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Sample records for activity supports anaerobic

  1. An active principle of Nigella sativa L., thymoquinone, showing significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Mohammad Akram; Alenazy, Awwad Khalaf; Alrowaili, Majed Gorayan; Basha, Jamith

    2017-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major active principle of Nigella sativa seed (black seed) and is known to control many fungi, bacteria, and some viruses. However, the activity of TQ against anaerobic bacteria is not well demonstrated. Anaerobic bacteria can cause severe infections, including diarrhea, aspiration pneumonia, and brain abscess, particularly in immunodeficient individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of TQ against some anaerobic pathogens in comparison to metronidazole. Standard, ATCC, strains of four anaerobic bacteria ( Clostridium difficile , Clostridium perfringens , Bacteroides fragilis , and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ), were initially isolated on special Brucella agar base (with hemin and vitamin K). Then, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TQ and metronidazole were determined against these anaerobes when grown in Brucella agar, using serial agar dilution method according to the recommended guidelines for anaerobic organisms instructed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. TQ showed a significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria although much weaker than metronidazole. MICs of TQ and metronidazole against various anaerobic human pathogens tested were found to be between 10-160 mg/L and 0.19-6.25 mg/L, respectively. TQ controlled the anaerobic human pathogenic bacteria, which supports the use of N. sativa in the treatment of diarrhea in folk medicine. Further investigations are in need for determination of the synergistic effect of TQ in combination with metronidazole and the activity of derivatives of TQ against anaerobic infections.

  2. Present-day biogeochemical activities of anaerobic bacteria and their relevance to future exobiological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    If the primordial atmosphere was reducing, then the first microbial ecosystem was probably composed of anaerobic bacteria. However, despite the presence of an oxygen-rich atmosphere, anaerobic habitats are important, commonplace components of the Earth's present biosphere. The geochemical activities displayed by these anaerobes impact the global cycling of certain elements (e.g., C, N, S, Fe, Mn, etc.). Methane provides an obvious example of how human-enhanced activities on a global scale can influence the content of a "radiative" (i.e., infrared absorbing) trace gas in the atmosphere. Methane can be oxidized by anaerobic bacteria, but this does not appear to support their growth. Acetylene, however, does support such growth. This may form the basis for future exobiological investigations of the atmospheres of anoxic, hydrocarbon-rich planets like Jupiter and Saturn, as well as the latter's satellite Titan. ?? 1989.

  3. In vitro activity of mecillinam against anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Steinkraus, G E; McCarthy, L R

    1980-01-01

    A microtiter broth dilution method was employed to determine the in vitro activity of mecillinam against 201 recent clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. Both the anerobic gram-positive and anaerobic gram-negative bacilli displayed a wide range of minimal inhibitory concentrations of mecillinam; most strains were resistant to the antibiotic. The anaerobic cocci exhibited a narrower range of minimal inhibitory concentrations than were observed with other anaerobes, but also exhibited mecill...

  4. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J W

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342μgg-1 of copper, 487μgg-1 of lead, 793μgg-1 of zinc, 27μgg-1 of nickel and 2.3μgg-1 of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3gdry weightL-1 waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead.

  5. [Activity of doripenem against anaerobic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, L; Neut, C; Mahieux, S; Muller-Serieys, C; Jean-Pierre, H; Marchandin, H; Soussy, C J; Miara, A

    2011-04-01

    This study examines the activity of doripenem, a new carbapenem compound compared with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin+tazobactam, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole against 316 anaerobes. Inoculum preparation and agar dilution method were performed according to the CLSI method for anaerobes (M11A7). At a concentration of 4μg/ml doripenem and imipenem (IMP) inhibited 122 (96 %) and 126 (99 %) strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group, respectively. In contrast, doripenem appeared more potent than IMP against Gram-positive anaerobes inhibiting at the same concentration of 4μg/ml 145/145 strains (100 %) versus 115/145 for IMP (79.3 %). Against 316 anaerobic strains, the carbapenem doripenem had an MIC(50) of 0.25μg/ml and an MIC(90) of 2μg/ml. Results were similar to those for imipenem (MIC(50) of 0.125μg/ml and MIC(90) of 4μg/ml). If we consider the resistant breakpoints of the two carbapenems as defined by EUCAST, the resistance rate for doripenem (MIC>4μg/ml) 1.6 % is similar to that of imipenem (MIC>8μg/ml) 1.3 %. Thus independently of the PK/PD parameters the two carbapenems demonstrated very close activity; doripenem was more potent on Gram-positive anaerobes and slightly less potent against Gram-negative anaerobes mainly the B. fragilis group. Further clinical studies are needed to assess its usefulness in patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meulepas, Roel J.W.; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal E.; Lens, Piet N.L.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g −1 of copper, 487 μg g −1 of lead, 793 μg g −1 of zinc, 27 μg g −1 of nickel and 2.3 μg g −1 of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 g dry weight L −1 waste activated sludge, 80–85% of the copper, 66–69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94–99% of the nickel and 73–83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. - Highlights: • Heavy metals were leached during anaerobic acidification of waste activated sludge. • The process does not require the addition of chelating or oxidizing agents. • The metal leaching efficiencies (66 to 99%) were comparable to chemical leaching. • The produced leachate may be used for metal recovery and biogas production. • The produced digested sludge may be used as soil conditioner

  7. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulepas, Roel J.W., E-mail: roel.meulepas@wetsus.nl [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Thuwal 13955-69000 (Saudi Arabia); Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Saikaly, Pascal E. [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Thuwal 13955-69000 (Saudi Arabia); Lens, Piet N.L. [UNESCO-IHE, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g{sup −1} of copper, 487 μg g{sup −1} of lead, 793 μg g{sup −1} of zinc, 27 μg g{sup −1} of nickel and 2.3 μg g{sup −1} of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 g{sub dry} {sub weight} L{sup −1} waste activated sludge, 80–85% of the copper, 66–69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94–99% of the nickel and 73–83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. - Highlights: • Heavy metals were leached during anaerobic acidification of waste activated sludge. • The process does not require the addition of chelating or oxidizing agents. • The metal leaching efficiencies (66 to 99%) were comparable to chemical leaching. • The produced leachate may be used for metal recovery and biogas production. • The produced digested sludge may be used as soil conditioner.

  8. Anaerobic muscle strengthening physical activity and depression severity among USA adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangin, Causenge; Harris, Randall; Binkley, Philip; Schwartzbaum, Judith; Focht, Brian

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the association between depression and anaerobic physical activity (while controlling aerobic physical activity), using a nationally representative sample of USA adults ( n  = 7354) who participated in the cross sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999-2006). We defined depression using the validated "Patient Health Questionnaire" (PHQ 9 ) scale of 0-27 as PHQ 9   ≥  10. Severity of depression was classified by clinically established PHQ 9 levels: mild (5-9), dysthymic (10-14), moderate (15-19), and major depression ( ≥ 20). We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios of depression associated with distinct types of activity (only aerobic, only anaerobic, combined regime). We used multinomial logistic regression to examine associations of anaerobic activity with various severity levels of depression (mild, dysthymic, moderate, and major depression) with adjustment for aerobic activity. Women had higher prevalence of depression than men (8.4% versus 5.7%), whereas anaerobic muscle strengthening activity was more common in men than women (35% versus 24%). Adjusting for aerobic activity , anaerobic activity was inversely associated with depression (PHQ 9   ≥  10) in women under 50 (OR = 0.57; 95%CI = 0.41-0.81), all women (OR = 0.59; 0.43-0.80), men under 50 (OR = 0.85; 0.58-1.2), and all men (OR = 0.72; 0.51-1.01). Anaerobic activity was inversely associated with severity level of depressive symptoms in women and men. The combined regimen of anaerobic muscle strengthening activity and meeting the Physical Activity Guideline for America (PAGA) was related to the lowest odds ratio of depression in women (OR = 0.50; 95%CI = 0.33-0.75) and men (OR = 0.39; 95%CI = 0.23-0.62). Independent of aerobic physical activity, anaerobic muscle strengthening activity is significantly and inversely associated with depression among USA adults.

  9. Digesters and demographics: identifying support for anaerobic digesters on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D J; Roberts, M C; Ernst, S C; Thraen, C S

    2010-11-01

    The dairy industry in the United States is amidst a long-running trend toward fewer, larger dairy farms. This development has created a backlash in some communities over concerns such as odor, waste management, and environmental degradation. Separately, anaerobic digestion has advanced as a waste management technology that potentially offers solutions to some of these issues, providing odor control and a combustible biogas among other things. These digesters require significant capital investments. Voluntary consumer premiums for the renewable energy produced have been used in some instances as a means to move adoption of such systems toward financial feasibility. This project employed a survey to measure Ohio consumers' willingness to pay a premium for renewable energy produced by anaerobic digesters on dairy farms. Cluster analysis was used to segment consumers by willingness to pay, age, education, income, self-identified political inclination, and a composite variable that served as a proxy for respondents' environmental stewardship. Four distinctive groups emerged from the data. Older, less educated respondents were found to have the least amount of support for digesters on dairy farms, whereas politically liberal, environmentally proactive respondents demonstrated the strongest support. Well-educated, affluent respondents and young respondents fell between these 2 groups. Most large dairy farms are generally met with fairly negative responses from their local communities; in contrast, this research finds some popular support for anaerobic digestion technology. Going forward, establishing a positive link between support for anaerobic digesters and for their use on large dairies could open up a new route for less-contested large dairy farm developments. Evaluation of community demographics could become an important part of finding an optimal location for a large dairy farm. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  10. Evaluation of support matrices for immobilization of anaerobic consortia for efficient carbon cycling in waste regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashvini; Ogram, Andrew

    2005-02-18

    Efficient metabolism of fatty acids during anaerobic waste digestion requires development of consortia that include "fatty acid consuming H(2) producing bacteria" and methanogenic bacteria. The objective of this research was to optimize methanogenesis from fatty acids by evaluating a variety of support matrices for use in maintaining efficient syntrophic-methanogenic consortia. Tested matrices included clays (montmorillonite and bentonite), glass beads (106 and 425-600mum), microcarriers (cytopore, cytodex, cytoline, and cultispher; conventionally employed for cultivation of mammalian cell lines), BioSep beads (powdered activated carbon), and membranes (hydrophilic; nylon, polysulfone, and hydrophobic; teflon, polypropylene). Data obtained from headspace methane (CH(4)) analyses as an indicator of anaerobic carbon cycling efficiency indicated that material surface properties were important in maintenance and functioning of the anaerobic consortia. Cytoline yielded significantly higher CH(4) than other matrices as early as in the first week of incubation. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis from crushed cytoline matrix showed the presence of Syntrophomonas spp. (butyrate oxidizing syntrophs) and Syntrophobacter spp. (propionate oxidizing syntrophs), with Methanosaeta spp. (acetate utilizing methanogen), and Methanospirillum spp. (hydrogen utilizing methanogen) cells. It is likely that the more hydrophobic surfaces provided a suitable surface for adherence of cells of syntrophic-methanogenic consortia. Cytoline also appeared to protect entrapped consortia from air, resulting in rapid methanogenesis after aerial exposure. Our study suggests that support matrices can be used in anaerobic digestors, pre-seeded with immobilized or entrapped consortia on support matrices, and may be of value as inoculant-adsorbents to rapidly initiate or recover proper system functioning following perturbation.

  11. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1μg/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Pu sorption to activated conglomerate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Kudo, Akira

    2001-01-01

    The sorption of Pu to the anaerobic bacteria activated under specific conditions of temperature, pH and depleted nutrients after long dormant period was investigated. After 4 h at neutral pH, the distribution coefficient (K d ) between bacteria and aqueous phase at 308 and 278 K had around 10 3 to 10 4 . After over 5 days, however, the K d at only 308 K had increased to over 10 5 . Sterilized (dead) and dormant anaerobic bacteria adsorbed Pu to the same extent. (author)

  13. Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge

  14. Influence of the support on the kinetics of anaerobic purification of slaughterhouse wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja, R.; Duran, M.M. (Instituto de la Grasa y sus Derivados, Seville (Spain)); Martin, A. (Cordoba Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica)

    1993-01-01

    Three materials of different composition, sepiolite, saponite and bentonite, assayed as supports for the micro-organisms effecting anaerobic fermentation, were found to behave differently towards slaughterhouse wastewater from a kinetic point of view. Assuming the overall anaerobic digestion process to conform to first-order kinetics, the apparent kinetic constant for the digester including bentonite as support was 1.28 per day, while that of the digesters using the sepiolite and saponite were 0.83 and 0.56 per day, respectively. Thus, the support used to immobilize the micro-organisms that mediate the process had a marked influence on the constant. This was found to be significant at 95% confidence level. The yield coefficient, Y[sub p], was 343, 334 and 349 ml CH[sub 4] STP per g chemical oxygen demand added for the sepiolite, saponite and bentonite, respectively. (Author)

  15. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Li, Yu-You; Zhao, Youcai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DD SCOD ), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (k hyd ), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate

  16. The maximum specific hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures: definition and determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yang; Yang, Hou-Yun; Wang, Ya-Zhou; He, Chuan-Shu; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Wang, Yi; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-06-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production from wastes has many advantages compared to various chemical methods. Methodology for characterizing the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures is essential for monitoring reactor operation in fermentative hydrogen production, however there is lack of such kind of standardized methodologies. In the present study, a new index, i.e., the maximum specific hydrogen-producing activity (SHAm) of anaerobic mixed cultures, was proposed, and consequently a reliable and simple method, named SHAm test, was developed to determine it. Furthermore, the influences of various parameters on the SHAm value determination of anaerobic mixed cultures were evaluated. Additionally, this SHAm assay was tested for different types of substrates and bacterial inocula. Our results demonstrate that this novel SHAm assay was a rapid, accurate and simple methodology for determining the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures. Thus, application of this approach is beneficial to establishing a stable anaerobic hydrogen-producing system.

  17. The maximum specific hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures: definition and determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yang; Yang, Hou-Yun; Wang, Ya-Zhou; He, Chuan-Shu; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Wang, Yi; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-06-10

    Fermentative hydrogen production from wastes has many advantages compared to various chemical methods. Methodology for characterizing the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures is essential for monitoring reactor operation in fermentative hydrogen production, however there is lack of such kind of standardized methodologies. In the present study, a new index, i.e., the maximum specific hydrogen-producing activity (SHAm) of anaerobic mixed cultures, was proposed, and consequently a reliable and simple method, named SHAm test, was developed to determine it. Furthermore, the influences of various parameters on the SHAm value determination of anaerobic mixed cultures were evaluated. Additionally, this SHAm assay was tested for different types of substrates and bacterial inocula. Our results demonstrate that this novel SHAm assay was a rapid, accurate and simple methodology for determining the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures. Thus, application of this approach is beneficial to establishing a stable anaerobic hydrogen-producing system.

  18. Evaluating death and activity decay of Anammox bacteria during anaerobic and aerobic starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qilin; Song, Kang; Hao, Xiaodi; Wei, Jing; Pijuan, Maite; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Zhao, Huijun

    2018-06-01

    The decreased activity (i.e. decay) of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria during starvation can be attributed to death (i.e. decrease in the amount of viable bacteria) and activity decay (i.e. decrease in the specific activity of viable bacteria). Although they are crucial for the operation of the Anammox process, they have never been comprehensively investigated. This study for the first time experimentally assessed death and activity decay of the Anammox bacteria during 84 days' starvation stress based on ammonium removal rate, Live/Dead staining and fluorescence in-situ hybridization. The anaerobic and aerobic decay rates of Anammox bacteria were determined as 0.015 ± 0.001 d -1 and 0.028 ± 0.001 d -1 , respectively, indicating Anammox bacteria would lose their activity more quickly in the aerobic starvation than in the anaerobic starvation. The anaerobic and aerobic death rates of Anammox bacteria were measured at 0.011 ± 0.001 d -1 and 0.025 ± 0.001 d -1 , respectively, while their anaerobic and aerobic activity decay rates were determined at 0.004 ± 0.001 d -1 and 0.003 ± 0.001 d -1 , respectively. Further analysis revealed that death accounted for 73 ± 4% and 89 ± 5% of the decreased activity of Anammox bacteria during anaerobic and aerobic starvations, and activity decay was only responsible for 27 ± 4% and 11 ± 5% of the decreased Anammox activity, respectively, over the same starvation periods. These deeply shed light on the response of Anammox bacteria to the starvation stress, which would facilitate operation and optimization of the Anammox process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal; Lens, Piet Nl L

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether

  20. In-vitro activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the normal intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Andrej; Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Nord, Carl Erik

    2016-12-01

    Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide with high activity against bacteria associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections as well as gonorrhea. However, data on the activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the normal intestinal microbiota are scarce. In this study, 1024 Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic isolates from the normal intestinal microbiota were analyzed for in-vitro susceptibility against solithromycin and compared to azithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, metronidazole and levofloxacin by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Solithromycin was active against Bifidobacteria (MIC 50 , 0.008 mg/L) and Lactobacilli (MIC 50 , 0.008 mg/L). The MIC 50 for Clostridia, Bacteroides, Prevotella and Veillonella were 0.5, 0.5, 0.125 and 0.016 mg/L, respectively. Gram-positive anaerobes were more susceptible to solithromycin as compared to the other antimicrobials tested. The activity of solithromycin against Gram-negative anaerobes was equal or higher as compared to other tested agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Size-dependent antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles against oral anaerobic pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong; Rong, Kaifeng; Li, Ju; Yang, Hao; Chen, Rong

    2013-06-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are widespread diseases for which microorganism infections have been identified as the main etiology. Silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) were considered as potential control oral bacteria infection agent due to its excellent antimicrobial activity and non acute toxic effects on human cells. In this work, stable Ag Nps with different sizes (~5, 15 and 55 nm mean values) were synthesized by using a simple reduction method or hydrothermal method. The Nps were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The antibacterial activities were evaluated by colony counting assay and growth inhibition curve method, and corresponding minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against five anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria and aerobic bacteria E. coli were determined. The results showed that Ag Nps had apparent antibacterial effects against the anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria and aerobic bacteria. The MIC values of 5-nm Ag against anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria A. actinomycetemcomitans, F. nuceatum, S. mitis, S. mutans and S. sanguis were 25, 25, 25, 50 and 50 μg/mL, respectively. The aerobic bacteria were more susceptible to Ag NPs than the anaerobic oral pathogenic bacteria. In the mean time, Ag NPs displayed an obvious size-dependent antibacterial activity against the anaerobic bacteria. The 5-nm Ag presents the highest antibacterial activity. The results of this work indicated a potential application of Ag Nps in the inhibition of oral microorganism infections.

  2. Anaerobic removal of the brl direct blue dye in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB with activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zavala-Rivera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research the brl direct blue dye was used for anaerobic removal with a bacterial consortium of industrial effluents from Industrial Park Río Seco (IPRS, Arequipa, Peru; in an anaerobic reactor of UASB Upflow with activated carbon. The reactor had a capacity of 14.4 L with sludge and activated carbon of 40% of volume, with an organic load of 6 Kg COD/m3•dia and a hydraulic retention time of 1 day with an upward flow. The objective was to measure the efficiency of the anaerobic removal of coloring in a time of 28 days. The results showed an increase of 41% of the solids suspended volatile (SSV 12894 mg•L-1 up to 21546 mg•L-1 under the conditions of the experiment, with a removal of 57% of the chemical demand of oxygen (COD from 484 mg•L-1 to 122 mg•L-1 and a removal of 87% of the dye Blue direct the 69.61 brl mg•L-1 to 9 mg•L-1. Results with activated charcoal granular only, they showed a removal of 61% of the dye Blue direct 70.67 brl mg•L-1 to 27.83 mg•L-1 at 28 days.

  3. Aged refuse enhances anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Gui, Lin; Wang, Qilin; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Dongbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Rui; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Qi

    2017-10-15

    In this work, a low-cost alternative approach (i.e., adding aged refuse (AR) into waste activated sludge) to significantly enhance anaerobic digestion of sludge was reported. Experimental results showed that with the addition dosage of AR increasing from 0 to 400 mg/g dry sludge soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased from 1150 to 5240 mg/L at the digestion time of 5 d, while the maximal production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased from 82.6 to 183.9 mg COD/g volatile suspended solids. Although further increase of AR addition decreased the concentrations of both soluble COD and VFA, their contents in these systems with AR addition at any concentration investigated were still higher than those in the blank, which resulted in higher methane yields in these systems. Mechanism studies revealed that pertinent addition of AR promoted solubilization, hydrolysis, and acidogenesis processes and did not affect methanogenesis significantly. It was found that varieties of enzymes and anaerobes in AR were primary reason for the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. Humic substances in AR benefited hydrolysis and acidogenesis but inhibited methanogenesis. The effect of heavy metals in AR on sludge anaerobic digestion was dosage dependent. Sludge anaerobic digestion was enhanced by appropriate amounts of heavy metals but inhibited by excessive amounts of heavy metals. The relative abundances of microorganisms responsible for sludge hydrolysis and acidogenesis were also observed to be improved in the system with AR addition, which was consistent with the performance of anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Peracetic acid oxidation as an alternative pre-treatment for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Lise; Van Assche, Ado; Willems, Kris; Degrève, Jan; Van Impe, Jan; Dewil, Raf

    2011-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion is generally considered to be an economic and environmentally friendly technology for treating waste activated sludge, but has some limitations, such as the time it takes for the sludge to be digested and also the ineffectiveness of degrading the solids. Various pre-treatment technologies have been suggested to overcome these limitations and to improve the biogas production rate by enhancing the hydrolysis of organic matter. This paper studies the use of peracetic acid for disintegrating sludge as a pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. It has been proved that this treatment effectively leads to a solubilisation of organic material. A maximum increase in biogas production by 21% is achieved. High dosages of PAA lead to a decrease in biogas production. This is due to the inhibition of the anaerobic micro-organisms by the high VFA-concentrations. The evolution of the various VFAs during digestion is studied and the observed trends support this hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative evaluation of lignocellulolytic activities of filamentous cultures of monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Sumit Singh; Kumar, Sanjay; Mudgil, Priti; Puniya, Anil Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Sixteen strains of monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi were evaluated for cellulase, xylanase and esterase activities. Though strain level variations were observed among all genera, Neocallimastix and Orpinomyces strains exhibited the highest lignocellulolytic activities. The esterase activities of monocentric group of anaerobic fungi were better than the polycentric group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by pretreatment: effect of volatile to total solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Duan, Xu; Chen, Jianguang; Fang, Kuo; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of volatile to total solids (VS/TS) on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) pretreated by alkaline, thermal and thermal-alkaline strategies was studied. Experimental results showed that the production of methane from sludge was increased with VS/TS. When anaerobic digesters were fed with sludge pretreated by the thermal-alkaline method, the average methane yield was improved from 2.8 L/d at VS/TS 0.35 to 4.7 L/d at VS/TS 0.56. Also, the efficiency of VS reduction during sludge anaerobic digestion varied between 18.9% and 45.6%, and increased gradually with VS/TS. Mechanism investigation of VS/TS on WAS anaerobic digestion suggested that the general activities of anaerobic microorganisms, activities of key enzymes related to sludge hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis, and the ratio of Archaea to Bacteria were all increased with VS/TS, showing good agreement with methane production.

  7. Microbial Insight into a Pilot-Scale Enhanced Two-Stage High-Solid Anaerobic Digestion System Treating Waste Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Cao, Zhiping; Hu, Yuying; Wang, Xiaolu; Wang, Guangqi; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun; Qian, Yi

    2017-11-30

    High solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) is a rapidly developed anaerobic digestion technique for treating municipal sludge, and has been widely used in Europe and Asia. Recently, the enhanced HSAD process with thermal treatment showed its advantages in both methane production and VS reduction. However, the understanding of the microbial community is still poor. This study investigated microbial communities in a pilot enhanced two-stage HSAD system that degraded waste activated sludge at 9% solid content. The system employed process "thermal pre-treatment (TPT) at 70 °C, thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), and mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD)". Hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanothermobacter spp. dominated the system with relative abundance up to about 100% in both TAD and MAD. Syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) bacteria were discovered in TAD, and they converted acetate into H₂ and CO₂ to support hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The microbial composition and conversion route of this system are derived from the high solid content and protein content in raw sludge, as well as the operational conditions. This study could facilitate the understanding of the enhanced HSAD process, and is of academic and industrial importance.

  8. Accelerated anaerobic hydrolysis rates under a combination of intermittent aeration and anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T. R.; Lastra Milone, T.; Petersen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic hydrolysis in activated return sludge was investigated in laboratory scale experiments to find if intermittent aeration would accelerate anaerobic hydrolysis rates compared to anaerobic hydrolysis rates under strict anaerobic conditions. The intermittent reactors were set up in a 240 h...... for calculating hydrolysis rates based on soluble COD were compared. Two-way ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-test was performed in order to register any significant difference between reactors with intermittent aeration and strictly anaerobic conditions respectively. The experiment demonstrated a statistically...... significant difference in favor of the reactors with intermittent aeration showing a tendency towards accelerated anaerobic hydrolysis rates due to application of intermittent aeration. The conclusion of the work is thus that intermittent aeration applied in the activated return sludge process (ARP) can...

  9. Evaluation of the in vitro activity of levornidazole, its metabolites and comparators against clinical anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiali; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Shi; Zhu, Demei; Huang, Haihui; Chen, Yuancheng; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yingyuan

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro anti-anaerobic activity and spectrum of levornidazole, its metabolites and comparators against 375 clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria, including Gram-negative bacilli (181 strains), Gram-negative cocci (11 strains), Gram-positive bacilli (139 strains) and Gram-positive cocci (44 strains), covering 34 species. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of levornidazole, its five metabolites and three comparators against these anaerobic isolates were determined by the agar dilution method. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of levornidazole and metronidazole were measured against 22 strains of Bacteroides fragilis. Levornidazole showed good activity against B. fragilis, other Bacteroides spp., Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens and Peptostreptococcus magnus, evidenced by MIC90 values of 0.5, 1, 0.25, 2 and 1mg/L, respectively. The activity of levornidazole and the comparators was poor for Veillonella spp. Generally, levornidazole displayed activity similar to or slightly higher than that of metronidazole, ornidazole and dextrornidazole against anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli, Gram-positive bacilli and Gram-positive cocci, especially B. fragilis. Favourable anti-anaerobic activity was also seen with levornidazole metabolites M1 and M4 but not M2, M3 or M5. For the 22 clinical B. fragilis strains, MBC50 and MBC90 values of levornidazole were 2mg/L and 4mg/L, respectively. Both MBC50/MIC50 and MBC90/MIC90 ratios of levornidazole were 4, similar to those of metronidazole. Levornidazole is an important anti-anaerobic option in clinical settings in terms of its potent and broad-spectrum in vitro activity, bactericidal property, and the anti-anaerobic activity of its metabolites M1 and M4. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE TEA TREE OIL ACTIVITY TO ANAEROBIC BACTERIA--IN VITRO STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska-Klinkosz, Marta; Kedzia, Anna; Meissner, Hhenry O; Kedzia, Andrzej W

    2016-01-01

    The study of the sensitivity to tea tree oil (Australian Company TTD International Pty. Ltd. Sydney) was carried out on 193 strains of anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients with various infections within the oral cavity and respiratory tracts. The susceptibility (MIC) of anaerobes was determined by means of plate dilution technique in Brucella agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated sheep blood, menadione and hemin. Inoculum contained 10(5) CFU per spot was cultured with Steers replicator upon the surface of agar with various tea tree oil concentrations or without oil (anaerobes growth control). Incubation the plates was performed in anaerobic jars under anaerobic conditions at 37 degrees C for 48 h. MIC was defined as the lowest concentrations of the essential oil completely inhibiting growth of anaerobic bacteria. Test results indicate, that among Gram-negative bacteria the most sensitive to essential oil were strains of Veillonella and Porphyromonas species. Essential oil in low concentrations (MIC in the range of = 0.12 - 0.5 mg/mL) inhibited growth of accordingly 80% and 68% strains. The least sensitive were strains of the genus Tannerella, Parabacteroides and Dialister (MIC 1.0 - 2.0 mg/mL). In the case of Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria the tea tree oil was the most active to strains of cocci of the genus Anaerococcus and Ruminococcus (MIC in range = 0.12 - 0.5 mg/mL) or strains of rods of the genus Eubacterium and Eggerthella (MIC = 0.25 mg/mL). Among Gram-positive rods the least sensitive were the strains of the genus Bifidobacterium ( MIC = 2.0 mg/mL). The tea tree oil was more active to Gram-positive than to Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria.

  11. Low intensity surplus activated sludge pretreatment before anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suschka Jan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (municipal, or industrial treatment is still a problem in so far that it is not satisfactorily resolved in terms of cost and final disposal. Two common forms of sludge disposal are possible; the first being direct disposal on land (including agriculture and the second being incineration (ash production, although neither of these methods are universally applied. Simplifying the issue, direct sludge disposal on land is seldom applied for sanitary and environmental reasons, while incineration is not popular for financial (high costs reasons. Very often medium and large wastewater treatment plants apply anaerobic digestion for sludge hygiene principles, reducing the amount to be disposed and for biogas (energy production. With the progress in sewage biological treatment aiming at nutrient removal, primary sludge has been omitted in the working processes and only surplus activated sludge requires handling. Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS is more difficult due to the presence of microorganisms, the decomposition of which requires a relatively long time for hydrolysis. In order to upgrade the hydrolysis effects, several different pre-treatment processes have already been developed and introduced. The additional pre-treatment processes applied are aimed at residual sludge bulk mass minimization, shortening of the anaerobic digestion process or higher biogas production, and therefore require additional energy. The water-energy-waste Nexus (treads of of the benefits and operational difficulties, including energy costs are discussed in this paper. The intensity of pre-treatment processes to upgrade the microorganism’s hydrolysis has crucial implications. Here a low intensity pre-treatment process, alkalisation and hydrodynamic disintegration - hybrid process - were presented in order to achieve sufficient effects of WAS anaerobic digestion. A sludge digestion efficiency increase expressed as 45% biogas additional

  12. In vitro activities of ramoplanin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, linezolid, bacitracin, and four other antimicrobials against intestinal anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, D M; Merriam, C V; Tyrrell, K L; Warren, Y A; Fernandez, H; Goldstein, E J C

    2003-07-01

    By using an agar dilution method, the in vitro activities of ramoplanin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, linezolid, and five other agents were determined against 300 gram-positive and 54 gram-negative strains of intestinal anaerobes. Ramoplanin was active at Eubacterium, Actinomyces, Propionibacterium, and Peptostreptococcus spp. were inhibited by spp. were >or=256 microg/ml. Ramoplanin displays excellent activity against C. difficile and other gram-positive enteric anaerobes, including vancomycin-resistant strains; however, it has poor activity against most gram-negative anaerobes and thus potentially has a lesser effect on the ecological balance of normal fecal flora.

  13. Removal of anaerobic soluble microbial products in a biological activated carbon reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaojing; Zhou, Weili; He, Shengbing

    2013-09-01

    The soluble microbial products (SMP) in the biological treatment effluent are generally of great amount and are poorly biodegradable. Focusing on the biodegradation of anaerobic SMP, the biological activated carbon (BAC) was introduced into the anaerobic system. The experiments were conducted in two identical lab-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. The high strength organics were degraded in the first UASB reactor (UASB1) and the second UASB (UASB2, i.e., BAC) functioned as a polishing step to remove SMP produced in UASB1. The results showed that 90% of the SMP could be removed before granular activated carbon was saturated. After the saturation, the SMP removal decreased to 60% on the average. Analysis of granular activated carbon adsorption revealed that the main role of SMP removal in BAC reactor was biodegradation. A strain of SMP-degrading bacteria, which was found highly similar to Klebsiella sp., was isolated, enriched and inoculated back to the BAC reactor. When the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 10,000 mg/L and the organic loading rate achieved 10 kg COD/(m3 x day), the effluent from the BAC reactor could meet the discharge standard without further treatment. Anaerobic BAC reactor inoculated with the isolated Klebsiella was proved to be an effective, cheap and easy technical treatment approach for the removal of SMP in the treatment of easily-degradable wastewater with COD lower than 10,000 mg/L.

  14. Use of hydrodynamic disintegration to accelerate anaerobic digestion of surplus activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Machnicka, Alicja

    2009-12-01

    Hydrodynamic disintegration of activated sludge resulted in organic matter and polymers transfer from the solid phase into the liquid phase. Disintegration by hydrodynamic cavitation had a positive effect on the degree and rate of excess sludge anaerobic digestion. Also, addition of a part of anaerobic digested sludge containing adapted microorganisms resulted in acceleration of the process. The disruption of cells of foam microorganisms and addition to the digestion process led to an increase of biogas production.

  15. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  16. Anaerobe Tolerance to Oxygen and the Potentials of Anaerobic and Aerobic Cocultures for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Kato

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic treatment processes are considered to be well-established methods for the elimination of easily biodegradable organic matter from wastewaters. Some difficulties concerning certain wastewaters are related to the possible presence of dissolved oxygen. The common belief is that anaerobes are oxygen intolerant. Therefore, the common practice is to use sequencing anaerobic and aerobic steps in separate tanks. Enhanced treatment by polishing off the residual biodegradable oxygen demand from effluents of anaerobic reactors, or the biodegradation of recalcitrant wastewater pollutants, usually requires sequenced anaerobic and aerobic bacteria activities. However, the combined activity of both bacteria can also be obtained in a single reactor. Previous experiments with either pure or mixed cultures showed that anaerobes can tolerate oxygen to a certain extent. The oxygen toxicity to methanogens in anaerobic sludges was quantified in batch experiments, as well as in anaerobic reactors. The results showed that methanogens have a high tolerance to oxygen. In practice, it was confirmed that dissolved oxygen does not constitute any detrimental effect on reactor treatment performance. This means that the coexistence of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in one single reactor is feasible and increases the potentials of new applications in wastewater treatment

  17. Activation of Acetone and Other Simple Ketones in Anaerobic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Johann; Schühle, Karola; Frey, Jasmin; Schink, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Acetone and other ketones are activated for subsequent degradation through carboxylation by many nitrate-reducing, phototrophic, and obligately aerobic bacteria. Acetone carboxylation leads to acetoacetate, which is subsequently activated to a thioester and degraded via thiolysis. Two different types of acetone carboxylases have been described, which require either 2 or 4 ATP equivalents as an energy supply for the carboxylation reaction. Both enzymes appear to combine acetone enolphosphate with carbonic phosphate to form acetoacetate. A similar but more complex enzyme is known to carboxylate the aromatic ketone acetophenone, a metabolic intermediate in anaerobic ethylbenzene metabolism in denitrifying bacteria, with simultaneous hydrolysis of 2 ATP to 2 ADP. Obligately anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria activate acetone to a four-carbon compound as well, but via a different process than bicarbonate- or CO2-dependent carboxylation. The present evidence indicates that either carbon monoxide or a formyl residue is used as a cosubstrate, and that the overall ATP expenditure of this pathway is substantially lower than in the known acetone carboxylase reactions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheradmand, S.; Karimi-Jashni, A.; Sartaj, M.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD rem for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  19. Azoreductase activity of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human intestinal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, F; Franklin, W; Cerniglia, C E

    1990-07-01

    A plate assay was developed for the detection of anaerobic bacteria that produce azoreductases. With this plate assay, 10 strains of anaerobic bacteria capable of reducing azo dyes were isolated from human feces and identified as Eubacterium hadrum (2 strains), Eubacterium spp. (2 species), Clostridium clostridiiforme, a Butyrivibrio sp., a Bacteroides sp., Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium nexile, and a Clostridium sp. The average rate of reduction of Direct Blue 15 dye (a dimethoxybenzidine-based dye) in these strains ranged from 16 to 135 nmol of dye per min per mg of protein. The enzymes were inactivated by oxygen. In seven isolates, a flavin compound (riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, or flavin mononucleotide) was required for azoreductase activity. In the other three isolates and in Clostridium perfringens, no added flavin was required for activity. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that each bacterium expressed only one azoreductase isozyme. At least three types of azoreductase enzyme were produced by the different isolates. All of the azoreductases were produced constitutively and released extracellularly.

  20. In vitro activity of DMG-Mino and DMG-DM Dot, two new glycylcyclines, against anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, C E; Lindmark, A; Persson, I

    1993-10-01

    The in vitro activity of DMG-Mino and DMG-DM Dot against 350 anaerobic bacterial strains including anaerobic cocci, Propionibacterium acnes, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, Bacteroides fragilis, other Bacteroides species and fusobacteria was determined by the agar dilution method. Their activity was compared with that of minocycline, doxycycline, piperacillin, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole. DMG-Mino and DMG-DM Dot and imipenem were the most active agents tested. DMG-Mino and DMG-DM Dot had in vitro activity superior to that of minocycline and doxycycline.

  1. Impact of single anaerobic exercise on delayed activation of endothelial xanthine oxidase in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecek, Magdalena; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Szymura, Jadwiga; Kantorowicz, Malgorzata; Szygula, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO) in the blood of men and women during the first hour following a single anaerobic exercise (AN-EX), and after 24 hours of recovery, and to determine whether the changes in XO activity in the blood after AN-EX are dependent on anaerobic performance. Ten men and ten women performed a single AN-EX. Blood was collected before and five times after completion of the AN-EX. The activity of XO was determined. In both groups, a significant (P women (P work performed during the AN-EX and the power decrease. In the first hour after the single AN-EX, XO activity in the blood of women and men did not change, but after 24 hours of recovery, it was significantly higher compared to baseline levels in both sexes. Single AN-EX causes a smaller increase in XO activity in people with higher anaerobic performance.

  2. Nitrogen in the Process of Waste Activated Sludge Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suschka Jan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary or secondary sewage sludge in medium and large WWTP are most often processed by anaerobic digestion, as a method of conditioning, sludge quantity minimization and biogas production. With the aim to achieve the best results of sludge processing several modifications of technologies were suggested, investigated and introduced in the full technical scale. Various sludge pretreatment technologies before anaerobic treatment have been widely investigated and partially introduced. Obviously, there are always some limitations and some negative side effects. Selected aspects have been presented and discussed. The problem of nitrogen has been highlighted on the basis of the carried out investigations. The single and two step - mesophilic and thermophilic - anaerobic waste activated sludge digestion processes, preceded by preliminary hydrolysis were investigated. The aim of lab-scale experiments was pre-treatment of the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline and hydrodynamic disintegration. Depending on the pretreatment technologies and the digestion temperature large ammonia concentrations, up to 1800 mg NH4/dm3 have been measured. Return of the sludge liquor to the main sewage treatment line means additional nitrogen removal costs. Possible solutions are discussed.

  3. Anaerobic biodegradation of a petrochemical waste-water using biomass support particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Ramakrishna, C.; Desai, J.D.; Bhatt, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    During the anaerobic biodegradation of effluent from a dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) manufacturing plant, reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation and biogas formation was observed after the waste-water concentration exceeded 25% of added feed COD. This condition reverted back to normal after 25-30 days when the DMT waste-water concentration in the feed was brought down to a non-toxic level. However, the above effects were observed only after the concentration of DMT waste-water reached more than 75% of added feed COD when biomass support particles (BSP) were augmented to the system. In the BSP system, a biomass concentration of up to 7000 mg/l was retained and the sludge retention time increased to >200 days compared to 2200 mg/l and 8-10 days, respectively, in the system without BSP (control). Formaldehyde in the waste-water was found to be responsible for the observed toxicity. The BSP system was found to resist formaldehyde toxicity of up to 375 mg/l as against 125 mg/l in the control system. Moreover, the BSP system recovered from the toxicity much faster (15 days) than the control (25-30 days). The advantages of the BSP system in anaerobic treatment of DMT waste-water are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Rapid adaptation of activated sludge bacteria into a glycogen accumulating biofilm enabling anaerobic BOD uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Iqbal; Paparini, Andrea; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2017-03-01

    Glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) are known to allow anaerobic uptake of biological oxygen demand (BOD) in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems. In this study, we report a rapid transition of suspended activated sludge biomass to a GAO dominated biofilm by selective enrichment using sequences of anaerobic loading followed by aerobic exposure of the biofilm to air. The study showed that within eight weeks, a fully operational, GAO dominated biofilm had developed, enabling complete anaerobic BOD uptake at a rate of 256mg/L/h. The oxygen uptake by the biofilm directly from the atmosphere had been calculated to provide significant energy savings. This study suggests that wastewater treatment plant operators can convert activated sludge systems readily into a "passive aeration" biofilm that avoids costly oxygen transfer to bulk wastewater solution. The described energy efficient BOD removal system provides an opportunity to be coupled with novel nitrogen removal processes such as anammox. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge—comparison of thermal pretreatments with thermal inter-stage treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment methods for improved anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste activated sludge were evaluated. Pretreatments at moderate thermal (water bath at 80 °C), high thermal (loop autoclave at 130–170 °C) and thermo-chemical (170 °C/pH 10) conditions prior to AD in batch vials (40 days/37 °....... CONCLUSION: Thermal treatment of waste activated sludge for improved anaerobic digestion seems more effective when applied as an inter-stage treatment rather than a pretreatment. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry...

  6. Azoreductase activity of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human intestinal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, F; Franklin, W; Cerniglia, C E

    1990-01-01

    A plate assay was developed for the detection of anaerobic bacteria that produce azoreductases. With this plate assay, 10 strains of anaerobic bacteria capable of reducing azo dyes were isolated from human feces and identified as Eubacterium hadrum (2 strains), Eubacterium spp. (2 species), Clostridium clostridiiforme, a Butyrivibrio sp., a Bacteroides sp., Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium nexile, and a Clostridium sp. The average rate of reduction of Direct Blue 15 dye (a dimethoxybenzidine-based dye) in these strains ranged from 16 to 135 nmol of dye per min per mg of protein. The enzymes were inactivated by oxygen. In seven isolates, a flavin compound (riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, or flavin mononucleotide) was required for azoreductase activity. In the other three isolates and in Clostridium perfringens, no added flavin was required for activity. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that each bacterium expressed only one azoreductase isozyme. At least three types of azoreductase enzyme were produced by the different isolates. All of the azoreductases were produced constitutively and released extracellularly. Images PMID:2202258

  7. Xylanase and cellulase activities during anaerobic decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maíra F; da Cunha-Santino, Marcela B; Bianchini, Irineu

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic activity during decomposition is extremely important to hydrolyze molecules that are assimilated by microorganisms. During aquatic macrophytes decomposition, enzymes act mainly in the breakdown of lignocellulolytic matrix fibers (i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) that encompass the refractory fraction from organic matter. Considering the importance of enzymatic activities role in decomposition processes, this study aimed to describe the temporal changes of xylanase and cellulose activities during anaerobic decomposition of Ricciocarpus natans (freely-floating), Oxycaryum cubense (emergent) and Cabomba furcata (submersed). The aquatic macrophytes were collected in Óleo Lagoon, Luiz Antonio, São Paulo, Brazil and bioassays were accomplished.  Decomposition chambers from each species (n = 10) were set up with dried macrophyte fragments and filtered Óleo Lagoon water. The chambers were incubated at 22.5°C, in the dark and under anaerobic conditions. Enzymatic activities and remaining organic matter were measured periodically during 90 days. The temporal variation of enzymes showed that C. furcata presented the highest decay and the highest maximum enzyme production. Xylanase production was higher than cellulase production for the decomposition of the three aquatic macrophytes species.

  8. Clinical features of anaerobic orthopaedic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Dan; Kressmann, Benjamin; Gjoni, Shpresa; Zenelaj, Besa; Grosgurin, Olivier; Marti, Christophe; Zingg, Matthieu; Uçkay, Ilker

    2017-02-01

    Some patient populations and types of orthopaedic surgery could be at particular risk for anaerobic infections. In this retrospective cohort study of operated adult patients with infections from 2004 to 2014, we assessed obligate anaerobes and considered first clinical infection episodes. Anaerobes, isolated from intra-operative samples, were identified in 2.4% of 2740 surgical procedures, of which half (33/65; 51%) were anaerobic monomicrobial infections. Propionibacterium acnes, a penicillin and vancomycin susceptible pathogen, was the predominantly isolated anaerobe. By multivariate analysis, the presence of fracture fixation plates was the variable most strongly associated with anaerobic infection (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.5). Anaerobes were also associated with spondylodesis and polymicrobial infections. In contrast, it revealed less likely in native bone or prosthetic joint infections and was not related to prior antibiotic use. In conclusion, obligate anaerobes in our case series of orthopaedic infections were rare, and mostly encountered in infections related to trauma with open-fracture fixation devices rather than clean surgical site infection. Anaerobes were often co-pathogens, and cultures most frequently recovered P. acnes. These observations thus do not support changes in current practices such as broader anaerobe coverage for perioperative prophylaxis.

  9. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  10. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  11. The use of hydrodynamic disintegration as a means to improve anaerobic digestion of activated sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Machnicka, A; Grűbel, K; Suschka, J

    2009-01-01

    Disintegration by hydrodynamic cavitation has a positive effect on the degree and rate of sludge anaerobic digestion. By applying hydrodynamic disintegration the lysis of cells occurs in minutes instead of days. The intracellular and extracellular components are set free and are immediately available for biological degradation which leads to an improvement of the subsequent anaerobic process. Hydrodynamic disintegration of the activated sludge results in organic matter and a polymer transfer ...

  12. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  13. Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in Auckland: 1991-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, K P; Pottumarthy, S; Morris, A J

    1999-11-12

    To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of local anaerobic bacteria. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 357 obligate anaerobes collected between 1991 and 1997 was determined by a standard agar dilution method. Isolates tested included Bacteroides spp. 131, Fusobacterium spp. 12, Prevotella spp. 13, Veillonella spp. 5, Clostridium perfringens 27, other Clostridium spp. 29, Propionibacterium spp. 57, Actinomyces spp. 7, other non-sporing gram-positive bacilli 28 and Peptostreptococcus spp. 48. Ten antimicrobials were tested: penicillin, amoxycillin/ clavulanic acid, pipercillin/tazobactam, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, cefotetan, imipenem, meropenem, clindamycin and metronidazole. Imipenem, pipercillin/tazobactam, meropenem and amoxycillin/clavulanic acid were active against virtually all anaerobes tested. Metronidazole was active against all anaerobic gram-negative bacteria and Clostridium spp., but had variable activity against other anaerobes. Cefoxitin was the most active cephalosporin against Bacteroides spp., with 76%, 64% and 15% of Bacteroides spp. being susceptible to cefoxitin, cefotetan and ceftriaxone, respectively. Penicillin had poor activity against anaerobic gram negative bacilli. Actinomyces and Propionibacterium spp. were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested except metronidazole. Variable results were obtained with other antimicrobial-organism combinations. Comparison of results with data from a previously published survey showed little change in susceptibility except for increased resistance of Bacteroides fragilis to ceftriaxone and Clostridium species (not C perfringens) to clindamycin. Our results update the local susceptibility profile of anaerobic bacteria and may be considered when choosing an antimicrobial agent for prophylaxis or treatment of anaerobic infections.

  14. Study on Effects of Electron Donors on Phosphine Production from Anaerobic Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Cao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different types and concentrations of electron donors (glucose, starch, methanol and sodium acetate on the formation of phosphine from anaerobic activated sludge that has been domesticated for a prolonged period were studied in small batch experiments. The results show that types and concentrations of electron donor have significant effects on the production of phosphine from anaerobic activated sludge. Among them, glucose was the most favourable electron donor, whereas sodium acetate was the least favourable electron donor for the removal of phosphorus and the production of phosphine. Higher concentrations of electron donors were more favourable for the reduction of phosphate into phosphine, and supplying more than nine times the amount of electron donor as theoretically required for the reduction of phosphate into phosphine was favourable for the production of phosphine.

  15. Assessment of the anaerobic degradation of six active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musson, Stephen E; Campo, Pablo; Tolaymat, Thabet; Suidan, Makram; Townsend, Timothy G

    2010-04-01

    Research examined the anaerobic degradation of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol, acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, metoprolol tartrate, and progesterone by methanogenic bacteria. Using direct sample analysis and respirometric testing, anaerobic degradation was examined with (a) each compound as the sole organic carbon source and (b) each compound at a lower concentration (250 microg/L) and cellulose serving as the primary organic carbon source. The change in pharmaceutical concentration was determined following 7, 28, 56, and 112 days of anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C. Only acetylsalicylic acid demonstrated significant degradation; the remaining compounds showed a mixture of degradation and abiotic removal mechanisms. Experimental results were compared with BIOWIN, an anaerobic degradation prediction model of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The BIOWIN model predicted anaerobic biodegradability of the compounds in the order: acetylsalicylic acid > metoprolol tartrate > ibuprofen > acetaminophen > 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol >progesterone. This corresponded well with the experimental findings which found degradability in the order: acetylsalicylic acid > metoprolol tartrate > acetaminophen > ibuprofen. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of anaerobic microorganisms activities in ruminant waste and coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlia, Ellin; Hamdani, H.; Winantris, Kurnani, Tb. B. A.; Hidayati, Y. A.; Marlina, E. T.; Rahmah, K. N.; Arief, H.; Ridwan, R.; Joni, I. M.

    2018-02-01

    Ruminant (dairy cattle, beef cattle and buffalo) waste from intensive farming concentrated in highly populated areas when stacked and accumulated in certain heights and in anaerobic condition, may produce Green House Gases (GHGs) which lead to global warming. This condition is generated through fermentation by microorganism contained in livestock waste and biogenic activities on coal. The GHGs include CH4 (methane), CO2 (carbon dioxide) and N2O (nitrous oxide). The GHG emission should be early monitored to minimize greater problems. In the other hand, methane can be utilized as an environmental friendly energy after stored as biogas on digester. The aim of this research is to detect how much GHGs formed from ruminant waste and biogenic activities on coal, which can be utilized as an alternative energy. This research conducted as an explorative study utilizing dairy cattle feces, beef cattle feces, buffalo feces and three types of coal: lignite, bituminous and sub-bituminous, which is separately added into medium 98-5 made from mixture of agar medium and chemical components in powder and crystal form diluted with distilled water and rumen liquid, with six repetitions. Each sample was stored into 250 mL anaerobic digester, observed weekly for period of 4 weeks, analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC-A14). The result showed that GHGs: CH4, CO2 and N2O were found in all samples. Anticipation of GHGs formation to avoid air pollution is by utilizing livestock waste and coal in aerobic condition or in anaerobic condition through digester.

  17. Zero-valent iron enhanced methanogenic activity in anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge after heat and alkali pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Quan, Xie

    2015-04-01

    Heat or alkali pretreatment is the effective method to improve hydrolysis of waste sludge and then enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. However the pretreatment may inactivate the methanogens in the sludge. In the present work, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used to enhance the methanogenic activity in anaerobic sludge digester under two methanogens-suppressing conditions, i.e. heat-pretreatment and alkali condition respectively. With the addition of ZVI, the lag time of methane production was shortened, and the methane yield increased by 91.5% compared to the control group. The consumption of VFA was accelerated by ZVI, especially for acetate, indicating that the acetoclastic methanogenesis was enhanced. In the alkali-condition experiment, the hydrogen produced decreased from 27.6 to 18.8 mL when increasing the ZVI dosage from 0 to 10 g/L. Correspondingly, the methane yield increased from 1.9 to 32.2 mL, which meant that the H2-utilizing methanogenes was enriched. These results suggested that the addition of ZVI into anaerobic digestion of sludge after pretreated by the heat or alkali process could efficiently recover the methanogenic activity and increase the methane production and sludge reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Elevated Expression of GlpT and UhpT via FNR Activation Contributes to Increased Fosfomycin Susceptibility in Escherichia coli under Anaerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Kumiko; Tanimoto, Koichi; Fueki, Shinobu; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Because a shortage of new antimicrobial agents is a critical issue at present, and with the spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, the use of fosfomycin to treat infections is being revisited as a “last-resort option.” This drug offers a particular benefit in that it is more effective against bacteria growing under oxygen-limited conditions, unlike other commonly used antimicrobials, such as fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. In this study, we showed that Escherichia coli strains, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), were more susceptible to fosfomycin when grown anaerobically than when grown aerobically, and we investigated how the activity of this drug was enhanced during anaerobic growth of E. coli. Our quantitative PCR analysis and a transport assay showed that E. coli cells grown under anaerobic conditions had higher levels of expression of glpT and uhpT, encoding proteins that transport fosfomycin into cells with their native substrates, i.e., glycerol-3-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate, and led to increased intracellular accumulation of the drug. Elevation of expression of these genes during anaerobic growth requires FNR, a global transcriptional regulator that is activated under anaerobic conditions. Purified FNR bound to DNA fragments from regions upstream of glpT and uhpT, suggesting that it is an activator of expression of glpT and uhpT during anaerobic growth. We concluded that the increased antibacterial activity of fosfomycin toward E. coli under anaerobic conditions can be attributed to elevated expression of GlpT and UhpT following activation of FNR, leading to increased uptake of the drug. PMID:26248376

  19. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of poultry blood using activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Cuetos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using anaerobic digestion for the treatment of poultry blood has been evaluated in batch assays at the laboratory scale and in a mesophilic semi-continuous reactor. The biodegradability test performed on residual poultry blood was carried out in spite of high inhibitory levels of acid intermediaries. The use of activated carbon as a way to prevent inhibitory conditions demonstrated the feasibility of attaining anaerobic digestion under extreme ammonium and acid conditions. Batch assays with higher carbon content presented higher methane production rates, although the difference in the final cumulative biogas production was not as sharp. The digestion of residual blood was also studied under semi-continuous operation using granular and powdered activated carbon. The average specific methane production was 216 ± 12 mL CH4/g VS. This result was obtained in spite of a strong volatile fatty acid (VFA accumulation, reaching values around 6 g/L, along with high ammonium concentrations (in the range of 6–8 g/L. The use of powdered activated carbon resulted in a better assimilation of C3-C5 acid forms, indicating that an enhancement in syntrophic metabolism may have taken place. Thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were applied as analytical tools for measuring the presence of organic material in the final digestate and evidencing modifications on the carbon surface. The addition of activated carbon for the digestion of residual blood highly improved the digestion process. The adsorption capacity of ammonium, the protection this carrier may offer by limiting mass transfer of toxic compounds, and its capacity to act as a conductive material may explain the successful digestion of residual blood as the sole substrate.

  20. In vitro activity of FK037, a new parenteral cephalosporin, against anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, N; Kato, H; Tanaka, Y; Bando, K; Watanabe, K; Ueno, K

    1993-01-01

    The activity of FK037, a new parenteral cephalosporin, was compared with those of cefpirome, ceftazidime, and flomoxef against 322 recent clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. A fastidious facultative anaerobe, Gardnerella vaginalis, was also studied. FK037 inhibited 90% of isolates of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, Clostridium perfringens, Mobiluncus spp., G. vaginalis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis at 200 micrograms/ml, respectively; the activity of FK037 was comparable to those of cefpirome and ceftazidime but lower than that of flomoxef. The activity of FK037 against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Fusobacterium varium, and Bilophila wadsworthia decreased when inoculum size was increased from 10(6) to 10(8) CFU/ml. Little influence of inoculum size on the activity of FK037 was observed for other isolates tested. Medium pH affected the activity of FK037 against F. varium (MICs at pHs 5 and 7, 3.13 and 100 micrograms/ml, respectively) and Bacteroides gracilis (MICs at pHs 5 and 7, 12.5 and 1.56 micrograms/ml, respectively) but not against other organisms tested. FK037 was less resistant than flomoxef to hydrolysis by beta-lactamase group 2e derived from B. fragilis GAI 0558 and GAI 10150. PMID:8517721

  1. Bio-methane from an-aerobic digestion using activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Bell, Alexandra H; Almustapha, M N; Andresen, John M

    2017-08-01

    There is an increasing global demand for carbon-neutral bio-methane from an-aerobic digestion (AD) to be injected into national gas grids. Bio-gas, a methane -rich energy gas, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic matter through an-aerobic conditions where the presence of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide affects its performance. Although the microbiological process in the AD can be tailored to enhance the bio-gas composition, physical treatment is needed to convert the bio-gas into bio-methane. Water washing is the most common method for upgrading bio-gas for bio-methane production, but its large use of water is challenging towards industrial scale-up. Hence, the present study focuses on scale-up comparison of water washing with activated-carbon adsorption using HYSYS and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. The models show that for plants processing less than 500 m 3 /h water scrubbing was cost effective compared with activated carbon. However, against current fossil natural-gas cost of about 1 p/kWh in the UK both relied heavily on governmental subsidies to become economically feasible. For plants operating at 1000 m 3 /hr, the treatment costs were reduced to below 1.5 p/kWh for water scrubbing and 0.9 p/kWh for activated carbon where the main benefits of activated carbon were lower capital and operating costs and virtually no water losses. It is envisioned that this method can significantly aid the production of sustainable bio-methane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome-centric metatranscriptomes and ecological roles of the active microbial populations during cellulosic biomass anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yangyang; Ng, Siu-Kin; Lu, Hongyuan; Cai, Mingwei; Lee, Patrick K H

    2018-01-01

    Although anaerobic digestion for biogas production is used worldwide in treatment processes to recover energy from carbon-rich waste such as cellulosic biomass, the activities and interactions among the microbial populations that perform anaerobic digestion deserve further investigations, especially at the population genome level. To understand the cellulosic biomass-degrading potentials in two full-scale digesters, this study examined five methanogenic enrichment cultures derived from the digesters that anaerobically digested cellulose or xylan for more than 2 years under 35 or 55 °C conditions. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics were used to capture the active microbial populations in each enrichment culture and reconstruct their meta-metabolic network and ecological roles. 107 population genomes were reconstructed from the five enrichment cultures using a differential coverage binning approach, of which only a subset was highly transcribed in the metatranscriptomes. Phylogenetic and functional convergence of communities by enrichment condition and phase of fermentation was observed for the highly transcribed populations in the metatranscriptomes. In the 35 °C cultures grown on cellulose, Clostridium cellulolyticum -related and Ruminococcus -related bacteria were identified as major hydrolyzers and primary fermenters in the early growth phase, while Clostridium leptum -related bacteria were major secondary fermenters and potential fatty acid scavengers in the late growth phase. While the meta-metabolism and trophic roles of the cultures were similar, the bacterial populations performing each function were distinct between the enrichment conditions. Overall, a population genome-centric view of the meta-metabolism and functional roles of key active players in anaerobic digestion of cellulosic biomass was obtained. This study represents a major step forward towards understanding the microbial functions and interactions at population genome level during the

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in New Zealand: 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sally A; Shore, Keith P; Paviour, Susan D; Holland, David; Morris, Arthur J

    2006-05-01

    Routine susceptibility testing of all anaerobic organisms is not advocated, but it is useful for laboratories to test periodically for anaerobic organisms and provide local susceptibility data to guide therapy. This study reports the national trend of antibiotic susceptibility of clinically significant anaerobes in New Zealand. Clinical isolates were tested using standardized methods against a range of antibiotics commonly used to treat anaerobic infections. Susceptibility was determined using NCCLS criteria. The change in susceptibility trends between this study and earlier studies was measured by comparing the geometric mean of the MIC. A total of 364 anaerobes were tested. Penicillin had poor activity against Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp., Eubacterium spp., Clostridium tertium and Veillonella spp. In general, Fusobacterium spp., Bacteroides ureolyticus, Propionibacterium spp., Clostridium perfringens and anaerobic streptococci isolates, with the exception of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, were penicillin susceptible. Amoxicillin/clavulanate showed good activity against most anaerobes, but resistance was seen with Bacteroides fragilis group and P. anaerobius isolates. Cefoxitin was more active than cefotetan, particularly against non-B. fragilis species, Eubacterium spp. and P. anaerobius. Meropenem and imipenem showed good activity against all anaerobes, with only 2 and 4% of Bacteroides spp., respectively, showing resistance. With the exception of Propionibacterium acnes isolates, which are predictably resistant, metronidazole was active against all anaerobes tested. There has been little change in susceptibility since 1997. Metronidazole, cefoxitin, piperacillin/tazobactam and amoxicillin/clavulanate remain good empirical choices when anaerobes are expected in our setting. No clinically relevant changes in susceptibility over time were found.

  4. Increased activity of a new chlorofluoroquinolone, BAY y 3118, compared with activities of ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and other antimicrobial agents against anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Aldridge, K E

    1994-01-01

    A total of 435 clinical isolates of anaerobes were tested with a broth microdilution method to determine the activity of BAY y 3118 compared with those of other agents against anaerobic bacteria. All strains of Bacteroides capillosus, Prevotella spp., Porphyromonas spp., Fusobacterium spp., Clostridium spp., Eubacterium spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., and Veillonella parvula were susceptible (MICs of < or = 2 micrograms/ml) to BAY y 3118. Against the 315 strains of the Bacteroides fragilis gro...

  5. Hydrolytic activities of extracellular enzymes in thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic sequencing-batch reactors treating organic fractions of municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Nam, Joo-Youn; Kang, Seok-Tae; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Jung, Kyung-Won; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2012-04-01

    Extracellular enzymes offer active catalysis for hydrolysis of organic solid wastes in anaerobic digestion. To evidence the quantitative significance of hydrolytic enzyme activities for major waste components, track studies of thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic sequencing-batch reactors (TASBR and MASBR) were conducted using a co-substrate of real organic wastes. During 1day batch cycle, TASBR showed higher amylase activity for carbohydrate (46%), protease activity for proteins (270%), and lipase activity for lipids (19%) than MASBR. In particular, the track study of protease identified that thermophilic anaerobes degraded protein polymers much more rapidly. Results revealed that differences in enzyme activities eventually affected acidogenic and methanogenic performances. It was demonstrated that the superior nature of enzymatic capability at thermophilic condition led to successive high-rate acidogenesis and 32% higher CH(4) recovery. Consequently, these results evidence that the coupling thermophilic digestion with sequencing-batch operation is a viable option to promote enzymatic hydrolysis of organic particulates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Strong antimicrobial activity of xanthohumol and other derivatives from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) on gut anaerobic bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, P.; Olšovská, J.; Mikyška, A.; Dušek, M.; Kadlečková, Z.; Vaníček, J.; Nyč, O.; Sigler, Karel; Bostíková, V.; Bostík, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 125, č. 11 (2017), s. 1033-1038 ISSN 0903-4641 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Xanthohumol * gut * anaerobic bacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.795, year: 2016

  7. Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii induces greater TLR2 and TLR2/6 activation than the dead bacterium in an apical anaerobic co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C; Altermann, Eric; Roy, Nicole C

    2018-02-01

    Inappropriate activation of intestinal innate immune receptors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), by pathogenic bacteria is linked to chronic inflammation. In contrast, a "tonic" level of TLR activation by commensal bacteria is required for intestinal homeostasis. A technical challenge when studying this activation in vitro is the co-culturing of oxygen-requiring mammalian cells with obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria. To overcome this, we used a novel apical anaerobic co-culture system to successfully adapt a TLR activation assay to be conducted in conditions optimised for both cell types. Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an abundant obligate anaerobe of the colonic microbiota, induced higher TLR2 and TLR2/6 activation than the dead bacterium. This enhanced TLR induction by live F. prausnitzii, which until now has not previously been described, may contribute to maintenance of gastrointestinal homeostasis. This highlights the importance of using physiologically relevant co-culture systems to decipher the mechanisms of action of live obligate anaerobes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Techniques for controlling variability in gram staining of obligate anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M J; Thatcher, E; Cox, M E

    1995-01-01

    Identification of anaerobes recovered from clinical samples is complicated by the fact that certain gram-positive anaerobes routinely stain gram negative; Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, Eubacterium plautii, Clostridium ramosum, Clostridium symbiosum, and Clostridium clostridiiforme are among the nonconformists with regard to conventional Gram-staining procedures. Accurate Gram staining of American Type Culture Collection strains of these anaerobic bacteria is possible by implementing fixing and staining techniques within a gloveless anaerobic chamber. Under anaerobic conditions, gram-positive staining occurred in all test organisms with "quick" fixing techniques with both absolute methanol and formalin. The results support the hypothesis that, when anaerobic bacteria are exposed to oxygen, a breakdown of the physical integrity of the cell wall occurs, introducing Gram stain variability in gram-positive anaerobes. PMID:7538512

  9. Understanding the impact of cationic polyacrylamide on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Liu, Xuran; Zeng, Guangming; Zhao, Jianwei; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Chen, Fei; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi

    2018-03-01

    Previous investigations showed that cationic polyacrylamide (cPAM), a flocculant widely used in wastewater pretreatment and waste activated sludge dewatering, deteriorated methane production during anaerobic digestion of sludge. However, details of how cPAM affects methane production are poorly understood, hindering deep control of sludge anaerobic digestion systems. In this study, the mechanisms of cPAM affecting sludge anaerobic digestion were investigated in batch and long-term tests using either real sludge or synthetic wastewaters as the digestion substrates. Experimental results showed that the presence of cPAM not only slowed the process of anaerobic digestion but also decreased methane yield. The maximal methane yield decreased from 139.1 to 86.7 mL/g of volatile suspended solids (i.e., 1861.5 to 1187.0 mL/L) with the cPAM level increasing from 0 to 12 g/kg of total suspended solids (i.e., 0-236.7 mg/L), whereas the corresponding digestion time increased from 22 to 26 d. Mechanism explorations revealed that the addition of cPAM significantly restrained the sludge solubilization, hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and methanogenesis processes. It was found that ∼46% of cAPM was degraded in the anaerobic digestion, and the degradation products significantly affected methane production. Although the theoretically biochemical methane potential of cPAM is higher than that of protein and carbohydrate, only 6.7% of the degraded cPAM was transformed to the final product, methane. Acrylamide, acrylic acid, and polyacrylic acid were found to be the main degradation metabolites, and their amount accounted for ∼50% of the degraded cPAM. Further investigations showed that polyacrylic acid inhibited all the solubilization, hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and methanogenesis processes while acrylamide and acrylic acid inhibited the methanogenesis significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Versatile transformations of hydrocarbons in anaerobic bacteria: substrate ranges and regio- and stereo-chemistry of activation reactions†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarling, René; Kühner, Simon; Basílio Janke, Eline; Gruner, Andrea; Drozdowska, Marta; Golding, Bernard T.; Rabus, Ralf; Wilkes, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons proceeds either via addition to fumarate or by hydroxylation in various microorganisms, e.g., sulfate-reducing or denitrifying bacteria, which are specialized in utilizing n-alkanes or alkylbenzenes as growth substrates. General pathways for carbon assimilation and energy gain have been elucidated for a limited number of possible substrates. In this work the metabolic activity of 11 bacterial strains during anaerobic growth with crude oil was investigated and compared with the metabolite patterns appearing during anaerobic growth with more than 40 different hydrocarbons supplied as binary mixtures. We show that the range of co-metabolically formed alkyl- and arylalkyl-succinates is much broader in n-alkane than in alkylbenzene utilizers. The structures and stereochemistry of these products are resolved. Furthermore, we demonstrate that anaerobic hydroxylation of alkylbenzenes does not only occur in denitrifiers but also in sulfate reducers. We propose that these processes play a role in detoxification under conditions of solvent stress. The thermophilic sulfate-reducing strain TD3 is shown to produce n-alkylsuccinates, which are suggested not to derive from terminal activation of n-alkanes, but rather to represent intermediates of a metabolic pathway short-cutting fumarate regeneration by reverse action of succinate synthase. The outcomes of this study provide a basis for geochemically tracing such processes in natural habitats and contribute to an improved understanding of microbial activity in hydrocarbon-rich anoxic environments. PMID:26441848

  11. Antibacterial activity of Pinus elliottii against anaerobic bacteria present in primary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano da Silva, Sandro Donizete; Mendes de Souza, Maria Gorete; Oliveira Cardoso, Miguel Jorge; da Silva Moraes, Thais; Ambrósio, Sérgio Ricardo; Sola Veneziani, Rodrigo Cássio; Martins, Carlos Henrique G

    2014-12-01

    Endodontic infections have a polymicrobial nature, but anaerobic bacteria prevail among the infectious microbes. Considering that it is easy to eliminate planktonic bacteria, biofilm-forming bacteria still challenge clinicians during the fight against endodontic diseases. The chemical constituents of the oleoresin of Pinus elliottii, a plant belonging to the family Pinaceae, stand out in the search for biologically active compounds based on natural products with potential application in the treatment of endodontic infections. Indeed, plant oleoresins are an abundant natural source of diterpenes that display significant and well-defined biological activities as well as potential antimicrobial action. In this context, this study aimed to (1) evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the oleoresin, fractions, and subfractions of P. elliottii as well as the action of dehydroabietic acid against 11 anaerobic bacteria that cause endodontic infection in both their planktonic and biofilm forms and (2) assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the same group of bacteria. The broth microdilution technique helped to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the oleoresin and fractions. This same technique aided determination of the MIC values of nine subfractions of Fraction 1, the most active fraction. The MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration, and antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the tested anaerobic bacteria were also examined. The oleoresin and fractions, especially fraction PE1, afforded promising MIC values, which ranged from 0.4 to 50 μg/mL. Concerning the nine evaluated subfractions, PE1.3 and PE1.4 furnished the most noteworthy MIC values, between 6.2 and 100 μg/mL. Dehydroabietic acid displayed antibacterial activity, with MIC values lying from 6.2 to 50 μg/mL, as well as bactericidal effect for all the investigated bacteria, except for Prevotella nigrescens. Assessment of the antibiofilm

  12. Anaerobic respiration of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shari A; Gibson, Terri; Maltby, Rosalie C; Chowdhury, Fatema Z; Stewart, Valley; Cohen, Paul S; Conway, Tyrrell

    2011-10-01

    The intestine is inhabited by a large microbial community consisting primarily of anaerobes and, to a lesser extent, facultative anaerobes, such as Escherichia coli, which we have shown requires aerobic respiration to compete successfully in the mouse intestine (S. A. Jones et al., Infect. Immun. 75:4891-4899, 2007). If facultative anaerobes efficiently lower oxygen availability in the intestine, then their sustained growth must also depend on anaerobic metabolism. In support of this idea, mutants lacking nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase have extreme colonization defects. Here, we further explore the role of anaerobic respiration in colonization using the streptomycin-treated mouse model. We found that respiratory electron flow is primarily via the naphthoquinones, which pass electrons to cytochrome bd oxidase and the anaerobic terminal reductases. We found that E. coli uses nitrate and fumarate in the intestine, but not nitrite, dimethyl sulfoxide, or trimethylamine N-oxide. Competitive colonizations revealed that cytochrome bd oxidase is more advantageous than nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase. Strains lacking nitrate reductase outcompeted fumarate reductase mutants once the nitrate concentration in cecal mucus reached submillimolar levels, indicating that fumarate is the more important anaerobic electron acceptor in the intestine because nitrate is limiting. Since nitrate is highest in the absence of E. coli, we conclude that E. coli is the only bacterium in the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine that respires nitrate. Lastly, we demonstrated that a mutant lacking the NarXL regulator (activator of the NarG system), but not a mutant lacking the NarP-NarQ regulator, has a colonization defect, consistent with the advantage provided by NarG. The emerging picture is one in which gene regulation is tuned to balance expression of the terminal reductases that E. coli uses to maximize its competitiveness and achieve the highest possible population in

  13. Potential and optimization of two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge and microbial community study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghong; Liang, Ying; Zhao, Peng; Li, Qing X.; Guo, Shaohui; Chen, Chunmao

    2016-01-01

    Oil refinery waste activated sludge produced from oil wastewater biological treatment is a major industrial sludge. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge was studied for the first time. Thermal pretreatment under 170 °C is effective on sludge solubilization. At the optimum hydrolytic-acidogenic condition which was pH of 6.5, temperature of 55 °C and HRT of 2 days, 2754 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced and acetic acid and butyric acid were the key components. Comparative studies of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion in terms of organic removal, biogas production and methane concentration were conducted. The cumulative methane production and soluble COD (SCOD) removal efficiency in the two-phase system were 228 mL/g COD added and 77.8%, respectively, which were 1.6 and 2.1 times higher than those in single-phase anaerobic digestion. Such improved performance is attributed to intensification of dominant microbial population in separated reactors. Caloramator, Ureibacillus, Dechloromonas, Petrobacter, and T78 played important roles in hydrolytic-acidification and oil-organics degradation. Syntrophic bacteria in the family Porphyromonadaceae and the genus Anaerobranca provide acetate for methanogen. The results demonstrated the potential and operating condition of two-phase anaerobic digestion in treatment of oil refinery waste activated sludge. PMID:27905538

  14. Potential for anaerobic conversion of xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Dolfing, J.; Haagensen, Frank

    2003-01-01

    This review covers the latest research on the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic xenobiotic compounds, with emphasis on surfactants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalate esters, polychlorinated biphenyls, halogenated phenols, and pesticides. The versatility of anaerobic reactor systems...... regarding the treatment of xenobiotics is shown with the focus on the UASB reactor, but the applicability of other reactor designs for treatment of hazardous waste is also included. Bioaugmentation has proved to be a viable technique to enhance a specific activity in anaerobic reactors and recent research...

  15. Ethanol and anaerobic conditions reversibly inhibit commercial cellulase activity in thermophilic simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (tSSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podkaminer Kara K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previously developed mathematical model of low solids thermophilic simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (tSSF with Avicel was unable to predict performance at high solids using a commercial cellulase preparation (Spezyme CP and the high ethanol yield Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum strain ALK2. The observed hydrolysis proceeded more slowly than predicted at solids concentrations greater than 50 g/L Avicel. Factors responsible for this inaccuracy were investigated in this study. Results Ethanol dramatically reduced cellulase activity in tSSF. At an Avicel concentration of 20 g/L, the addition of ethanol decreased conversion at 96 hours, from 75% in the absence of added ethanol down to 32% with the addition of 34 g/L initial ethanol. This decrease is much greater than expected based on hydrolysis inhibition results in the absence of a fermenting organism. The enhanced effects of ethanol were attributed to the reduced, anaerobic conditions of tSSF, which were shown to inhibit cellulase activity relative to hydrolysis under aerobic conditions. Cellulose hydrolysis in anaerobic conditions was roughly 30% slower than in the presence of air. However, this anaerobic inhibition was reversed by exposing the cellulase enzymes to air. Conclusion This work demonstrates a previously unrecognized incompatibility of enzymes secreted by an aerobic fungus with the fermentation conditions of an anaerobic bacterium and suggests that enzymes better suited to industrially relevant fermentation conditions would be valuable. The effects observed may be due to inactivation or starvation of oxygen dependent GH61 activity, and manipulation or replacement of this activity may provide an opportunity to improve biomass to fuel process efficiency.

  16. In vitro activity of cefbuperazone, a new cephamycin, against anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhala, R H; Thadepalli, H; Rao, B; Bansal, M B; Marshall, R

    1985-01-01

    The 90% MIC of cefbuperazone (BMY 25182) was 32 micrograms/ml for Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides spp., 128 micrograms/ml for Fusobacterium and Clostridium spp., 64 micrograms/ml for Eubacterium and Peptococcus spp., 8 micrograms/ml for Actinomyces spp., and 32 micrograms/ml for Peptostreptococcus spp. The level of activity of cefbuperazone was higher against B. fragilis and lower against anaerobic cocci than those of related cephalosporins, i.e., cefoxitin, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cef...

  17. Anaerobic bacteraemia revisited: species and susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lily S Y; Kwang, Lee Ling; Rao, Suma; Tan, Thean Yen

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the frequency of anaerobic bacteraemia over a 10-year period, and to provide updated antibiotic susceptibilities for the more clinically relevant anaerobes causing blood stream infection. Data were retrieved from the laboratory information system for the period 2003 to 2012. During this time, blood cultures were inoculated in Bactec™ Plus vials (BD, USA) and continuously monitored in the Bactec™ 9000 blood culture system (BD, USA). Anaerobic organisms were identified using commercial identification kits, predominantly API 20 A (bioMérieux, France) supplemented with Vitek ANC cards (bioMérieux, France) and AN-Ident discs (Oxoid, United Kingdom). A representative subset of isolates were retrieved from 2009 to 2011 and antimicrobial susceptibilities to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, imipenem, moxifloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and metronidazole were determined using the Etest method. Anaerobes comprised 4.1% of all positive blood culture with 727 obligate anaerobes recovered over the 10-year period, representing a positivity rate of 0.35%. The only significant change in anaerobe positivity rates occurred between 2003 and 2004, with an increase of 0.2%. The Bacteroides fragilis group (45%) were the predominant anaerobic pathogens, followed by Clostridium species (12%), Propioniobacterium species (11%) and Fusobacterium species (6%). The most active in vitro antibiotics were imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate and metronidazole, with susceptibilities of 95.0%, 93.3%, 90.8% and 90.8% respectively. Resistance was high to penicillin, clindamycin and moxifl oxacin. However, there were apparent differences for antibiotic susceptibilities between species. This study indicates that the anaerobes comprise a small but constant proportion of bloodstream isolates. Antibiotic resistance was high to some antibiotics, but metronidazole, the beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors and

  18. Simultaneous addition of zero-valent iron and activated carbon on enhanced mesophilic anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongyu; Qin, Yujie; Cao, Yan; Han, Bin; Ren, Junyi

    2017-10-01

    The performance of biogas generation and sludge degradation was studied under different zero-valent iron/activated carbon (ZVI/AC) ratios in detail in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sludge. A good enhancement of methane production was obtained at the 10:1 ZVI/AC ratio, and the cumulative methane production was 132.1 mL/g VS, 37.6% higher than the blank. The methane content at the 10:1 ZVI/AC ratio reached 68.8%, which was higher than the blank (55.2%) and the sludge-added AC alone (59.6%). For sludge degradation, the removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), proteins, and polysaccharides were all the highest at the 10:1 ZVI/AC ratio. The concentration of available phosphorus (AP) decreased after anaerobic digestion process. On the other hand, the concentrations of available nitrogen (AN) and available potassium (AK) increased after the anaerobic digestion process and showed a gradually decreasing trend with increasing ZVI/AC ratio. The concentrations of AN and AK were 2303.1-4200.3 and 274.7-388.3 mg/kg, showing a potential for land utilization.

  19. Phenol degradation in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor packed with low density support materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Sancinetti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study phenol degradation in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBR packed with polymeric particulate supports (polystyrene - PS, polyethylene terephthalate - PET, and polyvinyl chloride - PVC. The reactors were operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 24 h. The influent phenol concentration in the AFBR varied from 100 to 400 mg L-1, resulting in phenol removal efficiencies of ~100%. The formation of extracellular polymeric substances yielded better results with the PVC particles; however, deformations in these particles proved detrimental to reactor operation. PS was found to be the best support for biomass attachment in an AFBR for phenol removal. The AFBR loaded with PS was operated to analyze the performance and stability for phenol removal at feed concentrations ranging from 50 to 500 mg L-1. The phenol removal efficiency ranged from 90-100%.

  20. The fermentative activity and morphological specialitys of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-503 at cultivation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ts. Kotenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions of cultivation on structure of cells and enzymes` activity of yeast S. cerevisiae Y-503 is researched. The results of experiment have shown that nutrient medium containing geothermal water in aerobic conditions of cultivation improves biotechnological properties of yeast important for manufacturing bread, and anaerobic activates the enzymes participating in synthesis of ethanol. Strain S. cerevisiae Y-503 can successfully be used both in baking, and in the spirit industries

  1. Dosing of anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors with cobalt: Impact of cobalt retention on methanogenic activity

    KAUST Repository

    Fermoso, Fernando G.

    2010-12-01

    The effect of dosing a metal limited anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor with a metal pulse on the methanogenic activity of granular sludge has thus far not been successfully modeled. The prediction of this effect is crucial in order to optimize the strategy for metal dosage and to prevent unnecessary losses of resources. This paper describes the relation between the initial immobilization of cobalt in anaerobic granular sludge cobalt dosage into the reactor and the evolution of methanogenic activity during the subsequent weeks. An operationally defined parameter (A0· B0) was found to combine the amount of cobalt immobilized instantaneously upon the pulse (B0) and the amount of cobalt immobilized within the subsequent 24. h (A0). In contrast with the individual parameters A0 and B0, the parameter A0· B0 correlated significantly with the methanogenic activity of the sludge during the subsequent 16 or 35. days. This correlation between metal retention and activity evolution is a useful tool to implement trace metal dosing strategies for biofilm-based biotechnological processes. © 2010.

  2. Proceedings of the 10. world congress on anaerobic digestion 2004 : anaerobic bioconversion, answer for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This conference reviewed the broad scope of anaerobic process-related activities taking place globally and confirmed the possibilities of using anaerobic processes to add value to industrial wastewaters, municipal solid wastes and organic wastes while minimizing pollution and greenhouse gases. It focused on biomolecular tools, instrumentation of anaerobic digestion processes, anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated organics, and thermophilic and mesophilic digestion. Several papers focused on the feasibility of using waste products to produce hydrogen and methane for electricity generation. The sessions of the conference were entitled acidogenesis; microbial ecology; process control; sulfur content; technical development; domestic wastewater; agricultural waste; organic municipal solid wastes; instrumentation; molecular biology; sludges; agricultural feedstock; bioremediation; industrial wastewater; hydrogen production; pretreatments; sustainability; and integrated systems. The conference featured 387 posters and 192 oral presentations, of which 111 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Activity of endodontic antibacterial agents against selected anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Cláudio Maniglia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of substances used as antibacterial agents (solutions of 10% calcium hydroxide, camphorated paramonochlorophenol - PMCC, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate and 10% castor oil plant detergent on anaerobic bacteria (Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586, Prevotella nigrescens ATCC 33563, Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124 and Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285, using a broth dilution technique, was evaluated in vitro. For determination of minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericide concentrations (MIC and MBC, two culture broths, Reinforced Clostridial Medium (RCM and supplemented Brucella, standardized inoculum and serially diluted solutions were used. All antibacterial agents presented antimicrobial activity that varied for different bacteria. There were no differences in the performance of the two broths. Chlorhexidine digluconate was the most effective, with the lowest MICs, followed by castor oil detergent, PMCC and calcium hydroxide. C. perfringens and B. fragilis were the most resistant bacteria to all agents.

  4. Dosing of anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors with cobalt: Impact of cobalt retention on methanogenic activity

    KAUST Repository

    Fermoso, Fernando G.; Bartacek, Jan; Manzano, Ramon; van Leeuwen, Herman P.; Lens, Piet N.L.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of dosing a metal limited anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor with a metal pulse on the methanogenic activity of granular sludge has thus far not been successfully modeled. The prediction of this effect is crucial in order to optimize

  5. Anaerobic exercise - Induced changes in serum mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic exercise, a non 02 – dependent energy metabolism leads to transient metabolic changes, which are corrected gradually by homestatic mechanism. We investigated in eight male subjects, the effects of anaerobic exercise after a day sedentary activity on serum mineral concentration. There was significant ...

  6. [Anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients with suspected anaerobic infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercis, Serpil; Tunçkanat, Ferda; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2005-10-01

    The study involved 394 clinical samples sent to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Hacettepe University Adult Hospital between January 1997 and May 2004 for anaerobic cultivation. Since multiple cultures from the same clinical samples of the same patient were excluded, the study was carried on 367 samples. The anaerobic cultures were performed in anaerobic jar using AnaeroGen kits (Oxoid, Basingstoke, U.K.) or GENbox (bioMérieux, Lyon, France). The isolates were identified by both classical methods and "BBL Crystal System" (Becton Dickinson, U.S.A.). While no growth was detected in 120 (32.7%) of the clinical samples studied, in 144 samples (39.2%) only aerobes, in 28 (7.6%) only anaerobes and in 75 (20.5%) of the samples both aerobes and anaerobes were isolated. The number of the anaerobic isolates was 217 from 103 samples with anaerobic growth. Of these 103 samples 15 showed single bacterial growth whereas in 88 samples multiple bacterial isolates were detected. Anaerobic isolates consisted of 92 Gram negative bacilli (Bacteroides spp. 50, Prevotella spp. 14, Porphyromonas spp. 10, Fusobacterium spp. 7, Tisierella spp. 2, unidentified 9), 57 Gram positive bacilli (Clostridium spp.17, Propionibacterium spp. 16, Lactobacillus spp. 8, Actinomyces spp. 5, Eubacterium spp. 2, Bifidobacterium adolescentis 1, Mobiluncus mulieris 1, unidentified nonspore forming rods 7), 61 Gram positive cocci (anaerobic cocci 44, microaerophilic cocci 17), and 7 Gram negative cocci (Veillonella spp.). In conclusion, in the samples studied with prediagnosis of anaerobic infection, Bacteroides spp. (23%) were the most common bacteria followed by anaerobic Gram positive cocci (20.3%) and Clostridium spp (7.8%).

  7. Analysis of methanogenic activity in a thermophilic-dry anaerobic reactor: Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, B.; Garcia-Morales, J.L.; Sales, D.; Solera, R.

    2009-01-01

    Methanogenic activity in a thermophilic-dry anaerobic reactor was determined by comparing the amount of methane generated for each of the organic loading rates with the size of the total and specific methanogenic population, as determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. A high correlation was evident between the total methanogenic activity and retention time [-0.6988Ln(x) + 2.667] (R 2 0.8866). The total methanogenic activity increased from 0.04 x 10 -8 mLCH 4 cell -1 day -1 to 0.38 x 10 -8 mLCH 4 cell -1 day -1 while the retention time decreased, augmenting the organic loading rates. The specific methanogenic activities of H 2 -utilizing methanogens and acetate-utilizing methanogens increased until they stabilised at 0.64 x 10 -8 mLCH 4 cell -1 day -1 and 0.33 x 10 -8 mLCH 4 cell -1 day -1 , respectively. The methanogenic activity of H 2 -utilizing methanogens was higher than acetate-utilizing methanogens, indicating that maintaining a low partial pressure of hydrogen does not inhibit the acetoclastic methanogenesis or the anaerobic process

  8. Effects of reduced return activated sludge flows and volume on anaerobic zone performance for a septic wastewater biological phosphorus removal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Daniel; Elias, Steven L; Randall, Andrew Amis

    2005-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorous removal (EBPR) performance was found to be adequate with reduced return-activated sludge (RAS) flows (50% of available RAS) to the anaerobic tank and smaller-than-typical anaerobic zone volume (1.08 hours hydraulic retention time [HRT]). Three identical parallel biological nutrient removal pilot plants were fed with strong, highly fermented (160 mg/L volatile fatty acids [VFAs]), domestic and industrial wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment facility. The pilot plants were operated at 100, 50, 40, and 25% RAS (percent of available RAS) flows to the anaerobic tank, with the remaining RAS to the anoxic tank. In addition, varying anaerobic HRT (1.08 and 1.5 hours) and increased hydraulic loading (35% increase) were examined. The study was divided into four phases, and the effect of these process variations on EBPR were studied by having one different variable between two identical systems. The most significant conclusion was that returning part of the RAS to the anaerobic zone did not decrease EBPR performance; instead, it changed the location of phosphorous release and uptake. Bringing less RAS to the anaerobic and more to the anoxic tank decreased anaerobic phosphorus release and increased anoxic phosphorus release (or decreased anoxic phosphorus uptake). Equally important is that, with VFA-rich influent wastewater, excessive anaerobic volume was shown to hurt overall phosphorus removal, even when it resulted in increased anaerobic phosphorus release.

  9. In vitro activity of flomoxef compared to moxalactam, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, and clindamycin against anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, H; Heizmann, W; Luft, G

    1988-11-01

    To assess the in vitro activity of flomoxef (6315-S), moxalactam, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, and clindamycin against anaerobes 197 clinical isolates (27 Bacteroides fragilis, 42 B. thetaiotaomicron, 10 B. vulgatus, 7 B. ovatus, 6 B. uniformis, 6 B. distasonis, 7 Bacteroides melaninogenicus group, 11 Bacteroides oralis group, 21 Clostridium difficile, 7 C. perfringens, 3 C. sporogenes, 3 Clostridium spp., 33 Propionibacterium acnes, 14 Peptococcaceae) were studied by means of agar dilution tests. The MIC90 of B. fragilis was less than 2 micrograms/ml for flomoxef, less than 4 micrograms/ml for moxalactam, less than 16 micrograms/ml for cefoxitin, less than 128 micrograms/ml for cefotaxime and less than 2 micrograms/ml for clindamycin. The respective MIC90's of B. thetaiotaomicron were less than 64, less than 128, less than 32, less than 256 and 8 micrograms/ml. Strains of the other Bacteroides species and groups were more susceptible to flomoxef and the other antibiotics than B. thetaiotaomicron. Against Clostridium difficile flomoxef (MIC90 less than 4 micrograms/ml) proved to be superior to the other agents tested. Most of the Clostridium strains other than C. difficile were also susceptible to flomoxef; anaerobic grampositive cocci and Propionibacterium acnes were very sensitive (MIC90's less than 1 and less than or equal to 0.125 micrograms/ml, respectively). Its anti-anaerobic activity, together with its efficacy against aerobes, should make flomoxef a useful adjunct to the arsenal of modern antibiotic therapy.

  10. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity......Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were...... of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent...

  11. Hydrogenase activity in aged, nonviable Desulfovibrio vulgaris cultures and its significance in anaerobic biocorrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelus, C; Carrier, P; Saignes, P; Libert, M F; Berlier, Y; Lespinat, P A; Fauque, G; Legall, J

    1987-01-01

    Batch cultures of Desulfovibrio vulgaris stored at 32 degrees C for 10 months have been found to retain 50% of the hydrogenase activity of a 1-day culture. The hydrogenase found in old cultures needs reducing conditions for its activation. Viable cell counts are negative after 6 months, showing that the hydrogenase activity does not depend on the presence of viable cells. These observations are of importance in the understanding of anaerobic biocorrosion of metals caused by depolarization phenomena. PMID:3310883

  12. Performance evaluation of the sulfur-redox-reaction-activated up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket and down-flow hanging sponge anaerobic/anoxic sequencing batch reactor system for municipal sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamoto, Masashi; Ohtsuki, Kota; Maharjan, Namita; Ono, Shinya; Dehama, Kazuya; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    A sulfur-redox-reaction-activated up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system, combined with an anaerobic/anoxic sequencing batch reactor (A2SBR), has been used for municipal sewage treatment for over 2 years. The present system achieved a removal rate of 95±14% for BOD, 74±22% for total nitrogen, and 78±25% for total phosphorus, including low water temperature conditions. Sludge conversion rates during the operational period were 0.016 and 0.218 g-VSS g-COD-removed(-1) for the UASB, and DHS, respectively, which are similar to a conventional UASB-DHS system, which is not used of sulfur-redox-reaction, for sewage treatment. Using the sulfur-redox reaction made advanced treatment of municipal wastewater with minimal sludge generation possible, even in winter. Furthermore, the occurrence of a unique phenomenon, known as the anaerobic sulfur oxidation reaction, was confirmed in the UASB reactor under the winter season. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Dechlorination of Aromatic Xenobiotic Compounds by Anaerobic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    dechlorination of 3 6C1- 2,3,7,8-TCDD have been initiated but are incomplete at this time. The sources of anaerobic dechlorinating bacteria were the...SETHUNATHAN, 1983). Active anaerobic habitatsa DDT Soil, rumen fluid, sewage sludge, sediments, microbial cultures Lindane Soil, sediments, microbial... anaerobic bacteria (Reference 24). Sediments containing relatively high levels of PCBs (> 50 ppm) all showed losses of up to one-third of the chlorine

  14. Culture-independent analyses reveal novel Anaerolineaceae as abundant primary fermenters in anaerobic digesters treating waste activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Dueholm, Morten Simonsen

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for biogas production is reliant on the tightly coupled synergistic activities of complex microbial consortia. Members of the uncultured A6 phylotype, within the phylum Chloroflexi, are among the most abundant genus-level-taxa of mesophilic anaerobic digester systems treating...... primary and surplus sludge from wastewater treatment plants, yet are known only by their 16S rRNA gene sequence. This study applied metagenomics to obtain a complete circular genome (2.57 Mbp) from a representative of the A6 taxon. Preliminary annotation of the genome indicates these organisms...

  15. Anaerobic biodegradability and treatment of grey water in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, Tarek A; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2007-03-01

    Feasibility of grey water treatment in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor operated at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 16, 10 and 6h and controlled temperature of 30 degrees C was investigated. Moreover, the maximum anaerobic biodegradability without inoculum addition and maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractions in grey water were determined in batch experiments. High values of maximum anaerobic biodegradability (76%) and maximum COD removal in the UASB reactor (84%) were achieved. The results showed that the colloidal COD had the highest maximum anaerobic biodegradability (86%) and the suspended and dissolved COD had similar maximum anaerobic biodegradability of 70%. Furthermore, the results of the UASB reactor demonstrated that a total COD removal of 52-64% was obtained at HRT between 6 and 16 h. The UASB reactor removed 22-30% and 15-21% of total nitrogen and total phosphorous in the grey water, respectively, mainly due to the removal of particulate nutrients. The characteristics of the sludge in the UASB reactor confirmed that the reactor had a stable performance. The minimum sludge residence time and the maximum specific methanogenic activity of the sludge ranged between 27 and 93 days and 0.18 and 0.28 kg COD/(kg VS d).

  16. Mechanism of quinolone resistance in anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, H; Edlund, C

    2003-06-01

    Several recently developed quinolones have excellent activity against a broad range of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and are thus potential drugs for the treatment of serious anaerobic and mixed infections. Resistance to quinolones is increasing worldwide, but is still relatively infrequent among anaerobes. Two main mechanisms, alteration of target enzymes (gyrase and topoisomerase IV) caused by chromosomal mutations in encoding genes, or reduced intracellular accumulation due to increased efflux of the drug, are associated with quinolone resistance. These mechanisms have also been found in anaerobic species. High-level resistance to the newer broad-spectrum quinolones often requires stepwise mutations in target genes. The increasing emergence of resistance among anaerobes may be a consequence of previous widespread use of quinolones, which may have enriched first-step mutants in the intestinal tract. Quinolone resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group strains is strongly correlated with amino acid substitutions at positions 82 and 86 in GyrA (equivalent to positions 83 and 87 of Escherichia coli). Several studies have indicated that B. fragilis group strains possess efflux pump systems that actively expel quinolones, leading to resistance. DNA gyrase seems also to be the primary target for quinolones in Clostridium difficile, since amino acid substitutions in GyrA and GyrB have been detected in resistant strains. To what extent other mechanisms, such as mutational events in other target genes or alterations in outer-membrane proteins, contribute to resistance among anaerobes needs to be further investigated.

  17. Inhibition of Anaerobic Phosphate Release by Nitric Oxide in Activated Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niel, E. W. J.; Appeldoorn, K. J.; Zehnder, A. J. B.; Kortstee, G. J. J.

    1998-01-01

    Activated sludge not containing significant numbers of denitrifying, polyphosphate [poly(P)]-accumulating bacteria was grown in a fill-and-draw system and exposed to alternating anaerobic and aerobic periods. During the aerobic period, poly(P) accumulated up to 100 mg of P · g of (dry) weight. When portions of the sludge were incubated anaerobically in the presence of acetate, 80 to 90% of the intracellular poly(P) was degraded and released as orthophosphate. Degradation of poly(P) was mainly catalyzed by the concerted action of polyphosphate:AMP phosphotransferase and adenylate kinase, resulting in ATP formation. In the presence of 0.3 mM nitric oxide (NO) in the liquid-phase release of phosphate, uptake of acetate, formation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate, utilization of glycogen, and formation of ATP were severely inhibited or completely abolished. In cell extracts of the sludge, adenylate kinase activity was completely inhibited by 0.15 mM NO. The nature of this inhibition was probably noncompetitive, similar to that with hog adenylate kinase. Activated sludge polyphosphate glucokinase was also completely inhibited by 0.15 mM NO. It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of NO on acetate-mediated phosphate release by the sludge used in this study is due to the inhibition of adenylate kinase in the phosphate-releasing organisms. The inhibitory effect of nitrate and nitrite on phosphate release is probably due to their conversion to NO. The lack of any inhibitory effect of NO on adenylate kinase of the poly(P)-accumulating Acinetobacter johnsonii 210A suggests that this type of organism is not involved in the enhanced biological phosphate removal by the sludges used. PMID:9687452

  18. Comparative evaluation of anoxomat and conventional anaerobic GasPak jar systems for the isolation of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, May; Jamal, Wafaa; Verghese, Tina; Rotimi, V O

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of the Anoxomat, in comparison with the conventional anaerobic GasPak jar system, for the isolation of obligate anaerobes. Anoxomat, model WS800, and anaerobic GasPak jar system (Oxoid) were evaluated. Anoxomat system utilized a gas mixture of 80% N(2), 10% CO(2) and 10% H(2), while the GasPak used a gas mixture of 90% H(2) and 10% CO(2). An anaerobic indicator within the jars monitored anaerobiosis. A total of 227 obligate anaerobic bacteria comprising 116 stock strains, 5 ATCC reference strains and 106 fresh strains, representing different genera, were investigated for growth on anaerobic agar plates and scored for density, colony sizes, susceptibility zones of antibiotic inhibition and the speed of anaerobiosis (reducing the indicator). The results demonstrate that the growth of anaerobic bacteria is faster inside the Anoxomat jar than in the anaerobic GasPak jar system. Of the 227 strains tested, the colonies of 152 (67%) were larger (by size range of 0.2-2.4 mm) in the Anoxomat at 48 h than in the GasPak jar compared with only 21% (range 0.1-0.3 mm) that were larger in the GasPak than in the Anoxomat. The remaining 12% were equal in their sizes. There was no measurable difference in the colony sizes of the reference strains. The Porphyromonas asaccharolytica strains failed to grow within the GasPak system but grew inside the Anoxomat. With the Anoxomat, anaerobiosis was achieved about 35 min faster than in the GasPak system. The density of growth recorded for 177 (78%) strains was heavier in the Anoxomat than in the GasPak jar. The zones of inhibition of the antibiotics tested were not different in the two systems. The Anoxomat system provided superior growth, in terms of density and colony size, and achieved anaerobiosis more rapidly. Evidently, the Anoxomat method is more reliable and appears to support the growth of strict anaerobes better. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. How Incentives Affect the Adoption of Anaerobic Digesters in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Sam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Various government incentives support the adoption of anaerobic digester systems to manage farm waste and serve as a source of renewable energy in the United States. We examine the effectiveness of US state-level incentives promoting the adoption of anaerobic digester systems. We find that performance-based incentives and adoption of renewable portfolio standards best promote anaerobic digester system adoption.

  20. The effect of Fe2NiO4 and Fe4NiO4Zn magnetic nanoparticles on anaerobic digestion activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian Lin; Steele, Terry W J; Stuckey, David C

    2018-06-11

    Two types of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), i.e. Ni ferrite nanoparticles (Fe 2 NiO 4 ) and Ni Zn ferrite nanoparticles (Fe 4 NiO 4 Zn) containing the trace metals Ni and Fe, were added to the anaerobic digestion of synthetic municipal wastewater at concentrations between 1 and 100 mg Ni L -1 in order to compare their effects on biogas (methane) production and sludge activity. Using the production of methane over time as a measure, the assays revealed that anaerobic digestion was stimulated by the addition of 100 mg Ni L -1 in Fe 2 NiO 4 NPs, while it was inhibited by the addition of 1-100 mg Ni L -1 in Fe 4 NiO 4 Zn NPs. Especially at 100 mg Ni L -1 , Fe 4 NiO 4 Zn NPs resulted in a total inhibition of anaerobic digestion. The metabolic activity of the anaerobic sludge was tested using the resazurin reduction assay, and the assay clearly revealed the negative effect of Fe 4 NiO 4 Zn NPs and the positive effect of Fe 2 NiO 4 NPs. Re-feeding fresh synthetic medium reactivated the NPs added to the anaerobic sludge, except for the experiment with 100 mg Ni L -1 addition of Fe 4 NiO 4 Zn NPs. The findings in this present study indicate a possible new strategy for NPs design to enhance anaerobic digestion. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, J.; Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Zábranská, J.; Dohányos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2012), s. 343-351 ISSN 1618-0240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP503/10/P394; GA MZe QI92A286 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Anaerobic digestion * Anaerobic fungi * Biogas yield Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2012

  2. Comprehensive assessment of hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity in an anaerobic swine waste lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Erin E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Dietze, Julie E.; Meissner, Benjamin M.; Williams, Mike; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the distribution of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity was thoroughly characterized within the anaerobic waste lagoon of a typical commercial swine sow operation. Three independent rounds of sampling were conducted in June 2009, April 2010, and February 2011. Thirty-seven analytes in lagoon slurry and sludge were assessed using LC/MS-MS, and yeast estrogen screen was used to determine estrogenic activity. Of the hormone analytes, steroidal estrogens were more abundant than androgens or progesterone, with estrone being the predominant estrogen species. Conjugated hormones were detected only at low levels. The isoflavone metabolite equol was by far the predominant phytoestrogen species, with daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and coumestrol present at lower levels. Phytoestrogens were often more abundant than steroidal estrogens, but contributed minimally towards total estrogenic activity. Analytes were significantly elevated in the solid phases of the lagoon; although low observed log KOC values suggest enhanced solubility in the aqueous phase, perhaps due to dissolved or colloidal organic carbon. The association with the solid phase, as well as recalcitrance of analytes to anaerobic degradation, results in a markedly elevated load of analytes and estrogenic activity within lagoon sludge. Overall, findings emphasize the importance of adsorption and transformation processes in governing the fate of these compounds in lagoon waste, which is ultimately used for broadcast application as a fertilizer.

  3. Influence of deflocculation on microwave disintegration and anaerobic biodegradability of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezer, A Vimala; Kaliappan, S; Adish Kumar, S; Yeom, Ick-Tae; Banu, J Rajesh

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the potential benefits of deflocculation on microwave pretreatment of waste activated sludge were investigated. Deflocculation in the absence of cell lysis was achieved through the removal of extra polymeric substances (EPS) by sodium citrate (0.1g sodium citrate/g suspended solids), and DNA was used as a marker for monitoring cell lysis. Subsequent microwave pretreatment yielded a chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilisation of 31% and 21%, suspended solids (SS) reduction of 37% and 22%, for deflocculated and flocculated sludge, respectively, with energy input of 14,000kJ/kg TS. When microwave pretreated sludge was subjected to anaerobic fermentation, greater accumulation of volatile fatty acid (860mg/L) was noticed in deflocculated sludge, indicating better hydrolysis. Among the samples subjected to BMP (Biochemical methane potential test), deflocculated microwave pretreated sludge showed better amenability towards anaerobic digestion with high methane production potential of 0.615L (gVS)(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance evaluation and phylogenetic characterization of anaerobic fluidized bed reactors using ground tire and pet as support materials for biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Aruana Rocha; Adorno, Maria Angela Tallarico; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Maintinguer, Sandra Imaculada; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio; Silva, Edson Luiz

    2011-02-01

    This study evaluated two different support materials (ground tire and polyethylene terephthalate [PET]) for biohydrogen production in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) treating synthetic wastewater containing glucose (4000 mg L(-1)). The AFBR, which contained either ground tire (R1) or PET (R2) as support materials, were inoculated with thermally pretreated anaerobic sludge and operated at a temperature of 30°C. The AFBR were operated with a range of hydraulic retention times (HRT) between 1 and 8h. The reactor R1 operating with a HRT of 2h showed better performance than reactor R2, reaching a maximum hydrogen yield of 2.25 mol H(2)mol(-1) glucose with 1.3mg of biomass (as the total volatile solids) attached to each gram of ground tire. Subsequent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of particle samples revealed that reactor R1 favored the presence of hydrogen-producing bacteria such as Clostridium, Bacillus, and Enterobacter. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anaerobic treatment of distillery spent wash - a study on upflow anaerobic fixed film bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Bhavik K; Mohana, Sarayu; Madamwar, Datta

    2008-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from a distillery industry having very high COD (1,10,000-1,90,000 mg/L) and BOD (50,000-60,000 mg/L) was studied in a continuously fed, up flow fixed film column reactor using different support materials such as charcoal, coconut coir and nylon fibers under varying hydraulic retention time and organic loading rates. The seed consortium was prepared by enrichment with distillery spent wash in a conventional type reactor having working capacity of 3 L and was used for charging the anaerobic column reactor. Amongst the various support materials studied the reactor having coconut coir could treat distillery spent wash at 8d hydraulic retention time with organic loading rate of 23.25 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) leading to 64% COD reduction with biogas production of 7.2 m3 m(-3)d(-1) having high methane yield without any pretreatment or neutralization of the distillery spent wash. This study indicates fixed film biomethanation of distillery spent wash using coconut coir as the support material appears to be a cost effective and promising technology for mitigating the problems caused by distillery effluent.

  6. Investigation of decolorization of textile wastewater in an anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon system (A/A BAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasukphun, N; Vinitnantharat, S; Gheewala, S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the decolorization in anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon (A/A BAC) system. The experiment was divided into 2 stages; stage I is batch test for preliminary study of dye removal equilibrium time. The preliminary experiment (stage I) provided the optimal data for experimental design of A/A BAC system in SBR (stage II). Stage II is A/A BAC system imitated Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) which consist of 5 main periods; fill, react, settle, draw and idle. React period include anaerobic phase followed by aerobic phase. The BAC main media; Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Mixed Cultures (MC) and Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) were used for dye and organic substances removal in three different solutions; Desizing Agent Solution (DAS), dye Solution (DS) and Synthetic Textile Wastewater (STW). Results indicate that GAC adsorption plays role in dye removal followed by BAC and MC activities, respectively. In the presence desizing agent, decolorization by MC was improved because desizing agent acts as co-substrates for microorganisms. It was found that 50% of dye removal efficiency was achieved in Fill period by MC. GC/MS analysis was used to identify dye intermediate from decolorization. Dye intermediate containing amine group was found in the solution and on BAC surfaces. The results demonstrated that combination of MC and BAC in the system promotes decolorization and dye intermediate removal. In order to improve dye removal efficiency in an A/A BAC system, replacement of virgin GAC, sufficient co-substrates supply and the appropriate anaerobic: aerobic period should be considered.

  7. Anaerobic treatment of winery wastewater in fixed bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Rajinikanth, Rajagopal; Thanikal, Joseph V; Ramanujam, Ramamoorty Alwar; Torrijos, Michel

    2010-06-01

    The treatment of winery wastewater in three upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactors (S9, S30 and S40) with low density floating supports of varying size and specific surface area was investigated. A maximum OLR of 42 g/l day with 80 +/- 0.5% removal efficiency was attained in S9, which had supports with the highest specific surface area. It was found that the efficiency of the reactors increased with decrease in size and increase in specific surface area of the support media. Total biomass accumulation in the reactors was also found to vary as a function of specific surface area and size of the support medium. The Stover-Kincannon kinetic model predicted satisfactorily the performance of the reactors. The maximum removal rate constant (U(max)) was 161.3, 99.0 and 77.5 g/l day and the saturation value constant (K(B)) was 162.0, 99.5 and 78.0 g/l day for S9, S30 and S40, respectively. Due to their higher biomass retention potential, the supports used in this study offer great promise as media in anaerobic fixed bed reactors. Anaerobic fixed-bed reactors with these supports can be applied as high-rate systems for the treatment of large volumes of wastewaters typically containing readily biodegradable organics, such as the winery wastewater.

  8. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  9. Effect of anaerobic digestion on sequential pyrolysis kinetics of organic solid wastes using thermogravimetric analysis and distributed activation energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Mei, Qingqing; Dai, Xiaohu; Ding, Guoji

    2017-03-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis, Gaussian-fit-peak model (GFPM), and distributed activation energy model (DAEM) were firstly used to explore the effect of anaerobic digestion on sequential pyrolysis kinetic of four organic solid wastes (OSW). Results showed that the OSW weight loss mainly occurred in the second pyrolysis stage relating to organic matter decomposition. Compared with raw substrate, the weight loss of corresponding digestate was lower in the range of 180-550°C, but was higher in 550-900°C. GFPM analysis revealed that organic components volatized at peak temperatures of 188-263, 373-401 and 420-462°C had a faster degradation rate than those at 274-327°C during anaerobic digestion. DAEM analysis showed that anaerobic digestion had discrepant effects on activation energy for four OSW pyrolysis, possibly because of their different organic composition. It requires further investigation for the special organic matter, i.e., protein-like and carbohydrate-like groups, to confirm the assumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative in vitro susceptibilities of anaerobic bacteria to cefmenoxime, cefotetan, and N-formimidoyl thienamycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, W E; Finegold, S M

    1983-01-01

    The in vitro activities of cefmenoxime, cefotetan, and N-formimidoyl thienamycin were compared with those of other antimicrobial agents (metronidazole, clindamycin, cefoxitin, and moxalactam) against anaerobic bacteria. The data obtained indicate that N-formimidoyl thienamycin exhibits excellent activity against anaerobic bacteria; cefotetan and cefmenoxime, though less active, should be of value in treating selected anaerobic infections.

  11. Leachate properties as indicators of methane production process in MSW anaerobic digestion bioreactor landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yunmin; Wang, Li'ao; Xu, Tengtun; Li, Jiaxiang; Song, Xue; Hu, Chaochao

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, bioreactor was used to simulate the municipal solid waste (MSW) biodegradation process of landfill, tracing and testing trash methanogenic process and characteristics of leachate during anaerobic digestion, exploring the relationship between the two processes, aiming to screen out the indicators that can predict the methane production process of anaerobic digestion, which provides the support for real-time adjustment of technological parameters of MSW anaerobic digestion system and ensures the efficient operation of bioreactor landfill. The results showed that MSW digestion gas production rate constant is 0.0259 1/d, biogas production potential is 61.93 L/kg. The concentration of TN in leachate continued to increase, showing the trend of nitrogen accumulation. "Ammonia poisoning" was an important factor inhibiting waste anaerobic digestion gas production. In the anaerobic digestion system, although pH values of leachate can indicate methane production process to some degree, there are obvious lagging behind, so it cannot be used as indicator alone. The TOC/TN value of leachate has a certain indication on the stability of the methane production system. When TOC/TN value was larger than12, anaerobic digestion system was stable along with normal production of biogas. However, when TOC/TN value was lower than 12, the digestive system is unstable and the gas production is small. In the process of anaerobic digestion, the synthesis and transformation of valeric acid is more active. HAc/HVa changed greatly and had obvious inflection points, from which methane production period can be predicted.

  12. PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI FARMASI FORMULASI DENGAN METODE ANAEROB-AEROB DAN ANAEROB-KOAGULASI

    OpenAIRE

    Farida Crisnaningtyas; Hanny Vistanty

    2016-01-01

    Studi ini membahas mengenai pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi dalam skala laboratorium dengan menggunakan konsep anaerob-kimia-fisika dan anaerob-aerob. Proses anaerob dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed reactor (UASBr) pada kisaran OLR (Organic Loading Rate) 0,5 – 2 kg COD/m3hari, yang didahului dengan proses aklimatisasi menggunakan substrat gula. Proses anaerob mampu memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD hingga 74%. Keluaran dari proses anaerob diolah lebih ...

  13. Anaerobes in pleuropulmonary infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 76 anaerobes and 122 aerobes were isolated from 100 patients with pleuropulmonary infections, e.g. empyema (64, pleural effusion (19 and lung abscess (13. In 14% of the patients, only anaerobes were recovered, while a mixture of aerobes and anaerobes was encountered in 58%. From all cases of lung abscess, anaerobic bacteria were isolated, alone (04 or along with aerobic bacteria (13. From empyema and pleural effusion cases, 65.6% and 68.4% anaerobes were recovered respectively. Amongst anaerobes, gram negative anaerobic bacilli predominated (Prevotella melaninogenicus 16, Fusobacterium spp. 10, Bacteroides spp. 9, followed by gram positive anaerobic cocci (Peptostreptococcus spp. 31. Coliform bacteria (45 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42 were the predominant aerobic isolates.

  14. Effects of Sprint Interval Training With Active Recovery vs. Endurance Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Sprint Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökmen, Bülent; Witchey, Ronald L; Adams, Gene M; Beam, William C

    2018-03-01

    Sökmen, B, Witchey, RL, Adams, GM, and Beam, WC. Effects of sprint interval training with active recovery vs. endurance training on aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint ability. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 624-631, 2018-This study compared sprint interval training with active recovery (SITAR) to moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) in aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint time results. Forty-two recreationally active adults were randomly assigned to a SITAR or ET group. Both groups trained 3× per week for 10 weeks at 75% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for 30 minutes weeks 1-4, with duration increasing to 35 minutes weeks 5-7 and 40 minutes weeks 8-10. While ET ran on a 400-m track without rest for the full training session, SITAR sprinted until the 200-m mark and recovered with fast walking or light jogging the second 200 m to the finish line in 3× original sprint time. Maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), anaerobic treadmill run to exhaustion at 12.5 km·h at 20% incline, isokinetic leg extension and flexion strength at 60 and 300°·s, and 50 m sprint time were determined before and after training. Results showed a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in absolute and relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, anaerobic treadmill run, and sprint time in both groups. Only SITAR showed significant improvements in isokinetic leg extension and flexion at 300°·s and decreases in body mass (p ≤ 0.05). SITAR also showed significantly greater improvement (p ≤ 0.05) over ET in anaerobic treadmill run and 50 m sprint time. These data suggest that SITAR is a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid adaptations in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max comparable to ET with added improvements in anaerobic power, isokinetic strength, and sprint time not observed with ET.

  15. Acclimatization of anaerobic sludge for UASB-reactor start-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuw, de W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor represents a high rate anaerobic wastewater treatment system. The majority of the active biomass in the reactor is present in the form of sludge granules which possess excellent settling properties.
    If no acclimatized (granular)

  16. The influence of anaerobic muscle activity, maturation and season on the flesh quality of farmed turbot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, B.; Imsland, A.; Stien, L.H.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Gunnarsson, S.; Foss, A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to test seasonal, rearing, maturing and anaerobic muscle activity effect on the flesh quality of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) a total of 80 farmed turbot from three different strains from reared under natural or continuous light were killed by a percussive blow to the head in November

  17. The prospects for methane recovery from the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J. (CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (GB))

    1990-01-01

    The availability, composition and energy output of municipal solid wastes (MSW) in the United Kingdom are considered. The sorting of MSW, the production of organic fractions and the technical aspects of their biological consolidation are examined. A description of anaerobic digestion activities and pilot and commercial scale plants in the United Kingdom, the European Communities and the USA is given. Finally,the potential for electricity generation from, and the co-products, by-products and cost of, the anaerobic digestion of MWS are summarized. It is concluded that, on the basis of the evidence available, there appears to be a good case for government support aimed at boosting the waste treatment industry's confidence in the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of MSW in fabricated systems. A programme of field trials and related research is recommended. (UK).

  18. The utility of anaerobic blood culture in detecting facultative anaerobic bacteremia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kensuke; Komuro, Hisako; Watanabe, Yasushi; Miyairi, Isao

    2013-08-01

    Routine anaerobic blood culture is not recommended in children because obligate anaerobic bacteremia is rare in the pediatric population. However, a number of facultative anaerobic bacteria can cause community and hospital acquired infections in children and the utility of anaerobic blood culture for detection of these organisms is still unclear. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all blood culture samples (n = 24,356) at a children's hospital in Japan from October 2009 to June 2012. Among the samples that had paired aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures, 717 samples were considered clinically significant with 418 (58%) organisms detected from both aerobic and anaerobic cultures, 167 (23%) detected only from aerobic culture and 132 (18%) detected only from anaerobic culture. While most facultative anaerobes were detectable by aerobic culture, over 25% of Enterobacteriaceae and 15% of Staphylococcus sp. were detected from anaerobic cultures bottles only, suggesting its potential role in selected settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Degradation of whey in an anaerobic fixed bed (AnFB) reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Handajani, Marisa

    2004-01-01

    An Anaerobic Fixed Bed (AnFB) reactor was run as an upflow anaerobic reactor with an arrangement of supporting material for growth of a biofilm. The supporting material was made from Liapor-clay-polyethylene sinter lamellas (Herding Co., Amberg). The AnFB reactor was used for treating high concentrations of whey-containing wastewater. Optimal operating conditions for whey treatment at a concentration of COD in the influent of around 50 g whey·l-1 were found for a hydraulic retention ...

  20. Effects of Metal Nanoparticles on Methane Production from Waste-Activated Sludge and Microorganism Community Shift in Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Xiaohu

    2016-05-01

    Extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer and industrial products has led to concerns about their potential environmental impacts; however, the influences of different NPs (e.g., nZVI (nano zero-valent iron), Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on the anaerobic digestion of sludge have not yet been studied in depth. Additionally, a new guideline or the use of different NPs in the anaerobic digestion of sludge should be established to improve the anaerobic digestion of sludge and avoid inhibitory effects. This study investigated the effects of four representative NPs (i.e., nZVI, Ag NPs, Fe2O3 NPs and MgO NPs) on methane production during the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). The presence of 10 mg/g total suspended solids (TSS) nZVI and 100 mg/g TSS Fe2O3 NPs increased methane production to 120% and 117% of the control, respectively, whereas 500 mg/g TSS Ag NPs and 500 mg/g TSS MgO NPs generated lower levels of methane production (73.52% and 1.08% that of the control, respectively). These results showed that low concentrations of nZVI and Fe2O3 NPs promoted the amount of microbes (Bacteria and Archaea) and activities of key enzymes but that higher concentrations of Ag NPs and MgO NPs inhibited them.

  1. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) to the liquid sludge phase compared with the effects of processes conducted separately. The total SCOD after alkalization at 9 pH (pH in the range of 8.96-9.10, SCOD = 600 mg O2/L) and after hydrodynamic (SCOD = 1450 mg O2/L) disintegration equaled to 2050 mg/L. However, due to the synergistic effect, the obtained SCOD value amounted to 2800 mg/L, which constitutes an additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolution of about 35 %. Similarly, the synergistic effect after alkalization at 10 pH was also obtained. The applied hybrid pre-hydrolysis technology resulted in a disintegration degree of 28-35%. The experiments aimed at selection of the most appropriate procedures in terms of optimal sludge digestion results, including high organic matter degradation (removal) and high biogas production. The analyzed soft hybrid technology influenced the effectiveness of mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a positive way and ensured the sludge minimization. The adopted pre-treatment technology (alkalization + hydrodynamic cavitation) resulted in 22-27% higher biogas production and 13-28% higher biogas yield. After two stages of anaerobic digestion (mesophilic conditions (MAD) + thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)), the highest total solids (TS) reduction amounted to 45.6% and was received for the following sample at 7 days MAD + 17 days TAD. About 7% higher TS reduction was noticed compared with the sample after 9

  2. The influence and mechanism of influent pH on anaerobic co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two pilot-scale activated sludge systems consisting of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and an aerobic plug flow reactor (PFR) were operated with the aim of minimising excess sludge output of the activated sludge process through coupled alkaline hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion. Variations in the effluent of total ...

  3. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for simulating anaerobic mesophilic sludge digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Carlos; Esquerre, Karla; Matos Queiroz, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The behavior of a anaerobic reactor was evaluated through modeling. • Parametric sensitivity analysis was used to select most sensitive of the ADM1. • The results indicate that the ADM1 was able to predict the experimental results. • Organic load rate above of 35 kg/m 3 day affects the performance of the process. - Abstract: Improving anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by monitoring common indicators such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), gas composition and pH is a suitable solution for better sludge management. Modeling is an important tool to assess and to predict process performance. The present study focuses on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the dynamic behavior of a reactor fed with sewage sludge under mesophilic conditions. Parametric sensitivity analysis is used to select the most sensitive ADM1 parameters for estimation using a numerical procedure while other parameters are applied without any modification to the original values presented in the ADM1 report. The results indicate that the ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to predict the experimental results of effluent acetate, propionate, composites and biogas flows and pH with reasonable accuracy. The simulation of the effect of organic shock loading clearly showed that an organic shock loading rate above of 35 kg/m 3 day affects the performance of the reactor. The results demonstrate that simulations can be helpful to support decisions on predicting the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge

  4. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for simulating anaerobic mesophilic sludge digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Carlos, E-mail: carllosmendez@gmail.com; Esquerre, Karla, E-mail: karlaesquerre@ufba.br; Matos Queiroz, Luciano, E-mail: lmqueiroz@ufba.br

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The behavior of a anaerobic reactor was evaluated through modeling. • Parametric sensitivity analysis was used to select most sensitive of the ADM1. • The results indicate that the ADM1 was able to predict the experimental results. • Organic load rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the process. - Abstract: Improving anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by monitoring common indicators such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), gas composition and pH is a suitable solution for better sludge management. Modeling is an important tool to assess and to predict process performance. The present study focuses on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the dynamic behavior of a reactor fed with sewage sludge under mesophilic conditions. Parametric sensitivity analysis is used to select the most sensitive ADM1 parameters for estimation using a numerical procedure while other parameters are applied without any modification to the original values presented in the ADM1 report. The results indicate that the ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to predict the experimental results of effluent acetate, propionate, composites and biogas flows and pH with reasonable accuracy. The simulation of the effect of organic shock loading clearly showed that an organic shock loading rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the reactor. The results demonstrate that simulations can be helpful to support decisions on predicting the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge.

  5. Roles of magnetite and granular activated carbon in improvement of anaerobic sludge digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong; Zhang, Yaobin; Tan, Dongmei; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Huimin; Quan, Xie

    2018-02-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) or magnetite could promote methane production from organic wastes, but their roles in enhancing anaerobic sludge digestion have not been clarified. GAC, magnetite and their combination were complemented into sludge digesters, respectively. Experimental results showed that average methane production increased by 7.3% for magnetite, 13.1% for GAC, and 20% for the combination of magnetite and GAC, and the effluent TCOD of the control, magnetite, GAC and magnetite-GAC digesters on day 56 were 53.2, 49.6, 48.0 and 46.6 g/L, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and microbial analysis indicated that magnetite enriched iron-reducing bacteria responsible for sludge hydrolysis while GAC enhanced syntrophic metabolism between iron-reducing bacteria and methanogens due to its high electrical conductivity and large surface area. Supplementing magnetite and GAC together into an anaerobic digester simultaneously accelerated sludge hydrolysis and methane production, resulting in better sludge digestion performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Strong antimicrobial activity of xanthohumol and other derivatives from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) on gut anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Pavel; Olsovska, Jana; Mikyska, Alexandr; Dusek, Martin; Kadleckova, Zuzana; Vanicek, Jiri; Nyc, Otakar; Sigler, Karel; Bostikova, Vanda; Bostik, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic bacteria, such as Bacteroides fragilis or Clostridium perfringens, are part of indigenous human flora. However, Clostridium difficile represents also an important causative agent of nosocomial infectious antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Treatment of C. difficile infection is problematic, making it imperative to search for new compounds with antimicrobial properties. Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) contain substances with antibacterial properties. We tested antimicrobial activity of purified hop constituents humulone, lupulone and xanthohumol against anaerobic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was established against B. fragilis, C. perfringens and C. difficile strains according to standard testing protocols (CLSI, EUCAST), and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were calculated. All C. difficile strains were toxigenic and clinically relevant, as they were isolated from patients with diarrhoea. Strongest antimicrobial effects were observed with xanthohumol showing MIC and MBC values of 15-107 μg/mL, which are close to those of conventional antibiotics in the strains of bacteria with increased resistance. Slightly higher MIC and MBC values were obtained with lupulone followed by higher values of humulone. Our study, thus, shows a potential of purified hop compounds, especially xanthohumol, as alternatives for treatment of infections caused by select anaerobic bacteria, namely nosocomial diarrhoea caused by resistant strains. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI FARMASI FORMULASI DENGAN METODE ANAEROB-AEROB DAN ANAEROB-KOAGULASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Crisnaningtyas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studi ini membahas mengenai pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi dalam skala laboratorium dengan menggunakan konsep anaerob-kimia-fisika dan anaerob-aerob. Proses anaerob dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed reactor (UASBr pada kisaran OLR (Organic Loading Rate 0,5 – 2 kg COD/m3hari, yang didahului dengan proses aklimatisasi menggunakan substrat gula. Proses anaerob mampu memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD hingga 74%. Keluaran dari proses anaerob diolah lebih lanjut dengan menggunakan dua opsi proses: (1 fisika-kimia, dan (2 aerob. Koagulan alumunium sulfat dan flokulan kationik memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD tertinggi (73% pada kecepatan putaran masing-masing 100 rpm dan 40 rpm. Uji coba aerob dilakukan pada kisaran MLSS antara 4000-5000 mg/L dan mampu memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD hingga 97%. Hasil uji coba menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi penurunan COD total yang dapat dicapai dengan menggunakan teknologi anaerob-aerob adalah 97%, sedangkan kombinasi anaerob-koagulasi-flokulasi hanya mampu menurunkan COD total sebesar 72,53%. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut, kombinasi proses anaerob-aerob merupakan teknologi yang potensial untuk diaplikasikan dalam sistem pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi. 

  8. Presence and transcriptional activity of anaerobic fungi in agricultural biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollhofer, Veronika; Callaghan, Tony M; Griffith, Gareth W; Lebuhn, Michael; Bauer, Johann

    2017-07-01

    Bioaugmentation with anaerobic fungi (AF) is promising for improved biogas generation from lignocelluloses-rich substrates. However, before implementing AF into biogas processes it is necessary to investigate their natural occurrence, community structure and transcriptional activity in agricultural biogas plants. Thus, AF were detected with three specific PCR based methods: (i) Copies of their 18S genes were found in 7 of 10 biogas plants. (ii) Transcripts of a GH5 endoglucanase gene were present at low level in two digesters, indicating transcriptional cellulolytic activity of AF. (iii) Phylogeny of the AF-community was inferred with the 28S gene. A new Piromyces species was isolated from a PCR-positive digester. Evidence for AF was only found in biogas plants operated with high proportions of animal feces. Thus, AF were most likely transferred into digesters with animal derived substrates. Additionally, high process temperatures in combination with long retention times seemed to impede AF survival and activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Culture-Independent Analyses Reveal Novel Anaerolineaceae as Abundant Primary Fermenters in Anaerobic Digesters Treating Waste Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. McIlroy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion for biogas production is reliant on the tightly coupled synergistic activities of complex microbial consortia. Members of the uncultured A6 phylotype, within the phylum Chloroflexi, are among the most abundant genus-level-taxa of mesophilic anaerobic digester systems treating primary and surplus sludge from wastewater treatment plants, yet are known only by their 16S rRNA gene sequence. This study applied metagenomics to obtain a complete circular genome (2.57 Mbp from a representative of the A6 taxon. Preliminary annotation of the genome indicates these organisms to be anaerobic chemoorganoheterotrophs with a fermentative metabolism. Given their observed abundance, they are likely important primary fermenters in digester systems. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridisation probes designed in this study revealed their morphology to be short filaments present within the flocs. The A6 were sometimes co-located with the filamentous Archaea Methanosaeta spp. suggesting potential undetermined synergistic relationships. Based on its genome sequence and morphology we propose the species name Brevefilum fermentans gen. nov. sp. nov.

  10. Evaluating the effects of activated carbon on methane generation and the fate of antibiotic resistant genes and class I integrons during anaerobic digestion of solid organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxin; Mao, Feijian; Loh, Kai-Chee; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah

    2018-02-01

    The effects of activated carbon (AC) on methane production and the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were evaluated through comparing the anaerobic digestion performance and transformation of ARGs among anaerobic mono-digestion of food waste, co-digestion of food waste and chicken manure, and co-digestion of food waste and waste activated sludge. Results showed that adding AC in anaerobic digesters improved methane yield by at least double through the enrichment of bacteria and archaea. Conventional digestion process showed ability in removing certain types of ARGs, such as tetA, tetX, sul1, sul2, cmlA, floR, and intl1. Supplementing AC in anaerobic digester enhanced the removal of most of the ARGs in mono-digestion of food waste. The effects tended to be minimal in co-digestion of co-substrates such as chicken manure and waste activated sludge, both of which contain a certain amount of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Problems Caused by Microbes and Treatment Strategies Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation and Biocorrosion: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suflita, Joseph M.; Duncan, Kathleen E.

    The anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is important for the intrinsic remediation of spilt fuels (Gieg and Suflita, 2005), for the conversion of hydrocarbons to clean burning natural gas (Gieg et al., 2008; Jones et al., 2008) and for the fundamental cycling of carbon on the planet (Caldwell et al., 2008). However, the same process has also been implicated in a host of difficult problems including reservoir souring (Jack and Westlake, 1995), oil viscosity alteration (Head et al., 2003), compromised equipment performance and microbiologically influenced corrosion (Duncan et al., 2009). Herein, we will focus on the role of anaerobic microbial communities in catalysing biocorrosion activities in oilfield facilities. Biocorrosion is a costly problem that remains relatively poorly understood. Understanding of the underlying mechanisms requires reliable information on the carbon and energy sources supporting biofilm microorganisms capable of catalysing such activities.

  12. Synergistic pretreatment of waste activated sludge using CaO_2 in combination with microwave irradiation to enhance methane production during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jie; Li, Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CaO_2/MW pretreatment synergistically enhanced WAS solubilization and CH_4 production. • MW irradiation facilitated more "·OH generation from CaO_2. • The optimal pretreatment condition for methane production was determined. • The growths of both hydrogenotrophic and acetate-utilizing methanogens were promoted. • The dewaterability of WAS was improved considerably by CaO_2/MW treatment. - Abstract: To investigate the effects of combined calcium peroxide (CaO_2) and microwave pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge, lab-scale experiments were conducted to measure the solubilization, biodegradation, and dewaterability of the waste activated sludge. Additionally, the synergistic effects between CaO_2 and microwave were studied, and the microbial activity and methanogenic archaea community structure were analyzed. Combined pretreatment considerably facilitated the solubilization and subsequent anaerobic digestion of the waste activated sludge. The optimal pretreatment condition was CaO_2 (0.1 g/gVSS)/microwave (480 W, 2 min) for methane production during the subsequent anaerobic digestion process. Under this condition, 80.2% higher CH_4 accumulation yield was achieved after 16 d of anaerobic digestion when compared with the control. The synergistic effects of CaO_2/microwave pretreatment resulted from the different mechanisms of CaO_2 and microwave treatments. Further, microwave irradiation increased "·OH generation from CaO_2 and significantly alleviated the inhibitory effect of CaO_2 on methanogens. The activities of hydrolytic enzymes and acid-forming enzymes in the waste activated sludge were improved after CaO_2 (0.1 g/gVSS)/microwave (480 W, 2 min) pretreatment. Methanogenesis enzyme activity was also higher after CaO_2 treatment (0.1 g/gVSS)/microwave (480 W, 2 min) following a lag period. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis indicated that acetate-utilizing methanogen (Methanosaeta sp.) and H_2/CO_2-utilizing

  13. SONO-OXIDATIVE PRE-TREATMENT OF WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE BEFORE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Şahinkaya

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of sonication, potassium ferrate (K2FeO4 oxidation and their simultaneous combination (called "sono-oxidative pre-treatment" on chemical properties and anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS were investigated and compared comprehensively. Based on chemical parameters, the optimum operating conditions were found to be 0.3 g K2FeO4/g total solids (TS dosage for 2-h individual K2FeO4 oxidation, 0.50 W/mL ultrasonic power density for 10-min individual sonication and, lastly, the combination of 2.5-min sonication at 0.75 W/mL ultrasonic power density with 2-h chemical oxidation at 0.3 g K2FeO4/g TS dosage for sono-oxidative pre-treatment. The disintegration efficiencies of these methods under the optimized conditions were in the following descending order: 37.8% for sono-oxidative pre-treatment > 26.3% for sonication > 13.1% for K2FeO4 oxidation. The influences of these methods on anaerobic biodegradability were tested with the biochemical methane potential assay. It was seen that the cumulative methane production increased by 9.2% in the K2FeO4 oxidation reactor, 15.8% in the sonicated reactor and 18.6% in the reactor with sono-oxidative pre-treatment, compared to the control (untreated reactor.

  14. Anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor and process for wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Amy, Gary

    2015-07-09

    An anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor (AnEMBR) can include a vessel into which wastewater can be introduced, an anode electrode in the vessel suitable for supporting electrochemically active microorganisms (EAB, also can be referred to as anode reducing bacteria, exoelectrogens, or electricigens) that oxidize organic compounds in the wastewater, and a cathode membrane electrode in the vessel, which is configured to pass a treated liquid through the membrane while retaining the electrochemically active microorganisms and the hydrogenotrophic methanogens (for example, the key functional microbial communities, including EAB, methanogens and possible synergistic fermenters) in the vessel. The cathode membrane electrode can be suitable for catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction to generate hydro en.

  15. Addition of granular activated carbon and trace elements to favor volatile fatty acid consumption during anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Moscoviz, Roman; Ruiz, Diane; Santa-Catalina, Gaëlle; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernet, Nicolas; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-07-01

    The effect of supplementing granular activated carbon and trace elements on the anaerobic digestion performance of consecutive batch reactors treating food waste was investigated. The results from the first batch suggest that addition of activated carbon favored biomass acclimation, improving acetic acid consumption and enhancing methane production. Adding trace elements allowed a faster consumption of propionic acid. A second batch proved that a synergy existed when activated carbon and trace elements were supplemented simultaneously. The degradation kinetics of propionate oxidation were particularly improved, reducing significantly the batch duration and improving the average methane productivities. Addition of activated carbon favored the growth of archaea and syntrophic bacteria, suggesting that interactions between these microorganisms were enhanced. Interestingly, microbial analyses showed that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were predominant. This study shows for the first time that addition of granular activated carbon and trace elements may be a feasible solution to stabilize food waste anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria ... Brook I. Diseases caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  17. University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koker, John [Univ. of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI (United States); Lizotte, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI (United States)

    2017-02-08

    The University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility is a demonstration project that supported the first commercial-scale use in the United States of high solids, static pile technology for anaerobic digestion of organic waste to generate biogas for use in generating electricity and heat. The research adds to the understanding of startup, operation and supply chain issues for anaerobic digester technology. Issues and performance were documented for equipment installation and modifications, feedstock availability and quality, weekly loading and unloading of digestion chambers, chemical composition of biogas produced, and energy production. This facility also demonstrated an urban industrial ecology approach to siting such facilities near sewage treatment plants (to capture and use excess biogas generated by the plants) and organic yard waste collection sites (a source of feedstock).

  18. Anaerobic Fungi and Their Potential for Biogas Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dollhofer, V.; Podmirseg, S.M.; Callaghan, T. M.; Griffith, G.W.; Fliegerová, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 1 (2015), s. 41-61 ISSN 0724-6145 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : anaerobic fungi * Neocallimastigomycota * phylogeny Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.911, year: 2015

  19. Influence Of Quinolone Lethality on Irradiated Anaerobic Growth of Escherichia Coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.M.; El-Kabbany, H.M.; El-Esseily, E.SH.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities were measured with wild type cells and isomerase mutants of Escherichia coli for ciprofloxacin, formation of quinolone-gyrase-DNA complexes, observed as a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) dependent drop in cell lysate viscosity, occurred during aerobic and anaerobic growth and in the presence and in the absence of chloramphenicol. Quinolone activity against Escherichia coli was examined during aerobic growth, aerobic treatment with chloramphenicol, and anaerobic growth. Nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin were lethal for cultures growing aerobically, and the bacteriostatic activity of each quinolone was unaffected by anaerobic growth. However, lethal activity was distinct for each quinolone with cells treated aerobically with chloramphenicol or grown anaerobically. Nalidixic acid failed to kill cells under both conditions, norfloxacin killed cells when they were grown anaerobically but not when they were treated with chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin killed cells under both conditions but required higher concentrations than those required with cells grown aerobically, C-methoxy fluoro quinolone was equally lethal under all conditions. However, lethal chromosome fragmentation, detected as a drop in viscosity in the absence of SDS, was occurred with nalidixic acid treatment only under aerobic conditions in the absence of chloramphenicol, thus, all quinolones tested appeared to form reversible bacteriostatic complexes containing broken DNA during aerobic growth, during anaerobic growth, and when protein synthesis is blocked. The ability to fragment chromosomes rapidly kill cells under these conditions depends on quinolone structure. The radiation of sublethal dose was 3 Gy at rate of 0.6 Gy/min was shown as non-significant result

  20. Anaerobic digestion of microalgal biomass: Challenges, opportunities and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, Cristina; Sialve, Bruno; Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    Integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) with microalgae processes has become a key topic to support economic and environmental development of this resource. Compared with other substrates, microalgae can be produced close to the plant without the need for arable lands and be fully integrated within a biorefinery. As a limiting step, anaerobic hydrolysis appears to be one of the most challenging steps to reach a positive economic balance and to completely exploit the potential of microalgae for biogas and fertilizers production. This review covers recent investigations dealing with microalgae AD and highlights research opportunities and needs to support the development of this resource. Novel approaches to increase hydrolysis rate, the importance of the reactor design and the noteworthiness of the microbial anaerobic community are addressed. Finally, the integration of AD with microalgae processes and the potential of the carboxylate platform for chemicals and biofuels production are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Activity of OPT-80, a novel macrocycle, compared with those of eight other agents against selected anaerobic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim L; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2004-11-01

    Agar dilution MIC was used to compare activities of OPT-80, linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 350 gram-positive and -negative anaerobes. OPT-80 was active against gram-positive strains only, especially Clostridium spp. (85 strains tested, including 21 strains of C. difficile), with MICs ranging between

  2. Anaerobic treatment of complex wastewater and waste activated sludge - Appl. of an upflow anaerobic solid removal (UASR).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.; Sanders, W.T.M.; Wang, K.Y.; Lettinga, G.

    1997-01-01

    The application of one phase anaerobic wastewater systems for the treatment of complex wastewaters containing high amounts of suspended solids or lipids is usually limited by accumulation of these compounds in the sludge bed. This accumulation reduces the solid retention time and methanogenic

  3. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher B

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis. An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure.

  4. [First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans/ Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaria, María C; Bianchini, Hebe M; Castello, Liliana; Carloni, Graciela; Di Martino, Ana; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Litterio, Mirta; Rollet, Raquel; Rossetti, Adelaida; Predari, Silvia C

    2011-01-01

    Through time, anaerobic bacteria have shown good susceptibility to clinically useful antianaerobic agents. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial resistance profile of most of the anaerobic species related to severe infections in humans has been modified in the last years and different kinds of resistance to the most active agents have emerged, making their effectiveness less predictable. With the aim of finding an answer and for the purpose of facilitating the detection of anaerobic antimicrobial resistance, the Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología developed the First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans. This document resulted from the compatibilization of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, the international literature and the work and experience of the Subcommittee. The Consensus document provides a brief taxonomy review, and exposes why and when anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be conducted, and which antimicrobial agents can be used according to the species involved. The recommendations on how to perform, read and interpret in vitro anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests with each method are exposed. Finally, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the classification of antibiotics according to their in vitro activities, the natural and acquired mechanisms of resistance, the emerging resistance and the regional antibiotic resistance profile of clinically relevant anaerobic species are shown.

  5. Concerning the role of cell lysis-cryptic growth in anaerobic side-stream reactors: the single-cell analysis of viable, dead and lysed bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, P; Velho, V F; Costa, R H R; Bruni, L; Quaranta, A; Andreottola, G

    2015-05-01

    In the Anaerobic Side-Stream Reactor (ASSR), part of the return sludge undergoes alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions with the aim of reducing sludge production. In this paper, viability, enzymatic activity, death and lysis of bacterial cells exposed to aerobic and anaerobic conditions for 16 d were investigated at single-cell level by flow cytometry, with the objective of contributing to the understanding of the mechanisms of sludge reduction in the ASSR systems. Results indicated that total and viable bacteria did not decrease during the anaerobic phase, indicating that anaerobiosis at ambient temperature does not produce a significant cell lysis. Bacteria decay and lysis occurred principally under aerobic conditions. The aerobic decay rate of total bacteria (bTB) was considered as the rate of generation of lysed bacteria. Values of bTB of 0.07-0.11 d(-1) were measured in anaerobic + aerobic sequence. The enzymatic activity was not particularly affected by the transition from anaerobiosis to aerobiosis. Large solubilisation of COD and NH4(+) was observed only under anaerobic conditions, as a consequence of hydrolysis of organic matter, but not due to cell lysis. The observations supported the proposal of two independent mechanisms contributing equally to sludge reduction: (1) under anaerobic conditions: sludge hydrolysis of non-bacterial material, (2) under aerobic conditions: bacterial cell lysis and oxidation of released biodegradable compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enrichment of specific electro-active microorganisms and enhancement of methane production by adding granular activated carbon in anaerobic reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Hee-Deung

    2016-04-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) via conductive materials can provide significant benefits to anaerobic methane formation in terms of production amount and rate. Although granular activated carbon (GAC) demonstrated its applicability in facilitating DIET in methanogenesis, DIET in continuous flow anaerobic reactors has not been verified. Here, evidences of DIET via GAC were explored. The reactor supplemented with GAC showed 1.8-fold higher methane production rate than that without GAC (35.7 versus 20.1±7.1mL-CH4/d). Around 34% of methane formation was attributed to the biomass attached to GAC. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene demonstrated the enrichment of exoelectrogens (e.g. Geobacter) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g. Methanospirillum and Methanolinea) from the biomass attached to GAC. Furthermore, anodic and cathodic currents generation was observed in an electrochemical cell containing GAC biomass. Taken together, GAC supplementation created an environment for enriching the microorganisms involved in DIET, which increased the methane production rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced waste activated sludge digestion using a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor: performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology.

  8. Anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    A variety of test procedures for determination of anaerobic biodegradability has been reported. This paper reviews the methods developed for determination of anaerobic biodegradability of macro-pollutants. Anaerobic biodegradability of micro-pollutants is not included. Furthermore, factors...

  9. Microbial Internal Storage Alters the Carbon Transformation in Dynamic Anaerobic Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Batstone, Damien; Zhao, Bai-Hang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-08-04

    Microbial internal storage processes have been demonstrated to occur and play an important role in activated sludge systems under both aerobic and anoxic conditions when operating under dynamic conditions. High-rate anaerobic reactors are often operated at a high volumetric organic loading and a relatively dynamic profile, with large amounts of fermentable substrates. These dynamic operating conditions and high catabolic energy availability might also facilitate the formation of internal storage polymers by anaerobic microorganisms. However, so far information about storage under anaerobic conditions (e.g., anaerobic fermentation) as well as its consideration in anaerobic process modeling (e.g., IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1, ADM1) is still sparse. In this work, the accumulation of storage polymers during anaerobic fermentation was evaluated by batch experiments using anaerobic methanogenic sludge and based on mass balance analysis of carbon transformation. A new mathematical model was developed to describe microbial storage in anaerobic systems. The model was calibrated and validated by using independent data sets from two different anaerobic systems, with significant storage observed, and effectively simulated in both systems. The inclusion of the new anaerobic storage processes in the developed model allows for more successful simulation of transients due to lower accumulation of volatile fatty acids (correction for the overestimation of volatile fatty acids), which mitigates pH fluctuations. Current models such as the ADM1 cannot effectively simulate these dynamics due to a lack of anaerobic storage mechanisms.

  10. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria gain antibiotic resistance during long-term acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Guo, Qiong; Chen, Qian-Qian; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2015-09-01

    Three broad-spectrum antibiotics, amoxicillin (AMX), florfenicol (FF) and sulfamethazine (SMZ), that inhibit bacteria via different target sites, were selected to evaluate the acute toxicity and long-term effects on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) granules. The specific anammox activity (SAA) levels reduced by approximately half within the first 3 days in the presence of antibiotics but no nitrite accumulation was observed in continuous-flow experiments. However, the SAA levels and heme c content gradually recovered as the antibiotic concentrations increased. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) analysis suggested that anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria gradually developed a better survival strategy during long-term acclimatization, which reduced the antibiotic stress via increased EPS secretion that provided a protective 'cocoon.' In terms of nitrogen removal efficiency, anammox granules could resist 60 mg-AMX L(-1), 10 mg-FF L(-1) and 100 mg-SMZ L(-1). This study supported the feasibility of using anammox granules to treat antibiotic-containing wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface. Progress report, June 1, 1990--May 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  12. The The Effects of Cold Water Immersion on Anaerobic Power, Dynamic Balance and Muscle Activation After a karate kumite fighting in Female Karateka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Afshar Nezhad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many athletes are using specific techniques to minimize fatigue and accelerate recovery processes. Cold water immersion (CWI is one of the most popular interventions used by athletes to potentially return to their pre-fatigue performance level. the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CWI on anaerobic performance, balance and muscle activation of female karateka after a simulated match. 15 young female karateka (age: 18.7±1.7 years, body mass: 55.5±6.3 kg, height:165±5.1 cm with at least three years' experience in karate kumite fighting were included in the study. After three round 3-minute competition, participants were grouped into a CWI group (20 min at 12±1°C and a control group (CTL. Anaerobic power (30 s Wingate test, and dynamic balance (Star-Excursion test were measured before the competition and 24 h after intervention. Surface electromyography (EMG was sampled from quadriceps femoris muscles. Peak normalized muscle activation levels and force were identified during maximal isometric test. A significant decrease in the anaerobic performance after the competition was observed for both groups (p<0.05. CWI were effective in enhancing the anaerobic performance after competition compared with the CTL. Dynamic balance decreased for two groups, although CWI resulted in the smallest reduction in balance. There was a significant difference in peak and mean RMS values of the EMG in Rectus Femoris but not Vastus muscles after the CWI intervention when compared to CTL (p<0.05. CWI improve recovery related to dynamic balance and anaerobic performance of karate kumite fighter. It can be concluded that CWI appears to promote muscle activation and reduce fatigue that is related to better performance in 24 hours post intervention.

  13. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  14. Anaerobic degradation of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and the fate of ADF additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Tham

    2002-11-01

    A central composite design was employed to methodically investigate anaerobic treatment of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in bench-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors. A total of 23 runs at 17 different operating conditions were conducted in continuous mode. The development of four empirical models describing process responses (i.e., chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency, biomass specific acetoclastic activity, methane production rate, and methane production potential) as functions of ADF concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and biomass concentration is presented. Model verification indicated that predicted responses (COD removal efficiencies, biomass specific acetoclastic activity, and methane production rates and potential) were in good agreement with experimental results. Biomass specific acetoclastic activity was improved by almost two-fold during ADF treatment in UASB reactors. For the design window, COD removal efficiencies were higher than 90%. Predicted methane production potentials were close to theoretical values, and methane production rates increased as the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased. ADF toxicity effects were evident for 1.6% ADF at medium specific organic loadings (SOLR above 0.5 g COD/g VSS/d). In contrast, good reactor stability and excellent removal efficiencies were achieved at 1.2% ADF for reactor loadings approaching that of highly loaded systems (0.73 g COD/g VSS/d). Acclimation to ADF resulted in an initial reduction in the biomass settling velocity. The fate of ADF additives was also investigated. There was minimal sorption of benzotriazole (BT), 5-methyl-1 H-benzotriazole (MeBT), and 5,6-dimethyl-1 H-benzotriazole (DiMeBT) to anaerobic granules. A higher sorption capacity was measured for NP. Active transport may be one of the mechanisms for NP sorption. Ethylene glycol degradation experiments indicated that BT, MeBT, DiMeBT, and the nonionic surfactant Tergitol NP-4 had no significant

  15. Energetic and biochemical valorization of cork boiling wastewater by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Isabel Paula; Gil, Luís; La Cara, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In addition to energy benefits, anaerobic digestion offers other interesting advantages. The cork industry is of great environmental, economic and social significance in the western Mediterranean region, with Portugal being the world-leading producer and exporter. Cork boiling wastewater (CBW) is a toxic and recalcitrant organic effluent produced by this sector, which constitutes a serious environmental hazard. However, there is no documented research on anaerobic treatment/valorization performed with this effluent. The work presented here was developed with the aim to use the anaerobic digestion process to convert the CBW polluting organic load into an energy carrier gas and valuable molecules for industry. No lag phases were observed and a methane yield of 0.126 to 0.142 m(3) kg(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD)added was registered in the mesophilic consortium experiments carried out in batch flasks at 37 ± 1°C. Anaerobic digestion can be advantageously connected to ultrafiltration or electrochemical processes, due to the following: 1) reduction of ellagic acid content and consequent decrease of CBW viscosity; and 2) increase in conductivity after the anaerobic process, avoiding the electrolyte application of the electrochemical process. The improvement of several CBW biochemical features shows that anaerobic digestion may provide additionally useful molecules. The rise in concentration of some of these compounds, belonging to the benzoic acid family (gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic and syringic acids), is responsible for the increase of antiradical activity of the phenolic fraction. Additionally, some enzymatic activity was also observed and while the laccase activity increased in the digested effluent by anaerobiosis, xylanase was formed in the process. The multidisciplinary approach adopted allowed the valorization of CBW in terms of energy and valuable biomolecules. By exploiting the anaerobic digestion process potential, a novel methodology to toxic

  16. In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eGieg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contibuting to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more benefical technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

  17. Start-up of intensive anaerobic wastewater methanization processes: impact of hydrodynamic conditions and of control strategy of organic load increase on biofilm formation and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresson, Romain

    2006-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the understanding of mechanisms of anaerobic film development and maturation, in order to obtain a better control of their formation and this to decrease the duration of the bioreactor start-up phase. More precisely, the author analysed the impact of hydrodynamic parameters and of load rise strategy on biofilm characteristics (thickness, density, biodiversity) and on its activity (anaerobic breathing, decontamination kinetics) during its development. Thus, after a recall of the anaerobic digestion principle, the author presents processes, methods and techniques used during this research, reports and discusses the obtained results

  18. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and PuEDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun, Luying

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this report is to isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria. Although our goal is to isolate anaerobic EDTA degraders, we initiated the experiments to include nitrilotriacetate (NTA), which is a structure homologue of EDTA. All the aerobic EDTA degraders can degrade NTA, but the isolated NTA degraders cannot degrade EDTA. Since NTA is a simpler structure homologue, it is likely that EDTA-degrading ability is evolved from NTA degradation. This hypothesis is further supported from our characterization of EDTA and NTA-degrading enzymes and genes (J. Bact. 179:1112-1116; and Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:688-695). The EDTA monooxygenase and NTA monooxygenase are highly homologous. EDTA monooxygenase can use both EDTA and NTA as substrates, but NTA monooxygenase can only use NTA as a substrate. Thus, we put our effort to isolate both NTA and EDTA degraders. In case, an anaerobic EDTA degrader is not immediately enriched, we will try to evolve the NTA degraders to use EDTA. Both aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures were set

  19. [Current clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, Roman; Marešová, Veronika; Brož, Zdeněk

    2010-10-01

    to estimate tje current clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia in a group of Czech hospitals. this retrospective analysis comprised 8 444 anaerobic blood cultures in patients admitted to four Czech hospitals between 2004 and 2007. in 16 patients, blood cultures yielded significant anaerobic bacteria. Thus, anaerobic bacteremia accounted for less than 2 % of clinically significant bacteremia. Four patients (18 %) died but none of the deaths could be clearly attributable to anaerobic bacteria in the bloodstream. The most common comorbidities predisposing to anaerobic bacteremia and the most frequent sources of infection were similar to those reported by other authors. The majority of anaerobic bacteremia cases were due to gram-negative bacteria, followed by Clostridium perfringens and, surprisingly, Eubacterium spp. (particularly Eubacterium lentum). anaerobic bacteremia remains rare. The comparison of our data with those by other authors suggests that (despite the reported high mortality) the actual clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia is rather controversial and that the anaerobic bacteremia might not correspond to more serious pathogenic role of the anaerobic bacteria as the source of infection.

  20. Biomethanation of salty cheese whey using multichamber anaerobic bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Chirag; Madamwar, Datta [Sardar Patel Univ., Gujarat (India)

    1998-07-01

    To obtain enriched methane content and improve anaerobic digestion of salty cheese whey after diluting with total dairy waste water, a multichamber anaerobic bioreactor has been developed using different combination of bedding materials in different chambers. Best performance has been obtained at 37''oC under the combination of polystyrene chips, pumice stones and PVC beads as supporting materials, and operating at 2 day hydraulic retention time. Maximum gas production of 3.2 litre/litre of digester/day with methane content of 68% and 83% reduction in COD have been noticed. (Author)

  1. Free nitrous acid pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances volatile solids destruction and improves sludge dewaterability in continuous anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Liguo; Laloo, Andrew; Duan, Haoran; Batstone, Damien J; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2018-03-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that pre-treatment of waste activated sludge (WAS) with free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO 2 ) enhances the biodegradability of WAS, identified by a 20-50% increase in specific methane production in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. This suggests that FNA pre-treatment would enhance the destruction of volatile solids (VS) in an anaerobic sludge digester, and reduce overall sludge disposal costs, provided that the dewaterability of the digested sludge is not negatively affected. This study experimentally evaluates the impact of FNA pre-treatment on the VS destruction in anaerobic sludge digestion and on the dewaterability of digested sludge, using continuously operated bench-scale anaerobic digesters. Pre-treatment of full-scale WAS for 24 h at an FNA concentration of 1.8 mg NN/L enhanced VS destruction by 17 ± 1% (from 29.2 ± 0.9% to 34.2 ± 1.1%) and increased dewaterability (centrifuge test) from 12.4 ± 0.4% to 14.1 ± 0.4%. Supporting the VS destruction data, methane production increased by 16 ± 1%. Biochemical methane potential tests indicated that the final digestate stability was also improved with a lower potential from FNA treated digestate. Further, a 2.1 ± 0.2 log improvement in pathogen reduction was also achieved. With inorganic solids representing 15-22% of the full-scale WAS used, FNA pre-treatment resulted in a 16-17% reduction in the volume of dewatered sludge for final disposal. This results in significantly reduced costs as assessed by economic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. ► System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 were analyzed. ► A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 and HRT of 15d. ► With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. ► The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2–8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m 3 d) −1 , with VS reduction rates of 61.7–69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89–5.28 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 . A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 . This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  3. Anaerobic Dehalogenation of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegel, Juergen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qingzhong

    1999-01-01

    Ten years after reports on the existence of anaerobic dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment slurries, we report here on the rapid reductive dehalogenation of para-hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), the excreted main metabolites of PCB in mammals, which can exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in humans. The anaerobic bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans completely dehalogenates all flanking chlorines (chlorines in ortho position to the para-hydroxyl group) ...

  4. Impact of coagulant and flocculant addition to an anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) treating waste-activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, G.; Lopes, Wilton; Zhou, Z.; Guo, H.; de Kreuk, M.K.; Spanjers, H.L.F.M.; van Lier, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of flocculation aid (FA) addition to an anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) (7 L, 35°C) treating waste-activated sludge (WAS). The experiment consisted of three distinct periods. In period 1 (day 1–86), the reactor was operated as a

  5. Evaluation of anaerobic digestion processes for short sludge-age waste activated sludge combined with anammox treatment of digestate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien; Keller, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce energy input and enhance energy recovery from wastewater is driving renewed interest in high-rate activated sludge treatment (i.e. short hydraulic and solids retention times (HRT and SRT, respectively)). This process generates short SRT activated sludge stream, which should be highly degradable. However, the evaluation of anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge has been limited. This paper assesses anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge digestion derived from meat processing wastewater under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. The thermophilic digestion system (55°C) achieved 60 and 68% volatile solids destruction at 8 day and 10 day HRT, respectively, compared with 50% in the mesophilic digestion system (35°C, 10 day HRT). The digestion effluents from the thermophilic (8-10 day HRT) and mesophilic systems were stable, as assessed by residual methane potentials. The ammonia rich sludge dewatering liquor was effectively treated by a batch anammox process, which exhibited comparable nitrogen removal rate as the tests using a control synthetic ammonia solution, indicating that the dewatering liquor did not have inhibiting/toxic effects on the anammox activity.

  6. Anaerobic treatment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehnke, B.; Bischofsberger, W.; Seyfried, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    This practical and theoretical guide presents the current state of knowledge in anaerobic treatment of industrial effluents with a high organic pollutant load and sewage sludges resulting from the treatment of municipal and industrial waste water. Starting from the microbiological bases of anaerobic degradation processes including a description and critical evaluation of executed plants, the book evolves the process-technical bases of anaerobic treatment techniques, derives relative applications, and discusses these with reference to excuted examples. (orig./UWA). 232 figs [de

  7. Thioredoxin system in obligate anaerobe Desulfovibrio desulfuricans: Identification and characterization of a novel thioredoxin 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Ritu; Sharma, Yagya D

    2006-07-05

    Metal corroding sulfate reducing bacteria have been poorly characterized at molecular level due to difficulties pertaining to isolation and handling of anaerobes. We report here for the first time the presence and characterization of thioredoxin 2 in an obligate anaerobic dissimilatory sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. In silico analysis of the D. desulfuricans genome revealed the presence of thioredoxin 1 (dstrx1), thioredoxin 2 (dstrx2) and thioredoxin reductase (dstrxR) genes. These genes were found to be actively expressed by the bacteria under the anaerobic growth conditions. We have overexpressed the anaerobic thioredoxin genes in E. coli to produce functionally active recombinant proteins. Recombinant DsTrxR recognized both DsTrx1 and DsTrx2 as its substrate. Mutation studies revealed that the activity of DsTrx2 can be completely abolished with a single amino acid mutation (C69A) in the signature motif 'WCGPC'. Furthermore, the N-terminal domain of DsTrx2 containing two extra CXXC motifs was found to have a negative regulation on its biochemical activity. In conclusion, we have shown the presence of thioredoxin 2 for the first time in an obligate anaerobe which in this anaerobe may be required for its survival under either oxidative stress conditions or metal ion hemostasis.

  8. Anaerobic oxidation of methane in grassland soils used for cattle husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bannert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While the importance of anaerobic methane oxidation has been reported for marine ecosystems, the role of this process in soils is still questionable. Grasslands used as pastures for cattle overwintering show an increase in anaerobic soil micro-sites caused by animal treading and excrement deposition. Therefore, anaerobic potential methane oxidation activity of severely impacted soil from a cattle winter pasture was investigated in an incubation experiment under anaerobic conditions using 13C-labelled methane. We were able to detect a high microbial activity utilizing CH4 as nutrient source shown by the respiration of 13CO2. Measurements of possible terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic oxidation of methane were carried out. Soil sulfate concentrations were too low to explain the oxidation of the amount of methane added, but enough nitrate and iron(III were detected. However, only nitrate was consumed during the experiment. 13C-PLFA analyses clearly showed the utilization of CH4 as nutrient source mainly by organisms harbouring 16:1ω7 PLFAs. These lipids were also found as most 13C-enriched fatty acids by Raghoebarsing et al. (2006 after addition of 13CH4 to an enrichment culture coupling denitrification of nitrate to anaerobic oxidation of methane. This might be an indication for anaerobic oxidation of methane by relatives of "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" in the investigated grassland soil under the conditions of the incubation experiment.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS STRAIN JF-2 FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; M. Folmsbee; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Our work focuses on the use of microorganisms to recover petroleum hydrocarbons that remain entrapped after current recovery technologies reach their economic limit. Capillary forces between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are largely responsible for trapping the hydrocarbons in the pores of the rock and large reductions in the interfacial tension between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (1-3, 10, 11). Microorganisms produce a variety of biosurfactants (4), several of which generate the ultra low interfacial tensions needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (4, 5, 8). In particular, the lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 reduces the interfacial tension between hydrocarbon and aqueous phases to very low levels (<0.016 mN/m) (8) (9). B. mojavensis JF-2 grows under the environmental conditions found in many oil reservoirs, i. e., anaerobic, NaCl concentrations up to 80 g l{sup -1}, and temperatures up to 45 C (6, 7), making it ideally suited for in situ applications. However, anaerobic growth of B. mojavensis JF-2 was inconsistent and difficult to replicate, which limited its use for in situ applications. Our initial studies revealed that enzymatic digests, such as Proteose Peptone, were required for anaerobic growth of Bacillus mojavensis JF-2. Subsequent purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose Peptone resulted in the identification of the growth-enhancing factor as DNA or deoxyribonucleosides. The addition of salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, E. coli DNA or synthetic DNA (single or double stranded) to Medium E all supported anaerobic growth of JF-2. Further, we found that JF-2 required all four deoxyribonucleosides (deoxyadeonosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine) for growth under strict anaerobic conditions. The requirement for the deoxyribonucleosides did not occur under aerobic growth conditions. DNA was not used as a sole energy source; sucrose was required

  10. Model assisted startup of anaerobic digesters fed with thermally hydrolysed activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, D J; Balthes, C; Barr, K

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the use of the IWA ADM1 to predict and interpret results from two full-scale anaerobic digesters fed with thermal hyrolysate (waste activated sludge with a long upstream sludge age) from a Cambi hydrolysis process operating at 165°C and 6 bar-g. The first digester was fed conventionally-though intermittently, while the second was heavily diluted through a substantial component of the evaluation period (110 days). There were a number of important outcomes-related to both model application, and model predictions. Input and inert COD: mass ratio was very important, and was considerably higher than the 1.42 g g⁻¹ used for biomass throughout the IWA activated sludge and anaerobic digestion models. Input COD: VS ratio was 1.6 g g⁻¹, and inert COD: VS ratio was 1.7 g g⁻¹. The model succeeded on a number of levels, including effective prediction of important outputs (degradability, gas flow and composition, and final solids), clarification of the substantial data scatter, prediction of recovery times during operationally poor periods, and cross-validation of the results between digester 1 and digester 2. Key failures in model performance were related to an early incorrect assumption of the COD: VS ratio of 1.42 g g⁻¹, and intermittent high acetate levels, most likely caused by inhibition, and rapid acclimatisation to ammonia. The acute free ammonia limit was found to be 0.008 M NH(3)-N, while the chronic inhibition constant (K(I,NH₃,ac)) was 0.007 ± 0.001 M NH₃-N. Overall, this is a complex system, and application of the model added significant confidence to the initial operational decisions during an aggressive startup on an atypical feed.

  11. Anaerobic biodegradation of diesel fuel-contaminated wastewater in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, M Alvarez; Vezuli, J; Lohi, A; Upreti, S R

    2006-06-01

    Diesel fuel spills have a major impact on the quality of groundwater. In this work, the performance of an Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) treating synthetic wastewater is experimentally evaluated. The wastewater comprises tap water containing 100, 200 and 300 mg/L of diesel fuel and nutrients. Granular, inert, activated carbon particles are employed to provide support for biomass inside the reactor where diesel fuel is the sole source of carbon for anaerobic microorganisms. For different rates of organic loading, the AFBR performance is evaluated in terms of the removal of diesel fuel as well as chemical oxygen demand (COD) from wastewater. For the aforementioned diesel fuel concentrations and a wastewater flow rate of 1,200 L/day, the COD removal ranges between 61.9 and 84.1%. The concentration of diesel fuel in the effluent is less than 50 mg/L, and meets the Level II groundwater standards of the MUST guidelines of Alberta.

  12. Hydroponic potato production on nutrients derived from anaerobically-processed potato plant residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Garland, J. L.; Finger, B. W.; Ruffe, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Bioregenerative methods are being developed for recycling plant minerals from harvested inedible biomass as part of NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) research. Anaerobic processing produces secondary metabolites, a food source for yeast production, while providing a source of water soluble nutrients for plant growth. Since NH_4-N is the nitrogen product, processing the effluent through a nitrification reactor was used to convert this to NO_3-N, a more acceptable form for plants. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Norland plants were used to test the effects of anaerobically-produced effluent after processing through a yeast reactor or nitrification reactor. These treatments were compared to a mixed-N treatment (75:25, NO_3:NH_4) or a NO_3-N control, both containing only reagent-grade salts. Plant growth and tuber yields were greatest in the NO_3-N control and yeast reactor effluent treatments, which is noteworthy, considering the yeast reactor treatment had high organic loading in the nutrient solution and concomitant microbial activity.

  13. An in Vitro Experimental Study on the Antimicrobial Activity of Silicone Oil against Anaerobic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arici, Ceyhun; Aras, Cengiz; Tokman, Hrisi Bahar; Torun, Muzeyyen Mamal

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of silicone oil against anaerobic agents, specifically Propionibacterium acnes, Peptostreptococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Bacteroides fragilis, Fuobacterium spp., and Clostridium tertium. A 0.5 McFarland turbidity of Propionibacterium acnes, Peptostreptococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Bacteroides fragilis, Fuobacterium spp., and Clostridium tertium was prepared, and 0.1 mL was inoculated into 0.9 mL of silicone oil. Control inoculations were performed in anaerobic blood agar and fluid thioglycollate medium without silicone oil. Propionibacterium acnes retained their viability on the 3rd day in the presence of silicone oil. In total, 9.7 × 10(6) colonies were enumerated from 1 mL of silicone oil. After a prolonged incubation of 7 days, the number of colonies observed was 9.2 × 10(6). The other bacteria disappeared after the 3rd day of incubation in silicone oil. Propionibacterium acnes, which is the most common chronic postoperative endophthalmitis agent, is thought to be resistant to silicone oil.

  14. Enhanced high-solids anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by the addition of scrap iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Yu, Qilin; Xu, Zibin; Quan, Xie

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge usually requires pretreatment procedure to improve the bioavailability of sludge, which involves considerable energy and high expenditures. This study proposes a cost-effective method for enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge without a pretreatment by directly adding iron into the digester. The results showed that addition of Fe(0) powder could enhance 14.46% methane yield, and Fe scrap (clean scrap) could further enhance methane yield (improving rate 21.28%) because the scrap has better mass transfer efficiency with sludge and liquid than Fe(0) powder. The scrap of Fe with rust (rusty scrap) could induce microbial Fe(III) reduction, which resulted in achieving the highest methane yield (improving rate 29.51%), and the reduction rate of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was also highest (48.27%) among Fe powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap. PCR-DGGE proved that the addition of rusty scrap could enhance diversity of acetobacteria and enrich iron-reducing bacteria to enhance degradation of complex substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Applicability and trends of anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seung Joo; Kim, Tak-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes have been continuously developed, although the anaerobic sludge granulation process was not clearly understood. In this review, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), an expanded granule sludge blanket (EGSB), and a static granular bed reactor (SGBR) were introduced as components of a representative anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes. The characteristics and application trends of each reactor were presented. The UASB reactor was developed in the late 1970s and its use has been rapidly widespread due to the excellent performance. With the active granules, this reactor is able to treat various high-strength wastewaters as well as municipal wastewater. Most soluble industrial wastewaters can be efficiently applied using a UASB. The EGSB reactor was developed owing to give more chance to contact between wastewater and the granules. Dispersed sludge is separated from mature granules using the rapid upward velocity in this reactor. The EGSB reactor shows the excellent performance in treating low-strength and/or high-strength wastewater, especially under low temperatures. The SGBR, developed at Iowa State University, is one of anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes. Although the configuration of the SGBR is very simple, the performance of this system is similar to that of the UASB or EGSB reactor. The anaerobic sludge granulation processes showed excellent performance for various wastewaters at a broad range of organic loading rate in lab-, pilot-scale tests. This leads to erect thousands of full-scale granular processes, which has been widely operated around the world. -- Highlights: • Anaerobic sludge granulation is a key parameter for maintaining granular processes. • Anaerobic granular digestion processes are applicable for various wastewaters. • The UASB is an economic high-rate anaerobic granular process. • The EGSB can treat high-strength wastewater using expanding granules. • The SGBR is

  16. Microorganism-regulated mechanisms of temperature effects on the performance of anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; He, Guihua; Rui, Junpeng; Fang, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Li, Jiabao; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-06-03

    Temperature is an important factor determining the performance and stability of the anaerobic digestion process. However, the microorganism-regulated mechanisms of temperature effects on the performance of anaerobic digestion systems remain further elusive. To address this issue, we investigated the changes in composition, diversity and activities of microbial communities under temperature gradient from 25 to 55 °C using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing approach based on genomic DNA (refer to as "16S rDNA") and total RNA (refer to as "16S rRNA"). Microbial community structure and activities changed dramatically along the temperature gradient, which corresponded to the variations in digestion performance (e.g., daily CH4 production, total biogas production and volatile fatty acids concentration). The ratios of 16S rRNA to 16S rDNA of microbial taxa, as an indicator of the potentially relative activities in situ, and whole activities of microbial community assessed by the similarity between microbial community based on 16S rDNA and rRNA, varied strongly along the temperature gradient, reflecting different metabolic activities. The daily CH4 production increased with temperature from 25 to 50 °C and declined at 55 °C. Among all the examined microbial properties, the whole activities of microbial community and alpha-diversity indices of both microbial communities and potentially relative activities showed highest correlations to the performance. The whole activities of microbial community and alpha-diversity indices of both microbial communities and potentially relative activities were sensitive indicators for the performance of anaerobic digestion systems under temperature gradient, while beta-diversity could predict functional differences. Microorganism-regulated mechanisms of temperature effects on anaerobic digestion performance were likely realized through increasing alpha-diversity of both microbial communities and potentially relative activities to supply

  17. Treatment of industrial wastewaters by anaerobic membrane bioreactors : Implications of substrate characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dereli, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    The success of anaerobic digestion relies on the presence of highly active methanogenic biomass, requiring effective retention of slow growing anaerobic microorganisms inside bioreactor by decoupling the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from solids residence time (SRT) or the employment of long SRTs

  18. Kinetic model for an up-flow anaerobic packed bed bioreactor: Dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetic studies of anaerobic digestion process of cheese whey were conducted in a pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic packed bed bioreactor (UAPB). An influent COD concentration of 59419 mg/l was utilized at steady state condition. Logistic and Monod kinetic models were employed to describe microbial activities of cheese ...

  19. Anaerobic was co-digestion with OMW and glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanasoulia, E.; Melidis, P.; Aivasidis, A.

    2009-01-01

    The main by-product of any biological wastewater treatment is waste activated sludge (WAS). Anaerobic digestion is the most common treatment technique for sludge stabilization, resulting in a reduction in the amount of volatile solids (VS) with biogas production, at the same time. On the other hand, many agro-industrial organic wastes are readily biodegradable and as a result, anaerobic co-digestion of sludge with agro-industrial wastes is being developed potential advantages such as increased biogas production and improved nutrience balance. (Author)

  20. Inhibition of the anaerobic acetate degradation by formate

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Jean-Pierre; Ramirez, F.

    1989-01-01

    Granular sludge from an UASB reactor fed with VFA showed a very low affinity for formate which provide little support to the theory of interspecies formate transfer. It is shown that formate can inhibit acetate degradation by anaerobic sludge. (Résumé d'auteur)

  1. Antimicrobial activity of some Pacific Northwest woods against anaerobic bacteria and yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W H; Karchesy, J J; Constantine, G H; Craig, A M

    2001-11-01

    Extracts of woods commonly used for animal bedding were tested for antimicrobial activity. Essential oils from Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) and old growth Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) as well as methanol extracts of wood from these trees plus western red cedar (Thuja plicata) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) were tested for antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria and yeast. The test microbes included Fusobacterium necrophorum, Clostridium perfringens, Actinomyces bovis and Candida albicans which are common to foot diseases and other infections in animals. The essential oils and methanol extracts were tested using a standardized broth assay. Only extracts of Alaska cedar and western juniper showed significant antimicrobial activity against each of the microbes tested. The essential oil of Douglas fir did show antimicrobial activity against A. bovis at the concentrations tested. The methanol extracts of the heartwood of Douglas fir and the sapwood of ponderosa pine showed no antimicrobial activity. The major chemical components of western juniper (cedrol and alpha- and beta-cedrene) and Alaska cedar (nootkatin) were also tested. In western juniper, alpha- and beta-cedrene were found to be active components. Nootkatin showed activity only against C. albicans. The inhibitory activity in Alaska cedar oil was high enough to justify further efforts to define the other chemical components responsible for the antimicrobial activity. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. RISK FACTORS IN NEONATAL ANAEROBIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Tabib

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic bacteria are well known causes of sepsis in adults but there are few studies regarding their role in neonatal sepsis. In an attempt to define the incidence of neonatal anaerobic infections a prospective study was performed during one year period. A total number of 400 neonates under sepsis study were entered this investigation. Anaerobic as well as aerobic cultures were sent. The patients were subjected to comparison in two groups: anaerobic culture positive and anaerobic culture negative and this comparison were analyzed statistically. There were 7 neonates with positive anaerobic culture and 35 neonates with positive aerobic culture. A significant statistical relationship was found between anaerobic infections and abdominal distention and pneumonia. It is recommended for those neonates with abdominal distention and pneumonia refractory to antibiotic treatment to be started on antibiotics with anaerobic coverage.

  3. Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jeffra K.; Rocks, Sara S.; Zheng, Wang; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua; Morel, François M. M.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular Hg concentration. By using the FeRB Geobacter sulfurreducens and the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as model organisms, we demonstrate that Hg(II) uptake occurs by active transport. We also establish that Hg(II) uptake by G. sulfurreducens is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiols that bind Hg(II) in the external medium, with some thiols promoting uptake and methylation and others inhibiting both. The Hg(II) uptake system of D. desulfuricans has a higher affinity than that of G. sulfurreducens and promotes Hg methylation in the presence of stronger complexing thiols. We observed a tight coupling between Hg methylation and MeHg export from the cell, suggesting that these two processes may serve to avoid the build up and toxicity of cellular Hg. Our results bring up the question of whether cellular Hg uptake is specific for Hg(II) or accidental, occurring via some essential metal importer. Our data also point at Hg(II) complexation by thiols as an important factor controlling Hg methylation in anaerobic environments. PMID:21555571

  4. Isolation and some characteristics of anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria from the rumen.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, K A; Allison, M J; Hartman, P A

    1980-01-01

    Obligately anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria were isolated from an enriched population of rumen bacteria in an oxalate-containing medium that had been depleted of other readily metabolized substrates. These organisms, which are the first reported anaerobic oxalate degraders isolated from the rumen, were gram negative, nonmotile rods. They grew in a medium containing sodium oxalate, yeast extract, cysteine, and minerals. The only substrate that supported growth was oxalate. Growth was direc...

  5. Enhancing phosphorus release from waste activated sludge containing ferric or aluminum phosphates by EDTA addition during anaerobic fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jinte; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Lin; Li, Yongmei

    2017-03-01

    The effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition on phosphorus release from biosolids and phosphate precipitates during anaerobic fermentation was investigated. Meanwhile, the impact of EDTA addition on the anaerobic fermentation process was revealed. The results indicate that EDTA addition significantly enhanced the release of phosphorus from biosolids, ferric phosphate precipitate and aluminum phosphate precipitate during anaerobic fermentation, which is attributed to the complexation of metal ions and damage of cell membrane caused by EDTA. With the optimal EDTA addition of 19.5 mM (0.41 gEDTA/gSS), phosphorus release efficiency from biosolids was 82%, which was much higher than that (40%) without EDTA addition. Meanwhile, with 19.5 mM EDTA addition, almost all the phosphorus in ferric phosphate precipitate was released, while only 57% of phosphorus in aluminum phosphate precipitate was released. This indicates that phosphorus in ferric phosphate precipitate was much easier to be released than that in aluminum phosphate precipitate during anaerobic fermentation of sludge. In addition, proper EDTA addition facilitated the production of soluble total organic carbon and volatile fatty acids, as well as solid reduction during sludge fermentation, although methane production could be inhibited. Therefore, EDTA addition can be used as an alternative method for recovering phosphorus from waste activated sludge containing ferric or aluminum precipitates, as well as recovery of soluble carbon source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity of anaerobic microbes in spacecraft assembly clean rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Alexander; Vaishampayan, Parag; Osman, Shariff; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2010-05-01

    Although the cultivable and noncultivable microbial diversity of spacecraft assembly clean rooms has been previously documented using conventional and state-of-the-art molecular techniques, the occurrence of obligate anaerobes within these clean rooms is still uncertain. Therefore, anaerobic bacterial communities of three clean-room facilities were analyzed during assembly of the Mars Science Laboratory rover. Anaerobic bacteria were cultured on several media, and DNA was extracted from suitable anaerobic enrichments and examined with conventional 16S rRNA gene clone library, as well as high-density phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) technologies. The culture-dependent analyses predominantly showed the presence of clostridial and propionibacterial strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from clone libraries revealed distinct microbial populations associated with each clean-room facility, clustered exclusively within gram-positive organisms. PhyloChip analysis detected a greater microbial diversity, spanning many phyla of bacteria, and provided a deeper insight into the microbial community structure of the clean-room facilities. This study presents an integrated approach for assessing the anaerobic microbial population within clean-room facilities, using both molecular and cultivation-based analyses. The results reveal that highly diverse anaerobic bacterial populations persist in the clean rooms even after the imposition of rigorous maintenance programs and will pose a challenge to planetary protection implementation activities.

  7. Anaerobic treatment of textile dyeing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S R; Szpyrkowicz, L; Rodighiero, I

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic treatment commonly applied to textile wastewater results in good or even excellent removal of organic load. This is not, however, accompanied by an equally good removal of colour. Traditional or advanced chemical methods of decolourisation are costly and not always reliable in justifying an interest in microbial decolourisation. Among several processes anaerobic methods seem most promising. In this paper, the results of a study conducted in two pilot-scale plants comprising anaerobic fixed bed biofilters of 15 L and 5 m3 operating as continuous reactors are presented, along with evaluation of the microbial kinetics. As is shown the process proved efficient in a long-term study with no stability problems of the biofilters. The six-month performance of the pilot plant confirmed also that the pre-treated wastewater could be applied in the operation of dyeing. For the majority of the colours applied in the factory no problems were encountered when the dyeing baths were prepared by substituting 90% of fresh water to the effluent treated by a sequence of activated sludge processes: anaerobic-aerobic.

  8. Reduced anaerobic and aerobic performance in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Senem; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Cakmak, Aslihan; Emiralioglu, Nagehan; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Ozcelik, Hayriye Ugur; Sonbahar-Ulu, Hazal; Bozdemir-Ozel, Cemile; Kiper, Nural; Arikan, Hulya

    2018-05-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) restricts lifestyle and increases morbidity. The aim of the study was to investigate anaerobic and aerobic performance in children with PCD and their healthy counterparts. Thirty-one children with PCD and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were studied. Pulmonary function, hand grip strength (HGS), quadriceps strength (QMS), physical activity, anaerobic capacity (muscle power sprint test), and aerobic performance (modified shuttle walk test (MSWT)) were determined. Pulmonary function, HGS, QMS, mean anaerobic power (MAP), and MSWT distance in PCD were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects (p aerobic performance is impaired in PCD from the early stages. Age determines anaerobic performance. Gender is the determinant of aerobic performance. Whether skeletal muscle characteristics and sex-related changes in body composition affect anaerobic and aerobic capacity in PCD children warrants further study. What is Known: • Exercise performance is determined by anaerobic and aerobic power. • Few studies have shown that PCD patients have lower aerobic performance which is associated with impaired lung function. What is New: • The present research indicated that both anaerobic and aerobic exercise capacity determined using field testing is impaired in PCD from the early stages. • Anaerobic capacity was found to be independently associated with age in PCD. Higher aerobic performance is independently associated with male gender.

  9. Enrichment of acetogenic bacteria in high rate anaerobic reactors under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, P; Forbes, C; McHugh, S; O'Reilly, C; Fleming, G T A; Colleran, E

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to expand the knowledge of the role of acetogenic Bacteria in high rate anaerobic digesters. To this end, acetogens were enriched by supplying a variety of acetogenic growth supportive substrates to two laboratory scale high rate upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors operated at 37 degrees C (R1) and 55 degrees C (R2). The reactors were initially fed a glucose/acetate influent. Having achieved high operational performance and granular sludge development and activity, both reactors were changed to homoacetogenic bacterial substrates on day 373 of the trial. The reactors were initially fed with sodium vanillate as a sole substrate. Although % COD removal indicated that the 55 degrees C reactor out performed the 37 degrees C reactor, effluent acetate levels from R2 were generally higher than from R1, reaching values as high as 5023 mg l(-1). Homoacetogenic activity in both reactors was confirmed on day 419 by specific acetogenic activity (SAA) measurement, with higher values obtained for R2 than R1. Sodium formate was introduced as sole substrate to both reactors on day 464. It was found that formate supported acetogenic activity at both temperatures. By the end of the trial, no specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was observed against acetate and propionate indicating that the methane produced was solely by hydrogenotrophic Archaea. Higher SMA and SAA values against H(2)/CO(2) suggested development of a formate utilising acetogenic population growing in syntrophy with hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Throughout the formate trial, the mesophilic reactor performed better overall than the thermophilic reactor. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of ultrasonic and ozone pre-treatments on pharmaceutical waste activated sludge's solubilisation, reduction, anaerobic biodegradability and acute biological toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jin; Yao, Hong; Wang, Hui; Shan, Dan; Jiang, Yichen; Ma, Lanqianya; Yu, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonic and ozone pre-treatment technologies were employed in this study to improve the anaerobic digestion efficiency of pharmaceutical waste activated sludge. The sludge solubilisation achieved 30.01% (150,000 kJ/kg TS) and 28.10% (0.1g O3/g TS) after ultrasonic treatment and ozone treatment. The anaerobic biodegradability after ultrasonic treatment was higher compared to ozonation due to the higher cumulative methane volume observed after 6 days (249 ml vs 190 ml). The ozonated sludge released the highest concentration of Cu(2+) into the liquid phase (6.640 mg L(-1)) compared to 0.530 mg/L for untreated sludge and 0.991 mg/L for sonicated sludge. The acute toxicity test measured by luminescent bacteria showed that anaerobic digestion could degrade toxic compounds and result in a reduction in toxicity. The main mechanism of action led to some differences in the treated sludge exhibiting higher potential for methane production from pharmaceutical waste sludge with ultrasonic treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How to isolate, identify and determine antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in routine laboratories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, E; Boyanova, L; Justesen, U S

    2018-02-17

    There has been increased interest in the study of anaerobic bacteria that cause human infection during the past decade. Many new genera and species have been described using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of clinical isolates obtained from different infection sites with commercially available special culture media to support the growth of anaerobes. Several systems, such as anaerobic pouches, boxes, jars and chambers provide suitable anaerobic culture conditions to isolate even strict anaerobic bacteria successfully from clinical specimens. Beside the classical, time-consuming identification methods and automated biochemical tests, the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has revolutionized identification of even unusual and slow-growing anaerobes directly from culture plates, providing the possibility of providing timely information about anaerobic infections. The aim of this review article is to present methods for routine laboratories, which carry out anaerobic diagnostics on different levels. Relevant data from the literature mostly published during the last 7 years are encompassed and discussed. The review involves topics on the anaerobes that are members of the commensal microbiota and their role causing infection, the key requirements for collection and transport of specimens, processing of specimens in the laboratory, incubation techniques, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Advantages, drawbacks and specific benefits of the methods are highlighted. The present review aims to update and improve anaerobic microbiology in laboratories with optimal conditions as well as encourage its routine implementation in laboratories with restricted resources. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao Xingbao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Qiao Wei [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhou Yingjun [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nisikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  13. Anaerobic α-Amylase Production and Secretion with Fumarate as the Final Electron Acceptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zihe; Österlund, Tobias; Hou, Jin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we focus on production of heterologous α-amylase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under anaerobic conditions. We compare the metabolic fluxes and transcriptional regulation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with the objective of identifying the final electron acceptor...... reticulum are transferred to fumarate as the final electron acceptor. This model is supported by findings that the addition of fumarate under anaerobic (but not aerobic) conditions improves cell growth, specifically in the α-amylase-producing strain, in which it is not used as a carbon source. Our results...... provide a model for the molecular mechanism of anaerobic protein secretion using fumarate as the final electron acceptor, which may allow for further engineering of yeast for improved protein secretion under anaerobic growth conditions....

  14. Anaerobic fluidized bed reactor with expanded clay as support for hydrogen production through dark fermentation of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante de Amorim, Eduardo Lucena [Department of Hydraulic and Sanitation, University of Sao Paulo. Av. Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400 Centro, CEP 13566-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Barros, Aruana Rocha; Rissato Zamariolli Damianovic, Marcia Helena; Silva, Edson Luiz [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235, CEP 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    This study evaluated hydrogen production in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) fed with glucose-based synthetic wastewater. Particles of expanded clay (2.8-3.35 mm) were used as a support material for biomass immobilization. The reactor was operated with hydraulic retention times (HRT) ranging from 8 to 1 h. The hydrogen yield production increased from 1.41 to 2.49 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose as HRT decreased from 8 to 2 h. However, when HRT was 1 h, there was a slight decrease to 2.41 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose. The biogas produced was composed of H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, and the H{sub 2} content increased from 8% to 35% as HRT decreased. The major soluble metabolites during H{sub 2} fermentation were acetic acid (HAc) and butyric acid (HBu), accounting for 36.1-53.3% and 37.7-44.9% of total soluble metabolites, respectively. Overall, the results demonstrate the potential of using expanded clay as support material for hydrogen production in AFBRs. (author)

  15. The effect of anaerobic and aerobic tests on autonomic nervous system activity in healthy young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Ratkowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. In the evaluation of physical efficiency in professional athletes two tests are used: Wingate test (WT and incremental test for maximal oxygen uptake (IT. In the former anaerobic power is evaluated and in the latter aerobic power. The influence of these tests on autonomic nervous system (ANS activity is not fully examined. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of anaerobic and aerobic tests performed on the consecutive days, on the ANS activity in young healthy athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ten athletes aged 17 ± 1 were included in the study. The ANS parameters (baroreflex sensitivity – BRS_WBA, heart rate variability–HRV were analysed on the basis of 10-minute systolic arterial pressure and heart period (HP records during controlled breathing (0.23 Hz. BRS_WBA, HRV indices and mean HP were analysed before (examination 1 and 1 hour after WT (examination 2, 1 hour after IT (examination 3, and on the day after the tests (examination 4. RESULTS. The borderline statistically significant decrease in BRS_WBA in examination 2 in comparison to 1 was found (16.4 ± 10.5 vs 9.4 ± 3.9 ms/mmHg, p=0.059. In examination 3 in comparison to 1 the significant decrease in BRS_WBA was found (8.8 ± 6.2 ms/mmHg, p<0.05. SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD and HF were significantly lower in examination 2 comparing to 1 (p<0.05; the changes of HFnu were borderline statistically significant (p=0.059. These lower values were also noticed after examination 3 and returned to the initial values in examination 4. The mean HP showed similar changes. LF/HF increased significantly in examination 2 in comparison to 1 (p<0.05. The changes in LFnu were borderline statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS. Anaerobic and aerobic exercise tests lead to the decrease in ANS parasympathetic activity and to the increase in sympathetic one in young healthy athletes. These changes persist for at least one hour after exertion. The return to the initial values is observed the

  16. Acute Effects of a Caffeine-Containing Supplement on Anaerobic Power and Subjective Measurements of Fatigue in Recreationally Active Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Chelsea J; Jagim, Andrew R; Camic, Clayton L; Andre, Matthew J

    2018-04-01

    Hahn, CJ, Jagim, AR, Camic, CL, and Andre, MJ. Acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on anaerobic power and subjective measurements of fatigue in recreationally active men. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1029-1035, 2018-Studies show mixed results for the effects of caffeine on performance, warranting further investigation. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on anaerobic power and subjective measurements of fatigue during resisted sprinting on men. Fourteen recreationally active men (N = 14; [mean ± SD], age: 21.0 ± 0.7 years, height: 178.5 ± 5.1 cm, body mass: 77.3 ± 9.6 kg, and percent body fat: 12.6 ± 4.8%) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design study. The first visit required each participant to complete 3 sets of practice sprints on a nonmotorized treadmill ranging from 10 to 20 seconds. During the second visit, participants completed 5 more practice sprints ranging from 15 to 25 seconds. During the third and fourth visits, participants ingested one serving of a caffeine-containing or placebo beverage (the opposite beverage was consumed during the fourth visit), rested for 20 minutes, and completed a dynamic warm-up before sprinting. Anaerobic power was assessed using a countermovement vertical jump and nonmotorized treadmill sprint test. Psychological variables were scored using a 5-point Likert scale. No significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences were observed between conditions for average (p = 0.22) or peak power (p = 0.43). Both conditions resulted in a significant increase in fatigue, although the increase was less for the caffeine condition (caffeine [INCREMENT] = 0.93 and placebo [INCREMENT] = 1.71). These findings indicated that the caffeine-containing supplement improved perceived measures of fatigue but not power indices assessed through vertical jump or nonmotorized treadmill sprinting. The consumption of a caffeine beverage may be

  17. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  18. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-07-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  19. Successful treatment of high azo dye concentration wastewater using combined anaerobic/aerobic granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR): simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Hashemi, S H

    2013-01-01

    The application of a granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR) for treatment of wastewater containing 1,000 mg/L Acid Red 18 (AR18) was investigated in this research. The treatment system consisted of a sequencing batch reactor equipped with moving GAC as biofilm support. Each treatment cycle consisted of two successive anaerobic (14 h) and aerobic (8 h) reaction phases. Removal of more than 91% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 97% AR18 was achieved in this study. Investigation of dye decolorization kinetics showed that the dye removal was stimulated by the adsorption capacity of the GAC at the beginning of the anaerobic phase and then progressed following a first-order reaction. Based on COD analysis results, at least 77.8% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment system. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that more than 97% of 1-naphthyalamine-4-sulfonate as one of the main sulfonated aromatic constituents of AR18 was removed during the aerobic reaction phase. According to the scanning electron microscopic analysis, the microbial biofilms grew in most cavities and pores of the GAC, but not on the external surfaces of the GAC.

  20. The influence of substrate transport limitation on porosity and methanogenic activity of anaerobic sludge granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphenaar, P.A. (Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology); Perez, M.C. (Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology); Lettinga, G. (Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The relationship between porosity, diameter and methanogenic activity of anaerobic granules has been investigated. Experiments with different granular sludges revealed that substrate transport limitations increase with the diameter of the granules. As a consequence, autolysis can occur in the core of the granule, producing hollow granules. The porosity measurements revealed that the hollow centre is not available for substrate transport. Possibly as an effect of bacterial lysis, the porosity decreases in the more interior layers of the granules. This results in a inactive inner part of the large granules, which is not involved in the treatment process; the specific methanogenic activity decreases with granule size. No marked difference in substrate affinity is observed between granules of different sizes, which probably indicates that for large granules only the exterior is biological active. (orig.)

  1. Selected Topics in Anaerobic Bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Deirdre L

    2016-08-01

    Alteration in the host microbiome at skin and mucosal surfaces plays a role in the function of the immune system, and may predispose immunocompromised patients to infection. Because obligate anaerobes are the predominant type of bacteria present in humans at skin and mucosal surfaces, immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for serious invasive infection due to anaerobes. Laboratory approaches to the diagnosis of anaerobe infections that occur due to pyogenic, polymicrobial, or toxin-producing organisms are described. The clinical interpretation and limitations of anaerobe recovery from specimens, anaerobe-identification procedures, and antibiotic-susceptibility testing are outlined. Bacteriotherapy following analysis of disruption of the host microbiome has been effective for treatment of refractory or recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, and may become feasible for other conditions in the future.

  2. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...... requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader...

  3. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  4. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  5. Illumina sequencing-based analysis of a microbial community enriched under anaerobic methane oxidation condition coupled to denitrification revealed coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Luciene Alves Batista; Leite, Laura Rabelo; Oliveira, Guilherme; Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto Lemos; de Araújo, Juliana Calabria

    2017-07-01

    Methane is produced in anaerobic environments, such as reactors used to treat wastewaters, and can be consumed by methanotrophs. The composition and structure of a microbial community enriched from anaerobic sewage sludge under methane-oxidation condition coupled to denitrification were investigated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis retrieved sequences of Methylocaldum and Chloroflexi. Deep sequencing analysis revealed a complex community that changed over time and was affected by methane concentration. Methylocaldum (8.2%), Methylosinus (2.3%), Methylomonas (0.02%), Methylacidiphilales (0.45%), Nitrospirales (0.18%), and Methanosarcinales (0.3%) were detected. Despite denitrifying conditions provided, Nitrospirales and Methanosarcinales, known to perform anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (DAMO) process, were in very low abundance. Results demonstrated that aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophs coexisted in the reactor together with heterotrophic microorganisms, suggesting that a diverse microbial community was important to sustain methanotrophic activity. The methanogenic sludge was a good inoculum to enrich methanotrophs, and cultivation conditions play a selective role in determining community composition.

  6. Anaerobic 4-hydroxyproline utilization: Discovery of a new glycyl radical enzyme in the human gut microbiome uncovers a widespread microbial metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yolanda Y; Martínez-Del Campo, Ana; Balskus, Emily P

    2018-02-06

    The discovery of enzymes responsible for previously unappreciated microbial metabolic pathways furthers our understanding of host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. We recently identified and characterized a new gut microbial glycyl radical enzyme (GRE) responsible for anaerobic metabolism of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (Hyp). Hyp dehydratase (HypD) catalyzes the removal of water from Hyp to generate Δ 1 -pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C). This enzyme is encoded in the genomes of a diverse set of gut anaerobes and is prevalent and abundant in healthy human stool metagenomes. Here, we discuss the roles HypD may play in different microbial metabolic pathways as well as the potential implications of this activity for colonization resistance and pathogenesis within the human gut. Finally, we present evidence of anaerobic Hyp metabolism in sediments through enrichment culturing of Hyp-degrading bacteria, highlighting the wide distribution of this pathway in anoxic environments beyond the human gut.

  7. The inhibitory effects of free ammonia on ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrite oxidizing bacteria under anaerobic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wenting; Peng, Yongzhen; Li, Xiyao; Zhang, Qiong; Ma, Bin

    2017-11-01

    The free ammonia (FA) inhibition on ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) under anaerobic condition was investigated in this study. The results indicated that NOB was more sensitive to the FA anaerobic treatment than AOB. The FA anaerobic inhibition on nitrifier gradually heightened with the increase of FA concentration. Accompanied with FA concentration increase from 0 to 16.82mgNH 3 -N·L -1 (the highest concentration adopted in this study), the activity of AOB reduced by 15.9%, while NOB decreased by 29.2%. After FA anaerobic treatment, nitrite was accumulated during nitrification. However, the nitrite accumulation disappeared on the sixth cycle of activity recovery tests with excessive aeration. Based on this result, a novel strategy for achieving nitritation is proposed, which involves recirculating a portion of the activated sludge through a side-line sludge treatment unit, where the sludge is subjected to treatment with FA under anaerobic condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Amixicile, a novel strategy for targeting oral anaerobic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcherson, Justin A; Sinclair, Kathryn M; Belvin, Benjamin R; Gui, Qin; Hoffman, Paul S; Lewis, Janina P

    2017-09-05

    The oral microflora is composed of both health-promoting as well as disease-initiating bacteria. Many of the disease-initiating bacteria are anaerobic and include organisms such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Tannerella forsythia. Here we investigated a novel therapeutic, amixicile, that targets pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), a major metabolic enzyme involved in energy generation through oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. PFOR is present in these anaerobic pathogenic bacteria and thus we hypothesized that amixicile would effectively inhibit their growth. In general, PFOR is present in all obligate anaerobic bacteria, while oral commensal aerobes, including aerotolerant ones, such as Streptococcus gordonii, use pyruvate dehydrogenase to decarboxylate pyruvate. Accordingly, we observed that growth of the PFOR-containing anaerobic periodontal pathogens, grown in both monospecies as well as multispecies broth cultures was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner while that of S. gordonii was unaffected. Furthermore, we also show that amixicile is effective against these pathogens grown as monospecies and multispecies biofilms. Finally, amixicile is the first selective therapeutic agent active against bacteria internalized by host cells. Together, the results show that amixicile is an effective inhibitor of oral anaerobic bacteria and as such, is a good candidate for treatment of periodontal diseases.

  9. Identification of anaerobic microorganisms for converting kitchen waste to biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirhossein Malakahmad; Shahrom Mohd Zain; Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri; Shamsul Rahman Mohamed Kutty; Mohd Hasnain Isa

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion process is one of the alternative methods to convert organic waste into methane gas which is a fuel and energy source. Activities of various kinds of microorganisms are the main factor for anaerobic digestion which produces methane gas. Therefore, in this study a modified Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with working volume of 50 liters was designed to identify the microorganisms through biogas production. The mixture of 75% kitchen waste and 25% sewage sludge was used as substrate. Observations on microorganisms in the ABR showed that there exists a small amount of protozoa (5%) and fungi (2%) in the system, but almost 93% of the microorganism population consists of bacteria. It is definitely clear that bacteria are responsible for anaerobic biodegradation of kitchen waste. Results show that in the acidification zone of the ABR (front compartments of reactor) fast growing bacteria capable of growth at high substrate levels and reduced pH was dominant. A shift to slower growing scavenging bacteria that grow better at higher pH was occurring towards the end of the reactor. Due to the ability of activity in acetate environment the percentages of Methanococcus, Methanosarcina and Methanotrix were higher than other kinds of methane former in the system. (Author)

  10. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  11. Application of a tetrazolium dye as an indicator of viability in anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupathiraju, V K; Hernandez, M; Landfear, D; Alvarez-Cohen, L

    1999-09-01

    The use of the redox dye 5-cyano-2,3,-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) for evaluating the metabolic activity of aerobic bacteria has gained wide application in recent years. In this study, we examined the utility of CTC in capturing the metabolic activity of anaerobic bacteria. In addition, the factors contributing to abiotic reduction of CTC were also examined. CTC was used in conjunction with the fluorochrome 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein (DTAF), that targets bacterial cell wall proteins, to quantitate the active fraction of total bacterial numbers. Facultative anaerobic bacteria, including Escherichia coli grown fermentatively, and Pseudomonas chlorophis, P. fluorescens, P. stutzeri, and P. pseudoalcalegenes subsp. pseudoalcalegenes grown under nitrate-reducing conditions, actively reduced CTC during all phases of growth. Greater than 95% of these cells accumulated intracellular CTC-formazan crystals during the exponential phase. Obligate anaerobic bacteria, including Syntrophus aciditrophicus grown fermentatively, Geobacter sulfurreducens grown with fumarate as the electron acceptor, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. desulfuricans and D. halophilus grown under sulfate-reducing conditions, Methanobacterium formicicum grown on formate, H2 and CO2, and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum grown autotrophically on H2 and CO2 all reduced CTC to intracellular CTC-formazan crystals. The optimal CTC concentration for all organisms examined was 5 mM. Anaerobic CTC incubations were not required for quantification of anaerobically grown cells. CTC-formazan production by all cultures examined was proportional to biomass production, and CTC reduction was observed even in the absence of added nutrients. CTC was reduced by culture fluids containing ferric citrate as electron acceptor following growth of either G. metallireducens or G. sulfurreducens. Abiotic reduction of CTC was observed in the presence of ascorbic acid, cysteine hydrochloride, dithiothreitol

  12. Carbonylation as a key reaction in anaerobic acetone activation by Desulfococcus biacutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Acosta, Olga B; Hardt, Norman; Schink, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    Acetone is activated by aerobic and nitrate-reducing bacteria via an ATP-dependent carboxylation reaction to form acetoacetate as the first reaction product. In the activation of acetone by sulfate-reducing bacteria, acetoacetate has not been found to be an intermediate. Here, we present evidence of a carbonylation reaction as the initial step in the activation of acetone by the strictly anaerobic sulfate reducer Desulfococcus biacutus. In cell suspension experiments, CO was found to be a far better cosubstrate for acetone activation than CO2. The hypothetical reaction product, acetoacetaldehyde, is extremely reactive and could not be identified as a free intermediate. However, acetoacetaldehyde dinitrophenylhydrazone was detected by mass spectrometry in cell extract experiments as a reaction product of acetone, CO, and dinitrophenylhydrazine. In a similar assay, 2-amino-4-methylpyrimidine was formed as the product of a reaction between acetoacetaldehyde and guanidine. The reaction depended on ATP as a cosubstrate. Moreover, the specific activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (coenzyme A [CoA] acylating) tested with the putative physiological substrate was found to be 153 ± 36 mU mg(-1) protein, and its activity was specifically induced in extracts of acetone-grown cells. Moreover, acetoacetyl-CoA was detected (by mass spectrometry) after the carbonylation reaction as the subsequent intermediate after acetoacetaldehyde was formed. These results together provide evidence that acetoacetaldehyde is an intermediate in the activation of acetone by sulfate-reducing bacteria.

  13. Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Lozano, Claudia Johanna; Vergara Mendoza, Marisol; Carreno de Arango, Mariela; Castillo Monroy, Edgar Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH 4 and CO 2 ) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Rio Frio Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L -1 and a concentration of CO 2 of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10 5 -10 6 MPN mL -1 ). The acetogenic population was (10 5 MPN mL -1 ) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10 4 -10 5 MPN mL -1 ). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH 4 (70%) were higher than CO 2 (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L -1 . Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10 4 -10 5 MPN mL -1 ) and methanogenic bacteria (10 5 MPN mL -1 ) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH 4 g -1 VSS -1 day -1 ) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH 4 g -1 VSS -1 day -1 ) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified

  14. Differential Susceptibility of Bacteria to Mouse Paneth Cell a-Defensins under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Mastroianni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal Paneth cells secrete a-defensin peptides, termed cryptdins (Crps in mice, into the intestinal lumen, where they confer immunity to oral infections and define the composition of the ileal microbiota. In these studies, facultative bacteria maintained under aerobic or anaerobic conditions displayed differential sensitivities to mouse a-defensins under in vitro assay conditions. Regardless of oxygenation, Crps 2 and 3 had robust and similar bactericidal activities against S. typhimurium and S. flexneri, but Crp4 activity against S. flexneri was attenuated in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria varied in their susceptibility to Crps 2-4, with Crp4 showing less activity than Crps 2 and 3 against Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacteroides fragilis in anaerobic assays, but Fusobacterium necrophorum was killed only by Crp4 and not by Crps 2 and 3. The influence of anaerobiosis in modulating Crp bactericidal activities in vitro suggests that a-defensin effects on the enteric microbiota may be subject to regulation by local oxygen tension.

  15. Anaerobic bacteria colonizing the lower airways in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybojad, Pawel; Los, Renata; Sawicki, Marek; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Malm, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobes comprise most of the endogenous oropharyngeal microflora, and can cause infections of airways in lung cancer patients who are at high risk for respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and species diversity of anaerobes in specimens from the lower airways of lung cancer patients. Sensitivity of the isolates to conventional antimicrobial agents used in anaerobe therapy was assessed. Respiratory secretions obtained by bronchoscopy from 30 lung cancer patients were cultured onto Wilkins-Chalgren agar in anaerobic conditions at 37°C for 72-96 hours. The isolates were identified using microtest Api 20A. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for penicillin G, amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole were determined by E-test. A total of 47 isolates of anaerobic bacteria were detected in 22 (73.3%) specimens. More than one species of anaerobe was found in 16 (53.3%) samples. The most frequently isolated were Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp., followed by Eubacterium lentum, Veillonella parvula, Prevotella spp., Bacteroides spp., Lactobacillus jensenii. Among antibiotics used in the study amoxicillin/clavulanate and imipenem were the most active in vitro (0% and 2% resistant strains, respectively). The highest resistance rate was found for penicillin G and metronidazole (36% and 38% resistant strains, respectively). The results obtained confirm the need to conduct analyses of anaerobic microflora colonizing the lower respiratory tract in patients with lung cancer to monitor potential etiologic factors of airways infections, as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy.

  16. Molecular ecology of anaerobic reactor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H. Jacob Peider; Zheng, D.; Westermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic reactor systems are essential for the treatment of solid and liquid wastes and constitute a core facility in many waste treatment plants. Although much is known about the basic metabolism in different types of anaerobic reactors, little is known about the microbes responsible for these ......Anaerobic reactor systems are essential for the treatment of solid and liquid wastes and constitute a core facility in many waste treatment plants. Although much is known about the basic metabolism in different types of anaerobic reactors, little is known about the microbes responsible...... to the abundance of each microbe in anaerobic reactor systems by rRNA probing. This chapter focuses on various molecular techniques employed and problems encountered when elucidating the microbial ecology of anaerobic reactor systems. Methods such as quantitative dot blot/fluorescence in-situ probing using various...

  17. Anaerobic bacteria as producers of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnken, Swantje; Hertweck, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Anaerobic bacteria are the oldest terrestrial creatures. They occur ubiquitously in soil and in the intestine of higher organisms and play a major role in human health, ecology, and industry. However, until lately no antibiotic or any other secondary metabolite has been known from anaerobes. Mining the genome sequences of Clostridium spp. has revealed a high prevalence of putative biosynthesis genes (PKS and NRPS), and only recently the first antibiotic from the anaerobic world, closthioamide, has been isolated from the cellulose degrading bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum. The successful genetic induction of antibiotic biosynthesis in an anaerobe encourages further investigations of obligate anaerobes to tap their hidden biosynthetic potential.

  18. Exergy Analysis of the Musculoskeletal System Efficiency during Aerobic and Anaerobic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Marques Spanghero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to the human body in order to evaluate the quality of the energy conversion during muscle activity. Such an implementation represents an important issue in the exergy analysis of the body, because there is a difficulty in the literature in evaluating the performed power in some activities. Hence, to have the performed work as an input in the exergy model, two types of exercises were evaluated: weight lifting and aerobic exercise on a stationary bicycle. To this aim, we performed a study of the aerobic and anaerobic reactions in the muscle cells, aiming at predicting the metabolic efficiency and muscle efficiency during exercises. Physiological data such as oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, skin and internal temperatures and performed power were measured. Results indicated that the exergy efficiency was around 4% in the weight lifting, whereas it could reach values as high as 30% for aerobic exercises. It has been shown that the stationary bicycle is a more adequate test for first correlations between exergy and performance indices.

  19. Anaerobic respiratory growth of Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio fischeri and Photobacterium leiognathi with trimethylamine N-oxide, nitrate and fumarate: ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, L M; Gunsalus, R P

    2000-08-01

    Two symbiotic species, Photobacterium leiognathi and Vibrio fischeri, and one non-symbiotic species, Vibrio harveyi, of the Vibrionaceae were tested for their ability to grow by anaerobic respiration on various electron acceptors, including trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), compounds common in the marine environment. Each species was able to grow anaerobically with TMAO, nitrate or fumarate, but not with DMSO, as an electron acceptor. Cell growth under microaerophilic growth conditions resulted in elevated levels of TMAO reductase, nitrate reductase and fumarate reductase activity in each strain, whereas growth in the presence of the respective substrate for each enzyme further elevated enzyme activity. TMAO reductase specific activity was the highest of all the reductases. Interestingly, the bacteria-colonized light organs from the two squids, Euprymna scolopes and Euprymna morsei, and the light organ of the ponyfish, Leiognathus equus, also had high levels of TMAO reductase enzyme activity, in contrast to non-symbiotic tissues. The ability of these bacterial symbionts to support cell growth by respiration with TMAO may conceivably eliminate the competition for oxygen needed for both bioluminescence and metabolism.

  20. Teleosts in hypoxia : Aspects of anaerobic metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Thillart, G.; van Waarde, Aren

    1985-01-01

    Moderate hypoxia can be tolerated by many fish species, while only some species survive severe hypoxia or anoxia. Hypoxia usually activates anaerobic glycolysis, which may be temporary when the animals are able to improve their oxygen extraction capacity. Switching over to aerobic metabolism allows

  1. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1993-10-01

    Anaerobic bacteria were isolated from deep subsurface sediment samples taken at study sites in Idaho (INEL) and Washington (HR) by culturing on dilute and concentrated medium. Morphologically distinct colonies were purified, and their responses to 21 selected physiological tests were determined. Although the number of isolates was small (18 INEL, 27 HR) some general patterns could be determined. Most strains could utilize all the carbon sources, however the glycerol and melizitose utilization was positive for 50% or less of the HR isolates. Catalase activity (27.78% at INEL, 74.07% at HR) and tryptophan metabolism (11.12% at INEL, 40.74% at HR) were significantly different between the two study sites. MPN and viable counts indicate that sediments near the water table yield the greatest numbers of anaerobes. Deeper sediments also appear to be more selective with the greatest number of viable counts on low-nutrient mediums. Likewise, only strictly obligate anaerobes were found in the deepest sediment samples. Selective media indicated the presence of methanogens, acetogens, and sulfate reducers at only the HR site

  2. Estimation of Anaerobic Debromination Rate Constants of PBDE Pathways Using an Anaerobic Dehalogenation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Filiz; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to estimate anaerobic debromination rate constants (k m ) of PBDE pathways using previously reported laboratory soil data. k m values of pathways are estimated by modifying a previously developed model as Anaerobic Dehalogenation Model. Debromination activities published in the literature in terms of bromine substitutions as well as specific microorganisms and their combinations are used for identification of pathways. The range of estimated k m values is between 0.0003 and 0.0241 d -1 . The median and maximum of k m values are found to be comparable to the few available biologically confirmed rate constants published in the literature. The estimated k m values can be used as input to numerical fate and transport models for a better and more detailed investigation of the fate of individual PBDEs in contaminated sediments. Various remediation scenarios such as monitored natural attenuation or bioremediation with bioaugmentation can be handled in a more quantitative manner with the help of k m estimated in this study.

  3. Investigation of mircroorganisms colonising activated zeolites during anaerobic biogas production from grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S; Zankel, A; Lebuhn, M; Petrak, S; Somitsch, W; Guebitz, G M

    2011-03-01

    The colonisation of activated zeolites (i.e. clinoptilolites) as carriers for microorganisms involved in the biogas process was investigated. Zeolite particle sizes of 1.0-2.5mm were introduced to anaerobic laboratory batch-cultures and to continuously operated bioreactors during biogas production from grass silage. Incubation over 5-84 days led to the colonisation of zeolite surfaces in small batch-cultures (500 ml) and even in larger scaled and flow-through disturbed bioreactors (28 l). Morphological insights were obtained by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis based on amplification of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA fragments demonstrated structurally distinct populations preferring zeolite as operational environment. via sequence analysis conspicuous bands from SSCP patterns were identified. Populations immobilised on zeolite (e.g. Ruminofilibacter xylanolyticum) showed pronounced hydrolytic enzyme activity (xylanase) shortly after re-incubation in sterilised sludge on model substrate. In addition, the presence of methanogenic archaea on zeolite particles was demonstrated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati, E-mail: suparnirahayu@yahoo.co.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Semarang, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia); Purwanto,, E-mail: p.purwanto@che.undip.ac.id; Budiyono, E-mail: budiyono@live.undip.ac.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH{sub 4}/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH{sub 4}: 81.23% and CO{sub 2}: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  5. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  6. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a device intended for medical purposes to maintain an anaerobic (oxygen...

  7. STUDY ON MAXIMUM SPECIFIC SLUDGE ACIVITY OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The maximum specific sludge activity of granular sludge from large-scale UASB, IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were investigated by batch tests. The limitation factors related to maximum specific sludge activity (diffusion, substrate sort, substrate concentration and granular size) were studied. The general principle and procedure for the precise measurement of maximum specific sludge activity were suggested. The potential capacity of loading rate of the IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were analyzed and compared by use of the batch tests results.

  8. Cadmium removal by Euglena gracilis is enhanced under anaerobic growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago-Martínez, M. Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Encalada, Rusely; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología (Mexico); Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando [Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología (Mexico); Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo, E-mail: rjass_cardiol@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología (Mexico)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The protist Euglena gracilis had the ability to grow and remove large amounts of Cd{sup 2+} under anaerobic conditions. • High biomass was attained by combination of glycolytic and mitochondrial carbon sources. • Routes of degradation of glucose, glutamate and malate under anaerobic conditions in E. gracilis are described. • Biosorption was the main mechanism of Cd{sup 2+} removal in anaerobiosis, whereas the Cd{sup 2+} intracellularly accumulated was inactivated by thiol-molecules and polyphosphate. - Abstract: The facultative protist Euglena gracilis, a heavy metal hyper-accumulator, was grown under photo-heterotrophic and extreme conditions (acidic pH, anaerobiosis and with Cd{sup 2+}) and biochemically characterized. High biomass (8.5 × 10{sup 6} cells mL{sup −1}) was reached after 10 days of culture. Under anaerobiosis, photosynthetic activity built up a microaerophilic environment of 0.7% O{sub 2}, which was sufficient to allow mitochondrial respiratory activity: glutamate and malate were fully consumed, whereas 25–33% of the added glucose was consumed. In anaerobic cells, photosynthesis but not respiration was activated by Cd{sup 2+} which induced higher oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were 20 times lower in control cells under anaerobiosis than in aerobiosis, although Cd{sup 2+} induced a higher MDA production. Cd{sup 2+} stress induced increased contents of chelating thiols (cysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins) and polyphosphate. Biosorption (90%) and intracellular accumulation (30%) were the mechanisms by which anaerobic cells removed Cd{sup 2+} from medium, which was 36% higher versus aerobic cells. The present study indicated that E. gracilis has the ability to remove Cd{sup 2+} under anaerobic conditions, which might be advantageous for metal removal in sediments from polluted water bodies or bioreactors, where the O{sub 2} concentration is particularly low.

  9. Cadmium removal by Euglena gracilis is enhanced under anaerobic growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago-Martínez, M. Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Encalada, Rusely; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The protist Euglena gracilis had the ability to grow and remove large amounts of Cd 2+ under anaerobic conditions. • High biomass was attained by combination of glycolytic and mitochondrial carbon sources. • Routes of degradation of glucose, glutamate and malate under anaerobic conditions in E. gracilis are described. • Biosorption was the main mechanism of Cd 2+ removal in anaerobiosis, whereas the Cd 2+ intracellularly accumulated was inactivated by thiol-molecules and polyphosphate. - Abstract: The facultative protist Euglena gracilis, a heavy metal hyper-accumulator, was grown under photo-heterotrophic and extreme conditions (acidic pH, anaerobiosis and with Cd 2+ ) and biochemically characterized. High biomass (8.5 × 10 6 cells mL −1 ) was reached after 10 days of culture. Under anaerobiosis, photosynthetic activity built up a microaerophilic environment of 0.7% O 2 , which was sufficient to allow mitochondrial respiratory activity: glutamate and malate were fully consumed, whereas 25–33% of the added glucose was consumed. In anaerobic cells, photosynthesis but not respiration was activated by Cd 2+ which induced higher oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were 20 times lower in control cells under anaerobiosis than in aerobiosis, although Cd 2+ induced a higher MDA production. Cd 2+ stress induced increased contents of chelating thiols (cysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins) and polyphosphate. Biosorption (90%) and intracellular accumulation (30%) were the mechanisms by which anaerobic cells removed Cd 2+ from medium, which was 36% higher versus aerobic cells. The present study indicated that E. gracilis has the ability to remove Cd 2+ under anaerobic conditions, which might be advantageous for metal removal in sediments from polluted water bodies or bioreactors, where the O 2 concentration is particularly low

  10. Simultaneous biodegradation of carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene in a coupled anaerobic/aerobic biobarrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kiwook [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 55 Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hojae [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau SAR, 999078 (China); Bae, Wookeun, E-mail: wkbae@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 55 Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Juhyun; Bae, Jisu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 55 Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 15588 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Coupled biodegradation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in biobarrier with polyethylene glycol carriers. • TCE aerobically cometabolized and CT anaerobically dechlorinated. • Removal efficiencies of over 98%, leaving residuals below or near the regulatory standards. • Coupled aerobic/anaerobic environments established by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} injected at 50% of electron donor. • Longer retention time (from 3.6 to 7.2 days) achieved satisfactory removal at lower temperature (18 °C). - Abstract: Simultaneous biodegradation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in a biobarrier with polyethylene glycol (PEG) carriers was studied. Toluene/methanol and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were used as electron donors and an electron acceptor source, respectively, in order to develop a biologically active zone. The average removal efficiencies for TCE and toluene were over 99.3%, leaving the respective residual concentrations of ∼12 and ∼57 μg/L, which are below or close to the groundwater quality standards. The removal efficiency for CT was ∼98.1%, with its residual concentration (65.8 μg/L) slightly over the standards. TCE was aerobically cometabolized with toluene as substrate while CT was anaerobically dechlorinated in the presence of electron donors, with the respective stoichiometric amount of chloride released. The oxygen supply at equivalent to 50% chemical oxygen demand of the injected electron donors supported successful toluene oxidation and also allowed local anaerobic environments for CT reduction. The originally augmented (immobilized in PEG carriers) aerobic microbes were gradually outcompeted in obtaining substrate and oxygen. Instead, newly developed biofilms originated from indigenous microbes in soil adapted to the coupled anaerobic/aerobic environment in the carrier for the simultaneous and almost complete removal of CT, TCE, and toluene. The declined removal rates when temperature

  11. Rapid isolation of a facultative anaerobic electrochemically active bacterium capable of oxidizing acetate for electrogenesis and azo dyes reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nan; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Wu, Chao; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Song, Xiang-Ning; Li, Wen-Wei; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-05-01

    In this study, 27 strains of electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were rapidly isolated and their capabilities of extracellular electron transfer were identified using a photometric method based on WO3 nanoclusters. These strains caused color change of WO3 from white to blue in a 24-well agar plate within 40 h. Most of the isolated EAB strains belonged to the genera of Aeromonas and Shewanella. One isolate, Pantoea agglomerans S5-44, was identified as an EAB that can utilize acetate as the carbon source to produce electricity and reduce azo dyes under anaerobic conditions. The results confirmed the capability of P. agglomerans S5-44 for extracellular electron transfer. The isolation of this acetate-utilizing, facultative EBA reveals the metabolic diversity of environmental bacteria. Such strains have great potential for environmental applications, especially at interfaces of aerobic and anaerobic environments, where acetate is the main available carbon source.

  12. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, F.E. [VFA Services Ltd., Herts (United Kingdom)

    1996-01-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  13. Anaerobic treatment in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Borghi, M; Solisio, C; Ferrailo, G

    1984-02-01

    In Italy, environmental protection and energy conservation have become very important since the increase in oil prices. The law requires that all waste waters have a B.O.D. of 40 mg/l by 1986 so there has been an expansion of purification plants since 1976, using anaerobic digestion. The report deals with the current state of anaerobic treatment in Italy with particular reference to (1) animal wastes. In intensive holdings, anaerobic digestion leads to a decrease in pollution and an increase in biogas generation which can be used to cover the energy demand of the process. The factors which influence the builders of digestors for farms are considered. (2) Non toxic industrial wastes. These are the waste waters emanating from the meat packing, brewing, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Particular reference is made to the distillery plants using anaerobic treatment prior to aerobic digestion. (3) Urban wastes. The advantages and the disadvantages are considered and further research and development is recommended. 20 references.

  14. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent

  15. Anaerobic prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neel B; Tande, Aaron J; Patel, Robin; Berbari, Elie F

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to improve mobility and alleviate pain from degenerative and connective tissue joint disease, an increasing number of individuals are undergoing prosthetic joint replacement in the United States. Joint replacement is a highly effective intervention, resulting in improved quality of life and increased independence [1]. By 2030, it is predicted that approximately 4 million total hip and knee arthroplasties will be performed yearly in the United States [2]. One of the major complications associated with this procedure is prosthetic joint infection (PJI), occurring at a rate of 1-2% [3-7]. In 2011, the Musculoskeletal Infectious Society created a unifying definition for prosthetic joint infection [8]. The following year, the Infectious Disease Society of America published practice guidelines that focused on the diagnosis and management of PJI. These guidelines focused on the management of commonly encountered organisms associated with PJI, including staphylococci, streptococci and select aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. However, with the exception of Propionibacterium acnes, management of other anaerobic organisms was not addressed in these guidelines [1]. Although making up approximately 3-6% of PJI [9,10], anaerobic microorganisms cause devastating complications, and similar to the more common organisms associated with PJI, these bacteria also result in significant morbidity, poor outcomes and increased health-care costs. Data on diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI is mostly derived from case reports, along with a few cohort studies [3]. There is a paucity of published data outlining factors associated with risks, diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI. We therefore reviewed available literature on anaerobic PJI by systematically searching the PubMed database, and collected data from secondary searches to determine information on pathogenesis, demographic data, clinical features, diagnosis and management. We focused our search on five commonly

  16. Anaerobic Digestion. Selected Instructional Activities and References. Instructional Resources Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert D., Comp.

    Focusing specifically on the wastewater treatment process of anaerobic digestion, this document identifies instructional and reference materials for use by professionals in the field in the development and implementation of new programs or in the updating of existing programs. It is designed to help trainers, plant operators, educators, engineers,…

  17. Enhancement of carbon dioxide reduction and methane production by an obligate anaerobe and gas dissolution device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjin; Choi, Kwangkeun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Chung, Jinwook

    2016-01-25

    The use of gas dissolution devices to improve the efficiency of H2 dissolution has enhanced CO2 reduction and CH4 production. In addition, the nutrients that initially existed in anaerobic sludge were exhausted over time, and the activities of anaerobic microorganisms declined. When nutrients were artificially injected, CO2 reduction and CH4 production rates climbed. Thus, assuming that the activity of the obligatory anaerobic microorganisms is maintained, a gas dissolution device will further enhance the efficiency of CO2 reduction and CH4 production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Atmospheric vs. anaerobic processing of metabolome samples for the metabolite profiling of a strict anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sooah; Kwon, Min-A; Jung, Young Hoon; Shin, Yong-An; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2014-12-01

    Well-established metabolome sample preparation is a prerequisite for reliable metabolomic data. For metabolome sampling of a Gram-positive strict anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum, fast filtration and metabolite extraction with acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v) at -20°C under anaerobic conditions has been commonly used. This anaerobic metabolite processing method is laborious and time-consuming since it is conducted in an anaerobic chamber. Also, there have not been any systematic method evaluation and development of metabolome sample preparation for strict anaerobes and Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, metabolome sampling and extraction methods were rigorously evaluated and optimized for C. acetobutylicum by using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, in which a total of 116 metabolites were identified. When comparing the atmospheric (i.e., in air) and anaerobic (i.e., in an anaerobic chamber) processing of metabolome sample preparation, there was no significant difference in the quality and quantity of the metabolomic data. For metabolite extraction, pure methanol at -20°C was a better solvent than acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v/v) at -20°C that is frequently used for C. acetobutylicum, and metabolite profiles were significantly different depending on extraction solvents. This is the first evaluation of metabolite sample preparation under aerobic processing conditions for an anaerobe. This method could be applied conveniently, efficiently, and reliably to metabolome analysis for strict anaerobes in air. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion processes: applications and future needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batstone, Damien J.; Puyol, Daniel; Flores Alsina, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic process modelling is a mature and well-established field, largely guided by a mechanistic model structure that is defined by our understanding of underlying processes. This led to publication of the IWA ADM1, and strong supporting, analytical, and extension research in the 15 years sinc...

  20. Increased ratio between anaerobic and aerobic metabolism in lymphocytes from hyperthyroid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdemarsson, S; Monti, M

    1994-03-01

    While an increased oxygen consumption is accepted as one consequence of hyperthyroidism, only few data are available on the role of anaerobic processes for the increased metabolic activity in this disease. In this study we evaluated the relative importance of anaerobic and aerobic metabolism for the metabolic activity in lymphocytes from patients before and after treatment for hyperthyroidism. Total lymphocyte heat production rate (P), reflecting total cell metabolic activity, was determined in a plasma lymphocyte suspension using direct microcalorimetry. The contribution from aerobic metabolism (O2-P) was calculated from the product of the lymphocyte oxygen consumption rate and the enthalpy change for glucose combustion, and the anaerobic contribution as the difference between P and O2-P. The total lymphocyte heat production rate P was 3.37 +/- 0.25 (SEM) pW/cell (N = 11) before and 2.50 +/- 0.11 pW/cell (N = 10) after treatment for hyperthyroidism (p hyperthyroid state and to 73.7 +/- 3.2% after treatment (p metabolic activity demonstrated in lymphocytes from hyperthyroid patients cannot be explained by an increased oxygen-dependent consumption.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Identifying the abundant and active microorganisms common to full scale anaerobic digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kristensen, Jannie Munk

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is widely applied to treat organic waste at wastewater treatment plants. Characterisation of the underlying microbiology represents a source of information to develop strategies for improved operation. To this end, we investigated the microbial community composition of thirty ...

  2. Simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Behbehani, M J; Jordan, H V; Santoro, D L

    1982-01-01

    A simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria is described. Cultures can be grown in commercially available flasks normally used for preparation of sterile external solutions. A special disposable rubber flask closure maintains anaerobic conditions in the flask after autoclaving. Growth of a variety of anaerobic oral bacteria was comparable to that obtained after anaerobic incubation of broth cultures in Brewer Anaerobic Jars.

  3. Inhibition of Anaerobic Biological Treatment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li; Ji, Dandan; Zang, Lihua

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a method for treating living and industrial wastewater by anaerobic degradation of organic compounds, which can produce biogas (carbon dioxide and methane mixture) and microbial biomass. And biogas as a renewable resource, can replace the use of ore fuel. In the process of anaerobic digestion, the problems of low methane yield and unstable reaction process are often encountered, which limits the widespread use of this technology. Various inhibitors are the main limiting factors for anaerobic digestion. In this paper, the main factors limiting anaerobic digestion are reviewed, and the latest research progress is introduced.

  4. Analysis of anaerobic blood cultures in burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regules, Jason A; Carlson, Misty D; Wolf, Steven E; Murray, Clinton K

    2007-08-01

    The utility of anaerobic blood culturing is often debated in the general population, but there is limited data on the modern incidence, microbiology, and utility of obtaining routine anaerobic blood cultures for burned patients. We performed a retrospective review of the burned patients electronic medical records database for all blood cultures drawn between January 1997 and September 2005. We assessed blood cultures for positivity, organisms identified, and growth in aerobic or anaerobic media. 85,103 blood culture sets were drawn, with 4059 sets from burned patients. Three hundred and forty-five single species events (619 total blood culture isolates) were noted in 240 burned patients. For burned patients, four isolates were obligate anaerobic bacteria (all Propionibacterium acnes). Anaerobic versus aerobic culture growth was recorded in 310 of 619 (50.1%) burned patient blood culture sets. 46 (13.5%) of the identified organisms, most of which were not obligate anaerobic bacteria, were identified from solely anaerobic media. The results of our study suggest that the detection of significant anaerobic bacteremia in burned patients is very rare and that anaerobic bottles are not needed in this population for that indication. However anaerobic blood cultures systems are also able to detect facultative and obligate aerobic bacteria; therefore, the deletion of the anaerobic culture medium may have deleterious clinical impact.

  5. Effect of temperature on the anaerobic degradation of phenol and the microbial community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leven, L.; Schnurer, A.

    2009-01-01

    The residue produced during anaerobic digestion of organic waste is rich in nutrient and can be used as fertiliser However, one concern is the content of organic pollutants, as these may influence the soil fertility negatively and should therefore only occur at low levels. In this study, the effect of the process temperature on the anaerobic degradation of different phenolic compounds was investigated. Phenols have been shown to have a negative impact on soil microbial activity and can appear in anaerobic bioreactors both as components of the in-going substrate, and as intermediates during degradation of different complex aromatic compounds. (Author)

  6. Anaerobic bacteria colonizing the lower airways in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Malm

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobes comprise most of the endogenous oropharyngeal microflora, and can cause infections of airways in lung cancer patients who are at high risk for respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and species diversity of anaerobes in specimens from the lower airways of lung cancer patients. Sensitivity of the isolates to conventional antimicrobial agents used in anaerobe therapy was assessed. Respiratory secretions obtained by bronchoscopy from 30 lung cancer patients were cultured onto Wilkins- -Chalgren agar in anaerobic conditions at 37°C for 72–96 hours. The isolates were identified using microtest Api 20A. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for penicillin G, amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole were determined by E-test. A total of 47 isolates of anaerobic bacteria were detected in 22 (73.3% specimens. More than one species of anaerobe was found in 16 (53.3% samples. The most frequently isolated were Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp., followed by Eubacterium lentum, Veillonella parvula, Prevotella spp., Bacteroides spp., Lactobacillus jensenii. Among antibiotics used in the study amoxicillin/clavulanate and imipenem were the most active in vitro (0% and 2% resistant strains, respectively. The highest resistance rate was found for penicillin G and metronidazole (36% and 38% resistant strains, respectively. The results obtained confirm the need to conduct analyses of anaerobic microflora colonizing the lower respiratory tract in patients with lung cancer to monitor potential etiologic factors of airways infections, as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 263–266

  7. Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria have lagged behind similar studies in aerobes. However, the current interest in biotechnology, the involvement of anaerobes in disease and the emergence of antibioticresistant strains have focused attention on the genetics of anaerobes. This article reviews molecular genetic studies in Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and methanogens. Certain genetic systems in some anaerobes differ from those in aerobes and illustrate the genetic diversity among bacteria

  8. Anaerobic biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speece, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Enso-Fenox process has been very successfully used to remove chlorinated phenolic compounds from pulp bleaching effluents. It is a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic process consisting of a nonmethanogenic anaerobic fluidized bed followed by a trickling filter. Studies have been conducted on reductive dechlorination of chlorinated aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions with chlorinated phenols as the sole carbon and energy source. Approximately 40% of the added chlorophenols was converted to CH 4 and CO 2 . Substrate loading rates were 20 mg/L/d at hydraulic detention times of 2-4 days with 90% substrate conversion efficiency. Reductive dechlorination of mono, di-, tri-, and pentachlorophenols has been demonstrated in anaerobic sewage sludge. The following constituents were tested in the laboratory at their approximate concentrations in coal conversion wastewater (CCWW) and were anaerobically degraded in serum bottles: 1,000 mg/L phenol; 500 mg/L resorcinol; 1,000 mg/L benzoic acid; 500 mg/L p-cresol; 200 mg/L pyridine; 2,000 mg/L benzoic acid; 250 mg/L 40 methylcatechol; 500 mg/L 4-ethylpyridine; and 2,000 mg/L hexanoic acid. A petrochemical may initially exhibit toxicity to an unacclimated population of methane-fermenting bacteria, but with acclimation the toxicity may be greatly reduced or disappear. In addition, the microorganisms may develop the capacity to actually degrade compounds which showed initial toxicity. Since biomass digestion requires a complete consortium of bacteria, it is relevant to study the effect of a given process as well as to individual steps within the process. A toxicant can inhibit the rate-limiting step and/or change the step that is rate-limiting. Both manifestations of toxicity can severely affect the overall process

  9. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth

  10. Fate of neptunium in an anaerobic, methanogenic microcosm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaszak, J.E.; Webb, S.M.; Rittmann, B.E.; Gaillard, J.F.; Reed, D.T.

    1999-01-01

    Neptunium is found predominantly as Np(IV) in reducing environments, but as Np(V) in aerobic environments. Currently, it is not known how the interplay between biotic and abiotic processes affects Np redox speciation in the environment. To evaluate the effect of anaerobic microbial activity on the fate of Np in natural systems, Np(V) was added to a microcosm inoculated with anaerobic sediments from a metal-contaminated freshwater lake. The consortium included metal-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic microorganisms, and acetate was supplied as the only exogenous substrate. Addition of more than 10 -5 M Np did not inhibit methane production. Total Np solubility in the active microcosm, as well as in sterilized control samples, decreased by nearly two orders of magnitude. A combination of analytical techniques, including VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy and XANES, identified Np(IV) as the oxidation state associated with the sediments. The similar results from the active microcosm and the abiotic controls suggest that microbially produced Mn(II/III) and Fe(II) may serve as electron donors for Np reduction

  11. Multicenter study of antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in Korea in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yangsoon; Park, Yeon Joon; Kim, Mi Na; Uh, Young; Kim, Myung Sook; Lee, Kyungwon

    2015-09-01

    Periodic monitoring of regional or institutional resistance trends of clinically important anaerobic bacteria is recommended, because the resistance of anaerobic pathogens to antimicrobial drugs and inappropriate therapy are associated with poor clinical outcomes. There has been no multicenter study of clinical anaerobic isolates in Korea. We aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of clinically important anaerobes at multiple centers in Korea. A total of 268 non-duplicated clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria were collected from four large medical centers in Korea in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar dilution method according to the CLSI guidelines. The following antimicrobials were tested: piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, cefotetan, imipenem, meropenem, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, and tigecycline. Organisms of the Bacteroides fragilis group were highly susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, and meropenem, as their resistance rates to these three antimicrobials were lower than 6%. For B. fragilis group isolates and anaerobic gram-positive cocci, the resistance rates to moxifloxacin were 12-25% and 11-13%, respectively. Among B. fragilis group organisms, the resistance rates to tigecycline were 16-17%. Two isolates of Finegoldia magna were non-susceptible to chloramphenicol (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 16-32 mg/L). Resistance patterns were different among the different hospitals. Piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, and carbapemems are highly active beta-lactam agents against most of the anaerobes. The resistance rates to moxifloxacin and tigecycline are slightly higher than those in the previous study.

  12. Anaerobes in bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred high vaginal swabs were taken from patients attending gynaecology and obstetrics department of Govt. medical college, Amritsar. The patients were divided into four groups i.e. women in pregnancy (Group I, in labour/post partum (Group II, with abnormal vaginal discharge or bacterial vaginosis (Group III and asymptomatic women as control (Group IV. Anaerobic culture of vaginal swabs revealed that out of 400 cases, 212(53% were culture positive. Maximum isolation of anaerobes was in group III (84% followed by group II (56%, group I (36% and control group (15%. Gram positive anaerobes (69.2% out numbered gram negatives (30.8%. Among various isolates Peptostreptococcus spp. and Bacteroides spp. were predominant.

  13. Identification of metabolically active methanogens in anaerobic digester by DNA Stable-Isotope Probing using 13C-acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gowdaman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is gaining enormous attention due to the ability to covert organic wastes into biogas, an alternative sustainable energy. Methanogenic community plays a significant role in biogas production and also for proficient functioning of the anaerobic digester. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the methanogen diversity of a food waste anaerobic digester. After endogenous respiration, the digester samples were supplemented with isotopes of acetate to enrich methanogen population, and were analyzed using DNA-SIP (Stable-Isotope Probing. Following separation and fractionation of heavy (13C and light (12C DNA, PCR amplification was carried out using archaeal 16S rRNA gene followed by DGGE analysis. Sequencing of the prominent DGGE bands revealed the dominance of Methanocorpusculum labreanum species belonging to hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales, which can produce methane in the presence of H2/CO2 and requires acetate for its growth. This is the first instance where Methanocorpusculum labreanum is being reported as a dominant species in an anaerobic digester operative on food waste.

  14. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation in a fertilized paddy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Guibing; Wang, Shanyun; Wang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for anaerobic ammonium oxidation in a paddy field was obtained in Southern China using an isotope-pairing technique, quantitative PCR assays and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, along with nutrient profiles of soil cores. A paddy field with a high load of slurry manure as fertilizer...... was selected for this study and was shown to contain a high amount of ammonium (6.2–178.8 mg kg−1). The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) rates in this paddy soil ranged between 0.5 and 2.9 nmolN per gram of soil per hour in different depths of the soil core, and the specific cellular anammox activity...

  15. Use of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) containing powdered activated carbon (PAC) for the treatment of textile effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baêta, B E L; Ramos, R L; Lima, D R S; Aquino, S F

    2012-01-01

    This work investigated the use of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAMBRs) in the presence and absence of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for the treatment of genuine textile wastewater. The reactors were operated at 35 °C with an HRT of 24 h and the textile effluent was diluted (1:10) with nutrient solution containing yeast extract as the source of the redox mediation riboflavin. The results showed that although both SAMBRs exhibited an excellent performance, the presence of PAC inside SAMBR-1 enhanced reactor stability and removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA), turbidity and color. The median removal efficiencies of COD and color in SAMBR-1 were, 90 and 94% respectively; whereas for SAMBR-2 (without PAC) these values were 79 and 86%, In addition, the median values of turbidity and VFA were 8 NTU and 8 mg/L for SAMBR-1 and 14 NTU and 26 mg/L for SAMBR-2, indicating that the presence of PAC inside SAMBR-1 led to the production of an anaerobic effluent of high quality regarding such parameters.

  16. Anaerobic accumulation of short-chain fatty acids from algae enhanced by damaging cell structure and promoting hydrolase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Leiyu; Chen, Yunzhi; Chen, Xutao; Duan, Xu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Yinguang

    2018-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) produced from harvested algae by anaerobic fermentation with uncontrolled pH was limited due to the solid cell structure of algae. This study, therefore, was undertaken to enhance the generation of SCFAs from algae by controlling the fermentation pH. pH influenced not only the total SCFAs production, but the percentage of individual SCFA. The maximal yield of SCFAs occurred at pH 10.0 and fermentation time of 6 d (3161 mg COD/L), which mainly contained acetic and iso-valeric acids and was nearly eight times that at uncontrolled pH (392 mg COD/L). Mechanism exploration revealed at alkaline pH, especially at pH 10.0, not only the cell structure of algae was damaged effectively, but also activities and relative quantification of hydrolases as well as the abundance of microorganisms responsible for organics hydrolysis and SCFAs production were improved. Also, the released microcystins from algae were removed efficiently during alkaline anaerobic fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...

  18. Potential of hydrolysis of particulate COD in extended anaerobic conditions to enhance biological phosphorous removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, P; Yuan, Q; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2016-11-01

    The effect of anaerobic hydrolysis of particulate COD (pCOD) on biological phosphorous removal in extended anaerobic condition was investigated through (i) sequencing batch reactors (SBR)s with anaerobic hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0.8, 2, and 4 h; (ii) batch tests using biomass from a full scale biological nutrient removal (BNR) plant; and (iii) activated sludge modeling (BioWin 4.1 simulation). The results from long-term SBRs operation showed that phosphorus removal was correlated to the ratio of filtered COD (FCOD) to total phosphorus (TP) in the influent. Under conditions with low FCOD/TP ratio (average of 20) in the influent, extending anaerobic HRT to 4 h in the presence of pCOD did not significantly improve overall phosphorous removal. During the period with high FCOD/TP ratio (average of 37) in the influent, all SBRs removed phosphorous completely, and the long anaerobic HRT did not have negative effect on overall phosphorous removal. The batch tests also showed that pCOD at different concentration during 4 h test did not affect the rate of anaerobic phosphorus release. The rate of anaerobic hydrolysis of pCOD was significantly low and extending the anaerobic HRT was ineffective. The simulation (BioWin 4.1) of SBRs with low influent FCOD/TP ratio showed that the default kinetics of anaerobic hydrolysis in ASM2d overestimated phosphorous removal in the SBRs (high anaerobic hydrolysis of pCOD). The default anaerobic hydrolysis rate in BioWin 4.1 (ten times lower) could produce similar phosphorous removal to that in the experiment. Results showed that the current kinetics of anaerobic hydrolysis in ASM2d could lead to considerable error in predicting phosphorus removal in processes with extended anaerobic HRT. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2377-2385. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Feasibility of thermophilic anaerobic processes for treating waste activated sludge under low HRT and intermittent mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Wanderli; Magnus, Bruna Scandolara; Guimarães, Lorena Bittencourt; Gottardo, Marco; Belli Filho, Paulo

    2017-10-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) arises as an optimized solution for the waste activated sludge (WAS) management. However, there are few feasibility studies using low solids content typically found in the WAS, and that consider uncommon operational conditions such as intermittent mixing and low hydraulic retention time (HRT). In this investigation, a single-stage pilot reactor was used to treat WAS at low HRT (13, 9, 6 and 5 days) and intermittent mixing (withholding mixing 2 h prior feeding). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion (55 °C) was initiated from a mesophilic digester (35 °C) by the one-step startup strategy. Although instabilities on partial alkalinity (1245-3000 mgCaCO 3 /L), volatile fatty acids (1774-6421 mg/L acetic acid) and biogas production (0.21-0.09 m 3 /m 3 reactor .d) were observed, methanogenesis started to recover in 18 days. The thermophilic treatment of WAS at 13 and 9 days HRT efficiently converted VS into biogas (22 and 21%, respectively) and achieved high biogas yield (0.24 and 0.22 m 3 /kgVS fed , respectively). Intermittent mixing improved the retention of methanogens inside the reactor and reduced the washout effect even at low HRT (5% TS). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence of syntrophic acetate oxidation by Spirochaetes during anaerobic methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Yu, Byung Jo; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Park, Hee-Deung

    2015-08-01

    To search for evidence of syntrophic acetate oxidation by cluster II Spirochaetes with hydrogenotrophic methanogens, batch reactors seeded with five different anaerobic sludge samples supplemented with acetate as the sole carbon source were operated anaerobically. The changes in abundance of the cluster II Spirochaetes, two groups of acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae), and two groups of hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales) in the reactors were assessed using qPCR targeting the 16S rRNA genes of each group. Increase in the cluster II Spirochaetes (9.0±0.4-fold) was positively correlated with increase in hydrogenotrophic methanogens, especially Methanomicrobiales (5.6±1.0-fold), but not with acetoclastic methanogens. In addition, the activity of the cluster II Spirochaetes decreased (4.6±0.1-fold) in response to high hydrogen partial pressure, but their activity was restored after consumption of hydrogen by the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. These results strongly suggest that the cluster II Spirochaetes are involved in syntrophic acetate oxidation in anaerobic digesters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbial and nutritional regulation of high-solids anaerobic mono-digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Hui; Li, Yan; Zhao, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hua, Dongliang; Xu, Haipeng; Jin, Fuqiang

    2018-02-01

    The anaerobic digestion of single fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) can be easily interrupted by rapid acidogenesis and inhibition of methanogen, and the digestion system tends to be particularly unstable at high solid content. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of FVW in batch experiments under mesophilic condition at a high solid concentration of 10% was successfully conducted to overcome the acidogenesis problem through several modifications. Firstly, compared with the conventional anaerobic sludge (CAS), the acclimated anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) was found to be a better inoculum due to its higher Archaea abundance. Secondly, waste activated sludge (WAS) was chosen to co-digest with FVW, because WAS had abundant proteins that could generate intermediate ammonium. The ammonium could neutralize the accumulated volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and prevent the pH value of the digestion system from rapidly decreasing. Co-digestion of FVW and WAS with TS ratio of 60:40 gave the highest biogas yield of 562 mL/g-VS and the highest methane yield of 362 mL/g-VS. Key parameters in the digestion process, including VFAs concentration, pH, enzyme activity, and microbial activity, were also examined.

  2. The phenomenon of granulation of anaerobic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff Pol, L.

    1989-01-01

    Successful high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment can only be accomplished when the slowgrowing anaerobic biomass is efficiently held back in the anaerobic treatment system. This biomass retention can be achieved in various ways including immobilization of the organisms on fixed materials

  3. Techno-economic assessment of anaerobic digestion systems for agri-food wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, A.; Baldwin, S.; Wang, M. [British Colombia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Activities in British Columbia's Fraser Valley generate an estimated 3 million tones of agriculture and food wastes annually, of which 85 per cent are readily available for anaerobic digestion. The potential for energy generation from biogas through anaerobic digestion is approximately 30 MW. On-farm manure-based systems represent the most likely scenario for the development of anaerobic digestion in British Columbia in the near future. Off-farm food processing wastes may be an alternative option to large centralized industrial complexes. Odour control, pathogen reduction, improved water quality, reduced greenhouse gas emissions and reduced landfill usage are among the environmental benefits of anaerobic digestion. The economical benefits include power and heat generation, biogas upgrading, and further processing of the residues to produce compost or animal bedding. This paper described a newly developed anaerobic digestion (AD) calculator that helps users regarding their investment decision in AD facilities. The calculator classifies various technology options into several major types of AD systems. It also constructs kinetic and economic models for these systems and provides a fair estimation on biogas yield, digester volume, capital cost and annual income. The calculator takes into consideration factors such as the degradability of wastes with different compositions and different operating parameters.

  4. Anaerobic ammonia removal in presence of organic matter: A novel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabumon, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the feasibility of anaerobic ammonia removal process in presence of organic matter. Different sources of biomass collected from diverse eco-systems containing ammonia and organic matter (OM) were screened for potential anaerobic ammonia removal. Sequential batch studies confirmed the possibility of anaerobic ammonia removal in presence of OM, but ammonia was oxidized anoxically to nitrate (at oxidation reduction potential; ORP -248 ± 25 mV) by an unknown mechanism unlike in the reported anammox process. The oxygen required for oxidation of ammonia might have been generated through catalase enzymatic activity of facultative anaerobes in mixed culture. The oxygen generation possibility by catalase enzyme route was demonstrated. Among the inorganic electron acceptors (NO 2 - , NO 3 - and SO 4 2- ) studied, NO 2 - was found to be most effective in total nitrogen removal. Denitrification by the developed culture was much effective and faster compared to ammonia oxidation. The results of this study show that anaerobic ammonia removal is feasible in presence of OM. The novel nitrogen removal route is hypothesized as enzymatic anoxic oxidation of NH 4 + to NO 3 - , followed by denitrification via autotrophic and/or heterotrophic routes. The results of batch study were confirmed in continuous reactor operation

  5. A simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tage; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of a strict anaerobic atmosphere is essential for the culture of strict anaerobic bacteria. We describe a simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere, based on the measurement of the zone diameter around a 5-μg metronidazole disk when testing...... an aerotolerant Clostridium perfringens strain. A zone diameter above 27 mm was indicative of acceptable anaerobic conditions....

  6. Characterization of the biomass of a hybrid anaerobic reactor (HAR with two types of support material during the treatment of the coffee wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Galdino da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbiology of a hybrid anaerobic reactor (HAR in the removal of pollutant loads. This reactor had the same physical structure of an UASB reactor, however with minifilters inside containing two types of support material: expanded clay and gravel. Two hydraulic retention times (HRT of 24h and 18h were evaluated at steady-state conditions, resulting in organic loading rates (OLR of 0.032 and 0.018 kgDBO5m-3d-1 and biological organic loading rates (BOLR of 0,0015 and 0.001 kgDBO5kgSVT- 1d¹, respectively. The decrease in concentration of organic matter in the influent resulted an endogenous state of the biomass in the reactor. The expanded clay was the best support material for biofilm attachment.

  7. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host’s enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  8. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus...

  9. Anaerobic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other obligately anaerobic bacterial biofilms growing in the thick airway mucus of chronically infected cystic fibrosis patients: an emerging paradigm or "Old Hat"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengchang; Hassett, Daniel J

    2012-09-01

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) airway mucus is an ideal niche in which many bacteria can develop antibiotic- and phagocyte-resistance in unique structures known as "mode II biofilms" where bacteria are embedded within the mucus, yet unattached to airway epithelial cells. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the dominant CF pathogen, yet herein the authors provide burgeoning evidence that obligate anaerobic bacteria (e.g., Prevotella) actually thrive within the CF mucus, a paradigmatic shift that chronic CF is an "aerobic" disease. Interestingly, CF organisms repress virulence factor production (e.g., P. aeruginosa) while others (e.g., S. aureus) increase them under anaerobic conditions. The authors shed additional light on (i) the anoxic nature of the CF airway mucus, (ii) the relative commonality of anaerobic bacteria isolated from CF sputum, (iii) virulence factor production and cross-talk between obligate anaerobes and P. aeruginosa relative to disease progression/remission, (iv) the role of mucoidy in CF, and (v) the role of nitrosative stress in activation of bacteriophage and pyocins within biofilms. The authors conclude with insight as to how we might treat some CF bacteria during mode II biofilm infections that utilizes a metabolite of bacterial anaerobic respiration and an aerobic oxidation product of airway-generated NO, acidified NO(2)(-).

  10. Anaerobic digestion of amine-oxide-based surfactants: biodegradation kinetics and inhibitory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Francisco; Lechuga, Manuela; Fernández-Arteaga, Alejandro; Jurado, Encarnación; Fernández-Serrano, Mercedes

    2017-08-01

    Recently, anaerobic degradation has become a prevalent alternative for the treatment of wastewater and activated sludge. Consequently, the anaerobic biodegradability of recalcitrant compounds such as some surfactants require a thorough study to avoid their presence in the environment. In this work, the anaerobic biodegradation of amine-oxide-based surfactants, which are toxic to several organisms, was studied by measuring of the biogas production in digested sludge. Three amine-oxide-based surfactants with structural differences in their hydrophobic alkyl chain were tested: Lauramine oxide (AO-R 12 ), Myristamine oxide (AO-R 14 ) and Cocamidopropylamine oxide (AO-cocoamido). Results show that AO-R 12 and AO-R 14 inhibit biogas production, inhibition percentages were around 90%. AO-cocoamido did not cause inhibition and it was biodegraded until reaching a percentage of 60.8%. Otherwise, we fitted the production of biogas to two kinetic models, to a pseudo first-order model and to a logistic model. Production of biogas during the anaerobic biodegradation of AO-cocoamido was pretty good adjusted to the logistics model. Kinetic parameters were also determined. This modelling is useful to predict their behaviour in wastewater treatment plants and under anaerobic conditions in the environment.

  11. Isolation of anaerobes from bubo associated with chancroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B; Sharma, V K; Bakaya, V; Ayyagiri, A

    1991-01-01

    Ten men with bubo associated with chancroid were studied for bacterial flora especially anaerobes. Anaerobes were isolated from all 10 buboes and eight out of 10 ulcers of chancroid. Anaerobic cocci, B melaninogenicus and B fragilis were the most common isolates. anaerobes probably play a role in the pathogenesis of bubo in chancroid. PMID:1680792

  12. Metagenomic and proteomic analyses to elucidate the mechanism of anaerobic benzene degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu Laban, Nidal [Helmholtz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the mechanism of anaerobic benzene degradation using metagenomic and proteomic analyses. The objective of the study is to find out the microbes and biochemistry involved in benzene degradation. Hypotheses are proposed for the initial activation mechanism of benzene under anaerobic conditions. Two methods for degradation, molecular characterization and identification of benzene-degrading enzymes, are described. The physiological and molecular characteristics of iron-reducing enrichment culture are given and the process is detailed. Metagenome analysis of iron-reducing culture is presented using a pie chart. From the metagenome analysis of benzene-degrading culture, putative mobile element genes were identified in the aromatic-degrading configurations. Metaproteomic analysis of iron-reducing cultures and the anaerobic benzene degradation pathway are also elucidated. From the study, it can be concluded that gram-positive bacteria are involved in benzene degradation under iron-reducing conditions and that the catalysis mechanism of putative anaerobic benzene carboxylase needs further investigation.

  13. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, J.Q.; Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of cheese whey using a 17.5-litre up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was investigated in the laboratory. The reactor was studied over a range of influent concentration from 4.5 to 38.1 g chemical oxygen demand per litre at a constant hydraulic retention time of 5 days. The reactor start-up and the sludge acclimatization were discussed. The reactor performance in terms of methane production, volatile fatty acids conversion, sludge net growth and chemical oxygen demand reduction were also presented in this paper. Over 97% chemical oxygen demand reduction was achieved in this experiment. At the influent concentration of 38.1 g chemical oxygen demand per litre, an instability of the reactor was observed. The results indicated that the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor process could treat cheese whey effectively.

  15. Anaerobic oxidation of methane in grassland soils used for cattle husbandry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bannert, A.; Bogen, C.; Esperschütz, J.; Koubová, Anna; Buegger, F.; Fischer, D.; Radl, V.; Fuss, R.; Chroňáková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana; Šimek, Miloslav; Schloter, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 10 (2012), s. 3891-3899 ISSN 1726-4170 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/1570 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : anaerobic oxidation of methane * grassland soils * cattle husbandry Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.754, year: 2012

  16. Diversity Profile of Microbes Associated with Anaerobic Sulfur Oxidation in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor Treating Municipal Sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Azrina A.; Kuroda, Kyohei; Yamamoto, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Akinobu; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We herein analyzed the diversity of microbes involved in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor used for treating municipal sewage under low-temperature conditions. Anaerobic sulfur oxidation occurred in the absence of oxygen, with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors; however, reactor performance parameters demonstrated that anaerobic conditions were maintained. In order to gain insights into the underlying basis of anaerobic sulfur oxidation, the microbial diversity that exists in the UASB sludge was analyzed comprehensively to determine their identities and contribution to sulfur oxidation. Sludge samples were collected from the UASB reactor over a period of 2 years and used for bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and next-generation sequencing analyses. T-RFLP and sequencing results both showed that microbial community patterns changed markedly from day 537 onwards. Bacteria belonging to the genus Desulforhabdus within the phylum Proteobacteria and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Fusobacteria were the main groups observed during the period of anaerobic sulfur oxidation. Their abundance correlated with temperature, suggesting that these bacterial groups played roles in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in UASB reactors. PMID:25817585

  17. Anaerobic bioprocessing of sewage sludge, focusing on degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelidaki, I.; Toraeng, L.; Waul, C.M.; Schmidt, J.E.

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic degradation of sludge amended with linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) was tested in one stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and a two stages reactor system consisting by a CSTR as first step and upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor in the second step. Anaerobic removal of LAS was only observed at the second step but not at the first step. Removal of LAS in the UASB reactors was approx. 80% where half was due to absorption and the other half was apparently due to biological removal as shown from the LAS mass balance. At the end of the experiment the reactors were spiked with {sup 14}C-LAS which resulted in 5.6% {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the produced gas. Total mass balance of the radioactivity was however not achieved. In batch experiments it was found that LAS at concentrations higher than 50 mg/l is inhibitory for the most microbial groups of the anaerobic process. Therefore, low initial LAS concentration is a prerequisite for successful LAS degradation. The results from the present study suggest that anaerobic degradation of LAS is possible in UASB reactors when the concentration of LAS is low enough to avoid inhibition of microorganisms active in the anaerobic process. (author)

  18. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, B.K.; Macarie, H.; Moletta, R.; Dohanyos, M.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lens, P.N.L.; Verstraete, W.

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern

  19. ZVI Addition in Continuous Anaerobic Digestion Systems Dramatically Decreases P Recovery Potential: Dynamic Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puyol, D.; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Segura, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to show the preliminary results of a (dynamic) mathematical model describing the effects of zero valent iron (ZVI) addition during the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge from wastewater treatment systems. A modified version of the Anaerobic Digestion Model...... No. 1 (ADM1) upgraded with an improved physico-chemical description, ZVI corrosion, propionate uptake enhancement and multiple mineral precipitation is used as a modelling platform. The proposed approach is tested against two case studies which correspond to two lab scale anaerobic digesters (AD2, AD....... Simulations demonstrate that the model is capable to satisfactorily reproduce the dynamics of hydrolysis, acetogenesis, acidogenesis, nutrient release, pH and methanogenesis in the control anaerobic digester (AD1). This study also evidences the enhancement of methane production by the influence of ZVI...

  20. Modified anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment for the anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Kyung; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Moonil

    2017-02-01

    A modified anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment (MADEPT) process was developed for investigating anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food wastewater. The anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment (ADEPT) process is similar to a two-phase system, however, in which the effluent from a methanogenic reactor recycles into an acidogenic reactor to elutriate mainly dissolved organics. Although ADEPT could reduce reactor volume significantly, the unsolubilized solids should be wasted from the system. The MADEPT process combines thermo-alkali solubilization with ADEPT to improve anaerobic performance and to minimize the sludge disposal. It was determined that the optimal volume mixing ratio of sewage sludge and food wastewater was 4 : 1 for the anaerobic co-digestion. The removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand, volatile solids, and volatile suspended solids in the MADEPT process were 73%, 70%, and 64%, respectively. However, those in the ADEPT process were only 48%, 37%, and 40%, respectively, at the same hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days. The gas production of MADEPT was two times higher than that of ADEPT. The thermo-alkali solubilization increased the concentration of dissolved organics so that they could be effectively degraded in a short HRT, implying that MADEPT could improve the performance of ADEPT in anaerobic co-digestion.

  1. The influence of aerobic sludge retention time on anaerobic co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABR) and aerobic plug flow reactor (PFR) were operated aiming to minimize excess sludge output of the activated sludge process through coupled alkaline hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion. Variations in the effluent total chemical oxygen ...

  2. Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons: From Enzymatic Reactions to the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Ralf; Boll, Matthias; Heider, Johann; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Buckel, Wolfgang; Einsle, Oliver; Ermler, Ulrich; Golding, Bernard T; Gunsalus, Robert P; Kroneck, Peter M H; Krüger, Martin; Lueders, Tillmann; Martins, Berta M; Musat, Florin; Richnow, Hans H; Schink, Bernhard; Seifert, Jana; Szaleniec, Maciej; Treude, Tina; Ullmann, G Matthias; Vogt, Carsten; von Bergen, Martin; Wilkes, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant in anoxic environments and pose biochemical challenges to their anaerobic degradation by microorganisms. Within the framework of the Priority Program 1319, investigations funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft on the anaerobic microbial degradation of hydrocarbons ranged from isolation and enrichment of hitherto unknown hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microorganisms, discovery of novel reactions, detailed studies of enzyme mechanisms and structures to process-oriented in situ studies. Selected highlights from this program are collected in this synopsis, with more detailed information provided by theme-focused reviews of the special topic issue on 'Anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons' [this issue, pp. 1-244]. The interdisciplinary character of the program, involving microbiologists, biochemists, organic chemists and environmental scientists, is best exemplified by the studies on alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases. Here, research topics ranged from in-depth mechanistic studies of archetypical toluene-activating benzylsuccinate synthase, substrate-specific phylogenetic clustering of alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases (toluene plus xylenes, p-cymene, p-cresol, 2-methylnaphthalene, n-alkanes), stereochemical and co-metabolic insights into n-alkane-activating (methylalkyl)succinate synthases to the discovery of bacterial groups previously unknown to possess alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases by means of functional gene markers and in situ field studies enabled by state-of-the-art stable isotope probing and fractionation approaches. Other topics are Mo-cofactor-dependent dehydrogenases performing O2-independent hydroxylation of hydrocarbons and alkyl side chains (ethylbenzene, p-cymene, cholesterol, n-hexadecane), degradation of p-alkylated benzoates and toluenes, glycyl radical-bearing 4-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase, novel types of carboxylation reactions (for acetophenone, acetone, and potentially also benzene and

  3. Identification of Anaerobic Aniline-Degrading Bacteria at a Contaminated Industrial Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Li, Yun; McGuinness, Lora R; Luo, Shuai; Huang, Weilin; Kerkhof, Lee J; Mack, E Erin; Häggblom, Max M; Fennell, Donna E

    2015-09-15

    Anaerobic aniline biodegradation was investigated under different electron-accepting conditions using contaminated canal and groundwater aquifer sediments from an industrial site. Aniline loss was observed in nitrate- and sulfate-amended microcosms and in microcosms established to promote methanogenic conditions. Lag times of 37 days (sulfate amended) to more than 100 days (methanogenic) were observed prior to activity. Time-series DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify bacteria that incorporated (13)C-labeled aniline in the microcosms established to promote methanogenic conditions. In microcosms from heavily contaminated aquifer sediments, a phylotype with 92.7% sequence similarity to Ignavibacterium album was identified as a dominant aniline degrader as indicated by incorporation of (13)C-aniline into its DNA. In microcosms from contaminated canal sediments, a bacterial phylotype within the family Anaerolineaceae, but without a match to any known genus, demonstrated the assimilation of (13)C-aniline. Acidovorax spp. were also identified as putative aniline degraders in both of these two treatments, indicating that these species were present and active in both the canal and aquifer sediments. There were multiple bacterial phylotypes associated with anaerobic degradation of aniline at this complex industrial site, which suggests that anaerobic transformation of aniline is an important process at the site. Furthermore, the aniline degrading phylotypes identified in the current study are not related to any known aniline-degrading bacteria. The identification of novel putative aniline degraders expands current knowledge regarding the potential fate of aniline under anaerobic conditions.

  4. Diversity of Cultured Thermophilic Anaerobes in Hot Springs of Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L.; Lu, Y.; Dong, X.; Liu, X.; Wei, Y.; Ji, X.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Thermophilic anaerobes including Archaea and Bacteria refer to those growing optimally at temperatures above 50°C and do not use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor for growth. Study on thermophilic anaerobes will help to understand how life thrives under extreme conditions. Meanwhile thermophilic anaerobes are of importance in potential application and development of thermophilic biotechnology. We have surveyed culturable thermophilic anaerobes in hot springs (pH6.5-7.5; 70 - 94°C) in Rehai of Tengchong, Bangnazhang of Longlin, Eryuan of Dali,Yunnan, China. 50 strains in total were cultured from the hot springs water using Hungate anaerobic technique, and 30 strains were selected based on phenotypic diversity for analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 28 strains belonged to the members of five genera: Caldanaerobacter, Calaramator, Thermoanaerobacter, Dictyoglomus and Fervidobacterium, which formed five branches on the phylogenetic tree. Besides, 2 strains of methanogenic archaea were obtained. The majority of the isolates were the known species, however, seven strains were identified as novel species affiliated to the five genera based on the lower 16S rDNA sequence similarities (less than 93 - 97%) with the described species. This work would provide the future study on their diversity, distribution among different regions and the potential application of thermophilic enzyme. Supported by State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences(SKLMR-080605)and the Foundation of State Natural Science (30660009, 30960022, 31081220175).

  5. Anaerobic digestion of piggery waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes

  6. Toxicity assessment of inorganic nanoparticles to acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity in anaerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A

    2013-09-15

    Release of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) to municipal wastewater from industrial and residential sources could impact biological systems in wastewater treatment plants. Methanogenic inhibition can cause failure of anaerobic waste(water) treatment. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of a wide array of inorganic NPs (Ag(0), Al₂O₃, CeO₂, Cu(0), CuO, Fe(0), Fe₂O₃, Mn₂O₃, SiO₂, TiO₂, and ZnO supplied up to 1500 mgL(-1)) to acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity of anaerobic granular sludge. Of all the NPs tested, only Cu(0) and ZnO caused severe methanogenic inhibition. The 50% inhibiting concentrations determined towards acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens were 62 and 68 mgL(-1) for Cu(0) NP; and 87 and 250 mgL(-1) for ZnO NP, respectively. CuO NPs also caused inhibition of acetoclastic methanogens. Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) salts caused similar levels of inhibition as Cu(0) and ZnO NPs based on equilibrium soluble metal concentrations measured during the assays, suggesting that the toxicity was due to the release of metal ions by NP-corrosion. A commercial dispersant, Dispex, intended to increase NP stability did not affect the inhibitory impact of the NPs. The results taken as a whole suggest that Zn- and Cu-containing NPs can release metal ions that are inhibitory for methanogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biogas production from cattle manure by anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuen, S.C.; Tinia Idaty Mohd Ghazi; Rozita Omar; Azni Idris

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In order to deal with the energy shortage problem, we are searching for more alternative energy resources especially renewable or sustainable. Biogas is one of the solutions in dealing with the energy shortage problem. Biogas is a type of energy resources derives from organic matter during the process called anaerobic digestion. The biogas produced is mainly consisting of methane and carbon dioxide. In this research, diluted cattle manure (1:1 ration with water) was inoculated with palm oil mill (POME) activated sludge at the ratio of 1:5 and placed in a 10 liter bioreactor. The temperature and pH in the bioreactor was regulated at 6.95 and 53 degree Celsius, respectively to enhance the anaerobic digestion process. Parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total solid, volatile solid, ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N), methane (CH 4 ) and the volume of biogas generated was monitored for effectiveness of the treatment of cattle manure via anaerobic digestion. The total volume of biogas produced in this study is 80.25 liter in 29 days while being able to treat the COD content up to 52 %. (author)

  8. [Distribution and removal of anaerobic antibiotic resistant bacteria during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Wang, Yuan-Yue; Wei Yuan, Song

    2014-10-01

    Sewage sludge is one of the major sources that releasing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) into the environment since it contains large amount of ARB, but there is little information about the fate of the anaerobic ARB in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Therefore, the distribution, removal and seasonal changes of tetracycline and β-lactam antibiotics resistant bacteria in the mesophilic egg-shaped digesters of a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated for one year in this study. Results showed that there were higher amounts of ARB and higher resistance rate of β-lactam antibiotics than that of tetracycline antibiotics in the sewage sludge. All ARB could be significantly reduced during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process by 1.48-1.64 log unit (P anaerobic digestion by 12.0% and 14.3%, respectively (P bacteria, there were more ARB in the sewage sludge in cold season than in warm season (P < 0.05).

  9. Studies on the enzymology of cellulose degradation by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum and the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, K.M.; Gow, L.A.; Wilson, C.A.; Wood, T.W. (Rowett Research Inst., Aberdeen (UK))

    1990-01-01

    The extracellular cellulases from the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum and the anaerobic rumen fungus Neocallimastix frontalis are very active on crystalline cellulose. In both cases the activity resides in a high molecular weight complex. The complex from C. thermocellum (termed the cellulosome) was found to be readily dissociated at pH 5.0 and at room temperature by a mixture of SDS, EDTA and DTT. Virtually all the activity of the unfractionated cellulosome was recovered when the dissociated enzyme components were reassociated by dialysis. Thus, the route is now established for the first time for a meaningful study of the mechanism of cellulase action of this commercially important enzyme system. Nearly all of the activity to crystalline cellulose shown by the cellulase of N. frontalis was associated with a fraction which comprised only 2% of the extracellular protein, 3% of the endoglucanase and 3% of the {beta}-glucosidase. This fraction, which could be isolated by affinity chromatography on cellulose, was produced in greater quantity when the fungus was grown in co-culture with the methanogen, Methanobrevibacter smithii. The specific activity of the partially purified enzyme for degradation of crystalline cellulose was several-fold greater than that produced by the aerobic fungus T. reesei, which is being developed world-wide for its commercial potential for converting cellulose to fermentable soluble sugars. The cellulase of N. frontalis clearly has great commercial potential. 39 refs., 19 figs., 22 tabs.

  10. Chiling slows anaerobic metabolism to improve anoxia tolerance of insects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boardman, L.; Sorensen, J. G.; Košťál, Vladimír; Šimek, Petr; Terblanche, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 12 (2016), č. článku 176. ISSN 1573-3882 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18509S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : anoxia * anaerobism * cold tolerance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.692, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11306-016-1119-1

  11. Feasibility of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR In Treating Starch Industry Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Assadi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR includes a mixed anaerobic culture separated into compartments and a novel process with a series of vertical baffles at each compartment. It dose not require granulation for its operation, resulting in shorter start-up time. In this study, the feasibility of the ABR process was investigated for the treatment of wheat flour starch wastewater. Simple gravity settling was used to remove suspended solids from the starch wastewater and used as feed. Start-up of a reactor (13.5L with five compartments using a diluted feed of approximately 4500 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD was accomplished in about 9 weeks using seed sludge from the anaerobic digester of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The reactor with a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 72 h at 35°C and an initial organic loading rate (OLR of 1.2 kgCOD/m3.d showed a removal efficiency of 61% COD. The best reactor performance was observed with an organic loading rate of 2.5 kgCOD/m3.d (or hydraulic retention time of 2.45 d when a COD conversion of 67% was achieved. The main advantage of using an ABR comes from its compartmentalized structure. The first compartment of an ABR may act as a buffer zone to all toxic and inhibitory materials in the feed and, thus, allows the later compartments to be loaded with a relatively harmless, more uniform, and mostly acidified influent. In this respect, the later compartments would be more likely to support active populations of the relatively sensitive methanogenic bacteria.

  12. Mineralization of LCFA associated with anaerobic sludge: Kinetics, enhancement of methanogenic activity, and effect of VFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M A; Sousa, D Z; Mota, M; Alves, M M

    2004-11-20

    Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) associated with anaerobic sludge by mechanisms of precipitation, adsorption, or entrapment can be biodegraded to methane. The mineralization kinetics of biomass-associated LCFA were established according to an inhibition model based on Haldane's enzymatic inhibition kinetics. A value around 1,000 mg COD-LCFA..g VSS(-1) was obtained for the optimal specific LCFA content that allowed the maximal mineralization rate. For sludge with specific LCFA contents of 2,838 +/- 63 and 4,571 +/- 257 mg COD-LCFA..g VSS(-1), the specific methanogenic activities in the presence of acetate, butyrate, and H(2)/CO(2) were significantly enhanced after the mineralization of the biomass-associated LCFA. For sludge with a specific LCFA content near the optimal value defined by the kinetic model, the effect of adding VFA to the medium was studied during the mineralization of the biomass-associated LCFA. Different patterns were obtained for each individual substrate. Acetate and butyrate were preferentially consumed by the consortium, but in the case of propionate no evidence of a sequential consumption pattern could be withdrawn. It was concluded that LCFA do not exert a bactericidal neither a permanent toxic effect toward the anaerobic consortia. A discussion is addressed to the relative roles of a reversible inhibitory effect and a transport limitation effect imposed by the LCFA surrounding the cells. (c) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  13. Nitrate reductase and nitrous oxide production by Fusarium oxysporum 11dn1 under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakov, A V; Nosikov, A N; Skrynnikova, E V; L'vov, N P

    2000-08-01

    The fungus Fusarium oxysporum 11dn1 was found to be able to grow and produce nitrous oxide on nitrate-containing medium in anaerobic conditions. The rate of nitrous oxide formation was three to six orders of magnitude lower than the rates of molecular nitrogen production by common denitrifying bacteria. Acetylene and ammonia did not affect the release of nitrous oxide release. It was shown that under anaerobic conditions fast increase of nitrate reductase activity occurred, caused by the synthesis of enzyme de novo and protein dephosphorylation. Reverse transfer of the mycelium to aerobic conditions led to a decline in nitrate reductase activity and stopped nitrous oxide production. The presence of two nitrate reductases was shown, which differed in molecular mass, location, temperature optima, and activity in nitrate- and ammonium-containing media. Two enzymes represent assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reductases, which are active in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively.

  14. Improved anaerobic biodegradation of biosolids by the addition of food waste as a co-substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.-W.; Han, S.-K.; Song, Y.-C.; Baek, B.-C.; Yoo, K.-S.; Lee, J.-J.; Shin, H.-S.

    2003-07-01

    The temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) process was applied to increase the performance of anaerobic treatment of biosolids. Previously obtained results indicate that this system showed the advantages of thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion process. By comparing the performance of each reactor of the system, it was illustrated that the main stage of methane production was the thermophilic reactor which has faster microbial metabolism. However, the result revealed that substrate characteristics of low VS/TS limited the system performance. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of food waste as a co-substrate for improving anaerobic biodegradability, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted in thermophilic conditions with biomass of thermophilic reactor. It was confirmed that the co-digestion of sewage sludge mixed with food waste had a distinct improvement on biodegradability. The most significant advantages were the preferable environment provided by food waste for the growth and activity of anaerobes and the mutual assistance between biosolids and food waste. (author)

  15. Periodontal pathogens: a quantitative comparison of anaerobic culture and real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutaga, Khalil; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2005-01-01

    Periodontitis is a multi-factorial chronic inflammatory and destructive disease of the tooth-supporting tissues. Quantitative anaerobic culture techniques have been used for microbial diagnosis of the different forms of the disease. The aim of this study was to compare real-time PCR with

  16. Prospects of Anaerobic Digestion Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China must face the problem of managing municipal solid waste, and the challenge of organic waste disposal is even more serious. Considering the characteristics of traditional waste disposal technologies and the subsequent secondary pollution, anaerobic digestion has various advantages such as reduction in the land needed for disposal and preservation of environmental quality. In light of the energy crisis, this paper focuses on the potential production of biogas from biowaste through anaerobic digestion processes, the problems incurred by the waste collection system, and the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Use of biogas in a combined heat and power cogeneration system is also discussed. Finally, the advantages of anaerobic digestion technology for the Chinese market are summarized. The anaerobic digestion is suggested to be a promising treating technology for the organic wastes in China.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p>0.05. On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise.

  19. Metabolic interactions between methanogenic consortia and anaerobic respiring bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stams, A.J.; Oude Elferink, S.J.; Westermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic...... consortia. Despite the potentially adverse effects, only few inorganic electron acceptors potentially utilizable for anaerobic respiration have been investigated with respect to negative interactions in anaerobic digesters. In this chapter we review competitive and inhibitory interactions between anaerobic...... respiring populations and methanogenic consortia in bioreactors. Due to the few studies in anaerobic digesters, many of our discussions are based upon studies of defined cultures or natural ecosystems...

  20. Alkali-assisted membrane cleaning for fouling control of anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xiaojie; Quek, Pei Jun; Wang, Zhiwei; Ng, How Yong

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a chemically enhanced backflush (CEB) cleaning method using NaOH solution was proposed for fouling mitigation in anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs). Ex-situ cleaning tests revealed that NaOH dosages ranging from 0.05 to 1.30mmol/L had positive impacts on anaerobic biomass, while higher dosages (>1.30mmol/L) showed inhibition and/or toxic impacts. In-situ cleaning tests showed that anaerobic biomass could tolerate much higher NaOH concentrations due to the alkali consumption by anaerobic process and/or the buffering role of mixed liquor. More importantly, 10-20mmol-NaOH/L could significantly reduce membrane fouling rates (4-5.5 times over the AnMBR with deionized water backflush) and slightly improve methanogenic activities. COD removal efficiencies were over 87% and peaked at 20mmol-NaOH/L. However, extremely high NaOH concentration had adverse effects on filtration and treatment performance. Economic analysis indicated that 12mmol/L of NaOH was the cost-efficient and optimal fouling-control dosage for the CEB cleaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically...... increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C...

  2. Is anaerobic blood culture necessary? If so, who needs it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kentaro; Takahashi, Miwa

    2008-07-01

    The role of anaerobic blood cultures is not validated, although they are drawn routinely. We performed a retrospective chart review at a private hospital in Japan for patients admitted between July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005 to determine patient characteristics resulting in anaerobic blood culture. During the study period, 17,775 blood culture bottles were sent for the analysis, and 2132 bottles (12.0%) were positive for microbial growth. Bacteria were grown from 958 anaerobic bottles (44.7%), and 719 (33.7%) of those were judged to represent real infections, which accounted for 410 cases of bacteremia. Only 47 cases (11.5%) were detected by anaerobic cultures alone. Among those 47, obligate anaerobes represented 12 cases. Clinical evaluation could have predicted 7 of 12 cases of obligate anaerobic bacteremia. In the remaining 5 cases, the source of bacteremia was unclear. There were 2.7 cases of anaerobic bacteremia per 1000 blood cultures. The mortality attributable to anaerobic bacteremia was 50%. Among bacteremic cases not caused by obligate anaerobes yet diagnosed solely by anaerobic bottles, either the standard 2 sets of blood were not taken or their clinical outcomes were favorable. Anaerobic blood culture can be avoided in most cases. Anaerobic blood culture may be most helpful when (1) bacteremia because of obligate anaerobes is clinically suspected, (2) patients are severely immunocompromised, and (3) source of bacteremia is not identified by clinical evaluation.

  3. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater generated from the hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina: Toxicity assessment and minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Mingxia; Schideman, Lance C.; Tommaso, Giovana; Chen, Wan-Ting; Zhou, Yan; Nair, Ken; Qian, Wanyi; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nutrient reuse and energy recovery of HTL-WW are realized. • Anaerobic digestion of HTL-WW is vital to the sustainability of algal biocrude. • An anaerobic toxicity assay was conducted to evaluate HTL-WW toxicity. • The presence of adsorbents and biofilms effectively minimized inhibition. • A portion of the toxic compounds could be removed after anaerobic digestion. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrate anaerobic digestion of hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (HTL-WW) is significant to the sustainability of algal biofuel development for nutrient reuse and residual energy recovery. HTL-WW contains substantial amounts of residual energy but is toxic to anaerobes. With 6% HTL-WW converted from cyanobacteria (e.g. Spirulina), anaerobes were 50% inhibited. In this study, zeolite, granular activated carbon (GAC), and polyurethane matrices (PM) were used during a two-round anaerobic batch test with HTL-WW, and in the presence of each material, the total methane yields were 136 mL/g COD, 169 mL/g COD, and 168 mL/g COD, respectively, being 11%, 37% and 36% higher than the control. GAC was considered promising due to its highest methane yield of 124 mL/g COD at the second feeding, indicating a good recovery of adsorption capacity. The observed low methane production rates indicated the necessity for anaerobic process optimization. The physicochemical analysis of the digestates demonstrated that most of the compounds identified in the HTL-WW were degraded.

  4. Anaerobic digestion for sustainable development: a natural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gljzen, H J

    2002-01-01

    After the discovery of methane gas by Alessandro Volta in 1776, it took about 100 years before anaerobic processes for the treatment of wastewater and sludges were introduced. The development of high rate anaerobic digesters for the treatment of sewage and industrial wastewater took until the nineteen-seventies and for solid waste even till the nineteen-eighties. All digesters have in common that they apply natural anaerobic consortia of microorganisms for degradation and transformation processes. In view of this, it could be rewarding to evaluate the efficiency of natural ecosystems for their possible application. Examples of high rate anaerobic natural systems include the forestomach of ruminants and the hindgut of certain insects, such as termites and cockroaches. These 'natural reactors' exhibit volumetric methane production rates as high as 35 l/l.d. The development of anaerobic reactors based on such natural anaerobic systems could produce eco-technologies for the effective management of a wide variety of solid wastes and industrial wastewater. Important limitations of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage relate to the absence of nutrient and pathogen removal. A combination of anaerobic pre-treatment followed by photosynthetic posttreatment is proposed for the effective recovery of energy and nutrients from sewage. This eco-technology approach is based on the recognition that the main nutrient assimilating capacity is housed in photosynthetic plants. The proposed anaerobic-photosynthetic process is energy efficient, cost effective and applicable under a wide variety of rural and urban conditions. a natural systems approach towards waste management could generate affordable eco-technologies for effective treatment and resource recovery.

  5. Influence of Nutrient Impregnated into Zeolite Addition on Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellyanawaty, M.; Chusna, F. M. A.; Sudibyo, H.; Nurjanah, N.; Budhijanto, W.

    2018-03-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) was wastewater generated from palm oil milling activities which was brownish liquid, acidic with pH 3-4, and contained soluble materials which were hazardous to the environment. It was characterized by high organic loading (COD 40,000–60,000 mg/L). According to its characteristics, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable energy through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable energy production would be an additional advantage to the palm oil industries. Methanogenesis was the rate limiting step in anaerobic digestion. In the conventional anaerobic digester, it required large reactors and long retention time. The addition of microbial immobilization media was to improve anaerobic reactor performance in term of higher organic removal and methane production. Additionally, better performance could lead to reduction of reactor volume and shorter retention time in high rate anaerobic digester. The loading of essential microorganism nutrient into the media might increase the affinity of bacteria to attach and grow on the media surface. Activating or inhibition effects of natural and modified zeolite addition in anaerobic digestion of POME was studied in batch reactors using erlenmeyer of 1,000 mL at COD concentrations of about 8,000 mg/L. Zeolite was impregnated with nickel and magnesium at concentrations of 0.0561 mg Ni/g zeolite and 0.0108 mg Mg/g zeolite. The effect of the different zeolite addition was determined by the measurement of soluble COD (sCOD), Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs) and biogas production. Greater effect of modified zeolite was observed in zeolite impregnated with nickel with a 54% increase of biogas production. Meanwhile, the modified zeolite impregnated with magnesium had no positive impact to the methanogenic bacteria activities.

  6. The Redox-Sensitive Transcriptional Activator OxyR Regulates the Peroxide Response Regulon in the Obligate Anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Edson R.; Owens, Gary; Smith, C. Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    The peroxide response-inducible genes ahpCF, dps, and katB in the obligate anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis are controlled by the redox-sensitive transcriptional activator OxyR. This is the first functional oxidative stress regulator identified and characterized in anaerobic bacteria. oxyR and dps were found to be divergently transcribed, with an overlap in their respective promoter regulatory regions. B. fragilis OxyR and Dps proteins showed high identity to homologues from a closely related anaerobe, Porphyromonas gingivalis. Northern blot analysis revealed that oxyR was expressed as a monocistronic 1-kb mRNA and that dps mRNA was approximately 500 bases in length. dps mRNA was induced over 500-fold by oxidative stress in the parent strain and was constitutively induced in the peroxide-resistant mutant IB263. The constitutive peroxide response in strain IB263 was shown to have resulted from a missense mutation at codon 202 (GAT to GGT) of the oxyR gene [oxyR(Con)] with a predicted D202G substitution in the OxyR protein. Transcriptional fusion analysis revealed that deletion of oxyR abolished the induction of ahpC and katB following treatment with hydrogen peroxide or oxygen exposure. However, dps expression was induced approximately fourfold by oxygen exposure in ΔoxyR strains but not by hydrogen peroxide. This indicates that dps expression is also under the control of an oxygen-dependent OxyR-independent mechanism. Complementation of ΔoxyR mutant strains with wild-type oxyR and oxyR(Con) restored the inducible peroxide response and the constitutive response of the ahpCF, katB, and dps genes, respectively. However, overexpression of OxyR abolished the catalase activity but not katB expression, suggesting that higher levels of intracellular OxyR may be involved in other physiological processes. Analysis of oxyR expression in the parents and in ΔoxyR and overexpressing oxyR strains by Northern blotting and oxyR′::xylB fusions revealed that B. fragilis OxyR does

  7. Bio-synthesis and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles using anaerobically digested parthenium slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adur, Alaknanda J; Nandini, N; Shilpashree Mayachar, K; Ramya, R; Srinatha, N

    2018-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles were prepared through eco-friendly, cost effective, bio-mediated technique using anaerobically digested Parthenium hysterophorous digested slurry (PDS) for the first time. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized through different techniques such as UV-Vis spectrophotometer for optical properties; X-ray diffractometer (XRD), high resolution transmission electron spectroscopy (HR-TEM) and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy for structural property investigations. It was observed that the prepared silver nanoparticles were crystallized in face centered cubic crystal structure with an average particle size of 19 nm as confirmed from XRD. Also HR-TEM studies reveal the formation of nano-sized silver particles with face centered cubic nano structure. In addition, absorption spectra exhibit Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) which suggests the formation of silver nanoparticles. FTIR results show the presence of different characteristic functional groups and their stretching / bending vibrations in turn responsible for the bioreduction of silver ions in Parthenium digested slurry. Further investigations on antimicrobial activity were done by subjecting the synthesized silver nanoparticles on E-coli and Pseudomonas as marker organisms for the group of gram negative bacteria by well plate method on enrichment media. The result obtained shows a clear zone of inhibition confirming the antibacterial activity. Overall, the investigated results confirm the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are potential candidates for antimicrobial activity applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria in genital disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaqchali, S; Wilks, M; Thin, R N

    1983-01-01

    In a study of Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria in non-specific vaginitis (NSV) and other genital disease 89 patients attending a genital medicine clinic had vaginal samples examined for conventional pathogens and for quantitative analysis of G vaginalis and aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora. The overall incidence of G vaginalis was 20%; G vaginalis (mean concentration 7.0 log10/g of secretion) occurred predominantly in patients with NSV (57%) but also in sexual contacts of non-specific urethritis (NSU) (37.5%) and in patients with other conditions (11.8%). G vaginalis is therefore a relatively common isolate in patients with vaginal discharge. The concentration of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria ranged from 4.9-11.0 log10/g of secretion with an anaerobe-to-aerobe ratio of 10:1. Anaerobic bacteria, particularly anaerobic Gram-positive cocci (mean concentrations 7.7 log10/g), were present in patients with NSV and in association with G vaginalis, but they also occurred in other clinical groups and with other pathogens, particularly Trichomonas vaginalis. Anaerobic bacteria may therefore play an important role in the pathogenesis of vaginal infections. PMID:6600955

  9. Optimization of the purification process of wine lees through anaerobic filter reactors. Optimizacion del proceso de depuracion de vinazas de vino mediante reactores tipo filtro anaerobio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebot Sanz, E.; Romero Garcia, L.I.; Quiroga Alonso, J.M.; Sales Marquez, D. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    In this work, the optimization of thermophilic anaerobic process, using Anaerobic Filter technology was studied. Feed of the Anaerobic Filter was wine-distillery wastewaters. The experiments developed were carried out at lab-scale downflow anaerobic filter reactors. Reactors were filled with a high porous plastic media (Flocor-R). The media support entities have a high surface/volume ratio. Test were run to determine the maximum organic load attainable in the system for wich both, the depurative efficiency and the methane production were optimum. Likewise, the effect of organic load on the anaerobic filter performance were studied. (Author) 15 refs. (Author)

  10. Anaerobic digestion of cassava wastewater in fixed bed reactor using bamboo medium support; Digestao anaerobica de agua residuaria de fecularia em reator de leito fixo utilizando meio suporte de aneis de bambu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watthier, Elisangela; Andreani, Cristiane L.; Silva, Jefferson L.G. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: eliswa@hotmail.com; Gomes, Simone D. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Recursos Hidricos e Saneamento Ambiental

    2012-11-01

    Cassava wastewater causes damage to the environment due to high organic loads and presence of cyanide and hydrocyanic acid. An alternative treatment anaerobic which add value for biogas production. To allow use of higher load sand reducing the TDH support means are used. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the anaerobic treatment of liquid effluent of cassava industry, using bamboo as support media. The wastewater used was derived from starch factory located in Toledo. Was used PVC reactor with a diameter of 15 cm and length 90 cm. Were used as support means 52 bamboo rings and useful reactor volume 61. A total of 13 load increasing, from 1,675 to 15.158 g.L{sup -1}.d{sup -1}, until reaching the maximum load bearable. For each load data was collected for 15 days by daily samples at entrance and exit of the reactors. The samples were analyzed: DQO, alkalinity, volatile acidity and biogas production. There was a system instability in 12,394 g.L{sup -1}.d{sup -1}, with values of AV/AT above 0.5, but the system began to show signs of stability in the next load. The reactor showed biogas production up 1.57 L.L{sup -1}.d{sup -1}. (author)

  11. Validity of the Pediatric Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test to Determine Anaerobic Performance in Healthy Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Bart C.; Werkman, Maarten S.; Blokland, Donna; Eijsermans, Maria J. C.; van der Torre, Patrick; Bartels, Bart; Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    Purpose: To determine criterion validity of the pediatric running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a nonsophisticated field test for evaluating anaerobic performance in healthy children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 65. healthy children (28 boys and 37 girls between 6 and 18 years of age,

  12. Effect of temperature on removal of antibiotic resistance genes by anaerobic digestion of activated sludge revealed by metagenomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Yang, Ying; Pruden, Amy

    2015-09-01

    As antibiotic resistance continues to spread globally, there is growing interest in the potential to limit the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from wastewater sources. In particular, operational conditions during sludge digestion may serve to discourage selection of resistant bacteria, reduce horizontal transfer of ARGs, and aid in hydrolysis of DNA. This study applied metagenomic analysis to examine the removal efficiency of ARGs through thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion using bench-scale reactors. Although the relative abundance of various ARGs shifted from influent to effluent sludge, there was no measureable change in the abundance of total ARGs or their diversity in either the thermophilic or mesophilic treatment. Among the 35 major ARG subtypes detected in feed sludge, substantial reductions (removal efficiency >90%) of 8 and 13 ARGs were achieved by thermophilic and mesophilic digestion, respectively. However, resistance genes of aadA, macB, and sul1 were enriched during the thermophilic anaerobic digestion, while resistance genes of erythromycin esterase type I, sul1, and tetM were enriched during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Efflux pump remained to be the major antibiotic resistance mechanism in sludge samples, but the portion of ARGs encoding resistance via target modification increased in the anaerobically digested sludge relative to the feed. Metagenomic analysis provided insight into the potential for anaerobic digestion to mitigate a broad array of ARGs.

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of winery waste and waste activated sludge: assessment of process feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Ros, C; Cavinato, C; Cecchi, F; Bolzonella, D

    2014-01-01

    In this study the anaerobic co-digestion of wine lees together with waste activated sludge in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions was tested at pilot scale. Three organic loading rates (OLRs 2.8, 3.3 and 4.5 kgCOD/m(3)d) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs 21, 19 and 16 days) were applied to the reactors, in order to evaluate the best operational conditions for the maximization of the biogas yields. The addition of lee to sludge determined a higher biogas production: the best yield obtained was 0.40 Nm(3)biogas/kgCODfed. Because of the high presence of soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and polyphenols in wine lees, the best results in terms of yields and process stability were obtained when applying the lowest of the three organic loading rates tested together with mesophilic conditions.

  14. Detection of anaerobic odontogenic infections by fluorine-18 fluoromisonidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Renshyan; Chu Leeshing; Yen Sanhui; Chang Chenpei; Chou Kuoliang; Wu Liangchi; Chang Chiwei; Lui Muntain; Chen Kuangy; Yeh Shinhwa

    1996-01-01

    Odontogenic infections are a potential risk for patients who receive cervicofacial radiotherapy and should be treated before irradiation. Anaerobic microbial infections are the most common causes. This study assessed the value of the hypoxic imaging agent fluorine-18 fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) in detecting anaerobic odontogenic infections. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed at 2 h after injection of 370 MBq (10 mCi) of FMISO in 26 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and six controls with healthy teeth. Tomograms were interpreted visually to identify hypoxic foci in the jaw. All patients received thorough dental examinations as a pre-radiotherapy work-up. Fifty-one sites of periodonititis, 15 periodontal abscesses, 14 sites of dental caries with root canal infection, 23 sites of dental caries without root canal infection, and seven necrotic pulps were found by dental examination. Anaerobic pathogens were isolated from 12 patients. Increased uptake of FMISO was found at 45 out of 51 sites of periodontitis, all 15 sites of periodontal abscess, all 14 sites of dental caries with root canal infection, all seven sites of necrotic pulp and 15 sites of dental carries without obvious evidence of active root canal infection. No abnormal uptake was seen in the healthy teeth of patients or in the six controls. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of FMISO PET scan in detecting odontogenic infections were 93%, 97%, 84%, 99% and 96%, respectively. 18 F-fluoride ion bone scan done in three patients showed that 18 F-fluoride ion plays no role in the demonstration of anaerobic odontogenic infection. FMISO PET scan is a sensitive method for the detection of anaerobic odontogenic infections, and may play a complementary role in the evaluation of the dental condition of patients with head and neck tumours prior to radiation therapy. (orig.)

  15. Detection of anaerobic odontogenic infections by fluorine-18 fluoromisonidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Renshyan [National PET/Cyclotron Center and Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming Univ. Medical School, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Chu Leeshing [National PET/Cyclotron Center and Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming Univ. Medical School, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)]|[National Defense Medical Center, Taipei (Taiwan); Yen Sanhui [National PET/Cyclotron Center and Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming Univ. Medical School, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)]|[National Defense Medical Center, Taipei (Taiwan); Chang Chenpei [National PET/Cyclotron Center and Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming Univ. Medical School, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Chou Kuoliang [National PET/Cyclotron Center and Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming Univ. Medical School, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Wu Liangchi [National PET/Cyclotron Center and Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming Univ. Medical School, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Chang Chiwei [National PET/Cyclotron Center and Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming Univ. Medical School, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Lui Muntain [Dept. of Dentistry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China); Chen Kuangy [National PET/Cyclotron Center and Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming Univ. Medical School, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)]|[National Defense Medical Center, Taipei (Taiwan); Yeh Shinhwa [National PET/Cyclotron Center and Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming Univ. Medical School, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-10-01

    Odontogenic infections are a potential risk for patients who receive cervicofacial radiotherapy and should be treated before irradiation. Anaerobic microbial infections are the most common causes. This study assessed the value of the hypoxic imaging agent fluorine-18 fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) in detecting anaerobic odontogenic infections. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed at 2 h after injection of 370 MBq (10 mCi) of FMISO in 26 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and six controls with healthy teeth. Tomograms were interpreted visually to identify hypoxic foci in the jaw. All patients received thorough dental examinations as a pre-radiotherapy work-up. Fifty-one sites of periodonititis, 15 periodontal abscesses, 14 sites of dental caries with root canal infection, 23 sites of dental caries without root canal infection, and seven necrotic pulps were found by dental examination. Anaerobic pathogens were isolated from 12 patients. Increased uptake of FMISO was found at 45 out of 51 sites of periodontitis, all 15 sites of periodontal abscess, all 14 sites of dental caries with root canal infection, all seven sites of necrotic pulp and 15 sites of dental carries without obvious evidence of active root canal infection. No abnormal uptake was seen in the healthy teeth of patients or in the six controls. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of FMISO PET scan in detecting odontogenic infections were 93%, 97%, 84%, 99% and 96%, respectively. {sup 18}F-fluoride ion bone scan done in three patients showed that {sup 18}F-fluoride ion plays no role in the demonstration of anaerobic odontogenic infection. FMISO PET scan is a sensitive method for the detection of anaerobic odontogenic infections, and may play a complementary role in the evaluation of the dental condition of patients with head and neck tumours prior to radiation therapy. (orig.)

  16. Anti-anaerobic activity of levofloxacin alone and combined with clindamycin and metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, K L; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    2000-11-01

    Microdilution MICs of levofloxacin against twelve anaerobes ranged between 0.5-8.0 microg/ml and those of clindamycin and metronidazole between 0.008-2.0 and 0.25->16.0 microg/ml, respectively. Combination of levofloxacin with clindamycin and/or metronidazole in time-kill tests led to synergy at levofloxacin concentrations at or below the MIC in 7/12 strains.

  17. Support media can steer methanogenesis in the presence of phenol through biotic and abiotic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Simon; Déjean, Sébastien; Chapleur, Olivier

    2018-09-01

    A wide variety of inhibitors can induce anaerobic digester disruption. To avoid performance losses, support media can be used to mitigate inhibitions. However, distinguishing the physico-chemical from the biological mechanisms of such strategies remains delicate. In this framework, the impact of 10  g/L of different types of zeolites and activated carbons (AC) on microbial community dynamics during anaerobic digestion of biowaste in the presence of 1.3 g/L of phenol was evaluated with 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. In the presence of AC, methanogenesis inhibition was rapidly removed due to a decrease of phenol concentration. This abiotic effect related to the physico-chemical properties of AC led to increased final CH4 and CO2 productions by 29-31% compared to digesters incubated without support. Interestingly, although zeolite did not adsorb phenol, final CH4 and CO2 production reached comparable levels as with AC. Nevertheless, compared to digesters incubated without support, methanogenesis lag phase duration was less reduced in the presence of zeolites (5 ± 1 days) than in the presence of activated carbons (12 ± 2 days). Both types of support induced biotic effects. AC and zeolite both allowed the preservation of the major representative archaeal genus of the non-inhibited ecosystem, Methanosarcina. By contrast, they distinctly shaped bacterial populations. OTUs belonging to class W5 became dominant at the expense of OTUs assigned to orders Clostridiales, Bacteroidales and Anaerolinales in the presence of AC. Zeolite enhanced the implantation of OTUs assigned to bacterial phylum Cloacimonetes. This study highlighted that supports can induce biotic and abiotic effects within digesters inhibited with phenol, showing potentialities to enhance anaerobic digestion stability under disrupting conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  19. Anaerobic digestion for sustainable development: a natural approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gijzen, H.J.

    2002-07-01

    After the discovery of methane gas by Alessandro Volta in 1776, it took about 100 years before anaerobic processes for the treatment of wastewater and sludges were introduced. The development of high rate anaerobic digesters for the treatment of sewage and industrial wastewater took until the nineteen-seventies and for solid waste even till the nineteen-eighties. All digesters have in common that they apply natural anaerobic consortia of microorganisms for degradation and transformation processes. In view of this, it could be rewarding to evaluate the efficiency of natural ecosystems for their possible application. Examples of high rate anaerobic natural systems include the forestomach of ruminants and the hindgut of certain insects, such as termites and cockroaches. These ''natural reactors'' exhibit volumetric methane production rates as high as 35 l/l.d. The development of anaerobic reactors based on such natural anaerobic systems could produce eco-technologies for the effective management of a wide variety of solid wastes and industrial wastewater. Important limitations of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage relate to the absence of nutrient and pathogen removal. A combination of anaerobic pre-treatment followed by photosynthetic post-treatment is proposed for the effective recovery of energy and nutrients from sewage. This eco-technology approach is based on the recognition that the main nutrient assimilating capacity is housed in photosynthetic plants. The proposed anaerobic-photosynthetic process is energy efficient, cost effective and applicable under a wide variety of rural and urban conditions. In conclusion: a natural systems approach towards waste management could generate affordable eco-technologies for effective treatment and resource recovery. (author)

  20. Advanced anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste for the melissa life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissens, G.; Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Brunner, G.; Creuly, C.; Dussap, G.; Kube, J.; Maerkl, H.; Lasseur, C.

    The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of the MELiSSA loop (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative). The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e. a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor, a fiber liquefaction reactor employing the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes and a hydrothermolysis system in near-critical water. By the one-stage CSTR, a biogas yield of 75% with a specific biogas production of 0.37 l biogas g-1 VSS (volatile suspended solids) added at a RT (hydraulic retention time) of 20-25 d was obtained. Biogas yields could not be increased considerably at higher RT, indicating the depletion of readily available substrate after 25 d. The solids present in the CSTR-effluent were subsequently treated in two ways. Hydrothermal treatment (T ˜ 310-350C, p ˜ 240 bar) resulted in effective carbon liquefaction (50-60% without and 83% with carbon dioxide saturation) and complete sanitation of the residue. Application of the cellulolytic Fibrobacter succinogenes converted remaining cellulose contained in the CSTR-effluent into acetate and propionate mainly. Subsequent anaerobic digestion of the hydrothermolysis and the Fibrobacter hydrolysates allowed conversion of 48-60% and 30%, respectively. Thus, the total process yielded biogas corresponding with conversions up to 90% of the original organic matter. It appears that particularly mesophilic digestion in conjunction with hydrothermolysis offers interesting features for (nearly) the MELiSSA system. The described additional technologies show that complete and hygienic carbon and energy recovery from human waste within MELiSSA is technically feasible, provided that the extra energy needed for the thermal treatment is guaranteed.

  1. Anaerobic digestion performance of sweet potato vine and animal manure under wet, semi-dry, and dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enlan; Li, Jiajia; Zhang, Keqiang; Wang, Feng; Yang, Houhua; Zhi, Suli; Liu, Guangqing

    2018-03-22

    Sweet potato vine (SPV) is an abundant agricultural waste, which is easy to obtain at low cost and has the potential to produce clean energy via anaerobic digestion (AD). The main objectives of this study were to reveal methane production and process stability of SPV and the mixtures with animal manure under various total solid conditions, to verify synergetic effect in co-digestion of SPV and manure in AD systems, and to determine the kinetics characteristics during the full AD process. The results showed that SPV was desirable feedstock for AD with 200.22 mL/g VS added of methane yield in wet anaerobic digestion and 12.20 L methane /L working volume in dry anaerobic digestion (D-AD). Synergistic effects were found in semi-dry anaerobic digestion and D-AD with each two mixing feedstock. In contrast with SPV mono-digestion, co-digestion with manure increased methane yield within the range of 14.34-49.11% in different AD digesters. The values of final volatile fatty acids to total alkalinity (TA) were below 0.4 and the values of final pH were within the range of 7.4-8.2 in all the reactors, which supported a positive relationship between carbohydrate hydrolysis and methanogenesis during AD process. The mathematical modified first order model was applied to estimate substrate biodegradability and methane production potential well with conversion constant ranged from 0.0003 to 0.0953 1/day, which indicated that co-digestion increased hydrolysis efficiency and metabolic activity. This work provides useful information to improve the utilization and stability of digestion using SPV and livestock or poultry manure as substrates.

  2. Co-effects of pyrene and nitrate on the activity and abundance of soil denitrifiers under anaerobic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Feng; Yao, Yan-Hong; Wang, Ming-Xia; Zuo, Xiao-Hu

    2017-10-01

    It has previously been confirmed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could be degraded by soil microbes coupling with denitrification, but the relationships among soil denitrifiers, PAHs, and nitrate under obligate anaerobic condition are still unclear. Here, co-effects of pyrene and nitrate on the activity and abundance of soil denitrifiers were investigated through a 45-day incubation experiment. Two groups of soil treatments with (N 30 ) and without (N 0 ) nitrate (30 mg kg -1 dry soil) amendment were conducted, and each group contained three treatments with different pyrene concentrations (0, 30, and 60 mg kg -1 dry soil denoted as P 0 , P 30 , and P 60 , respectively). The pyrene content, abundances of denitrification concerning genes (narG, periplasmic nitrate reductase gene; nirS, cd 1 -nitrite reductase gene; nirK, copper-containing nitrite reductase gene), and productions of N 2 O and CO 2 were measured at day 3, 14, 28, and 45, and the bacterial community structures in four represented treatments (N 0 P 0 , N 0 P 60 , N 30 P 0 , and N 30 P 60 ) were analyzed at day 45. The results indicated that the treatments with higher pyrene concentration had higher final pyrene removal rates than the treatments with lower pyrene concentration. Additionally, intensive emission of N 2 O was detected in all treatments only at day 3, but a continuous production of CO 2 was measured in each treatment during the incubation. Nitrate amendment could enhance the activity of soil denitrifiers, and be helpful for soil microbes to sustain their activity. While pyrene seemed had no influence on the productions of N 2 O and CO 2 , and amendment with pyrene or nitrate both had no obvious effect on abundances of denitrification concerning genes. Furthermore, it was nitrate but not pyrene had an obvious influence on the community structure of soil bacteria. These results revealed that, under anaerobic condition, the activity and abundance of soil denitrifiers both were

  3. Adaptation of the Biolog Phenotype MicroArrayTM Technology to Profile the Obligate Anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyner, Dominique; Fortney, Julian; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry

    2010-05-17

    The Biolog OmniLog? Phenotype MicroArray (PM) plate technology was successfully adapted to generate a select phenotypic profile of the strict anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens (G.m.). The profile generated for G.m. provides insight into the chemical sensitivity of the organism as well as some of its metabolic capabilities when grown with a basal medium containing acetate and Fe(III). The PM technology was developed for aerobic organisms. The reduction of a tetrazolium dye by the test organism represents metabolic activity on the array which is detected and measured by the OmniLog(R) system. We have previously adapted the technology for the anaerobic sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. In this work, we have taken the technology a step further by adapting it for the iron reducing obligate anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens. In an osmotic stress microarray it was determined that the organism has higher sensitivity to impermeable solutes 3-6percent KCl and 2-5percent NaNO3 that result in osmotic stress by osmosis to the cell than to permeable non-ionic solutes represented by 5-20percent ethylene glycol and 2-3percent urea. The osmotic stress microarray also includes an array of osmoprotectants and precursor molecules that were screened to identify substrates that would provide osmotic protection to NaCl stress. None of the substrates tested conferred resistance to elevated concentrations of salt. Verification studies in which G.m. was grown in defined medium amended with 100mM NaCl (MIC) and the common osmoprotectants betaine, glycine and proline supported the PM findings. Further verification was done by analysis of transcriptomic profiles of G.m. grown under 100mM NaCl stress that revealed up-regulation of genes related to degradation rather than accumulation of the above-mentioned osmoprotectants. The phenotypic profile, supported by additional analysis indicates that the accumulation of these osmoprotectants as a response to salt stress does not

  4. Genetic diversity of b-glucuronidase activity among 14 strains of the dominant human gut anaerobe Ruminococcus gnavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Beaud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity in the gut increases the enterohepatic circulation of toxic compounds and plays a major role in the etiology of colon cancer. Previously, we had found that the gus gene, which codes for beta-glucuronidase in a dominant anaerobic species of the gut microbiota, Ruminococcus gnavus strain E1, is transcribed as part of an operon that includes three ORFs that code for beta-glucoside permeases of the phosphotransferase systems. This genetic organization had never been described. We have now compared beta-glucuronidase activity and the genetic environment of the gus gene in 14 strains of Ruminococcus gnavus.We found that five out of the seven glucuronidase-positive R. gnavus strains possessed another glucuronidase gene different from the gusA operon of R. gnavus E1. This dominant commensal intestinal species appears to have a high degree of genetic diversity in the genes that control beta-glucuronidase activity.

  5. Microbial trophic interactions and mcrA gene expression in monitoring of anaerobic digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra eAlvarado

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion (AD is a biological process where different trophic groups of microorganisms break down biodegradable organic materials in the absence of oxygen. A wide range of anaerobic digestion technologies is being used to convert livestock manure, municipal and industrial wastewaters, and solid organic wastes into biogas. AD gains importance not only because of its relevance in waste treatment but also because of the recovery of carbon in the form of methane, which is a renewable energy and is used to generate electricity and heat. Despite the advances on the engineering and design of new bioreactors for anaerobic digestion, the microbiology component always poses challenges. Microbiology of AD processes is complicated as the efficiency of the process depends on the interactions of various trophic groups involved. Due to the complex interdependence of microbial activities for the functionality of the anaerobic bioreactors, the genetic expression of mcrA, which encodes a key enzyme in methane formation, is proposed as a parameter to monitor the process performance in real time. This review evaluates the current knowledge on microbial groups, their interactions and their relationship to the performance of anaerobic biodigesters with a focus on using mcrA gene expression as a tool to monitor the process.

  6. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  7. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chekli, Laura; Shim, Wang-Geun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further for their FO performance tests and evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt flux. Using selected fertilizers, bio-methane potential experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilizers on anaerobic activity due to reverse diffusion. Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) showed the highest biogas production while other fertilizers exhibited an inhibition effect on anaerobic activity with solute accumulation. Salt accumulation in the bioreactor was also simulated using mass balance simulation models. Results showed that ammonium sulfate and MAP were the most appropriate for AnFDFOMBR since they demonstrated less salt accumulation, relatively higher water flux, and higher dilution capacity of draw solution. Given toxicity of sulfate to anaerobic microorganisms, MAP appears to be the most suitable draw solution for AnFDFOMBR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin

    2016-02-09

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further for their FO performance tests and evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt flux. Using selected fertilizers, bio-methane potential experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilizers on anaerobic activity due to reverse diffusion. Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) showed the highest biogas production while other fertilizers exhibited an inhibition effect on anaerobic activity with solute accumulation. Salt accumulation in the bioreactor was also simulated using mass balance simulation models. Results showed that ammonium sulphate and MAP were the most appropriate for AnFDFOMBR since they demonstrated less salt accumulation, relatively higher water flux, and higher dilution capacity of draw solution. Given toxicity of sulphate to anaerobic microorganisms, MAP appears to be the most suitable draw solution for AnFDFOMBR.

  9. The challenges of anaerobic digestion and the role of biochar in optimizing anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbohungbe, Michael O; Herbert, Ben M J; Hurst, Lois; Ibeto, Cynthia N; Li, Hong; Usmani, Shams Q; Semple, Kirk T

    2017-03-01

    Biochar, like most other adsorbents, is a carbonaceous material, which is formed from the combustion of plant materials, in low-zero oxygen conditions and results in a material, which has the capacity to sorb chemicals onto its surfaces. Currently, research is being carried out to investigate the relevance of biochar in improving the soil ecosystem, digestate quality and most recently the anaerobic digestion process. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic substrates provides both a sustainable source of energy and a digestate with the potential to enhance plant growth and soil health. In order to ensure that these benefits are realised, the anaerobic digestion system must be optimized for process stability and high nutrient retention capacity in the digestate produced. Substrate-induced inhibition is a major issue, which can disrupt the stable functioning of the AD system reducing microbial breakdown of the organic waste and formation of methane, which in turn reduces energy output. Likewise, the spreading of digestate on land can often result in nutrient loss, surface runoff and leaching. This review will examine substrate inhibition and their impact on anaerobic digestion, nutrient leaching and their environmental implications, the properties and functionality of biochar material in counteracting these challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Enhancement of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge by acid-alkali pretreatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guang-Huan; Zhou, Xing-Qiu; Wu, Jian-Dong

    2012-06-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge, acid-alkali pretreatment method was studied. Three different pretreatment methods (alkali alone,acid-alkali, alkali-acid) were compared to investigate their impacts on hydrolysis and acidification of activated sludge. In addition, their influences on methane-producing in subsequent anaerobic digestion process were also studied. The results showed that the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of alkaline treatment alone was about 16% higher than the combining of acid and alkali treatment, SCOD concentration increased to 5406.1 mg x L(-1) after 8 d pretreatment. After treated by acid (pH 4.0, 4 d) and alkali (pH 10.0, 4 d), the acetic acid production and its content in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were higher than other pretreatment methods. And the acetic acid production (as COD/VSS) could reach 74.4 mg x g(-1), accounting for 60.5% of SCFAs. After acid-alkali pretreatment, the C: N ratio of the sludge mixed liquor was about 25, and the C: P ratio was between 35-40, which was more favorable than C: N and C: P ratio of alkali alone and alkali-acid to subsequent anaerobic digestion. The control experiments showed that, after acid-alkali pretreatment, anaerobic digestion cumulative methane yield (CH4/VSS(in)) reached to 136.1 mL x g(-1) at 15 d, which was about 2.5-, 1.6-, and 1.7-fold of the blank (unpretreated), alkali alone pretreatment and alkali-acid pretreatment, respectively. After acid-alkali pretreatment for 8 d and anaerobic digestion for 15 d, the removal efficiency of VSS was about 60.9%, and the sludge reduction effect was better than other pretreatments. It is obvious that the acid-alkali pretreatment method was more favorable to anaerobic digestion and sludge reduction.

  11. A simple anaerobic system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among several anaerobic treatment processes, high rate anaerobic digesters receive great attention due to its high loading capacity and chemical oxygen demand removal rate. Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) is getting wide acceptance among several anaerobic processes. However, its application is still ...

  12. Anaerobic carboxydotrophic bacteria in geothermal springs identified using stable isotope probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Lee Brady

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a potential energy and carbon source for thermophilic bacteria in geothermal environments. Geothermal sites ranging in temperature from 45–65°C were investigated for the presence and activity of anaerobic CO-oxidizing bacteria. Anaerobic CO oxidation potentials were measured at up to 48.9 µmoles CO day-1 g (wet weight-1 within 5 selected sites. Active anaerobic carboxydotrophic bacteria were identified using 13CO DNA stable isotope probing (SIP combined with pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from labeled DNA. Bacterial communities identified in heavy DNA fractions were predominated by Firmicutes, which comprised up to 95% of all sequences in 13CO incubations. The predominant bacteria that assimilated 13C derived from CO were closely related (>98% to genera of known carboxydotrophs including Thermincola, Desulfotomaculum, Thermolithobacter and Carboxydocella, although a few species with lower similarity to known bacteria were also found that may represent previously unconfirmed CO-oxidizers. While the distribution was variable, many of the same OTUs were identified across sample sites from different temperature regimes. These results show that bacteria capable of using CO as a carbon source are common in geothermal springs, and that thermophilic carboxydotrophs are probably already quite well known from cultivation studies.

  13. Bacterial cellulose synthesis mechanism of facultative anaerobe Enterobacter sp. FY-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kaihua; Wang, Wei; Zeng, Bing; Chen, Sibin; Zhao, Qianqian; Chen, Yueqing; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-02-25

    Enterobacter sp. FY-07 can produce bacterial cellulose (BC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Three potential BC synthesis gene clusters (bcsI, bcsII and bcsIII) of Enterobacter sp. FY-07 have been predicted using genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis, in which bcsIII was confirmed as the main contributor to BC synthesis by gene knockout and functional reconstitution methods. Protein homology, gene arrangement and gene constitution analysis indicated that bcsIII had high identity to the bcsI operon of Enterobacter sp. 638; however, its arrangement and composition were same as those of BC synthesizing operon of G. xylinum ATCC53582 except for the flanking sequences. According to the BC biosynthesizing process, oxygen is not directly involved in the reactions of BC synthesis, however, energy is required to activate intermediate metabolites and synthesize the activator, c-di-GMP. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite quantitative analysis demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions genes involved in the TCA cycle were downregulated, however, genes in the nitrate reduction and gluconeogenesis pathways were upregulated, especially, genes in three pyruvate metabolism pathways. These results suggested that Enterobacter sp. FY-07 could produce energy efficiently under anaerobic conditions to meet the requirement of BC biosynthesis.

  14. [Identification and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of strictly anaerobic bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Katarzyna; Rokosz, Alicja; Sawicka-Grzelak, Anna; łuczak, MirosŁaw

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify anaerobic strains isolated in 2001 from clinical specimens obtained from patients of Warsaw hospital and to evaluate a susceptibility of these strains to antimicrobial agents. In 2001 two hundred and twenty five clinical strains of obligate anaerobes were cultured, which were identified in the automatic ATB system (bioMérieux, France) using biochemical tests API 20 A. Drug-susceptibility of strains was determined also in ATB system with the use of ATB ANA strips. C. difficile strains were isolated on selective CCCA medium. Toxins A/B of C. difficile directly in stool specimens were detected by means of ELISA test (TechLab, USA). Fifty four strains of Gram-negative anaerobes (B. fragilis strains dominated) and 171 strains of Gram-positive anaerobes (the greatest number of strains belonged to genus Peptostreptococcus) were cultured from clinical specimens. In the cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea 28 C. difficile strains were isolated and C. difficile toxins A/B were detected in 39 stool samples. The most active in vitro antimicrobials against Gram-negative anaerobes were metronidazole, imipenem, ticarcillin combined with clavulanic acid and piperacillin with tazobactam. Gram-positive, clinical strains of anaerobes were the most susceptible in vitro to beta-lactam antibiotics combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors (amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, ticarcillin/clavulanate) and imipenem.

  15. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70 °C prior to anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Lu, J.

    2005-01-01

    In general, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge is more widely used compared tothermophilic digestion, mainly because of the lower energy requirements and higher stability of the process. However, the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process is usually characterised by accelerated...... studyinvestigates the effect of the pre-treatment at 70 °C on thermophilic (55 °C) anaerobic digestion of primaryand secondary sludge in continuously operated digesters. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondarysludge at 70 °C enhanced the removal of organic matter and the methane production during...... the subsequentanaerobic digestion step at 55 °C. It also greatly contributed to the destruction of pathogens present inprimary sludge. Finally it results in enhanced microbial activities of the subsequent anaerobic stepsuggesting that the same efficiencies in organic matter removal and methane recovery could be obtained...

  16. Bile anaerobic bacteria detection and antibiotic susceptibility in patients with gallstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Xiang, Ting-Hai; Shi, Jing-Sen; Zhang, Bing-Yuan

    2003-08-01

    To detect bile anaerobic bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility in 59 patients with gallstones who had had cholecystectomy. BACT/ALERT 120 microbe detection system and SCEPTOR microbe detection system were used to detect bile anaerobic bacteria, antibiotic susceptibility. The ratio of anaerobic bacteria to the patients examined was 52.5% (31/59). Obligate anaerobe bile culture showed positive results in 4 patients. B. fragilis (37.8%) was the major type of anaerobic bacteria in bile. Most (81.8%) of anaerobic bacteria were sensitive to metronidazole, and imipenem was suitable for beta-lactamase bacteria. Culture of anaerobic bacteria in logarithmic phase can improve the positive rate of the culture. There are some relations between anaerobic infection and gallstone formation.

  17. Glucose pathways adaptation supports acquisition of activated microglia phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno-Bayón, J; López-López, A; Rodríguez, M J; Mahy, N

    2014-06-01

    With its capacity to survey the environment and phagocyte debris, microglia assume a diversity of phenotypes to respond specifically through neurotrophic and toxic effects. Although these roles are well accepted, the underlying energetic mechanisms associated with microglial activation remain largely unclear. This study investigates microglia metabolic adaptation to ATP, NADPH, H(+) , and reactive oxygen species production. To this end, in vitro studies were performed with BV-2 cells before and after activation with lipopolysaccharide + interferon-γ. Nitric oxide (NO) was measured as a marker of cell activation. Our results show that microglial activation triggers a metabolic reprogramming based on an increased glucose uptake and a strengthening of anaerobic glycolysis, as well as of the pentose pathway oxidative branch, while retaining the mitochondrial activity. Based on this energy commitment, microglial defense capacity increases rapidly as well as ribose-5-phosphate and nucleic acid formation for gene transcription, essential to ensure the newly acquired functions demanded by central nervous system signaling. We also review the role of NO in this microglial energy commitment that positions cytotoxic microglia within the energetics of the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Anaerobes in Industrial- and Environmental Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Mattiasson, Bo

    Anaerobic microorganisms present in diverse ecological niches employ alternative strategies for energy conservation in the absence of oxygen which enables them to play a key role in maintaining the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, and the breakdown of persistent compounds. Thereby they become useful tools in industrial and environmental biotechnology. Although anaerobes have been relatively neglected in comparison to their aerobic counterparts, with increasing knowledge about their diversity and metabolic potential and the development of genetic tools and process technologies to utilize them, we now see a rapid expansion of their applications in the society. This chapter summarizes some of the developments in the use of anaerobes as tools for biomass valorization, in production of energy carriers and chemicals, wastewater treatment, and the strong potential in soil remediation. The ability of several autotrophic anaerobes to reduce carbon dioxide is attracting growing attention as a means for developing a platform for conversion of waste gases to chemicals, materials, and biofuels.

  19. Impact of Coagulant and Flocculant Addition to an Anaerobic Dynamic Membrane Bioreactor (AnDMBR) Treating Waste-Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Guido; Lopes, Wilton; Zhou, Zhongbo; Guo, Hongxiao; de Kreuk, Merle; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules

    2017-03-23

    In this work, we investigated the effects of flocculation aid (FA) addition to an anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) (7 L, 35 °C) treating waste-activated sludge (WAS). The experiment consisted of three distinct periods. In period 1 (day 1-86), the reactor was operated as a conventional anaerobic digester with a solids retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 days. In period 2 (day 86-303), the HRT was lowered to 18 days with the application of a dynamic membrane while the SRT was kept the same. In period 3 (day 303-386), a cationic FA in combination with FeCl₃ was added. The additions led to a lower viscosity, which was expected to lead to an increased digestion performance. However, the FAs caused irreversible binding of the substrate, lowering the volatile solids destruction from 32% in period 2 to 24% in period 3. An accumulation of small particulates was observed in the sludge, lowering the average particle size by 50%. These particulates likely caused pore blocking in the cake layer, doubling the trans-membrane pressure. The methanogenic consortia were unaffected. Dosing coagulants and flocculants into an AnDMBR treating sludge leads to a decreased cake layer permeability and decreased sludge degradation.

  20. Anaerobic biotransformation of estrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajka, Cynthia P.; Londry, Kathleen L.

    2006-01-01

    Estrogens are important environmental contaminants that disrupt endocrine systems and feminize male fish. We investigated the potential for anaerobic biodegradation of the estrogens 17-α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17-β-estradiol (E2) in order to understand their fate in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Cultures were established using lake water and sediment under methanogenic, sulfate-, iron-, and nitrate-reducing conditions. Anaerobic degradation of EE2 (added at 5 mg/L) was not observed in multiple trials over long incubation periods (over three years). E2 (added at 5 mg/L) was transformed to estrone (E1) under all four anaerobic conditions (99-176 μg L -1 day -1 ), but the extent of conversion was different for each electron acceptor. The oxidation of E2 to E1 was not inhibited by E1. Under some conditions, reversible inter-conversion of E2 and E1 was observed, and the final steady state concentration of E2 depended on the electron-accepting condition but was independent of the total amount of estrogens added. In addition, racemization occurred and E1 was also transformed to 17-α-estradiol under all but nitrate-reducing conditions. Although E2 could be readily transformed to E1 and in many cases 17-α-estradiol under anaerobic conditions, the complete degradation of estrogens under these conditions was minimal, suggesting that they would accumulate in anoxic environments

  1. Temperature regulates deterministic processes and the succession of microbial interactions in anaerobic digestion process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lin, Qiang; De Vrieze, J.; Li, Ch.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Yao, M.; Heděnec, Petr; Li, H.; Li, T.; Rui, J.; Frouz, Jan; Li, X.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, October (2017), s. 134-143 ISSN 0043-1354 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : anaerobic digestion * deterministic process * microbial interactions * modularity * temperature gradient Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Water resources Impact factor: 6.942, year: 2016

  2. Catabolic thiosulfate disproportionation and carbon dioxide reduction in strain DCB-1, a reductively dechlorinating anaerobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohn, W.W.; Tiedje, J.M. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Strain DCB-1 is a strict anaerobe capable of reductive dehalogenation. We elucidated metabolic processes in DCB-1 which may be related to dehalogenation and which further characterize the organism physiologically. Sulfoxy anions and CO2 were used by DCB-1 as catabolic electron acceptors. With suitable electron donors, sulfate and thiosulfate were reduced to sulfide. Sulfate and thiosulfate supported growth with formate or hydrogen as the electron donor and thus are probably respiratory electron acceptors. Other electron donors supporting growth with sulfate were CO, lactate, pyruvate, butyrate, and 3-methoxybenzoate. Thiosulfate also supported growth without an additional electron donor, being disproportionated to sulfide and sulfate. In the absence of other electron acceptors, CO2 reduction to acetate plus cell material was coupled to pyruvate oxidation to acetate plus CO2. Pyruvate could not be fermented without an electron acceptor. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity was found in whole cells, indicating that CO2 reduction probably occurred via the acetyl coenzyme A pathway. Autotrophic growth occurred on H2 plus thiosulfate or sulfate. Diazotrophic growth occurred, and whole cells had nitrogenase activity. On the basis of these physiological characteristics, DCB-1 is a thiosulfate-disproportionating bacterium unlike those previously described.

  3. Anaerobic bacteria growth in the presence of cathelicidin LL-37 and selected ceragenins delivered as magnetic nanoparticles cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnaś, Bonita; Piktel, Ewelina; Wątek, Marzena; Wollny, Tomasz; Góźdź, Stanisław; Smok-Kalwat, Jolanta; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Savage, Paul B; Bucki, Robert

    2017-07-26

    Cationic antibacterial peptides (CAPs) and synthetic molecules mimicking the amphiphilic structure of CAPs, such as ceragenins, are promising compounds for the development of new antimicrobials. We tested the in vitro activity of ceragenins CSA-13 and CSA-131 against several anaerobic bacteria including Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium difficile. We compared results to the activity of cathelicidin LL-37, metronidazole and nanosystems developed by attachment of CSA-13 and CSA-131 to magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The antibacterial effect was tested using killing assay and modified CLSI broth microdilution assay. Ceragenins CSA-13 and CSA-131 displayed stronger bactericidal activity than LL-37 or metronidazole against all of the tested bacterial strains. Additionally CSA-131 revealed an enhanced ability to prevent the formation of Bacteroides fragilis and Propionibacterium acnes biofilms. These data confirmed that ceragenins display antimicrobial activity against a broad range of microorganisms including anaerobic bacteria and deserve further investigations as compounds serving to develop new treatment against anaerobic and mixed infections.

  4. Bacterial population of piggery-waste anaerobic digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, P N; Shaw, B G

    1974-08-01

    A survey was made of the anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria present in piggery waste, digesting piggery waste and domestic anaerobic sludge used to start a piggery waste digester. An influence of the input waste was shown in that streptococci, the predominant facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the piggery waste, were the predominant bacteria in the digesting waste, and they replaced Entrobacter, predominant in the domestic sludge, when a piggery waste digestion had been established from this latter material. Cellulolytic or methanogenic bacteria could not be detected in the piggery waste but populations of these, and other hydrolytic bacteria, became established at different times during the build-up of digestion by gradual addition of piggery waste to water. The bacteria concerned in degradation of the waste constituents were all anaerobes. Production of methane from H/sub 2//CO/sub 2/, formate and butyrate could be detected in mixed cultures from dilutions of digester contents, but the only methanogenic bacterium that could be isolated in pure culture was Methanobacterium formicicum, which uses H/sub 2//CO/sub 2/ or formate only.

  5. [Application of anaerobic bacteria detection in oral and maxillofacial infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhen-ying; Lin, Qin; Meng, Yan-hong; He, Chun; Su, Jia-zeng; Peng, Xin

    2016-02-18

    To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of anaerobic bacteria in the patients with oral and maxillofacial infection. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultures from 61 specimens of pus from the patients with oral and maxillofacial infection in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School of Stomatology were identified. The culture type was evaluated by API 20A kit and drug resistance test was performed by Etest method. The clinical data and antibacterial agents for the treatment of the 61 cases were collected, and the final outcomes were recorded. The bacteria cultures were isolated from all the specimens, with aerobic bacteria only in 6 cases (9.8%), anaerobic bacteria only in 7 cases (11.5%), and both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in 48 cases (78.7%). There were 55 infected cases (90.2%) with anaerobic bacteria, and 81 anaerobic bacteria stains were isolated. The highest bacteria isolation rate of Gram positive anaerobic bacteria could be found in Peptostreptococcus, Bifidobacterium and Pemphigus propionibacterium. No cefoxitin, amoxicillin/carat acid resistant strain was detected in the above three Gram positive anaerobic bacteria. The highest bacteria isolation rate of Gram negative anaerobic bacteria could be detected in Porphyromonas and Prevotella. No metronidazole, cefoxitin, amoxicillin/carat acid resistant strain was found in the two Gram negative anaerobic bacteria. In the study, 48 patients with oral and maxillofacial infection were treated according to the results of drug resistance testing, and the clinical cure rate was 81.3%. Mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultures are very common in most oral and maxillofacial infection patients. Anaerobic bacteria culture and drug resistance testing play an important role in clinical treatment.

  6. Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of complex or toxicant wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills Betancur, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    As a first approximation to wastewater classification in susceptibility terms to treatment by anaerobic biological system, anaerobic biodegradability trials are accomplished to leached of sanitary landfill, to wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and to wastewater of fumaric acid recuperation plant. In the last Plant, anaerobic toxicity trials and lethal toxicity on the Daphnia pulex micro-crustacean are made too. Anaerobic biological trials are made continuing the Wageningen University (Holland) Methodology (1.987). Lethal toxicity biological trials are made following the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater(18th edition, 1992). In development of this investigation project is found that fumaric acid recuperation plant leached it has a low anaerobic biodegradability, a high anaerobic toxicity and a high lethal toxicity over Daphnia pulex, for such reasons this leached is cataloged as complex and toxic wastewater. The other hand, wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and wastewater of sanitary landfill they are both highly biodegradability and not-toxic, for such reasons these wastewaters are cataloged as susceptible to treatment by anaerobic biological system

  7. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2006-01-01

    the olive pulp; c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane; and d) development of a mathematical model able to describe the anaerobic digestion of the olive pulp and the effluent of hydrogen producing process. Both continuous and batch experiments...

  8. Highly organic natural media as permeable reactive barriers: TCE partitioning and anaerobic degradation profile in eucalyptus mulch and compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Zuhal; Tansel, Berrin; Katsenovich, Yelena; Sukop, Michael; Laha, Shonali

    2012-10-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted with eucalyptus mulch and commercial compost to evaluate suitability of highly organic natural media to support anaerobic decomposition of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. Experimental data for TCE and its dechlorination byproducts were analyzed with Hydrus-1D model to estimate the partitioning and kinetic parameters for the sequential dechlorination reactions during TCE decomposition. The highly organic natural media allowed development of a bioactive zone capable of decomposing TCE under anaerobic conditions. The first order TCE biodecomposition reaction rates were 0.23 and 1.2d(-1) in eucalyptus mulch and compost media, respectively. The retardation factors in the eucalyptus mulch and compost columns for TCE were 35 and 301, respectively. The results showed that natural organic soil amendments can effectively support the anaerobic bioactive zone for remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater. The natural organic media are effective environmentally sustainable materials for use in permeable reactive barriers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of pretreatment techniques on anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill sludge: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluchamy, C; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2017-12-01

    Pulp and paper industry is one of the most polluting, energy and water intensive industries in the world. Produced pulp and paper mill sludge (PPMS) faces a major problem for handling and its management. An anaerobic digestion has become an alternative source. This review provides a detailed summary of anaerobic digestion of PPMS - An overview of the developments and improvement opportunities. This paper explores the different pretreatment methods to enhance biogas production from the PPMS. First, the paper gives an overview of PPMS production, and then it reviews PPMS as a substrate for anaerobic digestion with or without pretreatment. Finally, it discuss the optimal condition and concentration of organic and inorganic compounds required for the anaerobic metabolic activity. Future research should focus on the combination of different pretreatment technologies, relationship between sludge composition, reactor design and its operation, and microbial community dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaerobic energy metabolism in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

    2013-02-01

    Anaerobic metabolic pathways allow unicellular organisms to tolerate or colonize anoxic environments. Over the past ten years, genome sequencing projects have brought a new light on the extent of anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes. A surprising development has been that free-living unicellular algae capable of photoautotrophic lifestyle are, in terms of their enzymatic repertoire, among the best equipped eukaryotes known when it comes to anaerobic energy metabolism. Some of these algae are marine organisms, common in the oceans, others are more typically soil inhabitants. All these species are important from the ecological (O(2)/CO(2) budget), biotechnological, and evolutionary perspectives. In the unicellular algae surveyed here, mixed-acid type fermentations are widespread while anaerobic respiration, which is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs, appears to be rare. The presence of a core anaerobic metabolism among the algae provides insights into its evolutionary origin, which traces to the eukaryote common ancestor. The predicted fermentative enzymes often exhibit an amino acid extension at the N-terminus, suggesting that these proteins might be compartmentalized in the cell, likely in the chloroplast or the mitochondrion. The green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella NC64 have the most extended set of fermentative enzymes reported so far. Among the eukaryotes with secondary plastids, the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has the most pronounced anaerobic capabilities as yet. From the standpoints of genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism in C. reinhardtii remains the best characterized among photosynthetic protists. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anaerobic Methane-Oxidizing Microbial Community in a Coastal Marine Sediment: Anaerobic Methanotrophy Dominated by ANME-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Susma; Cassarini, Chiara; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Egger, Matthias; Slomp, Caroline P; Zhang, Yu; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2017-10-01

    The microbial community inhabiting the shallow sulfate-methane transition zone in coastal sediments from marine Lake Grevelingen (The Netherlands) was characterized, and the ability of the microorganisms to carry out anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction was assessed in activity tests. In vitro activity tests of the sediment with methane and sulfate demonstrated sulfide production coupled to the simultaneous consumption of sulfate and methane at approximately equimolar ratios over a period of 150 days. The maximum sulfate reduction rate was 5 μmol sulfate per gram dry weight per day during the incubation period. Diverse archaeal and bacterial clades were retrieved from the sediment with the majority of them clustered with Euryarchaeota, Thaumarcheota, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the sediment from marine Lake Grevelingen contained anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea (ANME) and methanogens as archaeal clades with a role in the methane cycling. ANME at the studied site mainly belong to the ANME-3 clade. This study provides one of the few reports for the presence of ANME-3 in a shallow coastal sediment. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from Desulfobulbus clades were found among the sulfate reducers, however, with very low relative abundance. Desulfobulbus has previously been commonly found associated with ANME, whereas in our study, ANME-3 and Desulfobulbus were not observed simultaneously in clusters, suggesting the possibility of independent AOM by ANME-3.

  12. Winery waste recycling through anaerobic co-digestion with waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Ros, C; Cavinato, C; Pavan, P; Bolzonella, D

    2014-11-01

    In this study biogas and high quality digestate were recovered from winery waste (wine lees) through anaerobic co-digestion with waste activated sludge both in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The two conditions studied showed similar yields (0.40 m(3)/kgCODfed) but different biological process stability: in fact the mesophilic process was clearly more stable than the thermophilic one in terms of bioprocess parameters. The resulting digestates showed good characteristics for both the tested conditions: heavy metals, dioxins (PCDD/F), and dioxin like bi-phenyls (PCBs) were concentred in the effluent if compared with the influent because of the important reduction of the solid dry matter, but remained at levels acceptable for agricultural reuse. Pathogens in digestate decreased. Best reductions were observed in thermophilic condition, while at 37°C the concentration of Escherichia coli was at concentrations level as high as 1000 UFC/g. Dewatering properties of digestates were evaluated by means of the capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) tests and it was found that a good dewatering level was achievable only when high doses of polymer (more than 25 g per kg dry solids) were added to sludge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) Combined with Soil Solarization for Root-Knot Nematode Control in Vegetable and Ornamental Crops in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) combined with soil solarization continues to be evaluated for management of plant-parasitic nematodes in vegetable and ornamental crops in Florida. ASD combines organic amendments and soil saturation to stimulate microbial activity and create anaerobic conditions...

  14. Distribution of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Soils from King George Island, Maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Dayanna Souza; Almeida, Juliana Rodrigues Barboza; de Jesus, Hugo E; Rosado, Alexandre S; Seldin, Lucy; Jurelevicius, Diogo

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic diesel fuel Arctic (DFA) degradation has already been demonstrated in Antarctic soils. However, studies comparing the distribution of anaerobic bacterial groups and of anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in Antarctic soils containing different concentrations of DFA are scarce. In this study, functional genes were used to study the diversity and distribution of anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (bamA, assA, and bssA) and of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB-apsR) in highly, intermediate, and non-DFA-contaminated soils collected during the summers of 2009, 2010, and 2011 from King George Island, Antarctica. Signatures of bamA genes were detected in all soils analyzed, whereas bssA and assA were found in only 4 of 10 soils. The concentration of DFA was the main factor influencing the distribution of bamA-containing bacteria and of SRB in the analyzed soils, as shown by PCR-DGGE results. bamA sequences related to genes previously described in Desulfuromonas, Lautropia, Magnetospirillum, Sulfuritalea, Rhodovolum, Rhodomicrobium, Azoarcus, Geobacter, Ramlibacter, and Gemmatimonas genera were dominant in King George Island soils. Although DFA modulated the distribution of bamA-hosting bacteria, DFA concentration was not related to bamA abundance in the soils studied here. This result suggests that King George Island soils show functional redundancy for aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that specialized anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria have been selected by hydrocarbon concentrations present in King George Island soils.

  15. The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstone, D.J.; Keller, J.; Angelidaki, I.; Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Pavalostathis, S.G.; Rozzi, A.; Sanders, W.T.M.; Siegrist, H.; Vavilin, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Modelling Task Group was established in 1997 at the 8th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (Sendai, Japan) with the goal of developing a generalised anaerobic digestion model. The structured model includes multiple steps describing biochemical as well as

  16. The IWA Anaerobic digestion model no 1. (ADM1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batstone, Damien J.; Keller, J.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Modelling Task Group was established in 1997 at the 8th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (Sendai, Japan) with the goal of developing a generalised anaerobic digestion model. The structured model includes multiple steps describing biochemical as well...

  17. Anaerobic horizontal flow reactor with polyethylene terephthalate as support material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Muñoz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A pilot anaerobic reactor was installed to remove the organic load of wastewater from dairy industry. It uses a bacterial inoculum previously acclimated to the substrate. It was disposed horizontally and filled with pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, from plastic bottles. The reactor was operated at room temperature, during 100 days, in three phases: 1 the reactor was stabilized with volumetric organic load from 0.013 to 0.500 kg/day.m³; 2 the hydraulic retention time was of 1 day and the volumetric organic load of 3 kg/day.m³; 3 the volumetric organic load was incremented from 4 to 6.6 kg/day.m³ and the hydraulic retention time was 1 day. Organic material removal efficiencies was of 85%, and approximately 75% were obtained in the second and third phase, respectively. The Y value was 0.15, indicating that 0.15 kg of biomass were generated by kg of QDO supplied to the reactor. Finally, the biomass generated inside the reactor was analyzed, obtaining a value of 18868 mg/L, which is a higher value than those of conventional systems.

  18. Electricity purchase agreements and distributed energy policies for anaerobic digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkley, David; Harsh, Stephen; Wolf, Christopher A.; Safferman, Steven; Kirk, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is increasingly recognized for its ability to produce renewable energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from livestock operations. In 2010, there were 2645 U.S. dairy farms with herd sizes large enough to support anaerobic digesters, yet only 156 systems were in operation (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), 2010a. Market Opportunities for Biogas Recovery Systems at U.S. Livestock Facilities. AgSTAR Program; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), 2011. Operational Anaerobic Digesters, Sorted by State (Dairy). AgSTAR Program.). This study analyzes the net present value of digester systems under alternative electricity purchase agreements and how returns are affected by standby charges, net metering policies and the use of feed-in-tariffs. In order for digester potential to be fully realized on a state or national level, changes to distributed energy policy are required. Results indicated that standby charges can reduce revenues from offsetting electricity by an average of nearly 20%. Net metering rules limit participation among larger farms and negatively affect profitability by restricting engine–generator size. Lastly, the effectiveness of a fixed price feed-in-tariff policy for digesters is significantly affected by project size differentiation. Digester energy policies are similar nationwide, making this study useful for government regulatory agencies and digester owners throughout the U.S. - Highlights: ► Anaerobic digester net present value was examined over a range of herd sizes. ► Standby charges reduce electricity sales revenues by an average of nearly 20%. ► Net metering rules reduce profitability by restricting engine–generator size. ► Feed-in-tariffs for digesters are significantly affected by project size.

  19. Anaerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, K T; Lovley, D R

    2001-05-01

    The potential for anaerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) was investigated in laboratory incubations of sediments from a petroleum-contaminated aquifer and in aquatic sediments. The addition of humic substances (HS) stimulated the anaerobic degradation of MTBE in aquifer sediments in which Fe(III) was available as an electron acceptor. This is attributed to the fact that HS and other extracellular quinones can stimulate the activity of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms by acting as an electron shuttle between Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms and insoluble Fe(III) oxides. MTBE was not degraded in aquifer sediments without Fe(III) and HS. [14C]-MTBE added to aquatic sediments adapted for anaerobic MTBE degradation was converted to 14CO2 in the presence or absence of HS or the HS analog, anthraquione-2,6-disulfonate. Unamended aquatic sediments produced 14CH4 as well as 14CO2 from [14C]-MTBE. The aquatic sediments also rapidly consumed TBA under anaerobic conditions and converted [14C]-TBA to 14CH4 and 14CO2. An adaptation period of ca. 250-300 days was required prior to the most rapid anaerobic MTBE degradation in both sediment types, whereas TBA was metabolized in the aquatic sediments without a lag. These results demonstrate that, under the appropriate conditions, MTBE and TBA can be degraded in the absence of oxygen. This suggests that it may be possible to design strategies for the anaerobic remediation of MTBE in petroleum-contaminated subsurface environments.

  20. Stability and activity of anaerobic sludge from UASB reactors treating sewage in subtropical regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seghezzo, L.; Cuevas, C.M.; Trupiano, A.P.; Guerra, R.G.; Gonzalez, S.M.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2006-01-01

    The production of small amounts of well-stabilized biological sludge is one of the main advantages of upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors over aerobic wastewater treatment systems. In this work, sludge produced in three pilot-scale UASB reactors used to treat sewage under subtropical

  1. The Experiment Study of Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation Start-up by Using the Upflow Double Layer Anaerobic Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAO Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anammox is an efficient nitrogen removal process, but it is difficult to start-up and operate, and ananammox reactor is the efficient way to resolve this problem. The start-up of anammox reactor by upflow anaerobic filter was studied. Denitrifying sludge, anaerobic sludge, and mixed sludge was inoculated on the packing materials, respectively and an autotrophic denitrification condition was provided by the simulated wastewater influent. Along with the gradual increase of matrix concentration and hydraulic load, the microflora was converted to the anaerobic ammonium oxidation(anammoxreaction. The results showed that the anammox reaction could be started by all the three sludge, and the time of start-up of denitrifying sludge, anaerobic sludge, mixed sludge was 42, 54 days and 45 days, respectively. The best result was that inoculated with denitrifying sludge with 82.2% of the total nitrogen removal rate, which started-up quickly and nitrogen was removed efficiently. Double packing effectively improved the stability of anammox process in the reactor, in which the suitable influent concentration loading for the anammox bacteria was 270 mg·L-1 and 360 mg·L-1 for ammonia nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen, respectively, and the COD concentration could not be more than 150 mg· L-1. Furthermore, there was a coexist-effect for anaerobic ammonia oxidation and methanation in this reactor system.

  2. Anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchloroethene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathepure, B Z; Nengu, J P; Boyd, S A

    1987-01-01

    In this study, we identified specific cultures of anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchlorethene (PCE). The bacteria that significantly dechlorinated PCE were strain DCB-1, an obligate anaerobe previously shown to dechlorinate chlorobenzoate, and two strains of Methanosarcina. The rate of PCE dechlorination by DCB-1 compared favorably with reported rates of trichloroethene bio-oxidation by methanotrophs. Even higher PCE dechlorination rates were achieved when DCB-1 was grown in a methanogenic consortium. PMID:3426224

  3. Oxygen-dependent growth of the obligate anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, M S; Zhulin, I B; Gapuzan, M E; Taylor, B L

    1997-01-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a sulfate-reducing bacterium classified as an obligate anaerobe, swam to a preferred oxygen concentration of 0.02 to 0.04% (0.24 to 0.48 microM), a level which also supported growth. Oxygen concentrations of 0.08% and higher arrested growth. We propose that in zones of transition from an oxic to an anoxic environment, D. vulgaris protects anoxic microenvironments from intrusion of oxygen.

  4. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70ºC prior to anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, H.N.; Lu, Jingquan

    2005-01-01

    . The present study investigates the effect of the pre-treatment at 70 degrees C on thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge in continuously operated digesters. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70 degrees C enhanced the removal of organic matter...... and the methane production during the subsequent anaerobic digestion step at 55 degrees C. It also greatly contributed to the destruction of pathogens present in primary sludge. Finally it results in enhanced microbial activities of the subsequent anaerobic step suggesting that the same efficiencies in organic...... matter removal and methane recovery could be obtained at lower HRTs....

  5. Biodegradation of Methylene Blue Dye by Sequential Treatment Using Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor and Submerged Aerobic Fixed Film Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Izharul H.; Basheer, Farrukh; Tiwari, Pradeepika

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were carried out to access the feasibility of sequential anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for the biodegradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye. Anaerobic studies were performed using anaerobic hybrid reactor (consisting of UASB and Anaerobic filter) whereas submerged aerobic fixed film reactor was used as aerobic reactor. Degradation of MB dye was attempted using neutralized acetic acid (1000 mg/L) as co-substrate. MB dye concentration was stepwise increased from 10 to 70 mg/L after reaching steady state in each dye concentration. Such a gradual increase in the dye concentration helps in the proper acclimatization of the sludge to dyes thereby avoiding the possible inhibitory effects to biological activities at high dye concentrations. The overall treatment efficiency of MB through sequential anaerobic-aerobic reactor operation was 90% at maximum attempted dye concentration of 70 mg/L. The effluent from anaerobic reactor was analysed for intermediate biodegradation products through HPLC. It was observed that catechol, quinone, amino pyrine, 1,4 diamino benzene were present. However they were absent in final effluent.

  6. Antibiotic-resistant obligate anaerobes during exacerbations of cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worlitzsch, D; Rintelen, C; Böhm, K; Wollschläger, B; Merkel, N; Borneff-Lipp, M; Döring, G

    2009-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are thought to cause the majority of lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, other bacterial pathogens may contribute to the pathophysiology of lung disease. Here, obligate anaerobes were identified in a cross-sectional study, and cell numbers and antibiotic susceptibilities of facultative and obligate anaerobes from 114 sputum samples from nine children and 36 adults with CF were determined. Furthermore, in 12 CF patients, we investigated whether conventional intravenous antibiotic therapy, administered during acute exacerbations, would affect the numbers of obligate anaerobes. Fifteen genera of obligate anaerobes were identified in 91% of the CF patients. Cell numbers (mean: 2.2 x 10(7) +/- standard deviation 6.9 x 10(7) CFU/mL of sputum sample) were comparable to those of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Staphylococcus saccharolyticus and Peptostreptococcus prevotii were most prevalent. Infection with P. aeruginosa did not increase the likelihood that obligate anaerobes are present in sputum specimens. Single obligate anaerobic species persisted for up to 11 months in sputum plugs in vivo. Patients with and without obligate anaerobes in sputum specimens did not differ in lung function. Intravenous therapy directed against P. aeruginosa during acute exacerbations increased lung function, but did not reduce the numbers of obligate anaerobes. Obligate anaerobic species differed widely in their patterns of resistance against meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, clindamycin, metronidazole and ceftazidime. In 58% of patients with acute exacerbations, obligate anaerobes were detected that were resistant to the antibiotics used for treatment. Antibiotic therapy, optimized to target anaerobes in addition to P. aeruginosa, may improve the management of CF lung disease.

  7. Status on Science and Application of Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1994-01-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic processes are often regarded as less stable than mesophilic processes. In the paper this postulate is examined and disproved based on real operational data from of full-scale mesophilic and thermophilic biogas plants. The start-up produce for the thermophilic plants was...... for thermophilic digestion along with the implications for the methanogenic bacteria active at these temperatures....

  8. Comparative performance evaluation of full-scale anaerobic and aerobic wastewater treatment processes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M; Oliveira, S C

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates and compares the actual behavior of 166 full-scale anaerobic and aerobic wastewater treatment plants in operation in Brazil, providing information on the performance of the processes in terms of the quality of the generated effluent and the removal efficiency achieved. The observed results of effluent concentrations and removal efficiencies of the constituents BOD, COD, TSS (total suspended solids), TN (total nitrogen), TP (total phosphorus) and FC (faecal or thermotolerant coliforms) have been compared with the typical expected performance reported in the literature. The treatment technologies selected for study were: (a) predominantly anaerobic: (i) septic tank + anaerobic filter (ST + AF), (ii) UASB reactor without post-treatment (UASB) and (iii) UASB reactor followed by several post-treatment processes (UASB + POST); (b) predominantly aerobic: (iv) facultative pond (FP), (v) anaerobic pond followed by facultative pond (AP + FP) and (vi) activated sludge (AS). The results, confirmed by statistical tests, showed that, in general, the best performance was achieved by AS, but closely followed by UASB reactor, when operating with any kind of post-treatment. The effluent quality of the anaerobic processes ST + AF and UASB reactor without post-treatment was very similar to the one presented by facultative pond, a simpler aerobic process, regarding organic matter.

  9. Application of Methanobrevibacter acididurans in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, D V; Ranade, D R

    2004-01-01

    To operate anaerobic digesters successfully under acidic conditions, hydrogen utilizing methanogens which can grow efficiently at low pH and tolerate high volatile fatty acids (VFA) are desirable. An acid tolerant hydrogenotrophic methanogen viz. Methanobrevibacter acididurans isolated from slurry of an anaerobic digester running on alcohol distillery wastewater has been described earlier by this lab. This organism could grow optimally at pH 6.0. In the experiments reported herein, M. acididurans showed better methanogenesis under acidic conditions with high VFA, particularly acetate, than Methanobacterium bryantii, a common hydrogenotrophic inhabitant of anaerobic digesters. Addition of M. acididurans culture to digesting slurry of acidogenic as well as methanogenic digesters running on distillery wastewater showed increase in methane production and decrease in accumulation of volatile fatty acids. The results proved the feasibility of application of M. acididurans in anaerobic digesters.

  10. Perspectives for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    The modern society generates large amounts of waste that represent a tremendous threat to the environment and human and animal health. To prevent and control this, a range of different waste treatment and disposal methods are used. The choice of method must always be based on maximum safety...... to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments...

  11. Syntrophic co-culture of aerobic Bacillus and anaerobic Clostridium for bio-fuels and bio-hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jui-Jen; Ho, Cheng-Yu.; Chen, Wei-En; Huang, Chieh-Chen [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung (China); Chou, Chia-Hung; Lay, Jiunn-Jyi [Department of Science and Technology, National Kaohsiung First University, Kaohsiung (China)

    2008-10-15

    By using brewery yeast waste and microflora from rice straw compost, an anaerobic semi-solid bio-hydrogen-producing system has been established. For the purpose of industrialization, the major players of both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial strains in the system were isolated and their combination for an effective production of bio-hydrogen and other bio-fuels was examined in this study. The phylogenetic analysis found that four anaerobic isolates (Clostridium beijerinckii L9, Clostridium diolis Z2, Clostridium roseum Z5-1, and C. roseum W8) were highly related with each other and belongs to the cluster I clostridia family, the family that many of solvent-producing strains included. On the other hand, one of the aerobic isolates, the Bacillus thermoamylovorans strain I, shown multiple extracellular enzyme activities including lipase, protease, {alpha}-amylase, pectinase and cellulase, was suggested as a good partner for creating an anaerobic environment and pre-saccharification of substrate for those co-cultured solventogenic clostridial strain. Among these clostridial strains, though C. beijerinckii L9 do not show as many extracellular enzyme activities as Bacillus, but it performs the highest hydrogen-producing ability. The original microflora can be updated to a syntrophic bacterial co-culture system contended only with B. thermoamylovorans I and C. beijerinckii L9. The combination of aerobic Bacillus and anaerobic Clostridium may play the key role for developing the industrialized bio-fuels and bio-hydrogen-producing system from biomass. (author)

  12. Development of an energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactors for 2-chlorophenol-contained wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Pan, Xin-Rong; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Li, Wen-Wei; Shi, Bing-Jing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-12-01

    A novel energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactor (AnHMBR) with mesh filter, which takes advantage of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and fixed-bed biofilm reactor, is developed for low-strength 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)-contained wastewater treatment. In this system, the anaerobic membrane bioreactor is stuffed with granular activated carbon to construct an anaerobic hybrid fixed-bed biofilm membrane bioreactor. The effluent turbidity from the AnHMBR system was low during most of the operation period, and the chemical oxygen demand and 2-CP removal efficiencies averaged 82.3% and 92.6%, respectively. Furthermore, a low membrane fouling rate was achieved during the operation. During the AnHMBR operation, the only energy consumption was for feed pump. And a low energy demand of 0.0045-0.0063kWhm(-3) was estimated under the current operation conditions. All these results demonstrated that this novel AnHMBR is a sustainable technology for treating 2-CP-contained wastewater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.

    2015-01-01

    to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3...... respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer...

  14. Anaerobic solid state fermentation of cellulosic substrates with possible application to cellulase production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandevoorde, L; Verstraete, W

    1987-08-01

    A solid state fermentation process was developed for the conversion of straw and cellulose under anaerobic conditions by a mixed culture of cellulolytic and methanogenic organisms. The bioconversion rate and efficiency were compared under mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) and thermophilic (55/sup 0/C) conditions. Cellulolytic activity was assayed in terms of sugar and overall soluble organic matter (chemical oxygen demand, COD) production. Maximum conversion rates were obtained under thermophilic conditions, i.e. 8.4 g and 14.2 g COD/kg.d, respectively, when wheat straw and cellulose were used as substrates. The cellulolytic activity of the reactor contents (23% dry matter), measured under substrate excess conditions, amounted to 50 g COD/kg.d. As a comparison, the activity of rumen contents (15 % dry matter) measured by the same assay amounted to 150 g COD/kg . d. The anaerobic cellulases appeared to be substrate bound. This and the relative low activity levels attained, limit the perspectives of producing cellulase enzymes by this type of process.

  15. Degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye using anaerobic/aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) and photochemical membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Sheng-Jie; Damodar, Rahul A.; Hou, Sheng-Chon

    2010-01-01

    Three different types of advance treatment methods were evaluated for the degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5). The performance of two stage anaerobic SBR-aerobic MBR, anaerobic MBR with immobilized and suspended biocells and an integrated membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) using slurry UV/TiO 2 system were investigated. The results suggest that, nearly 99.9% color removal and 80-95% organic COD and TOC removal can be achieved using different reactor systems. Considering the Taiwan EPA effluent standard discharge criteria for COD/TOC, the degree of treatment achieved by combining the anaerobic-aerobic system was found to be acceptable. Anew, Bacilluscereus, high color removal bacterium was isolated from Anaerobic SBR. Furthermore, when this immobilized into PVA-calcium alginate pellets, and suspended in the anaerobic MBR was able to achieve high removal efficiencies, similar to the suspended biocells system. However, the immobilized cell Anaerobic MBR was found to be more advantageous, due to lower fouling rates in the membrane unit. Results from slurry type MPR system showed that this system was capable of mineralizing RB5 dyes with faster degradation rate as compared to other systems. The reactor was also able to separate the catalyst effectively and perform efficiently without much loss of catalyst activity.

  16. Problematic effects of antibiotics on anaerobic treatment of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D L; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Chang, S W; Nguyen, D D; Kumar, S Mathava; Du, B; Wei, Q; Wei, D

    2018-05-04

    Swine wastewaters with high levels of organic pollutants and antibiotics have become serious environmental concerns. Anaerobic technology is a feasible option for swine wastewater treatment due to its advantage in low costs and bioenergy production. However, antibiotics in swine wastewater have problematic effects on micro-organisms, and the stability and performance of anaerobic processes. Thus, this paper critically reviews impacts of antibiotics on pH, COD removal efficiencies, biogas and methane productions as well as the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the anaerobic processes. Meanwhile, impacts on the structure of bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic processes are also discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, to better understand the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes, detailed information about antimicrobial mechanisms of antibiotics and microbial functions in anaerobic processes is also summarized. Future research on deeper knowledge of the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes are suggested to reduce their adverse environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of Spartina alterniflora as feedstock for anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shiguan; Zheng, Zheng; Meng, Zhuo; Li, Jihong

    2009-01-01

    Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), a saltmarsh plant with high production, was characterized for its potential for use as feedstock for anaerobic digestion processes. The anaerobic digestibility and biogas yield of S. alterniflora were evaluated by anaerobic batch digestion experiments performed at 35 ± 1 C at initial volatile solids (VS) of 6%. The nutrient content analysis indicated that S. alterniflora contained the required nutrition for anaerobic microorganisms, but its high C/N of 58.8, high K and Na contents of 8.1, 22.7 g kg -1 , respectively, may be disadvantageous to its anaerobic digestion. The cumulative biogas yield was determined to be 358 L kg -1 VS and the biodegradation efficiency was 45% after 60 days of digestion. The methane content of biogas increased from 53% on day 3 to around 62% after 13 days of digestion. The changes of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) indicated that the acidification of S. alterniflora was propionate-type fermentation with proportion of acetate and propionate ranging from 54.8% to 98.4%, and the hydrolysis of lignocellulose was the rate-limiting step for its anaerobic digestion. The analysis of cations suggested that K + and Mg 2+ , with the maximum concentration of 1.35 and 0.43 g L -1 in fermentation liquor, respectively, could be inhibitory to the anaerobic digestion of S. alterniflora. It is concluded that S. alterniflora can be transformed into clean energy by anaerobic digestion and the high contents of K, Na, Ca and Mg may be the inhibitory factors when S. alterniflora is digested by continuous or semi-continuous anaerobic process. (author)

  18. Instrumentation in anaerobic treatment - research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2006-01-01

    High rate anaerobic treatment reactors are able to uncouple solids and liquid retention time, resulting in high biomass concentrations. Principal advantages of anaerobic treatment include: energy efficiency, low biomass yield, low nutrient requirement and high volumetric organic loadings. In order

  19. Alternative method for determining anaerobic threshold in rowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Dos Santos Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n4p367 In rowing, the standard breathing that athletes are trained to use makes it difficult, or even impossible, to detect ventilatory limits, due to the coupling of the breath with the technical movement. For this reason, some authors have proposed determining the anaerobic threshold from the respiratory exchange ratio (RER, but there is not yet consensus on what value of RER should be used. The objective of this study was to test what value of RER corresponds to the anaerobic threshold and whether this value can be used as an independent parameter for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers. The sample comprised 23 male rowers. They were submitted to a maximal cardiorespiratory test on a rowing ergometer with concurrent ergospirometry in order to determine VO2máx and the physiological variables corresponding to their anaerobic threshold. The anaerobic threshold was determined using the Dmax (maximal distance method. The physiological variables were classified into maximum values and anaerobic threshold values. The maximal state of these rowers reached VO2 (58.2±4.4 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (8.2±2.1 mmol.L-1, power (384±54.3 W and RER (1.26±0.1. At the anaerobic threshold they reached VO2 (46.9±7.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (4.6±1.3 mmol.L-1, power (300± 37.8 W and RER (0.99±0.1. Conclusions - the RER can be used as an independent method for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers, adopting a value of 0.99, however, RER should exhibit a non-linear increase above this figure.

  20. The role of anaerobic bacteria in the cystic fibrosis airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard, Laura J; Bell, Scott C; Tunney, Michael M

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic bacteria are not only normal commensals, but are also considered opportunistic pathogens and have been identified as persistent members of the lower airway community in people with cystic fibrosis of all ages and stages of disease. Currently, the role of anaerobic bacteria in cystic fibrosis lower airway disease is not well understood. Therefore, this review describes the recent studies relating to the potential pathophysiological role(s) of anaerobes within the cystic fibrosis lungs. The most frequently identified anaerobic bacteria in the lower airways are common to both cystic fibrosis and healthy lungs. Studies have shown that in cystic fibrosis, the relative abundance of anaerobes fluctuates in the lower airways with reduced lung function and increased inflammation associated with a decreased anaerobic load. However, anaerobes found within the lower airways also produce virulence factors, may cause a host inflammatory response and interact synergistically with recognized pathogens. Anaerobic bacteria are potentially members of the airway microbiota in health but could also contribute to the pathogenesis of lower airway disease in cystic fibrosis via both direct and indirect mechanisms. A personalized treatment strategy that maintains a normal microbial community may be possible in the future.

  1. Metagenomic insights into anaerobic metabolism along an Arctic peat soil profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Lipson

    Full Text Available A metagenomic analysis was performed on a soil profile from a wet tundra site in northern Alaska. The goal was to link existing biogeochemical knowledge of the system with the organisms and genes responsible for the relevant metabolic pathways. We specifically investigated how the importance of iron (Fe oxides and humic substances (HS as terminal electron acceptors in this ecosystem is expressed genetically, and how respiratory and fermentative processes varied with soil depth into the active layer and into the upper permafrost. Overall, the metagenomes reflected a microbial community enriched in a diverse range of anaerobic pathways, with a preponderance of known Fe reducing species at all depths in the profile. The abundance of sequences associated with anaerobic metabolic processes generally increased with depth, while aerobic cytochrome c oxidases decreased. Methanogenesis genes and methanogen genomes followed the pattern of CH4 fluxes: they increased steeply with depth into the active layer, but declined somewhat over the transition zone between the lower active layer and the upper permafrost. The latter was relatively enriched in fermentative and anaerobic respiratory pathways. A survey of decaheme cytochromes (MtrA, MtrC and their homologs revealed that this is a promising approach to identifying potential reducers of Fe(III or HS, and indicated a possible role for Acidobacteria as Fe reducers in these soils. Methanogens appear to coexist in the same layers, though in lower abundance, with Fe reducing bacteria and other potential competitors, including acetogens. These observations provide a rich set of hypotheses for further targeted study.

  2. Kinetic parameter estimation model for anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunyoung; Cumberbatch, Jewel; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Qiong

    2017-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion has a potential to improve biogas production, but limited kinetic information is available for co-digestion. This study introduced regression-based models to estimate the kinetic parameters for the co-digestion of microalgae and Waste Activated Sludge (WAS). The models were developed using the ratios of co-substrates and the kinetic parameters for the single substrate as indicators. The models were applied to the modified first-order kinetics and Monod model to determine the rate of hydrolysis and methanogenesis for the co-digestion. The results showed that the model using a hyperbola function was better for the estimation of the first-order kinetic coefficients, while the model using inverse tangent function closely estimated the Monod kinetic parameters. The models can be used for estimating kinetic parameters for not only microalgae-WAS co-digestion but also other substrates' co-digestion such as microalgae-swine manure and WAS-aquatic plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse waste: main process limitations and microbial community interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatsi, J; Viñas, M; Guivernau, M; Fernandez, B; Flotats, X

    2011-02-01

    Fresh pig/cattle slaughterhouse waste mixtures, with different lipid-protein ratios, were characterized and their anaerobic biodegradability assessed in batch tests. The resultant methane potentials were high (270-300 L(CH4) kg(-1)(COD)) making them interesting substrates for the anaerobic digestion process. However, when increasing substrate concentrations in consecutive batch tests, up to 15 g(COD) kg(-1), a clear inhibitory process was monitored. Despite the reported severe inhibition, related to lipid content, the system was able to recover activity and successfully degrade the substrate. Furthermore, 16SrRNA gene-based DGGE results showed an enrichment of specialized microbial populations, such as β-oxidizing/proteolitic bacteria (Syntrophomonas sp., Coprothermobacter sp. and Anaerobaculum sp.), and syntrophic methanogens (Methanosarcina sp.). Consequently, the lipid concentration of substrate and the structure of the microbial community are the main limiting factors for a successful anaerobic treatment of fresh slaughterhouse waste. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Financial Feasibility of Anaerobic Digestion for Ontario's Livestock Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Weersink, Alfons; Mallon, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This report is an investigation of the financial feasibility of farm based anaerobic digestion investments under Ontario's Standard Offer Contract electricity prices. Using Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) Agricultural Anaerobic Digestion Calculation Spreadsheet (AADCS) anaerobic digestion inputs, outputs, cost and revenues were estimated and used to conduct a financial analysis on the feasibility of four sized farm base anaerobic digestion investments. The res...

  5. Identification of genes specifically required for the anaerobic metabolism of benzene in Geobacter metallireducens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tian; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Although the biochemical pathways for the anaerobic degradation of many of the hydrocarbon constituents in petroleum reservoirs have been elucidated, the mechanisms for anaerobic activation of benzene, a very stable molecule, are not known. Previous studies have demonstrated that Geobacter...... metallireducens can anaerobically oxidize benzene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor and that phenol is an intermediate in benzene oxidation. In an attempt to identify enzymes that might be involved in the conversion of benzene to phenol, whole-genome gene transcript abundance...... was compared in cells metabolizing benzene and cells metabolizing phenol. Eleven genes had significantly higher transcript abundance in benzene-metabolizing cells. Five of these genes had annotations suggesting that they did not encode proteins that could be involved in benzene metabolism and were not further...

  6. Evaluation of the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing results of clinically significant anaerobic bacteria in a Slovenian tertiary-care hospital in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeverica, Samo; Kolenc, Urša; Mueller-Premru, Manica; Papst, Lea

    2017-10-01

    The aim of our study was to determined antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 2673 clinically significant anaerobic bacteria belonging to the major genera, isolated in 2015 in a large tertiary-care hospital in Slovenia. The species identification was performed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined immediately at the isolation of the strains against: penicillin, co-amoxiclav, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole, using gradient diffusion methodology and EUCAST breakpoints. The most frequent anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis group with 31% (n = 817), Gram positive anaerobic cocci (GPACs) with 22% (n = 589), Prevotella with 14% (n = 313) and Propionibacterium with 8% (n = 225). Metronidazole has retained full activity (100%) against all groups of anaerobic bacteria intrinsically susceptible to it. Co-amoxiclav and imipenem were active against most tested anaerobes with zero or low resistance rates. However, observed resistance to co-amoxiclav (8%) and imipenem (1%) is worrying especially among B. fragilis group isolates. High overall resistance (23%) to clindamycin was detected in our study and was highest among the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, GPACs and Clostridium. Routine testing of antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria is feasible and provides good surveillance data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Catalase (KatA) Plays a Role in Protection against Anaerobic Nitric Oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengchang; Panmanee, Warunya; Wilson, Jeffrey J.; Mahtani, Harry K.; Li, Qian; VanderWielen, Bradley D.; Makris, Thomas M.; Rogers, Melanie; McDaniel, Cameron; Lipscomb, John D.; Irvin, Randall T.; Schurr, Michael J.; Lancaster, Jack R.; Kovall, Rhett A.; Hassett, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a common bacterial pathogen, responsible for a high incidence of nosocomial and respiratory infections. KatA is the major catalase of PA that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen intermediate generated during aerobic respiration. Paradoxically, PA displays elevated KatA activity under anaerobic growth conditions where the substrate of KatA, H2O2, is not produced. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon and define the role of KatA in PA during anaerobiosis using genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches. We demonstrated that anaerobic wild-type PAO1 cells yielded higher levels of katA transcription and expression than aerobic cells, whereas a nitrite reductase mutant ΔnirS produced ∼50% the KatA activity of PAO1, suggesting that a basal NO level was required for the increased KatA activity. We also found that transcription of the katA gene was controlled, in part, by the master anaerobic regulator, ANR. A ΔkatA mutant and a mucoid mucA22 ΔkatA bacteria demonstrated increased sensitivity to acidified nitrite (an NO generator) in anaerobic planktonic and biofilm cultures. EPR spectra of anaerobic bacteria showed that levels of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC), indicators of NO stress, were increased significantly in the ΔkatA mutant, and dramatically in a ΔnorCB mutant compared to basal levels of DNIC in PAO1 and ΔnirS mutant. Expression of KatA dramatically reduced the DNIC levels in ΔnorCB mutant. We further revealed direct NO-KatA interactions in vitro using EPR, optical spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. KatA has a 5-coordinate high spin ferric heme that binds NO without prior reduction of the heme iron (K d ∼6 μM). Collectively, we conclude that KatA is expressed to protect PA against NO generated during anaerobic respiration. We proposed that such protective effects of KatA may involve buffering of free NO when potentially toxic concentrations of

  8. Method for anaerobic fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for biomass processing, anaerobic fermentation of the processed biomass, and the production biogas. In particular, the invention relates to a system and method for generating biogas from anaerobic fermentation of processed organic material that comprises...

  9. Integrated anaerobic and aerobic treatment of sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, K.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes results of investigations dealing with sequential concept of anaerobic-aerobic treatment of municipal wastewater. The main purposes of the study were 1) to develop a proper anaerobic hydrolytic pretreatment unit, consisting of a Hydrolysis Upflow Sludge Bed (HUSB-)

  10. Biogeochemical evidence that thermophilic Archaea mediate the anaerobic oxidation of methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Wakeham, S.G.; Hopmans, E.C.

    2003-01-01

    Distributions and isotopic analyses of lipids from sediment cores at a hydrothermally active site in the Guaymas Basin with a steep sedimentary temperature gradient revealed the presence of archaea that oxidize methane anaerobically. The presence of strongly 13C-depleted lipids at greater depths in

  11. Identification of a conserved protein involved in anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Neiserria gonorrhoeae: implications for facultative and obligate anaerobes that lack FabA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabella, Vincent M.; Clark, Virginia L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Transcriptome analysis of the facultative anaerobe, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, revealed that many genes of unknown function were induced under anaerobic conditions. Mutation of one such gene, NGO1024, encoding a protein belonging to the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamiliy of proteins, was found to result in an inability of gonococci to grow anaerobically. Anaerobic growth of an NG1024 mutant was restored upon supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), but not with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. Gonococcal fatty acid profiles confirmed that NGO1024 was involved in UFA synthesis anaerobically, but not aerobically, demonstrating that gonococci contain two distinct pathways for the production of UFAs, with a yet unidentified aerobic mechanism, and an anaerobic mechanism involving NGO1024. Expression of genes involved in classical anaerobic UFA synthesis, fabA, fabM, and fabB, was toxic in gonococci and unable to complement a NGO1024 mutation, suggesting that the chemistry involved in gonococcal anaerobic UFA synthesis is distinct from that of the classical pathway. NGO1024 homologs, which we suggest naming UfaA, form a distinct lineage within the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamily, and are found in many facultative and obligate anaerobes that produce UFAs but lack fabA, suggesting that UfaA is part of a widespread pathway involved in UFA synthesis. PMID:21895795

  12. Acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms at high pH and high calcium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Acetate biodegradation at a high pH and a high calcium concentration was examined to clarify the effect of bacterial activity on the migration of organic 14 C compounds in cementitious repositories. Tamagawa river sediment or Teganuma pond sediment was anaerobically cultured with 5 mM acetate and 10 mM nitrate at pH 9.5-12 at 30 o C. After 20 and 90 days, the acetate concentration of the culture medium was analyzed and found to have decreased below 5 mM at pH ≤ 11. On the other hand, it did not decrease when either sediment was incubated in the absence of nitrate. These results suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria can biodegrade acetate under more alkaline conditions than the reported pH range in which nitrate-reducing bacteria can exhibit activity. Acetate biodegradation was also examined at a high calcium concentration. Sediments were anaerobically cultured at pH 9.5 with 5 mM acetate and 10 mM nitrate in solution, equilibrated with ordinary Portland cement hydrate, in which the Ca concentration was 14.6 mM. No decrease in acetate concentration after incubation of the sediments was observed, nor was it lower than in the absence of cementitious composition, suggesting that kinetics of acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms is lowered by a high Ca concentration. - Research highlights: → Acetate biodegradation at a high pH and a high calcium concentration was examined to clarify the effect of bacterial activity on the migration of organic 14 C compounds in cementitious repositories. → Nitrate-reducing bacteria can biodegrade acetate at pH ≤ 11. → Kinetics of acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms might be lowered by a high Ca concentration.

  13. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulpa, C.F. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  14. HIGH-RATE ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLIC WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment processes are rapidly becoming popular for industrial wastewater treatment. However, until recently stable process conditions could not be guaranteed for alcoholic wastewaters containing higher concentrations of methanol. Although methanol can be directly converted into methane by methanogens, under specific conditions it can also be converted into acetate and butyrate by acetogens. The accumulation of volatile fatty acids can lead to reactor instability in a weakly buffered reactor. Since this process was insufficiently understood, the application of high-rate anaerobic reactors was highly questionable. This research investigated the environmental factors that are of importance in the predominance of methylotrophic methanogens over acetogens in a natural mixed culture during anaerobic wastewater treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors. Technological and microbiological aspects were investigated. Additionally, the route by which methanol is converted into methane is also presented

  15. [Characteristic of clinical strains of gram-negative obligate anaerobes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadzielska, Joanna; Kierzkowska, Marta; Sawicka-Grzelak, Anna; Rokosz, Alicja; Łuczak, Mirosław

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles ofGram-negative strictly anaerobic bacteria isolated from clinical specimens taken from hospitalized patients in 2005-2006. Biochemical identification and antibiotic susceptibility were done in an automated system ATB Expression (bioMerieux sa). From 12262 specimens examined 867 strains of obligate anaerobes were isolated. Gram-negative strictly anaerobic bacteria were cultured in number of 138 strains (15,9%). All cultures were performed on Columbia agar and Schaedler agar media (bioMerieux sa) supplemented with 5% sheep blood and incubated at 37 degrees C for 48-120 h in 85% N2, 10% H2, 5% CO2. Most frequently isolated was Bacteroides spp. (41,3%). For this group beta-lactamase activity was evaluated by using nitrocefin disc test (Cefinase BBL, Becton Dickinson and Co., Cockeysville, MD, USA). Production of ESBLs was detected with the use of two disc diffusion methods: the double-disc synergy test (DDST) according to Jarlier et al. and the diagnostic disc (DD) test according to Appleton. ESBLs were produced by 5,3% strains of Bacteroides spp. For all Bacteroides spp. strains MIC values were determined by gradient diffusion method Etest (AB BIODISK, Sweden). ESBLs and MIC were performed on Wilkins-Chalgren solid medium supplemented with 5% sheep blood (Difco Lab., USA) and all plates were incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 hours in 85% N2, 10% H2, 5% CO2. Most Gram-negative obligate anaerobes isolated from clinical specimens are still susceptible to imipenem (100%), metronidazole (99,3%) and beta-lactam antibiotics with beta-lactamase inhibitors: piperacillin/tazobactam (99,3%), ticarcillin/clavulanate (99.3%), amoxicillin/clavulanate (97.8%).

  16. Redundancy in Anaerobic Digestion Microbiomes during Disturbances by the Antibiotic Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, Catherine M.; Daly, Sarah E.; Werner, Jeffrey J.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The antibiotic monensin is fed to dairy cows to increase milk production efficiency. A fraction of this monensin is excreted into the cow manure. Previous studies have found that cow manure containing monensin can negatively impact the performance of anaerobic digesters, especially upon first introduction. Few studies have examined whether the anaerobic digester microbiome can adapt to monensin during the operating time. Here, we conducted a long-term time series study of four lab-scale anaerobic digesters fed with cow manure. We examined changes in both the microbiome composition and function of the anaerobic digesters when subjected to the dairy antibiotic monensin. In our digesters, monensin was not rapidly degraded under anaerobic conditions. The two anaerobic digesters that were subjected to manure from monensin feed-dosed cows exhibited relatively small changes in microbiome composition and function due to relatively low monensin concentrations. At higher concentrations of monensin, which we dosed directly to control manure (from dairy cows without monensin), we observed major changes in the microbiome composition and function of two anaerobic digesters. A rapid introduction of monensin to one of these anaerobic digesters led to the impairment of methane production. Conversely, more gradual additions of the same concentrations of monensin to the other anaerobic digester led to the adaptation of the anaerobic digester microbiomes to the relatively high monensin concentrations. A member of the candidate OP11 (Microgenomates) phylum arose in this anaerobic digester and appeared to be redundant with certain Bacteroidetes phylum members, which previously were dominating. IMPORTANCE Monensin is a common antibiotic given to dairy cows in the United States and is partly excreted with dairy manure. An improved understanding of how monensin affects the anaerobic digester microbiome composition and function is important to prevent process failure for farm

  17. A hydrogenosomal [Fe]-hydrogenase from the anaerobic chytrid Neocallimastix sp L2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, Frank G.J.; Boxma, Brigitte; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Akhmanova, Anna S.; Vogels, Godfried D.; Huynen, Martijn; Veenhuis, Marten; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of a [Fe]-hydrogenase in the hydrogenosomes of the anaerobic chytridiomycete fungus Neocallimastix sp. L2 has been demonstrated by immunocytochemistry, subcellular fractionation, Western-blotting, and measurements of hydrogenase activity in the presence of various concentrations of

  18. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  19. Using cereal rye (catch crop) and dehydrogenase activity as indicators of the residual fertility effects of anaerobic soil disinfestation and other biological soil management practices following field tomato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) and other biological soil management practices employing carbon-rich and/or biologically-active ingredients help contribute to overall soil suppressiveness in crop disease management. However, their roles in soil fertility tended to be overshadowed by disease cont...

  20. Anaerobic degradation of long-chain alkylamines by a denitrifying Pseudomonas stutzeri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.D.; Ginkel, van C.G.; Plugge, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The anaerobic degradation of tetradecylamine and other long-chain alkylamines by a newly isolated denitrifying bacterium was studied. Strain ZN6 was isolated from a mixture of soil and active sludge and was identified as representing Pseudomonas stutzeri, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence

  1. Single stage anaerobic digestion process. Megas process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malarich, M.

    1985-12-01

    The rate-limiting step in the anaerobic digestion of domestic sewage sludge and agricultural manures is usually considered the conversion of acetate to methane and carbon dioxide. Some reports have suggested that phase transfer of endproduct carbon dioxide from the liquid to gaseous state may be the overall rate-limiting step. Research to date has focused on batch fermentation studies at varying carbon dioxide partial pressures (pCO/sub 2/) using simple substrates such as glucose or acetate. The results indicate that lowering the pCO/sub 2/ may increase methane production and waste stabilization rates. This research was conducted using continuous fermentations. Continuous fermentations using a complex synthetic waste were performed over a five-month period. The results obtained failed to support the findings of earlier batch studies where methane production increased as pCO/sub 2/ decreased. No significant difference in methane production was found between anaerobic digestion at low pCO/sub 2/ (0.1 to 0.15 atm) and normal pCO/sub 2/ (0.4 to 0.5 atm). 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Anaerobic methanotrophic communities thrive in deep submarine permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Matthias; Mitzscherling, Julia; Overduin, Pier P; Horn, Fabian; Winterfeld, Maria; Rijkers, Ruud; Grigoriev, Mikhail N; Knoblauch, Christian; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Wagner, Dirk; Liebner, Susanne

    2018-01-22

    Thawing submarine permafrost is a source of methane to the subsurface biosphere. Methane oxidation in submarine permafrost sediments has been proposed, but the responsible microorganisms remain uncharacterized. We analyzed archaeal communities and identified distinct anaerobic methanotrophic assemblages of marine and terrestrial origin (ANME-2a/b, ANME-2d) both in frozen and completely thawed submarine permafrost sediments. Besides archaea potentially involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) we found a large diversity of archaea mainly belonging to Bathyarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota. Methane concentrations and δ 13 C-methane signatures distinguish horizons of potential AOM coupled either to sulfate reduction in a sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) or to the reduction of other electron acceptors, such as iron, manganese or nitrate. Analysis of functional marker genes (mcrA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) corroborate potential activity of AOM communities in submarine permafrost sediments at low temperatures. Modeled potential AOM consumes 72-100% of submarine permafrost methane and up to 1.2 Tg of carbon per year for the total expected area of submarine permafrost. This is comparable with AOM habitats such as cold seeps. We thus propose that AOM is active where submarine permafrost thaws, which should be included in global methane budgets.

  3. Anaerobic Digestion Modeling: from One to Several Bacterial Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván D. Ramírez-Rivas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion systems are complex processes that unfortunately often suffer from instability causing digester failure. In order to be able to design, optimizing and operate efficiently anaerobic digestion systems, appropriate control strategies need to be designed. Such strategies require, in general, the development of mathematical models. The anaerobic digestion process comprises a complex network of sequential and parallel reactions of biochemical and physicochemical nature. Usually, such reactions contain a particular step, the so called rate-limiting step which, being the slowest, limits the reaction rate of the overall process. The first attempts for modeling anaerobic digestion led to models describing only the limiting step. However, over a wide range of operating conditions, the limiting step is not always the same. It may depend on wastewater characteristics, hydraulic loading, temperature, etc. It is apparent that the "limiting step hypothesis" leads to simple and readily usable models. Such models, however, do not describe very well the digester behavior, especially under transient operating conditions. This work reviews the current state-of-the-art in anaerobic digestion modeling. We give a brief description of the key anaerobic digestion models that have been developed so far for describing biomass growth systems, including the International Water Association’s Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1 and we identify the areas that require further research endeavors.

  4. Start-up strategies for thermophilic anaerobic digestion of pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moset, V.; Bertolini, E.; Cerisuelo, A.; Cambra, M.; Olmos, A.; Cambra-López, M.

    2014-01-01

    Sludge physicochemical composition, methane (CH 4 ) yield, and methanogenic community structure and dynamics using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were determined after start-up of anaerobic digestion of pig manure. Eight thermophilic continuous stirred anaerobic digesters were used during 126 days. Four management strategies were investigated: a feedless and a non-feedless period followed by a gradual or an abrupt addition of pig manure (two digesters per strategy). During the first 43 days, VFA (volatile fatty acids) accumulations and low CH 4 yield were observed in all digesters. After this period, digesters recovered their initial status being propionic acid the last parameter to be re-established. Non-feedless digesters with an abrupt addition of pig manure showed the best performances (lower VFA accumulation and higher CH 4 yield). Differences in microbial orders and dynamics, however, were less evident among treatments. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, Methanomicrobiales first and Methanobacteriales second, was the dominant metabolic pathway in all digesters. Further research is needed to clarify the role and activity of hydrogenotrophic methanogens during the recovery start-up period and to identify the best molecular tools and methodologies to monitor microbial populations and dynamics reliably and accurately in anaerobic digesters. - Highlights: • Four start-up strategies for thermophilic anaerobic digestion of pig manure were tested. • Physicochemical composition, methane yield and methanogenic community were determined. • During the first 43 days, a decline in reactor's performance occurred. • The best start-up strategy was non-feedless with an abrupt addition of pig slurry. • Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant metabolic pathway

  5. Alternative method for determining anaerobic threshold in rowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani dos Santos Cunha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In rowing, the standard breathing that athletes are trained to use makes it difficult, or even impossible, to detectventilatory limits, due to the coupling of the breath with the technical movement. For this reason, some authors have proposeddetermining the anaerobic threshold from the respiratory exchange ratio (RER, but there is not yet consensus on what valueof RER should be used. The objective of this study was to test what value of RER corresponds to the anaerobic thresholdand whether this value can be used as an independent parameter for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers. Thesample comprised 23 male rowers. They were submitted to a maximal cardiorespiratory test on a rowing ergometer withconcurrent ergospirometry in order to determine VO2máx and the physiological variables corresponding to their anaerobicthreshold. The anaerobic threshold was determined using the Dmax (maximal distance method. The physiological variableswere classified into maximum values and anaerobic threshold values. The maximal state of these rowers reached VO2(58.2±4.4 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (8.2±2.1 mmol.L-1, power (384±54.3 W and RER (1.26±0.1. At the anaerobic thresholdthey reached VO2 (46.9±7.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (4.6±1.3 mmol.L-1, power (300± 37.8 W and RER (0.99±0.1. Conclusions- the RER can be used as an independent method for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers, adopting a value of0.99, however, RER should exhibit a non-linear increase above this figure.

  6. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge and fat, oil and grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Caixia; Zhou Quancheng; Fu Guiming; Li Yebo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG). → Co-digestion of TWAS and FOG at 64% VS increased biogas production by 137%. → FOG addition ratio at 74% of total VS caused inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process. → Micronutrients addition did not significantly improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. - Abstract: Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was conducted semi-continuously under mesophilic conditions. The results showed that daily methane yield at the steady state was 598 L/kg VS added when TWAS and FOG (64% of total VS) were co-digested, which was 137% higher than that obtained from digestion of TWAS alone. The biogas composition was stabilized at a CH 4 and CO 2 content of 66.8% and 29.5%, respectively. Micronutrients added to co-digestion did not improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. With a higher addition of FOG (74% of total VS), the digester initially failed but was slowly self-recovered; however, the methane yield was only about 50% of a healthy reactor with the same organic loading rate.

  7. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-18

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  8. Energy production by anaerobic treatment of cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peano, L.; Ciciarelli, R.; Comino, E.; Gard, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment and methane generation potential of cheese whey, diluted with mud, were determined in the digester of an existing wastewater treatment plant in Switzerland. Lactose, main sugar in cheese whey, can be a useful indicator to evaluate serum anaerobic treatment. Conventional parameters of anaerobic digestion (Volatile Matter, Dry Matter, Fatty Volatile Acids, total Alkali metric Title) were measured after the introduction of different whey/sludge ratio demonstrating that, despite an overcharge of whey digester, its stability is never compromised. (Author)

  9. The anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naish, C.C.; Balkwill, P.H.; O'Brien, T.M.; Taylor, K.J.; Marsh, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This is the final report of a 2 year programme aimed at (1) determining the rate of anaerobic corrosion of steel in concrete, (2) investigating the nature of the corrosion products formed on carbon steel embedded in cementitious material under anaerobic conditions and (3) evaluating the effect of hydrogen over-pressures on the rate of anaerobic corrosion. All experiments have been carried out at temperatures in the range 20-30 0 C, ie ambient conditions. 4 refs.; 19 figs.; 6 tabs

  10. Energy production by anaerobic treatment of cheese whey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peano, L.; Ciciarelli, R.; Comino, E.; Gard, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment and methane generation potential of cheese whey, diluted with mud, were determined in the digester of an existing wastewater treatment plant in Switzerland. Lactose, main sugar in cheese whey, can be a useful indicator to evaluate serum anaerobic treatment. Conventional parameters of anaerobic digestion (Volatile Matter, Dry Matter, Fatty Volatile Acids, total Alkali metric Title) were measured after the introduction of different whey/sludge ratio demonstrating that, despite an overcharge of whey digester, its stability is never compromised. (Author)

  11. The pressure effects on two-phase anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuling; Rößler, Benjamin; Zielonka, Simon; Lemmer, Andreas; Wonneberger, Anna-Maria; Jungbluth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The pressure effect on anaerobic digestion up to 9 bar was examined. • Increasing pressure decreased pH value in the anaerobic filter. • Increasing pressure increased methane content. • Increasing pressure decreased specific methane yield slightly. • The pressurized methane reactor was very stable and performed well. - Abstract: Two-phase pressurized anaerobic digestion is a novel process aimed at facilitating injection of the produced biogas into the natural gas grid by integrating the fermentative biogas production and upgrading it to substitute natural gas. In order to understand the mechanisms, knowledge of pressure effects on anaerobic digestion is required. To examine the effects of pressure on the anaerobic digestion process, a two-phase anaerobic digestion system was built up in laboratory scale, including three acidogenesis-leach-bed-reactors and one pressure-resistant anaerobic filter. Four different pressure levels (the absolute pressure of 1 bar, 3 bar, 6 bar and 9 bar) were applied to the methane reactor in sequence, with the organic loading rate maintained at approximately 5.1 kgCOD m −3 d −1 . Gas production, gas quality, pH value, volatile fatty acids, alcohol, ammonium-nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and alkaline buffer capacity were analyzed. No additional caustic chemicals were added for pH adjustment throughout the experiment. With the pressure increasing from 1.07 bar to 8.91 bar, the pH value decreased from 7.2 to 6.5, the methane content increased from 66% to 75%, and the specific methane yield was slightly reduced from 0.33 l N g −1 COD to 0.31 l N g −1 COD. There was almost no acid-accumulation during the entire experiment. The average COD-degradation grade was always more than 93%, and the average alkaline buffering capacity (VFA/TIC ratio) did not exceed 0.2 at any pressure level. The anaerobic filter showed a very stable performance, regardless of the pressure variation

  12. Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibilities of anaerobic bacteremia in an acute care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thean Yen; Ng, Lily Siew Yong; Kwang, Lee Ling; Rao, Suma; Eng, Li Ching

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the clinical features of anaerobic bacteraemia in an acute-care hospital, and evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates to commonly available antibiotics. Microbiological and epidemiological data from 2009 to 2011were extracted from the laboratory information system and electronic medical records. One hundred and eleven unique patient episodes consisting of 116 anaerobic isolates were selected for clinical review and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Susceptibilities to amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, penicillin and piperacillin-tazobactam were performed using Etest strips with categorical interpretations according to current CLSI breakpoints. Metronidazole-resistant and carbapenem-resistant anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli were screened for the nim and cfiA genes. Clinical data was obtained retrospectively from electronic medical records. During the 3 year period, Bacteroides fragilis group (41%), Clostridium species (14%), Propionibacterium species (9%) and Fusobacterium species (6%) were the most commonly isolated anaerobes. Patients with anaerobic bacteraemia that were included in the study were predominantly above 60 years of age, with community-acquired infections. The most commonly used empiric antibiotic therapies were beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (44%) and metronidazole (10%). The crude mortality was 25%, and appropriate initial antibiotic therapy was not significantly associated with improved survival. Intra-abdominal infections (39%) and soft-tissue infections (33%) accounted for nearly three-quarters of all bacteraemia. Antibiotics with the best anaerobic activity were imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate and metronidazole, with in-vitro susceptibility rates of 95%, 95%, 94% and 92% respectively. Susceptibilities to penicillin (31%), clindamycin (60%) and moxifloxacin (84%) were more variable. Two multidrug

  13. Bismuth subsalicylate nanoparticles with anaerobic antibacterial activity for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Jiménez, A. L.; Almaguer-Flores, A.; Flores-Castañeda, M.; Camps, E.; Uribe-Ramírez, M.; Aztatzi-Aguilar, O. G.; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, A.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, nanomaterials have been used in the medical-dental field as new alternative antimicrobial agents. Bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) has been used as an antimicrobial agent, but the effect of BSS in the form of nanoparticles (BSS-nano) as a potential antimicrobial agent has not been tested, in specific against bacteria responsible for periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of BSS-nano against oral anaerobic bacteria and to assess the safety of BSS-nano by evaluating their cytotoxicity in human gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) cells. BSS-nano were synthesized by laser ablation and were previously physico-chemically characterized using in vitro assays. The antibacterial activity was measured using the tetrazolium-based XTT assay, and cytotoxicity was determined using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and MTS assays in HGF-1 cells. Transmission electron microscopy of HGF-1 exposed to BSS-nano was also performed. BSS-nano was shown to have a primary size of 4-22 nm and a polygonal shape. Among the tested bacterial strains, those with a greater sensitivity to BSS-nano (highest concentration of 21.7 μg ml-1) were A. actinomycetemcomitans, C. gingivalis, and P. gingivalis. BSS-nano at a concentration of 60 μg ml-1 showed low cytotoxicity (6%) in HFG-1 cells and was mainly localized intracellularly in acidic vesicles. Our results indicate that the concentration of BSS-nano used as an effective antibacterial agent does not induce cytotoxicity in mammalian cells; thus, BSS-nano can be applied as an antibacterial agent in dental materials or antiseptic solutions.

  14. Purification of industrial effluents with a high load of organic pollutants by a combined anaerobic/aerobic process; Reinigung organisch hochbelasteter Industriebwaesser durch eine anaerob/aerobe Verfahrenskombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidl, H.H. [AEW ESMIL GmbH fuer Wasser- und Abwassersyteme, Ratingen (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Organically polluted sewage water can be economically cleaned in an aerobic biological sewage treatment plant with upstream anaerobic as this saves activation volume and ventilation energy. This was demonstrated in the sewage treatment plant of the PWA in Redenfelden, where an anaerobic stage was installed which uses the BIOTHANE{sup R} process. The CARROUSEL-system of the anaerobic stage has proved a istself both in the PWA ans in municipal plants between 5000 to 100000 EW. It is a robust system with uncomplicated control which guarantees observance of maximum values and allows elimation of P and N. (orig.) [Deutsch] Organisch hochbelastete Abwaesser werden oekonomisch durch eine aerobe biologische Klaeranlage mit vorgeschalteter Anaerobie gereinigt, weil dadurch Belebungsvolumen und Belueftungsenergie eingespart werden. Dies wurde am Beispiel der Abwasserreinigungsanlage der PWA Redenfelden gezeigt, bie der eine Anaerobstufe nach den BIOTHANE{sup R}-Verfahren installiert ist. Das dort eingesetzte CARROUSEL-System fuer die Aerobstufe hat sich sowohl bei der PWA als auch im kommunalen Bereich bei Anlagen zwischen 5000 und 100000 EW, als robustes System mit unkomplizierter Steuerung bewaehrt, das eine sichere Einhaltung der Grenzwerte garantiert und die Moeglichkeit zur P- und N-Elimination bietet. (orig.)

  15. Energy self-sufficient sewage wastewater treatment plants: is optimized anaerobic sludge digestion the key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenicek, P; Kutil, J; Benes, O; Todt, V; Zabranska, J; Dohanyos, M

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of primary and waste activated sludge generates biogas that can be converted into energy to power the operation of a sewage wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). But can the biogas generated by anaerobic sludge digestion ever completely satisfy the electricity requirements of a WWTP with 'standard' energy consumption (i.e. industrial pollution not treated, no external organic substrate added)? With this question in mind, we optimized biogas production at Prague's Central Wastewater Treatment Plant in the following ways: enhanced primary sludge separation; thickened waste activated sludge; implemented a lysate centrifuge; increased operational temperature; improved digester mixing. With these optimizations, biogas production increased significantly to 12.5 m(3) per population equivalent per year. In turn, this led to an equally significant increase in specific energy production from approximately 15 to 23.5 kWh per population equivalent per year. We compared these full-scale results with those obtained from WWTPs that are already energy self-sufficient, but have exceptionally low energy consumption. Both our results and our analysis suggest that, with the correct optimization of anaerobic digestion technology, even WWTPs with 'standard' energy consumption can either attain or come close to attaining energy self-sufficiency.

  16. Activity, Microenvironments, and Community Structure of Aerobic and Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidizing Prokaryotes in Estuarine Sediment (Randers Fjord, DK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Andreas; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Dalsgaard, Tage

    2006-01-01

    ACTIVITY, MICROENVIRONMENTS, AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC AMMONIUM OXIDIZING PROKARYOTES IN ESTUARINE SEDIMENT (RANDERS FJORD, DK) A. Schramm 1, N.P. Revsbech 1, T. Dalsgaard 2, E. Piña-Ochoa 3, J. de la Torré 4, D.A. Stahl 4, N. Risgaard-Petersen 2 1 Department of Biological...... conversion of ammonium with nitrite to N2, is increasingly recognized as link in the aquatic nitrogen cycle. However, factors regulating the occurrence and activity of anammox bacteria are still poorly understood. Besides the influence of abiotic factors, anammox might be controlled by either aerobic ammonia...... oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA) or nitrate-reducing/denitrifying bacteria via their supply of nitrite. Along the Randers Fjord estuary (Denmark), gradients of salinity, nutrients, and organic loading can be observed, and anammox has been detected previously at some sites. The aim of this study...

  17. Vertical distribution and anaerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments in Hong Kong, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chun-Hua [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhou, Hong-Wei [Department of Environmental Health Science, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Wong, Yuk-Shan [Department of Biology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Tam, Nora Fung-Yee, E-mail: bhntam@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-10-15

    The vertical distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at different sediment depths, namely 0-2 cm, 2-4 cm, 4-6 cm, 6-10 cm, 10-15 cm and 15-20 cm, in one of the most contaminated mangrove swamps, Ma Wan, Hong Kong was investigated. It was the first time to study the intrinsic potential of deep sediment to biodegrade PAHs under anaerobic conditions and the abundance of electron acceptors in sediment for anaerobic degradation. Results showed that the total PAHs concentrations (summation of 16 US EPA priority PAHs) increased with sediment depth. The lowest concentration (about 1300 ng g{sup -1} freeze-dried sediment) and the highest value (around 5000 ng g{sup -1} freeze-dried sediment) were found in the surface layer (0-2 cm) and deeper layer (10-15 cm), respectively. The percentage of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4 to 6 rings) to total PAHs was more than 89% at all sediment depths. The ratio of phenanthrene to anthracene was less than 10 while fluoranthene to pyrene was around 1. Negative redox potentials (Eh) were recorded in all of the sediment samples, ranging from - 170 to - 200 mv, with a sharp decrease at a depth of 6 cm then declined slowly to 20 cm. The results suggested that HMW PAHs originated from diesel-powered fishing vessels and were mainly accumulated in deep anaerobic sediments. Among the electron acceptors commonly used by anaerobic bacteria, sulfate was the most dominant, followed by iron(III), nitrate and manganese(IV) was the least. Their concentrations also decreased with sediment depth. The population size of total anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria increased with sediment depth, reaching the peak number in the middle layer (4-6 cm). In contrast, the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count decreased with sediment depth. It was the first time to apply a modified electron transport system (ETS) method to evaluate the bacterial activities in the fresh sediment under PAH stress. The vertical drop of the ETS activity suggested that

  18. Vertical distribution and anaerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments in Hong Kong, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chun-Hua; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2009-01-01

    The vertical distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at different sediment depths, namely 0-2 cm, 2-4 cm, 4-6 cm, 6-10 cm, 10-15 cm and 15-20 cm, in one of the most contaminated mangrove swamps, Ma Wan, Hong Kong was investigated. It was the first time to study the intrinsic potential of deep sediment to biodegrade PAHs under anaerobic conditions and the abundance of electron acceptors in sediment for anaerobic degradation. Results showed that the total PAHs concentrations (summation of 16 US EPA priority PAHs) increased with sediment depth. The lowest concentration (about 1300 ng g -1 freeze-dried sediment) and the highest value (around 5000 ng g -1 freeze-dried sediment) were found in the surface layer (0-2 cm) and deeper layer (10-15 cm), respectively. The percentage of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4 to 6 rings) to total PAHs was more than 89% at all sediment depths. The ratio of phenanthrene to anthracene was less than 10 while fluoranthene to pyrene was around 1. Negative redox potentials (Eh) were recorded in all of the sediment samples, ranging from - 170 to - 200 mv, with a sharp decrease at a depth of 6 cm then declined slowly to 20 cm. The results suggested that HMW PAHs originated from diesel-powered fishing vessels and were mainly accumulated in deep anaerobic sediments. Among the electron acceptors commonly used by anaerobic bacteria, sulfate was the most dominant, followed by iron(III), nitrate and manganese(IV) was the least. Their concentrations also decreased with sediment depth. The population size of total anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria increased with sediment depth, reaching the peak number in the middle layer (4-6 cm). In contrast, the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count decreased with sediment depth. It was the first time to apply a modified electron transport system (ETS) method to evaluate the bacterial activities in the fresh sediment under PAH stress. The vertical drop of the ETS activity suggested that the

  19. Starch-degrading enzymes from anaerobic non-clostridial bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, H; Schepers, H J; Troesch, W [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaechen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik (IGB), Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-08-01

    A number of meso- and thermophilic anaerobic starch-degrading non-spore-forming bacteria have been isolated. All the isolates belonging to different genera are strictly anaerobic, as indicated by a catalase-negative reaction, and produce soluble starch-degrading enzymes. Compared to enzymes of aerobic bacteria, those of anaerobic origin mainly show low molecular mass of about 25 000 daltons. Some of the enzymes may have useful applications in the starch industry because of their unusual product pattern, yielding maltotetraose as the main hydrolysis product. (orig.).

  20. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF A BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL UNDER ANAEROBIC - THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO CAMACHO-MUÑOZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper dertermined the anaerobic biodegradation of a polymer obtained by extrusion process of native cassava starch, polylactic acid and polycaprolactone. Initially a thermophilic - methanogenic inoculum was prepared from urban solid waste. The gas final methane concentration and medium’s pH reached values of 59,6% and 7,89 respectively. The assay assembly was carried out according ASTM D5511 standard. The biodegradation percent of used materials after 15 day of digestion were: 77,49%, 61,27%, 0,31% for cellulose, sample and polyethylene respectively. Due cellulose showed biodegradation levels higher than 70% it’s deduced that the inoculum conditions were appropriate. A biodegradation level of 61,27%, 59,35% of methane concentration in sample’s evolved gas and a medium’s finale pH of 7,71 in sample’s vessels, reveal the extruded polymer´s capacity to be anaerobically degraded under thermophilic- high solid concentration conditions.

  1. Biogas production from brewery spent grain enhanced by bioaugmentation with hydrolytic anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čater, Maša; Fanedl, Lijana; Malovrh, Špela; Marinšek Logar, Romana

    2015-06-01

    Lignocellulosic substrates are widely available but not easily applied in biogas production due to their poor anaerobic degradation. The effect of bioaugmentation by anaerobic hydrolytic bacteria on biogas production was determined by the biochemical methane potential assay. Microbial biomass from full scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating brewery wastewater was a source of active microorganisms and brewery spent grain a model lignocellulosic substrate. Ruminococcus flavefaciens 007C, Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans Mz5(T), Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 and Clostridium cellulovorans as pure and mixed cultures were used to enhance the lignocellulose degradation and elevate the biogas production. P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) was the most successful in elevating methane production (+17.8%), followed by the coculture of P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) and F. succinogenes S85 (+6.9%) and the coculture of C. cellulovorans and F. succinogenes S85 (+4.9%). Changes in microbial community structure were detected by fingerprinting techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Controls on Methanogenesis in Organic-Rich Anaerobic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R.; Tfaily, M.; Chanton, J.; Rich, V. I.; Saleska, S. R.; Holmes, B.; Langford, L.; Hanson, P. J.; Bridgham, S. D.; Hopple, A.; Keller, J.; Cory, A.; Kostka, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    alleviating the toxicity of aromatic compounds and potentially making otherwise recalcitrant aromatic molecules susceptible to anaerobic decomposition thereby providing a critical step in the diagenesis of peat. Incubation experiments adding H2 support these findings and incubations of irradiated peat suggest an abiotic contribution to CO2 production.

  3. Anaerobic acidogenic digestion of olive mill wastewaters in biofilm reactors packed with ceramic filters or granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Lorenzo; Lampis, Silvia; Todaro, Daniela; Scoma, Alberto; Vallini, Giovanni; Marchetti, Leonardo; Majone, Mauro; Fava, Fabio

    2010-08-01

    Four identically configured anaerobic packed bed biofilm reactors were developed and employed in the continuous acidogenic digestion of olive mill wastewaters to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs), which can be exploited in the biotechnological production of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Ceramic porous cubes or granular activated carbon were used as biofilm supports. Aside packing material, the role of temperature and organic loading rate (OLR) on VFA production yield and mixture composition were also studied. The process was monitored through a chemical, microbiological and molecular biology integrated procedure. The highest wastewater acidification yield was achieved with the ceramic-based technology at 25 degrees C, with an inlet COD and an OLR of about 17 g/L and 13 g/L/day, respectively. Under these conditions, about the 66% of the influent COD (not including its VFA content) was converted into VFAs, whose final amount represented more than 82% of the influent COD. In particular, acetic, propionic and butyric acids were the main VFAs by composing the 55.7, 21.5 and 14.4%, respectively, of the whole VFA mixture. Importantly, the relative concentrations of acetate and propionate were affected by the OLR parameter. The nature of the packing material remarkable influenced the process performances, by greatly affecting the biofilm bacterial community structure. In particular, ceramic cubes favoured the immobilization of Firmicutes of the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Clostridium, which were probably involved in the VFA producing process. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Iron Salt on Anaerobic Digestion and Phosphate Release to Sludge Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Ofverstrom

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron salts are used at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs for several reasons: for removing chemical phosphorus, preventing from struvite formation and reducing the content of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in biogas. Anaerobic digestion is a common scheme for sludge treatment due to producing biogas that could be used as biofuel. Laboratory analysis has been carried out using anaerobic digestion model W8 (Armfield Ltd, UK to investigate any possible effect of adding FeCl3 on the anaerobic digestion of primary sludge (PS and waste activated sludge (WAS mixture as well as on releasing phosphates to digested sludge liquor. The obtained results showed that FeCl3 negatively impacted the anaerobic digestion process by reducing the volume of produced biogas. Fe-dosed sludge (max produced 30% less biogas. Biogas production from un-dosed and Fe-dosed sludge (min was similar to the average of 1.20 L/gVSfed. Biogas composition was not measured during the conducted experiments. Phosphorus content in sludge liquor increased at an average of 38% when digesting sludge without ferric chloride dosing. On the contrary, phosphate content in sludge liquor from digested Fe-dosed sludge decreased by approx. 80%.

  5. Stabilization of the cleaning of anaerobic waste water with the aid of activated sludge following receipts of hydrogen peroxide; Stabilisierung der anaeroben Abwasserreinigung durch Belebtschlamm nach Eintrag von Wasserstoffperoxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupperich, E. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Angewandte Mikrobiologie; Gerstmeir, R. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Angewandte Mikrobiologie; Marqua, J. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Angewandte Mikrobiologie; Rothfuss, A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Angewandte Mikrobiologie

    1996-12-31

    Some municipal and industrial sewage treatment plants comprise an aerobic and an anaerobic unit. However, discharge conditions may be such as to cause strong oxidants like hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to enter the anaerobic unit. As measurements of the reduction-oxidation potential in an acidification stage showed, small concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, already, may cause irreversible damage to the anaerobic bacterial strains living there. Adding activated sludge from the aerobic unit to such a system can prevent the damage. Probably, the enzyme catalase protects the anaerobic system against the oxydizing effect of hydrogen peroxide: this enzyme from aerobic bacteria and optionally aerobic bacteria causes the ecologically compatible decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, which is substantially less reactive. Optionally aerobic bacteria, which are also added, protect the anaerobic system further by consuming this oxygen. (orig.) [Deutsch] Manche kommunalen und industriellen Klaeranlagen bestehen aus einer Aerobie und einer Anaerobie. Verschiedene Einleitungsbedingungen koennen aber dazu fuehren, dass in die Anaerobie starke Oxidationsmittel wie Wasserstoffperoxid (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) gelangen. Messungen des Redoxpotentials in einer Versaeuerungsstufe zeigen, dass bereits geringe Konzentrationen an H{sub 2}O{sub 2} die dort lebenden anaeroben Bakterienkulturen irreversibel schaedigen. Wird aber einem solchen System Belebtschlamm aus der Aerobie zudosiert, so kann diese Schaedigung verhindert werden. Wahrscheinlich schuetzt das Enzym Katalase die Anaerobie vor der oxidierenden Wirkung des Wasserstoffperoxids. Dieses Enzym aus aeroben und fakultativ aeroben Bakterien zersetzt naemlich Wasserstoffperoxid oekologisch vertraeglich in Wasser und den bedeutend weniger reaktiven Sauerstoff. Zum Schutz der Anaerobie wird auch dieser Sauerstoff durch die zudosierten fakultativ aeroben Bakterien verbraucht. (orig.)

  6. Sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC sup TM ) of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; O' Keefe, D.M.; Barkdoll, A.W.; Owens, J.M. (Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (US)); Legrand, R. (Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas (US))

    1992-01-01

    Anaerobic high-solids digestion (anaerobic composting) is an attractive option for treatment of organic wastes. The main advantages of anaerobic composting are the lack of aeration requirements and production of methane. An anaerobic composting design, sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC{sup TM}), has been developed and demonstrated at the pilot scale which has proven to be stable and effective for treatment of the non-yeard waste and yard waste organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). The design employs leachate recycle for wetting, inoculation, and removal of volatile organic acids during startup. Performance is similar to that of other designs requiring heavy solids inoculation and mixing and which do not have a mechanism for volatile organic acid removal during imbalance. (au) (12 refs.).

  7. Peritoneal dialysis peritonitis by anaerobic pathogens: a retrospective case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial infections account for most peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis episodes. However, anaerobic PD peritonitis is extremely rare and intuitively associated with intra-abdominal lesions. In this study, we examined the clinical characteristics of PD patients who developed anaerobic peritonitis. Methods We retrospectively identified all anaerobic PD peritonitis episodes from a prospectively collected PD registry at a single center between 1990 and 2010. Only patients receiving more than 3 months of PD were enrolled. We analyzed clinical features as well as outcomes of anaerobic PD peritonitis patients. Results Among 6 patients, 10 episodes of PD-associated peritonitis were caused by anaerobic pathogens (1.59% of all peritonitis episodes during study the period), in which the cultures from 5 episodes had mixed growth. Bacteroides fragilis was the most common species identified (4 isolates). Only 3 episodes were associated with gastrointestinal lesions, and 4 episodes were related to a break in sterility during exchange procedures. All anaerobic pathogens were susceptible to clindamycin and metronidazole, but penicillin resistance was noted in 4 isolates. Ampicillin/sulbactam resistance was found in 2 isolates. In 5 episodes, a primary response was achieved using the first-generation cephalosporin and ceftazidime or aminoglycoside. In 3 episodes, the first-generation cephalosporin was replaced with aminoglycosides. Tenckhoff catheter removal was necessary in 2 episodes. Only one episode ended with mortality (due to a perforated bowel). Conclusion Anaerobic PD-associated peritonitis might be predominantly caused by contamination, rather than intra-abdominal events. Half of anaerobic PD-associated peritonitis episodes had polymicrobial growth. The overall outcome of anaerobic peritonitis is fair, with a high catheter survival rate. PMID:23705895

  8. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  9. Characteristics of residues from thermally treated anaerobic sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.A.; Smith, J.E.; De Santis, J.; Ptak, T.; Ganley, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Sludge management and disposal are probably the most difficult and expensive operations involved in wastewater treatment today. To minimize final disposal costs many waste treatment facilities practice some form of anaerobic digestion and dewatering to reduce the volume and offensiveness of their by-product sludges. One potential alternative for reducing sludge volumes consists of high temperature, partial oxidation of these previously digested sludges (PDS) and subsequent anaerobic biological conversion of resulting soluble organics to methane. This paper describes solids destruction, residue characteristics and biodegradability factors that should be considered in the design of liquid thermal treatment processes for the management of anaerobic sludges. To date only very limited information is available concerning the suitability of thermally treated PDS to serve as a substrate for the generation of methane. The primary objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of producing methane efficiently from the residual VSS in anaerobically digested sludges. Secondary goals were to establish the ''best'' conditions for thermal treatment for solubilizing PDS, to observe the effect of the soluble products on methanogenesis and to evaluate process sidestreams for dewaterability and anaerobic biodegradability

  10. Key players and team play: anaerobic microbial communities in hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Schleinitz, Kathleen M; Vogt, Carsten

    2012-05-01

    Biodegradation of anthropogenic pollutants in shallow aquifers is an important microbial ecosystem service which is mainly brought about by indigenous anaerobic microorganisms. For the management of contaminated sites, risk assessment and control of natural attenuation, the assessment of in situ biodegradation and the underlying microbial processes is essential. The development of novel molecular methods, "omics" approaches, and high-throughput techniques has revealed new insight into complex microbial communities and their functions in anoxic environmental systems. This review summarizes recent advances in the application of molecular methods to study anaerobic microbial communities in contaminated terrestrial subsurface ecosystems. We focus on current approaches to analyze composition, dynamics, and functional diversity of subsurface communities, to link identity to activity and metabolic function, and to identify the ecophysiological role of not yet cultured microbes and syntrophic consortia. We discuss recent molecular surveys of contaminated sites from an ecological viewpoint regarding degrader ecotypes, abiotic factors shaping anaerobic communities, and biotic interactions underpinning the importance of microbial cooperation for microbial ecosystem services such as contaminant degradation.

  11. Thermodynamic and kinetic control on anaerobic oxidation of methane in marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knab, Nina J.; Dale, Andrew W.; Lettmann, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    The free energy yield of microbial respiration reactions in anaerobic marine sediments must be sufficient to be conserved as biologically usable energy in the form of ATP. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SRR) has a very low standard free energy yield of ΔG  = -33...... yield was rarely less than -20 kJ mol-1 and was mostly rather constant throughout this zone. The kinetic drive was highest at the lower part of the SMTZ, matching the occurrence of maximum AOM rates. The results show that the location of maximum AOM rates is determined by a combination of thermodynamic...... and kinetic drive, whereas the rate activity mainly depends on kinetic regulation....

  12. Distribution and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria in natural freshwater wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-dong; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Cheng, Hai-xiang; Li, Ji; Liu, Xu; Ren, Qian-qi

    2016-04-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process plays a significant role in the marine nitrogen cycle. However, the quantitative importance of this process in nitrogen removal in wetland systems, particularly in natural freshwater wetlands, is still not determined. In the present study, we provided the evidence of the distribution and activity of anammox bacteria in a natural freshwater wetland, located in southeastern China, by using (15)N stable isotope measurements, quantitative PCR assays and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The potential anammox rates measured in this wetland system ranged between 2.5 and 25.5 nmol N2 g(-1) soil day(-1), and up to 20% soil dinitrogen gas production could be attributed to the anammox process. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that anammox bacteria related to Candidatus Brocadia, Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Anammoxoglobus and two novel anammox clusters coexisted in the collected soil cores, with Candidatus Brocadia and Candidatus Kuenenia being the dominant anammox genera. Quantitative PCR of hydrazine synthase genes showed that the abundance of anammox bacteria varied from 2.3 × 10(5) to 2.2 × 10(6) copies g(-1) soil in the examined soil cores. Correlation analyses suggested that the soil ammonium concentration had significant influence on the activity of anammox bacteria. On the basis of (15)N tracing technology, it is estimated that a total loss of 31.1 g N m(-2) per year could be linked the anammox process in the examined wetland.

  13. Pressurised electro-osmotic dewatering of activated and anaerobically digested sludges: electrical variables analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citeau, M; Olivier, J; Mahmoud, A; Vaxelaire, J; Larue, O; Vorobiev, E

    2012-09-15

    Pressurised electro-osmotic dewatering (PEOD) of two sewage sludges (activated and anaerobically digested) was studied under constant electric current (C.C.) and constant voltage (C.V.) with a laboratory chamber simulating closely an industrial filter. The influence of sludge characteristics, process parameters, and electrode/filter cloth position was investigated. The next parameters were tested: 40 and 80 A/m², 20, 30, and 50 V-for digested sludge dewatering; and 20, 40 and 80 A/m², 20, 30, and 50 V-for activated sludge dewatering. Effects of filter cloth electric resistance and initial cake thickness were also investigated. The application of PEOD provides a gain of 12 points of dry solids content for the digested sludge (47.0% w/w) and for the activated sludge (31.7% w/w). In PEOD processed at C.C. or at C.V., the dewatering flow rate was similar for the same electric field intensity. In C.C. mode, both the electric resistance of cake and voltage increase, causing a temperature rise by ohmic effect. In C.V. mode, a current intensity peak was observed in the earlier dewatering period. Applying at first a constant current and later on a constant voltage, permitted to have better control of ohmic heating effect. The dewatering rate was not significantly affected by the presence of filter cloth on electrodes, but the use of a thin filter cloth reduced remarkably the energy consumption compared to a thicker one: 69% of reduction energy input at 45% w/w of dry solids content. The reduction of the initial cake thickness is advantageous to increase the final dry solids content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelling of Two-Stage Anaerobic Treating Wastewater from a Molasses-Based Ethanol Distillery with the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittikhun Taruyanon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of ADM1 model to simulate the dynamic behaviour of a two-stage anaerobic treatment process treating the wastewater generated from the ethanol distillery process. The laboratory-scale process comprised an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB connecting in series, was used to treat wastewater from the ethanol distillery process. The CSTR and UASB hydraulic retention times (HRT were 12 and 70 hours, respectively. The model was developed based on ADM1 basic structure and implemented with the simulation software AQUASIM. The simulated results were compared with measured data obtained from using the laboratory-scale two-stage anaerobic treatment process to treat wastewater. The sensitivity analysis identified maximum specific uptake rate (km and half-saturation constant (Ks of acetate degrader and sulfate reducing bacteria as the kinetic parameters which highly affected the process behaviour, which were further estimated. The study concluded that the model could predict the dynamic behaviour of a two-stage anaerobic treatment process treating the ethanol distillery process wastewater with varying strength of influents with reasonable accuracy.

  15. Modelling non-redox enzymes: Anaerobic and aerobic acetylene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Modelling non-redox enzymes: Anaerobic and aerobic acetylene hydratase. SABYASACHI SARKAR. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016,. India. Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite produced during acetylene degradation by bacteria either aerobically or anaerobically. Conversion of ...

  16. Methane fermentation process as anaerobic digestion of biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic decomposition of organic compounds is conducted in close cooperation of specialized bacteria of different types, including mostly hydrolyzing, digestive, acetogenic, homoacetogenic, sulfate-reducing (VI) and methanogenic bacteria. A great interest in the anaerobic digestion process results mainly from its ...

  17. Using contaminated plants involved in phytoremediation for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zewei; Wang, Shengxiao; Wang, Ting; Chang, Zhizhou; Shen, Zhenguo; Chen, Yahua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the anaerobic digestion capability of five plants and the effects of copper (Cu) and S,S'-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS, a chelator widely used in chelant-assisted phytoremediation) on biogas production to determine a feasible disposal method for plants used in remediation. The results showed that in addition to Phytolacca americana L., plants such as Zea mays L., Brassica napus L., Elsholtzia splendens Nakai ex F. Maekawa, and Oenothera biennis L. performed well in biogas production. Among these, O. biennis required the shortest period to finish anaerobic digestion. Compared to normal plants with low Cu content, the plants used in remediation with increased Cu levels (100 mg kg(-1)) not only promoted anaerobic digestion and required a shorter anaerobic digestion time, but also increased the methane content in biogas. When the Cu content in plants increased to 500, 1000, and 5000 mg kg(-1), the cumulative biogas production decreased by 12.3%, 14.6%, and 41.2%, respectively. Studies also found that EDDS conspicuously restrained biogas production from anaerobic digestion. The results suggest that anaerobic digestion has great potential for the disposal of contaminated plants and may provide a solution for the resource utilization of plants used in remediation.

  18. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of free oxygen in bio-gasification is a sparsely studied area, apart from the common argument of oxygen being toxic and inhibitory for anaerobic micro-cultures. Some studies have, however, revealed increased solubilisation of organic matter in the presence of some free oxygen in anaerobic digestion. This article analyses these counterbalancing phenomena with a mathematical modelling approach using the widely accepted biochemical model ADM 1. Aerobic oxidation of soluble carbon and inhibition of obligatory anaerobic organisms are modelled using standard saturation type kinetics. Biomass dependent first order hydrolysis kinetics is used to relate the increased hydrolysis rate with oxygen induced increase in biomass growth. The amended model, ADM 1-Ox (oxygen, has 25 state variables and 22 biochemical processes, presented in matrix form. The computer aided simulation tool AQUASIM 2.1 is used to simulate the developed model. Simulation predictions are evaluated against experimental data obtained using a laboratory batch test array comprising miniature anaerobic bio-reactors of 100 ml total volume each, operated under different initial air headspaces giving rise to the different oxygen loading conditions. The reactors were initially fed with a glucose solution and incubated at 35 Celsius, for 563 hours. Under the oxygen load conditions of 22, 44 and 88 mg/L, the ADM1-Ox model simulations predicted the experimental methane potentials quite adequately. Both the experimental data and the simulations suggest a linear reduction of methane potential with respect to the increase in oxygen load within this range.

  19. Evaluation and characterization during the anaerobic digestion of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaolan; Huang, Zhenxing; Ruan, Wenquan; Yan, Lintao; Miao, Hengfeng; Ren, Hongyan; Zhao, Mingxing

    2015-10-01

    The anaerobic digestion of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was investigated at two different operational modes, including no sludge discharge and daily sludge discharge of 20 L. The AnMBR provided excellent and reliable permeate quality with high COD removal efficiencies over 99%. The obvious accumulations of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and Ca(2+) were found in the anaerobic digester by precipitation and agglomeration. Though the physicochemical process contributed to attenuating the free LCFAs toxicity on anaerobic digestion, the digestion efficiency was partly influenced for the low bioavailability of those precipitates. Moreover, higher organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.8 kg COD/(m(3) d) and digestion efficiency of 78% were achieved as the AnMBR was stably operated with sludge discharge, where the membrane fouling propensity was also alleviated, indicating the crucial significance of SRT control on the treatment of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via AnMBRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison between two different supporting media at the manipueira anaerobic treatment: bamboo and polyurethane; Comparacao entre dois diferentes meios de suportes no tratamento anaerobico da manipueira: bambu e poliuretano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Douglas Guedes Batista; Citolin, Antonio Carlos; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Alcantara, Michael Steinhorst; Mendonca, Elisabete Ferro [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: simoned@unioeste.br

    2009-07-01

    It was compared the anaerobic bio digestion for the processing starch waste water in natura at horizontal reactors with continuous flux, 15 cm diameter and 90 cm, using two supporting media: bamboo and polyurethane, varying the load rate. The organic load evaluated were 0.548, 1.156, 1.471, 3.049 gCOD.L{sub reactorday}{sup -1} and it was shown that there wasn't supporting media influence on the total and volatile solid removals, with greatest reductions 85 % and 93 %, significantly equals by the Tukey test, for the 1.156 and 1.471 gDQO.L{sub reactorday}{sup -1} loads. The biogas production was greatest at the bio digestion with bamboo acting as supporting media, resulting in 1.696 L{sub biogas}.gSV{sub consumida}{sup -1} for the organic load value of 3.049 gDQO.L{sub reactorday}{sup -1}. (author)

  1. Penile Anaerobic Dysbiosis as a Risk Factor for HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy M. Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexual transmission of HIV requires exposure to the virus and infection of activated mucosal immune cells, specifically CD4+ T cells or dendritic cells. The foreskin is a major site of viral entry in heterosexual transmission of HIV. Although the probability of acquiring HIV from a sexual encounter is low, the risk varies even after adjusting for known HIV risk factors. The genital microbiome may account for some of the variability in risk by interacting with the host immune system to trigger inflammatory responses that mediate the infection of mucosal immune cells. We conducted a case-control study of uncircumcised participants nested within a randomized-controlled trial of male circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. Using penile (coronal sulcus swabs collected by study personnel at trial enrollment, we characterized the penile microbiome by sequencing and real-time PCR and cytokine levels by electrochemiluminescence assays. The absolute abundances of penile anaerobes at enrollment were associated with later risk of HIV seroconversion, with a 10-fold increase in Prevotella, Dialister, Finegoldia, and Peptoniphilus increasing the odds of HIV acquisition by 54 to 63%, after controlling for other known HIV risk factors. Increased abundances of anaerobic bacteria were also correlated with increased cytokines, including interleukin-8, which can trigger an inflammatory response that recruits susceptible immune cells, suggesting a mechanism underlying the increased risk. These same anaerobic genera can be shared between heterosexual partners and are associated with increased HIV acquisition in women, pointing to anaerobic dysbiosis in the genital microbiome and an accompanying inflammatory response as a novel, independent, and transmissible risk factor for HIV infection.

  2. Characterization and Optimization of Dual Anaerobic/Aerobic Biofilm Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Togna, A

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Phase I STTR effort was to develop and characterize a dual anaerobic/aerobic biofilm process that promotes anaerobic reductive dehalogenation and aerobic cometabolic biodegradation...

  3. A bio-electrochemical system for removing inhibitors of anaerobic digestion processes from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process by high level of ammonia (NH4 +/I\\IH3) is the most serious problem existing in biogas plants. No viable/applicable method to overcome this problem has been found up to now. This invention proposes an innovative submersible bio-electrochemical membrane...... reactor to recover ammonia from anaerobic digestion reactor, and thereby alleviate or counteract ammonia inhibition and enhance the conversion of ammonia-rich wastes to biogas. The invention may further reduce overall cost, giving synergistic advantages for both ammonia recycling and biogas plants...... by recovering acid (e.g., H2SO4, HCI), that can be used to treat the recovered ammonia....

  4. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ANIMAL MANURE – IMPLICATIONS FOR CROP YIELDS AND SOIL BIOTA IN ORGANIC FARMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riely, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of farmyard manures may help farmers to produce bioenergy instead of using fossil fuels, support cycling of nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emission. However, compared to pristine slurry, digested slurry has a reduced content of organic carbon which may impact the soil biota...

  5. Production of hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by Bacillus macerans in anaerobic culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.G.; Withers, S.E.

    1985-09-01

    The cell-associated and exocellular hemicellulolytic polysaccharide depolymerase and glycoside hydrolase activity of Bacillus macerans NCDO 1764 was monitored over a range of anaerobic growth conditions in batch and continuous culture. The enzymes were detectable throughout the complete growth cycle in batch culture reaching and maintaining maximum levels in the stationary phase. In continuous culture enzyme activity was largely independent of growth rate (D=0.025-0.1 h/sup -1/) although the activity was reduced at higher dilution rates (0.125-0.15 h/sup -1/). Although activity was detectable over a wide pH range (pH 5.5-7.5) it was pH dependent, and maximum activities of both the cell-associated and exocellular enzymes were measured in cultures maintained at pH 6.5-7.0 +- 0.1. The principal metabolites formed anaerobically from xylose by B. macerans in batch and continuous culture were acetic acid, formic acid and ethanol which represented 95-99% of the products formed. Smaller amounts of acetone, D,L-lactic acid and succinic acid were formed together with traces of butyric acid (<5 nmol/ml) and isovaleric acid (<25 nmol/ml). The proportions of the metabolites produced varied with growth conditions and were influenced by the pH of the culture and the rate and stage of growth of the microorganism.

  6. Anaerobic fitness assessment in taekwondo athletes. A new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rocha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We intended to determine the concurrent validity of a taekwondo specific anaerobic test (TSAT to assess anaerobic fitness in taekwondo athletes. Seventeen elite male subjects (17.59 ± 4.34 years of age; 1.72 m ± .07 m in height; 61.3 kg ± 8.7 kg in weight and 15.6% ± 8.5% in body fat performed a TSAT, which consisted of kicking a punching bag for 30 seconds. The standard test was the Wingate Anaerobic Test. Two trials were made for both tests and the agreement between both was tested. The variables analysed and compared were: peak power; relative peak power; mean anaerobic power; relative mean anaerobic power; fatigue index and anaerobic capacity. The number of kicks performed in the TSAT protocol and the maximum height of the counter movement jump (CMJ were also registered. Trial I and II had significant ICC results in all variables (P = .000 ranged between 0.56 and 0.97. Both protocols were significantly correlated (r = 0.55 to 0.88; P = .000 to .05. CMJ strongly correlated with the number of techniques (r=0.59; P = .013 and the mean power (r = 0.56; P = .019 of the TSAT. The variables between the two methods correlate and are consistent, except for the anaerobic capacity that although correlated, is not consistent with constant bias, P = 0.001; CI]-705.1;-370.2[. TSAT has a level of agreement with the Wingate, and assigns specificity in the evaluation of these variables.

  7. Effects of ionic strength and ion pairing on (plant-wide) modelling of anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solon, Kimberly; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Mbamba, Christian Kazadi

    2015-01-01

    Plant-wide models of wastewater treatment (such as the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 or BSM2) are gaining popularity for use in holistic virtual studies of treatment plant control and operations. The objective of this study is to show the influence of ionic strength (as activity corrections....... The paper describes: 1) how the anaerobic digester performance is affected by physico-chemical corrections; 2) the effect on pH and the anaerobic digestion products (CO2, CH4 and H2); and, 3) how these variations are propagated from the sludge treatment to the water line. Results at high ionic strength...

  8. Effect of hydraulic retention time on hydrodynamic behavior of anaerobic-aerobic fixed bed reactor treating cattle slaughterhouse effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cristina de Freitas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the hydrodynamic behavior in reactors provides characteristics of the flow regime and its anomalies that can reduce biological processes efficiency due to the decrease of the useful volume and the hydraulic retention time required for the performance of microbial activity. In this study, the hydrodynamic behavior of an anaerobic-aerobic fixed bed reactor, operated with HRT (hydraulic retention time of 24, 18 and 12 hours, was evaluated in the treatment of raw cattle slaughterhouse wastewater. Polyurethane foam and expanded clay were used as support media for biomass immobilization. Experimental data of pulse type stimulus-response assays were performed with eosin Y and bromophenol blue, and adjusted to the single-parameter theoretical models of dispersion and N-continuous stirred tank reactors in series (N-CSTR. N-CSTR model presented the best adjustment for the HRT and tracers evaluated. RDT (residence time distribution curves obtained with N-CSTR model in the assays with bromophenol blue resulted in better adjustment compared to the eosin Y. The predominant flow regime in AAFBR (anaerobic aerobic fixed bed reactor is the N-CSTR in series, as well as the existence of preferential paths and hydraulic short-circuiting.

  9. Can activity support influence image of a street?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiami Fachrudin, Hilma

    2018-03-01

    Activity support may affect the formation of the image of a corridor and street. Form, place, and character of activity support in an area will have the function attraction and usefulness of its activities. The aim of this research is to analyze how the influence of activity support on the image of a street, in this case, Dr.Mansyur street which located in front of Universitas Sumatera Utara. Along the street, there are various activities that conducted from morning until evening. The method used is a quantitative method with observation and questionnaire techniques. A population of this study is visitors and students of architecture department from Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) with sample number is 100 respondents for visitors and 100 respondents for students. Independent variables are activity support factors that consist of the type of activity, form, color, dimension, material, position and lighting. The dependent variable is imageability by [1]. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that activity support influences image Dr. Mansyur street that has an image as a campus and culinary area and easy to identify.

  10. Anaerobic Probiotics: The Key Microbes for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Enshasy, Hesham; Malik, Khairuddin; Malek, Roslinda Abd; Othman, Nor Zalina; Elsayed, Elsayed Ahmed; Wadaan, Mohammad

    Human gastrointestinal microbiota (HGIM) incorporate a large number of microbes from different species. Anaerobic bacteria are the dominant organisms in this microbial consortium and play a crucial role in human health. In addition to their functional role as the main source of many essential metabolites for human health, they are considered as biotherapeutic agents in the regulation of different human metabolites. They are also important in the prevention and in the treatment of different physical and mental diseases. Bifidobacteria are the dominant anaerobic bacteria in HGIM and are widely used in the development of probiotic products for infants, children and adults. To develop bifidobacteria-based bioproducts, therefore, it is necessary to develop a large-scale biomass production platform based on a good understanding of the ideal medium and bioprocessing parameters for their growth and viability. In addition, high cell viability should be maintained during downstream processing and storage of probiotic cell powder or the final formulated product. In this work we review the latest information about the biology, therapeutic activities, cultivation and industrial production of bifidobacteria.

  11. Effect of Oxygen on Verbenone Conversion From cis-Verbenol by Gut Facultative Anaerobes of Dendroctonus valens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction from North America, Dendroctonus valens LeConte has become a destructive forest pest in China. Although gut aerobic bacteria have been investigated and some are implicated in beetle pheromone production, little is known about the abundance and significance of facultative anaerobic bacteria in beetle gut, especially with regards to effects of oxygen on their role in pheromone production. In this study, we isolated and identified gut bacteria of D. valens adults in an anaerobic environment, and further compared their ability to convert cis-verbenol into verbenone (a multi-functional pheromone of D. valens under different O2 concentrations. Pantoea conspicua, Enterobacter xiangfangensis, Staphylococcus warneri were the most frequently isolated species among the total of 10 species identified from beetle gut in anaerobic conditions. Among all isolated species, nine were capable of cis-verbenol to verbenone conversion, and the conversion efficiency increased with increased oxygen concentration. This O2-mediated conversion of cis-verbenol to verbenone suggests that gut facultative anaerobes of D. valens might play an important role in the frass, where there is higher exposure to oxygen, hence the higher verbenone production. This claim is further supported by distinctly differential oxygen concentrations between gut and frass of D. valens females.

  12. Isolation of obligate and facultative anaerobic bacteria from feline subcutaneous abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshuyama, S; Kanoe, M; Amimoto, A

    1996-03-01

    A total of 113 specimens collected from purulent skin lesions of household cats was examined bacteriologically. Ninety seven isolates obtained from 74 specimens (65.5%). Of these, 11 specimens (9.7%) contained obligate anaerobes only, 18 specimens (15.9%) yielded both obligate and facultative anaerobes. In the obligate anaerobes detected, genus Fusobacterium was the most frequently observed and F. nucleatum was most common species. Pasteurella multocida was the facultative anaerobe which was most frequently detected.

  13. Activity of Telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Anaerobic Bacteria Compared to Those of Eight Other Agents by Time-Kill Methodology†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim L.; Ednie, Lois M.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    1999-01-01

    Time-kill studies examined the activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647), erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and metronidazole against 11 gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Time-kill studies were carried out with the addition of Oxyrase in order to prevent the introduction of CO2. Macrolide-azalide-ketolide MICs were 0.004 to 32.0 μg/ml. Of the latter group, telithromycin had the lowest MICs, especially against non-Bacteroides fragilis group strains, followed by azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, and roxithromycin. Clindamycin was active (MIC ≤ 2.0 μg/ml) against all anaerobes except Peptostreptococcus magnus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, while pristinamycin MICs were 0.06 to 4.0 μg/ml. Amoxicillin-clavulanate had MICs of ≤1.0 μg/ml, while metronidazole was active (MICs, 0.03 to 2.0 μg/ml) against all except Propionibacterium acnes. After 48 h at twice the MIC, telithromycin was bactericidal (≥99.9% killing) against 6 strains, with 99% killing of 9 strains and 90% killing of 10 strains. After 24 h at twice the MIC, 90, 99, and 99.9% killing of nine, six, and three strains, respectively, occurred. Lower rates of killing were seen at earlier times. Similar kill kinetics relative to the MIC were seen with other macrolides. After 48 h at the MIC, clindamycin was bactericidal against 8 strains, with 99 and 90% killing of 9 and 10 strains, respectively. After 24 h, 90% killing of 10 strains occurred at the MIC. The kinetics of clindamycin were similar to those of pristinamycin. After 48 h at the MIC, amoxicillin-clavulanate showed 99.9% killing of seven strains, with 99% killing of eight strains and 90% killing of nine strains. At four times the MIC, metronidazole was bactericidal against 8 of 10 strains tested after 48 h and against all 10 strains after 24 h; after 12 h, 99% killing of all 10 strains occurred. PMID:10428930

  14. Anaerobic bacteria in wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprowski, Marcin; Stobnicka-Kupiec, Agata; Ławniczek-Wałczyk, Anna; Bakal-Kijek, Aleksandra; Gołofit-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Górny, Rafał L

    2018-03-28

    The objective of this study was to assess exposure to anaerobic bacteria released into air from sewage and sludge at workplaces from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Samples of both sewage and sludge were collected at six sampling points and bioaerosol samples were additionally collected (with the use of a 6-stage Andersen impactor) at ten workplaces covering different stages of the technological process. Qualitative identification of all isolated strains was performed using the biochemical API 20A test. Additionally, the determination of Clostridium pathogens was carried out using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The average concentration of anaerobic bacteria in the sewage samples was 5.49 × 10 4 CFU/mL (GSD = 85.4) and in sludge-1.42 × 10 6 CFU/g (GSD = 5.1). In turn, the average airborne bacterial concentration was at the level of 50 CFU/m 3 (GSD = 5.83) and the highest bacterial contamination (4.06 × 10 3  CFU/m 3 ) was found in winter at the bar screens. In total, 16 bacterial species were determined, from which the predominant strains belonged to Actinomyces, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Propionibacterium and Peptostreptococcus genera. The analysis revealed that mechanical treatment processes were responsible for a substantial emission of anaerobic bacteria into the air. In both the sewage and air samples, Clostridium perfringens pathogen was identified. Anaerobic bacteria were widely present both in the sewage and in the air at workplaces from the WWTP, especially when the technological process was performed in closed spaces. Anaerobic bacteria formed small aggregates with both wastewater droplets and dust particles of sewage sludge origin and as such may be responsible for adverse health outcomes in exposed workers.

  15. Hydroponic system for the treatment of anaerobic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, K; Nair, J; Bäuml, B

    2012-01-01

    The effluent from anaerobic digestion process has high concentrations of nutrients, particularly nitrogen, essential for plant growth but is not suitable for direct disposal or application due to high chemical oxygen demand (COD), low dissolved oxygen (DO), odour issues and is potentially phytotoxic. This research explored the optimum conditions of anaerobic effluent for application and dilutions of the effluent required to obtain better plant growth. A small-scale hydroponic system was constructed in a glasshouse to test different concentrations of anaerobic effluent against a commercial hydroponic medium as the control for the growth of silverbeet. It was found that the survival of silverbeet was negatively affected at 50% concentration due to low DO and NH(4) toxicity. The concentration of 20% anaerobic liquid was found to be the most efficient with highest foliage yield and plant growth. The hydroponic system with 20% concentrated effluent had better utilisation of nutrients for plant growth and a COD reduction of 95% was achieved during the 50-day growth period. This preliminary evaluation revealed that the growth and development of silverbeet was significantly lower in anaerobic effluent compared with a commercial hydroponic plant growth solution. The nutrient quality of anaerobic effluent could be highly variable with the process and the waste material used and dilution may depend on the nutrient content of the effluent. It is recommended that, a pre-treatment of the effluent to increase DO and reduce ammonium content is required before plant application, and simple dilution by itself is not suitable for optimum plant growth in a hydroponic system.

  16. Anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds: a genetic and genomic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, María Teresa; Blázquez, Blas; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Juárez, Javier F; Valderrama, J Andrés; Barragán, María J L; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2009-03-01

    Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach.

  17. Partition of aerobic and anaerobic swimming costs and their correlation to tail-beat frequency and burst activity in Sparus aurata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    until fatigue at 10°C. The anaerobic swimming cost was measured as the excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) following each swimming speed. To determine tail-beat frequency, amplitude and burst and coast behaviour, the peduncle position was determined at 25 s·' by video tracking. The data showed......, and resulted in a total anaerobic capacity of 170 mg O2 kg·'. Normalized tail-beat amplitude and frequency both predicted the swimming speed but only tail-beat frequency was able to predict the aerobic swimming cost. The change to burst and coast swimming was correlated to the first measurements of EPOC...... and both the burst frequency (bursts min·') and burst distance (percentage burst distance) were found to predict EPOC by linear regressions. The low temperature used in the present study resulted in a prolonged recovery time, which increased with the anaerobic contribution to 10 hours after fatigue. Due...

  18. Microbial-based evaluation of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for the sustainable and efficient treatment of municipal wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha

    2017-03-01

    Conventional activated sludge-based wastewater treatment is an energy and resource-intensive process. Historically it has been successful at producing safely treated wastewater effluents in the developed world, specifically in places that have the infrastructure and space to support its operation. However, with a growing need for safe and efficient wastewater treatment across the world in both urban and rural settings, a paradigm shift in waste treatment is proving to be necessary. The sustainability of the future of wastewater treatment, in a significant way, hinges on moving towards energy neutrality and wastewater effluent reuse. This potential for reuse is threatened by the recent emergence and study of contaminants that have not been previously taken into consideration, such as antibiotics and other organic micropollutants (OMPs), antibiotic resistance genes, and persistent pathogenic bacteria. This dissertation focuses on investigating the use of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology for the sustainable treatment of municipal-type wastewaters. Specifically, a microbial approach to understanding biofouling and methane recovery potential in anaerobic MBR systems has been employed to assess different reactor systems’ efficiency. This dissertation further compares AnMBRs to their more widely used aerobic counterparts. This comparison specifically focuses on the removal and biodegradation of OMPs and antibiotics in both anaerobic and aerobic MBRs, while also investigating their effect on the proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes. Due to rising interest in wastewater effluent reuse and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of MBR systems’ effects on pathogen proliferation, this dissertation also investigates the presence of pathogens in both aerobic and anaerobic MBR effluents by using molecularbased detection methods. The findings of this dissertation demonstrate that membrane-associated anaerobic digestion processes have significant

  19. ANAEROBIC EFFLUENT POST-TREATMENT APPLYING PHOTOLYTIC REACTOR PRIOR TO AGRICULTURAL USE IN BRAZILIAN'S SEMIARID REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tavares de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work applied a Compact System consisting of a Reactor Up flow Sludge Blanket (UASB in conjunction with s Submerged Anaerobic Filter containing polyurethane cubes as support media, followed by a Solar Photolytic R eactor. The compact anaerobic system produced a clarified effluent with low concentration of organic matter, especially dissolved (20 mg .VSS/L, and free of helminthes eggs. These low concentrations of suspended solids facilitated photolytic disinfection process producing a good quality final effluent, of which 90% of the samples were thoroughly disinfected, while the other fraction showed concentration of Thermotolerant Coliform (TTC at or below 100 CFU/100 mL and high concentrations of nutrients (48 mg . NH 4 + -N/L and 6,4mg PO 4 -3 - P/L enabling the use of irrigation for productive purposes. Another advantages of the compact anaerobic treatment consisted of low sludge production, and relatively simple operation without energy consumption. These advantages results in a significant reduction in operational costs of sewage treatment, and, indeed, an outlet for developing countries in tropical climate.

  20. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoener, B D; Bradley, I M; Cusick, R D; Guest, J S

    2014-05-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m(-3) of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m(-3) of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13 000 kJ m(-3) (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and

  1. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Shoener, B. D.

    2014-01-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m-3 of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m-3 of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13000 kJ m-3 (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and phototrophic

  2. Sorption and release of organics by primary, anaerobic, and aerobic activated sludge mixed with raw municipal wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Modin

    Full Text Available New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC per g volatile suspend solids (VSS for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215-230 nm were also rapidly removed.

  3. Anaerobic Aryl Reductive Dehalogenation of Halobenzoates by Cell Extracts of “Desulfomonile tiedjei”

    OpenAIRE

    DeWeerd, Kim A.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the transformation of halogenated benzoates by cell extracts of a dehalogenating anaerobe, “Desulfomonile tiedjei.” We found that cell extracts possessed aryl reductive dehalogenation activity. The activity was heat labile and dependent on the addition of reduced methyl viologen, but not on that of reduced NAD, NADP, flavin mononucleotide, flavin adenine dinucleotide, desulfoviridin, cytochrome c3, or benzyl viologen. Dehalogenation activity in extracts was stimulated by formate, C...

  4. Microbiological and technical aspects of anaerobic waste water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aivasidis, A.

    1994-01-01

    Anaerobic waste water purification is likely to be another example of how innovations can result from the joint use of biological and technical concepts. No matter how far the optimization of oxygen input with aerobic waste water purification advances it will still be the less a real competitor for anaerobic techniques the more polluted the waste water is. The principle of carrier fixation to avoid their washing out, too, has often been observed in nature with sessile microorganisms. With highly polluted water, anaerobic purification does not only work at no expenditure of energy but it can also make excess energy available for use in other processes. Another important argument for anaerobic methods of waste water purification is probably the clearly reduced production of excess sludge. (orig.) [de

  5. Anaerobic treatment of solid and liquid residues. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerkl, H.; Stegmann, R.

    1994-01-01

    Anaerobic processes are getting increasing attention in the disposal of liquid waste of the food industry and chemical industry and solid organic residues of the municipal sector. The main advantages of anaerobic processes are the favourable energy balance and the comparatively small volume of new biomass produced. There are new satisfactory technical solutions for nearly all problems encountered in practice. A conference on ''Anaerobic treatment of solid and liquid residues'' was held on 2-4 November 1994. The state of the art and new developments were presented in lectures by experts from research and practice. (orig.) [de

  6. Cooperative Actions of CRP-cAMP and FNR Increase the Fosfomycin Susceptibility of Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) by Elevating the Expression of glpT and uhpT under Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Kumiko; Tanimoto, Koichi; Tomita, Haruyoshi; Hirakawa, Hidetada

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial infections to anaerobic site are often hard to be treated because the activity of most of antimicrobials decreases under anaerobic conditions. However, fosfomycin rather provides a greater activity under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Previously, we found that expression of glpT and uhpT , fosfomycin symporters in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) was upregulated by FNR, a global regulator during the anaerobiosis of the bacterium, which led to increased uptake and susceptibility to this drug. In this study, we showed that expression of glpT and uhpT is induced by CRP-cAMP, the regulator complex under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The activity of CRP-cAMP in EHEC was elevated under anaerobic conditions because levels of both CRP and cAMP were higher in the cells when grown anaerobically than those when grown aerobically. Results of expression study using mutants indicated that CRP-cAMP is indispensable for expression of glpT but not uhpT -whereas that of uhpT requires UhpA that is the response regulator composing of two-component system with the sensor kinase, UhpB. The CRP-cAMP protein bound to a region that overlaps RNA polymerase binding site for glpT and region upstream of UhpA binding site for uhpT . FNR bound to a region further upstream of CRP-cAMP binding site on region upstream of the glpT gene. These combined results suggested that increased antibacterial activity of fosfomycin to EHEC under anaerobic conditions is due to activation of FNR and increment of CRP-cAMP activity. Then, FNR enhances the expression of glpT activated by CRP-cAMP while CRP-cAMP and FNR cooperatively aids the action of UhpA to express uhpT to maximum level.

  7. Microbial network for waste activated sludge cascade utilization in an integrated system of microbial electrolysis and anaerobic fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzong; He, Zhangwei; Yang, Chunxue

    2016-01-01

    in an integrated system of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and anaerobic digestion (AD) for waste activated sludge (WAS). Microbial communities in integrated system would build a thorough energetic and metabolic interaction network regarding fermentation communities and electrode respiring communities...... to Firmicutes (Acetoanaerobium, Acetobacterium, and Fusibacter) showed synergistic relationship with exoelectrogensin the degradation of complex organic matter or recycling of MEC products (H2). High protein and polysaccharide but low fatty acid content led to the dominance of Proteiniclasticum...... biofilm. The overall performance of WAS cascade utilization was substantially related to the microbial community structures, which in turn depended on the initial pretreatment to enhance WAS fermentation. It is worth noting that species in AD and MEC communities are able to build complex networks...

  8. Effects of gamma ray and electron-beam irradiations on survival of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Michiko; Miyahara, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    An extension of the approval for food irradiation is desired due to the increase in the incidence of food poisoning in the world. One anaerobic (Clostridium perfringens) and four facultatively anaerobic (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis) bacteria irradiated with gamma ray or electron beam (E-beam) were tested in terms of survival on agar under packaging atmosphere. Using pouch pack, effects of two irradiations on survival of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were evaluated comparatively. E-beam irradiation was more effective than gamma ray irradiation in decreasing the lethal dose 10% (D 10 ) value of B. cereus at 4 deg C, slightly more effective in that of E. coli O157, and similarly effective in that of the other three bacteria at 4 deg C. The gamma irradiation of the bacteria without incubation at 4 deg C before irradiation was more effective than that of the bacteria with incubation overnight at 4 deg C before irradiation in decreasing the D10 values of these bacteria (B. cereus, E. coli O157, and L. monocytogenes). Furthermore, ground beef patties inoculated with bacteria were irradiated with 1 kGy by E-beam (5 MeV) at 4 deg C. The inoculated bacteria in the 1-9 mm beef patties were killed by 1 kGy E-beam irradiation and some bacteria in more than 9 mm beef patties were not killed by the irradiation. (author)

  9. Microbiology and management of joint and bone infections due to anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Itzhak

    2008-03-01

    To describes the microbiology, diagnosis, and management of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis due to anaerobic bacteria. The predominant anaerobes in arthritis are anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli (AGNB) including the Bacteroides fragilis group, Fusobacterium spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., and Propionibacterium acnes. Infection with P. acnes is associated with a prosthetic joint, previous surgery, and trauma. B. fragilis group is associated with distant infection, Clostridium spp. with trauma, and Fusobacterium spp. with oropharyngeal infection. Most cases of anaerobic arthritis, in contrast to anaerobic osteomyelitis, involved a single isolate, and most cases are secondary to hematogenous spread. The predominant anaerobes in osteomyelitis are Bacteroides, Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium, and Clostridium spp. as well as P. acnes. Conditions predisposing to bone infections are vascular disease, bites, contiguous infection, peripheral neuropathy, hematogenous spread, and trauma. Pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. are mostly isolated in skull and bite infections, members of the B. fragilis group in hand and feet infections, and Fusobacterium spp. in skull, bite, and hematogenous long bone infections. Many patients with osteomyelitis due to anaerobic bacteria have evidence of an anaerobic infection elsewhere in the body that is the source of the organisms involved in the osteomyelitis. Treatment of arthritis and osteomyelitis involving anaerobic bacteria includes symptomatic therapy, immobilization in some cases, adequate drainage of purulent material, and antibiotic therapy effective against these organisms. Anaerobic bacteria can cause septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. Correct diagnosis and appropriate therapy are important contributor to successful outcome.

  10. Schematic Method for Effective Identification of Anaerobes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were inoculated into two compounded media; Neomycin Blood Agar (NBA) and Neomycin Plasma Agar (NPA) incubated anaerobically at 37oC for (24-48) hours. Isolated anaerobes were gram-stained and tested using discs impregnated with antibiotics, bile salts and dyes, carbohydrate fermentation and other ...

  11. Moroccan rock phosphate solubilization during a thermo-anaerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to investigate the presence of thermo-tolerant rock phosphate (RP) solubilizing anaerobic microbes during the fermentation process, we used grassland as sole organic substrate to evaluate the RP solubilization process under anaerobic thermophilic conditions. The result shows a significant decrease of pH from ...

  12. Control of calcium carbonate precipitation in anaerobic reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, van E.P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of waste waters with a high calcium content may lead to excessive precipitation of calcium carbonate. So far, no proper methods were available to predict or reduce the extent of precipitation in an anaerobic treatment system. Moreover, it also was not clear to what

  13. Anaerobes as Sources of Bioactive Compounds and Health Promoting Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Gashaw

    Aerobic microorganisms have been sources of medicinal agents for several decades and an impressive variety of drugs have been isolated from their cultures, studied and formulated to treat or prevent diseases. On the other hand, anaerobes, which are believed to be the oldest life forms on earth and evolved remarkably diverse physiological functions, have largely been neglected as sources of bioactive compounds. However, results obtained from the limited research done so far show that anaerobes are capable of producing a range of interesting bioactive compounds that can promote human health. In fact, some of these bioactive compounds are found to be novel in their structure and/or mode of action.Anaerobes play health-promoting roles through their bioactive products as well as application of whole cells. The bioactive compounds produced by these microorganisms include antimicrobial agents and substances such as immunomodulators and vitamins. Bacteriocins produced by anaerobes have been in use as preservatives for about 40 years. Because these substances are effective at low concentrations, encounter relatively less resistance from bacteria and are safe to use, there is a growing interest in these antimicrobial agents. Moreover, several antibiotics have been reported from the cultures of anaerobes. Closthioamide and andrimid produced by Clostridium cellulolyticum and Pantoea agglomerans, respectively, are examples of novel antibiotics of anaerobe origin. The discovery of such novel bioactive compounds is expected to encourage further studies which can potentially lead to tapping of the antibiotic production potential of this fascinating group of microorganisms.Anaerobes are widely used in preparation of fermented foods and beverages. During the fermentation processes, these organisms produce a number of bioactive compounds including anticancer, antihypertensive and antioxidant substances. The well-known health promoting effect of fermented food is mostly due to these

  14. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stams, Alfons J M; de Bok, Frank A M; Plugge, Caroline M; van Eekert, Miriam H A; Dolfing, Jan; Schraa, Gosse

    2006-03-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory syntrophic consortia of proton-reducing acetogenic bacteria and hydrogen-consuming methanogenic archaea. Anaerobic microorganisms that use insoluble electron acceptors for growth, such as iron- and manganese-oxide as well as inert graphite electrodes in microbial fuel cells, also transfer electrons exocellularly. Soluble compounds, like humic substances, quinones, phenazines and riboflavin, can function as exocellular electron mediators enhancing this type of anaerobic respiration. However, direct electron transfer by cell-cell contact is important as well. This review addresses the mechanisms of exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities. There are fundamental differences but also similarities between electron transfer to another microorganism or to an insoluble electron acceptor. The physical separation of the electron donor and electron acceptor metabolism allows energy conservation in compounds as methane and hydrogen or as electricity. Furthermore, this separation is essential in the donation or acceptance of electrons in some environmental technological processes, e.g. soil remediation, wastewater purification and corrosion.

  15. Genome analysis of a Limnobacter sp. identified in an anaerobic methane-consuming cell consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of Limnobacter genus are widespread in a variety of environments, yet knowledges upon their metabolic potentials and mechanisms of environmental adaptation are limited. In this study, a cell aggregate containing Limnobacter and anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME was captured from an enriched anaerobic methane oxidizing (AOM microbial community. A genomic bin of Limnobacter was obtained and analyzed, which provides the first metabolic insights into Limnobacter from an AOM environment. This Limnobacter was found to contain genes involved in the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, the citrate cycle, citronellol degradation, and transporters of various organic substances, indicating a potentially heterotrophic lifestyle. A number of genes involved in sulfur oxidization, oxidative phosphorylation and ethanol fermentation that serve both aerobic and anaerobic purposes have been found in Limnobacter. This work suggests that in the AOM environment, Limnobacter strains may live on the organic substances produced through AOM activity and subsequently may contribute to the AOM community by providing sulfate from sulfur oxidation.

  16. Effect of wrist cooling on aerobic and anaerobic performance in elite sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anup; Singh, Krishan; Sharma, Deep; Upadhyay, Vivekanand; Singh, Amit

    2018-01-01

    Body cooling has been used to increase sporting performance and enhance recovery. Several studies have reported improvement in exercise capacities using forearm and hand cooling or only hand cooling. Wrist cooling has emerged as a portable light weight solution for precooling prior to sporting activity. The Astrand test for aerobic performance and the Wingate test for anaerobic performance are reliable and accurate tests for performance assessment. This study conducted on elite Indian athletes analyses the effects of wrist precooling on aerobic and anaerobic performance as tested by the Astrand test and the Wingate test before and after wrist precooling. 67 elite sportsmen were administered Wingate and Astrand test under standardised conditions with and without wrist precooling using a wrist cooling device (dhamaSPORT). Paired t -test was applied to study effect on aerobic [VO 2 (ml/min/kg)] and anaerobic performance [peak power (W/kg) and average power (W/kg)] and Cohen's d was used to calculate effect size of wrist precooling. After wrist precooling, significant increase of 0.22 ( p  = 0.014, 95% CI: 0.047, 0.398) in peak power (W/kg) and 0.22 ( p  effective in aerobic performance. Wrist cooling effect size was smaller in VO 2 (Cohen's d  = 0.21), peak power (Cohen's d  = 0.31) and it was larger in average power (Cohen's d  = 0.71). Results show wrist precooling significantly improves anaerobic than aerobic performance of elite sportsmen.

  17. Exposure to polystyrene nanoplastic leads to inhibition of anaerobic digestion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shan-Fei; Ding, Jian-Nan; Zhang, Yun; Li, Yi-Fei; Zhu, Rong; Yuan, Xian-Zheng; Zou, Hua

    2018-06-01

    In this study, impacts of nanoplastic on the pure and mixed anaerobic digestion systems were investigated. Results showed the growth and metabolism of Acetobacteroides hydrogenigenes were partly inhibited by nanoplastic existed in the pure anaerobic digestion system. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was also obviously inhibited by nanoplastic existed in the mixed anaerobic digestion system. Both the methane yield and methane production rate of the mixed anaerobic digestion system showed negative correlation with the nanoplastic concentration. Compared with anaerobic digestion system without nanoplastic, methane yield and maximum daily methane yield at the nanoplastic concentration of 0.2g/L decreased for 14.4% and 40.7%, respectively. In addition, the start-up of mixed anaerobic digestion system was prolonged by addition of nanoplastic. Microbial community structure analysis indicated the microbial community structures were also affected by nanoplastic existed in the system. At the nanoplastic concentration of 0.2g/L, the relative abundances of family Cloacamonaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Anaerolinaceae and Gracilibacteraceae decreased partly. Conversely, the relative abundances of family Anaerolinaceae, Clostridiaceae, Geobacteraceae, Dethiosulfovibrionaceae and Desulfobulbaceae improved partly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mineralization of 14C-Pirimiphos-Methyl in Soil Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghly, M.; El-Maghrby, S.

    2006-01-01

    The mineralization of 14 C-ring labelled pirimiphos-methyl in clay loam soil was determined in a three months laboratory incubation period under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Evolution of 14 CO2 increased with time and reached 9.2% and 12 %, of the initial 14 C-concentration , within 90 days in case of anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively, at that time, soil contained about 61.5% of the applied dose as extractable residues under anaerobic conditions and 59% under aerobic conditions. the unextractable pesticide residues gradually increased with time and the highest binding capacity of about 11%-13% was observed after 90 days of incubation. the total 14 C-activity recovered from soil was generally between 82% and 92% of the applied radiocarbon. the nature of methanolic 14 C-residues was determined by chromatographic analysis and the results revealed the presence of pirimiphos- methyl as a main product together with its phenol. the principle of radio-respirometry has been used for evaluating the effect of different application rates of pirimiphos-methyl on soil microbial activity using U- 14 C-glucose as a substrate. At two concentrations used, pirimiphos-methyl showed an inhibition in the rate of 14 Co2 evolution over 14 days of incubation as a result of oxidation of 14 C-glucose by microorganisms especially in case of high concentration

  19. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and of Pu-EDTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xun, Luying

    2009-11-20

    The enhanced mobility of radionuclides by co-disposed chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), is likely to occur only under anaerobic conditions. Our extensive effort to enrich and isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria has failed. Others has tried and also failed. To explain the lack of anaerobic biodegradation of EDTA, we proposed that EDTA has to be transported into the cells for metabolism. A failure of uptake may contribute to the lack of EDTA degradation under anaerobic conditions. We demonstrated that an aerobic EDTA-degrading bacterium strain BNC1 uses an ABC-type transporter system to uptake EDTA. The system has a periplasmic binding protein that bind EDTA and then interacts with membrane proteins to transport EDTA into the cell at the expense of ATP. The bind protein EppA binds only free EDTA with a Kd of 25 nM. The low Kd value indicates high affinity. However, the Kd value of Ni-EDTA is 2.4 x 10^(-10) nM, indicating much stronger stability. Since Ni and other trace metals are essential for anaerobic respiration, we conclude that the added EDTA sequestrates all trace metals and making anaerobic respiration impossible. Thus, the data explain the lack of anaerobic enrichment cultures for EDTA degradation. Although we did not obtain an EDTA degrading culture under anaerobic conditions, our finding may promote the use of certain metals that forms more stable metal-EDTA complexes than Pu(III)-EDTA to prevent the enhanced mobility. Further, our data explain why EDTA is the most dominant organic pollutant in surface waters, due to the lack of degradation of certain metal-EDTA complexes.

  20. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and of Pu-EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun, Luying

    2009-01-01

    The enhanced mobility of radionuclides by co-disposed chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), is likely to occur only under anaerobic conditions. Our extensive effort to enrich and isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria has failed. Others has tried and also failed. To explain the lack of anaerobic biodegradation of EDTA, we proposed that EDTA has to be transported into the cells for metabolism. A failure of uptake may contribute to the lack of EDTA degradation under anaerobic conditions. We demonstrated that an aerobic EDTA-degrading bacterium strain BNC1 uses an ABC-type transporter system to uptake EDTA. The system has a periplasmic binding protein that bind EDTA and then interacts with membrane proteins to transport EDTA into the cell at the expense of ATP. The bind protein EppA binds only free EDTA with a Kd of 25 nM. The low Kd value indicates high affinity. However, the Kd value of Ni-EDTA is 2.4 x 10 -10 nM, indicating much stronger stability. Since Ni and other trace metals are essential for anaerobic respiration, we conclude that the added EDTA sequestrates all trace metals and making anaerobic respiration impossible. Thus, the data explain the lack of anaerobic enrichment cultures for EDTA degradation. Although we did not obtain an EDTA degrading culture under anaerobic conditions, our finding may promote the use of certain metals that forms more stable metal-EDTA complexes than Pu(III)-EDTA to prevent the enhanced mobility. Further, our data explain why EDTA is the most dominant organic pollutant in surface waters, due to the lack of degradation of certain metal-EDTA complexes.

  1. BIOESTABILIZATION ANAEROBIC SOLID WASTE ORGANIC:QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Brazil, the municipal solid waste produced are constituted on average 55% of fermentable organic solid waste and that this quantity can be applied in aerobic or anaerobic stabilization process. Anaerobic digestion is an important alternative for the treatment of different types of potentially fermentable waste, considering providing an alternative source of energy that can be used to replace fossil fuels. To perform the experimental part of this work was constructed and monitored an experimental system consisting of an anaerobic batch reactor, shredding unit of fermentable organic wastes and additional devices. Fermentable organic wastes consisted of leftover fruits and vegetables and were listed in EMPASA (Paraibana Company of Food and Agricultural Services, located in the city of Campina Grande- PB. The residues were collected and transported to the Experimental Station Biological Sewage Treatment (EXTRABES where they were processed and used for substrate preparation. The substrate consisted of a mixture of fermentable organic waste, more anaerobic sewage sludge in the proportion of 80 and 20 % respectively. In the specific case of this study, it was found that 1m3 of substrate concentration of total COD equal to 169 g L-1, considering the reactor efficiency equal to 80 %, the production of CH4 would be approximately 47.25 Nm3 CH4. Therefore, fermentable organic waste, when subjected to anaerobic treatment process produces a quantity of methane gas in addition to the partially biostabilized compound may be applied as a soil conditioning agent.

  2. Anaerobic expression of the gadE-mdtEF multidrug efflux operon is primarily regulated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ziqing; Shan, Yue; Pan, Qing; Gao, Xiang; Yan, Aixin

    2013-01-01

    The gadE-mdtEF operon encodes a central acid resistance regulator GadE and two multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF. Although transcriptional regulation of gadE in the context of acid resistance under the aerobic growth environment of Escherichia coli has been extensively studied, regulation of the operon under the physiologically relevant environment of anaerobic growth and its effect on the expression of the multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF in the operon has not been disclosed. Our previous study revealed that anaerobic induction of the operon was dependent on ArcA, the response regulator of the ArcBA two-component system, in the M9 glucose minimal medium. However, the detailed regulatory mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we showed that anaerobic activation of mdtEF was driven by the 798 bp unusually long gadE promoter. Deletion of evgA, ydeO, rpoS, and gadX which has been shown to activate the gadE expression during acid stresses under aerobic condition did not have a significant effect on the anaerobic activation of the operon. Rather, anaerobic activation of the operon was largely dependent on the global regulator ArcA and a GTPase MnmE. Under aerobic condition, transcription of gadE was repressed by the global DNA silencer H-NS in M9 minimal medium. Interestingly, under anaerobic condition, while ΔarcA almost completely abolished transcription of gadE-mdtEF, further deletion of hns in ΔarcA mutant restored the transcription of the full-length PgadE-lacZ, and P1- and P3-lacZ fusions, suggesting an antagonistic effect of ArcA on the H-NS mediated repression. Taken together, we conclude that the anaerobic activation of the gadE-mdtEF was primarily mediated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression.

  3. Anaerobic expression of the gadE-mdtEF multidrug efflux operon is primarily regulated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqing eDeng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The gadE-mdtEF operon encodes a central acid resistance regulator GadE and two multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF. Although transcriptional regulation of gadE in the context of acid resistance under the aerobic growth environment of E. coli has been extensively studied, regulation of the operon under the physiologically relevant environment of anaerobic growth and its effect on the expression of the multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF has not been disclosed. Our previous study revealed that anaerobic induction of the operon was dependent on ArcA, the response regulator of the ArcBA two-component system, in the M9 glucose minimal medium. However, the detailed regulatory mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we showed that anaerobic activation of mdtEF was driven by the 798bp unusually long gadE promoter. Deletion of evgA, ydeO, rpoS, and gadX which has been shown to activate the gadE expression during acid stresses under aerobic condition did not have a significant effect on the anaerobic activation of the operon. Rather, anaerobic activation of the operon was largely dependent on the global regulator ArcA and a GTPase MnmE. Under aerobic condition, transcription of gadE was repressed by the global DNA silencer H-NS in M9 minimal medium. Interestingly, under anaerobic condition, while ΔarcA almost completely abolished transcription of gadE-mdtEF, further deletion of hns in ΔarcA mutant restored the transcription of the full length PgadE-lacZ, and P1- and P3-lacZ fusions, suggesting an antagonistic effect of ArcA on the H-NS mediated repression. Taken together, we conclude that the anaerobic activation of the gadE-mdtEF was primarily mediated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression.

  4. Anaerobic bacteria in the gut of terrestrial isopod Crustacean Porcellio scaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanjsek, R; Lapanje, A; Rupnik, M; Strus, J; Drobne, D; Avgustin, G

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria from Porcellio scaber hindgut were identified and, subsequently, isolated using molecular approach. Phylogenetic affiliation of bacteria associated with the hindgut wall was determined by analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences which were retrieved directly from washed hindguts of P. scaber. Sequences from bacteria related to obligate anaerobic bacteria from genera Bacteroides and Enterococcus were retrieved, as well as sequences from 'A1 subcluster' of the wall-less mollicutes. Bacteria from the genus Desulfotomaculum were isolated from gut wall and cultivated under anaerobic conditions. In contrast to previous reports which suggested the absence of anaerobic bacteria in the isopod digestive system due to short retention time of the food in the tube-like hindgut, frequent renewal of the gut cuticle during the moulting process, and unsuccessful attempts to isolate anaerobic bacteria from this environment our results indicate the presence of resident anaerobic bacteria in the gut of P. scaber, in spite of apparently unsuitable, i.e. predominantly oxic, conditions.

  5. Anaerobic degradation of the various fractions of slaughterhouse wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, S.; Zanden, J. van der; Wijffels, R.; Lettinga, G.

    1988-01-01

    The main objectives of the present investigations were to determine the maximum extent of anaerobic biological degradation of the soluble, colloidal and Coarse Suspended Solids fractions of slaughterhouse wastewater, in order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the removal of these organic pollutant fractions and to determine the rate-limiting steps in the degradation of each fraction of the wastewater, and to assess the effects of the fractions on the methanogenic activity of the sludge.

  6. Evaluation of different types of anaerobic seed sludge for the high rate anaerobic digestion of pig slurry in UASB reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Carlos; Montes, Jesús A; Rico, José Luis

    2017-08-01

    Three different types of anaerobic sludge (granular, thickened digestate and anaerobic sewage) were evaluated as seed inoculum sources for the high rate anaerobic digestion of pig slurry in UASB reactors. Granular sludge performance was optimal, allowing a high efficiency process yielding a volumetric methane production rate of 4.1LCH 4 L -1 d -1 at 1.5days HRT (0.248LCH 4 g -1 COD) at an organic loading rate of 16.4gCODL -1 d -1 . The thickened digestate sludge experimented flotation problems, thus resulting inappropriate for the UASB process. The anaerobic sewage sludge reactor experimented biomass wash-out, but allowed high process efficiency operation at 3days HRT, yielding a volumetric methane production rate of 1.7LCH 4 L -1 d -1 (0.236LCH 4 g -1 COD) at an organic loading rate of 7.2gCODL -1 d -1 . To guarantee the success of the UASB process, the settleable solids of the slurry must be previously removed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid establishment of thermophilic anaerobic microbial community during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Yu; Li, Yuyou; Chi, Yongzhi; Yang, Min

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how fast the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community could be established during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester. Stable thermophilic anaerobic digestion was achieved within 20 days from a mesophilic digester treating sewage sludge by adopting the one-step startup strategy. The succession of archaeal and bacterial populations over a period of 60 days after the temperature increment was followed by using 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. After the increase of temperature, thermophilic methanogenic community was established within 11 days, which was characterized by the fast colonization of Methanosarcina thermophila and two hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanothermobacter spp. and Methanoculleus spp.). At the same time, the bacterial community was dominated by Fervidobacterium, whose relative abundance rapidly increased from 0 to 28.52 % in 18 days, followed by other potential thermophilic genera, such as Clostridium, Coprothermobacter, Anaerobaculum and EM3. The above result demonstrated that the one-step startup strategy could allow the rapid establishment of the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria community in response to operational parameters during the treatment of anaerobic sludge digester supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zielińska, Magdalena; Bernat, Katarzyna; Kulikowska, Dorota; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2012-07-01

    The understanding of the relationship between ammoniaoxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities in activated sludge and the operational treatment parameters supports the control of the treatment of ammonia-rich wastewater. The modifications of treatment parameters by alteration of the number and length of aerobic and anaerobic stages in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) working cycle may influence the efficiency of ammonium oxidation and induce changes in the AOB community. Therefore, in the research, the impact of an SBR cycle mode with alternating aeration/ mixing conditions (7 h/1 h vs. 4 h/5.5 h) and volumetric exchange rate (n) on AOB abundance and diversity in activated sludge during the treatment of anaerobic sludge digester supernatant at limited oxygen concentration in the aeration stage (0.7 mg O2/l) was assessed. AOB diversity expressed by the Shannon-Wiener index (H') was determined by the cycle mode. At aeration/mixing stage lengths of 7 h/1 h, H' averaged 2.48 +/- 0.17, while at 4 h/ 5.5 h it was 2.35 +/- 0.16. At the given mode, AOB diversity decreased with increasing n. The cycle mode did not affect AOB abundance; however, a higher AOB abundance in activated sludge was promoted by decreasing the volumetric exchange rate. The sequences clustering with Nitrosospira sp. NpAV revealed the uniqueness of the AOB community and the simultaneously lower ability of adaptation of Nitrosospira sp. to the operational parameters applied in comparison with Nitrosomonas sp.

  9. Impacts of microwave pretreatments on the semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of dairy waste activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma Rani, R.; Adish Kumar, S.; Kaliappan, S.; Yeom, IckTae; Rajesh Banu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microwave pretreatment of dairy WAS was studied. ► MW pretreatment at 70% intensity for 12 min, COD solubilization was 18.6%. ► Biogas production and SS reduction was 35% and 14% higher than control. ► In digester at 15 days SRT with medium OLR, SS and VS reduction was 67% and 64%. ► Biogas and methane production was 57% and 49% higher than control, in digesters. - Abstract: Microwave (MW) irradiation is one of the new and possible methods used for pretreating the sludge. Following its use in different fields, this MW irradiation method has proved to be more appropriate in the field of environmental research. In this paper, we focused on the effects of MW irradiation at different intensities on solubilization, biodegradation and anaerobic digestion of sludge from the dairy sludge. The changes in the soluble fractions of the organic matter, the biogas yield, the methane content in the biogas were used as control parameters for evaluating the efficiency of the MW pretreatment. Additionally, the energetic efficiency was also examined. In terms of an energetic aspect, the most economical pretreatment of sludge was at 70% intensity for 12 min irradiation time. At this, COD solubilization, SS reduction and biogas production were found to be 18.6%, 14% and 35% higher than the control, respectively. Not only the increase in biogas production was investigated, excluding protein and carbohydrate hydrolysis was also performed successfully by this microwave pretreatment even at low irradiation energy input. Also, experiments were carried out in semi continuous anaerobic digesters, with 3.5 L working volume. Combining microwave pretreatment with anaerobic digestion led to 67%, 64% and 57% of SS reduction, VS reduction and biogas production higher than the control, respectively

  10. Treatment of chemical-pharmaceutical wastewater in packed bed anaerobic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacheva, P.M.; Pena-Loera, B.; Moralez-Guzman, F. [Mexican Institute for Water Technology, Jiutepec (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Biological degradation in packed bed anaerobic mesophilic reactors with five different support materials was studied for the treatment of chemical-pharmaceutical wastewater with high COD (23-31 g/L), which contains toxic organic compounds. Experimental up-flow bio-filters were operated at different organic loads for a two-year period. Removals of 80-98% were obtained in the reactors with sand, anthracite and black tezontle, but at relatively low organic loads, less than 3.6 kg m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The reactor with granular activated carbon (GAC) had a better performance; efficiencies higher than 95% were obtained at loads up to 17kg m{sup -3} d{sup -1} and higher than 80% with loads up to 26 kg m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. Second in performance was the reactor with red tezontle which allows COD removals higher than 80% with loads up to 6 kg m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The use of GAC as support material allows greater biodegradation rates than the rest of the materials and it makes the process more resistant to organic load increases, inhibition effects and toxicity. Methanogenic activity was inhibited at loads higher than 21.9 kg m{sup -3} d{sup -1} in the GAC-reactor and at loads higher than 3.6 kg m{sup -3} d{sup -1} in the rest of the reactors. At loads lower than the previously mentioned, high methane production yield was obtained, 0.32-0.35 m{sup 33}CH4/kg CODremoved.

  11. Peritoneal dialysis peritonitis by anaerobic pathogens: a retrospective case series

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Wei-Shun; Chen, Huei-Wen; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial infections account for most peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis episodes. However, anaerobic PD peritonitis is extremely rare and intuitively associated with intra-abdominal lesions. In this study, we examined the clinical characteristics of PD patients who developed anaerobic peritonitis. Methods We retrospectively identified all anaerobic PD peritonitis episodes from a prospectively collected PD registry at a single center between 1990 and 2010. Only patient...

  12. Optimisation Study on the Production of Anaerobic Digestate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is a rich substrate for biogas and compost production. Anaerobic Digestate compost (ADC) is an organic fertilizer produced from stabilized residuals of anaerobic digestion of OFMSW. This paper reports the result of studies carried out to optimise the production of ADC from ...

  13. Evaluation the anaerobic digestion performance of solid residual kitchen waste by NaHCO3 buffering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shumei; Huang, Yue; Yang, Lili; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Mingxing; Xu, Zhiyang; Huang, Zhenxing; Ruan, Wenquan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The maximum methane production of SRKW was 479 mL/gTS added . • Anaerobic digestion capacity increased by 33.3% through NaHCO 3 buffering. • Protease activity was mainly affected by high organic load. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion has been considered as a promising energy-producing process for kitchen waste treatment. In this paper, the anaerobic digestion (AD) performances of solid residual kitchen waste (SRKW) with or without NaHCO 3 buffering were investigated. The results indicated that the methane production reached the maximum of 479 mL/gTS added at the inoculum to substrate ratio (ISR, based on VS) of 1:1.4 without buffering, accompanied by VS removal rate of 78.91%. Moreover, the anaerobic digestion capacity increased by 33.3% through NaHCO 3 buffering, and the methane yield at ISR 1:2.8 was improved by 48.5% with NaHCO 3 addition. However, the methanogenesis with or without NaHCO 3 buffer was suppressed at ISR 1:3.5, indicated from the lowest methane yield of 55.50 mL/gTS added and high volatile fatty acids concentration of more than 14,000 mg/L. Furthermore, proteins in SRKW were not degraded completely at excessive organic loading, since the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen in ISR 1:3.5 groups with (2738 mg/L) and without NaHCO 3 buffering (2654 mg/L) were lower than the theoretical value of 3500 mg/L and the protease activities in ISR 1:3.5 groups were also inhibited

  14. Microbiology and physiology of anaerobic fermentation of cellulose. Annual report for 1990, 1992, 1993 and final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Wiegel, J.; Peck, H.D. Jr.; Mortenson, L.E.

    1993-08-31

    This report focuses on the bioconversion of cellulose to methane by various anaerobes. The structure and enzymatic activity of cellulosome and polycellulosome was studied in Clostridium thermocellum. The extracellular enzymes involved in the degradation of plant material and the physiology of fermentation was investigated in anaerobic fungi. Enzymes dealing with CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}OH, as well as electron transport and energy generation coupled to the acetyl-CoA autotrophic pathway was studied in acetogenic clostridia.

  15. High prevalence and resistance rates to antibiotics in anaerobic bacteria in specimens from patients with chronic balanitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Mitev, Angel; Gergova, Galina; Mateev, Grisha; Mitov, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    Aim of the study was to assess both prevalence and antibiotic resistance in anaerobic bacteria from glans penis skin of 70 adults. Strain susceptibility was determined by breakpoint susceptibility test or E