food intake can entrain circadian rhythms. Entrainment to food is mediated by a food entrainable circadian oscillator (FEO) that is formally and mechanistically separable from the hypothalamic light-entrainable oscillator. This experiment examined whether seasonal changes in day length affect the function of the FEO in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Hamsters housed in long (LD; 15 h light/day) or short (SD; 9h light/day) photoperiods were subjected to a timed-feeding schedule for 10 days, during which food was available only during a 5h interval of the light phase. Running wheel activity occurring within a 3h window immediately prior to actual or anticipated food delivery was operationally-defined as food anticipatory activity (FAA). After the timed-feeding interval, hamsters were fed ad libitum, and FAA was assessed 2 and 7 days later via probe trials of total food deprivation. During timed-feeding, all hamsters exhibited increases FAA, but FAA emerged more rapidly in SD; in probe trials, FAA was greater in magnitude and persistence in SD. Gonadectomy in LD did not induce the SD-like FAA phenotype, indicating that withdrawal of gonadal hormones is not sufficient to mediate the effects of photoperiod on FAA. Entrainment of the circadian system to light markedly affects the functional output of the FEO via gonadal hormone-independent mechanisms. Rapid emergence and persistent expression of FAA in SD may reflect a seasonal adaptation that directs behavior toward sources of nutrition with high temporal precision at times of year when food is scarce.

  12. Detrended fluctuation analysis and adaptive fractal analysis of stride time data in Parkinson's disease: stitching together short gait trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Marietta; Schubert, Patric; Liebherr, Magnus; Haas, Christian T

    2014-01-01

    Variability indicates motor control disturbances and is suitable to identify gait pathologies. It can be quantified by linear parameters (amplitude estimators) and more sophisticated nonlinear methods (structural information). Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is one method to measure structural information, e.g., from stride time series. Recently, an improved method, Adaptive Fractal Analysis (AFA), has been proposed. This method has not been applied to gait data before. Fractal scaling methods (FS) require long stride-to-stride data to obtain valid results. However, in clinical studies, it is not usual to measure a large number of strides (e.g., [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] strides). Amongst others, clinical gait analysis is limited due to short walkways, thus, FS seem to be inapplicable. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate FS under clinical conditions. Stride time data of five self-paced walking trials ([Formula: see text] strides each) of subjects with PD and a healthy control group (CG) was measured. To generate longer time series, stride time sequences were stitched together. The coefficient of variation (CV), fractal scaling exponents [Formula: see text] (DFA) and [Formula: see text] (AFA) were calculated. Two surrogate tests were performed: A) the whole time series was randomly shuffled; B) the single trials were randomly shuffled separately and afterwards stitched together. CV did not discriminate between PD and CG. However, significant differences between PD and CG were found concerning [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Surrogate version B yielded a higher mean squared error and empirical quantiles than version A. Hence, we conclude that the stitching procedure creates an artificial structure resulting in an overestimation of true [Formula: see text]. The method of stitching together sections of gait seems to be appropriate in order to distinguish between PD and CG with FS. It provides an approach to integrate FS as

  13. A new approach to physical activity maintenance: Rationale, design, and baseline data from the Keep Active Minnesota trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crain A Lauren

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since many individuals who initiate physical activity programs are highly likely to return to a sedentary lifestyle, innovative strategies to efforts to increase the number of physically active older adults who successfully maintain beneficial levels of PA for a substantial length of time are needed. Methods/Design The Keep Active Minnesota Trial is a randomized controlled trial of an interactive phone- and mail-based intervention to help 50–70 year old adults who have recently increased their physical activity level, maintain that activity level over a 24-month period in comparison to usual care. Baseline, 6, 12, and 24 month measurement occurred via phone surveys with kilocalories expended per week in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (CHAMPS Questionnaire as the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcomes include hypothesized mediators of physical activity change (e.g., physical activity enjoyment, self-efficacy, physical activity self-concept, body mass index, and depression. Seven day accelerometry data were collected on a sub-sample of participants at baseline and 24-month follow-up. Discussion The Keep Active Minnesota study offers an innovative approach to the perennial problem of physical activity relapse; by focusing explicitly on physical activity maintenance, the intervention holds considerable promise for modifying the typical relapse curve. Moreover, if shown to be efficacious, the use of phone- and mail-based intervention delivery offers potential for widespread dissemination. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00283452.

  14. Adaptive forecasting of aftershock activity after the main shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Takahiro; Ogata, Yosihiko; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-05-01

    Forecasting aftershock activity is useful to reduce seismic risks in the affected area after the main shock. The difficulties to forecast aftershocks are (i) a forecasting model should be tailored to each aftershock sequence because the statistical property varies greatly according to an individual aftershock sequence and (ii) the forecasting model has to be estimated from highly deficient data where a significant fraction of early small aftershocks are missing from seismic records. To overcome this difficulty, we have been developing a statistical model to deal with incompletely detected aftershocks, in which the detection rate of aftershocks is sequentially estimated in a state-space modeling approach. Our method enables us to robustly estimate the forecasting model of underlying aftershocks including not only observed aftershocks but also missing ones from the incomplete catalog. We show that the Omori-Utsu formula can be well estimated only from a few hours of the data, and then it can be revised by the epidemic type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model to adaptively forecast an aftershock sequence with the individual cascading feature as the data size increases in real-time. We demonstrate that how these estimated models can effectively forecast the aftershock activity. We also discuss how these models can be implemented in an operational system for earthquake forecasting. References: T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata, and K. Aihiara, "Forecasting large aftershocks within one day after the main shock", Scientific Reports, 3, 2218 (2013). T. Omi, Y. Ogata, Y. Hirata, and K. Aihiara, "Estimating the ETAS model from an early aftershock sequence", (In submission).

  15. Activity monitor intervention to promote physical activity of physicians-in-training: randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne N Thorndike

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physicians are expected to serve as role models for healthy lifestyles, but long work hours reduce time for healthy behaviors. A hospital-based physical activity intervention could improve physician health and increase counseling about exercise. METHODS: We conducted a two-phase intervention among 104 medical residents at a large hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. Phase 1 was a 6-week randomized controlled trial comparing daily steps of residents assigned to an activity monitor displaying feedback about steps and energy consumed (intervention or to a blinded monitor (control. Phase 2 immediately followed and was a 6-week non-randomized team steps competition in which all participants wore monitors with feedback. Phase 1 outcomes were: 1 median steps/day and 2 proportion of days activity monitor worn. The Phase 2 outcome was mean steps/day on days monitor worn (≥500 steps/day. Physiologic measurements were collected at baseline and study end. Median steps/day were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Mean steps were compared using repeated measures regression analyses. RESULTS: In Phase 1, intervention and control groups had similar activity (6369 vs. 6063 steps/day, p = 0.16 and compliance with wearing the monitor (77% vs. 77% of days, p = 0.73. In Phase 2 (team competition, residents recorded more steps/day than during Phase 1 (CONTROL: 7,971 vs. 7,567, p = 0.002; INTERVENTION: 7,832 vs. 7,739, p = 0.13. Mean compliance with wearing the activity monitor decreased for both groups during Phase 2 compared to Phase 1 (60% vs. 77%, p<0.001. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased (p = 0.004 and HDL cholesterol increased (p<0.001 among all participants at end of study compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Although the activity monitor intervention did not have a major impact on activity or health, the high participation rates of busy residents and modest changes in steps, blood pressure, and HDL suggest that more

  16. Feedback about more accurate versus less accurate trials: differential effects on self-confidence and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-06-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected byfeedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of two conditions: one group received feedback on the most accurate trials, whereas another group received feedback on the least accurate trials. On day 2, participants completed an anxiety questionnaire and performed a retention test. Shin conductance level, as a measure of arousal, was determined. The results indicated that feedback about more accurate trials resulted in more effective learning as well as increased self-confidence. Also, activation was a predictor of performance. PMID:22808705

  17. Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART in at risk individuals: A randomised double blind, sham controlled, longitudinal trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which mental and physical exercise may slow cognitive decline in adults with early signs of cognitive impairment is unknown. This article provides the rationale and methodology of the first trial to investigate the isolated and combined effects of cognitive training (CT and progressive resistance training (PRT on general cognitive function and functional independence in older adults with early cognitive impairment: Study of Mental and Regular Training (SMART. Our secondary aim is to quantify the differential adaptations to these interventions in terms of brain morphology and function, cardiovascular and metabolic function, exercise capacity, psychological state and body composition, to identify the potential mechanisms of benefit and broader health status effects. Methods SMART is a double-blind randomized, double sham-controlled trial. One hundred and thirty-two community-dwelling volunteers will be recruited. Primary inclusion criteria are: at risk for cognitive decline as defined by neuropsychology assessment, low physical activity levels, stable disease, and age over 55 years. The two active interventions are computerized CT and whole body, high intensity PRT. The two sham interventions are educational videos and seated calisthenics. Participants are randomized into 1 of 4 supervised training groups (2 d/wk × 6 mo in a fully factorial design. Primary outcomes measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months are the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog, neuropsychological test scores, and Bayer Informant Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (B-IADLs. Secondary outcomes are psychological well-being, quality of life, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function, body composition, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and anabolic/neurotrophic hormones, and brain morphology and function via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (fMRS. Discussion SMART will provide a novel evaluation of the

  18. Perspectives on the Contribution of Social Science to Adapted Physical Activity: Looking Forward, Looking Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causgrove Dunn, Janice; Cairney, John; Zimmer, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we reflect on the contributions of the social sciences to the field of adapted physical activity by examining the theories and methods that have been adopted from the social science disciplines. To broaden our perspective on adapted physical activity and provide new avenues for theoretical and empirical exploration, we discuss and…

  19. Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y. (2009). Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling. Presentation at workshop "Adapting Activities Modeled by CSCL Scripts" of the 8th International Conference “Computer Supported Collaborative Learning” (CSCL’09). June, 8-13, 2009, Rhodes, Greece.

  20. Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y. (2009). Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling. Paper presented at workshop "Adapting Activities Modeled by CSCL Scripts" of the 8th International Conference “Computer Supported Collaborative Learning” (CSCL’09). June, 8-13, 2009, Rhodes, Greece.

  1. The Brave New World of clinical cancer research: Adaptive biomarker-driven trials integrating clinical practice with clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Donald A

    2015-05-01

    Clinical trials are the final links in the chains of knowledge and for determining the roles of therapeutic advances. Unfortunately, in an important sense they are the weakest links. This article describes two designs that are being explored today: platform trials and basket trials. Both are attempting to merge clinical research and clinical practice.

  2. Efficacy of GP referral of insufficiently active patients for expert physical activity counseling: protocol for a pragmatic randomized trial (The NewCOACH trial)

    OpenAIRE

    James, Erica L.; Ewald, Ben; Johnson, Natalie; Brown, Wendy; Stacey, Fiona G; McElduff, Patrick; Booth, Angela; Yang, Fan; Hespe, Charlotte; Ronald C Plotnikoff

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is fourth in the list of risk factors for global mortality. General practitioners are well placed to offer physical activity counseling but insufficient time is a barrier. Although referral to an exercise specialist is an alternative, in Australia, these allied health professionals are only publicly funded to provide face-to-face counseling to patients who have an existing chronic illness. Accordingly, this trial aims to determine the efficacy of GP referral of ...

  3. Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT: A cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of an activity intervention in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenz Dorothea

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and motor skills acquisition are of high importance for health-related prevention and a normal development in childhood. However, few intervention studies exist in preschool children focussing on an increase in physical activity and motor skills. Proof of positive effects is available but not consistent. Methods/Design The design, curriculum, and evaluation strategy of a cluster randomised intervention study in preschool children are described in this manuscript. In the Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT, 41 of 131 kindergartens of Wuerzburg and Kitzingen, Germany, were randomised into an intervention and a control group by a random number table stratified for the location of the kindergarten in an urban (more than 20.000 inhabitants or rural area. The aims of the intervention were to increase physical activity and motor skills in the participating children, and to reduce health risk factors as well as media use. The intervention was designed to involve children, parents and teachers, and lasted one academic year. It contained daily 30-min sessions of physical education in kindergarten based on a holistic pedagogic approach termed the "early psychomotor education". The sessions were instructed by kindergarten teachers under regular supervision by the research team. Parents were actively involved by physical activity homework cards. The kindergarten teachers were trained in workshops and during the supervision. Assessments were performed at baseline, 3-5 months into the intervention, at the end of the intervention and 2-4 months after the intervention. The primary outcomes of the study are increases in physical activity (accelerometry and in motor skills performance (composite score of obstacle course, standing long jump, balancing on one foot, jumping sidewise to and fro between baseline and the two assessments during the intervention. Secondary outcomes include decreases in body

  4. Child Centred Approach to Climate Change and Health Adaptation through Schools in Bangladesh: A Cluster Randomised Intervention Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Iqbal Kabir

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. People are getting educated at different levels on how to deal with potential impacts. One such educational mode was the preparation of a school manual, for high school students on climate change and health protection endorsed by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board, which is based on a 2008 World Health Organization manual. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the manual in increasing the knowledge level of the school children about climate change and health adaptation.This cluster randomized intervention trial involved 60 schools throughout Bangladesh, with 3293 secondary school students participating. School upazilas (sub-districts were randomised into intervention and control groups, and two schools from each upazila were randomly selected. All year seven students from both groups of schools sat for a pre-test of 30 short questions of binary response. A total of 1515 students from 30 intervention schools received the intervention through classroom training based on the school manual and 1778 students of the 30 control schools did not get the manual but a leaflet on climate change and health issues. Six months later, a post-intervention test of the same questionnaire used in the pre-test was performed at both intervention and control schools. The pre and post test scores were analysed along with the demographic data by using random effects model.None of the various school level and student level variables were significantly different between the control and intervention group. However, the intervention group had a 17.42% (95% CI: 14.45 to 20.38, P = <0.001 higher score in the post-test after adjusting for pre-test score and other covariates in a multi-level linear regression model.These results suggest that school-based intervention for climate change and health adaptation is effective for increasing the knowledge level of school children on

  5. Physical Activity, Function, and Quality of Life: Design and Methods of the FlexToBa™ Trial

    OpenAIRE

    McAuley, Edward; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; White, Siobhan M.; Mailey, Emily L; Szabo, Amanda N.; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Fanning, Jason; Motl, Robert W.; Rosengren, Karl; Estabrooks, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Flexibility, Toning, and Balance (FlexToBa™) Trial is a two-armed randomized controlled trial which will contrast the effects of a DVD-delivered, home-based, physical activity intervention and a Healthy Aging attention control condition on physical activity, functional performance, functional limitations, and quality of life in low active, older adults. This innovative trial will recruit 300 participants across central Illinois who will be randomized into the intervention arm or control a...

  6. Alcohol-Adapted Anger Management Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Therapy for Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walitzer, Kimberly S; Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Shyhalla, Kathleen

    2015-12-01

    A randomized controlled trial for an innovative alcohol-adapted anger management treatment (AM) for outpatient alcohol dependent individuals scoring moderate or above on anger is described. AM treatment outcomes were compared to those of an empirically-supported intervention, Alcoholics Anonymous Facilitation treatment (AAF). Clients in AM, relative to clients in AAF, were hypothesized to have greater improvement in anger and anger-related cognitions and lesser AA involvement during the 6-month follow-up. Anger-related variables were hypothesized to be stronger predictors of improved alcohol outcomes in the AM treatment condition and AA involvement was hypothesized to be a stronger predictor of alcohol outcomes in the AAF treatment group. Seventy-six alcohol dependent men and women were randomly assigned to treatment condition and followed for 6 months after treatment end. Both AM and AAF treatments were followed by significant reductions in heavy drinking days, alcohol consequences, anger, and maladaptive anger-related thoughts and increases in abstinence and self-confidence regarding not drinking to anger-related triggers. Treatment with AAF was associated with greater AA involvement relative to treatment with AM. Changes in anger and AA involvement were predictive of posttreatment alcohol outcomes for both treatments. Change in trait anger was a stronger predictor of posttreatment alcohol consequences for AM than for AAF clients; during-treatment AA meeting attendance was a stronger predictor of posttreatment heavy drinking and alcohol consequences for AAF than for AM clients. Anger-related constructs and drinking triggers should be foci in treatment of alcohol dependence for anger-involved clients.

  7. Consumption of Sutherlandia frutescens by HIV-Seropositive South African Adults: An Adaptive Double-Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Wilson

    Full Text Available Sutherlandia frutescens (L. R. Br. is widely used as an over the counter complementary medicine and in traditional medications by HIV seropositive adults living in South Africa; however the plant's safety has not been objectively studied. An adaptive two-stage randomized double-blind placebo controlled study was used to evaluate the safety of consuming dried S. frutescens by HIV seropositive adults with CD4 T-lymphocyte count of >350 cells/μL.In Stage 1 56 participants were randomized to S. frutescens 400, 800 or 1,200 mg twice daily or matching placebo for 24 weeks. In Stage 2 77 additional participants were randomized to either 1,200 mg S. frutescens or placebo. In the final analysis data from Stage 1 and Stage 2 were combined such that 107 participants were analysed (54 in the S. frutescens 1,200 mg arm and 53 in the placebo arm.S. frutescens did not change HIV viral load, and CD4 T-lymphocyte count was similar in the two arms at 24 weeks; however, mean and total burden of infection (BOI; defined as days of infection-related events in each participant was greater in the S. frutescens arm: mean (SD 5.0 (5.5 vs. 9.0 (12.7 days (p = 0.045, attributed to two tuberculosis cases in subjects taking isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT.A possible interaction between S. frutescens and IPT needs further evaluation, and may presage antagonistic interactions with other herbs having similar biochemical (antioxidant properties. No other safety issues relating to consumption of S. frutescens in this cohort were identified.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00549523.

  8. Adaptive Relay Activation in the Network Coding Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    of the channel states. Furthermore, measurements using our Raspberry Pi testbed demonstrate that our adaptive approach outperforms the previous mechanism in real channel conditions, with only 1% overhead due to linearly dependent coded packets compared to the 11% overhead of the standard PlayNCool approach....

  9. Recruitment and enrollment of caregivers for a lifestyle physical activity clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etkin, Caryn D; Farran, Carol J; Barnes, Lisa L; Shah, Raj C

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the efficacy of the recruitment framework used for a clinical trial with sedentary family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease. An integrated social marketing approach with principles of community-based participatory research provided the theoretical framework for organizing recruitment activities. This multi-pronged approach meant that caregivers were identified from a range of geographic locations and numerous sources including a federally funded Alzheimer's disease center, health care providers, community based and senior organizations, and broad-based media. Study enrollment projections were exceeded by 11% and resulted in enrolling n = 211 caregivers into this clinical trial. We conclude that social marketing and community-based approaches provide a solid foundation for organizing recruitment activities for clinical trials with older adults. PMID:22083931

  10. Improving aerobic capacity through active videogames: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luiz de Brito-Gomes; Raphael José Perrier-Melo; Erik Anders Wikstrom; Manoel da Cunha Costa

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe rate of peak workload improvement between different types of Active Video Games (AVG) in young sedentary adults was investigated. Aerobic capacity improvement after a 6-week intervention between AVG types was also compared. Twenty participants, after baseline assessments, were randomized into one of three parallel groups: structured AVG (n= 6), unstructured AVG (n= 7) and a control group (n= 7). Participants played their respective AVG 3 times a week for 6-weeks (30 minutes-sessio...

  11. Improving aerobic capacity through active videogames: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz de Brito-Gomes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe rate of peak workload improvement between different types of Active Video Games (AVG in young sedentary adults was investigated. Aerobic capacity improvement after a 6-week intervention between AVG types was also compared. Twenty participants, after baseline assessments, were randomized into one of three parallel groups: structured AVG (n= 6, unstructured AVG (n= 7 and a control group (n= 7. Participants played their respective AVG 3 times a week for 6-weeks (30 minutes-session. The control group maintained normal activities. Both structured and unstructured AVG improved peak workload after four weeks but only the structured group maintained this improvement through week five and six. Aerobic capacity improved in the unstructured (Pre: 36.0 ± 5.2ml.kg.min-¹,Post: 39.7 ± 4.9ml.kg.min-¹, p = .038 and structured AVG (Pre: 39.0 ± 5.9ml.kg.min-¹,Post: 47.8 ± 4.3ml.kg.min-¹, p = .006 groups. Structured AVG provide greater health benefits to aerobic capacity and peak workload in young sedentary but otherwise healthy males relative to unstructured AVG.

  12. A Controlled Trial of Active versus Passive Learning Strategies in a Large Group Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet, Paul; Morgan, Robert O.; O'Malley, Kimberly; Moran, Betty Jeanne; Richards, Boyd F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of active and didactic teaching strategies on learning- and process-oriented outcomes. Design: Controlled trial. Setting: After-hours residents' teaching session. Participants: Family and Community Medicine, Internal Medicine, and Pediatrics residents at two academic medical institutions. Interventions: We…

  13. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. van der Zwan; W. de Vente; A.C. Huizink; S.M. Bögels; E.I. de Bruin

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing

  14. Reporting disease activity in clinical trials of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: EULAR/ACR collaborative recommendations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aletaha, D.; Landewe, R.B.; Karonitsch, T.; Bathon, J.; Boers, M.; Bombardier, C.; Bombardieri, S.; Choi, H.; Combe, B.; Dougados, M.; Emery, P.; Gomez-Reino, J.; Keystone, E.C.; Koch, G.; Kvien, T.K.; Martin-Mola, E.; Matucci-Cerinic, M.; Michaud, K.; O'Dell, J.; Paulus, H.; Pincus, T.; Richards, P.; Simon, L.; Siegel, J.; Smolen, J.S.; Sokka, T.; Strand, V.; Tugwell, P.; Heijde, D. van der; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Vlad, S.; Vollenhoven, R. van; Ward, M.; Weinblatt, M.; Wells, G.A.; White, B.; Wolfe, F.; Zhang, B.; Zink, A.; Felson, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make recommendations on how to report disease activity in clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) endorsed by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: The project followed the EULAR standardised operating procedures, w

  15. ExStroke Pilot Trial of the effect of repeated instructions to improve physical activity after ischaemic stroke: a multinational randomised controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Gudrun; Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Zeng, Xianrong;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if repeated verbal instructions about physical activity to patients with ischaemic stroke could increase long term physical activity. DESIGN: Multicentre, multinational, randomised clinical trial with masked outcome assessment. SETTING: Stroke units in Denmark, China...... infarction, or falls and fractures. CONCLUSION: Repeated encouragement and verbal instruction in being physically active did not lead to a significant increase in physical activity measured by the PASE score. More intensive strategies seem to be needed to promote physical activity after ischaemic stroke...

  16. Meursault on Trial: Multi-Skills Activities for Teaching "L'Etranger."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly, Lyle R.; Buscaglia, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a unit of activities based on a reading of Albert Camus'""L'Etranger." The activities, which can be adapted to various levels and abilities in an intermediate French class, incorporate reading, writing, listening and speaking skills. Sample materials and a bibliography are appended. (AM)

  17. A trial-by-trial analysis reveals more intense physical activity is associated with better cognitive control performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, T A; Krafft, C E; Iosif, A M; Schweitzer, J B

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivity is a key symptom and the most observable manifestation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The over-activity associated with ADHD can cause specific challenges in academic settings, extracurricular activities and social relationships. Cognitive control challenges are also well established in ADHD. The current study included 44 children between the ages of 10 and 17 diagnosed with ADHD or who were typically developing (TD), all of whom had no psychiatric co-morbidity or significant learning disorders. Participants wore an actometer on their ankle while performing a flanker paradigm in order to objectively measure their rates of activity in association with cognitive control. Analyses assessed the relationship between frequency and intensity of activity to task accuracy on a trial-by-trial basis. A significant interaction effect between group and performance revealed that more intense movement was associated with better performance in the ADHD group but not in the TD group. The ADHD group demonstrated more intense activity than the TD group during correct (but not error) trials. Within-group, children with ADHD generated higher intensity movements in their correct trials compared to their error trials, whereas the TD group did not demonstrate any within-group differences. These findings suggest that excessive motoric activity associated with clinically significant ADHD symptoms may reflect compensatory efforts to modulate attention and alertness. Future research should systematically explore the relationship between motion in ADHD and how it might be used to improve cognitive performance.

  18. Use of the foil activation method with arbitrary trial functions to determine neutron energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Spectra have been measured by the foil activation method in thirteen different environments in and around the Sandia Pulsed Reactor (SPR-III), the White Sands Missile Range FBR, and the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR). The unfolded spectra were obtained by using the SANDII code in a manner which was not dependent on the initial trial. This altered technique is, therefore, better suited for the determination of spectra in environments that are difficult to predict by calculation, and it tends to reveal features that may be biased out by the use of standard trial functions

  19. Inactive experiments for advanced separation processes prior to high activity trials in ATALANTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamet, Jean; Lanoe, Jean-Yves; Rivalier, Patrick; Borda, Gilles [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), CEA/DEN/VRH/DTEC/SGCS, Centre de Marcoule - BP 17171, 302007 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Many trials have been performed in ATALANTE's shielded cells to demonstrate the technical feasibility of processes involving minor actinide separation. They required developments of new extractors as well as a step by step procedure have been used to lower the risks of malfunction during high active operation. The design of the extractors developed by Cea has included shielded cells restrictions, miniaturization to lower the quantity of high active material and wastes and the care for being representative of industrial equipment. After individual shake down inactive tests, with actual phases, each process experiment scheduled in ATALANTE has been tested at G1 Facility in Marcoule. The objective was to reproduce as much as possible all the equipment chosen for active tests. This procedure has demonstrated its efficiency to detect many problems that would have heavy impact if they have been discovered during active trials. It was also used for operators'training. (authors)

  20. Length adaptation of smooth muscle contractile filaments in response to sustained activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhand, Jonas; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2016-05-21

    Airway and bladder smooth muscles are known to undergo length adaptation under sustained contraction. This adaptation process entails a remodelling of the intracellular actin and myosin filaments which shifts the peak of the active force-length curve towards the current length. Smooth muscles are therefore able to generate the maximum force over a wide range of lengths. In contrast, length adaptation of vascular smooth muscle has attracted very little attention and only a handful of studies have been reported. Although their results are conflicting on the existence of a length adaptation process in vascular smooth muscle, it seems that, at least, peripheral arteries and arterioles undergo such adaptation. This is of interest since peripheral vessels are responsible for pressure regulation, and a length adaptation will affect the function of the cardiovascular system. It has, e.g., been suggested that the inward remodelling of resistance vessels associated with hypertension disorders may be related to smooth muscle adaptation. In this study we develop a continuum mechanical model for vascular smooth muscle length adaptation by assuming that the muscle cells remodel the actomyosin network such that the peak of the active stress-stretch curve is shifted towards the operating point. The model is specialised to hamster cheek pouch arterioles and the simulated response to stepwise length changes under contraction. The results show that the model is able to recover the salient features of length adaptation reported in the literature.

  1. Application of Adaptive Filters to Active Noise Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Bingnan; LI Chuanguang

    2001-01-01

    A modified LMS algorithm for noise-control is suggested after a mathematical model ofsound-cancellation is established, on the basis of thesound wave interference principle and the physicalmodel of progressive waves in a duct. Its applicationin controlling noise with the frequency range from 100to 800 Hz can be implemented by using the adaptivedigital signal processing technique. The experimentson a pink noise, a broadband noise and a noise takenfrom a tank were made, which show that there existsan attenuation of 11 dB at the frequency of 500 Hzor so, and that the proposed adaptive noise controltechnique is very effective and valid.

  2. A cluster-randomized controlled trial of strategies to increase adolescents’ physical activity and motivation during physical education lessons: the Motivating Active Learning in Physical Education (MALP trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenkranz Richard R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical activity (PA levels of many children and adolescents in Australia are currently insufficient to promote health benefits. Physical education (PE programs aim to promote PA and reach nearly all school-aged children, but PA levels within PE lessons are often low. PE teachers may influence children’s motivation to be physically active in PE lessons, but little is known about teacher strategies that effectively motivate children to participate in PA, and few intervention studies have examined motivational strategies in PE. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three motivational strategies, each based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT, on PA levels, and their hypothesized antecedents, during year 8 PE lessons. Methods/design This study employed a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Following a familiarization session, PA levels and hypothesized PA antecedents were measured during a baseline lesson and a post-intervention or control lesson. Teachers (n = 16 and their classes from five secondary schools in Sydney, Australia were randomly assigned into four blocks and instructed to provide one of four 20-min lesson teaching strategy conditions: (1 explaining the relevance of activities; (2 providing choice from PA options selected by the teacher; (3 providing equipment and free choice of activities; or (4 usual practice. The primary outcomes were lesson time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA, and motivation towards the lesson. Secondary outcomes were perceptions of teacher behavior, psychological needs satisfaction, and lesson time spent in sedentary behavior. PA and sedentary behavior were measured during baseline and post-intervention lessons with waist-mounted Actigraph GT3X accelerometers. Teacher behavior, psychological needs satisfaction, and motivation were assessed via questionnaires at the end of each lesson. Linear mixed-model analyses will be run on all outcomes, with students nested

  3. What Are the Health Benefits of Active Travel? A Systematic Review of Trials and Cohort Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lucinda E Saunders; Green, Judith M.; Petticrew, Mark P.; Rebecca Steinbach; Helen Roberts

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Increasing active travel (primarily walking and cycling) has been widely advocated for reducing obesity levels and achieving other population health benefits. However, the strength of evidence underpinning this strategy is unclear. This study aimed to assess the evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. METHODS The study design was a systematic review of (i) non-randomised and randomised controlled trials, and (ii) prospective observational studies examining...

  4. Aero-Effected Distributed Adaptive Control of Flexible Aircraft Using Active Bleed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research focuses on the development of a new adaptive control methodology for active control of wing aerodynamic shape to effect distributed...

  5. Adaptation of the Bath measures on disease activity and function in ankylosing spondylitis into Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Hansen, G O; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adaptation of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BASG), and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) for defining disease status in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and related diseases for use...

  6. A Web-Based, Social Networking Physical Activity Intervention for Insufficiently Active Adults Delivered via Facebook App: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Monika; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Plotnikoff, Ron; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Thomas, Samantha; Nelson-Field, Karen; Olds, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Online social networks offer considerable potential for delivery of socially influential health behavior change interventions. Objective To determine the efficacy, engagement, and feasibility of an online social networking physical activity intervention with pedometers delivered via Facebook app. Methods A total of 110 adults with a mean age of 35.6 years (SD 12.4) were recruited online in teams of 3 to 8 friends. Teams were randomly allocated to receive access to a 50-day online social networking physical activity intervention which included self-monitoring, social elements, and pedometers (“Active Team” Facebook app; n=51 individuals, 12 teams) or a wait-listed control condition (n=59 individuals, 13 teams). Assessments were undertaken online at baseline, 8 weeks, and 20 weeks. The primary outcome measure was self-reported weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes were weekly walking, vigorous physical activity time, moderate physical activity time, overall quality of life, and mental health quality of life. Analyses were undertaken using random-effects mixed modeling, accounting for potential clustering at the team level. Usage statistics were reported descriptively to determine engagement and feasibility. Results At the 8-week follow-up, the intervention participants had significantly increased their total weekly MVPA by 135 minutes relative to the control group (P=.03), due primarily to increases in walking time (155 min/week increase relative to controls, Psocial networking physical activity intervention with pedometers can produce sizable short-term physical activity changes. Future work is needed to determine how to maintain behavior change in the longer term, how to reach at-need populations, and how to disseminate such interventions on a mass scale. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12614000488606; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/Trial

  7. Adaptive/Nonadaptive Proton Radiation Planning and Outcomes in a Phase II Trial for Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koay, Eugene J.; Lege, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To analyze dosimetric variables and outcomes after adaptive replanning of radiation therapy during concurrent high-dose protons and chemotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Nine of 44 patients with stage III NSCLC in a prospective phase II trial of concurrent paclitaxel/carboplatin with proton radiation [74 Gy(RBE) in 37 fractions] had modifications to their original treatment plans after re-evaluation revealed changes that would compromise coverage of the target volume or violate dose constraints; plans for the other 35 patients were not changed. We compared patients with adaptive plans with those with nonadaptive plans in terms of dosimetry and outcomes. Results: At a median follow-up of 21.2 months (median overall survival, 29.6 months), no differences were found in local, regional, or distant failure or overall survival between groups. Adaptive planning was used more often for large tumors that shrank to a greater extent (median, 107.1 cm{sup 3} adaptive and 86.4 cm{sup 3} nonadaptive; median changes in volume, 25.3% adaptive and 1.2% nonadaptive; P<.01). The median number of fractions delivered using adaptive planning was 13 (range, 4-22). Adaptive planning generally improved sparing of the esophagus (median absolute decrease in V{sub 70}, 1.8%; range, 0%-22.9%) and spinal cord (median absolute change in maximum dose, 3.7 Gy; range, 0-13.8 Gy). Without adaptive replanning, target coverage would have been compromised in 2 cases (57% and 82% coverage without adaptation vs 100% for both with adaptation); neither patient experienced local failure. Radiation-related grade 3 toxicity rates were similar between groups. Conclusions: Adaptive planning can reduce normal tissue doses and prevent target misses, particularly for patients with large tumors that shrink substantially during therapy. Adaptive plans seem to have acceptable toxicity and achieve similar local, regional, and distant control and overall

  8. Increasing efficacy of primary care-based counseling for diabetes prevention: Rationale and design of the ADAPT (Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Devin M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that lifestyle behavior changes are most effective to prevent onset of diabetes in high-risk patients. Primary care providers are charged with encouraging behavior change among their patients at risk for diabetes, yet the practice environment and training in primary care often do not support effective provider counseling. The goal of this study is to develop an electronic health record-embedded tool to facilitate shared patient-provider goal setting to promote behavioral change and prevent diabetes. Methods The ADAPT (Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting trial leverages an innovative system that integrates evidence-based interventions for behavioral change with already-existing technology to enhance primary care providers' effectiveness to counsel about lifestyle behavior changes. Using principles of behavior change theory, the multidisciplinary design team utilized in-depth interviews and in vivo usability testing to produce a prototype diabetes prevention counseling system embedded in the electronic health record. Results The core element of the tool is a streamlined, shared goal-setting module within the electronic health record system. The team then conducted a series of innovative, "near-live" usability testing simulations to refine the tool and enhance workflow integration. The system also incorporates a pre-encounter survey to elicit patients' behavior-change goals to help tailor patient-provider goal setting during the clinical encounter and to encourage shared decision making. Lastly, the patients interact with a website that collects their longitudinal behavior data and allows them to visualize their progress over time and compare their progress with other study members. The finalized ADAPT system is now being piloted in a small randomized control trial of providers using the system with prediabetes patients over a six-month period. Conclusions The ADAPT system combines the influential

  9. Variability of single trial brain activation predicts fluctuations in reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Stephan; Banaschewski, Tobias; Roessner, Veit; Klein, Christoph; Rietschel, Marcella; Feige, Bernd; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Brain activation stability is crucial to understanding attention lapses. EEG methods could provide excellent markers to assess neuronal response variability with respect to temporal (intertrial coherence) and spatial variability (topographic consistency) as well as variations in activation intensity (low frequency variability of single trial global field power). We calculated intertrial coherence, topographic consistency and low frequency amplitude variability during target P300 in a continuous performance test in 263 15-year-olds from a cohort with psychosocial and biological risk factors. Topographic consistency and low frequency amplitude variability predicted reaction time fluctuations (RTSD) in a linear model. Higher RTSD was only associated with higher psychosocial adversity in the presence of the homozygous 6R-10R dopamine transporter haplotype. We propose that topographic variability of single trial P300 reflects noise as well as variability in evoked cortical activation patterns. Dopaminergic neuromodulation interacted with environmental and biological risk factors to predict behavioural reaction time variability.

  10. [Adaptation of acrylic resin dentures polymerized using various activation modes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamata, T; Inoue, Y; Hashimoto, K; Sugitou, S; Arakawa, H; Kurasawa, I

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the dimensional accuracy of maxillary dentures made using a conventional heat-activated PMMA resin, a pour resin, a visible light-activated resin, and a microwave-activated acrylic resin. Two simple methods for measuring dimensional accuracy were used: (1) weight of impression material entrapped between the base and master die and (2) measurement of the posterior border gap at five locations. The volume of space between the denture base and the master die was determined by (1) computation and (2) estimation. Statistical analysis (Bartlett, ANOVA and Tukey's Tests) supported the following conclusions: (1) all groups showed a processing contraction, most apparent from buccal flange to buccal flange, (2) the poorest fitting group was processed in a brass flask and a water bath at a temperature which rose from 70 to 100 degrees C, using a heat activated resin (Acron), (3) the visible light activated resin (Triad) produced dentures of intermediate accuracy, as did Acupac 20 when either heat or microwave activated, (4) the two best fitting groups were prepared from a chemically activated resin system using pressure at low heat (PER form), and the resin developed for microwave activation (Acron MC).

  11. Regulatory T Cell Responses in Participants with Type 1 Diabetes after a Single Dose of Interleukin-2: A Non-Randomised, Open Label, Adaptive Dose-Finding Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, John A.; Porter, Linsey; Smyth, Deborah J.; Rainbow, Daniel B.; Ferreira, Ricardo C.; Yang, Jennie H.; Bell, Charles J. M.; Schuilenburg, Helen; Challis, Ben; Clarke, Pamela; Coleman, Gillian; Dawson, Sarah; Goymer, Donna; Kennet, Jane; Brown, Judy; Greatorex, Jane; Goodfellow, Ian; Evans, Mark; Mander, Adrian P.; Bond, Simon; Wicker, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has an essential role in the expansion and function of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs reduce tissue damage by limiting the immune response following infection and regulate autoreactive CD4+ effector T cells (Teffs) to prevent autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). Genetic susceptibility to T1D causes alterations in the IL-2 pathway, a finding that supports Tregs as a cellular therapeutic target. Aldesleukin (Proleukin; recombinant human IL-2), which is administered at high doses to activate the immune system in cancer immunotherapy, is now being repositioned to treat inflammatory and autoimmune disorders at lower doses by targeting Tregs. Methods and Findings To define the aldesleukin dose response for Tregs and to find doses that increase Tregs physiologically for treatment of T1D, a statistical and systematic approach was taken by analysing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single doses of subcutaneous aldesleukin in the Adaptive Study of IL-2 Dose on Regulatory T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes (DILT1D), a single centre, non-randomised, open label, adaptive dose-finding trial with 40 adult participants with recently diagnosed T1D. The primary endpoint was the maximum percentage increase in Tregs (defined as CD3+CD4+CD25highCD127low) from the baseline frequency in each participant measured over the 7 d following treatment. There was an initial learning phase with five pairs of participants, each pair receiving one of five pre-assigned single doses from 0.04 × 106 to 1.5 × 106 IU/m2, in order to model the dose-response curve. Results from each participant were then incorporated into interim statistical modelling to target the two doses most likely to induce 10% and 20% increases in Treg frequencies. Primary analysis of the evaluable population (n = 39) found that the optimal doses of aldesleukin to induce 10% and 20% increases in Tregs were 0.101 × 106 IU/m2 (standard error [SE] = 0.078, 95% CI = −0

  12. Two separate mechanisms of enforced viral replication balance innate and adaptive immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaabani, Namir; Khairnar, Vishal; Duhan, Vikas; Zhou, Fan; Tur, Rita Ferrer; Häussinger, Dieter; Recher, Mike; Tumanov, Alexei V; Hardt, Cornelia; Pinschewer, Daniel; Christen, Urs; Lang, Philipp A; Honke, Nadine; Lang, Karl S

    2016-02-01

    The induction of innate and adaptive immunity is essential for controlling viral infections. Limited or overwhelming innate immunity can negatively impair the adaptive immune response. Therefore, balancing innate immunity separately from activating the adaptive immune response would result in a better antiviral immune response. Recently, we demonstrated that Usp18-dependent replication of virus in secondary lymphatic organs contributes to activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Whether specific mechanisms can balance innate and adaptive immunity separately remains unknown. In this study, using lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and replication-deficient single-cycle LCMV vectors, we found that viral replication of the initial inoculum is essential for activating virus-specific CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, extracellular distribution of virus along the splenic conduits is necessary for inducing systemic levels of type I interferon (IFN-I). Although enforced virus replication is driven primarily by Usp18, B cell-derived lymphotoxin beta contributes to the extracellular distribution of virus along the splenic conduits. Therefore, lymphotoxin beta regulates IFN-I induction independently of CD8(+) T-cell activity. We found that two separate mechanisms act together in the spleen to guarantee amplification of virus during infection, thereby balancing the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system. PMID:26553386

  13. Active adaptive management for reintroduction of an animal population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Captive animals are frequently reintroduced to the wild in the face of uncertainty, but that uncertainty can often be reduced over the course of the reintroduction effort, providing the opportunity for adaptive management. One common uncertainty in reintroductions is the short-term survival rate of released adults (a release cost), an important factor because it can affect whether releasing adults or juveniles is better. Information about this rate can improve the success of the reintroduction program, but does the expected gain offset the costs of obtaining the information? I explored this question for reintroduction of the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) by framing the management question as a belief Markov decision process, characterizing uncertainty about release cost with 2 information state variables, and finding the solution using stochastic dynamic programming. For a reintroduction program of fixed length (e.g., 5 years of releases), the optimal policy in the final release year resembles the deterministic solution: release either all adults or all juveniles depending on whether the point estimate for the survival rate in question is above or below a specific threshold. But the optimal policy in the earlier release years 1) includes release of a mixture of juveniles and adults under some circumstances, and 2) recommends release of adults even when the point estimate of survival is much less than the deterministic threshold. These results show that in an iterated decision setting, the optimal decision in early years can be quite different from that in later years because of the value of learning. 

  14. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in active rheumatoid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, I A; Baylis, E M; Shipley, M E

    1982-07-31

    To confirm the findings of uncontrolled trials that methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPPT) is a safe treatment for active rheumatoid disease, a double-blind trial was conducted in which 20 patients with active rheumatoid disease were randomly allocated to receive an infusion of either 1 g methylprednisolone or placebo. Methylprednisolone produced significant improvement in all clinical variables measured, a benefit which was sustained for at least 6 weeks. The placebo produced only transient improvement in some of the clinical variables measured. when the 10 placebo groups patients were later given an infusion of 1 g methylprednisolone, they too showed significant clinical benefit. The methylprednisolone also gave rise to improvements in some haematological and biochemical variables. PMID:6124671

  15. Effect of dronabinol therapy on physical activity in anorexia nervosa: a randomised, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Alin; Gram, Bibi; Støving, René Klinkby

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The level of physical activity is inappropriately high in up to 80 % of the patients suffering of anorexia nervosa (AN), as a result of conscious efforts to lose weight, affect regulation and biological adaptive changes to starvation induced by hypothermia and neuroendocrine mechanisms. ...

  16. The integration effect of activity on adaptation of junior children.

    OpenAIRE

    Liasota T. I.

    2010-01-01

    The level of disease and activity of 6-7 years old children are shown. Their relation to indicator of physical state is presented. The indexes of a number of children and their parents that used to train sports and physical culture are shown in the article. It is proved that the influence of different factors on the child's health depends on the way of life. Healthy effects of specially organized form of moving activity strengthening child's health and rising up the viability. It is revealed ...

  17. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a very brief physical activity intervention delivered in NHS Health Checks (VBI Trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Joanna; Hardeman, Wendy; Pears, Sally; Vasconcelos, Joana C.; Prevost, A. Toby; Wilson, Ed; Sutton, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity interventions that are targeted at individuals can be effective in encouraging people to be more physically active. However, most such interventions are too long or complex and not scalable to the general population. This trial will test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a very brief physical activity intervention when delivered as part of preventative health checks in primary care (National Health Service (NHS) Health Check). Methods/design: The Very B...

  18. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zwan, van der, G.; Vente, de, W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; Bruin, de, B.

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and a...

  19. Effect of Roy’s Adaptation Model-Guided Education on Coping Strategies of the Veterans with Lower Extremities Amputation: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Zahra; Azarmi, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Any defect in the extremities of the body can affect different life aspects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Roy’s adaptation model-guided education on coping strategies of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. Methods: In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 veterans with lower extremities amputation referring to Kowsar Orthotics and Prosthetics Center of Veterans Clinic in Tehran, Iran were recruited using convenience method and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups in 2013-2014. Lazarus and Folkman coping strategies questionnaire was used to collect the data. After completing the questionnaires in both groups, maladaptive behaviours were determined in the intervention group and an education program based on Roy’s adaptation model was implemented. After 2 months, both groups completed the questionnaires again. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Independent T-test showed that the score of the dimensions of coping strategies did not have a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the pre-intervention stage (P>0.05). This test showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the post-intervention stage in terms of the scores of different dimensions of coping strategies (P>0.05), except in dimensions of social support seeking and positive appraisal (P>0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this research indicated that the Roy’s adaptation model-guided education improved the majority of coping strategies in veterans with lower extremities amputation. It is recommended that further interventions based on Roy’s adaptation model should be performed to improve the coping of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014081118763N1 PMID:27218110

  20. Experiments on active precision isolation with a smart conical adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Li, H. Y.; Chen, Z. B.; Tzou, H. S.

    2016-07-01

    Based on a conical shell adaptor, an active vibration isolator for vibration control of precision payload is designed and tested in this study. Flexible piezoelectric sensors and actuators are bonded on the adaptor surface for active vibration monitoring and control. The mathematical model of a piezoelectric laminated conical shell is derived and then optimal design of the actuators is performed for the first axial vibration mode of the isolation system. A scaled conical adaptor is manufactured with four MFC actuators laminating on its outer surface. Active vibration isolation efficiency is then evaluated on a vibration shaker. The control model is built in Matlab/Simulink and programmed into the dSPACE control board. Experimental results show that, the proposed active isolator is effective in vibration suppression of payloads with the negative velocity feedback control. In contrast, the amplitude responses increase with positive feedback control. Furthermore, the amplitude responses increases when time delay is added into the control signals, and gets the maximum when the delay is close to one quarter of one cycle time.

  1. Protocol for a randomized controlled trial on risk adapted damage control orthopedic surgery of femur shaft fractures in multiple trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rixen Dieter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the long bones and femur fractures in particular are common in multiple trauma patients, but the optimal management of femur fractures in these patients is not yet resolved. Although there is a trend towards the concept of "Damage Control Orthopedics" (DCO in the management of multiple trauma patients with long bone fractures as reflected by a significant increase in primary external fixation of femur fractures, current literature is insufficient. Thus, in the era of "evidence-based medicine", there is the need for a more specific, clarifying trial. Methods/Design The trial is designed as a randomized controlled open-label multicenter study. Multiple trauma patients with femur shaft fractures and a calculated probability of death between 20 and 60% will be randomized to either temporary fracture fixation with fixateur externe and defined secondary definitive treatment (DCO or primary reamed nailing (early total care. The primary objective is to reduce the extent of organ failure as measured by the maximum sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA score. Discussion The Damage Control Study is the first to evaluate the risk adapted damage control orthopedic surgery concept of femur shaft fractures in multiple trauma patients in a randomized controlled design. The trial investigates the differences in clinical outcome of two currently accepted different ways of treating multiple trauma patients with femoral shaft fractures. This study will help to answer the question whether the "early total care" or the „damage control” concept is associated with better outcome. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN10321620

  2. Adaptive control of an active magnetic bearing flywheel system using neural networks / Angelique Combrinck

    OpenAIRE

    Combrinck, Angelique

    2010-01-01

    The School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering at the North-West University in Potchefstroom has established an active magnetic bearing (AMB) research group called McTronX. This group provides extensive knowledge and experience in the theory and application of AMBs. By making use of the expertise contained within McTronX and the rest of the control engineering community, an adaptive controller for an AMB flywheel system is implemented. The adaptive controller is ...

  3. Adaptation of muscle gene expression to changes in contractile activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.; Babij, P.; Thomason, D. B.; Wong, T. S.; Morrison, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the existing literature regarding the effects of different types of physical activities on the gene expression of adult skeletal muscles leads us to conclude that each type of exercise training program has, as a result, a different phenotype, which means that there are multiple mechanisms, each producing a unique phenotype. A portion of the facts which support this position is presented and interpreted here. [Abstract translated from the original French by NASA].

  4. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates…

  5. Adaptive and innovative Radiation Treatment FOR improving Cancer treatment outcomE (ARTFORCE); a randomized controlled phase II trial for individualized treatment of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failure of locoregional control is the main cause of recurrence in advanced head and neck cancer. This multi-center trial aims to improve outcome in two ways. Firstly, by redistribution of the radiation dose to the metabolically most FDG-PET avid part of the tumour. Hereby, a biologically more effective dose distribution might be achieved while simultaneously sparing normal tissues. Secondly, by improving patient selection. Both cisplatin and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) antibodies like Cetuximab in combination with Radiotherapy (RT) are effective in enhancing tumour response. However, it is unknown which patients will benefit from either agent in combination with irradiation. We will analyze the predictive value of biological markers and 89Zr-Cetuximab uptake for treatment outcome of chemoradiation with Cetuximab or cisplatin to improve patient selection. ARTFORCE is a randomized phase II trial for 268 patients with a factorial 2 by 2 design: cisplatin versus Cetuximab and standard RT versus redistributed RT. Cisplatin is dosed weekly 40 mg/m2 for 6 weeks. Cetuximab is dosed 250mg/m2 weekly (loading dose 400 mg/m2) for 6 weeks. The standard RT regimen consists of elective RT up to 54.25 Gy with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to 70 Gy in 35 fractions in 6 weeks. Redistributed adaptive RT consists of elective RT up to 54.25 Gy with a SIB between 64-80 Gy in 35 fractions in 6 weeks with redistributed dose to the gross tumour volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV), and adaptation of treatment for anatomical changes in the third week of treatment. Patients with locally advanced, biopsy confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, oral cavity or hypopharynx are eligible. Primary endpoints are: locoregional recurrence free survival at 2 years, correlation of the median 89Zr-cetuximab uptake and biological markers with treatment specific outcome, and toxicity. Secondary endpoints are quality of life, swallowing function preservation

  6. Online Event Segmentation in Active Perception using Adaptive Strong Anticipation

    CERN Document Server

    Nery, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Most cognitive architectures rely on discrete representation, both in space (e.g., objects) and in time (e.g., events). However, a robot interaction with the world is inherently continuous, both in space and in time. The segmentation of the stream of perceptual inputs a robot receives into discrete and meaningful events poses as a challenge in bridging the gap between internal cognitive representations, and the external world. Event Segmentation Theory, recently proposed in the context of cognitive systems research, sustains that humans segment time into events based on matching perceptual input with predictions. In this work we propose a framework for online event segmentation, targeting robots endowed with active perception. Moreover, sensory processing systems have an intrinsic latency, resulting from many factors such as sampling rate, and computational processing, and which is seldom accounted for. This framework is founded on the theory of dynamical systems synchronization, where the system considered i...

  7. A behavioural intervention increases physical activity in people with subacute spinal cord injury: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla FJ Nooijen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions: For people with subacute spinal cord injury, does rehabilitation that is reinforced with the addition of a behavioural intervention to promote physical activity lead to a more active lifestyle than rehabilitation alone? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and blinded assessors. Participants: Forty-five adults with subacute spinal cord injury who were undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and were dependent on a manual wheelchair. The spinal cord injuries were characterised as: tetraplegia 33%; motor complete 62%; mean time since injury 150 days (SD 74. Intervention: All participants received regular rehabilitation, including handcycle training. Only the experimental group received a behavioural intervention promoting an active lifestyle after discharge. This intervention involved 13 individual sessions delivered by a coach who was trained in motivational interviewing; it began 2 months before and ended 6 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was physical activity, which was objectively measured with an accelerometer-based activity monitor 2 months before discharge, at discharge, and 6 and 12 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. The accelerometry data were analysed as total wheeled physical activity, sedentary time and motility. Self-reported physical activity was a secondary outcome. Results: The behavioural intervention significantly increased wheeled physical activity (overall between-group difference from generalised estimating equation 21 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 35. This difference was evident 6 months after discharge (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 48 and maintained at 12 months after discharge (25 minutes per day, 95% CI 1 to 50. No significant intervention effect was found for sedentary time or motility. Self-reported physical activity also significantly improved. Conclusion: The behavioural

  8. Measurement of neutron spectra in varied environments by the foil-activation method with arbitrary trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron spectra have been measured by the foil-activation method in 13 different environments in and around the Sandia Pulsed Reactor, the White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor, and the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor. The spectra were obtained by using the SANDII code in a manner that was not dependent on the initial trial. This altered technique is better suited for the determination of spectra in environments that are difficult to predict by calculation, and it tends to reveal features that may be biased out by the use of standard trial-dependent methods. For some of the configurations, studies have also been made of how well the solution is determined in each energy region. The experimental methods and the techniques used in the analyses are thoroughly explained. 34 refs., 51 figs., 40 tabs

  9. ADAPTIVE AND ACTIVE COMPUTING PARADIGM FOR PERSONALIZED INFORMATION SERVICE IN DISTRIBUTED HETERONGEOUS ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兆丰; 冯博琴

    2003-01-01

    To solve the problem that traditional pull-based information service can't meet the demand of long-term users getting domain information timely and properly, an adaptive and active computing paradigm (AACP) for personalized information service in heterogeneous environment is proposed to provide user-centered, push-based higsh quality information service timely in a proper way, the motivation of which is generalized as R4 Service: the right information at the right time in the right way to the right person, upon which formalized algorithms framework of adaptive user profile management, incremental information retrieval, information filtering, and active delivery mechanism are discussed in details. The AACP paradigm serves users in a push-based, event-driven, interest-related, adaptive and active information service mode, which is useful and promising for long-term user to gain fresh information instead of polling from kinds of information sources.

  10. Physical activity stimulation program for children with cerebral palsy did not improve physical activity: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontien Van Wely

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Question: In children with cerebral palsy, does a 6-month physical activity stimulation program improve physical activity, mobility capacity, fitness, fatigue and attitude towards sports more than usual paediatric physiotherapy? Design: Multicentre randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation, blinded assessments and intention-to-treat analysis. Participants: Forty-nine walking children (28 males aged 7–13 years with spastic cerebral palsy and severity of the disability classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System level I–III. Intervention: The intervention group followed a 6-month physical activity stimulation program involving counselling through motivational interviewing, home-based physiotherapy, and 4 months of fitness training. The control group continued their usual paediatric physiotherapy. Outcome measures: Primary outcomes were walking activity (assessed objectively with an activity monitor and parent-reported physical activity (Activity Questionnaire for Adults and Adolescents. Secondary outcomes were: mobility capacity, consisting of Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66, walking capacity and functional strength, fitness (aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscle strength, self-reported fatigue, and attitude towards sport (child and parent. Assessments were performed at baseline, 4 months, 6 months and 12 months. Results: There were no significant intervention effects for physical activity or secondary outcomes at any assessment time. Positive trends were found for parent-reported time at moderate-to-vigorous intensity (between-group change ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.4 and GMFM-66 (mean between-group difference = 2.8 points, 95% CI 0.2 to 5.4 at 6 months, but not at 12 months. There was a trend for a small, but clinically irrelevant, improvement in the children's attitudes towards the disadvantages of sports at 6 months, and towards the advantages of sports at 12 months. Conclusions: This physical

  11. Evaluating the effects of increasing physical activity to optimize rehabilitation outcomes in hospitalized older adults (MOVE Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Catherine M.; Morris, Meg E; McGinley, Jennifer L.; Szoeke, Cassandra; Workman, Barbara; Liew, Danny; Hill, Keith; Woodward, Michael; Wittwer, Joanne E; Churilov, Leonid; Ventura, Cameron; Bernhardt, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background Older adults who have received inpatient rehabilitation often have significant mobility disability at discharge. Physical activity levels in rehabilitation are also low. It is hypothesized that providing increased physical activity to older people receiving hospital-based rehabilitation will lead to better mobility outcomes at discharge. Methods/Design A single blind, parallel-group, multisite randomized controlled trial with blinded assessment of outcome and intention-to-treat ana...

  12. A Documentary Analysis of Abstracts Presented in European Congresses on Adapted Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenarikova, Jana; Kudlacek, Martin; Baloun, Ladislav; Causgrove Dunn, Janice

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify trends in research abstracts published in the books of abstracts of the European Congress of Adapted Physical Activity from 2004 to 2012. A documentary analysis of the contents of 459 abstracts was completed. Data were coded based on subcategories used in a previous study by Zhang, deLisle, and Chen (2006) and by Porretta and Sherrill (2005): number of authors, data source, sample size, type of disability, data analyses, type of study, and focus of study. Descriptive statistics calculated for each subcategory revealed an overall picture of the state and trends of scientific inquiry in adapted physical activity research in Europe. PMID:27623611

  13. A Documentary Analysis of Abstracts Presented in European Congresses on Adapted Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenarikova, Jana; Kudlacek, Martin; Baloun, Ladislav; Causgrove Dunn, Janice

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify trends in research abstracts published in the books of abstracts of the European Congress of Adapted Physical Activity from 2004 to 2012. A documentary analysis of the contents of 459 abstracts was completed. Data were coded based on subcategories used in a previous study by Zhang, deLisle, and Chen (2006) and by Porretta and Sherrill (2005): number of authors, data source, sample size, type of disability, data analyses, type of study, and focus of study. Descriptive statistics calculated for each subcategory revealed an overall picture of the state and trends of scientific inquiry in adapted physical activity research in Europe.

  14. Field trial of a multi-parameters' monitoring network using FBGs adapted directly in the conventional instruments of dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosolem, Joao B.; Hortencio, Claudio A.; Floridia, Claudio; Dini, Danilo C.; Penze, Rivael S.; Aires, Bruno N.; Bassan, Fabio R.; Morbach, Rodrigo A.; da Costa, Eduardo F.; Salgado, Felipe C.; Peres, Rodrigo; Fracarolli, João. Paulo V.; Santana, Marcus Vinícius F.; Gregatti, Augusto Cezar M.; Muniz, Guilherme; Amadeo, Gerson L.; Carvalho, Gilson M.; Pertile, Fernando; Melegari, Luis Fernando P.; Herreros, Heloisa O.; Kurokawa, Marcelo Y.; de Avila, Luis F.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a field test of a multi-parameters' monitoring network using FBGs adapted directly in the conventional instruments of two dams which are in full operational capability. We presented the details of the design and tests of the sensor's network, such as, the sensors adaptation, the resolution comparison between the conventional instruments and the FBGs, the network topology, the spectral occupancy distribution considering the parameters optical bandwidth and also the temperature compensation for FBGs, the number of sensors by fiber and the performance of the FBGs sensors compared with the conventional instruments used in the Dams.

  15. Study Protocol: A randomized controlled trial of patient navigation-activation to reduce cancer health disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau Sally

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer health disparities affecting low-income and minority patients are well documented. Root-causes are multifactorial, including diagnostic and treatment delays, social and financial barriers, and poor communication. Patient navigation and communication coaching (activation are potential interventions to address disparities in cancer treatment. The purpose of this clinical trial is to test the effectiveness of an intervention combining patient navigation and activation to improve cancer treatment. Methods/Design The Rochester Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP is a National Cancer Institute-sponsored, patient-level randomized trial (RCT of patient navigation and activation, targeting newly-diagnosed breast and colorectal cancer patients in Rochester, NY. The goal of the program is to decrease cancer health disparities by addressing barriers to receipt of cancer care and promoting patient self-efficacy. The intervention uses trained, paraprofessional patient navigators recruited from the target community, and a detailed training and supervisory program. Recruited patients are randomly assigned to receive either usual care (except for baseline and follow-up questionnaires and interviews or intervention. The intervention patients receive tailored assistance from their patient navigators, including phone calls, in-person meetings, and behind-the-scenes coordination of care. A total of 344 patients have been recruited. Outcomes measured at three month intervals include timeliness of care, patient adherence, patient satisfaction, quality of life, self-efficacy, health literacy, and cancer knowledge. Discussion This unique intervention combining patient navigation and patient activation is designed to address the multifactorial problem of cancer health disparities. If successful, this study will affect the design and implementation of patient navigation programs. Trials Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT

  16. Liver afferents contribute to water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects: a clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus May

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Water drinking acutely increases sympathetic activity in human subjects. In animals, the response appears to be mediated through transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 activation on osmosensitive hepatic spinal afferents, described as osmopressor response. We hypothesized that hepatic denervation attenuates water drinking-induced sympathetic activation. We studied 20 liver transplant recipients (44±2.6 years, 1.2±0.1 years post transplant as model of hepatic denervation and 20 kidney transplant recipients (43±2.6 years, 0.8±0.1 years post transplant as immunosuppressive drug matched control group. Before and after 500 ml water ingestion, we obtained venous blood samples for catecholamine analysis. We also monitored brachial and finger blood pressure, ECG, and thoracic bioimpedance. Plasma norepinephrine concentration had changed by 0.01±0.07 nmol/l in liver and by 0.21±0.07 nmol/l in kidney transplant recipients (p<0.05 between groups after 30-40 minutes of water drinking. While blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased in both groups, the responses tended to be attenuated in liver transplant recipients. Our findings support the idea that osmosensitive hepatic afferents are involved in water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01237431.

  17. Adaptive Controller for Vehicle Active Suspension Generated Through LMS Filter Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jianmin; SHU Gequn

    2006-01-01

    The least means squares (LMS) adaptive filter algorithm was used in active suspension system.By adjusting the weight of adaptive filter, the minimum quadratic performance index was obtained.For two-degree-of-freedom vehicle suspension model, LMS adaptive controller was designed.The acceleration of the sprung mass,the dynamic tyre load between wheels and road,and the dynamic deflection between sprung mass and unsprung mass were determined as the evaluation targets of suspension performance.For LMS adaptive control suspension, compared with passive suspension, acceleration power spectral density of sprung mass acceleration under the road input model decreased 8-10 times in high frequency resonance band or low frequency resonance band.The simulation results show that LMS adaptive control is simple and remarkably effective.It further proves that the active control suspension system can improve both the riding comfort and handling safety in various operation conditions, and the method is fit for the active control of the suspension system.

  18. Physical activity as a treatment for depression: the TREAD randomised trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawlor Debbie A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common reasons for consulting a General Practitioner (GP within the UK. Whilst antidepressants have been shown to be clinically effective, many patients and healthcare professionals would like to access other forms of treatment as an alternative or adjunct to drug therapy for depression. A recent systematic review presented some evidence that physical activity could offer one such option, although further investigation is needed to test its effectiveness within the context of the National Health Service. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a randomised, controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate an intervention developed to increase physical activity as a treatment for depression within primary care. Methods/design The TREAD study is a pragmatic, multi-centre, two-arm RCT which targets patients presenting with a new episode of depression. Patients were approached if they were aged 18-69, had recently consulted their GP for depression and, where appropriate, had been taking antidepressants for less than one month. Only those patients with a confirmed diagnosis of a depressive episode as assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R, a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score of at least 14 and informed written consent were included in the study. Eligible patients were individually randomised to one of two treatment groups; usual GP care or usual GP care plus facilitated physical activity. The primary outcome of the trial is clinical symptoms of depression assessed using the BDI four months after randomisation. A number of secondary outcomes are also measured at the 4-, 8- and 12-month follow-up points including quality of life, attitude to and involvement in physical activity and antidepressant use/adherence. Outcomes will be analysed on an intention-to-treat (ITT basis and will use linear and logistic regression models to compare treatments. Discussion The results of

  19. Single-trial prediction of reaction time variability from MEG brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Ryu; Ogawa, Kenji; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Neural activity prior to movement onset contains essential information for predictive assistance for humans using brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs). Even though previous studies successfully predicted different goals for upcoming movements, it is unclear whether non-invasive recording signals contain the information to predict trial-by-trial behavioral variability under the same movement. In this paper, we examined the predictability of subsequent short or long reaction times (RTs) from magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in a delayed-reach task. The difference in RTs was classified significantly above chance from 550 ms before the go-signal onset using the cortical currents in the premotor cortex. Significantly above-chance classification was performed in the lateral prefrontal and the right inferior parietal cortices at the late stage of the delay period. Thus, inter-trial variability in RTs is predictable information. Our study provides a proof-of-concept of the future development of non-invasive BMIs to prevent delayed movements. PMID:27250872

  20. Use of the Crohn's disease activity index in clinical trials of biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) has been commonly used to assess the effects of treatment with different agents in Crohn's disease (CD). However, these studies may be compromised, if the results compared to a placebo or standard therapy group (in the absence of a placebo) substantially differ from the expected response. In addition, significant concerns have been raised regarding the reliability and validity of the CDAI. Reproducibility of the CDAI may be limited as significant inter-observer error has been recorded, even if measurements are done by experienced clinicians with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of CD. Finally, many CDAI endpoints are open to subjective interpretation and have the potential for manipulation. This is worrisome as there is the potential for significant financial gain, if the results of a clinical trial appear to provide a positive result. Physicians caring for patients should be concerned about the positive results in clinical trials that are sponsored by industry, even if the trials involve respected centers and the results appear in highly ranked medical journals.

  1. Adaptive Current Control with PI-Fuzzy Compound Controller for Shunt Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Fei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive control technology and PI-fuzzy compound control technology are proposed to control an active power filter (APF. AC side current compensation and DC capacitor voltage tracking control strategy are discussed and analyzed. Model reference adaptive controller for the AC side current compensation is derived and established based on Lyapunov stability theory; proportional and integral (PI fuzzy compound controller is designed for the DC side capacitor voltage control. The adaptive current controller based on PI-fuzzy compound system is compared with the conventional PI controller for active power filter. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and satisfactory performance of the proposed control strategies. It is shown that the proposed control method has an excellent dynamic performance such as small current tracking error, reduced total harmonic distortion (THD, and strong robustness in the presence of parameters variation and nonlinear load.

  2. Physical Activity during Cancer Treatment (PACT Study: design of a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wit G Ardine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is a major problem of cancer patients. Thirty percent of cancer survivors report serious fatigue three years after finishing treatment. There is evidence that physical exercise during cancer treatment reduces fatigue. This may also lead to an improvement of quality of life. Such findings may result in a decrease of healthcare related expenditures and societal costs due to sick leave. However, no studies are known that investigated these hypotheses. Therefore, the primary aim of our study is to assess the effect of exercise during cancer treatment on reducing complaints of fatigue and on reducing health service utilisation and sick leave. Methods/Design The Physical Activity during Cancer Treatment study is a multicentre randomised controlled trial in 150 breast and 150 colon cancer patients undergoing cancer treatment. Participants will be randomised to an exercise or a control group. In addition to the usual care, the exercise group will participate in an 18-week supervised group exercise programme. The control group will be asked to maintain their habitual physical activity pattern. Study endpoints will be assessed after 18 weeks (short term and after 9 months (long term. Validated questionnaires will be used. Primary outcome: fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Fatigue Quality List and cost-effectiveness, health service utilisation and sick leave. Secondary outcome: health related quality of life (European Organisation Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life questionnaire-C30, Short Form 36 healthy survey, impact on functioning and autonomy (Impact on functioning and autonomy questionnaire, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, physical fitness (aerobic peak capacity, muscle strength, body composition and cognitive-behavioural aspects. To register health service utilisation and sick leave, participants will keep diaries including the EuroQuol-5D. Physical activity level

  3. Emergent literacy activities, instructional adaptations and school absence of children with cerebral palsy in special education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.H.J.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to get an overview of the emergent literacy activities, instructional adaptations and school absence of children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to normally developing peers. The results showed that there were differences between the groups regarding the amount of

  4. Emergent Literacy Activities, Instructional Adaptations and School Absence of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Marieke; de Moor, Jan; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to get an overview of the emergent literacy activities, instructional adaptations and school absence of children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to normally developing peers. The results showed that there were differences between the groups regarding the amount of emergent literacy instruction. While time…

  5. Characterization of Adapter Protein NRBP as a Negative Regulator of T Cell Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; LIN Zhi-xin; WU Jun

    2008-01-01

    Adapter proteins can regulate the gene transcriptions in disparate signaling pathway by interacting with multiple signaling molecules, including T cell activation signaling. Nuclear receptor binding protein (NRBP), a novel adapter protein, represents a small family of evolutionarily conserved proteins with homologs in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), Drosophila melanogaster (D.melanogaster), mouse and human. Here, we demonstrated that overexpression of NRBP in Jurkat TAg cells specifically impairs T cell receptor (TCR) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/ionomycin-mediated signaling leading to nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) promoter activation. Furthermore, the N-terminal of NRBP is necessary for its regulation of NFAT activation. Finally, we showed that NRBP has minimal effect on both TCR- and PMA-induced CD69 up-regulation in Jurkat TAg cells, which suggests that NRBP may function downstream of protein kinase C (PKC)/Ras pathway.

  6. Characteristics of control group participants who increased their physical activity in a cluster-randomized lifestyle intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjeldsoe Brianna S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meaningful improvement in physical activity among control group participants in lifestyle intervention trials is not an uncommon finding, and may be partly explained by participant characteristics. This study investigated which baseline demographic, health and behavioural characteristics were predictive of successful improvement in physical activity in usual care group participants recruited into a telephone-delivered physical activity and diet intervention trial, and descriptively compared these characteristics with those that were predictive of improvement among intervention group participants. Methods Data come from the Logan Healthy Living Program, a primary care-based, cluster-randomized controlled trial of a physical activity and diet intervention. Multivariable logistic regression models examined variables predictive of an improvement of at least 60 minutes per week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity among usual care (n = 166 and intervention group (n = 175 participants. Results Baseline variables predictive of a meaningful change in physical activity were different for the usual care and intervention groups. Being retired and completing secondary school (but no further education were predictive of physical activity improvement for usual care group participants, whereas only baseline level of physical activity was predictive of improvement for intervention group participants. Higher body mass index and being unmarried may also be predictors of physical activity improvement for usual care participants. Conclusion This is the first study to examine differences in predictors of physical activity improvement between intervention group and control group participants enrolled in a physical activity intervention trial. While further empirical research is necessary to confirm findings, results suggest that participants with certain socio-demographic characteristics may respond favourably to minimal intensity

  7. Adaptive Notch filter based active damping for power converters using LCL filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, M.; Rossé, A.; Bede, L.;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an active damping technique for grid-connected converters using inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) filters. The technique relies on a discrete-time adaptive notch filter (NF) which is able to adapt its resonance frequency and bandwidth in real-time. The tuning function of this ...... of the discrete-time implementation of such filter due to the proximity to Nyquist-Shannon limit. A detailed analysis of the filter and the control system is also included. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed technique....

  8. Influence of physical education on the level of adaptation of students to educational activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolinska S.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Examined and summarized problems of adaptation of students to educational activity. 100 students took part in research. Found out a row socially psychological factors which determine efficiency of process of adaptation of students to the scientific process. Practical recommendations are developed on organization of educational process of students. It is recommended widely to utillize a physical culture as mean of reduction of adaptation period and increase of level of physical and mental capacity. It is marked that almost 90% students have rejections in a health. Also over 50% - unsatisfactory physical preparedness. It is set that for the students of the II course the indexes of low situation anxiety prevail as compared to the I course. It is set that the characteristic feature of the psychological state during an examination session is emotionally volitional instability.

  9. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  10. Healing Touch with Guided Imagery for PTSD in returning active duty military: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shamini; McMahon, George F; Hasen, Patricia; Kozub, Madelyn P; Porter, Valencia; King, Rauni; Guarneri, Erminia M

    2012-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a significant problem in returning military and warrants swift and effective treatment. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether a complementary medicine intervention (Healing Touch with Guided Imagery [HT+GI]) reduced PTSD symptoms as compared to treatment as usual (TAU) returning combat-exposed active duty military with significant PTSD symptoms. Active duty military (n = 123) were randomized to 6 sessions (within 3 weeks) of HT+GI vs. TAU. The primary outcome was PTSD symptoms; secondary outcomes were depression, quality of life, and hostility. Repeated measures analysis of covariance with intent-to-treat analyses revealed statistically and clinically significant reduction in PTSD symptoms (p biofield therapy approaches for mitigating PTSD in military populations is warranted.

  11. Healing Touch with Guided Imagery for PTSD in returning active duty military: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shamini; McMahon, George F; Hasen, Patricia; Kozub, Madelyn P; Porter, Valencia; King, Rauni; Guarneri, Erminia M

    2012-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a significant problem in returning military and warrants swift and effective treatment. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether a complementary medicine intervention (Healing Touch with Guided Imagery [HT+GI]) reduced PTSD symptoms as compared to treatment as usual (TAU) returning combat-exposed active duty military with significant PTSD symptoms. Active duty military (n = 123) were randomized to 6 sessions (within 3 weeks) of HT+GI vs. TAU. The primary outcome was PTSD symptoms; secondary outcomes were depression, quality of life, and hostility. Repeated measures analysis of covariance with intent-to-treat analyses revealed statistically and clinically significant reduction in PTSD symptoms (p biofield therapy approaches for mitigating PTSD in military populations is warranted. PMID:23025129

  12. Some Improvements on Active Queue Management Mechanism Based on Adaptive Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Kim Quoc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active queue management operates at network nodes to control the number of packets in the queue of nodes, by actively receiving packets when the queue is not full, removing packets when the queue is full or notifying bottlenecks even in the embryonic period of the bottlenecks due to to-be-full queue. In recent years, scientists have used fuzzy logic to improve queue management mechanisms. Overall, these improvements have used Mamdani fuzzy system with a fixed structure with triangular functions for input and output variables, so they do not adapt to the changing state of the network. We propose a adaptive fuzzy control (AFC model to improve the effectiveness of active queue management mechanisms.

  13. Performance study of Active Queue Management methods: Adaptive GRED, REDD, and GRED-Linear analytical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Abdel-jaber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Congestion control is one of the hot research topics that helps maintain the performance of computer networks. This paper compares three Active Queue Management (AQM methods, namely, Adaptive Gentle Random Early Detection (Adaptive GRED, Random Early Dynamic Detection (REDD, and GRED Linear analytical model with respect to different performance measures. Adaptive GRED and REDD are implemented based on simulation, whereas GRED Linear is implemented as a discrete-time analytical model. Several performance measures are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the compared methods mainly mean queue length, throughput, average queueing delay, overflow packet loss probability, and packet dropping probability. The ultimate aim is to identify the method that offers the highest satisfactory performance in non-congestion or congestion scenarios. The first comparison results that are based on different packet arrival probability values show that GRED Linear provides better mean queue length; average queueing delay and packet overflow probability than Adaptive GRED and REDD methods in the presence of congestion. Further and using the same evaluation measures, Adaptive GRED offers a more satisfactory performance than REDD when heavy congestion is present. When the finite capacity of queue values varies the GRED Linear model provides the highest satisfactory performance with reference to mean queue length and average queueing delay and all the compared methods provide similar throughput performance. However, when the finite capacity value is large, the compared methods have similar results in regard to probabilities of both packet overflowing and packet dropping.

  14. Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breyer Marie-Kathrin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with COPD progressive dyspnoea leads to a sedentary lifestyle. To date, no studies exist investigating the effects of Nordic Walking in patients with COPD. Therefore, the aim was to determine the feasibility of Nordic Walking in COPD patients at different disease stages. Furthermore we aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of Nordic Walking on COPD patients' daily physical activity pattern as well as on patients exercise capacity. Methods Sixty COPD patients were randomised to either Nordic Walking or to a control group. Patients of the Nordic Walking group (n = 30; age: 62 ± 9 years; FEV1: 48 ± 19% predicted underwent a three-month outdoor Nordic Walking exercise program consisting of one hour walking at 75% of their initial maximum heart rate three times per week, whereas controls had no exercise intervention. Primary endpoint: daily physical activities (measured by a validated tri-axial accelerometer; secondary endpoint: functional exercise capacity (measured by the six-minute walking distance; 6MWD. Assessment time points in both groups: baseline, after three, six and nine months. Results After three month training period, in the Nordic Walking group time spent walking and standing as well as intensity of walking increased (Δ walking time: +14.9 ± 1.9 min/day; Δ standing time: +129 ± 26 min/day; Δ movement intensity: +0.40 ± 0.14 m/s2 while time spent sitting decreased (Δ sitting time: -128 ± 15 min/day compared to baseline (all: p Conclusions Nordic Walking is a feasible, simple and effective physical training modality in COPD. In addition, Nordic Walking has proven to positively impact the daily physical activity pattern of COPD patients under short- and long-term observation. Clinical trial registration Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial - ISRCTN31525632

  15. What are the health benefits of active travel? A systematic review of trials and cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda E Saunders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing active travel (primarily walking and cycling has been widely advocated for reducing obesity levels and achieving other population health benefits. However, the strength of evidence underpinning this strategy is unclear. This study aimed to assess the evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. METHODS: The study design was a systematic review of (i non-randomised and randomised controlled trials, and (ii prospective observational studies examining either (a the effects of interventions to promote active travel or (b the association between active travel and health outcomes. Reports of studies were identified by searching 11 electronic databases, websites, reference lists and papers identified by experts in the field. Prospective observational and intervention studies measuring any health outcome of active travel in the general population were included. Studies of patient groups were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies from 12 countries were included, of which six were studies conducted with children. Five studies evaluated active travel interventions. Nineteen were prospective cohort studies which did not evaluate the impact of a specific intervention. No studies were identified with obesity as an outcome in adults; one of five prospective cohort studies in children found an association between obesity and active travel. Small positive effects on other health outcomes were found in five intervention studies, but these were all at risk of selection bias. Modest benefits for other health outcomes were identified in five prospective studies. There is suggestive evidence that active travel may have a positive effect on diabetes prevention, which may be an important area for future research. CONCLUSIONS: Active travel may have positive effects on health outcomes, but there is little robust evidence to date of the effectiveness of active transport interventions for reducing obesity. Future evaluations of such

  16. Exploiting clinical trial data drastically narrows the window of possible solutions to the problem of clinical adaptation of a multiscale cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios S Stamatakos

    Full Text Available The development of computational models for simulating tumor growth and response to treatment has gained significant momentum during the last few decades. At the dawn of the era of personalized medicine, providing insight into complex mechanisms involved in cancer and contributing to patient-specific therapy optimization constitute particularly inspiring pursuits. The in silico oncology community is facing the great challenge of effectively translating simulation models into clinical practice, which presupposes a thorough sensitivity analysis, adaptation and validation process based on real clinical data. In this paper, the behavior of a clinically-oriented, multiscale model of solid tumor response to chemotherapy is investigated, using the paradigm of nephroblastoma response to preoperative chemotherapy in the context of the SIOP/GPOH clinical trial. A sorting of the model's parameters according to the magnitude of their effect on the output has unveiled the relative importance of the corresponding biological mechanisms; major impact on the result of therapy is credited to the oxygenation and nutrient availability status of the tumor and the balance between the symmetric and asymmetric modes of stem cell division. The effect of a number of parameter combinations on the extent of chemotherapy-induced tumor shrinkage and on the tumor's growth rate are discussed. A real clinical case of nephroblastoma has served as a proof of principle study case, demonstrating the basics of an ongoing clinical adaptation and validation process. By using clinical data in conjunction with plausible values of model parameters, an excellent fit of the model to the available medical data of the selected nephroblastoma case has been achieved, in terms of both volume reduction and histological constitution of the tumor. In this context, the exploitation of multiscale clinical data drastically narrows the window of possible solutions to the clinical adaptation problem.

  17. INTERACTIVE DOMAIN ADAPTION FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF REMOTE SENSING IMAGES USING ACTIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.Pushpa Lingam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Interactive Domain Adaptation (IDA technique based on active learning for the classification of remote sensing images. Interactive domain adaptation method is used for adapting the supervised classifier trained on a given remote sensing source image to make it suitable for classifying a different but related target image. The two images can be acquired in different locations and at different times. This method iteratively selects the most informative samples of the target image to be labeled and included in the training set and the source image samples are reweighted or removed from the training set on the basis of their disagreement with the target image classification problem. The consistent information available from the source image can be effectively exploited for the classification of the target image and for guiding the selection of new samples to be labeled, whereas the inconsistent information is automatically detected and removed. This approach significantly reduces the number of new labeled samples to be collected from the target image. Experimental results on both a multispectral very high resolution and a hyper spectral data set confirm the effectiveness of the interactive domain adaptation for theclassification of remote sensing using active learning method.

  18. Brain serotonergic activation in growth-stunted farmed salmon: adaption versus pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Folkedal, Ole;

    2016-01-01

    ) in aquaculture as a model to explore this stance of evolutionary-based medicine, for which empirical evidence has been lacking. Growth-stunted (GS) farmed fish were characterized by elevated brain serotonergic activation, increased cortisol production and behavioural inhibition. We make the novel observation......Signalling systems activated under stress are highly conserved, suggesting adaptive effects of their function. Pathologies arising from continued activation of such systems may represent a mismatch between evolutionary programming and current environments. Here, we use Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar....... Hence, we propose that serotonin-mediated behavioural inhibition may have evolved in vertebrates to minimize stress exposure in vulnerable individuals....

  19. Inter-trial analysis of post-movement Beta activities in EEG signals using multivariate empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiang-Chih; Lee, Po-Lei; Lo, Men-Tzung; Wu, Yu-Te; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Lan, Gong-Yau

    2013-07-01

    Event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) is a technique to quantify subject's nonphase-locked neural activities underlying specific frequency bands, reactive to external/internal stimulus. However, conventional ERD/ERS studies usually utilize fixed frequency band determined from one or few channels to filter whole-head EEG/MEG data, which may inevitably include task-unrelated signals and result in underestimation of reactive oscillatory activities in multichannel studies. In this study, we adopted multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) to extract beta-related oscillatory activities in performing self-paced right and left index-finger lifting tasks. The MEMD extracts common modes from all channels in same-index intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) which allows the temporal-frequency features among different channels can be compared in each subband. The beta-band oscillatory activities were further bandpass filtered within trial-specific beta bands determined from sensorimotor-related channels (C3 and C4), and then rectified using amplitude modulation method to detect trial-by-trial beta rebound (BR) values in ERS time courses. The validity of the MEMD approach in BR values extraction has been demonstrated in multichannel EEG study which showed larger BR values than conventional ERS technique. The MEMD-based method enables the trial-by-trial extraction of sensorimotor oscillatory activities which might allow the exploration of subtle brain dynamics in future studies. PMID:23661320

  20. Local adaptive approach toward segmentation of microscopic images of activated sludge flocs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Nisar, Humaira; Ng, Choon Aun; Lo, Po Kim; Yap, Vooi Voon

    2015-11-01

    Activated sludge process is a widely used method to treat domestic and industrial effluents. The conditions of activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (AS-WWTP) are related to the morphological properties of flocs (microbial aggregates) and filaments, and are required to be monitored for normal operation of the plant. Image processing and analysis is a potential time-efficient monitoring tool for AS-WWTPs. Local adaptive segmentation algorithms are proposed for bright-field microscopic images of activated sludge flocs. Two basic modules are suggested for Otsu thresholding-based local adaptive algorithms with irregular illumination compensation. The performance of the algorithms has been compared with state-of-the-art local adaptive algorithms of Sauvola, Bradley, Feng, and c-mean. The comparisons are done using a number of region- and nonregion-based metrics at different microscopic magnifications and quantification of flocs. The performance metrics show that the proposed algorithms performed better and, in some cases, were comparable to the state-of the-art algorithms. The performance metrics were also assessed subjectively for their suitability for segmentations of activated sludge images. The region-based metrics such as false negative ratio, sensitivity, and negative predictive value gave inconsistent results as compared to other segmentation assessment metrics.

  1. Virulent Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium evades adaptive immunity by preventing dendritic cells from activating T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Jaime A; Carreño, Leandro J; Bueno, Susan M; González, Pablo A; Mora, Jorge E; Quezada, Sergio A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2006-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute the link between innate and adaptive immunity by directly recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in bacteria and by presenting bacterial antigens to T cells. Recognition of PAMPs renders DCs as professional antigen-presenting cells able to prime naïve T cells and initiate adaptive immunity against bacteria. Therefore, interfering with DC function would promote bacterial survival and dissemination. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that have evolved in virulent bacteria to evade activation of adaptive immunity requires the characterization of virulence factors that interfere with DC function. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the causative agent of typhoid-like disease in the mouse, can prevent antigen presentation to T cells by avoiding lysosomal degradation in DCs. Here, we show that this feature of virulent Salmonella applies in vivo to prevent activation of adaptive immunity. In addition, this attribute of virulent Salmonella requires functional expression of a type three secretion system (TTSS) and effector proteins encoded within the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). In contrast to wild-type virulent Salmonella, mutant strains carrying specific deletions of SPI-2 genes encoding TTSS components or effectors proteins are targeted to lysosomes and are no longer able to prevent DCs from activating T cells in vitro or in vivo. SPI-2 mutant strains are attenuated in vivo, showing reduced tissue colonization and enhanced T-cell activation, which confers protection against a challenge with wild-type virulent Salmonella. Our data suggest that impairment of DC function by the activity of SPI-2 gene products is crucial for Salmonella pathogenesis.

  2. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  3. 21 CFR 312.87 - Active monitoring of conduct and evaluation of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... clinical trials. 312.87 Section 312.87 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... and evaluation of clinical trials. For drugs covered under this section, the Commissioner and other agency officials will monitor the progress of the conduct and evaluation of clinical trials and...

  4. Periodic activations of behaviours and emotional adaptation in behaviour-based robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, Ernesto; Rossi, Silvia

    2010-09-01

    The possible modulatory influence of motivations and emotions is of great interest in designing robotic adaptive systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to connect the concept of periodic behaviour activations to emotional modulation, in order to link the variability of behaviours to the circumstances in which they are activated. The impact of emotion is studied, described as timed controlled structures, on simple but conflicting reactive behaviours. Through this approach it is shown that the introduction of such asynchronies in the robot control system may lead to an adaptation in the emergent behaviour without having an explicit action selection mechanism. The emergent behaviours of a simple robot designed with both a parallel and a hierarchical architecture are evaluated and compared.

  5. Adaptation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha to hibernation in bats

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yijie; Zheng, Guantao; Yang, Tianxiao; Zhang, Shuyi; Dong, Dong; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hibernation is a survival mechanism in the winter for some animals. Fat preserved instead of glucose produced is the primary fuel during winter hibernation of mammals. Many genes involved in lipid metabolism are regulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). The role of PPARα in hibernation of mammals remains largely unknown. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we investigated whether PPARα is adapted to hibernation in bats. Results Evolutionary analyses...

  6. Intelligent Electric Power Systems with Active-Adaptive Electric Networks: Challenges for Simulation Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufa Ruslan A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of the presented research is based on the needs for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of intelligent electric power systems with active-adaptive electric networks (IES including Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS devices. The key requirements for the simulation were formed. The presented analysis of simulation results of IES confirms the need to use a hybrid modelling approach.

  7. Peers as resources for learning : a situated learning approach to adapted physical activity in rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Standal, Øyvind Førland; Jespersen, Ejgil

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning that takes place when people with disabilities interact in a rehabilitation context. Data were generated through in-depth interviews and close observations in a 2 1/2 week-long rehabilitation program, where the participants learned both wheelchair skills and adapted physical activities. The findings from the qualitative data analysis are discussed in the context of situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998). The results indi...

  8. The Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5 school based cluster randomised controlled trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Rona

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behaviour and low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption are common in children and are associated with adverse health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate a school-based intervention that aims to increase levels of physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviour and increase consumption of fruit and vegetables in school children. Methods/design The Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5 study is a school-based, cluster RCT that targets school children in Year 5 (age 9-10 years. All state junior/primary schools in the area covered by Bristol City and North Somerset Council are invited to participate; special schools are excluded. Eligible schools are randomised to one of two arms: intervention arm (receive the intervention 2011-2012 and control arm (receive the intervention after the final follow-up assessment, 2013-2014. The primary outcomes of the trial are levels of accelerometer assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour and questionnaire assessed fruit and vegetable consumption. A number of secondary outcomes will also be measured, including body mass index, waist circumference and overweight/obesity. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline (prior to intervention when the children are in Year 4, at the end of intervention 'immediate follow-up' and '12 months long-term' follow-up. We will use random effects linear and logistic regression models to compare outcomes by randomised arm. The economic evaluation from a societal perspective will take the form of a cost consequence analysis. Data from focus groups and interviews with pupils, parents and teachers will be used to increase understanding of how the intervention has any effect and is integrated into normal school activity. Discussion The results of the trial will provide information about the public health effectiveness

  9. A one-year clinical trial using didanosine, stavudine and nevirapine for highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hua-ying; ZHENG Yu-huang; ZHANG Chun-ying; DING Pei-pei; ZOU Wen

    2005-01-01

    @@ Antiretroviral therapy is a key determinant in the treatment and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Initial treatment for patients with HIV infection generally includes two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and a protease inhibitor (PI) or a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). The combination antiretroviral therapy (refers to highly active antiretroviral therapy or HAART) showed a significant effect upon reducing morbidity and mortality of HIV disease. Cao and colleagues1 began the clinical application of HAART in 1999 and completed the first clinical trial in China using a combination of two NRTIs and one PI. The result in using combivir (AZT+3TC) and indinavir (2 NRTIs+1 PI) are consistent with those reported in the literature.2 In this study, we report the first virological and immunological outcomes in HIV infected Chinese patients treated with a combination of didanosine, stavudine and nevirapine (2 NRTIs+1 NNRTI) for 52 weeks.

  10. Behavioural activation: a pilot trial of transdiagnostic treatment for excessive worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junwen; Liu, Xi; Rapee, Ronald M; Pillay, Pallavi

    2013-09-01

    Transdiagnostic interventions present pragmatic benefits in treatment dissemination and training of mental health professionals when faced with emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression. Excessive worry is a common feature across emotional disorders and represents an ideal candidate target for transdiagnostic intervention. The current pilot trial examined the efficacy of a behavioural activation treatment for worry (BAW) in a community population. 49 individuals experiencing excessive worry were randomised to waitlist or BAW receiving an 8 week group based intervention. Results demonstrated that BAW was successful in reducing excessive worry, depressive symptoms, cognitive avoidance, Intolerance of Uncertainty and improving problem solving orientation. Twice as many individuals showed clinically significant reductions in excessive worry after treatment compared to the waitlist control. Despite limitations to sample size and power, this study presents promising support for BAW as a practical transdiagnostic treatment for worry.

  11. Disruption of locomotor adaptation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia Tsok Lam; Bouyer, Laurent J; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Locomotor patterns are adapted on a trial-and-error basis to account for predictable dynamics. Once a walking pattern is adapted, the new calibration is stored and must be actively de-adapted. Here, we tested the hypothesis that storage of newly acquired ankle adaptation in walking is dependent o...... on corticospinal mechanisms. Subjects were exposed to an elastic force that resisted ankle dorsiflexion during treadmill walking. Ankle movement was adapted in...

  12. An efficient topology adaptation system for parametric active contour segmentation of 3D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhau, Jochen; Scherzer, Otmar

    2008-03-01

    Active contour models have already been used succesfully for segmentation of organs from medical images in 3D. In implicit models, the contour is given as the isosurface of a scalar function, and therefore topology adaptations are handled naturally during a contour evolution. Nevertheless, explicit or parametric models are often preferred since user interaction and special geometric constraints are usually easier to incorporate. Although many researchers have studied topology adaptation algorithms in explicit mesh evolutions, no stable algorithm is known for interactive applications. In this paper, we present a topology adaptation system, which consists of two novel ingredients: A spatial hashing technique is used to detect self-colliding triangles of the mesh whose expected running time is linear with respect to the number of mesh vertices. For the topology change procedure, we have developed formulas by homology theory. During a contour evolution, we just have to choose between a few possible mesh retriangulations by local triangle-triangle intersection tests. Our algorithm has several advantages compared to existing ones: Since the new algorithm does not require any global mesh reparametrizations, it is very efficient. Since the topology adaptation system does not require constant sampling density of the mesh vertices nor especially smooth meshes, mesh evolution steps can be performed in a stable way with a rather coarse mesh. We apply our algorithm to 3D ultrasonic data, showing that accurate segmentation is obtained in some seconds.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION LEVELS OF CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan; Eylem; Ekrem Levent

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether regular application of physical education and sports activities was effective on psychological adaptation levels of children or not. The research group was constituted of 80 students in the range of 10-11 years old who take education in Ankara Keçioren Hacı Sabancı Secondary School. The research was designed as a test-module with pretest-posttest control group. Physical education and sports activities were performed with application group as 2...

  14. Regulation of pH in human skeletal muscle: adaptations to physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, C

    2008-01-01

    resonance technique to exercise experiments including blood sampling and muscle biopsies. The present review characterizes the cellular buffering system as well as the most important membrane transport systems involved (Na(+)/H(+) exchange, Na-bicarbonate co-transport and lactate/H(+) co......-transport) and describes the contribution of each transport system in pH regulation at rest and during muscle activity. It is reported that the mechanisms involved in pH regulation can undergo adaptational changes in association with physical activity and that these changes are of functional importance....

  15. The Subarray MVDR Beamformer: A Space-Time Adaptive Processor Applied to Active Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezanson, Leverett Guidroz

    The research for this thesis was mainly performed at the NATO Underwater Research Center, now named the Center for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE). The purpose of the research was to improve the detection of underwater targets in the littoral ocean when using active sonar. Currently these detections are being made by towed line arrays using a delay and sum beamformer for bearing measurements and noise suppression. This method of beamforming has can suffer from reverberation that commonly is present in the littoral environment. A proposed solution is to use an adaptive beamformer which can attenuate reverberation and increase the bearing resolution. The adaptive beamforming algorithms have existed for a long time and typically are not used in the active case due to limited amount of observable data that is needed for adaptation. This deficiency is caused by the conflicting requirements for high Doppler resolution for target detection and small time windows for building up full-rank covariance estimates. The algorithms also are sensitive to bearing estimate errors that commonly occur in active sonar systems. Recently it has been proposed to overcome these limitations through the use of reduced beamspace adaptive beamforming. The Subarray MVDR beamformer is analyzed, both against simulated data and against experimental data collected by CMRE during the GLINT/NGAS11 experiment in 2011. Simulation results indicate that the Subarray MVDR beamformer rejects interfering signals that are not effectively attenuated by conventional beamforming. The application of the Subarray MVDR beamformer to the experimental data shows that the Doppler spread of the reverberation ridge is reduced, and the bearing resolution improved. The signal to noise ratio is calculated at the target location and also shows improvement. These calculated and observed performance metrics indicate an improvement of detection in reverberation noise.

  16. Behavioral and Psychological Factors Associated with 12-Month Weight Change in a Physical Activity Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Napolitano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining behavioral and psychological factors relating to weight stability over a 1-year period is of public health importance. We conducted a physical activity (PA intervention trial for women (N=247; mean age=47.5±10.7; mean BMI=28.6±5.3 in which participants were assigned to one of three groups (two PA and one contact-control. By Month 12, participants achieved 140.4±14.82 min of PA/week, with no group differences. Weight status change from baseline to Month 12 was categorized: no change (N=154; 62.4%; increase (N=34; 13.8%; decrease (N=59; 23.9%. Discriminant function analyses indentified two statistically significant dimensions associated with weight change. Dimension 1 was positively weighted by mood (0.73 and self-efficacy (0.79; dimension 2 was positively weighted to change in physical activity (0.58 and fat consumption (0.55. Results provide further evidence for the importance of behavior in long-term weight maintenance, particularly physical activity and dietary fat. These findings also provide evidence for the importance of addressing psychosocial variables, in particular depressed mood and self-efficacy.

  17. Anger expression and natural killer cell activity in family caregivers participating in a physical activity trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, S; King, A C; Vitaliano, P P; Brassington, G S

    2000-07-01

    Associations between psychological functioning and natural killer cell activity (NKA) were examined in 23 older (62.2 ± 7.5 years) family caregivers randomized to a moderate intensity four-month exercise program or to a wait-list control condition. At baseline, although NKA was related to anger-control (r = -.42; trend p caregiver burden. After controlling for baseline NKA, changes in anger-control explained 14 percent of the variance in NKA four months later. Decreases in anger-control predicted increases in NKA. Group assignment (exercise vs control) was unrelated to changes in NKA over the four-month period; however, the study was not powered to detect this effect. These results are consistent with reported relationships of anger expression with other physiological measures, and extend the importance of anger expression to immune functioning in older family caregivers.

  18. Evidence for altered amygdala activation in schizophrenia in an adaptive emotion recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Daniela; Lis, Stefanie; Zygrodnik, Karina; Sauer, Carina; Ulferts, Jens; Gallhofer, Bernd; Kirsch, Peter

    2014-03-30

    Deficits in social cognition seem to present an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia, and are known to be associated with an altered amygdala response to faces. However, current results are heterogeneous with respect to whether this altered amygdala response in schizophrenia is hypoactive or hyperactive in nature. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate emotion-specific amygdala activation in schizophrenia using a novel adaptive emotion recognition paradigm. Participants comprised 11 schizophrenia outpatients and 16 healthy controls who viewed face stimuli expressing emotions of anger, fear, happiness, and disgust, as well as neutral expressions. The adaptive emotion recognition approach allows the assessment of group differences in both emotion recognition performance and associated neuronal activity while also ensuring a comparable number of correctly recognized emotions between groups. Schizophrenia participants were slower and had a negative bias in emotion recognition. In addition, they showed reduced differential activation during recognition of emotional compared with neutral expressions. Correlation analyses revealed an association of a negative bias with amygdala activation for neutral facial expressions that was specific to the patient group. We replicated previous findings of affected emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Furthermore, we demonstrated that altered amygdala activation in the patient group was associated with the occurrence of a negative bias. These results provide further evidence for impaired social cognition in schizophrenia and point to a central role of the amygdala in negative misperceptions of facial stimuli in schizophrenia.

  19. Art Activity and Personal Intelligence: Its Influence to Children Adaptation Skill (Experiments at Hidayatullah Islamic School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana, M. Pd

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Art, one of the elements of human culture has been evolving over a long time. It is a product of working which involving skills, creative, sense, thought and heart sensibility to produce a piece of work, beauty, and harmony. The aim of this research was to find art activities for children with personal intelligence. In term of my hypothesis, children have ability to adapt and confidence to show their feelings, also demonstrate cooperated work with others. Singing and drawing were used as treatments to present how it all works to show any influence for children in the classroom. These activities were chosen in order to capture the condition as singing and drawing were rarely used by teachers in managing children in the first time they came into the classroom. Researcher discovered that drawing was one of the activities teachers used only in a spare time, otherwise as a stimuli to adjust children in the new place. This condition also happened in singing activity, teachers tend to introduce national anthem and let students only to memorise the songs. Using T-test for analysing the data, researcher found out that Fsum= 3,604 and Ftable = 2,861. It meant that there was a significant interaction between singing and drawing activity with personal intelligence to children adaptation skill.

  20. Adaptation rearrangements of heart of young sportsmen depending on the orientation of the training activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Lastochkin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: studying of the main parameters of morphofunctional condition of the left ventricular cavity of heart of sportsmen in the conditions of the training and competitive activity. Material & Methods: three groups of children (n=30 of 7–9, 10–12, 13–14 years old, who begin to train in sports with the manifestation of endurance and high-speed and power qualities, the qualified sportsmen at the age of 15–16 years old, who are engaged in run on 400 m with barriers, and karatekas (n=15+n=15, not engaged children of the same aged groups (n=40. The following methods of the research were applied: analysis of special literature, pedagogical supervisions, pedagogical experiment, echocardiological methods of the research. Results: the considerable connection of types of heart of young sportsmen with indicators of exercise stress of various orientations is established. Sportsmen with the optimum vegeto-rhythmic indicators have the essential advantages in adaptation morphofunctional displacements in heart and warm productivity at sportsmen with satisfactory vegetative-rhythmic indicators. Conclusions: adaptation morphofunctional displacements in activity of the cardio-respiratory system are closely connected with the prevailing orientation of the training process and can be used as the objective test of adaptation to the special loadings in sport.

  1. Physical activity and nutrition behavioural outcomes of a home-based intervention program for seniors: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Burke Linda; Lee Andy H; Jancey Jonine; Xiang Liming; Kerr Deborah A; Howat Peter A; Hills Andrew P; Anderson Annie S

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background This intervention aimed to ascertain whether a low-cost, accessible, physical activity and nutrition program could improve physical activity and nutrition behaviours of insufficiently active 60–70 year olds residing in Perth, Australia. Methods A 6-month home-based randomised controlled trial was conducted on 478 older adults (intervention, n = 248; control, n = 230) of low to medium socioeconomic status. Both intervention and control groups completed postal questionnaires...

  2. The mPED randomized controlled clinical trial: applying mobile persuasive technologies to increase physical activity in sedentary women protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuoka Yoshimi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the significant health benefits of regular physical activity, approximately half of American adults, particularly women and minorities, do not meet the current physical activity recommendations. Mobile phone technologies are readily available, easily accessible and may provide a potentially powerful tool for delivering physical activity interventions. However, we need to understand how to effectively apply these mobile technologies to increase and maintain physical activity in physically inactive women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design and protocol of the mPED (mobile phone based physical activity education randomized controlled clinical trial that examines the efficacy of a 3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and compares two different 6-month maintenance interventions. Methods A randomized controlled trial (RCT with three arms; 1 PLUS (3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and 6-month mobile phone diary maintenance intervention, 2 REGULAR (3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and 6-month pedometer maintenance intervention, and 3 CONTROL (pedometer only, but no intervention will be conducted. A total of 192 physically inactive women who meet all inclusion criteria and successfully complete a 3-week run-in will be randomized into one of the three groups. The mobile phone serves as a means of delivering the physical activity intervention, setting individualized weekly physical activity goals, and providing self-monitoring (activity diary, immediate feedback and social support. The mobile phone also functions as a tool for communication and real-time data capture. The primary outcome is objectively measured physical activity. Discussion If efficacy of the intervention with a mobile phone is demonstrated, the results of this RCT will be able to provide new insights for current behavioral

  3. Application of Feedforward Adaptive Active-Noise Control for Reducing Blade Passing Noise in Centrifugal Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, J.-D.; BAI, M. R.

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes two configurations of feedforward adaptive active-noise control (ANC) technique for reducing blade passing noise in centrifugal fans. In one configuration, the control speaker is installed at the cut-off region of the fan, while in the other configuration at the exit duct. The proposed ANC system is based on the filtered-x least-mean-squares (FXLMS) algorithm with multi-sine synthesized reference signal and frequency counting and is implemented by using a digital signal processor (DSP). Experiments are carried out to evaluate the proposed system for reducing the noise at the blade passing frequency (BPF) and its harmonics at various flow speeds. The results of the experiment indicated that the ANC technique is effective in reducing the blade passing noise for two configurations by using the feedforward adaptive control.

  4. Two adaptation processes in auditory hair cells together can provide an active amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Vilfan, A; Vilfan, Andrej; Duke, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The hair cells of the vertebrate inner ear convert mechanical stimuli to electrical signals. Two adaptation mechanisms are known to modify the ionic current flowing through the transduction channels of the hair bundles: a rapid process involves calcium ions binding to the channels; and a slower adaptation is associated with the movement of myosin motors. We present a mathematical model of the hair cell which demonstrates that the combination of these two mechanisms can produce `self-tuned critical oscillations', i.e. maintain the hair bundle at the threshold of an oscillatory instability. The characteristic frequency depends on the geometry of the bundle and on the calcium dynamics, but is independent of channel kinetics. Poised on the verge of vibrating, the hair bundle acts as an active amplifier. However, if the hair cell is sufficiently perturbed, other dynamical regimes can occur. These include slow relaxation oscillations which resemble the hair bundle motion observed in some experimental preparations.

  5. Synchronization of cells with activator-inhibitor pathways through adaptive environment-mediated coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghomsi, P. Guemkam; Moukam Kakmeni, F. M.; Tchawoua, C.; Kofane, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we report the synchronized dynamics of cells with activator-inhibitor pathways via an adaptive environment-mediated coupling scheme with feedbacks and control mechanisms. The adaptive character of the extracellular medium is modeled via its damping parameter as a physiological response aiming at annihilating the cellular differentiation existing between the chaotic biochemical pathways of the cells, in order to preserve homeostasis. We perform an investigation on the existence and stability of the synchronization manifold of the coupled system under the proposed coupling pattern. Both mathematical and computational tools suggest the accessibility of conducive prerequisites (conditions) for the emergence of a robust synchronous regime. The relevance of a phase-synchronized dynamics is appraised and several numerical indicators advocate for the prevalence of this fascinating phenomenon among the interacting cells in the phase space.

  6. Smartphone-Supported versus Full Behavioural Activation for Depression: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kien Hoa Ly

    Full Text Available There is need for more cost and time effective treatments for depression. This is the first randomised controlled trial in which a blended treatment--including four face-to-face sessions and a smartphone application--was compared against a full behavioural treatment. Hence, the aim of the current paper was to examine whether a blended smartphone treatment was non-inferior to a full behavioural activation treatment for depression.This was a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial (NCT01819025 comparing a blended treatment (n=46 against a full ten-session treatment (n=47 for people suffering from major depression. Primary outcome measure was the BDI-II, that was administered at pre- and post-treatment, as well as six months after the treatment.Results showed significant improvements in both groups across time on the primary outcome measure (within-group Cohen's d=1.35; CI [-0.82, 3.52] to d=1.47; CI [-0.41, 3.35]; between group d=-0.13 CI [-2.37, 2.09] and d=-0.10 CI [-2.53, 2.33]. At the same time, the blended treatment reduced the therapist time with an average of 47%.We could not establish whether the blended treatment was non-inferior to a full BA treatment. Nevertheless, this study points to that the blended treatment approach could possibly treat nearly twice as many patients suffering from depression by using a smartphone application as add-on. More studies are needed before we can suggest that the blended treatment method is a promising cost-effective alternative to regular face-to-face treatment for depression.Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treatment of Depression With Smartphone Support NCT01819025.

  7. The role of CNS TLR2 activation in mediating innate versus adaptive neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Avital; Fainstein, Nina; Einstein, Ofira; Ben-Hur, Tamir

    2015-11-01

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is expressed on immune cells in the periphery and the CNS and mediates both innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent studies have implicated TLR2 in systemic pathogenesis of adaptive immunity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In addition, TLR2 is expressed on oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and its activation inhibits their differentiation and myelination. We investigated the roles of CNS TLR2 activation in mediating neuro-inflammatory responses in intact versus EAE animals. We examined the effects of intra-cerebro-ventricular (ICV) injection of Zymosan, a TLR2 agonist, on naive versus EAE animals. The neuro-inflammatory response was characterized by immune-fluorescent staining for IBA-1+ microglia/macrophages and CD3+ T cells, and by semi-quantitative real time PCR for TLR2 and immune cytokines. The nature of the immune cells isolated from EAE brain tissue was assessed by their proliferative response to the PLP peptide autoantigen. Survival and clinical scores were monitored; demyelination and axonal loss were quantified by Gold-Black and Bielschowsky stains. Our findings showed that Zymosan injection in naïve mice induced a massive neuro-inflammatory response without any clinical manifestations. In EAE mice, ICV Zymosan induced a severe acute toxic response with 80% mortality. Surviving animals returned to pre-injection clinical score, and their course of disease was not altered as compared to control EAE group. Demyelination and axonal loss were not affected by ICV Zymosan injection. Quantification of immune response in the brain by real time PCR, immunofluorescent stains and proliferative response to PLP peptide suggested that TLR2 activation induces innate but not adaptive immune response. We conclude that EAE mice are hypersensitive to CNS TLR2 activation with a severe toxic response. This might represent the susceptibility of multiple sclerosis patients to even trivial infections. As CNS TLR2 activation

  8. Designing clinical trials for assessing the effects of cognitive training and physical activity interventions on cognitive outcomes: The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program Pilot (SHARP-P Study, a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejeski W Jack

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of non-pharmacological intervention approaches such as physical activity, strength, and cognitive training for improving brain health has not been established. Before definitive trials are mounted, important design questions on participation/adherence, training and interventions effects must be answered to more fully inform a full-scale trial. Methods SHARP-P was a single-blinded randomized controlled pilot trial of a 4-month physical activity training intervention (PA and/or cognitive training intervention (CT in a 2 × 2 factorial design with a health education control condition in 73 community-dwelling persons, aged 70-85 years, who were at risk for cognitive decline but did not have mild cognitive impairment. Results Intervention attendance rates were higher in the CT and PACT groups: CT: 96%, PA: 76%, PACT: 90% (p=0.004, the interventions produced marked changes in cognitive and physical performance measures (p≤0.05, and retention rates exceeded 90%. There were no statistically significant differences in 4-month changes in composite scores of cognitive, executive, and episodic memory function among arms. Four-month improvements in the composite measure increased with age among participants assigned to physical activity training but decreased with age for other participants (intervention*age interaction p = 0.01. Depending on the choice of outcome, two-armed full-scale trials may require fewer than 1,000 participants (continuous outcome or 2,000 participants (categorical outcome. Conclusions Good levels of participation, adherence, and retention appear to be achievable for participants through age 85 years. Care should be taken to ensure that an attention control condition does not attenuate intervention effects. Depending on the choice of outcome measures, the necessary sample sizes to conduct four-year trials appear to be feasible. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00688155

  9. Selection pressure, cropping system and rhizosphere proximity affect atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrazine degrader populations and activity in s-triazine adapted soils are likely affected by interactions among and (or) between s-triazine application frequency, crop production system, and proximity to the rhizosphere. A field study was conducted on an s-triazine adapted soil to determine the ef...

  10. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Judith Esi; de Vente, Wieke; Huizink, Anja C; Bögels, Susan M; de Bruin, Esther I

    2015-12-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and an introduction to the specific intervention techniques and 5 weeks of daily exercises at home. The PA exercises consisted of a vigorous-intensity activity of free choice. The MM exercises consisted of guided mindfulness meditation. The HRV-BF exercises consisted of slow breathing with a heart rate variability biofeedback device. Participants received daily reminders for their exercises and were contacted weekly to monitor their progress. They completed questionnaires prior to, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention. Results indicated an overall beneficial effect consisting of reduced stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improved psychological well-being and sleep quality. No significant between-intervention effect was found, suggesting that PA, MM, and HRV-BF are equally effective in reducing stress and its related symptoms. These self-help interventions provide easily accessible help for people with stress complaints. PMID:26111942

  11. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Judith Esi; de Vente, Wieke; Huizink, Anja C; Bögels, Susan M; de Bruin, Esther I

    2015-12-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and an introduction to the specific intervention techniques and 5 weeks of daily exercises at home. The PA exercises consisted of a vigorous-intensity activity of free choice. The MM exercises consisted of guided mindfulness meditation. The HRV-BF exercises consisted of slow breathing with a heart rate variability biofeedback device. Participants received daily reminders for their exercises and were contacted weekly to monitor their progress. They completed questionnaires prior to, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention. Results indicated an overall beneficial effect consisting of reduced stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improved psychological well-being and sleep quality. No significant between-intervention effect was found, suggesting that PA, MM, and HRV-BF are equally effective in reducing stress and its related symptoms. These self-help interventions provide easily accessible help for people with stress complaints.

  12. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelim L F D Gomes

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma.A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20 or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16. Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO, maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol and lung function.No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05. Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG.The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvement in their exercise capacity and a reduction in pulmonary inflammation.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294.

  13. Effects of dihydrocapsiate on adaptive and diet-induced thermogenesis with a high protein very low calorie diet: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerlin Alona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrocapsiate (DCT is a natural safe food ingredient which is structurally related to capsaicin from chili pepper and is found in the non-pungent pepper strain, CH-19 Sweet. It has been shown to elicit the thermogenic effects of capsaicin but without its gastrointestinal side effects. Methods The present study was designed to examine the effects of DCT on both adaptive thermogenesis as the result of caloric restriction with a high protein very low calorie diet (VLCD and to determine whether DCT would increase post-prandial energy expenditure (PPEE in response to a 400 kcal/60 g protein liquid test meal. Thirty-three subjects completed an outpatient very low calorie diet (800 kcal/day providing 120 g/day protein over 4 weeks and were randomly assigned to receive either DCT capsules three times per day (3 mg or 9 mg or placebo. At baseline and 4 weeks, fasting basal metabolic rate and PPEE were measured in a metabolic hood and fat free mass (FFM determined using displacement plethysmography (BOD POD. Results PPEE normalized to FFM was increased significantly in subjects receiving 9 mg/day DCT by comparison to placebo (p Conclusions These data provide evidence for postprandial increases in thermogenesis and fat oxidation secondary to administration of dihydrocapsiate. Trial registration clinicaltrial.govNCT01142687

  14. Activity Increase Despite Arthritis (AÏDA: design of a Phase II randomised controlled trial evaluating an active management booklet for hip and knee osteoarthritis [ISRCTN24554946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Rhiannon T

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip and knee osteoarthritis is a common cause of pain and disability, which can be improved by exercise interventions. However, regular exercise is uncommon in this group because the low physical activity level in the general population is probably reduced even further by pain related fear of movement. The best method of encouraging increased activity in this patient group is not known. A booklet has been developed for patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis. It focuses on changing disadvantageous beliefs and encouraging increased physical activity. Methods/Design This paper describes the design of a Phase II randomised controlled trial (RCT to test the effectiveness of this new booklet for patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis in influencing illness and treatment beliefs, and to assess the feasibility of conducting a larger definitive RCT in terms of health status and exercise behaviour. A computerised search of four general medical practice patients' record databases will identify patients older than 50 years of age who have consulted with hip or knee pain in the previous twelve months. A random sample of 120 will be invited to participate in the RCT comparing the new booklet with a control booklet, and we expect 100 to return final questionnaires. This trial will assess the feasibility of recruitment and randomisation, the suitability of the control intervention and outcome measurement tools, and will provide an estimate of effect size. Outcomes will include beliefs about hip and knee pain, beliefs about exercise, fear avoidance, level of physical activity, health status and health service costs. They will be measured at baseline, one month and three months. Discussion We discuss the merits of testing effectiveness in a phase II trial, in terms of intermediate outcome measures, whilst testing the processes for a larger definitive trial. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of testing the psychometric

  15. USE OF SUBCUTANEOUS METHOTREXATE FOR THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ACTIVE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: THE REMARCA TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Karateev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The early administration of methotrexate (MTX and the use of its high (by the rheumatology practice standards doses contribute to the enhanced efficiency of therapy and the reduced severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. One of the important merits of MTX in the treatment of RA is the possibility of adjusting its dose and choosing its (oral or subcutaneous administration routes, which makes it possible to individualize treatment. Particular emphasis has been recently placed just on a subcutaneous MTX formulation that creates prerequisites for substantially improving the efficiency of RA therapy. The paper gives the data of the REMARCA (Russian investigation of methotrexate and biologicals for early active arthritis trial assessing the results of RA treatment in the use of the subcutaneous MTX dosage form as a first-line drug and in the elaboration of management tactics for this disease.Subjects and methods. The investigation included 191 patients (34 men and 157 women with active RA; of whom 51.8% had very early RA (< 6 months' disease duration. 115 patients with RA completed a 24-month follow-up period; and their data were analyzed in more detail.Results and discussion. The findings may substantiate treatment policy based on the prescription of subcutaneous MTX (without previously administering its oral formulation in patients with early RA and high disease activity, starting the drug at 15 mg/week and rapidly escalating with the highest tolerable doses during 4-8 weeks, which allows remission (or low disease activity in the majority of patients without using glucocorticoids and biological agents.

  16. Short- and long-term effects of a physical activity counselling programme in COPD : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, Wytske A.; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Bossenbroek, Linda; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; de Greef, Mathieu H.G.; Wempe, Johan B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We were interested in the effects of a physical activity (PA) counselling programme in three groups of COPD patients from general practice (primary care), outpatient clinic (secondary care) and pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Methods: In this randomized controlled trial 155 COPD patients,

  17. Methods of deriving EULAR/ACR recommendations on reporting disease activity in clinical trials of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karonitsch, T.; Aletaha, D.; Boers, M.; Bombardieri, S.; Combe, B.; Dougados, M.; Emery, P.; Felson, D.; Gomez-Reino, J.; Keystone, E.; Kvien, T.K.; Martin-Mola, E.; Matucci-Cerinic, M.; Richards, P.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Siegel, J.; Smolen, J.S.; Sokka, T.; Heijde, D. van der; Vollenhoven, R. van; Ward, M.; Wells, G.; Zink, A.; Landewe, R.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use an evidence-based and consensus-based approach to elaborate recommendations on how to report disease activity in clinical trials of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) endorsed by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). MET

  18. Randomized Trial of Behavioral Activation, Cognitive Therapy, and Antidepressant Medication in the Prevention of Relapse and Recurrence in Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Keith S.; Hollon, Steven D.; Dimidjian, Sona; Schmaling, Karen B.; Kohlenberg, Robert J.; Gallop, Robert J.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Gollan, Jackie K.; Dunner, David L.; Jacobson, Neil S.

    2008-01-01

    This study followed treatment responders from a randomized controlled trial of adults with major depression. Patients treated with medication but withdrawn onto pill-placebo had more relapse through 1 year of follow-up compared to patients who received prior behavioral activation, prior cognitive therapy, or continued medication. Prior…

  19. EPA Water Resources Adaptation Program (WRAP) Research and Development Activities Methods and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptation to environmental change is not a new concept. Humans have shown throughout history a capacity for adapting to different climates and environmental changes. Farmers, foresters, civil engineers, have all been forced to adapt to numerous challenges to overcome adversity...

  20. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT) an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: Cluster-randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell Karen; Hesketh Kylie; Crawford David; Salmon Jo; Ball Kylie; McCallum Zoë

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour) from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding A...

  1. Multi-GPU adaptation of a simulator of heart electric activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. García

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of the electrical activity of the heart is calculated by solving a large system of ordinary differential equations; this takes an enormous amount of computation time. In recent years graphics processing unit (GPU are being introduced in the field of high performance computing. These powerful computing devices have attracted research groups requiring simulate the electrical activity of the heart. The research group signing this paper has developed a simulator of cardiac electrical activity that runs on a single GPU. This article describes the adaptation and modification of the simulator to run on multiple GPU. The results confirm that the technique significantly reduces the execution time compared to those obtained with a single GPU, and allows the solution of larger problems.

  2. Plant adaptation to extreme environments: the example of Cistus salviifolius of an active geothermal alteration field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Giacomo; Bottega, Stefania; Forino, Laura M C; Ciccarelli, Daniela; Spanò, Carmelina

    2014-02-01

    Cistus salviifolius is able to colonise one of the most extreme active geothermal alteration fields in terms of both soil acidity and hot temperatures. The analyses of morpho-functional and physiological characters, investigated in leaves of plants growing around fumaroles (G leaves) and in leaves developed by the same plants after transfer into growth chamber under controlled conditions (C leaves) evidenced the main adaptive traits developed by this pioneer plant in a stressful environment. These traits involved leaf shape and thickness, mesophyll compactness, stomatal and trichome densities, chloroplast size. Changes of functional and physiological traits concerned dry matter content, peroxide and lipid peroxidation, leaf area, relative water and pigment contents. A higher reducing power and antioxidant enzymatic activity were typical of G leaves. Though the high levels of stress parameters, G leaves showed stress-induced specific morphogenic and physiological responses putatively involved in their surviving in active geothermal habitats.

  3. Community dynamics and glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, J.M.; Allgaier, M.; Miller, C.S.; Hazen, T.C.; VanderGheynst, J.S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Simmons, B.A.; Singer, S.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60 C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80 C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

  4. A comparison of two adaptive algorithms for the control of active engine mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, A. J.; Harrison, A. J. L.; Stoten, D. P.

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes work conducted in order to control automotive active engine mounts, consisting of a conventional passive mount and an internal electromagnetic actuator. Active engine mounts seek to cancel the oscillatory forces generated by the rotation of out-of-balance masses within the engine. The actuator generates a force dependent on a control signal from an algorithm implemented with a real-time DSP. The filtered-x least-mean-square (FXLMS) adaptive filter is used as a benchmark for comparison with a new implementation of the error-driven minimal controller synthesis (Er-MCSI) adaptive controller. Both algorithms are applied to an active mount fitted to a saloon car equipped with a four-cylinder turbo-diesel engine, and have no a priori knowledge of the system dynamics. The steady-state and transient performance of the two algorithms are compared and the relative merits of the two approaches are discussed. The Er-MCSI strategy offers significant computational advantages as it requires no cancellation path modelling. The Er-MCSI controller is found to perform in a fashion similar to the FXLMS filter—typically reducing chassis vibration by 50-90% under normal driving conditions.

  5. Protocol for the PACE trial: A randomised controlled trial of adaptive pacing, cognitive behaviour therapy, and graded exercise as supplements to standardised specialist medical care versus standardised specialist medical care alone for patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis or encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeCesare Julia C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, also called myalgic encephalomyelitis/encephalopathy or ME is a debilitating condition with no known cause or cure. Improvement may occur with medical care and additional therapies of pacing, cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy. The latter two therapies have been found to be efficacious in small trials, but patient organisations' surveys have reported adverse effects. Although pacing has been advocated by patient organisations, it lacks empirical support. Specialist medical care is commonly provided but its efficacy when given alone is not established. This trial compares the efficacy of the additional therapies when added to specialist medical care against specialist medical care alone. Methods/Design 600 patients, who meet operationalised diagnostic criteria for CFS, will be recruited from secondary care into a randomised trial of four treatments, stratified by current comorbid depressive episode and different CFS/ME criteria. The four treatments are standardised specialist medical care either given alone, or with adaptive pacing therapy or cognitive behaviour therapy or graded exercise therapy. Supplementary therapies will involve fourteen sessions over 23 weeks and a 'booster session' at 36 weeks. Outcome will be assessed at 12, 24, and 52 weeks after randomisation. Two primary outcomes of self-rated fatigue and physical function will assess differential effects of each treatment on these measures. Secondary outcomes include adverse events and reactions, subjective measures of symptoms, mood, sleep and function and objective measures of physical activity, fitness, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. The primary analysis will be based on intention to treat and will use logistic regression models to compare treatments. Secondary outcomes will be analysed by repeated measures analysis of variance with a linear mixed model. All analyses will allow for stratification

  6. A New Hyperchaotic System and the Synchronization Using Active Variable Universe Adaptive Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojie Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new hyperchaotic system by introducing an additional state variable into Lorenz system. The system’s characteristics, including the dissipativity, equilibrium, and Lyapunov exponents, are studied. A controller is developed which consists of an active control term and a variable universe adaptive fuzzy system. By using this controller, the synchronization of the new hyperchaotic systems with uncertain linear part is accomplished according to Lyapunov’s direct method. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Anti-biofilm activities from marine cold adapted bacteria against staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna ePapa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms have great negative impacts on the world’s economy and pose serious problems to industry, public health and medicine. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation has increased. Since, bacterial pathogens living in biofilm induce persistent chronic infections due to the resistance to antibiotics and host immune system. A viable approach should target adhesive properties without affecting bacterial vitality in order to avoid the appearance of resistant mutants. Many bacteria secrete anti-biofilm molecules that function in regulating biofilm architecture or mediating the release of cells from it during the dispersal stage of biofilm life cycle. Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules.The anti-biofilm activity of cell-free supernatants derived from sessile and planktonic cultures of cold-adapted bacteria belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter and Psychromonas species were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Reported results demonstrate that we have selected supernatants, from cold-adapted marine bacteria, containing non-biocidal agents able to destabilize biofilm matrix of all tested pathogens without killing cells. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of supernatants was also performed, and these analyses highlighted the presence of molecules of different nature that act by inhibiting biofilm formation. Some of them are also able to impair the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface, thus likely containing molecules acting as anti-biofilm surfactant molecules.The described ability of cold-adapted bacteria to produce effective anti-biofilm molecules paves the way to further characterization of the most promising molecules

  8. Anti-Biofilm Activities from Marine Cold Adapted Bacteria Against Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Rosanna; Selan, Laura; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Tilotta, Marco; Sannino, Filomena; Feller, Georges; Tutino, Maria L; Artini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Microbial biofilms have great negative impacts on the world's economy and pose serious problems to industry, public health and medicine. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation has increased. Since, bacterial pathogens living in biofilm induce persistent chronic infections due to the resistance to antibiotics and host immune system. A viable approach should target adhesive properties without affecting bacterial vitality in order to avoid the appearance of resistant mutants. Many bacteria secrete anti-biofilm molecules that function in regulating biofilm architecture or mediating the release of cells from it during the dispersal stage of biofilm life cycle. Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules. The anti-biofilm activity of cell-free supernatants derived from sessile and planktonic cultures of cold-adapted bacteria belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, and Psychromonas species were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Reported results demonstrate that we have selected supernatants, from cold-adapted marine bacteria, containing non-biocidal agents able to destabilize biofilm matrix of all tested pathogens without killing cells. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of supernatants was also performed, and these analyses highlighted the presence of molecules of different nature that act by inhibiting biofilm formation. Some of them are also able to impair the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface, thus likely containing molecules acting as anti-biofilm surfactant molecules. The described ability of cold-adapted bacteria to produce effective anti-biofilm molecules paves the way to further characterization of the most promising molecules and to test their

  9. Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: The al-Andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell-Baeza Ana; Ruiz Jonatan R; Aparicio Virginia A; Ortega Francisco B; Munguía-Izquierdo Diego; Álvarez-Gallardo Inmaculada C; Segura-Jiménez Víctor; Camiletti-Moirón Daniel; Romero Alejandro; Estévez-López Fernando; Samos Blanca; Casimiro Antonio J; Sierra Ángela; Latorre Pedro A; Pulido-Martos Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women...

  10. Orientation-dependent changes in single motor neuron activity during adaptive soft-bodied locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallo, Cinzia; Trimmer, Barry A

    2015-01-01

    Recent major advances in understanding the organizational principles underlying motor control have focused on a small number of animal species with stiff articulated skeletons. These model systems have the advantage of easily quantifiable mechanics, but the neural codes underlying different movements are difficult to characterize because they typically involve a large population of neurons controlling each muscle. As a result, studying how neural codes drive adaptive changes in behavior is extremely challenging. This problem is highly simplified in the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta, which, in its larval stage (caterpillar), is predominantly soft-bodied. Since each M. sexta muscle is innervated by one, occasionally two, excitatory motor neurons, the electrical activity generated by each muscle can be mapped to individual motor neurons. In the present study, muscle activation patterns were converted into motor neuron frequency patterns by identifying single excitatory junction potentials within recorded electromyographic traces. This conversion was carried out with single motor neuron resolution thanks to the high signal selectivity of newly developed flexible microelectrode arrays, which were specifically designed to record from M. sexta muscles. It was discovered that the timing of motor neuron activity and gait kinematics depend on the orientation of the plane of motion during locomotion. We report that, during climbing, the motor neurons monitored in the present study shift their activity to correlate with movements in the animal's more anterior segments. This orientation-dependent shift in motor activity is in agreement with the expected shift in the propulsive forces required for climbing. Our results suggest that, contrary to what has been previously hypothesized, M.sexta uses central command timing for adaptive load compensation. PMID:25765841

  11. Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharp Stephen J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there are compelling observational data confirming that individuals who exercise are healthier, the efficacy of aerobic exercise interventions to reduce metabolic risk and improve insulin sensitivity in older people has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, while low birth weight has been shown to predict adverse health outcomes later in life, its influence on the response to aerobic exercise is unknown. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of a fully supervised twelve week aerobic exercise intervention in reducing clustered metabolic risk in healthy older adults. A secondary objective is to determine the influence of low birth weight on the response to exercise in this group. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 100 participants born between 1931–1939, from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and randomly assign them to no intervention or to 36 fully supervised one hour sessions on a cycle ergometer, over twelve weeks. Each participant will undergo detailed anthropometric and metabolic assessment pre- and post-intervention, including muscle biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, objective measurement of physical activity and sub-maximal fitness testing. Discussion Given the extensive phenotypic characterization, this study will provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise as well as the efficacy, feasibility and safety of such interventions in this age group. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN60986572

  12. Physical Activity, Function, and Quality of Life: Design and Methods of the FlexToBa™ Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Edward; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; White, Siobhan M.; Mailey, Emily L.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Fanning, Jason; Motl, Robert W.; Rosengren, Karl; Estabrooks, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Flexibility, Toning, and Balance (FlexToBa™) Trial is a two-armed randomized controlled trial which will contrast the effects of a DVD-delivered, home-based, physical activity intervention and a Healthy Aging attention control condition on physical activity, functional performance, functional limitations, and quality of life in low active, older adults. This innovative trial will recruit 300 participants across central Illinois who will be randomized into the intervention arm or control arm of the study. The intervention will last 6 months with a 6 month follow-up. Assessments at baseline, post intervention and follow-up will include physical activity (self-report and accelerometry), a battery of functional performance measures, functional limitations, quality of life, and an array of psychological health measures. In addition, measures of external validity will be included to determine public health significance of a successful outcome. Participants will engage in a progressive series of activities focusing on flexibility, strengthening, and balance exercises which are demonstrated by a trained exercise leader and age-appropriate models on a series of DVDs. Delivery of the intervention has its basis in social cognitive theory. The specific aims of the trial are (a) to determine the effects of the DVD-delivered FlexToBa™ program on physical activity, functional performance, functional limitations, and quality of life, (b) to examine the mediators of the relationships between physical activity and functional limitations and quality of life, (c) to assess external validity indicators relative to the intervention, and (d) to determine differential effects of the intervention on psychosocial health measures. PMID:22024470

  13. Effects of the Web Behavior Change Program for Activity and Multimodal Pain Rehabilitation: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelson, Peter; Gard, Gunvor; Eriksson, Margareta K

    2016-01-01

    Background Web-based interventions with a focus on behavior change have been used for pain management, but studies of Web-based interventions integrated in clinical practice are lacking. To emphasize the development of cognitive skills and behavior, and to increase activity and self-care in rehabilitation, the Web Behavior Change Program for Activity (Web-BCPA) was developed and added to multimodal pain rehabilitation (MMR). Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate the effects of MMR in combination with the Web-BCPA compared with MMR among persons with persistent musculoskeletal pain in primary health care on pain intensity, self-efficacy, and copying, as part of a larger collection of data. Web-BCPA adherence and feasibility, as well as treatment satisfaction, were also investigated. Methods A total of 109 participants, mean age 43 (SD 11) years, with persistent pain in the back, neck, shoulder, and/or generalized pain were recruited to a randomized controlled trial with two intervention arms: (1) MMR+WEB (n=60) and (2) MMR (n=49). Participants in the MMR+WEB group self-guided through the eight modules of the Web-BCPA: pain, activity, behavior, stress and thoughts, sleep and negative thoughts, communication and self-esteem, solutions, and maintenance and progress. Data were collected with a questionnaire at baseline and at 4 and 12 months. Outcome measures were pain intensity (Visual Analog Scale), self-efficacy to control pain and to control other symptoms (Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale), general self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale), and coping (two-item Coping Strategies Questionnaire; CSQ). Web-BCPA adherence was measured as minutes spent in the program. Satisfaction and Web-BCPA feasibility were assessed by a set of items. Results Of 109 participants, 99 received the allocated intervention (MMR+WEB: n=55; MMR: n=44); 88 of 99 (82%) completed the baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed with a sample

  14. Intelligent Speed Adaptation for involuntary drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Juhl, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    The Danish Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) trial ISA C included 26 commercial cars and 51 drivers a number of whom were involuntary. After a baseline period, ISA was activated for one year. The drivers should identify themselves with a personal key ID before driving. As well as being informative...

  15. Speech Waveform Compression Using Robust Adaptive Voice Activity Detection for Nonstationary Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chun Wu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The voice activity detection (VAD is crucial in all kinds of speech applications. However, almost all existing VAD algorithms suffer from the nonstationarity of both speech and noise. To combat this difficulty, we propose a new voice activity detector, which is based on the Mel-energy features and an adaptive threshold related to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR estimates. In this paper, we first justify the robustness of the Bayes classifier using the Mel-energy features over that using the Fourier spectral features in various noise environments. Then, we design an algorithm using the dynamic Mel-energy estimator and the adaptive threshold, which depends on the SNR estimates. In addition, a realignment scheme is incorporated to correct the sparse-and-spurious noise estimates. Numerous simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of our proposed VAD method and the comparisons are made with a couple of existing representative schemes, namely, the VAD using the likelihood ratio test with Fourier spectral energy features and that based on the enhanced time-frequency parameters. Three types of noises, namely, white noise (stationary, babble noise (nonstationary, and vehicular noise (nonstationary were artificially added by the computer for our experiments. As a result, our proposed VAD algorithm significantly outperforms other existing methods as illustrated by the corresponding receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves. Finally, we demonstrate one of the major applications, namely, speech waveform compression associated with our new robust VAD scheme and quantify the effectiveness in terms of compression efficiency.

  16. Adaptive neural networks control for camera stabilization with active suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The camera always suffers from image instability on the moving vehicle due to unintentional vibrations caused by road roughness. This article presents an adaptive neural network approach mixed with linear quadratic regulator control for a quarter-car active suspension system to stabilize the image captured area of the camera. An active suspension system provides extra force through the actuator which allows it to suppress vertical vibration of sprung mass. First, to deal with the road disturbance and the system uncertainties, radial basis function neural network is proposed to construct the map between the state error and the compensation component, which can correct the optimal state-feedback control law. The weights matrix of radial basis function neural network is adaptively tuned online. Then, the closed-loop stability and asymptotic convergence performance is guaranteed by Lyapunov analysis. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller effectively suppresses the vibration of the camera and enhances the stabilization of the entire camera, where different excitations are considered to validate the system performance.

  17. IIR filtering based adaptive active vibration control methodology with online secondary path modeling using PZT actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, Utku; Basdogan, Ipek

    2015-12-01

    Structural vibrations is a major cause for noise problems, discomfort and mechanical failures in aerospace, automotive and marine systems, which are mainly composed of plate-like structures. In order to reduce structural vibrations on these structures, active vibration control (AVC) is an effective approach. Adaptive filtering methodologies are preferred in AVC due to their ability to adjust themselves for varying dynamics of the structure during the operation. The filtered-X LMS (FXLMS) algorithm is a simple adaptive filtering algorithm widely implemented in active control applications. Proper implementation of FXLMS requires availability of a reference signal to mimic the disturbance and model of the dynamics between the control actuator and the error sensor, namely the secondary path. However, the controller output could interfere with the reference signal and the secondary path dynamics may change during the operation. This interference problem can be resolved by using an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter which considers feedback of the one or more previous control signals to the controller output and the changing secondary path dynamics can be updated using an online modeling technique. In this paper, IIR filtering based filtered-U LMS (FULMS) controller is combined with online secondary path modeling algorithm to suppress the vibrations of a plate-like structure. The results are validated through numerical and experimental studies. The results show that the FULMS with online secondary path modeling approach has more vibration rejection capabilities with higher convergence rate than the FXLMS counterpart.

  18. Adaptive Neural-Sliding Mode Control of Active Suspension System for Camera Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The camera always suffers from image instability on the moving vehicle due to the unintentional vibrations caused by road roughness. This paper presents a novel adaptive neural network based on sliding mode control strategy to stabilize the image captured area of the camera. The purpose is to suppress vertical displacement of sprung mass with the application of active suspension system. Since the active suspension system has nonlinear and time varying characteristics, adaptive neural network (ANN is proposed to make the controller robustness against systematic uncertainties, which release the model-based requirement of the sliding model control, and the weighting matrix is adjusted online according to Lyapunov function. The control system consists of two loops. The outer loop is a position controller designed with sliding mode strategy, while the PID controller in the inner loop is to track the desired force. The closed loop stability and asymptotic convergence performance can be guaranteed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the simulation results show that the employed controller effectively suppresses the vibration of the camera and enhances the stabilization of the entire camera, where different excitations are considered to validate the system performance.

  19. Support or competition? How online social networks increase physical activity: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwen; Brackbill, Devon; Yang, Sijia; Becker, Joshua; Herbert, Natalie; Centola, Damon

    2016-12-01

    To identify what features of online social networks can increase physical activity, we conducted a 4-arm randomized controlled trial in 2014 in Philadelphia, PA. Students (n = 790, mean age = 25.2) at an university were randomly assigned to one of four conditions composed of either supportive or competitive relationships and either with individual or team incentives for attending exercise classes. The social comparison condition placed participants into 6-person competitive networks with individual incentives. The social support condition placed participants into 6-person teams with team incentives. The combined condition with both supportive and competitive relationships placed participants into 6-person teams, where participants could compare their team's performance to 5 other teams' performances. The control condition only allowed participants to attend classes with individual incentives. Rewards were based on the total number of classes attended by an individual, or the average number of classes attended by the members of a team. The outcome was the number of classes that participants attended. Data were analyzed using multilevel models in 2014. The mean attendance numbers per week were 35.7, 38.5, 20.3, and 16.8 in the social comparison, the combined, the control, and the social support conditions. Attendance numbers were 90% higher in the social comparison and the combined conditions (mean = 1.9, SE = 0.2) in contrast to the two conditions without comparison (mean = 1.0, SE = 0.2) (p = 0.003). Social comparison was more effective for increasing physical activity than social support and its effects did not depend on individual or team incentives. PMID:27617191

  20. Functional Based Adaptive and Fuzzy Sliding Controller for Non-Autonomous Active Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiuh-Jer; Chen, Hung-Yi

    In this paper, an adaptive sliding controller is developed for controlling a vehicle active suspension system. The functional approximation technique is employed to substitute the unknown non-autonomous functions of the suspension system and release the model-based requirement of sliding mode control algorithm. In order to improve the control performance and reduce the implementation problem, a fuzzy strategy with online learning ability is added to compensate the functional approximation error. The update laws of the functional approximation coefficients and the fuzzy tuning parameters are derived from the Lyapunov theorem to guarantee the system stability. The proposed controller is implemented on a quarter-car hydraulic actuating active suspension system test-rig. The experimental results show that the proposed controller suppresses the oscillation amplitude of the suspension system effectively.

  1. Optimal and Adaptive Virtual Unidirectional Sound Source in Active Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Bismor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems concerned with active noise control is the existence of acoustical feedback between the control value (“active” loudspeaker output and the reference signal. Various experiments show that such feedback can seriously decrease effects of attenuation or even make the whole ANC system unstable. This paper presents a detailed analysis of one of possible approaches allowing to deal with acoustical feedback, namely, virtual unidirectional sound source. With this method, two loudspeakers are used together with control algorithm assuring that the combined behaviour of the pair makes virtual propagation of sound only in one direction. Two different designs are presented for the application of active noise control in an acoustic duct: analytical (leading to fixed controller and adaptive. The algorithm effectiveness in simulations and real experiments for both solutions is showed, discussed, and compared.

  2. Contractile activity-induced adaptations in the mitochondrial protein import system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M; Chesley, A; Freyssenet, D; Hood, D A

    1998-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondrial subfractions import proteins at different rates. This study was undertaken to investigate 1) whether protein import is altered by chronic contractile activity, which induces mitochondrial biogenesis, and 2) whether these two subfractions adapt similarly. Using electrical stimulation (10 Hz, 3 h/day for 7 and 14 days) to induce contractile activity, we observed that malate dehydrogenase import into the matrix of the SS and IMF mitochondia isolated from stimulated muscle was significantly increased by 1.4-to 1.7-fold, although the pattern of increase differed for each subfraction. This acceleration of import may be mitochondrial compartment specific, since the import of Bcl-2 into the outer membrane was not affected. Contractile activity also modified the mitochondrial content of proteins comprising the import machinery, as evident from increases in the levels of the intramitochondrial chaperone mtHSP70 as well as the outer membrane import receptor Tom20 in SS and IMF mitochondria. Addition of cytosol isolated from stimulated or control muscles to the import reaction resulted in similar twofold increases in the ability of mitochondria to import malate dehydrogenase, despite elevations in the concentration of mitochondrial import-stimulating factor within the cytosol of chronically stimulated muscle. These results suggest that chronic contractile activity modifies the extra- and intramitochondrial environments in a fashion that favors the acceleration of precursor protein import into the matrix of the organelle. This increase in protein import is likely an important adaptation in the overall process of mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:9612226

  3. Coordinated activity of ventral tegmental neurons adapts to appetitive and aversive learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbok Kim

    Full Text Available Our understanding of how value-related information is encoded in the ventral tegmental area (VTA is based mainly on the responses of individual putative dopamine neurons. In contrast to cortical areas, the nature of coordinated interactions between groups of VTA neurons during motivated behavior is largely unknown. These interactions can strongly affect information processing, highlighting the importance of investigating network level activity. We recorded the activity of multiple single units and local field potentials (LFP in the VTA during a task in which rats learned to associate novel stimuli with different outcomes. We found that coordinated activity of VTA units with either putative dopamine or GABA waveforms was influenced differently by rewarding versus aversive outcomes. Specifically, after learning, stimuli paired with a rewarding outcome increased the correlation in activity levels between unit pairs whereas stimuli paired with an aversive outcome decreased the correlation. Paired single unit responses also became more redundant after learning. These response patterns flexibly tracked the reversal of contingencies, suggesting that learning is associated with changing correlations and enhanced functional connectivity between VTA neurons. Analysis of LFP recorded simultaneously with unit activity showed an increase in the power of theta oscillations when stimuli predicted reward but not an aversive outcome. With learning, a higher proportion of putative GABA units were phase locked to the theta oscillations than putative dopamine units. These patterns also adapted when task contingencies were changed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VTA neurons organize flexibly as functional networks to support appetitive and aversive learning.

  4. [Activity and Future Perspective of Local Independent Clinical Trial Group (OGSG)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujinaka, Toshimasa

    2016-04-01

    Osaka Gastrointestinal Cancer Chemotherapy Study Group (OGSG) was established in 2000 and has been conducting investigator initiated multi-institutional collaboration trials regarding the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, especially using chemotherapeutic agents. Although organization of OGSG has been renovated to perform post-marketing clinical trials with high quality, OGSG is now facing severe financial crisis because of shortage of donation from pharmaceutical companies. Here, present problems and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:27220796

  5. A cluster randomised trial of a school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: study protocol for the ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone’ trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherland Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is an established period of physical activity decline. Multi-component school-based interventions have the potential to slow the decline in adolescents’ physical activity; however, few interventions have been conducted in schools located in low-income or disadvantaged communities. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention in reducing the decline in physical activity among students attending secondary schools located in disadvantaged communities. Methods/Design The cluster randomised trial will be conducted with 10 secondary schools located in selected regions of New South Wales, Australia. The schools will be selected from areas that have a level of socio-economic status that is below the state average. Five schools will be allocated to receive an intervention based on the Health Promoting Schools framework, and will be supported by a part-time physical activity consultant placed in intervention schools who will implement a range of intervention adoption strategies. Study measures will be taken at baseline when students are in Year 7 (12–13 years and again after 12- and 24-months. The primary outcome, minutes of moderate- to-vigorous- intensity physical activity per day and percentage of time in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA, will be objectively assessed using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3x+. Group allocation and intervention delivery will commence after baseline data collection. The intervention will continue during school terms through to 24-month follow-up. Discussion The study will provide evidence regarding the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention that includes an in-school physical activity consultant targeting the physical activity levels of adolescents in disadvantaged Australian secondary schools. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000382875.

  6. More Active Mums in Stirling (MAMMiS: a physical activity intervention for postnatal women. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilinsky Alyssa S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many postnatal women are insufficiently physically active in the year after childbirth and could benefit from interventions to increase activity levels. However, there is limited information about the efficacy, feasibility and acceptability of motivational and behavioral interventions promoting postnatal physical activity in the UK. Methods The MAMMiS study is a randomized, controlled trial, conducted within a large National Health Service (NHS region in Scotland. Up to 76 postnatal women will be recruited to test the impact of two physical activity consultations and a 10-week group pram-walking program on physical activity behavior change. The intervention uses evidence-based motivational and behavioral techniques and will be systematically evaluated using objective measures (accelerometers at three months, with a maintenance measure taken at a six-month follow-up. Secondary health and well-being measures and psychological mediators of physical activity change are included. Discussion The (MAMMiS study will provide a test of a theoretical and evidence-based physical activity behavior change intervention for postnatal women and provide information to inform future intervention development and testing within this population. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN79011784

  7. Informing hot flash treatment decisions for breast cancer survivors: a systematic review of randomized trials comparing active interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Claire; Seav, Susan M; Dominick, Sally A; Gorman, Jessica R; Li, Hongying; Natarajan, Loki; Mao, Jun James; Su, H Irene

    2016-04-01

    Patient-centered decision making about hot flash treatments often incorporates a balance of efficacy and side effects in addition to patient preference. This systematic review examines randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing at least two non-hormonal hot flash treatments in breast cancer survivors. In July 2015, PubMed, SCOPUS, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases were searched for RCTs comparing active, non-hormonal hot flash treatments in female breast cancer survivors. Thirteen trials were included after identifying 906 potential studies. Four trials were dose comparison studies of pharmacologic treatments citalopram, venlafaxine, gabapentin, and paroxetine. Hot flash reduction did not differ by tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor use. Citalopram 10, 20, and 30 mg daily had comparable outcomes. Venlafaxine 75 mg daily improved hot flashes without additional side effects from higher dosing. Gabapentin 900 mg daily improved hot flashes more than 300 mg. Paroxetine 10 mg daily had fewer side effects than 20 mg. Among four trials comparing different pharmacologic treatments, venlafaxine alleviated hot flash symptoms faster than clonidine; participants preferred venlafaxine over gabapentin. Five trials compared pharmacologic to non-pharmacologic treatments. Acupuncture had similar efficacy to venlafaxine and gabapentin but may have longer durability after completing treatment and fewer side effects. We could not perform a pooled meta-analysis because outcomes were not reported in comparable formats. Clinical trial data on non-hormonal hot flash treatments provide comparisons of hot flash efficacy and other patient important outcomes to guide clinical management. Clinicians can use the information to help patients select hot flash interventions. PMID:27015968

  8. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition. Set III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others

    The predominant focus of the 24 Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set III activities is on animal behavior, and the adaptations and diversity of both plants and animals. Night time activities, games, investigation, experimentation, and crafts are used to study ants, birds, clams, water snails, water striders, spiders,…

  9. Surgery versus Active Monitoring in Intermittent Exotropia (SamExo: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buck Deborah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood intermittent exotropia [X(T] is a type of strabismus (squint in which one eye deviates outward at times, usually when the child is tired. It may progress to a permanent squint, loss of stereovision and/or amblyopia (reduced vision. Treatment options for X(T include eye patches, glasses, surgery and active monitoring. There is no consensus regarding how this condition should be managed, and even when surgery is the preferred option clinicians disagree as to the optimal timing. Reports on the natural history of X(T are limited, and there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT evidence on the effectiveness or efficiency of surgery compared with active monitoring. The SamExo (Surgery versus Active Monitoring in Intermittent Exotropia pilot study has been designed to test the feasibility of such a trial in the UK. Methods Design: an external pilot patient randomised controlled trial. Setting: four UK secondary ophthalmology care facilities at Newcastle NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Moorfields Eye Hospital and York NHS Trust. Participants: children aged between 6 months and 16 years referred with suspected and subsequently diagnosed X(T. Recruitment target is a total of 144 children over a 9-month period, with 120 retained by 9-month outcome visit. Randomisation: permuted blocks stratified by collaborating centre, age and severity of X(T. Interventions: initial clinical assessment; randomisation (eye muscle surgery or active monitoring; 3-, 6- and 9-month (primary outcome clinical assessments; participant/proxy completed questionnaire covering time and travel costs, health services use and quality of life (Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire; qualitative interviews with parents to establish reasons for agreeing or declining participation in the pilot trial. Outcomes: recruitment and retention rates; nature and extent of participation bias; nature and extent of biases arising from crossover or

  10. Gamified physical activation of young men – a Multidisciplinary Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial (MOPO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahola Riikka

    2013-01-01

    for activating young men can provide a translational model for community use. It can also be utilized as such or tailored to other selected populations or age groups. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01376986

  11. A school-based randomized controlled trial to improve physical activity among Iranian high school girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghofranipour Fazloalha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA rates decline precipitously during the high school years and are consistently lower among adolescent girls than adolescent boys. Due to cultural barriers, this problem might be exacerbated in female Iranian adolescents. However, little intervention research has been conducted to try to increase PA participation rates with this population. Because PA interventions in schools have the potential to reach many children and adolescents, this study reports on PA intervention research conducted in all-female Iranian high schools. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the effects of two six-month tailored interventions on potential determinants of PA and PA behavior. Students (N = 161 were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: an intervention based on Pender's Health Promotion model (HP, an intervention based on an integration of the health promotion model and selected constructs from the Transtheoretical model (THP, and a control group (CON. Measures were administered prior to the intervention, at post-intervention and at a six-month follow-up. Results Repeated measure ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between group and time for perceived benefits, self efficacy, interpersonal norms, social support, behavioral processes, and PA behavior, indicating that both intervention groups significantly improved across the 24-week intervention, whereas the control group did not. Participants in the THP group showed greater use of counter conditioning and stimulus control at post-intervention and at follow-up. While there were no significant differences in PA between the HP and CON groups at follow-up, a significant difference was still found between the THP and the CON group. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence of the effectiveness of a PA intervention based on Pender's HP model combined with selected aspects of the TTM on potential determinants to increase PA among

  12. Protocol for a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of physical activity on delaying the progression of white matter changes on MRI in older adults with memory complaints and mild cognitive impairment: The AIBL Active trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyarto Elizabeth V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults free of dementia but with subjective memory complaints (SMC or mild cognitive impairment (MCI are considered at increased risk of cognitive decline. Vascular risk factors (VRF, including hypertension, heart disease, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and lack of physical activity (PA have been identified as modifiable risk factors contributing to cognitive decline, and white matter hyperintensities (WMH are associated with VRF, SMC and cognitive impairment. Findings from a growing number of clinical trials with older adults are providing strong evidence for the benefits of physical activity for maintaining cognitive function, but few studies are investigating these benefits in high-risk populations. The aim of AIBL Active is to determine whether a 24-month physical activity program can delay the progression of white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Methods/design This single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT is offered to 156 participants, aged 60 and older, in the Melbourne arm of the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Aging (AIBL. Participants must have SMC with or without MCI and at least one VRF. The PA intervention is a modification of the intervention previously trialed in older adults with SMC and MCI (Fitness for the Ageing Brain Study. It comprises 24 months of moderate, home-based PA (150 minutes per week and a behavioral intervention package. The primary outcome measure will be change in WMH after 24 months on MRI. Cognition, quality of life, functional fitness, level of physical activity, plasma biomarkers for cerebrovascular disease and amyloid positron emission tomography (PET imaging comprise secondary measures. Discussion Currently, there is no effective pharmacological treatment available to delay cognitive decline and dementia in older adults at risk. Should our findings show that physical activity can slow down the progression of WMH, this RCT would

  13. Adaptation of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirG response regulator to activate transcription in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka-Verner, Eva; Salem, Tarek A; Gurley, William B

    2016-02-01

    The Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirG response regulator of the VirA/VirG two-component system was adapted to function in tobacco protoplasts. The subcellular localization of VirG and VirA proteins transiently expressed in onion cells was determined using GFP fusions. Preliminary studies using Gal4DBD-VP16 fusions with VirG and Escherichia coli UhpA, and NarL response regulators indicated compatibility of these bacterial proteins with the eukaryotic transcriptional apparatus. A strong transcriptional activator based on tandem activation domains from the Drosophila fushi tarazu and Herpes simplex VP16 was created. Selected configurations of the two-site Gal4-vir box GUS reporters were activated by chimeric effectors dependent on either the yeast Gal4 DNA-binding domain or that of VirG. Transcriptional induction of the GUS reporter was highest for the VirE19-element promoter with both constitutive and wild-type VirG-tandem activation domain effectors. Multiple VirE19 elements increased the reporter activity proportionately, indicating that the VirG DNA binding domain was functional in plants. The VirG constitutive-Q-VP16 effector was more active than the VirG wild-type. In both the constitutive and wild-type forms of VirG, Q-VP16 activated transcription of the GUS reporter best when located at the C-terminus, i.e. juxtaposed to the VirG DNA binding domain. These results demonstrate the possibility of using DNA binding domains from bacterial response regulators and their cognate binding elements in the engineering of plant gene expression.

  14. [Adapted Physical Activity for patients with chronic diseases in a therapeutic community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouricha, Rémy; Thöni, Gilles; Raffard, Laurence; Cochet, Laurence; Saucourt, Vincent; Tirode, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    The French therapeutic communities ("Appartements de Coordination Therapeutique (ACT)") are mostly members of the "National Federation of Accommodation for HIV+ and other chronic diseases. They provide accommodation for people living with chronic conditions (HIV hepatitis, cancers...) and in a situation of high psychosocial frailty. As a result of their coordinated multidisciplinary intervention, these structures provide the required support to access health care and facilitate social inclusion. They are designed to provide an appropriate response to people with cumulative medical and social conditions (chronic diseases, precariousness, addictions and other comorbidities). Our innovative local experiment integrates Adapted Physical Activities (APA) into the global medical and social follow-up, in line with the patient's individual health care project. The characteristics of each APA project (nature of the activities proposed, intensity, duration, frequency, individual vs. team activity and accompanying methods) are defined on an individual basis, according to the user's motivations and inputs from the support team (medical, psychological and social coordination). The follow-up ensured by our APA professionals allows the residents to participate in a regular and attractive physical activity and could contribute to their social inclusion. The multidisciplinary approach proposed by ACTs determines the beneficial effects observed in such vulnerable patients. PMID:26168635

  15. PECULIAR FEATURES CONCERNING 1-ST-YEAR STUDENT ADAPTATION TO LIFE-ACTIVITY AT ENGINEERING HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Klimenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of peculiar features concerning a 1-st-year student adaptation to new conditions of life-activity  on the basis of self-evaluation made by 212 persons.  In order to obtain the data a methodology for diagnostics of social and psychological adaptation developed by K.Rodgers and R.Diamond has been applied with the purpose to study such integral indices as adaptivity, emotional comfort, friendly attitude, internality, tolerance and domination symptom.

  16. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Applied QSAR with Quantum Chemical Descriptors for Predicting Radical Scavenging Activities of Carotenoids

    OpenAIRE

    Changho Jhin; Keum Taek Hwang

    2015-01-01

    One of the physiological characteristics of carotenoids is their radical scavenging activity. In this study, the relationship between radical scavenging activities and quantum chemical descriptors of carotenoids was determined. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) applied quantitative structure-activity relationship models (QSAR) were also developed for predicting and comparing radical scavenging activities of carotenoids. Semi-empirical PM6 and PM7 quantum chemical calculations were...

  17. ANFIS Based Time Series Prediction Method of Bank Cash Flow Optimized by Adaptive Population Activity PSO Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Jie-Sheng Wang; Chen-Xu Ning

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy and real-time of all kinds of information in the cash business, and solve the problem which accuracy and stability is not high of the data linkage between cash inventory forecasting and cash management information in the commercial bank, a hybrid learning algorithm is proposed based on adaptive population activity particle swarm optimization (APAPSO) algorithm combined with the least squares method (LMS) to optimize the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference s...

  18. Cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr) scale of pain assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Edna Aparecida Bussotti; Ruth Guinsburg; Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves Pedreira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to perform the translation into Brazilian Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr) scale, with children under 18 years old, affected by cerebral palsy, presenting or not cognitive impairment and unable to report their pain. Method: methodological development study of translation into Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. After approval by the ethics committee, the process aimed at translation and back-t...

  19. Rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of classroom-based physical activity on math achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Have, Mona; Nielsen, Jacob Have; Gejl, Anne Kær; Thomsen Ernst, Martin; Fredens, Kjeld; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard; Wedderkopp, Niels; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Gudex, Claire; Grøntved, Anders; Kristensen, Peter Lund

    2016-01-01

    Background Integration of physical activity (PA) into the classroom may be an effective way of promoting the learning and academic achievement of children at elementary school. This paper describes the research design and methodology of an intervention study examining the effect of classroom-based PA on mathematical achievement, creativity, executive function, body mass index and aerobic fitness. Methods The study was designed as a school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial targeting sc...

  20. The working mechanisms of an environmentally tailored physical activity intervention for older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mudde Aart N; de Vries Hein; van Stralen Maartje M; Bolman Catherine; Lechner Lilian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to explore the working mechanisms of a computer tailored physical activity intervention for older adults with environmental information compared to a basic tailored intervention without environmental information. Method A clustered randomized controlled trial with two computer tailored interventions and a no-intervention control group was conducted among 1971 adults aged ≥ 50. The two tailored interventions were developed using Intervention Mappin...

  1. Time-Based Physical Activity Interventions for Weight Loss: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakicic, John M.; Rickman, Amy D.; Lang, Wei; Davis, Kelliann K.; Gibbs, Bethany Barone; Neiberg, Rebecca; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether enhancing standard behavior weight loss interventions (SBWP) with additional strategies at the initiation of the intervention (ADOPT) or providing the additional strategies at predetermined times over the intervention period (MAINTAIN) enhances 18 month weight loss. Methods This was a clinical trial with participants (n=195; age= 43.2±8.6 yrs; BMI= 33.0±3.4 kg/m2) randomized to SBWP, ADOPT, or MAINTAIN. All were prescribed an energy restricted diet and physical activity, with group intervention sessions delivered over 18 months. ADOPT received additional phone contact (months 1–3), supervised exercise (months 1–6), and behavior campaigns (months 4–9). MAINTAIN received additional phone contact (months 4–6), supervised exercise (months 7–12), and behavior campaigns (months 13–18). Results There was a significant Group X Time interaction for weight loss (p=0.0032). SBWP lost 9.3±0.9, 7.8±1.1, and 5.9±1.2 kg at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. ADOPT lost 8.9±0.9, 7.6±1.2, and 5.8±1.2 kg, and MAINTAIN lost 9.7±0.9, 11.0±1.2, and 9.0±1.2 kg at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. The Group X Time interaction for SBWP vs. MAINTAIN (p=0.0033) and ADOPT vs. MAINTAIN (p=0.0075) was significant. There was a significant Group X Time interaction for change in fitness (p=0.0060). The Group X Time interaction for MAINTAIN vs. ADOPT (p=0.0018) was significant with a trend for MAINTAIN vs. SBWP (p=0.0525). Conclusions MAINTAIN improved 18-month weight loss compared to SBWP and ADOPT, with statistical trends that MAINTAIN resulted in greater improvements in fitness. These results suggest that time-based strategies emphasizing physical activity conferred greater benefits when delivered later and over the full course of intervention. This provides valuable information for the implementation of time-based strategies to improve long-term weight loss and fitness in overweight and obese adults. PMID:25160843

  2. In vitro activity assays for MYST histone acetyltransferases and adaptation for high-throughput inhibitor screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Cheryl E.; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification that is carried out by acetyltransferases. The MYST proteins form the largest and most diverse family of acetyltransferases, which regulate gene expression, DNA repair, and cell cycle homeostasis, among other activities, by acetylating both histone and non-histone proteins. This chapter will describe methods for the preparation and biochemical characterization of MYST family acetyltransferases, including protocols for the preparation of recombinant protein, enzyme assays for measuring steady state parameters and binding assays to measure cofactor and inhibitor binding. We also provide details on adapting these assays for high throughput screening for small molecule MYST inhibitors. This chapter seeks to prepare researchers for some hurdles that they may encounter when studying the MYST proteins so that there may be better opportunity to plan appropriate controls and obtain high quality data. PMID:27372752

  3. The food pyramid adapted to physically active adolescents as a nutrition education tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Brandão Gonçalves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the understanding of the Food Pyramid Adapted to Physically Active Adolescents as an educational tool to improve nutrition knowledge. Adolescents engaged in sport training responded to a nutrition knowledge questionnaire before and after the intervention. The pyramid intervention group received the printed educational material, and the broad intervention group received the printed material followed by a lecture. As a result, mean initial nutrition knowledge was average (59.9 ± 18 points, increasing (p<0.001 after the intervention (69.1 ± 20 points without significant difference between interventions. In conclusion, adolescents' nutrition knowledge improved, even with the use of the Food Pyramid alone, indicating its use to promote nutritional knowledge.

  4. Development of adaptive IIR filtered-e LMS algorithm for active noise control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xu; MENG Guang; TENG Pengxiao; CHEN Duanshi

    2003-01-01

    Compared to finite impulse response (FIR) filters, infinite impulse response (IIR)filters can match the system better with much fewer coefficients, and hence the computationload is saved and the performance improves. Therefore, it is attractive to use IIR filters insteadof FIR filters in active noise control (ANC). However, filtered-U LMS (FULMS) algorithm, theIIR filter-based algorithm commonly used so far cannot ensure global convergence. A new IIRfilter based adaptive algorithm, which can ensure global convergence with computation loadonly slightly increasing, is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm is called as filtered-eLMS algorithm since the error signal of which need to be filtered. Simulation results show thatthe FELMS algorithm presents better performance than the FULMS algorithm.

  5. Adaptive RSOV filter using the FELMS algorithm for nonlinear active noise control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiquan; Zeng, Xiangping; He, Zhengyou; Li, Tianrui

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a recursive second-order Volterra (RSOV) filter to solve the problems of signal saturation and other nonlinear distortions that occur in nonlinear active noise control systems (NANC) used for actual applications. Since this nonlinear filter based on an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter structure can model higher than second-order and third-order nonlinearities for systems where the nonlinearities are harmonically related, the RSOV filter is more effective in NANC systems with either a linear secondary path (LSP) or a nonlinear secondary path (NSP). Simulation results clearly show that the RSOV adaptive filter using the multichannel structure filtered-error least mean square (FELMS) algorithm can further greatly reduce the computational burdens and is more suitable to eliminate nonlinear distortions in NANC systems than a SOV filter, a bilinear filter and a third-order Volterra (TOV) filter.

  6. Peers as resources for learning: a situated learning approach to adapted physical activity in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F; Jespersen, Ejgil

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning that takes place when people with disabilities interact in a rehabilitation context. Data were generated through in-depth interviews and close observations in a 2 (1/2) week-long rehabilitation program, where the participants learned both wheelchair skills and adapted physical activities. The findings from the qualitative data analysis are discussed in the context of situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998). The results indicate that peer learning extends beyond skills and techniques, to include ways for the participants to make sense of their situations as wheelchair users. Also, it was found that the community of practice established between the participants represented a critical corrective to instructions provided by rehabilitation professionals.

  7. Adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  8. Combined MIMO adaptive and decentralized controllers for broadband active noise and vibration control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, A.P.; Wesselink, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent implementations of multiple-input multiple-output adaptive controllers for reduction of broadband noise and vibrations provide considerably improved performance over traditional adaptive algorithms. The most significant performance improvements are in terms of speed of convergence, the amount

  9. FPGA Based Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Controller for Full Vehicle Nonlinear Active Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar A. Aldair

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA is proposed to build an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS for controlling a full vehicle nonlinear active suspension system. A Very High speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL has been used to implement the proposed controller. An optimal Fraction Order PIλ D µ (FOPID controller is designed for a full vehicle nonlinear active suspension system. Evolutionary Algorithm (EA has been applied to modify the five parameters of the FOPID controller (i.e. proportional constant Kp, integral constant Ki , derivative constant Kd, integral order λ and derivative order µ. The data obtained from the FOPID controller are used as a reference to design the ANFIS model as a controller for the controlled system. A hybrid approach is introduced to train the ANFIS. A Matlab Program has been used to design and simulate the proposed controller. The ANFIS control parameters obtained from the Matlab program are used to write the VHDL codes. Hardware implementation of the FPGA is dependent on the configuration file obtained from the VHDL program. The experimental results have proved the efficiency and robustness of the hardware implementation for the proposed controller. It provides a novel technique to be used to design NF controller for full vehicle nonlinear active suspension systems with hydraulic actuators.

  10. Spontaneous improvement in randomised clinical trials: meta-analysis of three-armed trials comparing no treatment, placebo and active intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Lasse Theis; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    were psychological in 17 trials, physical in 15 trials, and pharmacological in 5 trials. Overall, across all conditions and interventions, there was a statistically significant change from baseline in all three arms. The standardized mean difference (SMD) for change from baseline was -0.24 (95...... from baseline, and we aimed at quantifying these contributions. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis, based on a Cochrane review of the effect of placebo interventions for all clinical conditions. We selected all trials that had randomised the patients to three arms: no treatment, placebo...

  11. Physical activity counseling in overweight and obese primary care patients: Outcomes of the VA-STRIDE randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shasha; Stone, Roslyn A; Hough, Linda J; Haibach, Jeffrey P; Marcus, Bess H; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Kriska, Andrea M; Burkitt, Kelly H; Steenkiste, Ann R; Berger, Marie A; Sevick, Mary A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this 2-arm randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month, expert system-based, print-delivered physical activity intervention in a primary care Veteran population in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Participants were not excluded for many health conditions that typically are exclusionary criteria in physical activity trials. The primary outcome measures were physical activity reported using the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire and an accelerometer-based activity assessment at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Of the 232 Veterans enrolled in the study, 208 (89.7%) were retained at the 6-month follow-up and 203 (87.5%) were retained at 12 months. Compared to the attention control, intervention participants had significantly increased odds of meeting the U.S. recommended guideline of ≥ 150 min/week of at least moderate-intensity physical activity at 12 months for the modified CHAMPS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.86; 95% CI: 1.03-7.96; p = 0.04) but not at 6 months (OR = 1.54; 95% CI: 0.56-4.23; p = 0.40). Based on accelerometer data, intervention participants had significantly increased odds of meeting ≥ 150 min/week of moderate-equivalent physical activity at 6 months (OR = 6.26; 95% CI: 1.26-31.22; p = 0.03) and borderline significantly increased odds at 12 months (OR = 4.73; 95% CI: 0.98-22.76; p = 0.053). An expert system physical activity counseling intervention can increase or sustain the proportion of Veterans in primary care meeting current recommendations for moderate-intensity physical activity. Trial Registration Clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT00731094 URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00731094. PMID:26844197

  12. Flexibility and Stability Trade-Off in Active Site of Cold-Adapted Pseudomonas mandelii Esterase EstK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truongvan, Ngoc; Jang, Sei-Heon; Lee, ChangWoo

    2016-06-28

    Cold-adapted enzymes exhibit enhanced conformational flexibility, especially in their active sites, as compared with their warmer-temperature counterparts. However, the mechanism by which cold-adapted enzymes maintain their active site stability is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of conserved D308-Y309 residues located in the same loop as the catalytic H307 residue in the cold-adapted esterase EstK from Pseudomonas mandelii. Mutation of D308 and/or Y309 to Ala or deletion resulted in increased conformational flexibility. Particularly, the D308A or Y309A mutant showed enhanced substrate affinity and catalytic rate, as compared with wild-type EstK, via enlargement of the active site. However, all mutant EstK enzymes exhibited reduced thermal stability. The effect of mutation was greater for D308 than Y309. These results indicate that D308 is not preferable for substrate selection and catalytic activity, whereas hydrogen bond formation involving D308 is critical for active site stabilization. Taken together, conformation of the EstK active site is constrained via flexibility-stability trade-off for enzyme catalysis and thermal stability. Our study provides further insights into active site stabilization of cold-adapted enzymes. PMID:27259687

  13. The habenulo-raphe serotonergic circuit encodes an aversive expectation value essential for adaptive active avoidance of danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Ryunosuke; Fredes, Felipe; Kinoshita, Masae; Aoki, Ryo; Aizawa, Hidenori; Agetsuma, Masakazu; Aoki, Tazu; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Kakinuma, Hisaya; Matsuda, Masaru; Yamazaki, Masako; Takahoko, Mikako; Tsuboi, Takashi; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Miyasaka, Nobuhiko; Koide, Tetsuya; Yabuki, Yoichi; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Fukai, Tomoki; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2014-12-01

    Anticipation of danger at first elicits panic in animals, but later it helps them to avoid the real threat adaptively. In zebrafish, as fish experience more and more danger, neurons in the ventral habenula (vHb) showed tonic increase in the activity to the presented cue and activated serotonergic neurons in the median raphe (MR). This neuronal activity could represent the expectation of a dangerous outcome and be used for comparison with a real outcome when the fish is learning how to escape from a dangerous to a safer environment. Indeed, inhibiting synaptic transmission from vHb to MR impaired adaptive avoidance learning, while panic behavior induced by classical fear conditioning remained intact. Furthermore, artificially triggering this negative outcome expectation signal by optogenetic stimulation of vHb neurons evoked place avoidance behavior. Thus, vHb-MR circuit is essential for representing the level of expected danger and behavioral programming to adaptively avoid potential hazard.

  14. Perceived autonomy and activity choices among physically disabled older people in nursing home settings: a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette; Runge, Ulla; Hoff, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    the correspondence between the individual wishes for activities and the concrete content of the programs was not obvious, results indicate potential for enabling the perception of autonomy among physically disabled older nursing home residents. The clinical consequences may suggest a focus on existing traditions......OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the effect of individually tailored programs on perceived autonomy in institutionalized physically disabled older people and to describe participants' activity wishes and content of the programs. METHOD. This blinded randomized trial with follow up included a total of nine...

  15. Brief Behavioral Activation and Problem-Solving Therapy for Depressed Breast Cancer Patients: Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopko, Derek R.; Armento, Maria E. A.; Robertson, Sarah M. C.; Ryba, Marlena M.; Carvalho, John P.; Colman, Lindsey K.; Mullane, Christen; Gawrysiak, Michael; Bell, John L.; McNulty, James K.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Major depression is the most common psychiatric disorder among breast cancer patients and is associated with substantial impairment. Although some research has explored the utility of psychotherapy with breast cancer patients, only 2 small trials have investigated the potential benefits of behavior therapy among patients with…

  16. Selective role for striatal and prefrontal regions in processing first trial feedback during single-trial associative learning

    OpenAIRE

    Eliassen, James C.; Lamy, Martine; Jane B. Allendorfer; Boespflug, Erin; Bullard, Daniel P.; Smith, Matthew; Lee, Jing-Huei; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Discrete jumps in knowledge, as exemplified by single-trial learning, are critical to survival. Despite its importance, however, one-trial learning remains understudied. We sought to better understand the brain activity adaptations that track punctuated changes in associative knowledge by studying visual-motor associative learning with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Human and primate neurophysiological studies of feedback-based learning indicate that performance feedback elicits high ...

  17. Feasibility of the adaptive and automatic presentation of tasks (ADAPT system for rehabilitation of upper extremity function post-stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Younggeun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidelines for rehabilitation of arm and hand function after stroke recommend that motor training focus on realistic tasks that require reaching and manipulation and engage the patient intensively, actively, and adaptively. Here, we investigated the feasibility of a novel robotic task-practice system, ADAPT, designed in accordance with such guidelines. At each trial, ADAPT selects a functional task according to a training schedule and with difficulty based on previous performance. Once the task is selected, the robot picks up and presents the corresponding tool, simulates the dynamics of the tasks, and the patient interacts with the tool to perform the task. Methods Five participants with chronic stroke with mild to moderate impairments (> 9 months post-stroke; Fugl-Meyer arm score 49.2 ± 5.6 practiced four functional tasks (selected out of six in a pre-test with ADAPT for about one and half hour and 144 trials in a pseudo-random schedule of 3-trial blocks per task. Results No adverse events occurred and ADAPT successfully presented the six functional tasks without human intervention for a total of 900 trials. Qualitative analysis of trajectories showed that ADAPT simulated the desired task dynamics adequately, and participants reported good, although not excellent, task fidelity. During training, the adaptive difficulty algorithm progressively increased task difficulty leading towards an optimal challenge point based on performance; difficulty was then continuously adjusted to keep performance around the challenge point. Furthermore, the time to complete all trained tasks decreased significantly from pretest to one-hour post-test. Finally, post-training questionnaires demonstrated positive patient acceptance of ADAPT. Conclusions ADAPT successfully provided adaptive progressive training for multiple functional tasks based on participant's performance. Our encouraging results establish the feasibility of ADAPT; its

  18. The ProActive trial protocol – a randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of a family-based, domiciliary intervention programme to increase physical activity among individuals at high risk of diabetes [ISRCTN61323766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekelund Ulf

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing prevalence of obesity and disorders associated with sedentary living constitute a major global public health problem. While previous evaluations of interventions to increase physical activity have involved communities or individuals with established disease, less attention has been given to interventions for individuals at risk of disease. Methods/design ProActive aims to evaluate the efficacy of a theoretical, evidence- and family-based intervention programme to increase physical activity in a sedentary population, defined as being at-risk through having a parental family history of diabetes. Primary care diabetes or family history registers were used to recruit 365 individuals aged 30–50 years, screened for activity level. Participants were assigned by central randomisation to three intervention programmes: brief written advice (comparison group, or a psychologically based behavioural change programme, delivered either by telephone (distance group or face-to-face in the family home over one year. The protocol-driven intervention programme is delivered by trained facilitators, and aims to support increases in physical activity through the introduction and facilitation of a range of self-regulatory skills (e.g. goal setting. The primary outcome is daytime energy expenditure and its ratio to resting energy expenditure, measured at baseline and one year using individually calibrated heart rate monitoring. Secondary measures include self-report of individual and family activity, psychological mediators of behaviour change, physiological and biochemical correlates, acceptability, and costs, measured at baseline, six months and one year. The primary intention to treat analysis will compare groups at one-year post randomisation. Estimation of the impact on diabetes incidence will be modelled using data from a parallel ten-year cohort study using similar measures. Discussion ProActive is the first efficacy trial of an

  19. Active chinese mistletoe lectin-55 enhances colon cancer surveillance through regulating innate and adaptive immune responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Hui Ma; Wei-Zhi Cheng; Fang Gong; An-Lun Ma; Qi-Wen Yu; Ji-Ying Zhang; Chao-Ying Hu; Xue-Hua Chen; Dong-Qing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the potential role of Active Chinese mistletoe lectin-55 (ACML-55) in tumor immune surveillance.METHODS:In this study,an experimental model was established by hypodermic inoculating the colon cancer cell line CT26 (5×105 cells) into BALB/c mice.The experimental treatment was orally administered with ACML-55 or PBS,followed by the inoculation of colon cancer cell line CT26.Intracellular cytokine staining was used to detect IFN-y production by tumor antigen specific CD8+ T cells.FACS analysis was employed to profile composition and activation of CD4+,CD8+,γδ T and NK cells.RESULTS:Our results showed,compared to PBS treated mice,ACML-55 treatment significantly delayed colon cancer development in colon cancer-bearing Balb/c mice in vivo.Treatment with ACML-55 enhanced both Ag specific activation and proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells,and increased the number of tumor Ag specific CD8+ T cells,it was more important to increase the frequency of tumor Ag specific IFN-γ producing-CD8+ T cells.Interestingly,ACML-55 treatment also showed increased cell number of NK,and γδT cells,indicating the role of ACML-55 in activation of innate lymphooltes.CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrate that ACML-55therapy can enhance function in immune surveillance in colon cancer-bearing mice through regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses.

  20. Development of active/adaptive lightweight optics for the next generation of telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, M.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Mazzoleni, F.; Vernani, D.

    2006-02-01

    The future large optical telescopes will have such large dimensions to require innovative technical solutions either in the engineering and optical fields. Their optics will have dimensions ranging from 30 to 100 m. and will be segmented. It is necessary to develop a cost effective industrial process, fast and efficient, to create the thousands of segments neeededs to assemble the mirrors of these instruments. INAF-OAB (Astronomical Observatory of Brera) is developing with INAF-Arcetri (Florence Astronomical Observatory) a method of production of lightweight glass optics that is suitable for the manufacturing of these segments. These optics will be also probably active and therefore the segments have to be thin, light and relatively flexible. The same requirements are valid also for the secondary adaptive mirrors foreseen for these telescopes and that therefore will benefit from the same technology. The technique under investigation foresees the thermal slumping of thin glass segments using a high quality ceramic mold (master). The sheet of glass is placed onto the mold and then, by means of a suitable thermal cycle, the glass is softened and its shape is changed copying the master shape. At the end of the slumping the correction of the remaining errors will be performed using the Ion Beam Figuring technique, a non-contact deterministic technique. To reduce the time spent for the correction it will be necessary to have shape errors on the segments as small as possible. A very preliminary series of experiments already performed on reduced size segments have shown that it is possible to copy a master shape with high accuracy (few microns PV) and it is very likely that copy accuracies of 1 micron or less are possible. The paper presents in detail the concepts of the proposed process and describes our current efforts that are aimed at the production of a scaled demonstrative adaptive segment of 50 cm of diameter.

  1. Electrophysiology Activity of the Photoreceptors Using Photopic Adapted Full-Field Electroretinogram in Young Malay Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hong Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The full-field electroretinogram (ffERG was used as an electrophysiological test of retinal function. The electrophysiology activity of the photoreceptors in the retina was investigated using photopic adapted full-field electroretinogram (ffERG in a sample of Malay ethnic (Melayu, (mean 21.72 ± 0.88 years old. About 10 minutes room illumination of photopic adaptation was used, single flashes of 3 cd.s.m-2 presented until 4 similar artifact free ERG waveforms, and 30 Hz flickers ERG was averaged based on 15 sweeps of 250 milliseconds (ms duration, which based on the International Society of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV 2008 ERG Standard. The mean, standard deviation and median of amplitude (uV of cone a-wave (-30.73 ± 12.49, -29.22 and cone b-wave (119.26 ± 37.76, 119.45, and the latency time (ms of cone a-wave (14.30 ± 1.15, 14.50 and cone b-wave (30.02 ± 0.98, 30.00, 30 Hz peak amplitude (97.12 ± 28.63, 86.51, and latency time for peak (26.27 ± 1.77, 26.00 and trough (13.13 ± 2.10, 13.00 respectively were shown in descriptive data. The normal value of young Malay adults as the baseline data for Malay population and comparable to other population around the world is important for ffERG practical.

  2. Patient Activation through Counseling and Exercise – Acute Leukemia (PACE-AL) – a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarden, Mary; Møller, Tom; Kjeldsen, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    , strength exercises using hand weights and relaxation exercise. Individual health counseling sessions include a self directed home walk program with a step counter. The primary endpoint is functional performance/exercise capacity (6 minute walk distance). The secondary endpoints are submaximal VO2 max test...... and supervised counseling and exercise program.Methods/design: This paper presents the study protocol: Patient Activation through Counseling and Exercise -- Acute Leukemia (PACE-AL) trial, a two center, randomized controlled trial of 70 patients with acute leukemia (35 patients/study arm) following induction...... chemotherapy in the outpatient setting. Eligible patients will be randomized to usual care or to the 12 week exercise and counseling program. The intervention includes 3 hours + 30 minutes per week of supervised and structured aerobic training (moderate to high intensity 70 - 80%) on an ergometer cycle...

  3. Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: the al-andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonell-Baeza Ana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome, and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain. Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control group (n = 60, a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60 or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60. Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials

  4. FPGA BASED ADAPTIVE NEURO FUZZY INFERENCE CONTROLLER FOR FULL VEHICLE NONLINEAR ACTIVE SUSPENSION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiji Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA is proposed to build an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS for controlling a full vehicle nonlinear active suspension system. A Very High speed integratedcircuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL has been used to implement the proposed controller. Anoptimal Fraction Order PIlDμ (FOPID controller is designed for a full vehicle nonlinear activesuspension system. Evolutionary Algorithm (EA has been applied to modify the five parameters of theFOPID controller (i.e. proportional constant Kp, integral constant Ki, derivative constant Kd, integralorder l and derivative order μ. The data obtained from the FOPID controller are used as a reference todesign the ANFIS model as a controller for the controlled system. A hybrid approach is introduced to trainthe ANFIS. A Matlab Program has been used to design and simulate the proposed controller. The ANFIScontrol parameters obtained from the Matlab program are used to write the VHDL codes. Hardwareimplementation of the FPGA is dependent on the configuration file obtained from the VHDL program. Theexperimental results have proved the efficiency and robustness of the hardware implementation for theproposed controller. It provides a novel technique to be used to design NF controller for full vehiclenonlinear active suspension systems with hydraulic actuators.

  5. Symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction calculation of the photoelectron spectra of famous biological active steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyar, Fatemeh; Farrokhpour, Hossein

    2014-11-01

    The photoelectron spectra of some famous steroids, important in biology, were calculated in the gas phase. The selected steroids were 5α-androstane-3,11,17-trione, 4-androstane-3,11,17-trione, cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, dexamethasone, estradiol and cholesterol. The calculations were performed employing symmetry-adapted cluster/configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method using the 6-311++G(2df,pd) basis set. The population ratios of conformers of each steroid were calculated and used for simulating the photoelectron spectrum of steroid. It was found that more than one conformer contribute to the photoelectron spectra of some steroids. To confirm the calculated photoelectron spectra, they compared with their corresponding experimental spectra. There were no experimental gas phase Hesbnd I photoelectron spectra for some of the steroids of this work in the literature and their calculated spectra can show a part of intrinsic characteristics of this molecules in the gas phase. The canonical molecular orbitals involved in the ionization of each steroid were calculated at the HF/6-311++g(d,p) level of theory. The spectral bands of each steroid were assigned by natural bonding orbital (NBO) calculations. Knowing the electronic structures of steroids helps us to understand their biological activities and find which sites of steroid become active when a modification is performing under a biological pathway.

  6. Sequentially Adapted Parallel Feedforward Active Noise Control of Noisy Sinusoidal Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Kannan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of acoustic noise sources has an underlying periodic process that generates a periodic noise component, and thus their acoustic noise can in general be modeled as the sum of a periodic signal and a randomly fluctuating signal (usually a broadband background noise. Active control of periodic noise (i.e., for a mixture of sinusoids is more effective than that of random noise. For mixtures of sinusoids in a background broadband random noise, conventional FXLMS-based single filter method does not reach the maximum achievable Noise Attenuation Level (NALmax⁡. In this paper, an alternative approach is taken and the idea of a parallel active noise control (ANC architecture for cancelling mixtures of periodic and random signals is presented. The proposed ANC system separates the noise into periodic and random components and generates corresponding antinoises via separate noise cancelling filters, and tends to reach NALmax⁡ consistently. The derivation of NALmax⁡ is presented. Both the separation and noise cancellation are based on adaptive filtering. Experimental results verify the analytical development by showing superior performance of the proposed method, over the single-filter approach, for several cases of sinusoids in white noise.

  7. Phoneme restoration and empirical coverage of Interactive Activation and Adaptive Resonance models of human speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Kazerounian, Sohrob

    2016-08-01

    Magnuson [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 1481-1492 (2015)] makes claims for Interactive Activation (IA) models and against Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) models of speech perception. Magnuson also presents simulations that claim to show that the TRACE model can simulate phonemic restoration, which was an explanatory target of the cARTWORD ART model. The theoretical analysis and review herein show that these claims are incorrect. More generally, the TRACE and cARTWORD models illustrate two diametrically opposed types of neural models of speech and language. The TRACE model embodies core assumptions with no analog in known brain processes. The cARTWORD model defines a hierarchy of cortical processing regions whose networks embody cells in laminar cortical circuits as part of the paradigm of laminar computing. cARTWORD further develops ART speech and language models that were introduced in the 1970s. It builds upon Item-Order-Rank working memories, which activate learned list chunks that unitize sequences to represent phonemes, syllables, and words. Psychophysical and neurophysiological data support Item-Order-Rank mechanisms and contradict TRACE representations of time, temporal order, silence, and top-down processing that exhibit many anomalous properties, including hallucinations of non-occurring future phonemes. Computer simulations of the TRACE model are presented that demonstrate these failures. PMID:27586743

  8. Cold adaptation, ca2+ dependency and autolytic stability are related features in a highly active cold-adapted trypsin resistant to autoproteolysis engineered for biotechnological applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Olivera-Nappa

    Full Text Available Pig trypsin is routinely used as a biotechnological tool, due to its high specificity and ability to be stored as an inactive stable zymogen. However, it is not an optimum enzyme for conditions found in wound debriding for medical uses and trypsinization processes for protein analysis and animal cell culturing, where low Ca(2+ dependency, high activity in mild conditions and easy inactivation are crucial. We isolated and thermodynamically characterized a highly active cold-adapted trypsin for medical and laboratory use that is four times more active than pig trypsin at 10(° C and at least 50% more active than pig trypsin up to 50(° C. Contrary to pig trypsin, this enzyme has a broad optimum pH between 7 and 10 and is very insensitive to Ca(2+ concentration. The enzyme is only distantly related to previously described cryophilic trypsins. We built and studied molecular structure models of this trypsin and performed molecular dynamic calculations. Key residues and structures associated with calcium dependency and cryophilicity were identified. Experiments indicated that the protein is unstable and susceptible to autoproteolysis. Correlating experimental results and structural predictions, we designed mutations to improve the resistance to autoproteolysis and conserve activity for longer periods after activation. One single mutation provided around 25 times more proteolytic stability. Due to its cryophilic nature, this trypsin is easily inactivated by mild denaturation conditions, which is ideal for controlled proteolysis processes without requiring inhibitors or dilution. We clearly show that cold adaptation, Ca(2+ dependency and autolytic stability in trypsins are related phenomena that are linked to shared structural features and evolve in a concerted fashion. Hence, both structurally and evolutionarily they cannot be interpreted and studied separately as previously done.

  9. Effect of affordable technology on physical activity levels and mobility outcomes in rehabilitation: a protocol for the Activity and MObility UsiNg Technology (AMOUNT) rehabilitation trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hassett, Leanne; van den Berg, Maayken; Lindley, Richard I.; Crotty, Maria; McCluskey, Annie; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Smith, Stuart T; Schurr, Karl; Killington, Maggie; Bongers, Bert; Howard, Kirsten; Heritier, Stephane; Togher, Leanne; Hackett, Maree; Treacy, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction People with mobility limitations can benefit from rehabilitation programmes that provide a high dose of exercise. However, since providing a high dose of exercise is logistically challenging and resource-intensive, people in rehabilitation spend most of the day inactive. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of affordable technology to usual care on physical activity and mobility in people with mobility limitations admitted to inpatient aged and neurological reha...

  10. Adaptive Control of Active Balancing System for a Fast Speed-varying Jeffcott Rotor with Actuator Time Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Bing; FANG Zhi-chu

    2008-01-01

    Due to actuator time delay existing in an adaptive control of the active balancing system for a fastspeed-varying Jeffcott rotor, if an unsynchronized control force (correction imbalance) is applied to the system,it may lead to degradation in control efficiency and instability of the control system. In order to avoid theseshortcomings, a simple adaptive controller was designed for a strictly positive real rotor system with actuatortime delay, then a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional was constructed after an appropriate transform of this sys-tem model, the stability conditions of this adaptive control system with actuator time delay were derived. Afteradding a filter function, the active balancing system for the fast speed-varying Jeffcott rotor with actuator timedelay can easily be converted to a strictly positive real system, and thus it can use the above adaptive controllersatisfying the stability conditions. Finally, numerical simulations show that the adaptive controller proposedworks very well to perform the active balancing for the fast speed-varying Jeffcott rotor with actuator timedelay.

  11. Time regained: when people stop a physical activity program, how does their time use change? A randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjaan Gomersall

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate how previously inactive adults who had participated in a structured, partly supervised 6-week exercise program restructured their time budgets when the program ended. Using a randomised controlled trial design, 129 previously inactive adults were recruited and randomly allocated to one of three groups: a Moderate or Extensive six-week physical activity intervention (150 and 300 additional minutes of exercise per week, respectively or a Control group. Additional physical activity was accumulated through both group and individual exercise sessions with a wide range of activities. Use of time and time spent in energy expenditure zones was measured using a computerised 24-h self-report recall instrument, the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults, and accelerometry at baseline, mid- and end-program and at 3- and 6-months follow up. At final follow up, all significant changes in time use domains had returned to within 20 minutes of baseline levels (Physical Activity 1-2 min/d, Active Transport 3-9 min/d, Self-Care 0-2 min/d, Television/Videogames 13-18 min/d in the Moderate and Extensive group, relative to Controls, respectively, p > 0.05. Similarly, all significant changes in time spent in the moderate energy expenditure zone had returned to within 1-3 min/d baseline levels (p > 0.05, however time spent in vigorous physical activity according to accelerometry estimates remained elevated, although the changes were small in magnitude (1 min/d in the Moderate and Extensive groups, relative to Controls, p = 0.01. The results of this study demonstrate strong recidivist patterns in physical activity, but also in other aspects of time use. In designing and determining the effectiveness of exercise interventions, future studies would benefit from considering the whole profile of time use, rather than focusing on individual activities,Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000248066.

  12. The Learning About My Pain study protocol: Reducing disparities with literacy-adapted psychosocial treatments for chronic pain, a comparative behavioral trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Joshua C; Thorn, Beverly E

    2016-09-01

    Chronic pain is a critical public health problem that affects over 100 million Americans. Medical pain treatments carry undesirable side effects, whereas low-risk psychosocial treatments offer notable benefits, in combination or in isolation. This report presents the protocol for the Learning About My Pain study, one of the first comparative-effectiveness trials funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. Adhering to published standards for clinical trials (e.g. Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Intervention Trials), it provides an overview of the trial (n = 294), comparing cognitive-behavioral and education pain interventions to usual care, and a detailed description of how its methodology reduces the risks from bias. PMID:25712491

  13. Counselling low-back-pain patients in secondary healthcare: a randomised trial addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess if counselling by an occupational physician (OP) addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity integrated as a part of low-back pain (LBP) outpatient treatment influences pain, function and sick leave. METHODS: Randomised controlled trial in the secondary...... healthcare sector with 3 months' follow-up. The participants were LBP patients who, independently of sick-leave status, expressed concerns about the ability to maintain their current job. Patients referred for surgery were excluded. The intervention consisted of two counselling sessions conducted by an OP...... physical activity and maximum oxygen uptake, supported compliance and adherence to the part of the intervention focusing on enhanced physical activity. CONCLUSION: Two short counselling sessions by an OP combining advice on meeting workplace barriers and enhancing physical activity had a substantial effect...

  14. The Model Reference Adaptive Fuzzy Control for the Vehicle Semi-Active Suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管继富; 侯朝桢; 顾亮; 武云鹏

    2003-01-01

    The LQG control system is employed as vehicle suspension's optimal target system, which has an adaptive ability to the road conditions and vehicle speed in a limited bandwidth. In order to keep the optimal performances when the suspension parameters change, a model reference adaptive fuzzy control (MRAFC) strategy is presented. The LQG control system serves as the reference model in the MRAFC system. The simulation results indicate that the presented MRAFC system can adapt to the parameters variation of vehicle suspension and track the optimality of the LQG control system, the presented vehicle suspension MRAFC system has the ability to adapt to road conditions and suspension parameters change.

  15. Evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial resilience training for heart health, and the added value of promoting physical activity: a cluster randomized trial of the READY program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakenham Kenneth I

    2009-11-01

    stress, anxiety and physical activity, and objective indicators of CHD risk (blood glucose, cholesterol [mmol·L-1], triglycerides, blood pressure. Process measures of attendance, engagement and fidelity will also be conducted. Linear analyses will be used to examine group differences in the outcome measures, and the product of coefficients method will be used to examine mediated effects. Discussion If successful, this program will provide an innovative means by which to promote psychosocial well-being for heart health in the general population. The program could also be adapted to promote well-being in other at risk population subgroups. Trial registration ACTRN12608000017325.

  16. Promoting Physical Activity in Low-Active Adolescents via Facebook: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial to Test Feasibility

    OpenAIRE

    Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana; Hillman, Charles H.; Huhman, Marian; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Wide Web is an effective method for delivering health behavior programs, yet major limitations remain (eg, cost of development, time and resource requirements, limited interactivity). Social media, however, has the potential to deliver highly customizable and socially interactive behavioral interventions with fewer constraints. Thus, the evaluation of social media as a means to influence health behaviors is warranted. Objective The objective of this trial was to examine a...

  17. Real-Time Assessment of Autonomic Nerve Activity During Adaptive Servo-Ventilation Support or Waon Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Nitta, Daisuke; Komuro, Issei

    2016-07-27

    Adaptive servo-ventilation support and Waon therapy are recently developed non-pharmacological and noninvasive therapies for patients with heart failure refractory to guideline-directed medical therapy. These therapies decrease both preload and afterload, increase cardiac output, and appear to ameliorate autonomic nerve activity. However, the time course of autonomic nerve activity during these therapies remains unclear. We performed heart rate variability analysis using the MemCalc power spectral density method (MemCalc system; Suwa Trust Co, Tokyo) to assess autonomic nerve activity during adaptive servo-ventilation support and Waon therapy in two different cases and determined the time course of autonomic nerve activity during these therapies. During both therapies, we found a drastic increase in parasympathetic nerve activity and continuous suppression of sympathetic nerve activity. Heart rate variability analysis using the MemCalc method may be promising for the assessment of the efficacy of various treatments, including adaptive servo-ventilation support and Waon therapy, from the viewpoint of autonomic nerve activity. PMID:27385607

  18. Exploring the Role of Mechanotransduction Activation and Adaptation Kinetics in Hair Cell Filtering Using a Hodgkin-Huxley Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gregg B.; Ricci, Anthony J.

    2011-11-01

    In the auditory system, mechanotransduction occurs in the hair cell sensory hair bundle and is the first major step in the translation of mechanical energy into electrical. Tonotopic variations in the activation kinetics of this process are posited to provide a low pass filter to the input. An adaptation process, also associated with mechanotransduction, is postulated to provide a high pass filter to the input in a tonotopic manner. Together a bandpass filter is created at the hair cell input. Corresponding mechanical components to both activation and adaptation are also suggested to be involved in generating cochlear amplification. A paradox to this story is that hair cells where the mechanotransduction properties are most robust possess an intrinsic electrical resonance mechanism proposed to account for all required tuning and amplification. A simple Hodgkin-Huxley type model is presented to attempt to determine the role of the activation and adaptation kinetics in further tuning hair cells that exhibit electrical resonance. Results further support that steady state mechanotransduction properties are critical for setting the resting potential of the hair cell while the kinetics of activation and adaptation are important for sharpening tuning around the characteristic frequency of the hair cell.

  19. Experience, Intersubjectivity, and Reflection: A Human Science Perspective on Preparation of Future Professionals in Adaptive Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F.; Rugseth, Gro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show that and how philosophy and philosophical thinking can be of relevance for the preparation of future professionals in adaptive physical activity. To this end we utilize philosophical insights from the human science perspective on two central issues, namely experience and intersubjectivity, which are weaved…

  20. Subversion of innate and adaptive immune activation induced by structurally modified lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Pérez-Shibayama, Christian I; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Cervantes-Barragán, Luisa; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ludewig, Burkhard; Cunningham, Adam F; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A; Becker, Ingeborg; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Bonifaz, Laura; Gunn, John S; Isibasi, Armando; López-Macías, Constantino

    2011-08-01

    Salmonella are successful pathogens that infect millions of people every year. During infection, Salmonella typhimurium changes the structure of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in response to the host environment, rendering bacteria resistant to cationic peptide lysis in vitro. However, the role of these structural changes in LPS as in vivo virulence factors and their effects on immune responses and the generation of immunity are largely unknown. We report that modified LPS are less efficient than wild-type LPS at inducing pro-inflammatory responses. The impact of this LPS-mediated subversion of innate immune responses was demonstrated by increased mortality in mice infected with a non-lethal dose of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain mixed with the modified LPS moieties. Up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells and CD4(+) T-cell activation were affected by these modified LPS. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing specific antibody responses. Immunization with modified LPS moiety preparations combined with experimental antigens, induced an impaired Toll-like receptor 4-mediated adjuvant effect. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing immunity against challenge with virulent S. typhimurium. Hence, changes in S. typhimurium LPS structure impact not only on innate immune responses but also on both humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses.

  1. Subversion of innate and adaptive immune activation induced by structurally modified lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Pérez-Shibayama, Christian I; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Cervantes-Barragán, Luisa; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ludewig, Burkhard; Cunningham, Adam F; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A; Becker, Ingeborg; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Bonifaz, Laura; Gunn, John S; Isibasi, Armando; López-Macías, Constantino

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella are successful pathogens that infect millions of people every year. During infection, Salmonella typhimurium changes the structure of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in response to the host environment, rendering bacteria resistant to cationic peptide lysis in vitro. However, the role of these structural changes in LPS as in vivo virulence factors and their effects on immune responses and the generation of immunity are largely unknown. We report that modified LPS are less efficient than wild-type LPS at inducing pro-inflammatory responses. The impact of this LPS-mediated subversion of innate immune responses was demonstrated by increased mortality in mice infected with a non-lethal dose of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain mixed with the modified LPS moieties. Up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells and CD4+ T-cell activation were affected by these modified LPS. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing specific antibody responses. Immunization with modified LPS moiety preparations combined with experimental antigens, induced an impaired Toll-like receptor 4-mediated adjuvant effect. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing immunity against challenge with virulent S. typhimurium. Hence, changes in S. typhimurium LPS structure impact not only on innate immune responses but also on both humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses. PMID:21631497

  2. The HEART mobile phone trial: The partial mediating effects of self-efficacy on physical activity among cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph eMaddison

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ubiquitous use of mobile phones provides an ideal opportunity to deliver interventions to increase physical activity levels. Understanding potential mediators of such interventions is needed to increase their effectiveness. A recent randomized controlled trial of a mobile phone and Internet (mHealth intervention was conducted in New Zealand to determine the effectiveness on exercise capacity and physical activity levels in addition to current cardiac rehabilitation (CR services for people (n=171 with ischaemic heart disease (IHD. Significant intervention effect was observed for self-reported leisure time physical activity and walking, but not peak oxygen uptake (PVO2 at 24 weeks. There was also significant improvement in self-efficacy.Objective: To evaluate the mediating effect of self-efficacy on physical activity levels in an mHealth delivered exercise CR programme. Methods: Treatment evaluations were performed on the principle of intention to treat (ITT. Adjusted regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the main treatment effect on leisure time physical activity and walking at 24 weeks, with and without change in self-efficacy as the mediator of interest. Results: Change in self-efficacy at 24 weeks significantly mediated the treatment effect on leisure time physical activity by 13%, but only partially mediated the effect on walking by 4% at 24 weeks. Conclusion: An mHealth intervention involving text messaging and Internet support had a positive treatment effect on leisure time physical activity and walking at 24 weeks, and this effect was likely mediated through changes in self-efficacy. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention.

  3. Increased physical activity improves sleep and mood outcomes in inactive people with insomnia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartescu, Iuliana; Morgan, Kevin; Stevinson, Clare D

    2015-10-01

    While high levels of activity and exercise training have been associated with improvements in sleep quality, minimum levels of activity likely to improve sleep outcomes have not been explored. A two-armed parallel randomized controlled trial (N=41; 30 females) was designed to assess whether increasing physical activity to the level recommended in public health guidelines can improve sleep quality among inactive adults meeting research diagnostic criteria for insomnia. The intervention consisted of a monitored program of ≥150 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week, for 6 months. The principal end-point was the Insomnia Severity Index at 6 months post-baseline. Secondary outcomes included measures of mood, fatigue and daytime sleepiness. Activity and light exposure were monitored throughout the trial using accelerometry and actigraphy. At 6 months post-baseline, the physical activity group showed significantly reduced insomnia symptom severity (F(8,26) = 5.16, P = 0.03), with an average reduction of four points on the Insomnia Severity Index; and significantly reduced depression and anxiety scores (F(6,28) = 5.61, P = 0.02; and F(6,28) = 4.41, P = 0.05, respectively). All of the changes were independent of daily light exposure. Daytime fatigue showed no significant effect of the intervention (F(8,26) = 1.84, P = 0.18). Adherence and retention were high. Internationally recommended minimum levels of physical activity improve daytime and night-time symptoms of chronic insomnia independent of daily light exposure levels. PMID:25903450

  4. Brassica rapa plants adapted to microgravity with reduced photosystem I and its photochemical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shunxing; Hilaire, Emmanuel; Paulsen, Avelina Q.; Guikema, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus contains several protein complexes, many of which are regulated by environmental conditions. In this study, the influences of microgravity on PSI and PSII in Brassica rapa plants grown aboard the space shuttle were examined. We found that Brassica plants grown in space had a normal level of growth relative to controls under similar conditions on Earth. Upon return to Earth, cotyledons were harvested and thylakoid membranes were isolated. Analysis of chlorophyll contents showed that the Chl a/b ratio (3.5) in flight cotyledons was much higher than a ratio of 2.42 in the ground controls. The flight samples also had a reduction of PSI complexes and a corresponding 30% decrease of PSI photochemical activity. Immunoblotting showed that the reaction centre polypeptides of PSI were more apparently decreased (e.g. by 24-33% for PsaA and PsaB, and 57% for PsaC) than the light-harvesting complexes. In comparison, the accumulation of PSII complex was less affected in microgravity, thus only a slight reduction in D1, D2 and LHCII was observed in protein blots. However, there was a 32% decrease of OEC1 in the flight samples, indicating a defective OEC subcomplex. In addition, an average 54% increase of the 54 kDa CF1-beta isoform was found in the flight samples, suggesting that space-grown plants suffered from certain stresses, consistent with implications of the increased Chl a/b ratio. Taken together, the results demonstrated that Brassica plants can adapt to spaceflight microgravity, but with significant alterations in chloroplast structures and photosynthetic complexes, and especially reduction of PSI and its activity.

  5. Physical activity and health-related quality of life during pregnancy: a secondary analysis of a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolu, Päivi; Raitanen, Jani; Luoto, Riitta

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of physical activity before and during pregnancy on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Data from the cluster-randomised gestational diabetes mellitus primary prevention trial conducted in maternity clinics were utilised in a secondary analysis. The cases considered were pregnant women who reported engaging in at least 150 min of moderate-intensity leisure-time physical activity per week (active women) (N = 80), and the controls were women below these recommendations (less active) (N = 258). All participants had at least one risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus. Their HRQoL was evaluated via the validated generic instrument 15D, with HRQoL at the end of pregnancy examined in relation to changes in physical activity during pregnancy. Logistic regression models addressed age, parity, education, and pre-pregnancy body mass index. At the end of pregnancy, the expected HRQoL was higher (tobit regression coefficient 0.022, 95 % CI 0.003-0.042) among active women than less active women. Active women also had greater mobility (OR 1.98, 95 % CI 1.04-3.78), ability to handle their usual activities (OR 2.22, 95 % CI 1.29-3.81), and vitality (OR 2.08, 95 % CI 1.22-3.54) than did less active women. Active women reported higher-quality sleep (OR 2.11, 95 % CI 1.03-4.30) throughout pregnancy as compared to less active women. Meeting of the physical activity guidelines before pregnancy was associated with better overall HRQoL and components thereof related to physical activity.

  6. Endothelial AMPK activation induces mitochondrial biogenesis and stress adaptation via eNOS-dependent mTORC1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunying; Reif, Michaella M; Craige, Siobhan M; Kant, Shashi; Keaney, John F

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic stress sensors like AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are known to confer stress adaptation and promote longevity in lower organisms. This study demonstrates that activating the metabolic stress sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in endothelial cells helps maintain normal cellular function by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and stress adaptation. To better define the mechanisms whereby AMPK promotes endothelial stress resistance, we used 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) to chronically activate AMPK and observed stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in wild type mouse endothelium, but not in endothelium from endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout (eNOS-null) mice. Interestingly, AICAR-enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis was blocked by pretreatment with the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor, rapamycin. Further, AICAR stimulated mTORC1 as determined by phosphorylation of its known downstream effectors in wild type, but not eNOS-null, endothelial cells. Together these data indicate that eNOS is needed to couple AMPK activation to mTORC1 and thus promote mitochondrial biogenesis and stress adaptation in the endothelium. These data suggest a novel mechanism for mTORC1 activation that is significant for investigations in vascular dysfunction. PMID:26989010

  7. Adaptive singular value cancelation of ventricular activity in single-lead atrial fibrillation electrocardiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proper analysis and characterization of atrial fibrillation (AF) from surface electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings requires to cancel out the ventricular activity (VA), which is composed of the QRS complex and the T wave. Historically, for single-lead ECGs, the averaged beat subtraction (ABS) has been the most widely used technique. However, this method is very sensitive to QRST wave variations and, moreover, high-quality cancelation templates may be difficult to obtain when only short length and single-lead recordings are available. In order to overcome these limitations, a new QRST cancelation method based on adaptive singular value cancelation (ASVC) applied to each single beat is proposed. In addition, an exhaustive study about the optimal set of complexes for better cancelation of every beat is also presented for the first time. The whole study has been carried out with both simulated and real AF signals. For simulated AF, the cancelation performance was evaluated making use of a cross-correlation index and the normalized mean square error (nmse) between the estimated and the original atrial activity (AA). For real AF signals, two additional new parameters were proposed. First, the ventricular residue (VR) index estimated the presence of ventricular activity in the extracted AA. Second, the similarity (S) evaluated how the algorithm preserved the AA segments out of the QRST interval. Results indicated that for simulated AF signals, mean correlation, nmse, VR and S values were 0.945 ± 0.024, 0.332 ± 0.073, 1.552 ± 0.386 and 0.986 ± 0.012, respectively, for the ASVC method and 0.866 ± 0.042, 0.424 ± 0.120, 2.161 ± 0.564 and 0.922 ± 0.051 for ABS. In the case of real signals, the mean VR and S values were 1.725 ± 0.826 and 0.983 ± 0.038, respectively, for ASVC and 3.159 ± 1.097 and 0.951 ± 0.049 for ABS. Thus, ASVC provides a more accurate beat-to-beat ventricular QRST representation than traditional techniques. As a consequence, VA cancelation

  8. Effects of an adapted physical activity program on psychophysical health in elderly women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bellafiore, Marianna; Alesi, Marianna; Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown the positive effects of adapted physical activity (APA) on physical and mental health (MH) during the lifetime. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a specific APA intervention program in the improvement of the health-related quality of life (QOL) and functional condition of spine in elderly women. Methods Thirty women were recruited from a senior center and randomly assigned to two groups: control group (CG; age: 69.69±7.94 years, height: 1.57±0.06 m, weight: 68.42±8.18 kg, body mass index [BMI]: 27.88±2.81) and trained group (TG; age: 68.35±6.04 years, height: 1.55±0.05 m, weight: 64.78±10.16 kg, BMI: 26.98±3.07). The APA program was conducted for 8 weeks, with two training sessions/week. CG did not perform any physical activity during the study. Spinal angles were evaluated by SpinalMouse® (Idiag, Volkerswill, Switzerland); health-related QOL was evaluated by SF-36 Health Survey, which assesses physical component summary (PCS-36), mental component summary (MCS-36), and eight subscales: physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health perception, role-emotional, social functioning, vitality, and MH. All measures were recorded before and after the experimental period. Results In TG, compared to CG, the two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures with Bonferroni post hoc test showed a relevant improvement in lumbar spinal angle (°) and in SF-36 outcomes after the intervention period. We showed a significant increase in physical functioning, bodily pain, and MH subscales and in PCS-36 and MCS-36 scores in TG compared to CG. In particular, from baseline to posttest, we found that in TG, the PCS-36 and MCS-36 scores increased by 13.20% and 11.64%, respectively. Conclusion We believe that an 8-week APA intervention program is able to improve psychophysical heath in elderly people. During the aging process, a dynamic lifestyle, including regular physical activity, is a crucial

  9. Adaptation to Damaging Dance and Repeated-Sprint Activity in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meghan A; Howatson, Glyn; Keane, Karen M; Stevenson, Emma J

    2016-09-01

    Brown, MA, Howatson, G, Keane, KM, and Stevenson, EJ. Adaptation to damaging dance and repeated-sprint activity in women. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2574-2581, 2016-The repeated bout effect (RBE) refers to the prophylactic effect from damaging exercise after a single previous bout of exercise. There is a paucity of data examining the RBE in women, and investigations using exercise paradigms beyond isolated eccentric contractions are scarce. In light of the limited literature, this investigation aimed to determine whether 2 different sport-specific exercise bouts would elicit a RBE in women. Twenty-one female dancers (19 ± 1 years) completed either a dance-specific protocol (n = 10) or sport-specific repeated-sprint protocol (n = 11). Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), limb girths, creatine kinase (CK), countermovement jump height, reactive strength index, maximal voluntary contraction, and 30-meter sprint time were recorded before and 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. An identical exercise bout was conducted approximately 4 weeks after the initial bout, during which time the subjects maintained habitual training and dietary behaviors. DOMS and 30-meter sprint time decreased after a second bout of both activities (p = 0.003; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.38 and p = 0.008; and (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.31, respectively). Circulating CK was also lower at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the second bout, independent of group (p = 0.010 and (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.23). Compared with the repeated-sprint protocol, the magnitude of change in DOMS was greater after a subsequent bout of the dance protocol (p = 0.010 and (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.19). These data are the first to demonstrate that dance and repeated-sprint activity resulting in muscle damage in women confers a protective effect against muscle damage after a subsequent bout. PMID:26817742

  10. Adaptation to Damaging Dance and Repeated-Sprint Activity in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meghan A; Howatson, Glyn; Keane, Karen M; Stevenson, Emma J

    2016-09-01

    Brown, MA, Howatson, G, Keane, KM, and Stevenson, EJ. Adaptation to damaging dance and repeated-sprint activity in women. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2574-2581, 2016-The repeated bout effect (RBE) refers to the prophylactic effect from damaging exercise after a single previous bout of exercise. There is a paucity of data examining the RBE in women, and investigations using exercise paradigms beyond isolated eccentric contractions are scarce. In light of the limited literature, this investigation aimed to determine whether 2 different sport-specific exercise bouts would elicit a RBE in women. Twenty-one female dancers (19 ± 1 years) completed either a dance-specific protocol (n = 10) or sport-specific repeated-sprint protocol (n = 11). Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), limb girths, creatine kinase (CK), countermovement jump height, reactive strength index, maximal voluntary contraction, and 30-meter sprint time were recorded before and 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. An identical exercise bout was conducted approximately 4 weeks after the initial bout, during which time the subjects maintained habitual training and dietary behaviors. DOMS and 30-meter sprint time decreased after a second bout of both activities (p = 0.003; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.38 and p = 0.008; and (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.31, respectively). Circulating CK was also lower at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the second bout, independent of group (p = 0.010 and (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.23). Compared with the repeated-sprint protocol, the magnitude of change in DOMS was greater after a subsequent bout of the dance protocol (p = 0.010 and (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.19). These data are the first to demonstrate that dance and repeated-sprint activity resulting in muscle damage in women confers a protective effect against muscle damage after a subsequent bout.

  11. DECHLORINATION ACTIVITY (CROSS-ACCLIMATION) OF FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS ADAPTED TO MONO- AND DI-CHLOROPHENOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reductive dechlorination of chlorophenols (CPs) in sediment slurries (10% solids) adapted to dechlorinate mono- and di-CPs (DCP) was investigated to define the regiospecificity of the dechlorination reaction. nadapted sediment slurries amended with various ortho-substituted C...

  12. Optimal region of latching activity in an adaptive Potts model for networks of neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In statistical mechanics, the Potts model is a model for interacting spins with more than two discrete states. Neural networks which exhibit features of learning and associative memory can also be modeled by a system of Potts spins. A spontaneous behavior of hopping from one discrete attractor state to another (referred to as latching) has been proposed to be associated with higher cognitive functions. Here we propose a model in which both the stochastic dynamics of Potts models and an adaptive potential function are present. A latching dynamics is observed in a limited region of the noise(temperature)–adaptation parameter space. We hence suggest noise as a fundamental factor in such alternations alongside adaptation. From a dynamical systems point of view, the noise–adaptation alternations may be the underlying mechanism for multi-stability in attractor-based models. An optimality criterion for realistic models is finally inferred

  13. Active management of the third stage of labour without controlled cord traction: a randomized non-inferiority controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derman Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The third stage of labour refers to the period between birth of the baby and complete expulsion of the placenta. Some degree of blood loss occurs after the birth of the baby due to separation of the placenta. This period is a risky period because uterus may not contract well after birth and heavy blood loss can endanger the life of the mother. Active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL reduces the occurrence of severe postpartum haemorrhage by approximately 60–70%. Active management consists of several interventions packaged together and the relative contribution of each of the components is unknown. Controlled cord traction is one of those components that require training in manual skill for it to be performed appropriately. If it is possible to dispense with controlled cord traction without losing efficacy it would have major implications for effective management of the third stage of labour at peripheral levels of health care. Objective The primary objective is to determine whether the simplified package of oxytocin 10 IU IM/IV is not less effective than the full AMTSL package. Methods A hospital-based, multicentre, individually randomized controlled trial is proposed. The hypothesis tested will be a non-inferiority hypothesis. The aim will be to determine whether the simplified package without CCT, with the advantage of not requiring training to acquire the manual skill to perform this task, is not less effective than the full AMTSL package with regard to reducing blood loss in the third stage of labour. The simplified package will include uterotonic (oxytocin 10 IU IM injection after delivery of the baby and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The full package will include the uterotonic injection (oxytocin 10 IU IM, controlled cord traction following observation of uterine contraction and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The primary outcome

  14. Rift Valley fever dynamics in Senegal: a project for pro-active adaptation and improvement of livestock raising management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaye, Murielle; Sall, Baba; Ndiaye, Youssou; Vignolles, Cecile; Tourre, Yves M; Borchi, Franc Ois; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Diallo, Mawlouth; Dia, Ibrahima; Ba, Yamar; Faye, Abdoulaye; Ba, Taibou; Ka, Alioune; Ndione, Jacques-André; Gauthier, Hélène; Lacaux, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    The multi-disciplinary French project "Adaptation à la Fiévre de la Vallée du Rift" (AdaptFVR) has concluded a 10-year constructive interaction between many scientists/partners involved with the Rift Valley fever (RVF) dynamics in Senegal. The three targeted objectives reached were (i) to produce--in near real-time--validated risk maps for parked livestock exposed to RVF mosquitoes/vectors bites; (ii) to assess the impacts on RVF vectors from climate variability at different time-scales including climate change; and (iii) to isolate processes improving local livestock management and animal health. Based on these results, concrete, pro-active adaptive actions were taken on site, which led to the establishment of a RVF early warning system (RVFews). Bulletins were released in a timely fashion during the project, tested and validated in close collaboration with the local populations, i.e. the primary users. Among the strategic, adaptive methods developed, conducted and evaluated in terms of cost/benefit analyses are the larvicide campaigns and the coupled bio-mathematical (hydrological and entomological) model technologies, which are being transferred to the staff of the "Centre de Suivi Ecologique" (CSE) in Dakar during 2013. Based on the results from the AdaptFVR project, other projects with similar conceptual and modelling approaches are currently being implemented, e.g. for urban and rural malaria and dengue in the French Antilles. PMID:24258902

  15. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women: a 6-mo randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D;

    2016-01-01

    . Conclusion: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...

  16. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12 – 16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents’ measured BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents’ self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. Discussion This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in

  17. Adaptive trailing edge flaps for active load alleviation in a smart rotor configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergami, L.

    2013-08-15

    The work investigates the development of an active smart rotor concept from an aero-servo-elastic perspective. An active smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators, is able to alleviate the fluctuating part of the aerodynamic loads it has to withstand. The investigation focuses on a specific actuator type: the Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF), which introduces a continuous deformation of the aft part of the airfoil camber-line. An aerodynamic model that accounts for the steady and unsteady effects of the flap deflection on a 2D airfoil section is developed, and, considering both attached and separated flow conditions, is validated by comparison against Computational Fluid Dynamic solutions and a panel code method. The aerodynamic model is integrated in the BEM-based aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2, thus providing a tool able to simulate the response of a wind turbine equipped with ATEF. A load analysis of the NREL 5 MW reference turbine in its baseline configuration reveals that the highest contribution to the blade flapwise fatigue damage originates from normal operation above rated wind speed, and from loads characterized by frequencies below 1 Hz. The analysis also reports that periodic load variations on the turbine blade account for nearly 11 % of the blade flapwise lifetime fatigue damage, while the rest is ascribed to load variations from disturbances of stochastic nature. The study proposes a smart rotor configuration with flaps laid out on the outer 20 % of the blade span, from 77 % to 97% of the blade length. The configuration is first tested with a simplified cyclic control approach, which gives a preliminary indication of the load alleviation potential, and also reveals the possibility to enhance the rotor energy capture below rated conditions by using the flaps. Two model based control algorithms are developed to actively alleviate the fatigue loads on the smart rotor with ATEF. The first

  18. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of multiple and single dose activated charcoal for acute self-poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Fahim

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The case fatality for intentional self-poisoning in rural Asia is 10–30 times higher than in the West, mostly due to the use of highly toxic poisons. Activated charcoal is a widely available intervention that may – if given early – bind to poisons in the stomach and prevent their absorption. Current guidelines recommend giving a single dose of charcoal (SDAC if patients arrive within an hour of ingestion. Multiple doses (MDAC may increase poison elimination at a later time by interrupting any enterohepatic or enterovascular circulations. The effectiveness of SDAC or MDAC is unknown. Since most patients present to hospital after one hour, we considered MDAC to have a higher likelihood of clinical benefit and set up a study to compare MDAC with no charcoal. A third arm of SDAC was added to help determine whether any benefit noted from MDAC resulted from the first dose or all doses. Methods/design We set up a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of superactivated charcoal in unselected adult self-poisoning patients admitted to the adult medical wards of three Sri Lankan secondary hospitals. Patients were randomised to standard treatment or standard treatment plus either a single 50 g dose of superactivated charcoal dissolved in 300 ml of water or six doses every four hours. All patients with a history of poison ingestion were approached concerning the study and written informed consent taken from each patient, or their relative (for unconscious patients or those 72 hrs post-ingestion, and previous recruitment. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; secondary outcomes included the occurrence of serious complications (need for intubation, time requiring assisted ventilation, fits, cardiac dysrhythmias. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis; the effects of reported time to treatment after poisoning and status on admission will also be assessed. Discussion This trial will provide important

  19. Changed activation, oxygenation, and pain response of chronically painful muscles to repetitive work after training interventions: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karen; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed;

    2012-01-01

    assigned to: (1) general fitness training performed as leg-bicycling (GFT); (2) specific strength training of the neck/shoulder muscles (SST) or (3) reference intervention without physical exercise. Electromyographic activity (EMG), tissue oxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy), and pain intensity were......The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess changes in myalgic trapezius activation, muscle oxygenation, and pain intensity during repetitive and stressful work tasks in response to 10 weeks of training. In total, 39 women with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia were randomly...... measured in trapezius during pegboard and stress tasks before and after the intervention period. During the pegboard task, GFT improved trapezius oxygenation from a relative decrease of -0.83 ± 1.48 μM to an increase of 0.05 ± 1.32 μM, and decreased pain development by 43%, but did not affect resting...

  20. Postcoital bioavailability and antiviral activity of 0.5% PRO 2000 gel: implications for future microbicide clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla J Keller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of vaginal microbicides are typically assessed among sexually abstinent women. However, the physical act of sex may modulate gel distribution, and preclinical studies demonstrate seminal plasma interferes with the antiviral activity of several microbicides. This study compared the biological activity and concentration of PRO 2000 in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL collected in the absence or following coitus. METHODS: CVL samples were collected from ten heterosexual couples at baseline, after sex, after a single dose of 0.5% PRO 2000 gel and sex, and after gel application without sex. The impact of CVL on HIV-1 infection of TZM-bl cells and HSV-2 infection of CaSki cells was monitored by luciferase and plaque assay, respectively. PRO 2000 concentrations were measured by fluorescence. RESULTS: CVL collected after PRO 2000 application significantly inhibited HIV-1 and HSV-2 (p = 0.01. However, the antiviral activity was reduced following sex and no significant protective effect was observed in postcoital CVL obtained in the presence compared to the absence of PRO 2000 for HIV (p = 0.45 or HSV-2 (p = 0.56. Less PRO 2000 was recovered in postcoital CVL, which, in conjunction with interference by seminal plasma, may have contributed to lower antiviral activity. CONCLUSIONS: Postcoital responses to PRO 2000 differ from precoital measures and the results obtained may provide insights into the clinical trial findings in which there was no significant protection against HIV-1 or HSV-2. Postcoital studies should be incorporated into clinical studies before embarking on large-scale efficacy trials.

  1. Effects of an adapted physical activity program in a group of elderly subjects with flexed posture: clinical and instrumental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frizziero Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flexed posture commonly increases with age and is related to musculoskeletal impairment and reduced physical performance. The purpose of this clinical study was to systematically compare the effects of a physical activity program that specifically address the flexed posture that marks a certain percentage of elderly individuals with a non specific exercise program for 3 months. Methods Participants were randomly divided into two groups: one followed an Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture and the other one completed a non-specific physical activity protocol for the elderly. A multidimensional clinical assessment was performed at baseline and at 3 months including anthropometric data, clinical profile, measures of musculoskeletal impairment and disability. The instrumental assessment of posture was realized using a stereophotogrammetric system and a specific biomechanical model designed to describe the reciprocal position of the body segments on the sagittal plane in a upright posture. Results The Adapted Physical Activity program determined a significant improvement in several key parameters of the multidimensional assessment in comparison to the non-specific protocol: decreased occiput-to-wall distance, greater lower limb range of motion, better flexibility of pectoralis, hamstrings and hip flexor muscles, increased spine extensor muscles strength. Stereophotogrammetric analysis confirmed a reduced protrusion of the head and revealed a reduction in compensative postural adaptations to flexed posture characterized by knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion in the participants of the specific program. Conclusion The Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture significantly improved postural alignment and musculoskeletal impairment of the elderly. The stereophotogrammetric evaluation of posture was useful to measure the global postural alignment and especially to analyse the possible compensatory strategies

  2. The ACTIVE (Acute Cholecystitis Trial Invasive Versus Endoscopic study: Multicenter randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of laparoscopic (LC versus open (LTC surgery for acute cholecystitis (AC in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassi Uberto A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some randomized trials successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholecystitis is associated with an earlier recovery and shorter hospital stay when compared with open cholecystectomy. Other studies did not confirm these results and showed that the potential advantages of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholecystitis can be offset by a high conversion rate to open surgery. Moreover in these studies a similar postoperative programme to optimize recovery comparing laparoscopic and open approaches was not standardized. These studies also do not report all eligible patients and are not double blinded. Design The present study project is a prospective, randomized investigation. The study will be performed in the Department of General, Emergency and Transplant Surgery St Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital (Bologna, Italy, a large teaching institutions, with the participation of all surgeons who accept to be involved in (and together with other selected centers. The patients will be divided in two groups: in the first group the patient will be submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 72 hours after the diagnosis while in the second group will be submitted to laparotomic cholecystectomy within 72 hours after the diagnosis. Trial Registration TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER ISRCTN27929536 – The ACTIVE (Acute Cholecystitis Trial Invasive Versus Endoscopic study. A multicentre randomised, double-blind, controlled trial of laparoscopic versus open surgery for acute cholecystitis in adults.

  3. The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in patients with dementia: A meta-analysis of randomized control trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, C; Hooghiemstra, A M; Raijmakers, P G H M; van Berckel, B N M; Scheltens, P; Scherder, E J A; van der Flier, W M; Ossenkoppele, R

    2016-01-01

    Non-pharmacological therapies, such as physical activity interventions, are an appealing alternative or add-on to current pharmacological treatment of cognitive symptoms in patients with dementia. In this meta-analysis, we investigated the effect of physical activity interventions on cognitive function in dementia patients, by synthesizing data from 802 patients included in 18 randomized control trials that applied a physical activity intervention with cognitive function as an outcome measure. Post-intervention standardized mean difference (SMD) scores were computed for each study, and combined into pooled effect sizes using random effects meta-analysis. The primary analysis yielded a positive overall effect of physical activity interventions on cognitive function (SMD[95% confidence interval]=0.42[0.23;0.62], paerobic and non-aerobic) exercise interventions (SMD=0.59[0.32;0.86], paerobic-only exercise interventions (SMD=0.41[0.05;0.76], peffect on cognition, while this association was absent for non-aerobic exercise interventions (SMD=-0.10[-0.38;0.19], p=.51). Finally, we found that interventions offered at both high frequency (SMD=0.33[0.03;0.63], peffect on cognitive function. This meta-analysis suggests that physical activity interventions positively influence cognitive function in patients with dementia. This beneficial effect was independent of the clinical diagnosis and the frequency of the intervention, and was driven by interventions that included aerobic exercise. PMID:26607411

  4. Understanding noninferiority trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokyung Hahn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Noninferiority trials test whether a new experimental treatment is not unacceptably less efficacious than an active control treatment already in use. With continuous improvements in health technologies, standard care, and clinical outcomes, the incremental benefits of newly developed treatments may be only marginal over existing treatments. Sometimes assigning patients to a placebo is unethical. In such circumstances, there has been increasing emphasis on the use of noninferiority trial designs. Noninferiority trials are more complex to design, conduct, and interpret than typical superiority trials. This paper reviews the concept of noninferiority trials and discusses some important issues related to them.

  5. Adaptive designs for sequential experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林正炎; 张立新

    2003-01-01

    Various adaptive designs have been proposed and applied to clinical trials, bioassay, psychophysics, etc.Adaptive designs are also useful in high cost engineering trials.More and more people have been paying attention to these design methods. This paper introduces several broad families of designs, such as the play-the-winner rule, randomized play-the-winner rule and its generalization to the multi-arm case, doubly biased coin adaptive design, Markov chain model.

  6. Effects of intensive exercise on patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised clinical trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Ende, C.H.M. van den; Breedveld, F C; Cessie, S Le; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; de Mug, A W

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of a dynamic, intensive exercise regimen on pain, disease activity, and physical functioning in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: 64 patients with RA with a mean age of 60 (13) years and mean disease duration of 8 (8) years, admitted to hospital because of active disease, were randomly assigned to an intensive exercise programme or to a conservative exercise programme during their period in hospital with a mean length of 30 (14) days. The intens...

  7. ERK activation is required for CCK-mediated pancreatic adaptive growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Bryan J; Lodewyk, Kevin B; Sebolt-Leopold, Judith S; Ernst, Stephen A; Williams, John A

    2014-10-01

    High levels of cholecystokinin (CCK) can stimulate pancreatic adaptive growth in which mature acinar cells divide, leading to enhanced pancreatic mass with parallel increases in protein, DNA, RNA, and digestive enzyme content. Prolonged release of CCK can be induced by feeding trypsin inhibitor (TI) to disrupt normal feedback control. This leads to exocrine growth in a CCK-dependent manner. The extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway regulates many proliferative processes in various tissues and disease models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ERK signaling in pancreatic adaptive growth using the MEK inhibitors PD-0325901 and trametinib (GSK-1120212). It was determined that PD-0325901 given two times daily by gavage or mixed into powdered chow was an effective and specific inhibitor of ERK signaling in vivo. TI-containing chow led to a robust increase in pancreatic mass, protein, DNA, and RNA content. This pancreatic adaptive growth was blocked in mice fed chow containing the MEK inhibitors. PD-0325901 blocked TI-induced ERK-regulated early response genes, cell-cycle proteins, and mitogenesis by acinar cells. It was determined that ERK signaling is necessary for the initiation of pancreatic adaptive growth but not necessary to maintain it. PD-0325901 blocked adaptive growth when given before cell-cycle initiation but not after mitogenesis had been established. Furthermore, GSK-1120212, a chemically distinct inhibitor of the ERK pathway that is now approved for clinical use, inhibited growth similar to PD-0325901. These data demonstrate that the ERK pathway is required for CCK-stimulated pancreatic adaptive growth.

  8. The utility of e-Learning to support training for a multicentre bladder online adaptive radiotherapy trial (TROG 10.01-BOLART)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: An e-Learning programme appeared useful for providing training and information regarding a multi-centre image guided radiotherapy trial. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the utility of this e-Learning programme. Materials and methods: Modules were created on relevant pelvic anatomy, Cone Beam CT soft tissue recognition and trial details. Radiation therapist participants’ knowledge and confidence were evaluated before, at the end of, and after at least 6 weeks of e-Learning (long term). Results: One hundred and eighty-five participants were recruited from 12 centres, with 118 in the first, and 67 in the second cohort. One hundred and forty-six participants had two tests (pre and post e-Learning) and 39 of these had three tests (pre, post, and long term). There was an increase confidence after completion of modules (p < 0.001). The first cohort pre scores increased from 67 ± 11 to 79 ± 8 (p < 0.001) post. The long term same question score was 73 ± 14 (p = 0.025, comparing to pre-test), and different questions’ score was 77 ± 13 (p = 0.014). In the second cohort, pre-test scores were 64 ± 10, post-test same question score 78 ± 9 (p < 0.001) and different questions’ score 81 ± 11 (p < 0.001). Conclusions: e-Learning for a multi-centre clinical trial was feasible and improved confidence and knowledge

  9. Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC) to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Moreno

    2007-01-01

    Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and manag...

  10. Activity pacing for osteoarthritis symptom management: study design and methodology of a randomized trial testing a tailored clinical approach using accelerometers for veterans and non-veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisser Michael E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is a prevalent chronic disease and a leading cause of disability in adults. For people with knee and hip OA, symptoms (e.g., pain and fatigue can interfere with mobility and physical activity. Whereas symptom management is a cornerstone of treatment for knee and hip OA, limited evidence exists for behavioral interventions delivered by rehabilitation professionals within the context of clinical care that address how symptoms affect participation in daily activities. Activity pacing, a strategy in which people learn to preplan rest breaks to avoid symptom exacerbations, has been effective as part of multi-component interventions, but hasn't been tested as a stand-alone intervention in OA or as a tailored treatment using accelerometers. In a pilot study, we found that participants who underwent a tailored activity pacing intervention had reduced fatigue interference with daily activities. We are now conducting a full-scale trial. Methods/Design This paper provides a description of our methods and rationale for a trial that evaluates a tailored activity pacing intervention led by occupational therapists for adults with knee and hip OA. The intervention uses a wrist accelerometer worn during the baseline home monitoring period to glean recent symptom and physical activity patterns and to tailor activity pacing instruction based on how symptoms relate to physical activity. At 10 weeks and 6 months post baseline, we will examine the effectiveness of a tailored activity pacing intervention on fatigue, pain, and physical function compared to general activity pacing and usual care groups. We will also evaluate the effect of tailored activity pacing on physical activity (PA. Discussion Managing OA symptoms during daily life activity performance can be challenging to people with knee and hip OA, yet few clinical interventions address this issue. The activity pacing intervention tested in this trial is designed to help

  11. Effect of affordable technology on physical activity levels and mobility outcomes in rehabilitation: a protocol for the Activity and MObility UsiNg Technology (AMOUNT) rehabilitation trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Leanne; van den Berg, Maayken; Lindley, Richard I; Crotty, Maria; McCluskey, Annie; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Smith, Stuart T; Schurr, Karl; Killington, Maggie; Bongers, Bert; Howard, Kirsten; Heritier, Stephane; Togher, Leanne; Hackett, Maree; Treacy, Daniel; Dorsch, Simone; Wong, Siobhan; Scrivener, Katharine; Chagpar, Sakina; Weber, Heather; Pearson, Ross; Sherrington, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction People with mobility limitations can benefit from rehabilitation programmes that provide a high dose of exercise. However, since providing a high dose of exercise is logistically challenging and resource-intensive, people in rehabilitation spend most of the day inactive. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of affordable technology to usual care on physical activity and mobility in people with mobility limitations admitted to inpatient aged and neurological rehabilitation units compared to usual care alone. Methods and analysis A pragmatic, assessor blinded, parallel-group randomised trial recruiting 300 consenting rehabilitation patients with reduced mobility will be conducted. Participants will be individually randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention group will receive technology-based exercise to target mobility and physical activity problems for 6 months. The technology will include the use of video and computer games/exercises and tablet applications as well as activity monitors. The control group will not receive any additional intervention and both groups will receive usual inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation care over the 6-month study period. The coprimary outcomes will be objectively assessed physical activity (proportion of the day spent upright) and mobility (Short Physical Performance Battery) at 6 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes will include: self-reported and objectively assessed physical activity, mobility, cognition, activity performance and participation, utility-based quality of life, balance confidence, technology self-efficacy, falls and service utilisation. Linear models will assess the effect of group allocation for each continuously scored outcome measure with baseline scores entered as a covariate. Fall rates between groups will be compared using negative binomial regression. Primary analyses will be preplanned, conducted while masked to group allocation and use an

  12. Impact of a physical activity intervention program on cognitive predictors of behaviour among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes (ProActive randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Stephen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ProActive Trial an intensive theory-based intervention program was no more effective than theory-based brief advice in increasing objectively measured physical activity among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes. We aimed to illuminate these findings by assessing whether the intervention program changed cognitions about increasing activity, defined by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, in ways consistent with the theory. Methods N = 365 sedentary participants aged 30–50 years with a parental history of Type 2 diabetes were randomised to brief advice alone or to brief advice plus the intervention program delivered face-to-face or by telephone. Questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months assessed cognitions about becoming more physically active. Analysis of covariance was used to test intervention impact. Bootstrapping was used to test multiple mediation of intervention impact. Results At 6 months, combined intervention groups (face-to-face and telephone reported that they found increasing activity more enjoyable (affective attitude, d = .25, and they perceived more instrumental benefits (e.g., improving health (d = .23 and more control (d = .32 over increasing activity than participants receiving brief advice alone. Stronger intentions (d = .50 in the intervention groups than the brief advice group at 6 months were partially explained by affective attitude and perceived control. At 12 months, intervention groups perceived more positive instrumental (d = .21 and affective benefits (d = .29 than brief advice participants. The intervention did not change perceived social pressure to increase activity. Conclusion Lack of effect of the intervention program on physical activity over and above brief advice was consistent with limited and mostly small short-term effects on cognitions. Targeting affective benefits (e.g., enjoyment, social interaction and addressing barriers to physical activity may strengthen intentions, but

  13. Associations among environmental supports, physical activity, and blood pressure in African-American adults in the PATH trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Egan, Brent M

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure disproportionately affects African-American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability would be positively associated with physical activity, and that physical activity would mediate their relation with blood pressure. Baseline data were collected with 434 African-American adults in underserved communities (low income, high crime) participating in the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial. Perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability were measured with validated surveys. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day accelerometry (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, min/day) and with a 4-week recall of walking. Three blood pressure assessments were taken by trained staff using standard protocols, with values from the second and third assessments averaged. The sample was predominantly female (63%), overweight (mean body mass index = 30.9, SD = 8.4), and had slightly elevated blood pressures with a mean systolic blood pressure of 132.4 (SD = 17.9) and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 81.4 (SD = 11.0). Results demonstrated that peer social support for physical activity (B = 2.43, p = .02) and neighborhood walkability (B = 2.40, p = .046) were significantly related to average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was also significantly associated with self-reported average daily walking (B = 8.86, p = .02). Physical activity did not mediate their relation with blood pressure and no significant direct effects of these variables on blood pressure were found. The positive influence of

  14. The Prescribed Amount of Physical Activity in Randomized Clinical Trials in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Buchner, David M.; Prohaska, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past two decades, a consensus has formed that increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior in older adults are important for physical and cognitive health. Although there is strong evidence that regular physical activity can prevent or delay the onset of many chronic diseases, a major concern is ensuring that…

  15. Physically Active Math and Language Lessons Improve Academic Achievement : A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Doolaard, Simone; Bosker, Roel J.; Visscher, Chris

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Using physical activity in the teaching of academic lessons is a new way of learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an innovative physically active academic intervention ("Fit & Vaardig op School" [F&V]) on academic achievement of children. METHODS: Using physic

  16. Effects of intensive exercise on patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised clinical trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, C.H.M. van den; Breedveld, F.C.; Cessie, S. le; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Mug, A.W. de

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of a dynamic, intensive exercise regimen on pain, disease activity, and physical functioning in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: 64 patients with RA with a mean age of 60 (13) years and mean disease duration of 8 (8) years, admitted to hospital becaus

  17. Exergame Apps and Physical Activity: The Results of the ZOMBIE Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, Joan; Majeske, Paul; Frank, Rebecca; Brown, Devin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although there are thousands of health and fitness smartphone apps currently available, little research exists regarding the effects of mobile app technology on physical activity behavior. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test whether Exergame smartphone applications increase physical activity levels. Methods: This was a…

  18. The cameroon mobile phone sms (CAMPS trial: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial of mobile phone text messaging versus usual care for improving adherence to highly active anti-retroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mba Robert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This trial aims at testing the efficacy of weekly reminder and motivational text messages, compared to usual care in improving adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment in patients attending a clinic in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Methods and Design This is a single-centered randomized controlled single-blinded trial. A central computer generated randomization list will be generated using random block sizes. Allocation will be determined by sequentially numbered sealed opaque envelopes. 198 participants will either receive the mobile phone text message or usual care. Our hypothesis is that weekly motivational text messages can improve adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment and other clinical outcomes in the control group by acting as a reminder, a cue to action and opening communication channels. Data will be collected at baseline, three months and six months. A blinded program secretary will send out text messages and record delivery. Our primary outcomes are adherence measured by the visual analogue scale, self report, and pharmacy refill data. Our secondary outcomes are clinical: weight, body mass index, opportunistic infections, all cause mortality and retention; biological: Cluster Designation 4 count and viral load; and quality of life. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat. Covariates and subgroups will be taken into account. Discussion This trial investigates the potential of SMS motivational reminders to improve adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment in Cameroon. The intervention targets non-adherence due to forgetfulness and other forms of non-adherence. Trial Registration Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201011000261458 http://clinicaltrials.gov/NCT01247181

  19. Traffic flow impacts of adaptive cruise control deactivation and (Re)activation with cooperative driver behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, G.; Li, M.; Minderhoud, M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 in the Netherlands, a field operational test was carried out to study the effect of adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane departure warning on driver behavior and traffic flow in real traffic. To estimate the effect for larger penetration rates, simulations were needed. For a reliable impac

  20. Combined MIMO adaptive and decentralized controllers for broadband active noise and vibration control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, A.P.; Wesselink, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Model errors in multiple-input multiple-output adaptive controllers for reduction of broadband noise and vibrations may lead to unstable systems or increased error signals. In this paper, a combination of high-authority control (HAC) and low-authority control (LAC) is considered for improved perform

  1. Peers as Resources for Learning: A Situated Learning Approach to Adapted Physical Activity in Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Oyvind F.; Jespersen, Ejgil

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning that takes place when people with disabilities interact in a rehabilitation context. Data were generated through in-depth interviews and close observations in a 2 one-half week-long rehabilitation program, where the participants learned both wheelchair skills and adapted physical…

  2. [Study nurses in Germany--a survey of job-related activities in clinical trials as a basis for a job description and for training curricula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Bettina; Beier, Jutta

    2007-10-01

    Until now, the conducting of clinical trials by nurses has scarcely come under scientific examination. Particularly in Germany, the field of activity has only been treated marginally in the health-care and nursing sciences. In Germany, the term 'Study Nurse' is used not only for members of the nursing profession but across disciplines; it is one of the most widely used terms. An explorative, descriptive study has been conducted employing a modified version of the Work Sampling Method. 79 Study Nurses were anonymously surveyed using a self-administered workload catalogue. 85 participated in the survey that focused on demographics, qualifications, and salary. In every workload catalogue, contact with other colleagues as well as job activities and the time spent on each activity were documented over twenty days. Study Nurses are mostly members of the nursing profession. They work mostly at university clinics and are responsible for conducting clinical trials. This applies to all trials that license medicinal products but also for trials initiated by investigators. While trial-specific documentation is their most time-intensive task, the overall role of Study Nurses encompasses a very broad range of activities. For the most part, they work alone and independently but have various contacts mainly to patients and the investigator. Future research should take into consideration the motivation for opting for the job of Study Nurse and the question of whether through their training and experience nurses are better qualified than other healthcare professionals.

  3. The PACE Study: A randomised clinical trial of cognitive activity (CA for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flicker Leon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence from observational studies suggests that cognitive activity reduces the risk of cognitive impairment in later life as well as the rate of cognitive decline of people with dementia. The Promoting Healthy Ageing with Cognitive Exercise (PACE study has been designed to determine whether a cognitive activity intervention decreases the rate of cognitive decline amongst older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods/Design The study will recruit 160 community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years of age or over with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Participants will be randomly allocated to two treatment groups: non-specific education and cognitive activity. The intervention will consist of ten 90-minute sessions delivered twice per week over a period of five weeks. The primary outcome measure of the study is the change from baseline in the total score on the Cambridge Cognitive Score (CAMCOG. Secondary outcomes of interest include changes in memory, attention, executive functions, mood and quality of life. Primary endpoints will be collected 12, 52 and 104 weeks after the baseline assessment. Discussion The proposed project will produce the best available evidence on the merits of increased cognitive activity as a strategy to prevent cognitive decline among older adults with MCI. We anticipate that the results of this study will have implications for the development of evidence-based preventive strategies to reduce the rate of cognitive decline amongst older people at risk of dementia. Trial registration ACTRN12608000556347

  4. Effect of intensive exercise on patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, C H M; Breedveld, F.; Le Cessie, S; Dijkmans, B; de Mug, A W; Hazes, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the effects of a dynamic, intensive exercise regimen on pain, disease activity, and physical functioning in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS—64 patients with RA with a mean age of 60 (13) years and mean disease duration of 8 (8) years, admitted to hospital because of active disease, were randomly assigned to an intensive exercise programme or to a conservative exercise programme during their period in hospital with a mean length of 30 (14) days. The intensive...

  5. A cluster randomised trial to evaluate a physical activity intervention among 3-5 year old children attending long day care services: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finch Meghan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young children are not participating in recommended levels of physical activity and exhibit high levels of sedentary behaviour. Childcare services provide access to large numbers of young children for prolonged periods, yet there is limited experimental evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical activity interventions implemented in this setting. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a multi-component physical activity intervention, delivered by childcare service staff, in increasing the physical activity levels of children attending long day care services. Methods/Design The study will employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Three hundred children aged between 3-5 years from twenty randomly selected long day care services in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia will be invited to participate in the trial. Ten of the 20 long day care services will be randomly allocated to deliver the intervention with the remaining ten services allocated to a wait list control group. The physical activity intervention will consist of a number of strategies including: delivering structured fundamental movement skill activities, increasing physical activity opportunities, increasing staff role modelling, providing children with a physical activity promoting indoor and outdoor environment and limiting children's small screen recreation and sedentary behaviours. Intervention effectiveness will be measured via child physical activity levels during attendance at long day care. The study also seeks to determine the acceptability and extent of implementation of the intervention by services and their staff participating in the study. Discussion The trial will address current gaps in the research evidence base and contribute to the design and delivery of future interventions promoting physical activity for young children in long day care settings. Trial registration Australian New

  6. A smart rotor configuration with linear quadratic control of adaptive trailing edge flaps for active load alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2015-01-01

    . The effects of active flap control are assessed with aeroelastic simulations of the turbine in normal operation conditions, as prescribed by the International Electrotechnical Commission standard. The turbine lifetime fatigue damage equivalent loads provide a convenient summary of the results achieved......The paper proposes a smart rotor configuration where adaptive trailing edge flaps (ATEFs) are employed for active alleviation of the aerodynamic loads on the blades of the NREL 5 MW reference turbine. The flaps extend for 20% of the blade length and are controlled by a linear quadratic (LQ...

  7. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates

  8. Efficacy of tailored-print interventions to promote physical activity: a systematic review of randomised trials

    OpenAIRE

    Plotnikoff Ronald C; James Erica L; Short Camille E; Girgis Afaf

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective Computer-tailored physical activity interventions are becoming increasingly popular. Recent reviews have comprehensively synthesised published research on computer-tailored interventions delivered via interactive technology (e.g. web-based programs) but there is a paucity of synthesis for interventions delivered via traditional print-based media in the physical activity domain (i.e. tailored-print interventions). The current study provides a systematic review of the tailore...

  9. Alternative strategies for activation of the natural lactoperoxidase system in cows' milk: trials in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fweja, Leonard W T; Lewis, Michael J; Grandison, Alistair S

    2007-11-01

    Thiocyanate content and lactoperoxidase activity of individual cow's milk of different breeds were determined, and the effects of different lactoperoxidase system (LP-s) activation strategies were compared. Lactoperoxidase activity varied significantly between Friesian and both Ayrshire and Tanzania Short Horn Zebu (TSHZ), but differences between Ayrshire and TSHZ were not significant. There was no significant variation in SCN- content between breeds. The LP-s was activated using three strategies based on SCN-: namely; equal concentrations of SCN- and H2O2 (7:7, 10:10, 15:15 mg/l), excess SCN- concentrations (15:10, 20:10, 25:10 mg SCN-:H2O2/l), and excess H2O2 concentrations (10:15, 10:20, 10:25 mg SCN-:H2O2/l), plus a fourth strategy based on I- (15:15 mg I-:H2O2/l). The keeping quality (KQ) was assessed using pH, titratable acidity, clot on boiling and alcohol stability tests. All activation strategies enhanced the shelf life of milk (typically increasing KQ from around 10 to around 20 h), but it was clear that the effectiveness of the LP-s depends on the type and concentrations of the activators of the system. The LP-s activated using I- as an electron donor was more effective than the LP-s activated using SCN- as an electron donor, increasing the KQ by a further 6-8 h compared with SCN-.

  10. Playing Active Video Games may not develop movement skills: An intervention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Ridgers, Nicola D; John Reynolds; Lisa Hanna; Jo Salmon

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week) in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, u...

  11. Ten weeks of physical-cognitive-mindfulness training reduces fear-avoidance beliefs about work-related activity: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Berthelsen, Kasper Gymoese; Schraefel, Mc; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L

    2016-08-01

    People with chronic musculoskeletal pain often experience pain-related fear of movement and avoidance behavior. The Fear-Avoidance model proposes a possible mechanism at least partly explaining the development and maintenance of chronic pain. People who interpret pain during movement as being potentially harmful to the organism may initiate a vicious behavioral cycle by generating pain-related fear of movement accompanied by avoidance behavior and hyper-vigilance.This study investigates whether an individually adapted multifactorial approach comprised of biopsychosocial elements, with a focus on physical exercise, mindfulness, and education on pain and behavior, can decrease work-related fear-avoidance beliefs.As part of a large scale 10-week worksite randomized controlled intervention trial focusing on company initiatives to combat work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress, we evaluated fear-avoidance behavior in 112 female laboratory technicians with chronic neck, shoulder, upper back, lower back, elbow, and hand/wrist pain using the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire at baseline, before group allocation, and again at the post intervention follow-up 10 weeks later.A significant group by time interaction was observed (P avoidance beliefs. The between-group difference at follow-up was -2.2 (-4.0 to -0.5), corresponding to a small to medium effect size (Cohen's d = 0.30).Our study shows that work-related, but not leisure time activity-related, fear-avoidance beliefs, as assessed by the Fear-avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, can be significantly reduced by 10 weeks of physical-cognitive-mindfulness training in female laboratory technicians with chronic pain.

  12. A web delivered intervention for depression combining Behavioural Activation with physical activity promotion: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey David Lambert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity (PA yields moderate effect sizes for treating depression (Cooney et al., 2013. PA may also help reduce depressive relapse, providing additional psychological benefits such as positive self-regard and a sense of competence (Babyak et al., 2000. Behavioural Activation (BA is an evidence-based psychological therapy for depression, which aims to get people more engaged with activities that provide positive reinforcement for non-depressed behaviours (Hopko, Lejuez, LePage, Hopko, & McNeil, 2003. The structured nature of BA is consistent with the use of good behaviour change techniques (specific goal-setting, self-regulation offering a potential platform for promoting PA alongside depression treatment. BA may also be useful for gradually increasing PA in people who are more sedentary than the general population. Aims: This pilot randomised controlled trial aims to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and fidelity of a web-delivered intervention combining BA and PA (eBAcPAc to enhance mental and physical health, and assess the trial methods. Method: A community sample of 120 people exhibiting symptoms of depression and who are participating in less than 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week will be randomized to receive eBAcPAc or be put on a wait list control group. eBAcPAc is informed by previous work (Farrand et al., 2014; Pentecost et al., 2015 and further developed using the Centre for eHealth Research and Disease management Roadmap (CeHReS (van Gemert-Pijnen et al., 2011 in order to be applied in an web-based setting. A platform hosted by the University of Glasgow which has been used to deliver a wide range of successful web-delivered interventions for mental health, will be used to deliver eBAcPAc. Feasibility measures will include data on recruitment, attrition and acceptability. Pre-post outcome measures will include the PHQ-9, and self-reported and accelerometer measured PA. Process and

  13. Cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr scale of pain assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Aparecida Bussotti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to perform the translation into Brazilian Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr scale, with children under 18 years old, affected by cerebral palsy, presenting or not cognitive impairment and unable to report their pain.Method: methodological development study of translation into Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. After approval by the ethics committee, the process aimed at translation and back-translation, evaluation of translation and back-translation using the Delphi technique and assessment of cultural equivalence. The process included the five categories of the scale and the four application instructions, considering levels of agreement equal to or greater than 80%.Results: it was necessary three rounds of the Delphi technique to achieve consensus among experts. The agreement achieved for the five categories was: Face 95.5%, Legs 90%, Activity 94.4%, Cry 94.4% and Consolability 99.4%. The four instructions achieved the following consensus levels: 1st 99.1%, 2nd 99.2%, 3rd 99.1% and 4th 98.3%.Conclusion: the method enabled the translation and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. This is a study able to expand the knowledge of Brazilian professionals on pain assessment in children with CP

  14. Controlled trial of polymeric versus elemental diet in treatment of active Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaffer, M H; North, G; Holdsworth, C D

    1990-04-01

    30 patients with active Crohn's disease, mean Crohn's Disease Activity Index 301 (SE 32), who would otherwise have been treated with steroids, were randomised to receive for 4 weeks either an elemental diet ('Vivonex') (n = 16) or a polymeric diet ('Fortison') (n = 14). Assessment on days 10 and 28 showed that clinical remission occurred in 5 (36%) of the 14 patients on fortison compared with 12 (75%) of the 16 patients assigned to vivonex. The difference in remission rate was significant (p less than 0.03). Dietary treatment resulted in little change in the nutritional state and various laboratory indices of activity over a 4 week period despite clinical improvement. Polymeric diets do not seem to offer an effective therapeutic alternative to elemental diets in patients with acute exacerbations of Crohn's disease. PMID:1969560

  15. Complement Activation Pathways: A Bridge between Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Wills-Karp, Marsha

    2007-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that allergic asthma is driven by T helper type 2 (Th2)-polarized immune responses to innocuous environmental allergens, the mechanisms driving these aberrant immune responses remain elusive. Recent recognition of the importance of innate immune pathways in regulating adaptive immune responses have fueled investigation into the role of innate immune pathways in the pathogenesis of asthma. The phylogenetically ancient innate immune system, the complement system, ...

  16. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Adaptations Alter the Activity of Adipose Progenitor Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Zeve; Millay, Douglas P.; Jin Seo; Graff, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise decreases adiposity and improves metabolic health; however, the physiological and molecular underpinnings of these phenomena remain unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of endurance training on adipose progenitor lineage commitment. Using mice with genetically labeled adipose progenitors, we show that these cells react to exercise by decreasing their proliferation and differentiation potential. Analyses of mouse models that mimic the skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise indicat...

  17. Differential and Conditional Activation of PKC-Isoforms Dictates Cardiac Adaptation during Physiological to Pathological Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Shaon Naskar; Kaberi Datta; Arkadeep Mitra; Kanchan Pathak; Ritwik Datta; Trisha Bansal; Sagartirtha Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    A cardiac hypertrophy is defined as an increase in heart mass which may either be beneficial (physiological hypertrophy) or detrimental (pathological hypertrophy). This study was undertaken to establish the role of different protein kinase-C (PKC) isoforms in the regulation of cardiac adaptation during two types of cardiac hypertrophy. Phosphorylation of specific PKC-isoforms and expression of their downstream proteins were studied during physiological and pathological hypertrophy in 24 week ...

  18. Adaptive sliding control of non-autonomous active suspension systems with time-varying loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chang; Huang, An-Chyau

    2005-04-01

    An adaptive sliding controller is proposed in this paper for controlling a non-autonomous quarter-car suspension system with time-varying loadings. The bound of the car-body loading is assumed to be available. Then, the reference coordinate is placed at the static position under the nominal loading so that the system dynamic equation is derived. Due to spring nonlinearities, the system property becomes asymmetric after coordinate transformation. Besides, in practical cases, system parameters are not easy to be obtained precisely for controller design. Therefore, in this paper, system uncertainties are lumped into two unknown time-varying functions. Since the variation bound of one of the unknown functions is not available, conventional adaptive schemes and robust designs are not applicable. To deal with this problem, the function approximation technique is employed to represent the unknown function as a finite combination of basis functions. The Lyapunov direct method can thus be used to find adaptive laws for updating coefficients in the approximating series and to prove stability of the closed-loop system. Since the position and velocity measurements of the unsprung mass are lumped into the unknown function, there is no need to install sensors on the axle and wheel assembly in the actual implementation. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of the proposed strategy.

  19. The role of physical activity and physical fitness in postcancer fatigue: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Heijmen, L.; Zwarts, M.J.; Leer, J.W.H.; Heerschap, A.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients suffering from postcancer fatigue have both an inferior physical activity and physical fitness compared to non-fatigued cancer survivors. The aims of this study were (1) to examine the effect of cognitive behavior therapy, an effective treatment for postcancer fatigue, on physical

  20. Doxycycline Improves Filarial Lymphedema Independent of Active Filarial Infection: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mand, S; DEBRAH, A Y; Klarmann, U; Batsa, L.; Marfo-Debrekyei, Y.; Kwarteng, A; S. SPECHT; Belda-Domene, A.; Fimmers, R; Taylor, M; Adjei, O.; Hoerauf, A.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment with doxycycline leads to improvement of filarial lymphedema independent of active infection (ie, patients positive or negative for circulating filarial antigen). Therefore, doxycycline (200 mg/d for 6 weeks) should be considered for patients with stage 1–3 lymphedema to improve morbidity management.

  1. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...

  2. Phase I trial with BMS-275183, a novel oral taxane with promising antitumor activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broker, LE; de Vos, FYFL; van Groeningen, CJ; Kuenen, BC; Gall, HE; Woo, MH; Voi, M; Gietema, JA; deVries, EGE; Giaccone, G

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: BMS-275183 is an orally administered C-4 methyl carbonate analogue of paclitaxel. We did a dose-escalating phase I study to investigate its safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and possible antitumor activity. Experimental Design: A cycle consisted of four weekly doses of BMS-275183. The

  3. A Double-Blind Atropine Trial for Active Learning of Autonomic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jeffrey R.; Burr, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to…

  4. Internet-based exposure and behavioral activation for complicated grief and rumination: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Eisma; P.A. Boelen; J. van den Bout; W. Stroebe; H.A. Schut; J. Lancee; M.S. Stroebe

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness and feasibility of therapist-guided Internet-delivered exposure (EX) and behavioral activation (BA) for complicated grief and rumination. Forty-seven bereaved individuals with elevated levels of complicated grief and grief rumination were randomly assigned to th

  5. Internet-Based Exposure and Behavioral Activation for Complicated Grief and Rumination : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, M.C.; Boelen, P.A.; van den Bout, J.; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, H.A.W.; Lancee, Jaap; Stroebe, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness and feasibility of therapist-guided Internet-delivered exposure (EX) and behavioral activation (BA) for complicated grief and rumination. Forty-seven bereaved individuals with elevated levels of complicated grief and grief rumination were randomly assigned to th

  6. Playing Active Video Games may not develop movement skills: An intervention trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Reynolds, John; Hanna, Lisa; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week) in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control) and time (pre and post) and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no). Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Results: Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group) aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95) participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006) but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913) between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835). A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406) or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and ‘real life’ activities. Conclusions: Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill. PMID:26844136

  7. Playing Active Video Games may not develop movement skills: An intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Barnett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control and time (pre and post and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no. Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Results: Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95 participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006 but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913 between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835. A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406 or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and ‘real life’ activities. Conclusions: Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill.

  8. Adapted physical exercise enhances activation and differentiation potential of satellite cells in the skeletal muscle of old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna, Barbara; Giagnacovo, Marzia; Costanzo, Manuela; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Zancanaro, Carlo; Pellicciari, Carlo; Malatesta, Manuela

    2016-05-01

    During ageing, a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in muscle strength and endurance take place, in the condition termed sarcopenia. The mechanisms of sarcopenia are complex and still unclear; however, it is known that muscle atrophy is associated with a decline in the number and/or efficiency of satellite cells, the main contributors to muscle regeneration. Physical exercise proved beneficial in sarcopenia; however, knowledge of the effect of adapted physical exercise on the myogenic properties of satellite cells in aged muscles is limited. In this study the amount and activation state of satellite cells as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential were assessed in situ by morphology, morphometry and immunocytochemistry at light and transmission electron microscopy on 28-month-old mice submitted to adapted aerobic physical exercise on a treadmill. Sedentary age-matched mice served as controls, and sedentary adult mice were used as a reference for an unperturbed control at an age when the capability of muscle regeneration is still high. The effect of physical exercise in aged muscles was further analysed by comparing the myogenic potential of satellite cells isolated from old running and old sedentary mice using an in vitro system that allows observation of the differentiation process under controlled experimental conditions. The results of this ex vivo and in vitro study demonstrated that adapted physical exercise increases the number and activation of satellite cells as well as their capability to differentiate into structurally and functionally correct myotubes (even though the age-related impairment in myotube formation is not fully reversed): this evidence further supports adapted physical exercise as a powerful, non-pharmacological approach to counteract sarcopenia and the age-related deterioration of satellite cell capabilities even at very advanced age. PMID:26739770

  9. Effectiveness of personalised feedback alone or combined with peer support to improve physical activity in sedentary older Malays with type 2 diabetes: A randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Shariff-Ghazali eSazlina; Colette Joy Browning; Shajahan eYasin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Regular physical activity is an important aspect of self management among older people with type 2 diabetes but many remain inactive. Interventions to improve physical activity levels have been studied but few studies have evaluated the effects of personalised feedback or peer support; and there was no study on older people of Asian heritage. Hence, this trial evaluated whether personalised feedback (PF) only or combined with peer support (PS) improves physical activity among ol...

  10. Effectiveness of Personalized Feedback Alone or Combined with Peer Support to Improve Physical Activity in Sedentary Older Malays with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Browning, Colette Joy; Yasin, Shajahan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Regular physical activity is an important aspect of self-management among older people with type 2 diabetes but many remain inactive. Interventions to improve physical activity levels have been studied but few studies have evaluated the effects of personalized feedback (PF) or peer support (PS); and there was no study on older people of Asian heritage. Hence, this trial evaluated whether PF only or combined with PS improves physical activity among older Malays with type 2 diab...

  11. Smartphone apps to improve fitness and increase physical activity among young people: protocol of the Apps for IMproving FITness (AIMFIT) randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Direito, Artur; Jiang, Yannan; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity is a modifiable behavior related to many preventable non-communicable diseases. There is an age-related decline in physical activity levels in young people, which tracks into adulthood. Common interactive technologies such as smartphones, particularly employing immersive features, may enhance the appeal and delivery of interventions to increase levels of physical activity in young people. The primary aim of the Apps for IMproving FITness (AIMFIT) trial is to evalu...

  12. Print versus a culturally-relevant Facebook and text message delivered intervention to promote physical activity in African American women: a randomized pilot trial

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Keller, Colleen; Adams, Marc A.; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    Background African American women report insufficient physical activity and are disproportionally burdened by associated disease conditions; indicating the need for innovative approaches to promote physical activity in this underserved population. Social media platforms (i.e. Facebook) and text messaging represent potential mediums to promote physical activity. This paper reports the results of a randomized pilot trial evaluating a theory-based (Social Cognitive Theory) multi-component interv...

  13. A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials on the Effectiveness of Computer-Tailored Physical Activity and Dietary Behavior Promotion Programs: an Update

    OpenAIRE

    Broekhuizen, Karen; Kroeze, Willemieke; van Poppel, Mireille NM; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Background A review update is necessary to document evidence regarding the effectiveness of computer-tailored physical activity and nutrition education. Purpose The purpose of this study was to summarize the latest evidence on the effectiveness of computer-tailored physical activity and nutrition education, and to compare the results to the 2006 review. Methods Databases were searched for randomized controlled trials evaluating computer-tailored physical activity and nutrition education aimed...

  14. Randomised controlled trial of the effects of physical activity feedback on awareness and behaviour in UK adults: the FAB study protocol [ISRCTN92551397

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marteau Theresa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there are increasing data implicating poor recognition of physical inactivity as a potential barrier to healthy behaviour change, the efficacy of feedback to promote physical activity is uncertain. Using a randomised controlled trial nested within a population-based cohort study, we plan to test three variations of physical activity feedback against a control group. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of physical activity feedback in promoting physical activity behaviour change. Secondary objectives are to determine the influence of feedback on physical activity awareness and cognitions, and to compare behavioural effects by type of feedback. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 500 healthy participants aged 30 to 55 years from the ongoing Fenland Study (Cambridge, UK. Following careful phenotyping during baseline measurement (anthropometric, clinical, body composition and fitness measurements, as well as questionnaires assessing self-reported and self-rated physical activity, psychosocial correlates of physical activity behaviour, diet, lifestyle and general health, participants wear a combined heart rate and movement sensor (Actiheart® for six continuous days and nights. After receipt of the physical activity data (around 2 weeks later, participants are randomly allocated to either a control group (no feedback or one of three types of personalised physical activity feedback ('simple', 'visualised' or 'contextualised', and complete repeat measures of self-rated physical activity and psychosocial correlates. Approximately five weeks after receiving feedback, all participants wear the Actiheart® for another six-day follow-up period and complete repeat questionnaires. Values at outcome, adjusted for baseline, will be compared between randomised groups. Discussion Given the randomised trial design and use of objective measure of physical activity, this study is likely to provide valuable insights into the

  15. Changes in Physical Activity Following a Genetic-Based Internet-Delivered Personalized Intervention: Randomized Controlled Trial (Food4Me)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Fallaize, Rosalind; Kolossa, Silvia; Hallmann, Jacqueline; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Forster, Hannah; Moschonis, George; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Surwillo, Agnieszka; Godlewska, Magdalena; Hoonhout, Jettie; Goris, Annelies; Macready, Anna L; Walsh, Marianne C; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Drevon, Christian A; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Michael J; Mathers, John C; Saris, Wim HM

    2016-01-01

    Background There is evidence that physical activity (PA) can attenuate the influence of the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) genotype on the risk to develop obesity. However, whether providing personalized information on FTO genotype leads to changes in PA is unknown. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if disclosing FTO risk had an impact on change in PA following a 6-month intervention. Methods The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 in the FTO gene was genotyped in 1279 participants of the Food4Me study, a four-arm, Web-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 7 European countries on the effects of personalized advice on nutrition and PA. PA was measured objectively using a TracmorD accelerometer and was self-reported using the Baecke questionnaire at baseline and 6 months. Differences in baseline PA variables between risk (AA and AT genotypes) and nonrisk (TT genotype) carriers were tested using multiple linear regression. Impact of FTO risk disclosure on PA change at 6 months was assessed among participants with inadequate PA, by including an interaction term in the model: disclosure (yes/no) × FTO risk (yes/no). Results At baseline, data on PA were available for 874 and 405 participants with the risk and nonrisk FTO genotypes, respectively. There were no significant differences in objectively measured or self-reported baseline PA between risk and nonrisk carriers. A total of 807 (72.05%) of the participants out of 1120 in the personalized groups were encouraged to increase PA at baseline. Knowledge of FTO risk had no impact on PA in either risk or nonrisk carriers after the 6-month intervention. Attrition was higher in nonrisk participants for whom genotype was disclosed (P=.01) compared with their at-risk counterparts. Conclusions No association between baseline PA and FTO risk genotype was observed. There was no added benefit of disclosing FTO risk on changes in PA in this personalized intervention. Further RCT studies

  16. The working mechanisms of an environmentally tailored physical activity intervention for older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudde Aart N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to explore the working mechanisms of a computer tailored physical activity intervention for older adults with environmental information compared to a basic tailored intervention without environmental information. Method A clustered randomized controlled trial with two computer tailored interventions and a no-intervention control group was conducted among 1971 adults aged ≥ 50. The two tailored interventions were developed using Intervention Mapping and consisted of three tailored letters delivered over a four-month period. The basic tailored intervention targeted psychosocial determinants alone, while the environmentally tailored intervention additionally targeted environmental determinants, by providing tailored environmental information. Study outcomes were collected with questionnaires at baseline, three and six months and comprised total physical activity (days/week, walking (min/week, cycling (min/week, sports (min/week, environmental perceptions and use and appreciation of the interventions. Results Mediation analyses showed that changes in cycling, sports and total physical activity behaviour induced by the environmentally tailored intervention were mediated by changes in environmental perceptions. Changes in environmental perceptions did not mediate the effect of the basic tailored intervention on behaviour. Compared with the basic tailored intervention, the environmentally tailored intervention significantly improved cycling behaviour (τ = 30.2. Additionally, the tailored letters of the environmentally tailored intervention were better appreciated and used, although these differences did not mediate the intervention effect. Discussion This study gave some first indications of the relevance of environmental perceptions as a determinant of changing physical activity behaviours and the potential effectiveness of providing environmental information as an intervention strategy aimed at

  17. Older American Indians’ Perspectives on Health, Arthritis, and Physical Activity: Implications for Adapting Evidence-Based Interventions, Oregon, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, Marc B.; Goins, R. Turner

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the high prevalence of arthritis and physical disability among older American Indians, few evidence-based interventions that improve arthritis self-management via physical activity have been adapted for use in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs about health, arthritis, and physical activity among older American Indians living in a rural area in Oregon to help select and adapt an arthritis self-management program. Methods In partnership with a tribal health program, we conducted surveys, a focus group, and individual interviews with older American Indians with arthritis. Our sample comprised 6 focus group participants and 18 interviewees. The 24 participants were aged 48 to 82 years, of whom 67% were women. Forms B and C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) instrument, modified for arthritis, measured MHLC. Results The concepts of health, arthritis, and physical activity overlapped in that health was a holistic concept informed by cultural teachings that included living a healthy lifestyle, socializing, and being functionally independent. Arthritis inhibited health and healthy behaviors. Participants identified barriers such as unreliable transportation and recruiting challenges that would make existing interventions challenging to implement in this setting. The Doctor subscale had the highest MHLC (mean = 4.4 [standard deviation (SD), 1.0]), followed by the Internal subscale (3.9 [SD, 1.4]) and the Other People subscale (2.8 [SD, 1.1]). Conclusions Existing evidence-based programs for arthritis should be adapted to address implementation factors, such as access to transportation, and incorporate cultural values that emphasize holistic wellness and social interconnectedness. Culturally sensitive programs that build on indigenous values and practices to promote active coping strategies for older American Indians with arthritis are needed. PMID:27337558

  18. Active case finding of tuberculosis in Europe: a Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TBNET) survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, G.H.; Ditiu, L.; Migliori, G.B.;

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis control depends on successful case finding and treatment of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Passive case finding is widely practised: the present study aims to ascertain the consensus and possible improvements in active case finding across Europe. Recommendations...... from national guidelines were collected from 50 countries of the World Health Organization European region using a standard questionnaire. Contacts are universally screened for active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Most countries (>70%) screen those with HIV infection, prisoners...... and in-patient contacts. Screening of immigrants is related to their contribution to national rates of tuberculosis. Only 25 (50%) out of 50 advise a request for symptoms in their guidelines. A total of 36 (72%) out of 50 countries recommend sputum examination for those with a persistent cough; 13...

  19. Web-based Intervention to Promote Physical Activity by Sedentary Older Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, A. Blair; Gelatt, Vicky A; John R. Seeley; Macfarlane, Pamela; Gau, Jeff M

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) for older adults has well-documented physical and cognitive benefits, but most seniors do not meet recommended guidelines for PA, and interventions are lacking. Objectives This study evaluated the efficacy of a 12-week Internet intervention to help sedentary older adults over 55 years of age adopt and maintain an exercise regimen. Methods A total of 368 sedentary men and women (M=60.3; SD 4.9) were recruited, screened, and assessed online. They were randomize...

  20. Controlled trial of oligopeptide versus amino acid diet in treatment of active Crohn's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfield, J C; Giaffer, M. H.; Holdsworth, C D

    1995-01-01

    Elemental diets are effective in inducing remission in active Crohn's disease, but how they exert this therapeutic effect is unclear. In a previous study a whole protein containing diet proved less effective than one in which food antigens were excluded, suggesting that exclusion of food antigens from the gut was a possible mechanism. This study was designed to test whether an oligopeptide diet of hydrolysed proteins was as effective as an amino acid based diet. These diets were equally antig...

  1. Open label trial of granulocyte apheresis suggests therapeutic efficacy in chronically active steroid refractory ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang Kruis; Robert L(o)fberg; Axel Dignass; Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen; Julia Morgenstern; Joachim M(o)ssner; Stephan Schreiber; Maurizio Vecchi; Alberto Malesci; Max Reinshagen

    2005-01-01

    AIM:To study the efficacy, safety, and feasibility of a granulocyte adsorptive type apheresis system for the treatment of patients with chronically active ulcerative colitis despite standard therapy.METHODS: An open label multicenter study was carried out in 39 patients with active ulcerative colitis (CAI6-8) despite continuous use of steroids (a minimum total dose of 400 mg prednisone within the last 4 wk).Patients received a total of five aphereses using a granulocyte adsorptive technique (Adacolumn(R), Otsuka Pharmaceutical Europe, UK). Assessments at wk 6 and during follow-up until 4 mo comprised clinical (CAI) and endoscopic (EI) activity index, histology, quality of life(IBDQ), and laboratory tests.RESULTS: Thirty-five out of thirty-nine patients were qualified for intent-to-treat analysis. After the apheresis treatment at wk 6, 13/35 (37.1%) patients achieved clinical remission and 10/35 (28.6%) patients had endoscopic remission (CAI<4, EI<4). Quality of life (IBDQ) increased significantly (24 points, P<0.01)at wk 6. Apheresis could be performed in all but one patient. Aphereses were well tolerated, only one patient experienced anemia.CONCLUSION: In patients with steroid refractory ulcerative colitis, five aphereses with a granulocyte/monocyte depleting filter show potential short-term efficacy. Tolerability and technical feasibility of the procedure are excellent.

  2. A Web-Based, Social Networking Physical Activity Intervention for Insufficiently Active Adults Delivered via Facebook App: Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Carol; Ferguson, Monika; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse de; Thomas, Samantha; Nelson-Field, Karen; Olds, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Online social networks offer considerable potential for delivery of socially influential health behavior change interventions. Objective To determine the efficacy, engagement, and feasibility of an online social networking physical activity intervention with pedometers delivered via Facebook app. Methods A total of 110 adults with a mean age of 35.6 years (SD 12.4) were recruited online in teams of 3 to 8 friends. Teams were randomly allocated to receive access to a 50-day online s...

  3. An intervention to promote physical activity and self-management in people with stable chronic heart failure The Home-Heart-Walk study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currow David C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic heart failure (CHF is a chronic debilitating condition with economic consequences, mostly because of frequent hospitalisations. Physical activity and adequate self-management capacity are important risk reduction strategies in the management of CHF. The Home-Heart-Walk is a self-monitoring intervention. This model of intervention has adapted the 6-minute walk test as a home-based activity that is self-administered and can be used for monitoring physical functional capacity in people with CHF. The aim of the Home-Heart-Walk program is to promote adherence to physical activity recommendations and improving self-management in people with CHF. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial is being conducted in English speaking people with CHF in four hospitals in Sydney, Australia. Individuals diagnosed with CHF, in New York Heart Association Functional Class II or III, with a previous admission to hospital for CHF are eligible to participate. Based on a previous CHF study and a loss to follow-up of 10%, 166 participants are required to be able to detect a 12-point difference in the study primary endpoint (SF-36 physical function domain. All enrolled participant receive an information session with a cardiovascular nurse. This information session covers key self-management components of CHF: daily weight; diet (salt reduction; medication adherence; and physical activity. Participants are randomised to either intervention or control group through the study randomisation centre after baseline questionnaires and assessment are completed. For people in the intervention group, the research nurse also explains the weekly Home-Heart-Walk protocol. All participants receive monthly phone calls from a research coordinator for six months, and outcome measures are conducted at one, three and six months. The primary outcome of the trial is the physical functioning domain of quality of life, measured by the physical functioning subscale

  4. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Gaal

    Full Text Available In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked or unconsciously (strongly masked primes. We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  5. Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for Active Load Alleviation in a Smart Rotor Configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Bergami, Leonardo; Gaunaa, Mac; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Buhl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Denne afhandling omhandler udviklingen af et aktivt smart rotor koncept fra et aeroservoelastisk perspektiv. En aktiv smart rotor er en vindmøllerotor som igennem en kombination af sensorer, reguleringsenhed og aktuatorer, aktivt kan reducere den fluktuerende del af de aerodynamiske kræfter møllen skal modstå. Undersøgelsen omhandler en specifik aktuator type: Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF), der består af en kontinuert deformation af den bagerste del af vingeprofilernes tværsnitsform.Der ...

  6. An adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction program for elders in a continuing care retirement community: quantitative and qualitative results from a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Aleezé S; Reibel, Diane K; Greeson, Jeffrey M; Thapar, Anjali; Bubb, Rebecca; Salmon, Jacqueline; Newberg, Andrew B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program for elders in a continuing care community. This mixed-methods study used both quantitative and qualitative measures. A randomized waitlist control design was used for the quantitative aspect of the study. Thirty-nine elderly were randomized to MBSR (n = 20) or a waitlist control group (n = 19), mean age was 82 years. Both groups completed pre-post measures of health-related quality of life, acceptance and psychological flexibility, facets of mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological distress. A subset of MBSR participants completed qualitative interviews. MBSR participants showed significantly greater improvement in acceptance and psychological flexibility and in role limitations due to physical health. In the qualitative interviews, MBSR participants reported increased awareness, less judgment, and greater self-compassion. Study results demonstrate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of an adapted MBSR program in promoting mind-body health for elders.

  7. Internet-Based Exposure and Behavioral Activation for Complicated Grief and Rumination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisma, Maarten C; Boelen, Paul A; van den Bout, Jan; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, Henk A W; Lancee, Jaap; Stroebe, Margaret S

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effectiveness and feasibility of therapist-guided Internet-delivered exposure (EX) and behavioral activation (BA) for complicated grief and rumination. Forty-seven bereaved individuals with elevated levels of complicated grief and grief rumination were randomly assigned to three conditions: EX (N=18), BA (N=17), or a waiting-list (N=12). Treatment groups received 6 homework assignments over 6 to 8weeks. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that EX reduced complicated grief, posttraumatic stress, depression, grief rumination, and brooding levels relative to the control group at posttreatment (d=0.7-1.2). BA lowered complicated grief, posttraumatic stress, and grief rumination levels at posttreatment (d=0.8-0.9). At 3-month follow-up, effects of EX were maintained on complicated grief and grief rumination (d=0.6-1.2), and for BA on complicated grief, posttraumatic stress, and grief rumination (d=0.8-0.9). EX reduced depression more strongly than BA (d=0.6). Completers analyses corroborated results for EX, and partially those for BA, but no group differences were detected. BA suffered from high dropout (59%), relative to EX (33%) and the waiting-list (17%). Feasibility appeared higher for EX than BA. Results supported potential applicability of online exposure but not behavioral activation to decrease complicated grief and rumination. PMID:26520217

  8. A Systemic Review on Aloe arborescens Pharmacological Profile: Biological Activities and Pilot Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singab, Abdel-Naser B; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Esmat, Ahmed; Gad, Haidy A; Nazeam, Jilan A

    2015-12-01

    Since ancient times, plants and herbal preparations have been used as medicine. Research carried out in the last few decades has verified several such claims. Aloe arborescens Miller, belonging to the Aloe genus (Family Asphodelaceae), is one of the main varieties of Aloe used worldwide. The popularity of the plant in traditional medicine for several ailments (antitumor, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial and antifungal activity) focused the investigator's interest on this plant. Most importantly, the reported studies have shown the plant effectiveness on various cancer types such as liver, colon, duodenal, skin, pancreatic, intestinal, lung and kidney types. These multiple biological actions make Aloe an important resource for developing new natural therapies. However, the biological activities of isolated compounds such as glycoprotein, polysaccharides, enzyme and phenolics were insufficient. Considering all these, this contribution provides a systematic review outlining the evidence on the biological efficacy of the plant including the pharmacology and the related mechanisms of action, with specific attention to the various safety precautions, and preclinical and clinical studies, indicating the future research prospects of this plant. PMID:26768148

  9. Mindfulness-based therapy and behavioral activation: A randomized controlled trial with depressed college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIndoo, C C; File, A A; Preddy, T; Clark, C G; Hopko, D R

    2016-02-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) manifests in 20-30% of college students, with increased incidence in recent decades. Very limited research has assessed the efficacy of evidence-based interventions for MDD in college students. Mindfulness-Based Therapy (MBT) and Behavioral Activation (BA) are two interventions with significant potential to meet demands of college counseling clinics and effectively treat college students with MDD. This study utilized a randomized controlled research design (n = 50) to examine the efficacy of four-sessions of abbreviated MBT and BA relative to a wait-list control condition with depressed college students. Intent-to-treat data analyses on depression outcome measures suggested both treatments were superior to the control group. There were significant pre-post treatment improvements across measures of depression, rumination, stress, and mindfulness, gains largely maintained at 1-month follow-up. Neither active treatment effectively reduced somatic anxiety. Both treatments generally had moderate-strong effect sizes relative to the control group, and based on depression response and remission criteria, 56-79% of patients exhibited clinically significant improvement. Based on reliable change indices, 75-85% experienced clinically significant reductions in depression. There was strong therapist competence and adherence to treatment protocols and high patient satisfaction with both interventions. Study limitations and implications for the assessment and treatment of depressed college students are discussed. PMID:26745622

  10. ANFIS Based Time Series Prediction Method of Bank Cash Flow Optimized by Adaptive Population Activity PSO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Sheng Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy and real-time of all kinds of information in the cash business, and solve the problem which accuracy and stability is not high of the data linkage between cash inventory forecasting and cash management information in the commercial bank, a hybrid learning algorithm is proposed based on adaptive population activity particle swarm optimization (APAPSO algorithm combined with the least squares method (LMS to optimize the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS model parameters. Through the introduction of metric function of population diversity to ensure the diversity of population and adaptive changes in inertia weight and learning factors, the optimization ability of the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is improved, which avoids the premature convergence problem of the PSO algorithm. The simulation comparison experiments are carried out with BP-LMS algorithm and standard PSO-LMS by adopting real commercial banks’ cash flow data to verify the effectiveness of the proposed time series prediction of bank cash flow based on improved PSO-ANFIS optimization method. Simulation results show that the optimization speed is faster and the prediction accuracy is higher.

  11. Providing Physical Activity for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: The Motivate, Adapt, and Play Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kathy; Hodson, Patricia; Zhang, Guili; Boswell, Boni; Decker, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that regular physical activity helps to prevent major health problems, such as heart disease, obesity, and diabetes. However, little research has been conducted on classroom-based physical activity programs for students with disabilities. In North Carolina, the Healthy Active Children Policy was implemented in 2006, requiring…

  12. The effect of a polynutrient supplement on fatigue and physical activity of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, F.M.; Werf, S.P. van der; Bleijenberg, G.; Zee, L. van der; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The efficacy of dietary supplements in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is uncertain, with conflicting evidence. Aim: To assess the effect of a polynutrient supplement on fatigue and physical activity of patients with CFS. DESIGN:Prospective randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind trial

  13. Development and evaluation of a structured programme for promoting physical activity among seniors with intellectual disabilities: a study protocol for a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel-Speet, M. van; Evenhuis, H.M.; Empelen, P. van; Wijck, R. van; Echteld, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Older people with intellectual disabilities have very low physical activity levels. Well designed, theory-driven and evidence-based health promotion programmes for the target population are lacking. This paper describes the design of a cluster-randomised trial for a systematically developed health p

  14. Lack of effect of doxycycline on disease activity and joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A double blind, placebo controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, W. van der; Molenaar, E.; Ronday, K.; Verheijen, J.; Breedveld, F.; Greenwald, R.; Dijkmans, B.; Tekoppele, J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of doxycycline on disease activity and joint destruction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. A 36 week double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial was conducted. Patients (n = 66) received 50 mg doxycycline or placebo twice a day during 12,

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of a Long-Term Internet-Delivered Worksite Health Promotion Programme on Physical Activity and Nutrition: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robroek, Suzan J. W.; Polinder, Suzanne; Bredt, Folef J.; Burdorf, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a long-term workplace health promotion programme on physical activity (PA) and nutrition. In total, 924 participants enrolled in a 2-year cluster randomized controlled trial, with departments (n = 74) within companies (n = 6) as the unit of randomization. The intervention was compared with a…

  16. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study, randomized trial of physical activity: Effect on the prevention of major mobility disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    In older adults reduced mobility is common and is an independent risk factor for morbidity, hospitalization, disability, and mortality. Limited evidence suggests that physical activity may help prevent mobility disability; however, there are no definitive clinical trials examining if physical activi...

  17. Low-intensity wheelchair training in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury : A randomized controlled trial on fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W; de Groot, Sonja; Tepper, Marga; Faber, Willemijn; Group, Allrisc; Veeger, DirkJan H; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of low-intensity wheelchair training on wheelchair-specific fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Inactive manual wheelchair use

  18. Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about actively enrolling, ongoing, and completed clinical trials of cancer prevention, early detection, and supportive care, including phase I, II, and III agent and action trials and clinical trials management. |

  19. Strain Mediated Adaptation Is Key for Myosin Mechanochemistry: Discovering General Rules for Motor Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Biman; Onuchic, José N

    2016-08-01

    A structure-based model of myosin motor is built in the same spirit of our early work for kinesin-1 and Ncd towards physical understanding of its mechanochemical cycle. We find a structural adaptation of the motor head domain in post-powerstroke state that signals faster ADP release from it compared to the same from the motor head in the pre-powerstroke state. For dimeric myosin, an additional forward strain on the trailing head, originating from the postponed powerstroke state of the leading head in the waiting state of myosin, further increases the rate of ADP release. This coordination between the two heads is the essence of the processivity of the cycle. Our model provides a structural description of the powerstroke step of the cycle as an allosteric transition of the converter domain in response to the Pi release. Additionally, the variation in structural elements peripheral to catalytic motor domain is the deciding factor behind diverse directionalities of myosin motors (myosin V & VI). Finally, we observe that there are general rules for functional molecular motors across the different families. Allosteric structural adaptation of the catalytic motor head in different nucleotide states is crucial for mechanochemistry. Strain-mediated coordination between motor heads is essential for processivity and the variation of peripheral structural elements is essential for their diverse functionalities.

  20. Visual scoring of non-cavitated caries lesions and clinical trial efficiency, testing xylitol in caries active adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, JP; Amaechi, BT; Bader, JD; Gilbert, GH; Makhija, SK; Lozano-Pineda, J; Leo, MC; Chuhe, C; Vollmer, WM

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To better understand the effectiveness of xylitol in caries prevention in adults, and to attempt improved clinical trial efficiency. Methods As part of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT), non-cavitated and cavitated caries lesions were assessed in subjects who were experiencing the disease. The trial was a test of the effectiveness of 5 grams/day of xylitol, consumed by dissolving in the mouth five 1 gram lozenges spaced across each day, compared with a sucralose placebo. For this analysis, seeking trial efficiency, 538 subjects aged 21–80, with complete data for four dental examinations were selected from the 691 randomized into the three year trial, conducted at three sites. Acceptable inter and intra examiner reliability before and during the trial was quantified using the kappa statistic. Results The mean annualized non-cavitated plus cavitated lesion transition scores in coronal and root surfaces, from sound to carious favoured xylitol over placebo, during the three cumulative periods of 12, 24, and 33 months, but these clinically and statistically non-significant differences declined in magnitude over time. Restricting the present assessment to those subjects with a higher baseline lifetime caries experience showed possible but inconsistent benefit. Conclusions There was no clear and clinically relevant preventive effect of xylitol on caries in adults with adequate fluoride exposure when non-cavitated plus cavitated lesions were assessed. This conformed to the X-ACT trial result assessing cavitated lesions. Including non-cavitated lesion assessment in this full scale, placebo controlled, multi site, randomized, double blinded clinical trial in adults experiencing dental caries, did not achieve added trial efficiency or demonstrate practical benefit of xylitol. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055 PMID:24205951

  1. Single-trial normalization for event-related spectral decomposition reduces sensitivity to noisy trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eGrandchamp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In EEG research, the classical Event-Related Potential (ERP model often proves to be a limited method when studying complex brain dynamics. For this reason, spectral techniques adapted from signal processing such as Event-Related Spectral Perturbation (ERSP – and its variant ERS (Event-Related Synchronization and ERD (Event-Related Desynchronization – have been used over the past 20-years. They represent average spectral changes in response to a stimulus.These spectral methods do not have strong consensus for comparing pre and post-stimulus activity. When computing ERSP, pre-stimulus baseline removal is usually performed after averaging the spectral estimate of multiple trials. Correcting the baseline of each single-trial prior to averaging spectral estimates is an alternative baseline correction method. However, we show that this method leads to positively skewed post-stimulus ERSP values. We eventually present new single-trial based ERSP baseline correction methods that perform trial normalization or centering prior to applying classical baseline correction methods. We show that single-trial correction methods minimize the contribution of artifactual data trials with high-amplitude spectral estimates and are robust to outliers when performing statistical inference testing. We then characterize these methods in terms of their time-frequency responses and behavior when performing statistical inference testing compared to classical ERSP methods.

  2. Community-based intervention to improve dietary habits and promote physical activity among older adults: a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Mika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fastest growing age group globally is older adults, and preventing the need for long-term nursing care in this group is important for social and financial reasons. A population approach to diet and physical activity through the use of social services can play an important role in prevention. This study examined the effectiveness of a social health program for community-dwelling older adults aimed at introducing and promoting physical activity in the home at each individual’s pace, helping participants maintain good dietary habits by keeping self-check sheets, and determining whether long-standing unhealthy or less-than-ideal physical and dietary habits can be changed. Method This cluster randomized trial conducted at 6 community centers in an urban community involved 92 community-dwelling older adults aged 65–90 years. The intervention group (3 community centers; n = 57 participated in the social health program “Sumida TAKE10!” which is an educational program incorporating the “TAKE10!® for Older Adults” program, once every 2 weeks for 3 months. The control group (3 community centers; n=35 was subsequently provided with the same program as a crossover intervention group. The main outcome measures were changes in food intake frequency, food frequency score (FFS, dietary variety score (DVS, and frequency of walking and exercise. The secondary outcome measures were changes in self-rated health, appetite, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG Index of Competence score. Results Compared to baseline, post-intervention food intake frequency for 6 of 10 food groups (meat, fish/shellfish, eggs, potatoes, fruits, and seaweed, FFS, and DVS were significantly increased in the intervention group, and interaction effects of FFS and DVS were seen between the two groups. No significant differences were observed between baseline and post-intervention in the control group. Frequency of walking and

  3. Effectiveness of personalised feedback alone or combined with peer support to improve physical activity in sedentary older Malays with type 2 diabetes: A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariff-Ghazali eSazlina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regular physical activity is an important aspect of self management among older people with type 2 diabetes but many remain inactive. Interventions to improve physical activity levels have been studied but few studies have evaluated the effects of personalised feedback or peer support; and there was no study on older people of Asian heritage. Hence, this trial evaluated whether personalised feedback (PF only or combined with peer support (PS improves physical activity among older Malays with type 2 diabetes (T2DM compared to usual care only. Materials and methods: A three arm randomised controlled trial was conducted in a primary healthcare clinic in Malaysia. 69 sedentary Malays aged 60 years and older with T2DM who received usual diabetes care were randomised to PF or PS interventions or as controls for 12 weeks with follow-ups at weeks 24 and 36. Intervention groups performed unsupervised walking activity and received written feedback on physical activity. The PS group also received group and telephone contacts from trained peer mentors. The primary outcome was pedometer steps. Secondary outcomes were self-reported physical activity, cardiovascular risk factors, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, quality of life and psychosocial wellbeing. Results: 52 (75.4% completed the 36-week study. The PS group showed greater daily pedometer readings than the PF and controls (p=0.001. The PS group also had greater improvement in weekly duration (p<0.001 and frequency (p<0.001 of moderate intensity physical activity, scores on the Physical Activity Scale for Elderly (p=0.003, six minute walk test (p<0.001 and social support from friends (p=0.032 than PF and control groups. Conclusions: The findings suggest personalised feedback combined with peer support in older Malays with T2DM improved their physical activity levels, cardiorespiratory fitness and support from friends. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN71447000.

  4. Single-trial estimation of stimulus and spike-history effects on time-varying ensemble spiking activity of multiple neurons: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Hideaki

    2013-12-01

    Neurons in cortical circuits exhibit coordinated spiking activity, and can produce correlated synchronous spikes during behavior and cognition. We recently developed a method for estimating the dynamics of correlated ensemble activity by combining a model of simultaneous neuronal interactions (e.g., a spin-glass model) with a state-space method (Shimazaki et al. 2012 PLoS Comput Biol 8 e1002385). This method allows us to estimate stimulus-evoked dynamics of neuronal interactions which is reproducible in repeated trials under identical experimental conditions. However, the method may not be suitable for detecting stimulus responses if the neuronal dynamics exhibits significant variability across trials. In addition, the previous model does not include effects of past spiking activity of the neurons on the current state of ensemble activity. In this study, we develop a parametric method for simultaneously estimating the stimulus and spike-history effects on the ensemble activity from single-trial data even if the neurons exhibit dynamics that is largely unrelated to these effects. For this goal, we model ensemble neuronal activity as a latent process and include the stimulus and spike-history effects as exogenous inputs to the latent process. We develop an expectation-maximization algorithm that simultaneously achieves estimation of the latent process, stimulus responses, and spike-history effects. The proposed method is useful to analyze an interaction of internal cortical states and sensory evoked activity.

  5. The Effect of the More Active MuMs in Stirling Trial on Body Composition and Psychological Well-Being among Postnatal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Physical activity is important for health and well-being; however, rates of postnatal physical activity can be low. This paper reports the secondary outcomes of a trial aimed at increasing physical activity among postnatal women. Methods. More Active MuMs in Stirling (MAMMiS) was a randomised controlled trial testing the effect of physical activity consultation and pram walking group intervention among inactive postnatal women. Data were collected on postnatal weight, body composition, general well-being, and fatigue. Participants were also interviewed regarding motivations and perceived benefits of participating in the trial. Results. There was no significant effect of the intervention on any weight/body composition outcome or on general well-being at three or six months of follow-up. There was a significant but inconsistent difference in fatigue between groups. Qualitative data highlighted a number of perceived benefits to weight, body composition, and particularly well-being (including improved fatigue) which were not borne out by objective data. Discussion. The MAMMiS study found no impact of the physical activity intervention on body composition and psychological well-being and indicates that further research is required to identify successful approaches to increase physical activity and improve health and well-being among postnatal women. PMID:27610245

  6. Effectiveness of a low-threshold physical activity intervention in residential aged care – results of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cichocki M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Martin Cichocki,1 Viktoria Quehenberger,1 Michael Zeiler,1 Tanja Adamcik,1 Matthias Manousek,1 Tanja Stamm,2 Karl Krajic1 1Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Health Promotion Research, 2Medical University of Vienna & University of Applied Sciences FH Campus, Wien, Vienna, Austria Purpose: Research on effectiveness of low-threshold mobility interventions that are viable for users of residential aged care is scarce. Low-threshold is defined as keeping demands on organizations (staff skills, costs and participants (health status, discipline rather low. The study explored the effectiveness of a multi-faceted, low-threshold physical activity program in three residential aged-care facilities in Austria. Main goals were enhancement of mobility by conducting a multi-faceted training program to foster occupational performance and thus improve different aspects of health-related quality of life (QoL.Participants and methods: The program consisted of a weekly session of 60 minutes over a period of 20 weeks. A standardized assessment of mobility status and health-related QoL was applied before and after the intervention. A total of 222 of 276 participants completed the randomized controlled trial study (intervention group n=104, control group n=118; average age 84 years, 88% female.Results: Subjective health status (EuroQoL-5 dimensions: P=0.001, d=0.36 improved significantly in the intervention group, and there were also positive trends in occupational performance (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. No clear effects were found concerning the functional and cognitive measures applied.Conclusion: Thus, the low-threshold approach turned out to be effective primarily on subjective health-related QoL. This outcome could be a useful asset for organizations offering low-threshold physical activity interventions. Keywords: physical activity, intervention, residential aged care, effectiveness, aged

  7. Effects of a Web-Based Personalized Intervention on Physical Activity in European Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Morales, Carlos; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L; Kolossa, Silvia; Woolhead, Clara; O'Donovan, Clare B; Forster, Hannah; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Moschonis, George; Surwillo, Agnieszka; Godlewska, Magdalena; Goris, Annelies; Hoonhout, Jettie; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Walsh, Marianne C; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Martinez, J Alfredo; Lovegrove, Julie A; Gibney, Michael J; Daniel, Hannelore; Mathers, John C; Saris, Wim HM

    2015-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide calls for innovative and more effective ways to promote physical activity (PA). There are limited objective data on the effectiveness of Web-based personalized feedback on increasing PA in adults. Objective It is hypothesized that providing personalized advice based on PA measured objectively alongside diet, phenotype, or genotype information would lead to larger and more sustained changes in PA, compared with nonpersonalized advice. Methods A total of 1607 adults in seven European countries were randomized to either a control group (nonpersonalized advice, Level 0, L0) or to one of three personalized groups receiving personalized advice via the Internet based on current PA plus diet (Level 1, L1), PA plus diet and phenotype (Level 2, L2), or PA plus diet, phenotype, and genotype (Level 3, L3). PA was measured for 6 months using triaxial accelerometers, and self-reported using the Baecke questionnaire. Outcomes were objective and self-reported PA after 3 and 6 months. Results While 1270 participants (85.81% of 1480 actual starters) completed the 6-month trial, 1233 (83.31%) self-reported PA at both baseline and month 6, but only 730 (49.32%) had sufficient objective PA data at both time points. For the total cohort after 6 months, a greater improvement in self-reported total PA (P=.02) and PA during leisure (nonsport) (P=.03) was observed in personalized groups compared with the control group. For individuals advised to increase PA, we also observed greater improvements in those two self-reported indices (P=.006 and P=.008, respectively) with increased personalization of the advice (L2 and L3 vs L1). However, there were no significant differences in accelerometer results between personalized and control groups, and no significant effect of adding phenotypic or genotypic information to the tailored feedback at month 3 or 6. After 6 months, there were small but significant improvements in the objectively

  8. Physical Activity: An Important Adaptative Mechanism for Body-Weight Control

    OpenAIRE

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains ...

  9. Activated carbon amendment to sequester PAHs in contaminated soil: a lysimeter field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah E; Elmquist, Marie; Brändli, Rahel; Hartnik, Thomas; Jakob, Lena; Henriksen, Thomas; Werner, David; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2012-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) amendment is an innovative method for the in situ remediation of contaminated soils. A field-scale AC amendment of either 2% powder or granular AC (PAC and GAC) to a PAH contaminated soil was carried out in Norway. The PAH concentration in drainage water from the field plot was measured with a direct solvent extraction and by deploying polyoxymethylene (POM) passive samplers. In addition, POM samplers were dug directly in the AC amended and unamended soil in order to monitor the reduction in free aqueous PAH concentrations in the soil pore water. The total PAH concentration in the drainage water, measured by direct solvent extraction of the water, was reduced by 14% for the PAC amendment and by 59% for GAC, 12 months after amendment. Measurements carried out with POM showed a reduction of 93% for PAC and 56% for GAC. The free aqueous PAH concentration in soil pore water was reduced 93% and 76%, 17 and 28 months after PAC amendment, compared to 84% and 69% for GAC. PAC, in contrast to GAC, was more effective for reducing freely dissolved concentrations than total dissolved ones. This could tentatively be explained by leaching of microscopic AC particles from PAC. Secondary chemical effects of the AC amendment were monitored by considering concentration changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrients. DOC was bound by AC, while the concentrations of nutrients (NO(3), NO(2), NH(4), PO(4), P-total, K, Ca and Mg) were variable and likely affected by external environmental factors. PMID:22265348

  10. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Adaptations Alter the Activity of Adipose Progenitor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zeve

    Full Text Available Exercise decreases adiposity and improves metabolic health; however, the physiological and molecular underpinnings of these phenomena remain unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of endurance training on adipose progenitor lineage commitment. Using mice with genetically labeled adipose progenitors, we show that these cells react to exercise by decreasing their proliferation and differentiation potential. Analyses of mouse models that mimic the skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise indicate that muscle, in a non-autonomous manner, regulates adipose progenitor homeostasis, highlighting a role for muscle-derived secreted factors. These findings support a humoral link between skeletal muscle and adipose progenitors and indicate that manipulation of adipose stem cell function may help address obesity and diabetes.

  11. Physical activity: an important adaptative mechanism for body-weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208

  12. Temperature adaptation of enzymes: roles of the free energy, the enthalpy, and the entropy of activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, P S; Bada, J L; Somero, G N

    1973-02-01

    The enzymic reactions of ectothermic (cold-blooded) species differ from those of avian and mammalian species in terms of the magnitudes of the three thermodynamic activation parameters, the free energy of activation (DeltaG()), the enthalpy of activation (DeltaH()), and the entropy of activation (DeltaS()). Ectothermic enzymes are more efficient than the homologous enzymes of birds and mammals in reducing the DeltaG() "energy barrier" to a chemical reaction. Moreover, the relative importance of the enthalpic and entropic contributions to DeltaG() differs between these two broad classes of organisms.

  13. Make Better Choices (MBC: Study design of a randomized controlled trial testing optimal technology-supported change in multiple diet and physical activity risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Malaina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal diet and physical inactivity are prevalent, co-occurring chronic disease risk factors, yet little is known about how to maximize multiple risk behavior change. Make Better Choices, a randomized controlled trial, tests competing hypotheses about the optimal way to promote healthy change in four bundled risk behaviors: high saturated fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary leisure screen time. The study aim is to determine which combination of two behavior change goals - one dietary, one activity - yields greatest overall healthy lifestyle change. Methods/Design Adults (n = 200 with poor quality diet and sedentary lifestyle will be recruited and screened for study eligibility. Participants will be trained to record their diet and activities onto a personal data assistant, and use it to complete two weeks of baseline. Those who continue to show all four risk behaviors after baseline recording will be randomized to one of four behavior change prescriptions: 1 increase fruits and vegetables and increase physical activity, 2 decrease saturated fat and increase physical activity, 3 increase fruits and vegetable and decrease saturated fat, or 4 decrease saturated fat and decrease sedentary activity. They will use decision support feedback on the personal digital assistant and receive counseling from a coach to alter their diet and activity during a 3-week prescription period when payment is contingent upon meeting behavior change goals. They will continue recording on an intermittent schedule during a 4.5-month maintenance period when payment is not contingent upon goal attainment. The primary outcome is overall healthy lifestyle change, aggregated across all four risk behaviors. Discussion The Make Better Choices trial tests a disseminable lifestyle intervention supported by handheld technology. Findings will fill a gap in knowledge about optimal goal prescription to

  14. Activation of axonal Kv7 channels in human peripheral nerve by flupirtine but not placebo - therapeutic potential for peripheral neuropathies: results of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fleckenstein, Johannes; Sittl, Ruth; Averbeck, Beate; Lang, Philip M; Irnich, Dominik; Richard W Carr

    2013-01-01

    Background: Flupirtine is an analgesic with muscle-relaxing properties that activates Kv7 potassium channels. Kv7 channels are expressed along myelinated and unmyelinated peripheral axons where their activation is expected to reduce axonal excitability and potentially contribute to flupirtine’s clinical profile. Trial design: To investigate the electrical excitability of peripheral myelinated axons following orally administered flupirtine, in-vitro experiments on isolated peripheral nerve s...

  15. Activation of axonal Kv7 channels in human peripheral nerve by flupirtine but not placebo - therapeutic potential for peripheral neuropathies: results of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fleckenstein, Johannes; Sittl, Ruth; Averbeck, Beate; Lang, Philip M; Irnich, Dominik; Richard W Carr

    2013-01-01

    Background Flupirtine is an analgesic with muscle-relaxing properties that activates Kv7 potassium channels. Kv7 channels are expressed along myelinated and unmyelinated peripheral axons where their activation is expected to reduce axonal excitability and potentially contribute to flupirtine’s clinical profile. Trial design To investigate the electrical excitability of peripheral myelinated axons following orally administered flupirtine, in-vitro experiments on isolated peripheral nerve segme...

  16. Face-identity change activation outside the face system: "release from adaptation" may not always indicate neuronal selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mur, Marieke; Ruff, Douglas A; Bodurka, Jerzy; Bandettini, Peter A; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2010-09-01

    Face recognition is a complex cognitive process that requires distinguishable neuronal representations of individual faces. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using the "fMRI-adaptation" technique have suggested the existence of face-identity representations in face-selective regions, including the fusiform face area (FFA). Here, we present face-identity adaptation findings that are not well explained in terms of face-identity representations. We performed blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI measurements, while participants viewed familiar faces that were shown repeatedly throughout the experiment. We found decreased activation for repeated faces in face-selective regions, as expected based on previous studies. However, we found similar effects in regions that are not face-selective, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and early visual cortex (EVC). These effects were present for exact-image (same view and lighting) as well as different-image (different view and/or lighting) repetition, but more widespread for exact-image repetition. Given the known functional properties of PPA and EVC, it appears unlikely that they contain domain-specific face-identity representations. Alternative interpretations include general attentional effects and carryover of activation from connected regions. These results remind us that fMRI stimulus-change effects can have a range of causes and do not provide conclusive evidence for a neuronal representation of the changed stimulus property.

  17. Neuronal activity promotes oligodendrogenesis and adaptive myelination in the mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Erin M; Purger, David; Mount, Christopher W; Goldstein, Andrea K; Lin, Grant L; Wood, Lauren S; Inema, Ingrid; Miller, Sarah E; Bieri, Gregor; Zuchero, J Bradley; Barres, Ben A; Woo, Pamelyn J; Vogel, Hannes; Monje, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Myelination of the central nervous system requires the generation of functionally mature oligodendrocytes from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Electrically active neurons may influence OPC function and selectively instruct myelination of an active neural circuit. In this work, we use optogenetic stimulation of the premotor cortex in awake, behaving mice to demonstrate that neuronal activity elicits a mitogenic response of neural progenitor cells and OPCs, promotes oligodendrogenesis, and increases myelination within the deep layers of the premotor cortex and subcortical white matter. We further show that this neuronal activity-regulated oligodendrogenesis and myelination is associated with improved motor function of the corresponding limb. Oligodendrogenesis and myelination appear necessary for the observed functional improvement, as epigenetic blockade of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin changes prevents the activity-regulated behavioral improvement.

  18. Snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy and 10-minutes activation in long term care residents with dementia (WISDE: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with dementia are often inapproachable due to symptoms of their illness. Therefore nurses should establish relationships with dementia patients via their remaining resources and facilitate communication. In order to achieve this, different targeted non-pharmacological interventions are recommended and practiced. However there is no sufficient evidence about the efficacy of most of these interventions. A number of publications highlight the urgent need for methodological sound studies so that more robust conclusions may be drawn. Methods/Design The trial is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial with 20 nursing homes in Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt (Germany as the units of randomization. Nursing homes will be randomly allocated into 4 study groups consisting of 5 clusters and 90 residents: snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy, 10-minutes activation or unstructured verbal communication (control group. The purpose is to determine whether the interventions are effective to reduce apathy in long-term care residents with dementia (N = 360 as the main outcome measure. Assessments will be done at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months after beginning of the interventions. Discussion This trial will particularly contribute to the evidence on efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions in dementia care. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00653731

  19. Evaluating an in-home multicomponent cognitive behavioural programme to manage concerns about falls and associated activity avoidance in frail community-dwelling older people: Design of a randomised control trial [NCT01358032

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rossum Erik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns about falls are frequently reported by older people. These concerns can have serious consequences such as an increased risk of falls and the subsequent avoidance of activities. Previous studies have shown the effectiveness of a multicomponent group programme to reduce concerns about falls. However, owing to health problems older people may not be able to attend a group programme. Therefore, we adapted the group approach to an individual in-home programme. Methods/Design A two-group randomised controlled trial has been developed to evaluate the in-home multicomponent cognitive behavioural programme to manage concerns about falls and associated activity avoidance in frail older people living in the community. Persons were eligible for study if they were 70 years of age or over, perceived their general health as fair or poor, had at least some concerns about falls and associated avoidance of activity. After screening for eligibility in a random sample of older people, eligible persons received a baseline assessment and were subsequently allocated to the intervention or control group. Persons assigned to the intervention group were invited to participate in the programme, while those assigned to the control group received care as usual. The programme consists of seven sessions, comprising three home visits and four telephone contacts. The sessions are aimed at instilling adaptive and realistic views about falls, as well as increasing activity and safe behaviour. An effect evaluation, a process evaluation and an economic evaluation are conducted. Follow-up measurements for the effect evaluation are carried out 5 and 12 months after the baseline measurement. The primary outcomes of the effect evaluation are concerns about falls and avoidance of activity as a result of these concerns. Other outcomes are disability and falls. The process evaluation measures: the population characteristics reached; protocol adherence by

  20. Adaptive intesration of local resion information to detect fine-scale brain activity patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN ZongLei; TIAN Jie; ZHANG Hui

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, the spatial resolution of fMRI data is continuously growing. This pro-vides us the possibility to detect the fine-scale patterns of brain activities. The es-tablished univariate and multivariate methods to analyze fMRI data mostly focus on detecting the activation blobs without considering the distributed fine-scale pat-terns within the blobs. To improve the sensitivity of the activation detection, in this paper, multivariate statistical method and univariate statistical method are com-bined to discover the fine-grained activity patterns. For one voxel in the brain, a local homogenous region is constructed. Then, time courses from the local ho-mogenous region are integrated with multivariate statistical method. Univariate statistical method is finally used to construct the interests of statistic for that voxel. The approach has explicitly taken into account the structures of both activity pat-terns and existing noise of local brain regions. Therefore, it could highlight the fine-scale activity patterns of the local regions. Experiments with simulated and real fMRI data demonstrate that the proposed method dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection of fine-scale brain activity patterns which contain the subtle information about experimental conditions.

  1. Adaptive integration of local region information to detect fine-scale brain activity patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, the spatial resolution of fMRI data is continuously growing. This pro- vides us the possibility to detect the fine-scale patterns of brain activities. The es- tablished univariate and multivariate methods to analyze fMRI data mostly focus on detecting the activation blobs without considering the distributed fine-scale pat- terns within the blobs. To improve the sensitivity of the activation detection, in this paper, multivariate statistical method and univariate statistical method are com- bined to discover the fine-grained activity patterns. For one voxel in the brain, a local homogenous region is constructed. Then, time courses from the local ho- mogenous region are integrated with multivariate statistical method. Univariate statistical method is finally used to construct the interests of statistic for that voxel. The approach has explicitly taken into account the structures of both activity pat- terns and existing noise of local brain regions. Therefore, it could highlight the fine-scale activity patterns of the local regions. Experiments with simulated and real fMRI data demonstrate that the proposed method dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection of fine-scale brain activity patterns which contain the subtle information about experimental conditions.

  2. Electronic feedback in a diet- and physical activity-based lifestyle intervention for weight loss: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriwether Rebecca A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SenseWear™ Armband (SWA (BodyMedia, Inc. Pittsburgh, PA is a physical activity and lifestyle monitor that objectively and accurately measures free-living energy balance and sleep and includes software for self-monitoring of daily energy expenditure and energy intake. The real-time feedback of the SWA can improve individual self-monitoring and, therefore, enhance weight loss outcomes. Methods We recruited 197 sedentary overweight or obese adults (age, 46.8 ± 10.8 y; body mass index (BMI, 33.3 ± 5.2 kg/m2; 81% women, 32% African-American from the greater Columbia, South Carolina area. Participants were randomized into 1 of 4 groups, a self-directed weight loss program via an evidence-based weight loss manual (Standard Care, n = 50, a group-based behavioral weight loss program (GWL, n = 49, the armband alone (SWA-alone, n = 49, or the GWL plus the armband (GWL+SWA, n = 49, during the 9-month intervention. The primary outcome was change in body weight and waist circumference. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis compared change in the intervention groups to the standard care group on weight and waist circumference status after adjusting for age, sex, race, education, energy expenditure, and recruitment wave. Results Body weight was available for 62% of participants at 9 months (52% standard care, 70% intervention. There was significant weight loss in all 3 intervention groups (GWL, 1.86 kg, P = 0.05; SWA-alone, 3.55 kg, P = 0.0002; GWL+SWA, 6.59 kg, P Conclusions Continuous self-monitoring from wearable technology with real-time feedback may be particularly useful to enhance lifestyle changes that promote weight loss in sedentary overweight or obese adults. This strategy, combined with a group-based behavioral intervention, may yield optimal weight loss. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00957008

  3. Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for Active Load Alleviation in a Smart Rotor Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo

    The work investigates the development of an active smart rotor concept from an aero-servo-elastic perspective. An active smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators, is able to alleviate the fluctuating part of the aerodynamic loads it has......-MPC requires lower flap activity, and also achieves higher reductions of the tower fatigue loads, thus indicating that a combined control approach that coordinates and integrates all available sensors and actuators has the potential for overall better results than achieved by a series of independent control...

  4. A randomized trial to assess anti-HIV activity in female genital tract secretions and soluble mucosal immunity following application of 1% tenofovir gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla J Keller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preclinical and early phase clinical microbicide studies have not consistently predicted the outcome of efficacy trials. To address this gap, candidate biomarkers of microbicide pharmacodynamics and safety were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir gel, the first microbicide to demonstrate significant protection against HIV acquisition. METHODS: 30 women were randomized to apply a single daily dose of tenofovir or placebo gel for 14 consecutive days. Anti-HIV activity was measured in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL on Days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 by luciferase assay as a surrogate marker of pharmacodynamics. Endogenous activity against E. coli and HSV-2 and concentrations of immune mediators were quantified in CVL as candidate biomarkers of safety. Tenofovir levels were measured in CVL and blood. RESULTS: A significant increase in anti-HIV activity was detected in CVL from women who applied tenofovir gel compared to their endogenous anti-HIV activity in genital tract secretions on Day 0 and compared to activity in CVL from women in the placebo group. The activity correlated significantly with CVL concentration of tenofovir (r = 0.6, p<0.001 and fit a sigmoid E(max pharmacodynamic model. Anti-HIV activity in CVL from women who applied tenofovir persisted when virus was introduced in semen, whereas endogenous anti-HIV activity decreased. Tenofovir did not trigger an inflammatory response or induce sustained loss in endogenous antimicrobial activity or immune mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Tenofovir gel had no deleterious impact on soluble mucosal immunity. The increased anti-HIV activity in CVL, which persisted in the presence of semen and correlated with tenofovir concentration, is consistent with the efficacy observed in a recent clinical trial. These results promote quantified CVL anti-HIV activity as a surrogate of tissue pharmacodynamics and as a potential biomarker of adherence to product. This simple, feasible and

  5. Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new medical approaches work in people. Each study answers ... prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease. Clinical trials may also compare a new treatment to a ...

  6. Active Flow Control with Adaptive Design Techniques for Improved Aircraft Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The increased aircraft safety potential of active flow control using synthetic jets - specifically, using synthetic jets on the leading edge of the wing to delay...

  7. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Applied QSAR with Quantum Chemical Descriptors for Predicting Radical Scavenging Activities of Carotenoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changho Jhin

    Full Text Available One of the physiological characteristics of carotenoids is their radical scavenging activity. In this study, the relationship between radical scavenging activities and quantum chemical descriptors of carotenoids was determined. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS applied quantitative structure-activity relationship models (QSAR were also developed for predicting and comparing radical scavenging activities of carotenoids. Semi-empirical PM6 and PM7 quantum chemical calculations were done by MOPAC. Ionisation energies of neutral and monovalent cationic carotenoids and the product of chemical potentials of neutral and monovalent cationic carotenoids were significantly correlated with the radical scavenging activities, and consequently these descriptors were used as independent variables for the QSAR study. The ANFIS applied QSAR models were developed with two triangular-shaped input membership functions made for each of the independent variables and optimised by a backpropagation method. High prediction efficiencies were achieved by the ANFIS applied QSAR. The R-square values of the developed QSAR models with the variables calculated by PM6 and PM7 methods were 0.921 and 0.902, respectively. The results of this study demonstrated reliabilities of the selected quantum chemical descriptors and the significance of QSAR models.

  8. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Applied QSAR with Quantum Chemical Descriptors for Predicting Radical Scavenging Activities of Carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhin, Changho; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2015-01-01

    One of the physiological characteristics of carotenoids is their radical scavenging activity. In this study, the relationship between radical scavenging activities and quantum chemical descriptors of carotenoids was determined. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) applied quantitative structure-activity relationship models (QSAR) were also developed for predicting and comparing radical scavenging activities of carotenoids. Semi-empirical PM6 and PM7 quantum chemical calculations were done by MOPAC. Ionisation energies of neutral and monovalent cationic carotenoids and the product of chemical potentials of neutral and monovalent cationic carotenoids were significantly correlated with the radical scavenging activities, and consequently these descriptors were used as independent variables for the QSAR study. The ANFIS applied QSAR models were developed with two triangular-shaped input membership functions made for each of the independent variables and optimised by a backpropagation method. High prediction efficiencies were achieved by the ANFIS applied QSAR. The R-square values of the developed QSAR models with the variables calculated by PM6 and PM7 methods were 0.921 and 0.902, respectively. The results of this study demonstrated reliabilities of the selected quantum chemical descriptors and the significance of QSAR models. PMID:26474167

  9. MALT1 Protease Activity Is Required for Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jong W.; Hoffman, Sandy; Beal, Allison M.; Dykon, Angela; Ringenberg, Michael A.; Hughes, Anna C.; Dare, Lauren; Anderson, Amber D.; Finger, Joshua; Kasparcova, Viera; Rickard, David; Berger, Scott B.; Ramanjulu, Joshi; Emery, John G.; Gough, Peter J.; Bertin, John; Foley, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    CARMA-BCL10-MALT1 signalosomes play important roles in antigen receptor signaling and other pathways. Previous studies have suggested that as part of this complex, MALT1 functions as both a scaffolding protein to activate NF-κB through recruitment of ubiquitin ligases, and as a protease to cleave and inactivate downstream inhibitory signaling proteins. However, our understanding of the relative importance of these two distinct MALT1 activities has been hampered by a lack of selective MALT1 protease inhibitors with suitable pharmacologic properties. To fully investigate the role of MALT1 protease activity, we generated mice homozygous for a protease-dead mutation in MALT1. We found that some, but not all, MALT1 functions in immune cells were dependent upon its protease activity. Protease-dead mice had defects in the generation of splenic marginal zone and peritoneal B1 B cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells displayed decreased T cell receptor-stimulated proliferation and IL-2 production while B cell receptor-stimulated proliferation was partially dependent on protease activity. In dendritic cells, stimulation of cytokine production through the Dectin-1, Dectin-2, and Mincle C-type lectin receptors was also found to be partially dependent upon protease activity. In vivo, protease-dead mice had reduced basal immunoglobulin levels, and showed defective responses to immunization with T-dependent and T-independent antigens. Surprisingly, despite these decreased responses, MALT1 protease-dead mice, but not MALT1 null mice, developed mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates in multiple organs, suggesting MALT1 protease activity plays a role in immune homeostasis. These findings highlight the importance of MALT1 protease activity in multiple immune cell types, and in integrating immune responses in vivo. PMID:25965667

  10. MALT1 Protease Activity Is Required for Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong W Yu

    Full Text Available CARMA-BCL10-MALT1 signalosomes play important roles in antigen receptor signaling and other pathways. Previous studies have suggested that as part of this complex, MALT1 functions as both a scaffolding protein to activate NF-κB through recruitment of ubiquitin ligases, and as a protease to cleave and inactivate downstream inhibitory signaling proteins. However, our understanding of the relative importance of these two distinct MALT1 activities has been hampered by a lack of selective MALT1 protease inhibitors with suitable pharmacologic properties. To fully investigate the role of MALT1 protease activity, we generated mice homozygous for a protease-dead mutation in MALT1. We found that some, but not all, MALT1 functions in immune cells were dependent upon its protease activity. Protease-dead mice had defects in the generation of splenic marginal zone and peritoneal B1 B cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells displayed decreased T cell receptor-stimulated proliferation and IL-2 production while B cell receptor-stimulated proliferation was partially dependent on protease activity. In dendritic cells, stimulation of cytokine production through the Dectin-1, Dectin-2, and Mincle C-type lectin receptors was also found to be partially dependent upon protease activity. In vivo, protease-dead mice had reduced basal immunoglobulin levels, and showed defective responses to immunization with T-dependent and T-independent antigens. Surprisingly, despite these decreased responses, MALT1 protease-dead mice, but not MALT1 null mice, developed mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates in multiple organs, suggesting MALT1 protease activity plays a role in immune homeostasis. These findings highlight the importance of MALT1 protease activity in multiple immune cell types, and in integrating immune responses in vivo.

  11. A dynamic-reliable multiple model adaptive controller for active vehicle suspension under uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inherent uncertainties of vehicle suspension systems challenge not only the capability of ride comfort and handling performance, but also the reliability requirement. In this research, a dynamic-reliable multiple model adaptive (MMA) controller is developed to overcome the difficulty of suspension uncertainties while considering performance and reliability at the same time. The MMA system consists of a finite number of optimal sub-controllers and employs a continuous-time based Markov chain to guide the jumping among the sub-controllers. The failure mode considered is the bottoming and topping of suspension components. A limitation on the failure probability is imposed to penalize the performance of the sub-controllers and a gradient-based genetic algorithm yields their optimal feedback gains. Finally, the dynamic reliability of the MMA controller is approximated by using the integration of state covariances and a judging condition is induced to assert that the MMA system is dynamic-reliable. In numerical simulation, a long scheme with piecewise time-invariant parameters is employed to examine the performance and reliability under the uncertainties of sprung mass, road condition and driving velocity. It is shown that the dynamic-reliable MMA controller is able to trade a small amount of model performance for extra reliability

  12. An on-demand provision model for geospatial multisource information with active self-adaption services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong; Li, Huan

    2015-12-01

    Location-related data are playing an increasingly irreplaceable role in business, government and scientific research. At the same time, the amount and types of data are rapidly increasing. It is a challenge how to quickly find required information from this rapidly growing volume of data, as well as how to efficiently provide different levels of geospatial data to users. This paper puts forward a data-oriented access model for geographic information science data. First, we analyze the features of GIS data including traditional types such as vector and raster data and new types such as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). Taking into account these analyses, a classification scheme for geographic data is proposed and TRAFIE is introduced to describe the establishment of a multi-level model for geographic data. Based on this model, a multi-level, scalable access system for geospatial information is put forward. Users can select different levels of data according to their concrete application needs. Pull-based and push-based data access mechanisms based on this model are presented. A Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) was chosen for the data processing. The model of this study has been described by providing decision-making process of government departments with a simulation of fire disaster data collection. The use case shows this data model and the data provision system is flexible and has good adaptability.

  13. An Incremental Target-Adapted Strategy for Active Geometric Calibration of Projector-Camera Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Jen Chien

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of a projector-camera system is an essential step toward accurate 3-D measurement and environment-aware data projection applications, such as augmented reality. In this paper we present a two-stage easy-to-deploy strategy for robust calibration of both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of a projector. Two key components of the system are the automatic generation of projected light patterns and the incremental calibration process. Based on the incremental strategy, the calibration process first establishes a set of initial parameters, and then it upgrades these parameters incrementally using the projection and captured images of dynamically-generated calibration patterns. The scene-driven light patterns allow the system to adapt itself to the pose of the calibration target, such that the difficulty in feature detection is greatly lowered. The strategy forms a closed-loop system that performs self-correction as more and more observations become available. Compared to the conventional method, which requires a time-consuming process for the acquisition of dense pixel correspondences, the proposed method deploys a homography-based coordinate computation, allowing the calibration time to be dramatically reduced. The experimental results indicate that an improvement of 70% in reprojection errors is achievable and 95% of the calibration time can be saved.

  14. Referral from primary care to a physical activity programme: establishing long-term adherence? A randomized controlled trial. Rationale and study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig-Ribera Anna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Declining physical activity is associated with a rising burden of global disease. There is little evidence about effective ways to increase adherence to physical activity. Therefore, interventions are needed that produce sustained increases in adherence to physical activity and are cost-effective. The purpose is to assess the effectiveness of a primary care physical activity intervention in increasing adherence to physical activity in the general population seen in primary care. Method and design Randomized controlled trial with systematic random sampling. A total of 424 subjects of both sexes will participate; all will be over the age of 18 with a low level of physical activity (according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, IPAQ, self-employed and from 9 Primary Healthcare Centres (PHC. They will volunteer to participate in a physical activity programme during 3 months (24 sessions; 2 sessions a week, 60 minutes per session. Participants from each PHC will be randomly allocated to an intervention (IG and control group (CG. The following parameters will be assessed pre and post intervention in both groups: (1 health-related quality of life (SF-12, (2 physical activity stage of change (Prochaska's stages of change, (3 level of physical activity (IPAQ-short version, (4 change in perception of health (vignettes from the Cooperative World Organization of National Colleges, Academies, and Academic Associations of Family Physicians, COOP/WONCA, (5 level of social support for the physical activity practice (Social Support for Physical Activity Scale, SSPAS, and (6 control based on analysis (HDL, LDL and glycated haemoglobin. Participants' frequency of visits to the PHC will be registered over the six months before and after the programme. There will be a follow up in a face to face interview three, six and twelve months after the programme, with the reduced version of IPAQ, SF-12, SSPAS, and Prochaska's stages

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment versus an Active Control for Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Deveney, Charise; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Bavopoulos, Nataly

    2009-01-01

    Specific delivery of cognitive-behavioral skills is more effective in treating childhood anxiety compared to treatment that contains only nonspecific therapy factors. The findings are based on a randomized trial involving 112 children aged 7-16 years.

  16. The feasibility of clinical endpoint trials in HIV infection in the highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, A; Neaton, J; Bebchuk, J;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Planning clinical-endpoint trials in patients with HIV remain difficult as long-term follow-up of many patients is required. Cohort studies of patients with HIV can provide key estimates of the likely disease progression, required sample size and follow-up. OBJECTIVES: To verify...... the assumptions used in designing ESPRIT, a large randomized clinical trial assessing the clinical benefit of interleukin-2 treatment in patients with HIV infection, to use EuroSIDA to mimic the inclusion criterion of ESPRIT in order to compare the observed event rate in ESPRIT with the projected rate in Euro...... to observational studies or clinical trials cannot always be adjusted for. CONCLUSIONS: Event rates in EuroSIDA were similar in the first two years to those used in the design of ESPRIT, but did not increase over time, leading to an increase in the expected duration of ESPRIT. Clinical endpoint trials in HIV...

  17. Does informed consent influence therapeutic outcome? A clinical trial of the hypnotic activity of placebo in patients admitted to hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Dahan, R.; Caulin, C; Figea, L; Kanis, J. A.; Caulin, F; Segrestaa, J M

    1986-01-01

    To examine whether written informed consent might influence the results of clinical trials the effect of placebo when given with or without informed consent to patients suffering from insomnia was studied. The study was a single blind observer blinded trial, and patients were paired according to sex, age, and hospital environment. Randomisation assigned the first patient of each pair to the control group (without informed consent) or the group to give informed consent. Of the 56 patients, 26 ...

  18. Prediction of radical scavenging activities of anthocyanins applying adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with quantum chemical descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhin, Changho; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2014-01-01

    Radical scavenging activity of anthocyanins is well known, but only a few studies have been conducted by quantum chemical approach. The adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is an effective technique for solving problems with uncertainty. The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for predicting radical scavenging activities of anthocyanins with good prediction efficiency. ANFIS-applied QSAR models were developed by using quantum chemical descriptors of anthocyanins calculated by semi-empirical PM6 and PM7 methods. Electron affinity (A) and electronegativity (χ) of flavylium cation, and ionization potential (I) of quinoidal base were significantly correlated with radical scavenging activities of anthocyanins. These descriptors were used as independent variables for QSAR models. ANFIS models with two triangular-shaped input fuzzy functions for each independent variable were constructed and optimized by 100 learning epochs. The constructed models using descriptors calculated by both PM6 and PM7 had good prediction efficiency with Q-square of 0.82 and 0.86, respectively. PMID:25153627

  19. Analytical and experimental results for active noise control within cylindrical cavities bounded by elastic adaptive structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, H.; Dool, T. van den; Haeusler, S.; Faust, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)]|[TNO, Delf (Netherlands)]|[Dornier, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    The feasibility of differnt concepts for active noise control in elastically bounded cylindrical cavities such as in launcher fairings is investigated. Analytical and experimental studies are carried out for feedforward and feedback controllers and different types of actuators and sensors. The feasibility and potential of the approach is demonstrated, but further progress on controller speed and actuator capability has to be made. (orig.)

  20. Stress-induced activation of brown adipose tissue prevents obesity in conditions of low adaptive thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Razzoli

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that thermogenesis and BAT function are determinant of the resilience or vulnerability to stress-induced obesity. Our data support a model in which adrenergic and purinergic pathways exert complementary/synergistic functions in BAT, thus suggesting an alternative to βARs agonists for the activation of human BAT.

  1. Which Beak Fits the Bill? An Activity Examining Adaptation, Natural Selection and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Evolution is a unifying concept within biology. In fact, Dobzhansky, a noted evolutionary biologist, argued, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution" (Dobzhansky, 1973). However, often students have misconceptions about evolution. There are a number of available activities where students use tools (representing…

  2. The short international physical activity questionnaire: cross-cultural adaptation, validation and reliability of the Hausa language version in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Adewale L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment of physical activity is important in determining the risk for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer and obesity. The absence of culturally relevant measures in indigenous languages could pose challenges to epidemiological studies on physical activity in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF to the Hausa language, and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Hausa version of IPAQ-SF in Nigeria. Methods The English IPAQ-SF was translated into the Hausa language, synthesized, back translated, and subsequently subjected to expert committee review and pre-testing. The final product (Hausa IPAQ-SF was tested in a cross-sectional study for concurrent (correlation with the English version and construct validity, and test-retest reliability in a sample of 102 apparently healthy adults. Results The Hausa IPAQ-SF has good concurrent validity with Spearman correlation coefficients (ρ ranging from 0.78 for vigorous activity (Min Week-1 to 0.92 for total physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task [MET]-Min Week-1, but poor construct validity, with cardiorespiratory fitness (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.01 and body mass index (ρ = 0.22, p = 0.04 significantly correlated with only moderate activity and sitting time (Min Week-1, respectively. Reliability was good for vigorous (ICC = 0.73, 95% C.I = 0.55-0.84 and total physical activity (ICC = 0.61, 95% C.I = 0.47-0.72, but fair for moderate activity (ICC = 0.33, 95% C.I = 0.12-0.51, and few meaningful differences were found in the gender and socioeconomic status specific analyses. Conclusions The Hausa IPAQ-SF has acceptable concurrent validity and test-retest reliability for vigorous-intensity activity, walking, sitting and total physical activity, but demonstrated only fair construct validity for moderate and

  3. Active load path adaption in a simple kinematic load-bearing structure due to stiffness change in the structure's supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehb, C. M.; Platz, R.; Melz, T.

    2016-09-01

    Load-bearing structures with kinematic functions enable and disable degrees of freedom and are part of many mechanical engineering applications. The relative movement between a wheel and the body of a car or a landing gear and an aircraft fuselage are examples for load-bearing systems with defined kinematics. In most cases, the load is transmitted through a predetermined load path to the structural support interfaces. However, unexpected load peaks or varying health condition of the system's supports, which means for example varying damping and stiffness characteristics, may require an active adjustment of the load path. However, load paths transmitted through damaged or weakened supports can be the reason for reduced comfort or even failure. In this paper a simplified 2D two mass oscillator with two supports is used to numerically investigate the potential of controlled adaptive auxiliary kinematic guidance elements in a load-bearing structure to adapt the load path depending on the stiffness change, representing damage of the supports. The aim is to provide additional forces in the auxiliary kinematic guidance elements for two reasons. On the one hand, one of the two supports that may become weaker through stiffness change will be relieved from higher loading. On the other hand, tilting due to different compliance in the supports will be minimized. Therefore, shifting load between the supports during operation could be an effective option.

  4. Interactive multi-objective active power scheduling considering uncertain renewable energies using adaptive chaos clonal evolutionary programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stand-alone power system is an independent system that comprises micro-turbines, diesel generators, a wind park, solar photovoltaic (PV) modules and/or energy storages, etc. This paper presents a new method for dealing with the short-term active power scheduling of a stand-alone system. The fuel cost of diesel units and CO2 emission are minimized and all operation constraints are satisfied. The maximum wind and solar PV powers with uncertainties are modeled using fuzzy sets. Adaptive chaos clonal evolutionary programming (ACCEP) is employed to solve this problem, which is formulated as an interactive multi-objective problem. Different degrees of fuzziness, preferred reference levels, and priority list for diesel generators are discussed. Simulation results show the applicability of the proposed method. - Highlights: • The renewable energies are modeled with the fuzzy set to consider their uncertainties. • The proposed method based on adaptive chaos clonal evolutionary programming can obtain optimal Pareto solutions. • Different degrees of fuzziness and preferred reference levels for multi-objectives are addressed in the proposed method

  5. Correlates of pedometer use: Results from a community-based physical activity intervention trial (10,000 Steps Rockhampton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schofield Grant

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pedometers have become common place in physical activity promotion, yet little information exists on who is using them. The multi-strategy, community-based 10,000 Steps Rockhampton physical activity intervention trial provided an opportunity to examine correlates of pedometer use at the population level. Methods Pedometer use was promoted across all intervention strategies including: local media, pedometer loan schemes through general practice, other health professionals and libraries, direct mail posted to dog owners, walking trail signage, and workplace competitions. Data on pedometer use were collected during the 2-year follow-up telephone interviews from random population samples in Rockhampton, Australia, and a matched comparison community (Mackay. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the independent influence of interpersonal characteristics and program exposure variables on pedometer use. Results Data from 2478 participants indicated that 18.1% of Rockhampton and 5.6% of Mackay participants used a pedometer in the previous 18-months. Rockhampton pedometer users (n = 222 were more likely to be female (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.23, aged 45 or older (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.46 and to have higher levels of education (university degree OR = 4.23, 95% CI: 1.86, 9.6. Respondents with a BMI > 30 were more likely to report using a pedometer (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.54 than those in the healthy weight range. Compared with those in full-time paid work, respondents in 'home duties' were significantly less likely to report pedometer use (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.53. Exposure to individual program components, in particular seeing 10,000 Steps street signage and walking trails or visiting the website, was also significantly associated with greater pedometer use. Conclusion Pedometer use varies between population subgroups, and alternate strategies need to be investigated to engage men, people with lower levels

  6. Activity and health prevention in preschools--contents of an activity-based intervention programme (PAKT--Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial)

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Kristina; Mauer, Sonja; Obinger, Matthias; Lenz, Dorothea; Hebestreit, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aim To establish an effective and feasible physical activity intervention programme for preschools. Methods A multicomponent physical activity intervention programme with three components was developed for the preschool setting based on the psychomotor concept: daily structured physical education lessons for the children provided by the kindergarten teachers, physical activity homework for the chi...

  7. The effects on depression of Internet-administered behavioural activation and physical exercise with treatment rationale and relapse prevention: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlbring Per

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite their potential as low-threshold, low-cost and high-flexibility treatments of depression, behavioural activation and physical exercise have not yet been directly compared. This study will examine the effects of these interventions, administered via the Internet. The added effect of providing a treatment rationale will also be studied, as well as a relapse prevention program featuring cognitive behavioural therapy components. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will include 500 participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for major depression, recruited in multiple cycles and randomised to either a waiting list control group with delayed treatment, or one of the four treatment groups: (1 physical exercise without a clear treatment rationale; (2 physical exercise with treatment rationale; (3 behavioural activation with treatment rationale; or (4 behavioural activation without a clear treatment rationale. Post treatment, half of the participants will be offered a relapse prevention program. Primary outcome measure will be the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item. Secondary measures include diagnostic criteria for depression, as well as self-reported anxiety, physical activity and quality of life. Measurements - done via telephone and the Internet - will be collected pre-treatment, weekly during treatment period, immediately post treatment and then monthly during a 24-month follow-up period. Discussion The results of this study will constitute an important contribution to the body of knowledge of the respective interventions. Limitations are discussed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01619930

  8. Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System: Indigenous Australian Adaptation Model (ABAS: IAAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Santie

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…

  9. Characterization of an adapter subunit to a phosphatidylinositol (3)P 3-phosphatase: Identification of a myotubularin-related protein lacking catalytic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Nandurkar, H. H.; Caldwell, K K; Whisstock, J C; Layton, M. J.; Gaudet, E. A.; Norris, F. A.; Majerus, P W; Mitchell, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    The D3-phosphoinositides act as second messengers by recruiting, and thereby activating, diverse signaling proteins. We have previously described the purification of a rat phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] 3-phosphatase, comprising a heterodimer of a 78-kDa adapter subunit in complex with a 65-kDa catalytic subunit. Here, we have cloned and characterized the cDNA encoding the human 3-phosphatase adapter subunit (3-PAP). Sequence alignment showed that 3-PAP ...

  10. Hedonic "adaptation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to dead bodies as disgust elicitors, by measuring specific types of disgust sensitivity in medical students before and after they have spent a few months dissecting a cadaver. Using the Disgust Scale, we find a significant reduction in disgust responses to death and body envelope violation elicitors, but no significant change in any other specific type of disgust. There is a clear reduction in discomfort at touching a cold dead body, but not in touching a human body which is still warm after death.

  11. Adaptive vector quantization in SVD MIMO system backward link with limited number of active sub channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaniš Predrag

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents combination of Channel Optimized Vector Quantization based on LBG algorithm and sub channel power allocation for MIMO systems with Singular Value Decomposition and limited number of active sub channels. Proposed algorithm is designed to enable maximal throughput with bit error rate bellow some tar- get level in case of backward channel capacity limitation. Presence of errors effect in backward channel is also considered.

  12. How Are Representations Affected by Scene Statistics in an Adaptive Active Vision System?

    OpenAIRE

    Ognibene, D.; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Baldassarre, G.

    2009-01-01

    1. Introduction One of the main claims of active vision (Ballard, 1991) is that finding data on demand, based on the requirements of the task, is more efficient than reconstructing the whole scene by performing a complete visual scan of it. This aids generalisation and a dramatic reduction of the needed visual computations. Using this strategy, however, generates the need to learn complex gaze control strategies dependent on the pursued goals and the properties of scenes and objects. For exam...

  13. Back to the Future: The Organizational-Activational Hypothesis Adapted to Puberty and Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Kalynn M.; Molenda-Figueira, Heather A.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2009-01-01

    Phoenix, Goy, Gerall, and Young first proposed in 1959 the organizational-activational hypothesis of hormone-driven sex differences in brain and behavior. The original hypothesis posited that exposure to steroid hormones early in development masculinizes and defeminizes neural circuits, programming behavioral responses to hormones in adulthood. This hypothesis has inspired a multitude of experiments demonstrating that the perinatal period is a time of maximal sensitivity to gonadal steroid ho...

  14. Coastal Communities Adaptation and Resiliency to Vulnerability: An Analysis of Livelihood Activities in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Wanyonyi, Innocent N.; Obura, David; Malleret-King, Delphine

    2008-01-01

    A socio-economic monitoring pilot project was initiated in Eastern Africa in 2002. The goal was to develop a regional socio-economic monitoring process that contributes to improving coastal and fisheries resource management.. Findings for the Diani-Chale area in Kenya are analyzed here, focusing on community livelihood strategies for three villages studied. On average, there were 5 people per household, 1.9 of whom were actively involved in providing food or income....

  15. Research on application of active disturbance rejection control based on adaptive GA in water level control of steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam generator of nuclear power plant is a nonlinear, time-varying system. Application of the active disturbance rejection control method in the water level control of steam generator can solve the contradiction between speed and overshoot in the conventional PID control system, and it also can compensate the internal and external disturbances of the object model dynamically. However, ADRC parameters are numerous and without uniform adjustment specification, and are very difficult to be tuned. In order to overcome the difficulties in the parameter tuning of the ADRC, the adaptive genetic algorithm is used to tune ADRC parameters. The simulation results show that its robustness and its control quality are better than those of the traditional cascade PID control. (authors)

  16. Adaptation improves neural coding efficiency despite increasing correlations in variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Mehdi; McDonald, James S; Clifford, Colin W G; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2013-01-30

    Exposure of cortical cells to sustained sensory stimuli results in changes in the neuronal response function. This phenomenon, known as adaptation, is a common feature across sensory modalities. Here, we quantified the functional effect of adaptation on the ensemble activity of cortical neurons in the rat whisker-barrel system. A multishank array of electrodes was used to allow simultaneous sampling of neuronal activity. We characterized the response of neurons to sinusoidal whisker vibrations of varying amplitude in three states of adaptation. The adaptors produced a systematic rightward shift in the neuronal response function. Consistently, mutual information revealed that peak discrimination performance was not aligned to the adaptor but to test amplitudes 3-9 μm higher. Stimulus presentation reduced single neuron trial-to-trial response variability (captured by Fano factor) and correlations in the population response variability (noise correlation). We found that these two types of variability were inversely proportional to the average firing rate regardless of the adaptation state. Adaptation transferred the neuronal operating regime to lower rates with higher Fano factor and noise correlations. Noise correlations were positive and in the direction of signal, and thus detrimental to coding efficiency. Interestingly, across all population sizes, the net effect of adaptation was to increase the total information despite increasing the noise correlation between neurons. PMID:23365247

  17. Acute Whiplash Injury Study (AWIS): a protocol for a cluster randomised pilot and feasibility trial of an Active Behavioural Physiotherapy Intervention in an insurance private setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, M Sayeed; Price, Jonathan; Rushton, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) causes substantial social and economic burden internationally. Up to 60% of patients with WAD progress to chronicity. Research therefore needs to focus on effective management in the acute stage to prevent the development of chronicity. Approximately 93% of patients are classified as WADII (neck complaint and musculoskeletal sign(s)), and in the UK, most are managed in the private sector. In our recent systematic review, a combination of active and behavioural physiotherapy was identified as potentially effective in the acute stage. An Active Behavioural Physiotherapy Intervention (ABPI) was developed through combining empirical (modified Delphi study) and theoretical (social cognitive theory focusing on self-efficacy) evidence. This pilot and feasibility trial has been designed to inform the design of an adequately powered definitive randomised controlled trial. Methods and analysis Two parallel phases. (1) An external pilot and feasibility cluster randomised double-blind (assessor and participants), parallel two-arm (ABPI vs standard physiotherapy) clinical trial to evaluate procedures and feasibility. Six UK private physiotherapy clinics will be recruited and cluster randomised by a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Sixty participants (30 each arm) will be assessed at recruitment (baseline) and at 3 months postbaseline. The planned primary outcome measure is the neck disability index. (2) An embedded exploratory qualitative study using semistructured indepth interviews (n=3–4 physiotherapists) and a focus group (n=6–8 patients) and entailing the recruitment of purposive samples will explore perceptions of the ABPI. Quantitative data will be analysed descriptively. Qualitative data will be coded and analysed deductively (identify themes) and inductively (identify additional themes). Ethics and dissemination This trial is approved by the University of Birmingham Ethics Committee (ERN_15-0542). Trial

  18. Targeting Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2, MK2): Medicinal Chemistry Efforts To Lead Small Molecule Inhibitors to Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Mario; Forli, Stefano; Manetti, Fabrizio

    2016-04-28

    The p38/MAPK-activated kinase 2 (MK2) pathway is involved in a series of pathological conditions (inflammation diseases and metastasis) and in the resistance mechanism to antitumor agents. None of the p38 inhibitors entered advanced clinical trials because of their unwanted systemic side effects. For this reason, MK2 was identified as an alternative target to block the pathway but avoiding the side effects of p38 inhibition. However, ATP-competitive MK2 inhibitors suffered from low solubility, poor cell permeability, and scarce kinase selectivity. Fortunately, non-ATP-competitive inhibitors of MK2 have been already discovered that allowed circumventing the selectivity issue. These compounds showed the additional advantage to be effective at lower concentrations in comparison to the ATP-competitive inhibitors. Therefore, although the significant difficulties encountered during the development of these inhibitors, MK2 is still considered as an attractive target to treat inflammation and related diseases to prevent tumor metastasis and to increase tumor sensitivity to chemotherapeutics.

  19. Behavioral activation-based guided self-help treatment administered through a smartphone application: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ly Kien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for cost-effective interventions for people suffering from major depressive disorders is essential. Behavioral activation is an intervention that can largely benefit from the use of new mobile technologies (for example smartphones. Therefore, developing smartphone-based behavioral activation interventions might be a way to develop cost-effective treatments for people suffering from major depressive disorders. The aim of this study will be to test the effects of a smartphone-delivered behavioral activation treatment. Methods The study will be a randomized controlled trial with a sample size of 120 participants, with 60 patients in each group. The treatment group includes an 8-week smartphone-based behavioral activation intervention, with minimal therapist contact. The smartphone-based intervention consists of a web-based psychoeducation, and a smartphone application. There is also a back-end system where the therapist can see reports from the patients or activities being reported. In the attention control group, we will include brief online education and then recommend use of a smartphone application that is not directly aimed at depression (for example, ‘Effective meditation’. The duration of the control condition will also be 8 weeks. For ethical reasons we will give the participants in the control group access to the behavioral activation treatment following the 8-week treatment period. Discussions We believe that this trial has at least three important implications. First, we believe that smartphones can be integrated even further into society and therefore may serve an important role in health care. Second, while behavioral activation is a psychological treatment approach for which there is empirical support, the use of a smartphone application could serve as the therapist’s prolonged arm into the daily life of the patient. Third, as we have been doing trials on guided Internet treatment for more than 10

  20. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion—Learning, Cognition and Motion – A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Froberg, Karsten; Hillman, Charles H.; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bugge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated not only with health-related parameters, but also with cognitive and academic performance. However, no large scale school-based physical activity interventions have investigated effects on cognitive performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention in enhancing cognitive performance in 12–14 years old adolescents. Methods A 20 week cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted including seven intervention and seven control schools. A total of 632 students (mean (SD) age: 12.9 (0.6) years) completed the trial with baseline and follow-up data on primary or secondary outcomes (74% of randomized subjects). The intervention targeted physical activity during academic subjects, recess, school transportation and leisure-time. Cognitive performance was assessed using an executive functions test of inhibition (flanker task) with the primary outcomes being accuracy and reaction time on congruent and incongruent trials. Secondary outcomes included mathematics performance, physical activity levels, body-mass index, waist-circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results No significant difference in change, comparing the intervention group to the control group, was observed on the primary outcomes (p’s>0.05) or mathematics skills (p>0.05). An intervention effect was found for cardiorespiratory fitness in girls (21 meters (95% CI: 4.4–38.6) and body-mass index in boys (-0.22 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.39–0.05). Contrary to our predictions, a significantly larger change in interference control for reaction time was found in favor of the control group (5.0 milliseconds (95% CI: 0–9). Baseline to mid-intervention changes in physical activity levels did not differ significantly between groups (all p’s>0.05). Conclusions No evidence was found for effectiveness of a 20-week multi-faceted school-based physical activity intervention for enhancing

  1. An Intervention Study of Adapted Physical Activity on Adaptive Behavior of Moderate Mentally Retarded Students%适应体育对中度智障学生适应行为的干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉; 唐闻捷; 肖云儿

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore intervention effect of adapted physical activity (APA) on adaptive behavior of moderate mentally retarded (MR) students. Method: Adaptive behaviors of 112 MR students were measured by Children's Adaptive Behavior Scale (CABS) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised in China (C-WISC); 36 MR students assessed as moderately impaired in adaptive behavior were divided into experimental group and control group, then subjects in experimental group were intervened by adapted physical activity. After intervention, the scores of CABS of experimental group were compared with the control group by repetitive measurement and analysis. Result: After in- tervention, the scores of CABS of experimental group increased significantly in exercise capacity dimension, serf-care di- mension and social responsibility dimension. Conclusion: adapted physical activity played the significant role in promoting the level of adaptive behavior of students with moderate mental retardation.%目的:探讨适应体育对中度智障学生的适应行为的干预效果。方法:采用《韦氏儿童智力量表》和《儿童适应行为评定量表》对112名智障学生的智力及适应行为进行了调查。并将其中36名中度智障学生分为实验组和对照组,对实验组的被试进行适应体育锻炼干预,持续时间5个月,每周2次,每次40min,干预结束后,采用重复测量方差分析,分析适应体育对中度智障学生的适应行为的干预效果。结果:适应体育锻炼结束后,中度智障学生其适应行为在感觉运动、生活自理、社会责任有显著提高。结论:适应体育锻炼对智障学生适应行为的改善是有作用的。

  2. Biologically-inspired robust and adaptive multi-sensor fusion and active control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Deepak; Dow, Paul A.; Huber, David J.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a method and system for robust and efficient goal-oriented active control of a machine (e.g., robot) based on processing, hierarchical spatial understanding, representation and memory of multimodal sensory inputs. This work assumes that a high-level plan or goal is known a priori or is provided by an operator interface, which translates into an overall perceptual processing strategy for the machine. Its analogy to the human brain is the download of plans and decisions from the pre-frontal cortex into various perceptual working memories as a perceptual plan that then guides the sensory data collection and processing. For example, a goal might be to look for specific colored objects in a scene while also looking for specific sound sources. This paper combines three key ideas and methods into a single closed-loop active control system. (1) Use high-level plan or goal to determine and prioritize spatial locations or waypoints (targets) in multimodal sensory space; (2) collect/store information about these spatial locations at the appropriate hierarchy and representation in a spatial working memory. This includes invariant learning of these spatial representations and how to convert between them; and (3) execute actions based on ordered retrieval of these spatial locations from hierarchical spatial working memory and using the "right" level of representation that can efficiently translate into motor actions. In its most specific form, the active control is described for a vision system (such as a pantilt- zoom camera system mounted on a robotic head and neck unit) which finds and then fixates on high saliency visual objects. We also describe the approach where the goal is to turn towards and sequentially foveate on salient multimodal cues that include both visual and auditory inputs.

  3. Make Better Choices (MBC): Study design of a randomized controlled trial testing optimal technology-supported change in multiple diet and physical activity risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Malaina; Kozak Andrea T; Vaughn Jocelyn; McFadden HG; Schneider Kristin; Spring Bonnie; Moller Arlen C; Epstein Leonard; Russell Stephanie W; DeMott Andrew; Hedeker Donald

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Suboptimal diet and physical inactivity are prevalent, co-occurring chronic disease risk factors, yet little is known about how to maximize multiple risk behavior change. Make Better Choices, a randomized controlled trial, tests competing hypotheses about the optimal way to promote healthy change in four bundled risk behaviors: high saturated fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary leisure screen time. The study aim is to deter...

  4. Randomized controlled trial of a teleconference fatigue management plus physical activity intervention in adults with multiple sclerosis: rationale and research protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Plow Matthew; Finlayson Marcia; Motl Robert W; Bethoux Francois

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic fatigue and inactivity are prevalent problems among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and may independently or interactively have detrimental effects on quality of life and ability to participate in life roles. However, no studies to date have systematically evaluated the benefits of an intervention for both managing fatigue and promoting physical activity in individuals with MS. This study involves a randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness ...

  5. Randomized controlled trial of a self-management intervention in persons with spinal cord injury: design of the HABITS (Healthy Active Behavioural IntervenTion in SCI) study

    OpenAIRE

    Kooijmans, H.; Post, M.W.M.; van der Woude, L H V; Groot, S.; Stam, H. J.; Bussmann, J.B.J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a 16-week self-management intervention on physical activity level and self-management skills (self-efficacy, proactive coping and problem solving skills) in persons with chronic SCI. Method and design: Multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT). Eighty persons with a SCI for at least 10 years and aged 18 to 65 will randomly be assigned to the intervention (self-management) or the control group (information provision). During the 16-week self-manage...

  6. A New Mother-Child Play Activity Program to Decrease Parenting Stress and Improve Child Cognitive Abilities: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiyuki Tachibana; Ai Fukushima; Hitomi Saito; Satoshi Yoneyama; Kazuo Ushida; Susumu Yoneyama; Ryuta Kawashima

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We propose a new play activity intervention program for mothers and children. Our interdisciplinary program integrates four fields of child-related sciences: neuroscience, preschool pedagogy, developmental psychology, and child and maternal psychiatry. To determine the effect of this intervention on child and mother psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and on the children's cognitive abilities, we performed a cluster randomized controlled trial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL ...

  7. Active and Adaptive Learning from Biased Data with Applications in Astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan

    with low-dimensional feature spaces: a common setting in astronomical applications such as photometric redshift estimation. Another form of bias stems from label noise. This thesis considers the scenario in which unreliable labels can be replaced by highly accurate labels at a certain cost. This is......, for example, the case in crowd-sourcing, where unreliable labelers can be corrected by experts, or in astronomy, where a labeling based on photometric data can be improved by spectroscopic observations. An algorithm to actively select objects for correction under a limited re-labeling budget is presented...

  8. Adaptive active control of structural vibration by minimisation of total supplied power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Eigil

    1996-01-01

    Active control of vibration by minimisation of total supplied power is an attractive approach from a theoretical point of view. In this practical study of the method two secondary sources were applied to control the sinusoidal excitation of an aluminium beam from a single primary source....... The control algorithm was able to reduce the total supplied source power in a frequency band ranging from 50 to 500 Hz. The algorithm is surprisingly insensitive to measurement errors. However, very precise estimates of the power from the individual sources are required to quantify the total supplied power....

  9. Adapting the cognitive interview to enhance long-term (35 years) recall of physical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R P; Falkner, K L; Trevisan, M; McCauley, M R

    2000-04-01

    The cognitive interview (CI) was modified for use in an epidemiological study in which respondents were asked to recall their daily physical activities from the distant past (35 years ago). In comparison to a traditional epidemiological interview, the CI elicited many more responses and also more precise responses. Several practical costs, however, were incurred by the CI: additional time to train interviewers and to conduct interviews and difficulties in coding the responses. The costs and benefits of conducting the CI are addressed, along with conceptual and methodological challenges. The article ends with an existential question: Is the CI a singular technique if it can be modified so radically for different settings? PMID:10783535

  10. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  11. Extracellular enzymatic activities of cold-adapted bacteria from polar oceans and effect of temperature and salinity on cell growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Yinxin; Yu Yong; Chen Bo; Li Huirong

    2004-01-01

    The potential of 324 bacteria isolated from different habitats in polar oceans to produce a variety of extracellular enzymatic activities at low temperature was investigated. By plate assay, lipase, protease, amylase, gelatinase, agarase, chitinase or cellulase were detected. Lipases were generally present by bacteria living in polar oceans. Protease-producing bacteria held the second highest proportion in culturable isolates. Strains producing amylase kept a relative stable proportion of around 30% in different polar marine habitats. All 50 Arctic sea-ice bacteria producing proteases were cold-adapted strains, however, only 20% were psychrophilic. 98% of them could grow at 3% NaCl, and 56% could grow without NaCl. On the other hand, 98% of these sea-ice bacteria produced extracellular proteases with optimum temperature at or higher than 35℃, well above the upper temperature limit of cell growth. Extracellular enzymes including amylase, agarase, cellulase and lipase released by bacteria from seawater or sediment in polar oceans, most expressed maximum activities between 25 and 35℃. Among extracellular enzymes released by bacterial strain BSw20308, protease expressed maximum activity at 40℃, higher than 35℃ of polysaccharide hydrolases and 25℃ of lipase.

  12. [Adaptive increase of serotonergic system activity in tissues of half-migratory and migratory fish at increased water salinity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with studies of the serotoninergic system activity in different tissues of half-migratory fish--the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) and carpbream (Abramis brama orientalis)--and migratory fish--shemaya (Chalcalburnus chalcoides) caught in fresh and brackish waters, as well as in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues under effect of brackish water in model experiments. Using indirect solid-phase ELISA-test, the serotoninergic system activity was evaluated by measuring in the tissues of the studied fish the serotonin-modulated anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) which is in linear relationship with serotonin level. There was found a significant elevation of the SMAP levels in the brain of the Caspian roach, carpbream, shemaya, and the common carp under effect of increased water sainity. The revealed increase of the SMAP content in brains of the Caspian roach, carpbream, shemaya, and the common carp under action of increased water salinity reflects the corresponding elevated activity of the serotoninergic system and indicates involvement of adaptive readjustments in the animals' body. PMID:25509051

  13. Adapting active noise control headsets for the mining industry: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vipac Engineers and Scientists Ltd., North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    Noise induced hearing loss and its consequences with regard to occupational health and safety remain a major problem in the coal industry, especially underground. Australian Standards for exposure to noise in the occupational environment are being lowered from 8-hour equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level of 90 dBA to 85 dBA. The most desirable solution is to treat the noise problem at source. Where noise control strategies are not feasible, the use of hearing protection devices remains the most widely used strategy for limiting the exposure to noise in the work place. This project aimed to demonstrate design specifications for ANC (Active Noise Control) Headsets for use in the coal mining industry, especially underground. Tests showed some devices benefit from a significantly improved noise attenuation performance at low frequencies due the ANC system. Using measured noise from continuous miner and the measured noise attenuation performance of one of the ANC headsets under evaluation as an example, it was demonstrated that with Active Noise Control, the overall Leq noise level was reduced from 90 dBA (with passive hearing protection only) to 77 dBA. The final part of the project was to establish a set of specifications for the manufacturers to use in developing ANC headsets for use underground. (author). 8 tabs., 7 figs., 20 refs.

  14. Conception et exploitation d'une structure active pour une aile laminaire adaptative experimentale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Daniel

    This doctoral research contributed to the success of the project CRIAQ 7.1, demonstrating the capability of a morphing laminar wing to reduce fuel consumption. Respectively, this thesis shows the design of the experimental wing and its operation in a subsonic wind tunnel (Mach numbers of 0.2 to 0.3 with angles of attack between -1 and 2°). First of all, the morphing wing is formed of a composite laminate linked to an actuation system to build an active structure capable of modifying the wing upper surface geometry. The design was performed using a new developed methodology to solve aero-structural problems. Using ANSYS software, the finite elements method was applied to model the different possible active structure configurations Aerodynamic loads applied over the active structure as well as targeted morphed geometries have been provided by the Ecole Polytechnique team. Next, laminar flow enhancements allowed by each active structure configuration we' re evaluated using the aerodynamic solver XFoil 6.96. A best trade-off between aerodynamic performance and energy needed for wing morphing was found using a multi-objective optimization technique. Among the retained stable configurations, a 4-ply composite laminated shell driven by 2 actuation lines was retained. Thereafter, the research effort focused on the exploitation of the morphing capabilities of the experimental wing over each given set of flow conditions. Therefore, once the prototype was built, the structural model was refined, calibrated and coupled with the aerodynamic solver to accurately predict the aero-structural behavior in the wind tunnel. Optimal morphing wing shapes were numerically calculated using a generalized pattern search algorithm and a local search routine to refine the solution. In the wind tunnel, this open-loop control approach allowed an average 25% laminar flow regime extension over the wing prototype upper surface. Consequently, an average 18.5% profile drag reduction was measured by

  15. The transfer of adaptation between actual and simulated rotary stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, T G; May, J G; Gutierrez, C; Heller, S S

    1990-12-01

    It is well known that continued exposure to motion environments leads to adaptation, but it is not clear whether such changes are specific to the particular type of motion experienced. The present investigation sought to evaluate the extent of transfer between real motion and visually-induced apparent motion. In addition, the direction of motion was varied and these two factors, mode of exposure and direction of rotation, were examined in a cross-adaptational design. Thirty-two subjects were pre- and posttested on measures of disorientation after active bodily rotation and visually-induced self-vection. Two groups received ten consecutive trials of active bodily rotation (clockwise or counter-clockwise) for 4 consecutive days. Two other groups received ten consecutive trials of visually-induced self-vection (clockwise or counter-clockwise) in a rotating drum for 4 consecutive days. During the exposure phase, dizziness and self-vection increased over trials for the groups exposed to the drum, while dizziness remained unchanged over trials for the groups exposed to bodily rotation. Repeated exposure to bodily rotation resulted in improved walking performance over trials and days. Subjects exposed to bodily rotation exhibited increased tolerance to visually-induced self-vection; however, exposure to visually-induced self-vection did not result in greater tolerance to bodily rotation. No support for directional specificity was evident. PMID:2285397

  16. A novel method to adjust efficacy estimates for uptake of other active treatments in long-term clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Simes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When rates of uptake of other drugs differ between treatment arms in long-term trials, the true benefit or harm of the treatment may be underestimated. Methods to allow for such contamination have often been limited by failing to preserve the randomization comparisons. In the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD study, patients were randomized to fenofibrate or placebo, but during the trial many started additional drugs, particularly statins, more so in the placebo group. The effects of fenofibrate estimated by intention-to-treat were likely to have been attenuated. We aimed to quantify this effect and to develop a method for use in other long-term trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied efficacies of statins and other cardiovascular drugs from meta-analyses of randomized trials to adjust the effect of fenofibrate in a penalized Cox model. We assumed that future cardiovascular disease events were reduced by an average of 24% by statins, and 20% by a first other major cardiovascular drug. We applied these estimates to each patient who took these drugs for the period they were on them. We also adjusted the analysis by the rate of discontinuing fenofibrate. Among 4,900 placebo patients, average statin use was 16% over five years. Among 4,895 assigned fenofibrate, statin use was 8% and nonuse of fenofibrate was 10%. In placebo patients, use of cardiovascular drugs was 1% to 3% higher. Before adjustment, fenofibrate was associated with an 11% reduction in coronary events (coronary heart disease death or myocardial infarction (P = 0.16 and an 11% reduction in cardiovascular disease events (P = 0.04. After adjustment, the effects of fenofibrate on coronary events and cardiovascular disease events were 16% (P = 0.06 and 15% (P = 0.008, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This novel application of a penalized Cox model for adjustment of a trial estimate of treatment efficacy incorporates evidence

  17. Adaptive designs for sequential experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林正炎; 张立新

    2003-01-01

    Various adaptive designe have been proposed and applied to clinical trials,bioassay,psycho-physics,etc.Adaptive designs are also useful in high cost engineering trials.More and More people have been paying attention to these desing methods.This paper introduces several broad families of designs,such as the play-the-winner rele,randomized play-the-winner rule and its generalization to the multi-arm case,doubly bi-ased coin adaptive design,Markov chain model.

  18. Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Controller for Full Vehicle Nonlinear Active Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aldair

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of designed the controller for a vehicle suspension system is to reduce the discomfort sensed by passengers which arises from road roughness and to increase the ride handling associated with the pitching and rolling movements. This necessitates a very fast and accurate controller to meet as much control objectives, as possible. Therefore, this paper deals with an artificial intelligence Neuro-Fuzzy (NF technique to design a robust controller to meet the control objectives. The advantage of this controller is that it can handle the nonlinearities faster than other conventional controllers. The approach of the proposed controller is to minimize the vibrations on each corner of vehicle by supplying control forces to suspension system when travelling on rough road. The other purpose for using the NF controller for vehicle model is to reduce the body inclinations that are made during intensive manoeuvres including braking and cornering. A full vehicle nonlinear active suspension system is introduced and tested. The robustness of the proposed controller is being assessed by comparing with an optimal Fractional Order PIλ Dμ (FOPID controller. The results show that the intelligent NF controller has improved the dynamic response measured by decreasing the cost function.

  19. An Active Contour Model Based on Adaptive Threshold for Extraction of Cerebral Vascular Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxin; Zhao, Shifeng; Liu, Zifeng; Duan, Fuqing; Pan, Yutong

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vessel segmentation is essential and helpful for the clinical diagnosis and the related research. However, automatic segmentation of brain vessels remains challenging because of the variable vessel shape and high complex of vessel geometry. This study proposes a new active contour model (ACM) implemented by the level-set method for segmenting vessels from TOF-MRA data. The energy function of the new model, combining both region intensity and boundary information, is composed of two region terms, one boundary term and one penalty term. The global threshold representing the lower gray boundary of the target object by maximum intensity projection (MIP) is defined in the first-region term, and it is used to guide the segmentation of the thick vessels. In the second term, a dynamic intensity threshold is employed to extract the tiny vessels. The boundary term is used to drive the contours to evolve towards the boundaries with high gradients. The penalty term is used to avoid reinitialization of the level-set function. Experimental results on 10 clinical brain data sets demonstrate that our method is not only able to achieve better Dice Similarity Coefficient than the global threshold based method and localized hybrid level-set method but also able to extract whole cerebral vessel trees, including the thin vessels. PMID:27597878

  20. An Active Contour Model Based on Adaptive Threshold for Extraction of Cerebral Vascular Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxin; Zhao, Shifeng; Liu, Zifeng; Tian, Yun; Duan, Fuqing; Pan, Yutong

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vessel segmentation is essential and helpful for the clinical diagnosis and the related research. However, automatic segmentation of brain vessels remains challenging because of the variable vessel shape and high complex of vessel geometry. This study proposes a new active contour model (ACM) implemented by the level-set method for segmenting vessels from TOF-MRA data. The energy function of the new model, combining both region intensity and boundary information, is composed of two region terms, one boundary term and one penalty term. The global threshold representing the lower gray boundary of the target object by maximum intensity projection (MIP) is defined in the first-region term, and it is used to guide the segmentation of the thick vessels. In the second term, a dynamic intensity threshold is employed to extract the tiny vessels. The boundary term is used to drive the contours to evolve towards the boundaries with high gradients. The penalty term is used to avoid reinitialization of the level-set function. Experimental results on 10 clinical brain data sets demonstrate that our method is not only able to achieve better Dice Similarity Coefficient than the global threshold based method and localized hybrid level-set method but also able to extract whole cerebral vessel trees, including the thin vessels. PMID:27597878