Health sciences suffer from insomnia: experts too often concentrate their efforts on the wake state. Fortunately enough, some of them have taken the road towards the "Dark Third of Life": sleep. This article gives an historical account of the development of the first Canadian sleep disorders laboratory and clinic specifically and selectively designed for children and adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis. It then stresses the importance of sleep in children bearing a psychiatric diagnosis and summarizes therapeutic strategies. Data-on-file and selective review of literature. An innovative scheme matching sleep psychologists and psychiatrists with expertise in neurodevelopmental disorders led to the creation of a sleep research laboratory on mental health disorders. The initial research projects on the sleep and dreams of patients with schizophrenia and persons with autism are summarized. The Sleep Disorders Clinic for Children and Adolescents was then created at the Hôpital Rivière-des-Prairies, leading to much needed activities focused on youth. Indeed, sleep disorders show a high prevalence in children with a psychiatric diagnosis and the literature shows that these children have an increased sensitivity for diurnal effects of poor sleep. The main sleep-relevant issues at stake are reviewed, including the high frequency of sleep disorders in pedopsychiatric patients. Clinical challenges are described and the operating mode of the Sleep Disorders Clinic is illustrated. Sleep disorders and their effects on daytime functioning need to be assessed in children with a psychiatric diagnosis in order to generate a full clinical picture. Appropriate tools and know-how are readily available in order to achieve this goal.
Mellman, T A; David, D; Kulick-Bell, R; Hebding, J; Nolan, B
Sleep disturbance is an important dimension of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but most of the limited available data were obtained years after the original traumatic event. This study provides information on sleep disturbance and its relationship to posttraumatic morbidity from evaluations done within a year after the trauma. Sleep and psychiatric symptoms of 54 victims (12 men and 42 women) of Hurricane Andrew who had no psychiatric illness in the 6 months before the hurricane were evaluated. A subset of hurricane victims with active psychiatric morbidity (N = 10) and nine comparison subjects who were unaffected by the hurricane were examined in a sleep laboratory. A broad range of sleep-related complaints were rated as being greater after the hurricane, and psychiatric morbidity (which was most commonly PTSD, followed by depression) had a significant effect on most of the subjective sleep measures. In addition, subjects with active morbidity endorsed greater frequencies of "bad dreams" and general sleep disturbances before the hurricane. Polysomnographic results for the hurricane victims revealed a greater number of arousals and entries into stage 1 sleep. REM density correlated positively with both the PTSD symptom of reexperiencing trauma and global distress. Subjects affected by Hurricane Andrew reported sleep disturbances, particularly those subjects with psychiatric morbidity. Tendencies to experience bad dreams and interrupted sleep before a trauma appear to mark vulnerability to posttraumatic morbidity. Results of sleep laboratory evaluations suggested brief shifts toward higher arousal levels during sleep for PTSD subjects and a relationship of REM phasic activity and symptom severity.
Alfano, Candice A.; Gamble, Amanda L.
Although sleep problems often comprise core features of psychiatric disorders, inadequate attention has been paid to the complex, reciprocal relationships involved in the early regulation of sleep, emotion, and behavior. In this paper, we review the pediatric literature examining sleep in children with primary psychiatric disorders as well as…
Kamphuis, Jeanine; Karsten, Julie; de Weerd, Al; Lancel, Marike
Objective: Poor sleep is known to cause detrimental effects on the course of diverse psychiatric disorders and is a putative risk factor for hostility and aggression. Thus, sleep may be crucial in forensic psychiatric practice. However, little is known about the prevalence of sleep disturbances in
Matthias J. Müller
Full Text Available Sleep complaints and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in patients with psychiatric disorders. During hospitalization the patients’ condition may be even worse but little is known about the subjective sleep quality in psychiatric hospitals. Thus, we have investigated subjective sleep quality and mean sleep duration in patients with different psychiatric disorders at the end of hospitalization. For a period of one year, inpatients of a psychiatric hospital with diagnosis of substance use disorder (SUD, schizophrenia (SCZ, or anxiety/depressive disorders (AND were routinely asked to fill in an easily comprehensible sleep quality questionnaire at the end of their hospitalization. Age, gender, subjective sleep quality, and sleep duration were analyzed; sleep duration was classified according to age-specific recommendations. Data of n=309 patients (age 52.1±17.9y, 56.1% women were analyzed (n=63 SUD, n=50 SCZ, n=196 AND. Mean sleep duration was 7.0±2.0 h; 20.7% of patients had sleep durations below and 4.5% above age-specific recommendations. Non-restorative sleep during hospitalization was reported “almost always” in 38.2% (n=118, and “occasionally” in 30.1% (n=93. Subjective sleep quality was significantly associated with sleep duration (rs=−0.31, P<0.0005, but not with age, gender or diagnostic subgroup. The study showed that a great proportion of patients reported poor subjective sleep quality during hospitalization, regardless of age, gender and psychiatric diagnosis. As sleep quality was significantly associated with short sleep duration, a first step could be to take care to achieve recommended age-specific sleep durations in psychiatric hospitals.
Modafferi, Sergio; Stornelli, Maddalena; Chiarotti, Flavia; Cardona, Francesco; Bruni, Oliviero
The current study evaluated the relationship between tic, sleep disorders and specific psychiatric symptoms (anxiety, depression, obsessive compulsive symptoms). Assessment of 36 consecutive children and adolescents with tic disorders included: the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) to assess the severity of tic symptoms; the Self-administered scale for children and adolescents (SAFA) to evaluate the psychopathological profile; a specific sleep questionnaire consisting of 45 items to assess the presence of sleep disorders. An age and sex-matched control group was used for comparisons. Sleep was significantly more disturbed in patients with tic disorders than in controls. Difficulties in initiating sleep and increased motor activity during sleep were the most frequent sleep disturbances found in our sample. Patients showed also symptoms of anxiety (SAFA A), depressed mood (SAFA D) and doubt-indecision (SAFA O). Additionally, difficulties in initiating sleep resulted associated with other SAFA subscales relative to obsessive-compulsive symptoms and depression symptoms. Furthermore, anxiety symptoms (SAFA A) resulted associated with increased motor activity during sleep. Findings confirm literature studies reporting high frequency of sleep problems, anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms in patients with tic disorders, and support the hypothesis that intrusive thoughts and other emotional disturbances might disrupt the sleep onset of these patients. These results suggest the importance of a thorough assessment of sleep and psychiatric disturbances in patients with tic disorders. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schäfer, Valérie; Bader, Klaus
The present study aimed to investigate whether stress experienced early in life is associated with actigraphic and subjective sleep measures in a sample of adult psychiatric outpatients. A total of 48 psychiatric outpatients completed self-report questionnaires assessing current depression, current anxiety symptoms and stress load during childhood (before the age of 13 years), adolescence (between the age of 13 and 18 years) and adulthood (between the age of 19 and current age). Sleep-related activity was measured using 24-h wrist actigraphy over a 7-day period at home, during which participants also kept a sleep diary. High stress load in childhood, but not in adolescence, was associated with shortened actigraphically assessed total sleep time, prolonged sleep onset latency, decreased sleep efficiency and an increased number of body movements in sleep, even after accounting for the effects of later occurring stress and psychopathological symptoms such as depression and anxiety scores. Unexpectedly, no significant associations between early-life stress load and subjective sleep measures were found. Results are consistent with findings from previous studies indicating an association between childhood adversities and higher levels of nocturnal activity. The findings suggest that high stress load during childhood might be a vulnerability factor for sleep continuity problems in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Krysta, Krzysztof; Krzystanek, Marek; Bratek, Agnieszka; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena
Many psychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia, affective disorders, addictions and different forms of dementia are associated with sleep disturbances. In the etiology and course of those diseases inflammatory processes are regarded to be an increasingly important factor. They are also a frequently discussed element of the pathology of sleep. In this literature review reports on correlations between poor sleep and inflammatory responses in various psychiatric conditions are discussed. The link between schizophrenia, affective disorders and inflammatory cytokines is a complex phenomenon, which has been already confirmed in a number of studies. However, the presence of sleep deficits in those conditions, being a common symptom of depression and psychoses, can be an additional factor having a considerable impact on the immunological processes in mental illnesses. In the analyzed data, a number of studies are presented describing the role of inflammatory markers in sleep disturbances and psychopathological symptoms of affective, psychotic, neurogenerative and other disorders. Also attention is drawn to possible implications for their treatment. Efforts to use, e.g., anti-inflammatory agents in psychiatry in the context of their impact on sleep are reported. The aspect of inflammatory markers in the role of sleep deprivation as the treatment method in major depressive disorder is also discussed. A general conclusion is drawn that the improvement of sleep quality plays a crucial role in the care for psychiatric patients.
Full Text Available Taryn Heck,1 Monica Zolezzi21Pharmacy Department, University of Alberta Hospital, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 2Clinical Pharmacy and Practice, College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, QatarAbstract: Psychiatric disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA are often comorbid. However, there is limited information on the impact of psychotropic medications on OSA symptoms, on how to manage psychiatric pharmacotherapy in patients presenting with OSA, or on the effectiveness and challenges of OSA treatments in patients with comorbid mental illness. As such, the objective of this article is to provide an overview of some epidemiological aspects of OSA and treatment considerations in the management of OSA in individuals with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Predefined keywords were used to search for relevant literature in electronic databases. Data show that OSA is particularly prevalent in patients with psychiatric disorders. The medical care that patients with these comorbidities require can be challenging, as some of the psychiatric medications used by these patients may exacerbate OSA symptoms. As such, continuous positive airway pressure continues to be the first-line treatment, even in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. However, more controlled studies are required, particularly to determine continuous positive airway pressure compliance in patients with mental illness, the impact of treating OSA on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of the use of psychotropic medications on OSA symptoms.Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea, psychiatric disorders, comorbidity, psychotropic medications
Bosch, M.P.C.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Lim, S.; Egger, J.I.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.
The interest of psychiatric patients for complementary medicine, such as acupuncture, is stable, but effect studies in psychiatry remain scarce. In this pilot study, the effects of 3 months of acupuncture treatment on sleep were evaluated and compared between a group of patients with schizophrenia
Full Text Available Sleep apnea is a syndrome that affects multiple systems and produces varied symptoms. This article reviews the most frequent psychiatric illnesses associated with this condition, as well as the need for an adequate diagnosis and an interdisciplinary treatment. The most common entity observed in patients with sleep apnea is depression, probably caused by sleep fragmentation, which alters the production of neurotransmitters in the brain. Anxiety is the second most common entity, perhaps, due to the release of catecholamines at night. Other symptoms associated with sleep apnea can be found, and should be reviewed and improved with appropriate treatment; addressing such symptoms could also improve the quality of life of patients, since attention, concentration and memory would increase or decrease irritability and other symptoms.
Hatzinger, Martin; Brand, Serge; Perren, Sonja; von Wyl, Anges; Stadelmann, Stephanie; von Klitzing, Kai; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith
Various studies of child cortisol secretion and sleep show a close association between poor sleep, deterioration of the HPA axis and unfavorable psychological functioning. However, there is little evidence as to whether these associations are clearly present in pre-school children suffering from psychiatric disorders. A total of 30 pre-schoolers suffering from psychiatric disorders (anxiety, adjustment disorders, emotional and attachment disorder; hyperactivity or oppositional disorder) and 35 healthy controls took part in the study. Saliva cortisol secretion was assessed both at baseline and under challenge conditions. Sleep was assessed via activity monitoring for seven consecutive days and nights, using a digital movement-measuring instrument. Parents and teachers completed questionnaires assessing children's cognitive, emotional and social functioning. The Berkeley Puppet Interview provided child-based reports of cognitive-emotional processes. Compared to healthy controls, children suffering from psychiatric disorders had much higher cortisol secretion both at baseline and under challenge conditions. Sleep was also more disturbed, and parents and teachers rated children suffering from psychiatric disorders as cognitively, emotionally and behaviorally more impaired, relative to healthy controls. Children with psychiatric disorders reported being more bullied and victimized. In five-year old children the presence of psychiatric disorders is reflected not only at psychological, social and behavioral, but also at neuroendocrine and sleep-related levels. It is likely that these children remain at increased risk for suffering from psychiatric difficulties later in life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Behr, M; Acker, J; Cohrs, S; Deuschle, M; Danker-Hopfe, H; Göder, R; Norra, C; Richter, K; Riemann, D; Schilling, C; Weeß, H-G; Wetter, T C; Wollenburg, L M; Pollmächer, T
Sleep-related breathing disorders seriously impair well-being and increase the risk for relevant somatic and psychiatric disorders. Moreover, risk factors for sleep-related breathing disorders are highly prevalent in psychiatric patients. The aim of this study was for the first time in Germany to study the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as the most common form of sleep-related breathing disorder in patients with psychiatric disorders. In 10 psychiatric hospitals in Germany and 1 hospital in Switzerland, a total of 249 inpatients underwent an 8‑channel sleep polygraphy to investigate the prevalence of sleep apnea in this group of patients. With a conspicuous screening result of 23.7% of the subjects, a high prevalence of sleep-related breathing disorders was found to occur among this group of patients. Male gender, higher age and high body mass index (BMI) were identified as positive risk factors for the detection of OSAS. The high prevalence indicates that sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder among psychiatric patients. Although OSAS can lead to substantial disorders of the mental state and when untreated is accompanied by serious somatic health problems, screening procedures are not part of the routine work-up in psychiatric hospitals; therefore, sleep apnea is presumably underdiagnosed in psychiatric patients. In view of the results of this and previous studies, this topic complex should be the subject of further research studies.
Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Alfstad, Kristin Å; van Roy, Betty; Henning, Oliver; Lossius, Morten I
Sleep problems are common in pediatric epilepsy and may influence seizure control, daytime functioning, and overall quality of life. Knowledge of factors contributing to sleep problems is likely to improve treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between psychiatric comorbidity and parent-reported and self-reported sleep problems in a sample of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Participants were children and adolescents (N=94), aged 10-19years, with generalized or focal epilepsy who had been referred to a tertiary epilepsy treatment center in Norway. Participants underwent a thorough clinical assessment and 24h of EEG registration. Information on sleep problems was obtained from parents using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ) and from self-reporting using the Sleep Self-Report (SSR) questionnaire. Psychiatric diagnoses were established using the semistructured psychiatric interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL). Both the total and subdomain CSHQ and SSR scores were high in comparison with scores from population-based samples. Having one or more psychiatric disorder(s) was significantly associated with elevated scores on both the CSHQ and the SSR. With the exception of parent-reported parasomnias, associations between sleep problems and psychiatric disorders remained significant after adjusting for relevant epilepsy variables. Psychiatric comorbidity explained about one-third of the variance of the reported sleep problems in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pyrke, Ryan J L; McKinnon, Margaret C; McNeely, Heather E; Ahern, Catherine; Langstaff, Karen L; Bieling, Peter J
The primary aim of the present study was to compare sleep characteristics pre- and post-move into a state-of-the-art mental health facility, which offered private sleeping quarters. Significant evidence points toward sleep disruption among psychiatric inpatients. It is unclear, however, how environmental factors (e.g., dorm-style rooms) impact sleep quality in this population. To assess sleep quality, a novel objective technology, actigraphy, was used before and after a facility move. Subjective daily interviews were also administered, along with the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Actigraphy revealed significant improvements in objective sleep quality following the facility move. Interestingly, subjective report of sleep quality did not correlate with the objective measures. Circadian sleep type appeared to play a role in influencing subjective attitudes toward sleep quality. Built environment has a significant effect on the sleep quality of psychiatric inpatients. Given well-documented disruptions in sleep quality present among psychiatric patients undergoing hospitalization, design elements like single patient bedrooms are highly desirable.
Full Text Available Serge Brand1, Roumen Kirov21Depression and Sleep Research Unit, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Institute of Neurobiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, BulgariaThe authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Restoring sleep is strongly associated with a better physical, cognitive, and psychological well-being. By contrast, poor or disordered sleep is related to impairment of cognitive and psychological functioning and worsened physical health. These associations are well documented not only in adults but also in children and adolescents. Importantly, adolescence is hallmarked by dramatic maturational changes in sleep and its neurobiological regulation, hormonal status, and many psychosocial and physical processes. Thus, the role of sleep in mental and physical health during adolescence and in adolescent patients is complex. However, it has so far received little attention. This review first presents contemporary views about the complex neurobiology of sleep and its functions with important implications for adolescence. Second, existing complex relationships between common adolescent somatic/organic, sleep-related, and psychiatric disorders and certain sleep alterations are discussed. It is concluded that poor or altered sleep in adolescent patients may trigger and maintain many psychiatric and physical disorders or combinations of these conditions, which presumably hinder recovery and may cross into later stages of life. Therefore, timely diagnosis and management of sleep problems appear critical for growth and development in adolescent patients.Keywords: cognitive, psychological, neurobiology, growth, development, sleep physiology, rapid eye movement, non-REM sleep, behavioral disorders, adolescents
Barthlen, G M; Stacy, C
Sleep disorders can be intrinsic, as are insomnia or narcolepsy, or can be accounted for by external factors, such as noise, altitude, drug or alcohol abuse, or shift work. The arousal disorders, common in children, are usually benign and disappear by puberty. Sleep-wake transition disorders such as sleep starts are benign as well, and may occur at any age. The parasomnias comprise different entities such as nightmares, REM-sleep behavior disorder, sleep enuresis, and bruxism. Diagnosis and treatment often require a multidisciplinary approach. Virtually every psychiatric, neurologic, or medical disease, when of sufficient severity, leaves its specific fingerprint on sleep; some disorders, such as peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux, or epilepsy, tend to be exacerbated during sleep. Fortunately, most sleep disorders are amenable to therapy, which can include counseling, sleep hygiene, withholding of an offending agent, behavioral therapy, light therapy, or cautious drug therapy.
Miyawaki, Hiroyuki; Billeh, Yazan N; Diba, Kamran
To better understand the distinct activity patterns of the brain during sleep, we observed and investigated periods of diminished oscillatory and population spiking activity lasting for seconds during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, which we call "LOW" activity sleep. We analyzed spiking and local field potential (LFP) activity of hippocampal CA1 region alongside neocortical electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in 19 sessions from four male Long-Evans rats (260-360 g) during natural wake/sleep across the 24-hr cycle as well as data from other brain regions obtained from http://crcns.org.1,2. LOW states lasted longer than OFF/DOWN states and were distinguished by a subset of "LOW-active" cells. LOW activity sleep was preceded and followed by increased sharp-wave ripple activity. We also observed decreased slow-wave activity and sleep spindles in the hippocampal LFP and neocortical EEG upon LOW onset, with a partial rebound immediately after LOW. LOW states demonstrated activity patterns consistent with sleep but frequently transitioned into microarousals and showed EMG and LFP differences from small-amplitude irregular activity during quiet waking. Their likelihood decreased within individual non-REM epochs yet increased over the course of sleep. By analyzing data from the entorhinal cortex of rats,1 as well as the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex, the postsubiculum, and the anterior thalamus of mice,2 obtained from http://crcns.org, we confirmed that LOW states corresponded to markedly diminished activity simultaneously in all of these regions. We propose that LOW states are an important microstate within non-REM sleep that provide respite from high-activity sleep and may serve a restorative function. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].
Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD are at an increased risk for sleep disturbances, and studies indicate that between 50 and 80% of children with ASD experience sleep problems. These problems increase parental stress and adversely affect family quality of life. Studies have also suggested that sleep disturbances may increase behavioral problems in this clinical population. Although understanding the causes of sleep disorders in ASD is a clinical priority, the causal relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Given the complex nature of ASD, the etiology of sleep problems in this clinical population is probably multi-factorial. In this overview, we discuss in detail three possible etiological explanations of sleep problems in ASD that can all contribute to the high rate of these symptoms in ASD. Specifically, we examine how neurobiological alterations, genetic mutations, and disrupted sleep architecture can cause sleep problems in individuals with ASD. We also discuss how sleep problems may be a direct result of core symptoms of ASD. Finally, a detailed examination of the relationship between sleep problems and associated clinical features and psychiatric comorbidities in individuals with ASD is described.
Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Thomsen, Per H.
with ADHD (n = 76) had significantly more sleep disturbances than controls (n = 25), including a larger percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and more sleep cycles, as well as lower mean sleep efficiency, mean non-REM (NREM) sleep stage 1 and mean NREM sleep stage 3. No significant between......Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with three different presentations and high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Serious sleep complaints are also common, but the role of the presentations and comorbidity in sleep is under-investigated in ADHD....... Consequently, the goal of the study was to investigate sleep problems in medicine-naive school-aged children (mean age = 9.6 years) with ADHD compared to controls using objective methods and to examine the role of comorbidity and presentations. Ambulatory polysomnography results suggested that children...
Sleep is crucial for survival and well-being. This behavioral and physiological state has been studied in all major genetically accessible model animals, including rodents, fish, flies, and worms. Genetic and optogenetic studies have identified several neurons that control sleep, making it now possible to compare circuit mechanisms across species. The “motor” of sleep across animal species is formed by neurons that depolarize at the onset of sleep to actively induce this state by directly inhibiting wakefulness. These sleep-inducing neurons are themselves controlled by inhibitory or activating upstream pathways, which act as the “drivers” of the sleep motor: arousal inhibits “sleep-active” neurons whereas various sleep-promoting “tiredness” pathways converge onto sleep-active neurons to depolarize them. This review provides the first overview of sleep-active neurons across the major model animals. The occurrence of sleep-active neurons and their regulation by upstream pathways in both vertebrate and invertebrate species suggests that these neurons are general and ancient components that evolved early in the history of nervous systems. PMID:29618588
Charrier, Annaëlle; Olliac, Bertrand; Roubertoux, Pierre; Tordjman, Sylvie
In mammals, the circadian clocks network (central and peripheral oscillators) controls circadian rhythms and orchestrates the expression of a range of downstream genes, allowing the organism to anticipate and adapt to environmental changes. Beyond their role in circadian rhythms, several studies have highlighted that circadian clock genes may have a more widespread physiological effect on cognition, mood, and reward-related behaviors. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms in core circadian clock genes have been associated with psychiatric disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). However, the underlying mechanisms of these associations remain to be ascertained and the cause-effect relationships are not clearly established. The objective of this article is to clarify the role of clock genes and altered sleep-wake rhythms in the development of psychiatric disorders (sleep problems are often observed at early onset of psychiatric disorders). First, the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms are described. Then, the relationships between disrupted circadian rhythms, including sleep-wake rhythms, and psychiatric disorders are discussed. Further research may open interesting perspectives with promising avenues for early detection and therapeutic intervention in psychiatric disorders.
Seow, Lee Seng Esmond; Verma, Swapna Kamal; Mok, Yee Ming; Kumar, Sunita; Chang, Sherilyn; Satghare, Pratika; Hombali, Aditi; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
Study Objectives: With the introduction of insomnia disorder in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), greater emphasis has been placed on the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorder even in the presence of a coexisting mental disorder. The current study seeks to explore the clinical picture of insomnia in the context of psychiatric disorders commonly associated with sleep complaints by assessing the prevalence and correlates of DSM-5 insomnia disorder, and examining the extent to which insomnia symptoms have been addressed in this population. Methods: Four hundred treatment-seeking outpatients suffering from depressive, bipolar affective, anxiety, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders were recruited. DSM-5 insomnia was established using the modified Brief Insomnia Questionnaire. Differences in sociodemographic factors, clinical status, impairment outcomes, and mental health services utilization were compared. Information on patients' help-seeking experiences for insomnia-related symptoms was collected to determine the treatment received and treatment effectiveness. Results: Almost one-third of our sample (31.8%) had DSM-5 insomnia disorder. Those with insomnia disorder had significantly higher impairment outcomes than their counterparts but no group difference was observed for mental health services utilization. Findings based on past treatment contact for sleep problems suggest that diagnosis and treatment of insomnia is lacking in this population. Conclusions: With the new calling from DSM-5, clinicians treating psychiatric patients should view insomnia less as a symptom of their mental illnesses and treat clinical insomnia as a primary disorder. Patients should also be educated on the importance of reporting and treating their sleep complaints. Nonmedical (cognitive and behavioral) interventions for insomnia need to be further explored given their proven clinical effectiveness. Citation: Seow LSE, Verma SK, Mok YM, Kumar
McDonald, Keltie C; Saunders, Kate EA; Geddes, John R
Objective Mood instability is common in the general population. Mood instability is a precursor to mental illness and associated with a range of negative health outcomes. Sleep disturbance appears to be closely linked with mood instability. This study assesses the association between mood instability and sleep disturbance and the link with suicidal ideation and behaviour in a general population sample in England. Method The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007 collected detailed information about mental health symptoms and correlates in a representative sample of adult household residents living in England (n = 7303). Mood instability was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-II. Sleep problems were defined as sleeping more than usual or less than usual during the past month. Other dependent variables included medication use and suicidal ideation and behaviour (response rate 57%). Generalized linear modelling was used to estimate the prevalence of mood instability and sleep problems. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. All estimates were weighted. Results The prevalence of mood instability was 14.7% (95% confidence interval [13.6%, 15.7%]). Sleep problems occurred in 69.8% (95% confidence interval: [66.6%, 73.1%]) of those with mood instability versus 37.6% (95% confidence interval: [36.2%, 39.1%]) of those without mood instability. The use of sedating and non-sedating medications did not influence the association. Sleep problems were significantly associated with suicidal ideation and behaviour even after adjusting for mood instability. Conclusion Sleep problems are highly prevalent in the general population, particularly among those with mood instability. Sleep problems are strongly associated with suicidal ideation and behaviour. Treatments that target risk and maintenance factors that transcend diagnostic boundaries, such as therapies that target sleep disturbance, may be particularly valuable for preventing and
Anne M. Morse
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is commonplace among pediatric patients and has a complex, but intimate relationship with psychiatric disease and disordered sleep. Understanding the factors that influence the risk for the development of TBI in pediatrics is a critical component of beginning to address the consequences of TBI. Features that may increase risk for experiencing TBI sometimes overlap with factors that influence the development of post-concussive syndrome (PCS and recovery course. Post-concussive syndrome includes physical, psychological, cognitive and sleep–wake dysfunction. The comorbid presence of sleep–wake dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms can lead to a more protracted recovery and deleterious outcomes. Therefore, a multidisciplinary evaluation following TBI is necessary. Treatment is generally symptom specific and mainly based on adult studies. Further research is necessary to enhance diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, as well as improve the understanding of contributing pathophysiology for the shared development of psychiatric disease and sleep–wake dysfunction following TBI.
Full Text Available The daily rhythm of cortisol secretion is relatively stable and primarily under the influence of the circadian clock. Nevertheless, several other factors affect hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. Sleep has modest but clearly detectable modulatory effects on HPA axis activity. Sleep onset exerts an inhibitory effect on cortisol secretion while awakenings and sleep offset are accompanied by cortisol stimulation. During waking, an association between cortisol secretory bursts and indices of central arousal has also been detected. Abrupt shifts of the sleep period induce a profound disruption in the daily cortisol rhythm, while sleep deprivation and/or reduced sleep quality seem to result in a modest but functionally important activation of the axis. HPA hyperactivity is clearly associated with metabolic, cognitive and psychiatric disorders and could be involved in the well-documented associations between sleep disturbances and the risk of obesity, diabetes and cognitive dysfunction. Several clinical syndromes, such as insomnia, depression, Cushing's syndrome, sleep disordered breathing (SDB display HPA hyperactivity, disturbed sleep, psychiatric and metabolic impairments. Further research to delineate the functional links between sleep and HPA axis activity is needed to fully understand the pathophysiology of these syndromes and to develop adequate strategies of prevention and treatment.
Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Thomsen, Per H; Møller, Lene R; Jennum, Poul J
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with three different presentations and high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Serious sleep complaints are also common, but the role of the presentations and comorbidity in sleep is under-investigated in ADHD. Consequently, the goal of the study was to investigate sleep problems in medicine-naive school-aged children (mean age = 9.6 years) with ADHD compared to controls using objective methods and to examine the role of comorbidity and presentations. Ambulatory polysomnography results suggested that children with ADHD (n = 76) had significantly more sleep disturbances than controls (n = 25), including a larger percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and more sleep cycles, as well as lower mean sleep efficiency, mean non-REM (NREM) sleep stage 1 and mean NREM sleep stage 3. No significant between-group differences were found on the multiple sleep latency test. Stratifying for comorbidity in the ADHD group did not reveal major differences between groups, but mean sleep latency was significantly longer in children with ADHD and no comorbidity compared to controls (36.1 min; SD = 30.1 versus 22.6 min; SD = 15.2). No differences were found between ADHD presentations. Our results support the presence of night-time sleep disturbances in children with ADHD. Poor sleep does not appear to be attributable to comorbidity alone, nor do sleep disturbances differ within ADHD presentations. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.
Seow, Lee Seng Esmond; Verma, Swapna Kamal; Mok, Yee Ming; Kumar, Sunita; Chang, Sherilyn; Satghare, Pratika; Hombali, Aditi; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
With the introduction of insomnia disorder in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), greater emphasis has been placed on the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorder even in the presence of a coexisting mental disorder. The current study seeks to explore the clinical picture of insomnia in the context of psychiatric disorders commonly associated with sleep complaints by assessing the prevalence and correlates of DSM-5 insomnia disorder, and examining the extent to which insomnia symptoms have been addressed in this population. Four hundred treatment-seeking outpatients suffering from depressive, bipolar affective, anxiety, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders were recruited. DSM-5 insomnia was established using the modified Brief Insomnia Questionnaire. Differences in sociodemographic factors, clinical status, impairment outcomes, and mental health services utilization were compared. Information on patients' help-seeking experiences for insomnia-related symptoms was collected to determine the treatment received and treatment effectiveness. Almost one-third of our sample (31.8%) had DSM-5 insomnia disorder. Those with insomnia disorder had significantly higher impairment outcomes than their counterparts but no group difference was observed for mental health services utilization. Findings based on past treatment contact for sleep problems suggest that diagnosis and treatment of insomnia is lacking in this population. With the new calling from DSM-5, clinicians treating psychiatric patients should view insomnia less as a symptom of their mental illnesses and treat clinical insomnia as a primary disorder. Patients should also be educated on the importance of reporting and treating their sleep complaints. Nonmedical (cognitive and behavioral) interventions for insomnia need to be further explored given their proven clinical effectiveness. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine
... Institute (NHLBI). 1 Mood. Sleep affects your mood. Insufficient sleep can cause irritability that can lead to trouble with relationships, ... basics/understanding_sleep.htm#dynamic_activity Centers for Disease ... insufficient rest or sleep among adults—United States, 2008. MMWR, 58 (42), ...
Full Text Available Objectives: To conduct a first detailed analysis of the pattern of leg movement (LM activity during sleep in adult subjects with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD compared to healthy controls.Methods: Fifteen ADHD patients and 18 control subjects underwent an in-lab polysomnographic sleep study. The periodic character of LMs was evaluated with established markers of “periodicity,” i.e., the periodicity index, intermovement intervals, and time distribution of LM during sleep, in addition to standard parameters such as the periodic leg movement during sleep index (PLMSI and the periodic leg movement during sleep arousal index (PLMSAI. Subjective sleep and psychiatric symptoms were assessed using several, self-administered, screening questionnaires.Results: Objective sleep parameters from the baseline night did not significantly differ between ADHD and control subjects, except for a longer sleep latency (SL, a longer duration of the periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS in REM sleep and a higher PLMSI also in REM sleep. Data from the sleep questionnaires showed perception of poor sleep quality in ADHD patients.Conclusions: Leg movements during sleep in ADHD adults are not significantly more frequent than in healthy controls and the nocturnal motor events do not show an increased periodicity in these patients. The non-periodic character of LMs in ADHD has already been shown in children and seems to differentiate ADHD from other pathophysiological related conditions like restless legs syndrome (RLS or periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD. The reduced subjective sleep quality reported by ADHD adults contrasted with the normal objective polysomnographic parameters, which could suggest a sleep-state misperception in these individuals or more subtle sleep abnormalities not picked up by the traditional sleep staging.
Long, X.; Arends, J.B.A.M.; Aarts, R.M.; Haakma, R.; Fonseca, P.; Rolink, J.
Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by
Palmieri, Giancarlo; Contaldi, Paola; Fogliame, Giuseppe
Sleep disturbances and related daytime activities impairment are common diseases nowadays. General practitioners are often the first health care professional asked to alleviate sleep disturbances and primary insomnia symptoms. Beyond a wide class of hypnotic drugs, botanicals can represent an alternative treatment for those kinds of symptoms. The scope of the present study is to evaluate safety and effectiveness of a herbal compound composed of valerian, hop, and jujube (Vagonotte ® ) on primary insomnia symptoms and sleep disturbances not related to medical or psychiatric causes. One hundred and twenty subjects with sleep disturbances symptoms were randomized in two branches of 60 persons each, receiving the herbal compound or placebo at dosage of two pills per day 30 minutes before their scheduled bedtime. All subjects were screened for precise items related to sleep quality and daytime activity at the beginning, after 10 days, and after 20 days of consecutive dietary supplement (or placebo) consumption. The participants remained blind to group assignment until all of them completed the trial. Sleep onset, numbers of nocturnal awakenings, and overall nocturnal slept time were assessed. A statistically significant difference between the two groups emerged. The group receiving the herbal compound showed a lower time of sleep onset compared to placebo group, the same result was obtained for total slept time and night awakenings frequency ( p Botanicals dietary supplement with relaxing and soothing properties can help practitioner to treat primary insomnia, especially when the risk/benefit profile of a patient does not sustain hypnotic drugs prescription. This clinical investigation on safety and effectiveness of a herbal compound made of valerian, hop, and jujube opens interesting perspectives on usage of herbal compound to manage primary insomnia. Further investigations could help in understanding herbal compounds' effectiveness on sleep disturbances.
Wel, Tom van; Felling, Albert; Persoon, Jean
During the last decades of the 20th century, many psychiatric hospitals changed the living environments of their clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities. We investigated the effect of this environmental psychiatric rehabilitation and normalization process on the activity and participation
Caia, Johnpaul; Thornton, Heidi R; Kelly, Vincent G; Scott, Tannath J; Halson, Shona L; Cupples, Balin; Driller, Matthew W
This study examined agreement between self-perceived sleep and sleep estimated via activity monitors in professional rugby league athletes. 63 athletes, from three separate teams wore actigraphy monitors for 10.3 ± 3.9 days. During the monitoring period, ratings of perceived sleep quality (on a 1-5 and 1-10 Likert scale), and an estimate of sleep duration were recorded daily. Agreement between sleep estimated via activity monitors and self-perceived sleep was examined using mean bias, Pearson correlation (r) and typical error of the estimate (TEE). 641 nights of sleep were recorded, with a very large, positive correlation observed between sleep duration estimated via activity monitors and subjective sleep duration (r = 0.85), and a TEE of 48 minutes. Mean bias revealed subjective sleep duration overestimated sleep by an average of 19.8 minutes. The relationship between sleep efficiency estimated via activity monitors and self-perceived sleep quality on a 1-5 (r = 0.22) and 1-10 Likert scale (r = 0.28) was limited. The outcomes of this investigation support the use of subjective measures to monitor sleep duration in rugby league athletes when objective means are unavailable. However, practitioners should be aware of the tendency of athletes to overestimate sleep duration.
De Berardis D
Full Text Available Domenico De Berardis1,2, Tiziano Acciavatti1, Giuseppe Di Iorio1, Mariangela Corbo1, Nicola Serroni2, Daniela Campanella2, Fabiola Di Emidio2, Monica Piersanti3, Marilde Cavuto4, Giovanni Martinotti5, Francesco Saverio Moschetta2, Massimo Di Giannantonio11Department of Neurosciences and Imaging, Chair of Psychiatry, University “G. D'Annunzio”, Chieti; 2NHS, Department of Mental Health, Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and Treatment, Hospital “G. Mazzini”; 3NHS, Pharmaceutical Service, Hospital “G. Mazzini”, Teramo; 4IASM, L'Aquila; 5Institute of Psychiatry, Catholic University Medical School, Rome, ItalyAbstract: The circadian pacemaker or biological clock, located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, is the generation site of circadian rhythms. The light/dark cycle is the circadian pacemaker's dominant synchronizing agent, though it is also influenced by neurotransmitters and the phase-shifting effects of various chemical and pharmacological components, of which melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine is the most well established. In recent years, melatonin and melatonin analogs have been commercialized in many countries, mainly with hypnotic purposes. A new compound, agomelatine, has been recently synthesized and studied. Among melatonin analogs, this drug possesses unique pharmacological and clinical features; it is an antagonist at 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors and has well established antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Agomelatine opens new perspectives in the chronobiotic treatment of depression. The purpose of the present review was to elucidate the effects of the melatonergic system on sleep and the implications for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.Keywords: melatonin, agomelatine, circadian rhythms, depression
Ferri, Raffaele; Fulda, Stephany
Currently, 2 sets of similar rules for recording and scoring leg movement (LM) exist, including periodic LM during sleep (PLMS) and periodic LM during wakefulness. The former were published in 2006 by a task force of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group, and the second in 2007 by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. This article reviews the basic recording methods, scoring rules, and computer-based programs for PLMS. Less frequent LM activities, such as alternating leg muscle activation, hypnagogic foot tremor, high-frequency LMs, and excessive fragmentary myoclonus are briefly described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Giancarlo Palmieri,1,2 Paola Contaldi,1 Giuseppe Fogliame1 1ANARDI Medical and Scientific Association, Scafati, Italy; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Niguarda Cà Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy Background and purpose: Sleep disturbances and related daytime activities impairment are common diseases nowadays. General practitioners are often the first health care professional asked to alleviate sleep disturbances and primary insomnia symptoms. Beyond a wide class of hypnotic drugs, botanicals can represent an alternative treatment for those kinds of symptoms. The scope of the present study is to evaluate safety and effectiveness of a herbal compound composed of valerian, hop, and jujube (Vagonotte® on primary insomnia symptoms and sleep disturbances not related to medical or psychiatric causes.Patients and methods: One hundred and twenty subjects with sleep disturbances symptoms were randomized in two branches of 60 persons each, receiving the herbal compound or placebo at dosage of two pills per day 30 minutes before their scheduled bedtime. All subjects were screened for precise items related to sleep quality and daytime activity at the beginning, after 10 days, and after 20 days of consecutive dietary supplement (or placebo consumption. The participants remained blind to group assignment until all of them completed the trial.Results: Sleep onset, numbers of nocturnal awakenings, and overall nocturnal slept time were assessed. A statistically significant difference between the two groups emerged. The group receiving the herbal compound showed a lower time of sleep onset compared to placebo group, the same result was obtained for total slept time and night awakenings frequency (p<0.001. Daily symptom improvement in subjects receiving the herbal compound showed significant reduction in tension and irritability, difficulty in concentration, and fatigue intensity, if compared to placebo scores (p<0.001. None of the 60 subjects in the verum group
Long, Xi; Arends, Johan B.; Aarts, Ronald M.; Haakma, Reinder; Fonseca, Pedro; Rolink, Jérôme
Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by electroencephalographic (EEG) mean frequency and the cardiac parameters included heart rate, standard deviation of heartbeat intervals, and their low- and high-frequency spectral powers. Using a cross-correlation analysis, we found that the cardiac variations during wake-sleep and NREM sleep transitions preceded the EEG changes by 1-3 min but this was not the case for REM sleep transitions. These important findings can be further used to predict the onset and ending of some sleep stages in an early manner.
Voinescu, Bogdan I
A wide range of health problems was investigated, aiming to identify the presence and severity of a set of self-reported and common sleep, psychiatric, and somatic health problems among working professionals in four different shift schedules (morning, evening, rotating, and day) in several cities in Romania. A heterogeneous sample of 488 workers of different professions completed online a battery of tests, namely the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, the Parasomnia Questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire, designed to identity symptoms of insomnia, sleepiness, snoring, parasomnia, as well as of depression, anxiety, eating, somatoform, and alcohol use disorders, respectively. The timing and the duration of the sleep, along with the presence of high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes mellitus were also inquired. The prevalence of the different health problems in relation to the type of shift schedule was evaluated with the Pearson Chi-square test. ANOVA was used to calculate the significance of the difference between the means, while associations with different health problems were estimated by binary logistic regression. The most common mental health problems were depression (26%), insomnia (20%), alcohol misuse (18%), and anxiety (17%). No significant differences based on the type of shift in terms of health problems were found, except for high blood pressure and symptoms of panic disorder that were more frequently reported by the workers in early morning shifts. Together with the workers in rotating shifts, they also reported increased sleepiness, poorer sleep quality, and shorter sleep duration. In contrast, the workers in evening shifts reported less severe health problems and longer sleep duration. Working in early morning shifts was found to be associated with poorer health outcomes, while working in rotating and early morning shifts with more severe sleep-related problems.
Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Bruns, Eike; Kirov, Roumen; Verleger, Rolf
The present study explored the sleep mechanisms which may support awareness of hidden regularities. Before sleep, 53 participants learned implicitly a lateralized variant of the serial response-time task in order to localize sensorimotor encoding either in the left or right hemisphere and induce implicit regularity representations. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded at multiple electrodes during both task performance and sleep, searching for lateralized traces of the preceding activity during learning. Sleep EEG analysis focused on region-specific slow (9-12 Hz) and fast (13-16 Hz) sleep spindles during nonrapid eye movement sleep. Fast spindle activity at those motor regions that were activated during learning increased with the amount of postsleep awareness. Independently of side of learning, spindle activity at right frontal and fronto-central regions was involved: there, fast spindles increased with the transformation of sequence knowledge from implicit before sleep to explicit after sleep, and slow spindles correlated with individual abilities of gaining awareness. These local modulations of sleep spindles corresponded to regions with greater presleep activation in participants with postsleep explicit knowledge. Sleep spindle mechanisms are related to explicit awareness (1) by tracing the activation of motor cortical and right-hemisphere regions which had stronger involvement already during learning and (2) by recruitment of individually consolidated processing modules in the right hemisphere. The integration of different sleep spindle mechanisms with functional states during wake collectively supports the gain of awareness of previously experienced regularities, with a special role for the right hemisphere. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].
El Shakankiry HM
Full Text Available Hanan M El ShakankiryKing Fahd University Hospital, Al Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child's development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group.Keywords: sleep physiology, sleep disorders, childhood, epilepsy
Watanabe, Takamitsu; Kan, Shigeyuki; Koike, Takahiko; Misaki, Masaya; Konishi, Seiki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Miyahsita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki
Brain activity dynamically changes even during sleep. A line of neuroimaging studies has reported changes in functional connectivity and regional activity across different sleep stages such as slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, it remains unclear whether and how the large-scale network activity of human brains changes within a given sleep stage. Here, we investigated modulation of network activity within sleep stages by applying the pairwise maximum entropy model to brain activity obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging from sleeping healthy subjects. We found that the brain activity of individual brain regions and functional interactions between pairs of regions significantly increased in the default-mode network during SWS and decreased during REM sleep. In contrast, the network activity of the fronto-parietal and sensory-motor networks showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, in the three networks, the amount of the activity changes throughout REM sleep was negatively correlated with that throughout SWS. The present findings suggest that the brain activity is dynamically modulated even in a sleep stage and that the pattern of modulation depends on the type of the large-scale brain networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mendelson, M; Borowik, A; Michallet, A-S; Perrin, C; Monneret, D; Faure, P; Levy, P; Pépin, J-L; Wuyam, B; Flore, P
Decreased sleep duration and altered sleep quality are risk factors for obesity in youth. Structured exercise training has been shown to increase sleep duration and improve sleep quality. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of exercise training for improving sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity in obese adolescents (OB). Twenty OB (age: 14.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass index: 34.0 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) ) and 20 healthy-weight adolescents (HW) completed an overnight polysomnography and wore an accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia) for 7 days. OB participated in a 12-week supervised exercise-training programme consisting of 180 min of exercise weekly. Exercise training was a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training. Sleep duration was greater in HW compared with OB (P < 0.05). OB presented higher apnoea-hypopnoea index than HW (P < 0.05). Physical activity (average daily metabolic equivalent of tasks [METs]) by accelerometer was lower in OB (P < 0.05). After exercise training, obese adolescents increased their sleep duration (+64.4 min; effect size: 0.88; P = 0.025) and sleep efficiency (+7.6%; effect size: 0.76; P = 0.028). Physical activity levels were increased in OB as evidenced by increased steps per day and average daily METs (P < 0.05). Improved sleep duration was associated with improved average daily METs (r = 0.48, P = 0.04). The present study confirms altered sleep duration and quality in OB. Exercise training improves sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity. © 2015 World Obesity.
Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto
Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal
Antelmi, Elena; Ferri, Raffaele; Provini, Federica; Scaglione, Cesa M L; Mignani, Francesco; Rundo, Francesco; Vandi, Stefano; Fabbri, Margherita; Pizza, Fabio; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Paolo; Liguori, Rocco
Impaired sleep has been reported as an important nonmotor feature in dystonia, but so far, self-reported complaints have never been compared with nocturnal video-polysomnographic (PSG) recording, which is the gold standard to assess sleep-related disorders. Twenty patients with idiopathic isolated cervical dystonia and 22 healthy controls (HC) underwent extensive clinical investigations, neurological examination, and questionnaire screening for excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep-related disorders. A full-night video PSG was performed in both patients and HC. An ad hoc montage, adding electromyographic leads over the muscle affected with dystonia, was used. When compared to controls, patients showed significantly increased pathological values on the scale assessing self-reported complaints of impaired nocturnal sleep. Higher scores of impaired nocturnal sleep did not correlate with any clinical descriptors but for a weak correlation with higher scores on the scale for depression. On video-PSG, patients had significantly affected sleep architecture (with decreased sleep efficiency and increased sleep latency). Activity over cervical muscles disappears during all the sleep stages, reaching significantly decreased values when compared to controls both in nonrapid eye movements and rapid eye movements sleep. Patients with cervical dystonia reported poor sleep quality and showed impaired sleep architecture. These features however cannot be related to the persistence of muscle activity over the cervical muscles, which disappears in all the sleep stages, reaching significantly decreased values when compared to HC. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Oka, Yasunori; Suzuki, Shuhei; Inoue, Yuich
Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and their impact on sleep/wake patterns were assessed in 509 elementary school children (6-12 years of age; 252 males and 257 females). Television viewing, playing video games, and surfing the Internet had negative impact on sleep/wake parameters. Moreover, presence of a television set or video game in the child's bedroom increased their activity before bedtime. Time to return home later than 8 p.m. from after-school activity also had a negative impact on sleep/wake patterns. Health care practitioners should be aware of the potential negative impact of television, video games, and the Internet before bedtime, and also the possibility that late after-school activity can disturb sleep/wake patterns.
Full Text Available A one-week sleep monitoring by logs and actigraphs in preteens during summer camp was conducted. Campers aged 11-16 attended a two-week day camp that focused on the learning about science. Nine campers agreed to monitor their sleep and have their patterns explained (anonymously to other campers during the expert lecture by the author. The aim of the study was to identify the sleep quality in an adolescent group. All nine of the sleep logs and actigraphs denoted severe sleep deprivation. The findings from the logs and actigraphs denoted sever sleep deprivation. The expert lecturer provided basic information about sleep per the science designation of the day camp. A follow up session provided strategies to address sleep deprivation
Sforza, Emilia; Marcoz, Jean-Pierre; Foletti, Giovanni
Cortical dysgenesis is increasingly recognised as a cause of epilepsy. We report a case with double cortex heterotopia and secondarily generalized seizures with a generalised spike wave pattern. During the course of the disease, the child developed electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep. From the first examination, sleep pattern revealed increased frequency and amplitude of spindle activity, more evident in anterior areas. The role of the thalamocortical pathway in increased sleep spindle activity is discussed with emphasis on the possible role of altered thalamocortical pathways in abnormal cortical migration. A strong suspicion of cortical dysgenesis may therefore be based on specific EEG sleep patterns.
Balbi, Bruno; Carli, Sonia; Crevacore, Mirella; Godio, Massimo; Danioni, Alessandro; Sacco, Carlo; Braghiroli, Alberto
Obstructive Sleep Apnea syndrome (OSAS) is largely prevalent among the general adult population, particularly among obese subjects. Diurnal somnolence is a characteristic feature of OSAS, one that can interfere on daily life of the patients and also on his/her work-related activities. Aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of OSAS, its symptoms and its therapy with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) may have on work-related activities. Fourty-eight subjects were studied, all > 18 years old and in a work-related age (women). There were 34 males and 14 females, 38 actively working, 3 unemployed, 7 not actively working. Before diagnosis the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was 12 +/- 4, after the use of CPAP it was 4 +/- 4 (pwork activity was confirmed in all patients, as all employed patients were still working. Our data seem to indicate that not only OSAS interferes with working performance, mainly due to OSAS-related diurnal somnolence, but also that appropriate CPAP therapy, reinforced with educational activities and followed after one year, is able to ameliorate OSAS-related symptoms, potential cause of inefficiency an occupational risk at work.
Pellegrino, Giovanni; Tombini, Mario; Curcio, Giuseppe
Introduction We aimed to test differences between healthy subjects and patients with respect to slow wave activity during wakefulness and sleep. Methods Fifteen patients affected by nonlesional focal epilepsy originating within temporal areas and fourteen matched controls underwent a 24-hour EEG....... The effect was widespread for alpha band and above, while localized over the affected hemisphere for delta (sleep cycle 1, P = .006; sleep cycle 2, P = .008; sleep cycle 3, P = .017). The analysis of interhemispheric differences showed that the only frequency band stronger over the affected regions...
Cvejic, Erin; Huang, Shiny; Vollmer-Conna, Uté
Medical training brings with it multiple stressors, including demanding workloads in highly competitive environments, with well-documented impact on psychiatric morbidity. This study evaluated the impact of sleep-related factors on psychological wellbeing, cognitive task performance and academic standing in medical students. A total of 59 undergraduate medical students took part in this cross-sectional study over two consecutive days. Participants responded to questionnaires about their physical and psychological health, sleep, functioning and academic performance at the initial visit. Participants then wore an ambulatory bioharness overnight (to derive heart rate variability measures), before returning to complete a computerised battery of cognitive tasks. A sleep diary was completed for the next 7 days. Poor sleep quality in the month preceding assessment correlated with psychological distress ( p sleep during the monitoring week ( p sleep timing parameters. A greater increase in heart rate variability during the transition from awake to sleep significantly predicted better spontaneous cognitive performance ( p = 0.021). Better academic standing was predicted by consistently short, less refreshing sleep (all p sleep and psychological distress are prevalent in medical students during university training and were associated with reduced nocturnal parasympathetic autonomic activity. Achieving higher academic grades was associated with high psychological wellbeing despite consistently short, unrefreshing sleep. The long-term repercussions of such sleep behaviours on later professional functioning remain unclear, warranting further research.
This study examined motivation variables, self-determination and self-schema, in relation to physical activity, among psychiatric patients with experience with physical activity as part of their treatment. Participants were patients (N=109) from 15 psychiatric hospitals or day-care institutions. Data were collected by questionnaires. A positive relationship between physical activity level, positive experiences of the activity and higher degree of self-determination and exercise self-schema was expected. Intrinsically regulated motives (motivated by the experience of the activity in itself) were positively and significantly related to physical activity level and the experience of decrease in symptoms during physical activity, and extrinsically regulated motives were negatively correlated with physical activity level. Intrinsically regulated motives gave an odds ratio of 20.0 for being physically active rather than inactive. Holding an exercise self-schema gave an odds ratio of 6.1 for being physically active. The majority of the patients (57.4%) reported that physical activity decreased their illness symptoms, but a few (11.9%) reported negative effects. The findings demonstrated that psychiatric patients do not differ from the normal population in relation to motivational mechanisms, even if they may experience more barriers to physical activities because of their illness. Therefore, in trying to motivate psychiatric patients, it is important to make physical activity as intrinsically motivating as possible by focusing on the positive experiences of the activity itself, as well as helping to develop an exercise self-schema.
De Berardis, Domenico
Domenico De Berardis1,2, Tiziano Acciavatti1, Giuseppe Di Iorio1, Mariangela Corbo1, Nicola Serroni2, Daniela Campanella2, Fabiola Di Emidio2, Monica Piersanti3, Marilde Cavuto4, Giovanni Martinotti5, Francesco Saverio Moschetta2, Massimo Di Giannantonio11Department of Neurosciences and Imaging, Chair of Psychiatry, University “G. D'Annunzio”, Chieti; 2NHS, Department of Mental Health, Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and Treatment, Hospital “G. Mazzini&a...
Mellman, Thomas Alan; Bell, Kimberly Ann; Abu-Bader, Soleman Hassan; Kobayashi, Ihori
Stressful neighborhood environments are known to adversely impact health and contribute to health disparities but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Healthy sleep can provide a respite from sustained sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Our objective was to evaluate relationships between neighborhood stress and nocturnal and daytime SNS and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity. Eighty five urban-residing African Americans (56.5% female; mean age of 23.0) participated. Evaluation included surveys of neighborhood stress and sleep-related vigilance; and continuous ECG and actigraphic recording in participants' homes from which heart rate variability (HRV) analysis for low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio and normalized high frequency (nHF), as indicators of SNS and PNS activity, respectively, and total sleep time (TST), and wake after sleep onset were derived. All significant relationships with HRV measures were from the sleep period. Neighborhood disorder correlated negatively with nHF (r = -.24, p = .035). There were also significant correlations of HRV indices with sleep duration and sleep fears. Among females, LF/HF correlated with exposure to violence, r = .39, p = .008 and nHF with census tract rates for violent crime (r = -.35, p = .035). In a stepwise regression, TST accounted for the variance contributed by violent crime to nHF in the female participants. Further investigation of relationships between neighborhood environments and SNS/PNS balance during sleep and their consequences, and strategies for mitigating such effects would have implications for health disparities.
McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Sandness, David J; Duwell, Ethan J; Timm, Paul C; Boeve, Bradley F; Silber, Michael H
We aimed to determine whether visual and automated rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RSWA) methods could accurately diagnose patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and comorbid obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In iRBD patients (n = 15) and matched controls (n = 30) with and without OSA, we visually analyzed RSWA phasic burst durations, phasic, tonic, and "any" muscle activity by 3-s mini-epochs, phasic activity by 30-s (AASM rules) epochs, and automated REM atonia index (RAI). Group RSWA metrics were analyzed with regression models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the best diagnostic cutoff thresholds for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Both split-night and full-night polysomnographic studies were analyzed. All mean RSWA phasic burst durations and muscle activities were higher in iRBD patients than in controls (p sleep behavior disorder (PD-RBD), consistent with a common mechanism and presumed underlying etiology of synucleinopathy in both groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Dendrites are the post-synaptic sites of most excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the brain, making them the main location of cortical information processing and synaptic plasticity. Although current hypotheses suggest a central role for sleep in proper cognitive function and brain plasticity, virtually nothing is known about changes in dendritic activity across the sleep-wake cycle and how waking experience modifies this activity. To start addressing these questions, we developed a method that allows long-term recordings of EEGs/EMG combined with in vivo cortical calcium (Ca2+ activity in freely moving and sleeping rats. We measured Ca2+ activity from populations of dendrites of layer (L 5 pyramidal neurons (n = 13 rats that we compared with Ca2+ activity from populations of neurons in L2/3 (n = 11 rats. L5 and L2/3 neurons were labelled using bolus injection of OGB1-AM or GCaMP6 (1. Ca2+ signals were detected using a fiber-optic system (cannula diameter = 400µm, transmitting the changes in fluorescence to a photodiode. Ca2+ fluctuations could then be correlated with ongoing changes in brain oscillatory activity during 5 major brain states: active wake [AW], quiet wake [QW], NREM, REM and NREM-REM transition (or intermediate state, [IS]. Our Ca2+ recordings show large transients in L5 dendrites and L2/3 neurons that oscillate predominantly at frequencies In summary, we show that this technique is successful in monitoring fluctuations in ongoing dendritic Ca2+ activity during natural brain states and allows, in principle, to combine behavioral measurement with imaging from various brain regions (e.g. deep structures in freely behaving animals. Using this method, we show that Ca2+ transients from populations of L2/3 neurons and L5 dendrites are deferentially regulated across the sleep/wake cycle, with dendritic activity being the highest during the IS sleep. Our correlation analysis suggests that specific sleep EEG activity during NREM and IS
L. Yu. Glukhova
Full Text Available Physiologic patterns of sleep on EEG can sometimes be similar to epileptiform activity and even to the EEG pattern of epileptic seizures, but they have no connection to epilepsy and their incorrect interpretation may lead to overdiagnosis of epilepsy. These sleep patterns include vertex transients, K-complexes, hypnagogic hypersynchrony, 14 and 6 Hz positive bursts, wicket-potentials, etc. The main distinctive features of acute physiological phenomena of sleep unlike epileptiform activity are stereotyped, monomorphic morphology of waves, which frequently has rhythmic, arcuate pattern, often with change of lateralization, mainly dominated in the first stages of sleep (N1-N2, with their reduction in the deeper stages and transition to delta sleep (N3. The correct interpretation of physiological sharp-wave phenomena of sleep on EEG requires considerable training and experience of the physician. Our review includes a variety of physiological sleep patterns, which can mimic epileptiform activity on EEG, their criteria of diagnostic with demonstration of own illustrations of EEG.
Vitale, Jacopo A; Roveda, Eliana; Montaruli, Angela; Galasso, Letizia; Weydahl, Andi; Caumo, Andrea; Carandente, Franca
Several studies have shown the differences among chronotypes in the circadian rhythm of different physiological variables. Individuals show variation in their preference for the daily timing of activity; additionally, there is an association between chronotype and sleep duration/sleep complaints. Few studies have investigated sleep quality during the week days and weekends in relation to the circadian typology using self-assessment questionnaires or actigraphy. The purpose of this study was to use actigraphy to assess the relationship between the three chronotypes and the circadian rhythm of activity levels and to determine whether sleep parameters respond differently with respect to time (weekdays versus the weekend) in Morning-types (M-types), Neither-types (N-types) and Evening-types (E-types). The morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ) was administered to 502 college students to determine their chronotypes. Fifty subjects (16 M-types, 15 N-types and 19 E-types) were recruited to undergo a 7-days monitoring period with an actigraph (Actiwacth® actometers, CNT, Cambridge, UK) to evaluate their sleep parameters and the circadian rhythm of their activity levels. To compare the amplitude and the acrophase among the three chronotypes, we used a one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. To compare the Midline Estimating Statistic of Rhythm (MESOR) among the three chronotypes, we used a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test followed by pairwise comparisons that were performed using Dunn's procedure with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The analysis of each sleep parameter was conducted using the mixed ANOVA procedure. The results showed that the chronotype was influenced by sex (χ(2) with p = 0.011) and the photoperiod at birth (χ(2) with p circadian rhythm of activity levels was influenced by the chronotype; second, the chronotype had a significant effect on sleep parameters: the E-types had a reduced sleep quality and
Wennman, Heini; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Peltonen, Markku; Vasankari, Tommi; Borodulin, Katja
Physical activity (PA) and sleep are related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and their risk factors. The interrelationship between these behaviors has been studied, but there remain questions regarding the association of different types of PA, such as occupational, commuting, and leisure time to sleep, including quality, duration and sufficiency. It is also unclear to what extent sleep affects peoples' PA levels and patterns. Our aim is to investigate the interrelationship between PA and sleep behaviors in the Finnish population, including employment status and gender. The study comprised population based data from the FINRISK 2012 Study. A stratified, random sample of 10,000 Finns, 25 to 74 years-old, were sent a questionnaire and an invitation to a health examination. The participation rate was 64% (n = 6,414). Latent class analysis was used to search for different underlying profiles of PA and sleep behavior in men and women, respectively. Models with one through five latent profiles were fitted to the data. Based on fit indicators, a four-class model for men and women, respectively, was decided to be the best fitted model. Four different profiles of PA and sleep were found in both men and women. The most common profile of men comprised 45% of the total participants, and in women, 47%. These profiles were distinguished by probabilities for high leisure time PA and sleep, subjectively rated as sufficient, as well as sleep duration of 7-7.9 hours. The least common profiles represented 5% (men) and 11% (women) of the population, and were characterized by probabilities for physical inactivity, short sleep, and evening type for women and morning type for men. There was also one profile in both genders characterized by likelihood for both high occupational PA and subjectively experienced insufficient sleep. The use of latent class analysis in investigating the interrelationship between PA and sleep is a novel perspective. The method provides information on the
Müller, Christian; Nicoletti, Corinne; Omlin, Sarah; Brink, Mark; Läubli, Thomas
Former studies reported a relationship between increased nocturnal low level trapezius muscle activity and neck or shoulder pain but it has not been explored whether trapezius muscle relaxation is related to sleep stages. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether trapezius muscle activity is related to different sleep stages, as measured by polysomnography. Twenty one healthy subjects were measured on four consecutive nights in their homes, whereas the first night served as adaptation night. The measurements included full polysomnography (electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG), electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiography (ECG)), as well as surface EMG of the m. trapezius descendens of the dominant arm. Periods with detectable EMG activity of the trapezius muscle lasted on average 1.5% of the length of the nights and only in four nights it lasted longer than 5% of sleeping time. Neither rest time nor the length of periods with higher activity levels of the trapezius muscle did significantly differ between sleep stages. We found no evidence that nocturnal trapezius muscle activity is markedly moderated by the different sleep stages. Thus the results support that EMG measurements of trapezius muscle activity in healthy subjects can be carried out without concurrent polysomnographic recordings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parekh, Parth J; Oldfield Iv, Edward C; Challapallisri, Vaishnavi; Ware, J Catsby; Johnson, David A
Sleep dysfunction is a highly prevalent condition that has long been implicated in accelerating disease states characterized by having an inflammatory component such as systemic lupus erythematosus, HIV, and multiple sclerosis. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, debilitating disease that is characterized by waxing and waning symptoms, which are a direct result of increased circulating inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have demonstrated sleep dysfunction and the disruption of the circadian rhythm to result in an upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Not only does this pose a potential trigger for disease flares but also an increased risk of malignancy in this subset of patients. This begs to question whether or not there is a therapeutic role of sleep cycle and circadian rhythm optimization in the prevention of IBD flares. Further research is needed to clarify the role of sleep dysfunction and alterations of the circadian rhythm in modifying disease activity and also in reducing the risk of malignancy in patients suffering from IBD.
Full Text Available In this paper, we present two carefully documented cases of patients with sleep-related eating disorder (SRED, a parasomnia which is characterized by involuntary compulsive eating during the night and whose pathophysiology is not known. Using video-polysomnography and psychometric examination, we found that both patients present elevated novelty seeking and increased reward sensitivity on reward-related questionnaires. In light of new evidence on the mesolimbic dopaminergic implication in compulsive eating disorders, our findings suggest a role of an active reward system during sleep in the manifestation of SRED.
Treatment guidelines for Circadian Rhythm Sleep - Wake Disorders of the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association. Part II. Diagnosis and treatment.
Wichniak, Adam; Jankowski, Konrad S; Skalski, Michał; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Zawilska, Jolanta B; Żarowski, Marcin; Poradowska, Ewa; Jernajczyk, Wojciech
Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD) are a group of disorders, in which the timing of sleep and wakefulness significantly differs from a patient's expectations or socially acceptable times. The aimof the article is to present the current principles for the diagnosis and treatment of CRSWD in adults and children. Guidelines proposed as CRSWD treatment standard are based on the recommendations from the scientific societies involved in the sleep research and medicine. Researchers participating in the guidelines preparation were invited by the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association based on their significant contribution to the circadian rhythm research and/or clinical experience in the treatment of these disorders. Finally, the guidelines were adjusted to the questions and comments given by the members of both Societies. Patients with endogenous CRSWD are often misdiagnosed and treated for insomnia or hypersomnia. Therefore, each patient reporting sleep-wake disorders should be interviewed about the quality of sleep and its timing during free days (e.g. weekends, holidays). Avalid CRSWD diagnosis can be also established by using sleep diaries/logs and actigraphy. The treatment of choice for CRSWD is chronotherapy, which involves melatonin application, light therapy, and behavioral interventions. Sleep disorders associated with shift work and time zone changes are a growing health problem. Interventions for these disorders should primarily focus on prevention. The main problem in the treatment of CRSWD is an invalid diagnosis. Hypnotics and/or psychostimulants are often used instead of chronotherapeutic interventions, what can alleviate symptoms but is not an effective treatment.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep synchronous neural oscillations between neural silence (down state and neural activity (up state occur. Sleep Slow Oscillations (SSOs events are their EEG correlates. Each event has an origin site and propagates sweeping the scalp. While recent findings suggest a SSO key role in memory consolidation processes, the structure and the propagation of individual SSO events, as well as their modulation by sleep stages and cortical areas have not been well characterized so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We detected SSO events in EEG recordings and we defined and measured a set of features corresponding to both wave shapes and event propagations. We found that a typical SSO shape has a transition to down state, which is steeper than the following transition from down to up state. We show that during SWS SSOs are larger and more locally synchronized, but less likely to propagate across the cortex, compared to NREM stage 2. Also, the detection number of SSOs as well as their amplitudes and slopes, are greatest in the frontal regions. Although derived from a small sample, this characterization provides a preliminary reference about SSO activity in healthy subjects for 32-channel sleep recordings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work gives a quantitative picture of spontaneous SSO activity during NREM sleep: we unveil how SSO features are modulated by sleep stage, site of origin and detection location of the waves. Our measures on SSOs shape indicate that, as in animal models, onsets of silent states are more synchronized than those of neural firing. The differences between sleep stages could be related to the reduction of arousal system activity and to the breakdown of functional connectivity. The frontal SSO prevalence could be related to a greater homeostatic need of the heteromodal association cortices.
Yap, Melvyn H. W.; Grabowska, Martyna J.; Rohrscheib, Chelsie; Jeans, Rhiannon; Troup, Michael; Paulk, Angelique C.; van Alphen, Bart; Shaw, Paul J.; van Swinderen, Bruno
Sleep is a dynamic process comprising multiple stages, each associated with distinct electrophysiological properties and potentially serving different functions. While these phenomena are well described in vertebrates, it is unclear if invertebrates have distinct sleep stages. We perform local field potential (LFP) recordings on flies spontaneously sleeping, and compare their brain activity to flies induced to sleep using either genetic activation of sleep-promoting circuitry or the GABAA ago...
E. D. Belousova
Full Text Available The author represents the review and discussion of current scientific literature devoted to epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes-waves activity during sleep — the special form of partly reversible age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy, characterized by triad of symptoms: continuous prolonged epileptiform (spike-wave activity on EEG in sleep, epileptic seizures and cognitive disorders. The author describes the aspects of classification, pathogenesis and etiology, prevalence, clinical picture and diagnostics of this disorder, including the peculiar anomalies on EEG. The especial attention is given to approaches to the treatment of epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikeswaves activity during sleep. Efficacy of valproates, corticosteroid hormones and antiepileptic drugs of other groups is considered. The author represents own experience of treatment this disorder with corticosteroids, scheme of therapy and assessment of efficacy.
Here, I postulate two hypotheses that can explain the missing link between sleep and the serotonergic system in terms of spine homeostasis and memory consolidation. As dendritic spines contain many kinds of serotonin receptors, and the activation of serotonin receptors generally increases the number of spines in the cortex and hippocampus, I postulate that serotonin neurons are down-regulated during sleep to decrease spine number, which consequently maintains the total spine number at a constant level. Furthermore, since synaptic consolidation during REM sleep needs long-term potentiation (LTP), and serotonin is reported to inhibit LTP in the cortex, I postulate that serotonergic activity must drastically decrease during REM sleep to induce LTP and do memory consolidation. Until now, why serotonergic neurons show these dramatic changes in the sleep-wake cycle remains unexplained; however, making these hypotheses, I can confer physiological meanings on these dramatic changes of serotonergic neurons in terms of spine homeostasis and memory consolidation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Tarokh, Leila; Saletin, Jared M.; Carskadon, Mary A.
Sleep is a core behavior of adolescents, consuming up to a third or more of each day. As part of this special issue on the adolescent brain, we review changes to sleep behaviors and sleep physiology during adolescence with a particular focus on the sleeping brain. We posit that brain activity during sleep may provide a unique window onto adolescent cortical maturation and compliment waking measures. In addition, we review how sleep actively supports waking cognitive functioning in adolescence. Though this review is focused on sleep in healthy adolescents, the striking comorbidity of sleep disruption with nearly all psychiatric and developmental disorders (for reviews see 1,2) further highlights the importance of understanding the determinants and consequences of adolescent sleep for the developing brain. Figure 1 illustrates the overarching themes of our review, linking brain development, sleep development, and behavioral outcomes. PMID:27531236
Full Text Available Serge Brand,1,2 Flora Colledge,2 Nadja Beeler,2 Uwe Pühse,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Thorsten Mikoteit,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Markus Gerber2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Physical activity and exercise programs (PAEPs are an important factor in increasing and maintaining physical and mental health. This holds particularly true for patients with psychiatric disorders undergoing treatment in a psychiatric hospital. To understand whether the benefits reported in the literature are mirrored in current treatment modalities, the aim of the present study was to assess the current state of PAEPs in psychiatric hospitals in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Methods: All psychiatric hospitals (N=55 in the German-speaking part of Switzerland were contacted in spring 2014. Staff responsible for PAEPs were asked to complete an online questionnaire covering questions related to PAEPs such as type, frequency, staff training, treatment rationale, importance of PAEPs within the treatment strategy, and possible avenues to increase PAEPs. Results: Staff members of 48 different psychiatric hospitals completed the survey. Hospitals provided the following therapeutic treatments: relaxation techniques (100%, sports therapy (97%, activity-related psychotherapeutic interventions (95%, physiotherapy (85%, body therapies (59%, far-east techniques (57%, and hippotherapy (22%. Frequencies ranged from once/week to five times/week. Approximately 25% of patients participated in the PAEPs. Interventions were offered irrespective of psychiatric disorders. PAEP providers wanted and needed more vocational training. Conclusion: All participating psychiatric hospitals offer a broad variety of PAEPs in their treatment curricula. However, the majority of inpatients do not
Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi B
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown......-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....... the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. METHODS: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients...
Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown...... in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....... the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. METHODS: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients...
Amigo Vázquez, Isaac; Busto Zapico, Raquel; Herrero Díez, Javier; Fernández Rodríguez, Concepción
In this study, using the path analysis, the relation between physical activity, non-regulated activity, sedentary leisure, hours of sleeping, and the body mass index (BMI) was analyzed. The sample was made up of 103 students, 59 girls and 44 boys, aged between 9 and 10 1/2 years. An individual interview was performed in which the children were asked about the TV programs they watched each day of the week; the time they played with the console and the computer; the time dedicated to sports, games and other activities. The results showed that sedentary leisure (number of hours of TV, computer and console) maintains a significant and inverse relation with the hours of sleeping, non-regulated activity (games and others activities), and physical sport activity. The difference between the results of this study and the previous one is discussed, taking into account the recruitment procedure of the participants.
L.A. Zuurbier (Lisette)
markdownabstractIn this thesis, Chapter 2 focuses on sleep, 24-hour activity rhythms and health. Chapter 2.1 describes the influence of demographics, lifestyle and sleep on 24-hour activity rhythms. In Chapter 2.2 sleep and 24-hour activity rhythms are used to predict mortality. This chapter is
Treatment guidelines for Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders of the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association. Part I. Physiology, assessment and therapeutic methods.
Wichniak, Adam; Jankowski, Konrad S; Skalski, Michal; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Zawilska, Jolanta B; Żarowski, Marcin; Poradowska, Ewa; Jernajczyk, Wojciech
Majority of the physiological processes in the human organism are rhythmic. The most common are the diurnal changes that repeat roughly every 24 hours, called circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms disorders have negative influence on human functioning. The aim of this article is to present the current understanding of the circadian rhythms physiological role, with particular emphasis on the circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD), principles of their diagnosis and chronobiological therapy. The guidelines are based on the review of recommendations from the scientific societies involved in sleep medicine and the clinical experiences of the authors. Researchers participating in the preparation of guidelines were invited by the Polish Sleep Research Society and the Section of Biological Psychiatry of the Polish Psychiatric Association, based on their significant contributions in circadian rhythm research and/or clinical experience in the treatment of such disorders. Finally, the guidelines were adjusted to the questions and comments given by the members of both Societies. CRSWD have a significant negative impact on human health and functioning. Standard methods used to assess CRSWD are sleep diaries and sleep logs, while the actigraphy, when available, should be also used. The most effective methods of CRSWD treatment are melatonin administration and light therapy. Behavioral interventions are also recommended. Afourteen-day period of sleep-wake rhythm assessment in CRSWD enables accurate diagnosis, adequate selection of chronobiological interventions, and planning adequate diurnal timing of their application. This type of assessment is quite easy, low-cost, and provides valuable indications how to adjust the therapeutic approach to the circadian phase of the particular patient.
Coolen, Alex; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Barf, R. Paulien; Fuchs, Eberhard; Meerlo, Peter
Study Objectives: In this study the authors characterized sleep architecture and sleep homeostasis in the tree shrew, Tupaia belangeri, a small, omnivorous, day-active mammal that is closely related to primates. Design: Adult tree shrews were individually housed under a 12-hr light/12-hr dark cycle
Insomnia is the most common type of sleep disorder in the family medicine population. It is defined as a persistent difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or a report of nonrestorative sleep, accompanied by related daytime impairment. Insomnia is a significant public health problem because of its high prevalence and management challenges. There is increasing evidence of a strong association between insomnia and various medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Diagnosis of insomnia and treatment planning rely on a thorough sleep history to address contributing and precipitating factors as well as maladaptive behaviors resulting in poor sleep. Using a sleep diary or sleep log is more accurate than patient recall to determine sleep patterns. A sleep study is not routinely indicated for evaluation of insomnia. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the mainstay of treatment and is a safe and effective approach. The key challenge of CBT-I is the lack of clinicians to implement it. The newer generation nonbenzodiazepines (eg, zolpidem, zaleplon) are used as first-line pharmacotherapy for chronic insomnia. Newer drugs active on targets other than the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor are now available, but clear treatment guidelines are needed. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Hanif, Umaer; Trap, Lotte; Jennum, Poul
Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a very strong predictor for later development of Parkinson's disease (PD), and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia (RSWA), resulting in increased muscle activity during REM sleep. Abundant studies have shown the loss of atonia during REM...... sleep, but our aim was to investigate whether iRBD and PD patients have increased muscle activity in both REM and NREM sleep compared to healthy controls. This was achieved by developing a semi-automatic algorithm for quantification of mean muscle activity per second during all sleep stages...... to the different sleep stages and muscle activity beyond the threshold was counted. The results were evaluated statistically using the two-sided Mann-Whitney U-test. The results suggested that iRBD patients also exhibit distinctive muscle activity characteristics in NREM sleep, however not as evident as in REM...
Palmieri, Giancarlo; Contaldi, Paola; Fogliame, Giuseppe
Giancarlo Palmieri,1,2 Paola Contaldi,1 Giuseppe Fogliame1 1ANARDI Medical and Scientific Association, Scafati, Italy; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Niguarda Cà Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy Background and purpose: Sleep disturbances and related daytime activities impairment are common diseases nowadays. General practitioners are often the first health care professional asked to alleviate sleep disturbances and primary insomnia symptoms. Beyond a wide class of hypnotic drugs, ...
Abad, Vivien C.; Guilleminault, Christian
Psychiatric disorders constitute 15.4% of the disease burden in established market economies. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with sleep disturbances, and the relationship is often bidirectional. This paper reviews the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders, their clinical presentation, and their association with sleep disorders. Among the psychiatric disorders reviewed are affective disorders, psychosis, anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress disorder), substance abuse disorders, eating disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. The spectrum of associated sleep disorders includes insomnia, hypersomnia, nocturnal panic, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, restless legs/periodic limb movements of sleep, obstructive sleep apnea, and parasomnias. The effects on sleep of various psychotropic medications utilized to treat the above psychiatric disorders are summarized. PMID:16416705
Full Text Available GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of sleep. GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1 constructs high affinity reuptake sites for GABA and regulates GABAergic transmission in the brain. However, the role of GAT1 in sleep-wake regulation remains elusive. In the current study, we characterized the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and responses to sleep deprivation in GAT1 knock-out (KO mice. GAT1 KO mice exhibited dominant theta-activity and a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies across all vigilance stages. Under baseline conditions, spontaneous rapid eye movement (REM sleep of KO mice was elevated both during the light and dark periods, and non-REM (NREM sleep was reduced during the light period only. KO mice also showed more state transitions from NREM to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness, as well as more number of REM and NREM sleep bouts than WT mice. During the dark period, KO mice exhibited more REM sleep bouts only. Six hours of sleep deprivation induced rebound increases in NREM and REM sleep in both genotypes. However, slow wave activity, the intensity component of NREM sleep was briefly elevated in WT mice but remained completely unchanged in KO mice, compared with their respective baselines. These results indicate that GAT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of REM sleep and homeostasis of NREM sleep.
Philip R Lee
Full Text Available Myelination is a highly dynamic process that continues well into adulthood in humans. Several recent gene expression studies have found abnormal expression of genes involved in myelination in the prefrontal cortex of brains from patients with schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses. Defects in myelination could contribute to the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness by impairing information processing as a consequence of altered impulse conduction velocity and synchrony between cortical regions carrying out higher level cognitive functions. Myelination can be altered by impulse activity in axons and by environmental experience. Psychiatric illness is treated by psychotherapy, behavioral modification, and drugs affecting neurotransmission, raising the possibility that myelinating glia may not only contribute to such disorders, but that activity-dependent effects on myelinating glia could provide one of the cellular mechanisms contributing to the therapeutic effects of these treatments. This review examines evidence showing that genes and gene networks important for myelination can be regulated by functional activity in axons.
Lira, Fabio Santos; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Rosa, José Cesar; Frank, Miriam Kannebley; Mariano, Melise Oliveira; Budni, Josiane; Quevedo, João; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Dos; de Mello, Marco Túlio
We sought explore the effects of doxorubicin on sleep patterns and locomotor activity. To investigate these effects, two groups were formed: a control group and a Doxorubicin (DOXO) group. Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to either the control or DOXO groups. The sleep patterns were examined by polysomnographic recording and locomotor activity was evaluated in an open-field test. In the light period, the total sleep time and slow wave sleep were decreased, while the wake after sleep onset and arousal were increased in the DOXO group compared with the control group (plocomotor activity.
Hyyppä, M T; Kronholm, E
Nocturnal motor activity was examined in long-term rehabilitation patients complaining of poor sleep and having fibromyalgia syndrome (N = 24) or other musculoskeletal disorders (N = 60) and compared with that in 91 healthy controls drawn from a random community sample. Self-reports on sleep complaints and habits were collected. The frequency of nocturnal body movements, the "apnoea" index and ratio of "quiet sleep" to total time in bed were measured using the Static Charge Sensitive Bed (SCSB) (BioMatt). As a group, patients with fibromyalgia syndrome did not differ from patients with other musculoskeletal disorders or from healthy controls in their nocturnal motor activity. The "apnoea" index was a little higher in the fibromyalgia group than in the healthy control group but did not differ from that of the group of other musculoskeletal patients. Further multivariate analyses adjusted for age, BMI, medication and "apnoea" index did not support the assumption that an increased nocturnal motor activity characterizes patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.
Kline, Christopher E; Irish, Leah A; Krafty, Robert T; Sternfeld, Barbara; Kravitz, Howard M; Buysse, Daniel J; Bromberger, Joyce T; Dugan, Sheila A; Hall, Martica H
To examine relationships between different physical activity (PA) domains and sleep, and the influence of consistent PA on sleep, in midlife women. Cross-sectional. Community-based. 339 women in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Sleep Study (52.1 ± 2.1 y). None. Sleep was examined using questionnaires, diaries and in-home polysomnography (PSG). PA was assessed in three domains (Active Living, Household/Caregiving, Sports/Exercise) using the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) up to 4 times over 6 years preceding the sleep assessments. The association between recent PA and sleep was evaluated using KPAS scores immediately preceding the sleep assessments. The association between the historical PA pattern and sleep was examined by categorizing PA in each KPAS domain according to its pattern over the 6 years preceding sleep assessments (consistently low, inconsistent/consistently moderate, or consistently high). Greater recent Sports/Exercise activity was associated with better sleep quality (diary "restedness" [P sleep continuity (diary sleep efficiency [SE; P = 0.02]) and depth (higher NREM delta electroencephalographic [EEG] power [P = 0.04], lower NREM beta EEG power [P Sports/Exercise activity was also associated with better Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores (P = 0.02) and higher PSG-assessed SE (P sleep and Active Living or Household/Caregiving activity (either recent or historical pattern) were noted. Consistently high levels of recreational physical activity, but not lifestyle- or household-related activity, are associated with better sleep in midlife women. Increasing recreational physical activity early in midlife may protect against sleep disturbance in this population.
Yap, Melvyn H W; Grabowska, Martyna J; Rohrscheib, Chelsie; Jeans, Rhiannon; Troup, Michael; Paulk, Angelique C; van Alphen, Bart; Shaw, Paul J; van Swinderen, Bruno
Sleep is a dynamic process comprising multiple stages, each associated with distinct electrophysiological properties and potentially serving different functions. While these phenomena are well described in vertebrates, it is unclear if invertebrates have distinct sleep stages. We perform local field potential (LFP) recordings on flies spontaneously sleeping, and compare their brain activity to flies induced to sleep using either genetic activation of sleep-promoting circuitry or the GABA A agonist Gaboxadol. We find a transitional sleep stage associated with a 7-10 Hz oscillation in the central brain during spontaneous sleep. Oscillatory activity is also evident when we acutely activate sleep-promoting neurons in the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFB) of Drosophila. In contrast, sleep following Gaboxadol exposure is characterized by low-amplitude LFPs, during which dFB-induced effects are suppressed. Sleep in flies thus appears to involve at least two distinct stages: increased oscillatory activity, particularly during sleep induction, followed by desynchronized or decreased brain activity.
Yoshida, Yuya; Suganuma, Takeshi; Takaba, Masayuki; Ono, Yasuhiro; Abe, Yuka; Yoshizawa, Shuichiro; Sakai, Takuro; Yoshizawa, Ayako; Nakamura, Hirotaka; Kawana, Fusae; Baba, Kazuyoshi
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between patterns of jaw motor activity during sleep and clinical signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism. A total of 35 university students and staff members participated in this study after providing informed consent. All participants were divided into either a sleep bruxism group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 14), based on the following clinical diagnostic criteria: (1) reports of tooth-grinding sounds for at least two nights a week during the preceding 6 months by their sleep partner; (2) presence of tooth attrition with exposed dentin; (3) reports of morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness; and (4) presence of masseter muscle hypertrophy. Video-polysomnography was performed in the sleep laboratory for two nights. Sleep bruxism episodes were measured using masseter electromyography, visually inspected and then categorized into phasic or tonic episodes. Phasic episodes were categorized further into episodes with or without grinding sounds as evaluated by audio signals. Sleep bruxism subjects with reported grinding sounds had a significantly higher total number of phasic episodes with grinding sounds than subjects without reported grinding sounds or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P bruxism subjects with tooth attrition exhibited significantly longer phasic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P bruxism subjects with morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness exhibited significantly longer tonic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P bruxism represents different aspects of jaw motor activity during sleep. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.
Sannar, Elise M; Palka, Tamara; Beresford, Carol; Peura, Christine; Kaplan, Desmond; Verdi, Mary; Siegel, Matthew; Kaplan, Shir; Grados, Marco
We examined the relationship between sleep duration and awakenings to Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2) scores in hospitalized youth with ASD and behavioral disturbance. Participants included 106 patients with a stay of at least 10 nights. Sleep in the hospital was recorded by staff observation. Higher scores on the ABC-C (irritability, stereotypy, and hyperactivity subscales) at admission were significantly associated with fewer minutes slept during the last five nights of hospitalization. There was no association between total awakenings and ABC-C scores or ADOS-2 comparison scores. Improved understanding of the relationship between sleep quality and maladaptive behavior in this challenging cohort of patients with ASD is vital to the definition and design of future effective interventions.
Hellström, Amanda; Hellström, Patrik; Willman, Ania; Fagerström, Cecilia
It has been suggested that physical or social activity is associated with fewer sleep disturbances among elderly people. Women report more sleep disturbances than men, which could indicate a variation in activity patterns between the genders. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between sleep disturbances and leisure activities in men and women (n = 945) aged ≥60 years in a Swedish population. Sleep disturbances were measured using eight dichotomous questions and seventeen variables, covering a wide range of leisure activities. Few leisure activities were found to be associated with sleep disturbances and their importance decreased when the models were adjusted for confounders and gender interactions. After clustering the leisure activities and investigating individual activities, sociointellectual activities were shown to be significant for sleep. However, following adjustment for confounders and gender interactions, home maintenance was the only activity significant for sleep. Being a female increased the effect of home maintenance. Besides those leisure activities, poor/fair self-rated health (OR 7.50, CI: 4.27-11.81) and being female (OR 4.86, CI: 2.75-8.61) were found to have the highest association with poor sleep. Leisure activities pursued by elderly people should focus on activities of a sociointellectual nature, especially among women, to promote sleep.
Full Text Available It has been suggested that physical or social activity is associated with fewer sleep disturbances among elderly people. Women report more sleep disturbances than men, which could indicate a variation in activity patterns between the genders. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between sleep disturbances and leisure activities in men and women (n = 945 aged ≥60 years in a Swedish population. Sleep disturbances were measured using eight dichotomous questions and seventeen variables, covering a wide range of leisure activities. Few leisure activities were found to be associated with sleep disturbances and their importance decreased when the models were adjusted for confounders and gender interactions. After clustering the leisure activities and investigating individual activities, sociointellectual activities were shown to be significant for sleep. However, following adjustment for confounders and gender interactions, home maintenance was the only activity significant for sleep. Being a female increased the effect of home maintenance. Besides those leisure activities, poor/fair self-rated health (OR 7.50, CI: 4.27–11.81 and being female (OR 4.86, CI: 2.75–8.61 were found to have the highest association with poor sleep. Leisure activities pursued by elderly people should focus on activities of a sociointellectual nature, especially among women, to promote sleep.
Rosenberger, Mary E.; Buman, Matthew P.; Haskell, William L.; McConnell, Michael V.; Carstensen, Laura L.
Getting enough sleep, exercising and limiting sedentary activities can greatly contribute to disease prevention and overall health and longevity. Measuring the full 24-hour activity cycle - sleep, sedentary behavior (SED), light intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) - may now be feasible using small wearable devices.
Michelle B Jonelis
Full Text Available Disrupted sleep is more common in older adults (OA than younger adults (YA, often co-morbid with other conditions. How these sleep disturbances affect cognitive performance is an area of active study. We examined whether brain activation during verbal encoding correlates with sleep quantity and quality the night before testing in a group of healthy OA and YA. Twenty-seven OA (ages 59-82 and twenty-seven YA (ages 19-36 underwent one night of standard polysomnography. Twelve hours post-awakening, subjects performed a verbal encoding task while undergoing functional MRI. Analyses examined the group (OA vs. YA by prior sleep quantity (Total Sleep Time (TST or quality (Sleep Efficiency (SE interaction on cerebral activation, controlling for performance. Longer TST promoted higher levels of activation in the bilateral anterior parahippocampi in OA and lower activation levels in the left anterior parahippocampus in YA. Greater SE promoted higher activation levels in the left posterior parahippocampus and right inferior frontal gyrus in YA, but not in OA. The roles of these brain regions in verbal encoding suggest, in OA, longer sleep duration may facilitate functional compensation during cognitive challenges. By contrast, in YA, shorter sleep duration may necessitate functional compensation to maintain cognitive performance, similar to what is seen following acute sleep deprivation. Additionally, in YA, better sleep quality may improve semantic retrieval processes, thereby aiding encoding.
Johnston, Renea V; Grant, Daniel A; Wilkinson, Malcolm H; Walker, Adrian M
Arousal from sleep is an important protective response to hypoxia that becomes rapidly depressed in active sleep (AS) when hypoxia is repeated. This study questioned whether there might also be selective depression of cardio-respiratory responses to hypoxia during AS. Nine newborn lambs (7-22 days of age) were studied over three successive nights. The first and third nights were baseline studies (inspired oxygen fraction, Fi,O2= 0.21). During the second night, during every epoch of sleep, lambs were exposed to 60 s episodes of isocapnic hypoxia (Fi,O2= 0.10). During quiet sleep (QS), the probability of arousal in hypoxia exceeded the probability of spontaneous arousal (P ventilatory and blood pressure responses in AS, but not in QS. Selective depression of responses during AS may render the newborn particularly vulnerable to hypoxia in this state. PMID:10457072
Hansen, Åse Marie; Gullander, Maria; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger; Kolstad, Henrik A; Willert, Morten Vejs; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kaerlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard
Workplace bullying is a potent stressor that may increase sleep problems. Since physical fitness improves resilience to stress, it seems plausible that recreational physical activities may moderate the association between bullying and sleep. The study aimed to examine prospectively whether (i) bullying increases the risk of sleep problems, and (ii) the association between bullying and sleep problems is moderated by leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). The study sample comprised a cohort of public and private sector employees, who were enrolled into the Work Bullying and Harassment (WBH) cohort (N=3278) or the Psychosocial Risk Factors for Stress and Mental Disease (PRISME) cohort (N=4455). We measured workplace bullying using one question that was preceded by a definition of bullying. We used the Karolinska sleep questionnaire to assess sleep problems. The number of hours per week spent on LTPA estimated the degree of physical activity. Workplace bullying at baseline (T1) was associated with awakening problems and lack of restful sleep at follow-up (T2) but not with overall sleep problems and disturbed sleep. T1-LTPA did not moderate the association between T1-workplace bullying and T2-sleep problems. We found support that workplace bullying is related to development of T2-sleep problems, but this association seems not to be modified by LTPA.
Fifer, William P; Myers, Michael M; Sahni, Rakesh; Ohira-Kist, Kiyoko; Kashyap, Sudha; Stark, Raymond I; Schulze, Karl F
Infants sleeping in the prone position are at greater risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Sleep position-dependent changes in cardiorespiratory activity may contribute to this increased risk. Cardiorespiratory activity is also affected by feeding. Twenty prematurely-born infants were studied at 31-36 weeks postconceptional age while sleeping in the prone and supine positions. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and patterns of variability were recorded during interfeed intervals, and effects of position and time after feeding were analyzed by repeated measures analyses of variance. There were significant effects of both sleeping position and time after feeding. Heart rate is higher and heart period variability is lower in the prone position, and the effects of sleeping position on cardiac functioning are more pronounced during the middle of the intrafeed interval. In preterm infants, autonomic responses to nutrient processing modulate the cardiorespiratory effects of sleeping position. Prone sleeping risk may vary with time after feeding. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Schreiner, Thomas; Göldi, Maurice; Rasch, Björn
Neural oscillations in the theta band have repeatedly been implicated in successful memory encoding and retrieval. Several recent studies have shown that memory retrieval can be facilitated by reactivating memories during their consolidation during sleep. However, it is still unknown whether reactivation during sleep also enhances subsequent retrieval-related neural oscillations. We have recently demonstrated that foreign vocabulary cues presented during sleep improve later recall of the associated translations. Here, we examined the effect of cueing foreign vocabulary during sleep on oscillatory activity during subsequent recognition testing after sleep. We show that those words that were replayed during sleep after learning (cued words) elicited stronger centroparietal theta activity during recognition as compared to noncued words. The reactivation-induced increase in theta oscillations during later recognition testing might reflect a strengthening of individual memory traces and the integration of the newly learned words into the mental lexicon by cueing during sleep. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
The importance of democratizing the therapeutic process in a psychiatric ward has been emphasized by Hägglund and Pylkkänen (1980). In spite of different levels of training extensive participating of the team members in performing individual psychotherapy promotes the unity of the therapeutic views of the staff. It prevents the formation of antitherapeutic staff groups. The subjective outcome of the treatment on a psychiatric open ward was examined using a questionnaire to patients. All those patients (N = 55) were selected who during a two years' research period stayed at least three weeks on the ward. Three subsamples were formed according to the therapist's occupation: a. patients of registered psychiatric nurses, b. patients of assistant psychiatric nurses and c. patients of residents, psychologists and social workers. There were no significant differences in the evaluations of the general treatment outcome between these three groups. Instead, the occupational background correlated with the patient's evaluation of the importance of the personal therapeutic relationship. The therapeutic relationship with a registered psychiatric nurse or with an assistant psychiatric nurse was significantly more often evaluated to be very or rather important at the end of the treatment than a relationship with a member of the group c. It was concluded that the goal to delegate the psychotherapeutic activities to the whole staff had been achieved quite well. The patients did not devaluate therapeutic relationships with staff members from a lower level of occupational training, on the contrary. The "non academic" personnel had established good contact with their patients. These observations support the views proposed by Hägglund and Pylkkänen (1980). Individual therapy should not be separated from the therapeutic community and the staff should not be divided into therapists and non-therapists.
Smolen, Magdalena M.
This paper presents automatic analysis of some selected human electroencephalographic patterns during deep sleep using the Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm. The periodicity of deep sleep EEG patterns was observed by calculating autocorrelation functions of their percentage contributions. The study confirmed the increasing trend of amplitude-weighted average frequency of sleep spindles from frontal to posterior derivations. The dominant frequencies from the left and the right brain hemisphere were strongly correlated.
Carroll, Judith E; Carrillo, Carmen; Olmstead, Richard; Witarama, Tuff; Breen, Elizabeth C; Yokomizo, Megumi; Seeman, Teresa; Irwin, Michael R
Sleep disturbance and aging are associated with increases in inflammation, as well as increased risk of infectious disease. However, there is limited understanding of the role of sleep loss on age-related differences in immune responses. This study examines the effects of sleep deprivation on toll-like receptor activation of monocytic inflammation in younger compared to older adults. Community-dwelling adults (n = 70) who were categorized as younger (25-39 y old, n = 21) and older (60-84 y old, n = 49) participants, underwent a sleep laboratory-based experimental partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol including adaptation, an uninterrupted night of sleep, sleep deprivation (sleep restricted to 03:00-07:00), and recovery. Blood samples were obtained each morning to measure toll-like receptor-4 activation of monocyte intracellular production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Partial sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in the production of IL-6 and/or TNF-α that persisted after a night of recovery sleep (F(2,121.2) = 3.8, P sleep loss, such that younger adults had an increase in inflammatory cytokine production that was not present in older adults (F(2,121.2) = 4.0, P sleep loss. Whereas sleep loss increases cellular inflammation in younger adults and may contribute to inflammatory disorders, blunted toll-like receptor activation in older adults may increase the risk of infectious disease seen with aging. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Olini, Nadja; Rothfuchs, Iru; Azzinnari, Damiano; Pryce, Christopher R; Kurth, Salome; Huber, Reto
Disturbed sleep and altered sleep homeostasis are core features of many psychiatric disorders such as depression. Chronic uncontrollable stress is considered an important factor in the development of depression, but little is known on how chronic stress affects sleep regulation and sleep homeostasis. We therefore examined the effects of chronic social stress (CSS) on sleep regulation in mice. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were implanted for electrocortical recordings (ECoG) and underwent either a 10-day CSS protocol or control handling (CON). Subsequently, ECoG was assessed across a 24-h post-stress baseline, followed by a 4-h sleep deprivation, and then a 20-h recovery period. After sleep deprivation, CSS mice showed a blunted increase in sleep pressure compared to CON mice, as measured using slow wave activity (SWA, electroencephalographic power between 1-4Hz) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Vigilance states did not differ between CSS and CON mice during post-stress baseline, sleep deprivation or recovery, with the exception of CSS mice exhibiting increased REM sleep during recovery sleep. Behavior during sleep deprivation was not affected by CSS. Our data provide evidence that CSS alters the homeostatic regulation of sleep SWA in mice. In contrast to acute social stress, which results in a faster SWA build-up, CSS decelerates the homeostatic build up. These findings are discussed in relation to the causal contribution of stress-induced sleep disturbance to depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Morgane, P J; Stern, W C
A critical review of the evidences relating the biogenic amines serotonin and norepinephrine to the states of slow-wave and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is presented. Various alternative explanations for specific chemical regulation of the individual sleep states, including the phasic events of REM sleep, are evaluated within the overall framework of the monoamine theory of sleep. Several critical neuropsychopharmacological studies relating to metabolsim of the amines in relation to sleep-waking behavior are presented. Models of the chemical neuronal circuitry involved in sleep-waking activity are derived and interactions between several brainstem nuclei, particularly the raphé complex and locus coeruleus, are discussed. Activity in these aminergic systems in relation to oscillations in the sleep-waking cycles is evaluated. In particular, the assessment of single cell activity in specific chemical systems in relations to chemical models of sleep is reviewed. Overall, it appears that the biogenic amines, especially serotonin and norepinephrine, play key roles in the generation and maintenance of the sleep states. These neurotransmitters participate in some manner in the "triggering" processes necessary for actuating each sleep phase and in regulating the transitions from sleep to waking activity. The biogenic amines are, however, probably not "sleep factors" or direct inducers of the sleep states. Rather, they appear to be components of a multiplicity of interacting chemical circuitry in the brain whose activity maintains various chemical balances in different brain regions. Shifts in these balances appear to be involved in the triggering and maintenance of the various states comprising the vigilance continuum.
Fogel, Robert B; Trinder, John; White, David P; Malhotra, Atul; Raneri, Jill; Schory, Karen; Kleverlaan, Darci; Pierce, Robert J
Pharyngeal dilator muscles are important in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA). We have previously shown that during wakefulness, the activity of both the genioglossus (GGEMG) and tensor palatini (TPEMG) is greater in patients with OSA compared with controls. Further, EMG activity decreases at sleep onset, and the decrement is greater in apnoea patients than in healthy controls. In addition, it is known that the prevalence of OSA is greater in middle-aged compared with younger men. Thus, we had two goals in this study. First we compared upper airway muscle activity between young and middle-aged healthy men compared with men with OSA. We also explored the mechanisms responsible for the decrement in muscle activity at sleep onset in these groups. We investigated muscle activity, ventilation , and upper airway resistance (UAR) during wakefulness and sleep onset (transition from α to θ EEG activity) in all three groups. Measurements were obtained during basal breathing (BB) and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was applied to reduce negative pressure-mediated muscle activation). We found that during wakefulness there was a gradation of GGEMG and UAR (younger < older < OSA) and that muscle activity was reduced by the application of nasal CPAP (to a greater degree in the OSA patients). Although CPAP eliminated differences in UAR during wakefulness and sleep, GGEMG remained greater in the OSA patients. During sleep onset, a greater initial fall in GGEMG was seen in the OSA patients followed by subsequent muscle recruitment in the third to fifth breaths following the α to θ transition. On the CPAP night, and GGEMG still fell further in the OSA patients compared with control subjects. CPAP prevented the rise in UAR at sleep onset along with the associated recruitment in GGEMG. Differences in TPEMG among the groups were not significant. These data suggest that the middle-aged men had upper airway function midway between that of
Firouzi, Somayyeh; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Sadeghilar, Aidin
This study aimed to determine the association between sleep habits (including bedtime, wake up time, sleep duration, and sleep disorder score) and physical characteristics, physical activity level, and food pattern in overweight and obese versus normal weight children. Case control study. 164 Malaysian boys and girls aged 6-12 years. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. Subjects divided into normal weight (n = 82) and overweight/obese (n = 82) group based on World Health Organization 2007 BMI-for-age criteria and were matched one by one based on ethnicity, gender, and age plus minus one year. Questionnaires related to sleep habits, physical activity, and food frequency were proxy-reported by parents. Sleep disorder score was measured by Children Sleep Habit Questionnaire. Sleep disorder score and carbohydrate intake (%) to total energy intake were significantly higher in overweight/obese group (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). After adjusting for age and gender, sleep disorder score was correlated with BMI (r = 0.275, p < 0.001), weight (r = 0.253, p < 0.001), and WC (r = 0.293, p < 0.001). Based on adjusted odd ratio, children with shortest sleep duration were found to have 4.5 times higher odds of being overweight/obese (odd ratio: 4.536, 95% CI: 1.912-8.898) compared to children with normal sleep duration. The odds of being overweight/obese in children with sleep disorder score higher than 48 were 2.17 times more than children with sleep disorder score less than 48. Children who sleep lees than normal amount, had poor sleep quality, and consumed more carbohydrates were at higher risk of overweight/obesity. Â© 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Garcia-Molina, G.; Baehr, K.; Steele, B.; Tsoneva, T.K.; Pfundtner, S.; Mahadevan, A.; Papas, N.; Riedner, B.; Tononi, G.; White, D.
Introduction: In the two-process model of sleep regulation, slow-wave activity (SWA, EEG power in the 0.5–4 Hz band) is a direct indicator of sleep need. SWA builds up during NREM sleep, declines before the onset of REM sleep, remains low during REM and the level of increase in successive NREM
Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Sánchez-Alavez, Manuel
administration of UII into the PPT nucleus increases REM sleep without inducing changes in the cortical blood flow. Intracerebroventricular injection of UII enhances both REM sleep and wakefulness and reduces slow-wave sleep 2. Intracerebroventricular, but not local, administration of UII increases cortical...... dorsal tegmental nuclei. This distribution suggests that the UII system is involved in functions regulated by acetylcholine, such as the sleep-wake cycle. Here, we tested the hypothesis that UII influences cholinergic PPT neuron activity and alters rapid eye movement (REM) sleep patterns in rats. Local...... synaptic transmission because it persisted in the presence of TTX and antagonists of ionotropic glutamate, GABA, and glycine receptors. Collectively, these results suggest that UII plays a role in the regulation of REM sleep independently of its cerebrovascular actions by directly activating cholinergic...
Seibt, Julie; Richard, Clément J; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Takahashi, Naoya; Kaplan, David I; Doron, Guy; de Limoges, Denis; Bocklisch, Christina; Larkum, Matthew E
How sleep influences brain plasticity is not known. In particular, why certain electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms are linked to memory consolidation is poorly understood. Calcium activity in dendrites is known to be necessary for structural plasticity changes, but this has never been carefully examined during sleep. Here, we report that calcium activity in populations of neocortical dendrites is increased and synchronised during oscillations in the spindle range in naturally sleeping rodents. Remarkably, the same relationship is not found in cell bodies of the same neurons and throughout the cortical column. Spindles during sleep have been suggested to be important for brain development and plasticity. Our results provide evidence for a physiological link of spindles in the cortex specific to dendrites, the main site of synaptic plasticity.Different stages of sleep, marked by particular electroencephalographic (EEG) signatures, have been linked to memory consolidation, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, the authors show that dendritic calcium synchronisation correlates with spindle-rich sleep phases.
Hansen, Åse Marie; Gullander, Maria; Hogh, Annie
and Harassment (WBH) cohort (N=3278) or the Psychosocial Risk Factors for Stress and Mental Disease (PRISME) cohort (N=4455). We measured workplace bullying using one question that was preceded by a definition of bullying. We used the Karolinska sleep questionnaire to assess sleep problems. The number of hours......OBJECTIVES: Workplace bullying is a potent stressor that may increase sleep problems. Since physical fitness improves resilience to stress, it seems plausible that recreational physical activities may moderate the association between bullying and sleep. The study aimed to examine prospectively...... whether (i) bullying increases the risk of sleep problems, and (ii) the association between bullying and sleep problems is moderated by leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). METHODS: The study sample comprised a cohort of public and private sector employees, who were enrolled into the Work Bullying...
Christie, Anita D; Seery, Emily; Kent, Jane A
Deteriorating sleep quality and increased fatigue are common complaints of old age, and poor sleep is associated with decreased quality of life and increased mortality rates. To date, little attention has been given to the potential effects of physical activity on sleep quality and fatigue in aging. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between activity, sleep and fatigue across the adult lifespan. Sixty community-dwelling adults were studied; 22 younger (21-29 years), 16 middle-aged (36-64 years), and 22 older (65-81 years). Physical activity was measured by accelerometer. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Self-reported fatigue was evaluated with the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Regression analysis revealed a positive relationship between activity and sleep quality in the older (r(2)=0.18, p=0.05), but not the younger (r(2) = 0.041, p = 0.35) or middle-aged (r(2) = 0.001, p = 0.93) groups. This association was mainly established by the relationship between moderate-vigorous activity and sleep quality (r(2)=0.37, p=0.003) in older adults. No association was observed between physical activity and self-reported fatigue in any of the groups (r(2) ≤ 0.14, p ≥ 0.15). However, an inverse relationship was found between sleep quality and fatigue in the older (r(2) = 0.29, p = 0.05), but not the younger or middle-aged (r(2) ≤ 0.13, p ≥ 0.10) groups. These results support the hypothesis that physical activity may be associated with sleep quality in older adults, and suggest that improved sleep may mitigate self-reported fatigue in older adults in a manner that is independent of activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dale L. Smith
Full Text Available BackgroundNumerous studies over the past several decades have illustrated that children who suffer from sleep-disordered breathing (SDB are at greater risk for cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric problems. Although behavioral problems have been proposed as a potential mediator between SDB and cognitive functioning, these relationships have not been critically examined.MethodsThis analysis is based on a community-based cohort of 1,115 children who underwent overnight polysomnography, and cognitive and behavioral phenotyping. Structural model of the relationships between SDB, behavior, and cognition, and two recently developed mediation approaches based on propensity score weighting and resampling were used to assess the mediational role of parent-reported behavior and psychiatric problems in the relationship between SDB and cognitive functioning. Multiple models utilizing two different SDB definitions further explored direct effects of SDB on cognition as well as indirect effects through behavioral pathology. All models were adjusted for age, sex, race, BMI z-score, and asthma status.ResultsIndirect effects of SDB through behavior problems were significant in all mediation models, while direct effects of SDB on cognition were not. The findings were consistent across different mediation procedures and remained essentially unaltered when different criteria for SDB, behavior, and cognition were used.ConclusionPotential effects of SDB on cognitive functioning appear to occur through behavioral problems that are detectable in this pediatric population. Thus, early attentional or behavioral pathology may be implicated in the cognitive functioning deficits associated with SDB, and may present an early morbidity-related susceptibility biomarker.
Corsi-Cabrera, M; Rosales-Lagarde, A; del Río-Portilla, Y; Sifuentes-Ortega, R; Alcántara-Quintero, B
Given that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in executive functions and is deactivated and decoupled from posterior associative regions during REM sleep, that Gamma temporal coupling involved in information processing is enhanced during REM sleep, and that adult humans spend about 90 min of every 24h in REM sleep, it might be expected that REM sleep deprivation would modify Gamma temporal coupling and have a deteriorating effect on executive functions. We analyzed EEG Gamma activity and temporal coupling during implementation of a rule-guided task before and after REM sleep deprivation and its effect on verbal fluency, flexible thinking and selective attention. After two nights in the laboratory for adaptation, on the third night subjects (n=18) were randomly assigned to either selective REM sleep deprivation effectuated by awakening them at each REM sleep onset or, the same number of NREM sleep awakenings as a control for unspecific effects of sleep interruptions. Implementation of abstract rules to guide behavior required greater activation and synchronization of Gamma activity in the frontopolar regions after REM sleep reduction from 20.6% at baseline to just 3.93% of total sleep time. However, contrary to our hypothesis, both groups showed an overall improvement in executive task performance and no effect on their capacity to sustain selective attention. These results suggest that after one night of selective REM sleep deprivation executive functions can be compensated by increasing frontal activation and they still require the participation of supervisory control by frontopolar regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Basner, Mathias; Spaeth, Andrea M.; Dinges, David F.
Study Objectives: Chronic sleep restriction is prevalent in the U.S. population and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The primary reasons for reduced sleep are unknown. Using population data on time use, we sought to identify individual characteristics and behaviors associated with short sleep that could be targeted for intervention programs. Design: Analysis of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). Setting: Cross-sectional annual survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Participants: Representative cohort (N = 124,517) of Americans 15 years and older surveyed between 2003 and 2011. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Telephone survey of activities over 24 hours. Relative to all other waking activities, paid work time was the primary waking activity exchanged for sleep. Time spent traveling, which included commuting to/from work, and immediate pre- and post-sleep activities (socializing, grooming, watching TV) were also reciprocally related to sleep duration. With every hour that work or educational training started later in the morning, sleep time increased by approximately 20 minutes. Working multiple jobs was associated with the highest odds for sleeping ≤ 6 hours on weekdays (adjusted OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.44; 1.81). Self-employed respondents were less likely to be short sleepers compared to private sector employees (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72; 0.95). Sociodemographic characteristics associated with paid work (age 25-64, male sex, high income, and employment per se) were consistently associated with short sleep. Conclusions: U.S. population time use survey findings suggest that interventions to increase sleep time should concentrate on delaying the morning start time of work and educational activities (or making them more flexible), increasing sleep opportunities, and shortening morning and evening commute times. Reducing the need for multiple jobs may increase sleep time, but economic disincentives from working fewer hours
Full Text Available Sleep is thought to be involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity in two ways: by enhancing local plastic processes underlying the consolidation of specific memories and by supporting global synaptic homeostasis. Here, we briefly summarize recent structural and functional studies examining sleep-associated changes in synaptic morphology and neural excitability. These studies point to a global down-scaling of synaptic strength across sleep while a subset of synapses increases in strength. Similarly, neuronal excitability on average decreases across sleep, whereas subsets of neurons increase firing rates across sleep. Whether synapse formation and excitability is down or upregulated across sleep appears to partly depend on the cell’s activity level during wakefulness. Processes of memory-specific upregulation of synapse formation and excitability are observed during slow wave sleep (SWS, whereas global downregulation resulting in elimination of synapses and decreased neural firing is linked to rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep. Studies of the excitation/inhibition balance in cortical circuits suggest that both processes are connected to a specific inhibitory regulation of cortical principal neurons, characterized by an enhanced perisomatic inhibition via parvalbumin positive (PV+ cells, together with a release from dendritic inhibition by somatostatin positive (SOM+ cells. Such shift towards increased perisomatic inhibition of principal cells appears to be a general motif which underlies the plastic synaptic changes observed during sleep, regardless of whether towards up or downregulation.
Oude Oosterik, N A M; Bouwmans, M E J; de Groot, I W; Bos, E H; de Jonge, P
Sleep and physical activity are related, but the direction of this relationship is unclear and it is not known whether the direction differs in depressed and non-depressed persons. To study the bidirectional relationship between physical activity and sleep in daily life by making repeated measurements in depressed and non-depressed people. Every day for 30 consecutive days each depressed (N = 27) and non-depressed (N = 27) participant in our study had to complete an electronic questionnaire relating to subjective sleep quality and sleep duration and were required to wear an accelerometer that recorded physical activity. Multi-level analysis showed that an increase in subjective sleep duration resulted in a decrease in physical activity. The differences between individuals with regard to the direction and strength of this relationship were significant. Changes in physical activity did not predict changes in sleep quality or sleep duration. We did not find any differences in the relationships for depressed and non-depressed participants. Change in sleep duration predicts change in physical activity, although there was significant heterogeneity in the results for individuals. Our findings underline the importance of further research and of the development of interventions that are tailored to the precise needs of the individual patient.
Bisgaard, T; Kjaersgaard, M; Bernhard, A
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of early postoperative activity is important in the documentation of improvements of peri-operative care. This study was designed to validate computerized activity-based monitoring of physical activity and sleep (actigraphy) in patients after abdominal surgery. METHODS...... physical activity and sleep-wake cycles after major abdominal surgery.......: The study included twelve hospitalized patients after major abdominal surgery studied on day 2 to 4 after operation and twelve unhospitalized healthy volunteers. Measurements were performed for 24 consecutive hours. The actigraphy measurements were compared with self-reported activity- and sleep...
Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M
Breathing patterns are characteristically different between active and quiet sleep states in infants. It has been previously identified that breathing dynamics are governed by a non-linear controller which implies the need for a nonlinear analytical tool. Further, it has been shown that quantified nonlinear variables are different between adult sleep states. This study aims to determine whether a nonlinear analytical tool known as recurrence plot analysis can characterize breath intervals of active and quiet sleep states in infants. Overnight polysomnograms were obtained from 32 healthy infants. The 6 longest periods each of active and quiet sleep were identified and a software routine extracted inter-breath interval data for recurrence plot analysis. Determinism (DET), laminarity (LAM) and radius (RAD) values were calculated for an embedding dimension of 4, 6, 8 and 16, and fixed recurrence of 0.5, 1, 2, 3.5 and 5%. Recurrence plots exhibited characteristically different patterns for active and quiet sleep. Active sleep periods typically had higher values of RAD, DET and LAM than for quiet sleep, and this trend was invariant to a specific choice of embedding dimension or fixed recurrence. These differences may provide a basis for automated sleep state classification, and the quantitative investigation of pathological breathing patterns.
Jean, Raymonde E; Duttuluri, Manideep; Gibson, Charlisa D; Mir, Sadaf; Fuhrmann, Katherine; Eden, Edward; Supariwala, Azhar
Exercise improves sleep quality, yet people with untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may engage in less physical activity (PA) due to fatigue and daytime sleepiness. We examined changes in PA and sleep quality before and after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in OSA patients. In this prospective longitudinal study, persons with a primary diagnosis of OSA were enrolled at a community-based hospital in New York City. At 3 time intervals pre- and post-CPAP (3-8 months), we measured sleep quality using validated questionnaires, perceived PA using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and actual PA using pedometer steps per day. We sought to investigate how CPAP use and changes in sleep quality impacted the number of steps taken, as recorded in pedometer steps. In total, 62 patients were enrolled in the study from March 2012 to July 2014. In all, patients averaged 53 years of age, and 26 patients (42%) were female. Among all participants, 86% of persons had moderate to severe sleep apnea (AHI ≥15). Approximately 73% of participants were compliant with CPAP use. Poor sleep quality correlated with lower actual PA (P = .004) at baseline. At 3 and 7 months, there was significant improvement in sleep quality (Δ -2.63 ± 3.4 and Δ -3.5 ± 3.8; P improvement in sleep quality and actual PA.
Yoshimoto, Misa; Yoshida, Ikue; Miki, Kenju
This study aimed to investigate whether REM sleep evoked diverse changes in sympathetic outflows and, if so, to elucidate why REM sleep evokes diverse changes in sympathetic outflows. Male Wistar rats were chronically implanted with electrodes to measure renal (RSNA) and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA), electroencephalogram, electromyogram, and electrocardiogram, and catheters to measure systemic arterial and central venous pressure; these parameters were measured simultaneously and continuously during the sleep-awake cycle in the same rat. REM sleep resulted in a step reduction in RNSA by 36.1% ± 2.7% (P sleep. In contrast to REM sleep, RSNA, LSNA, systemic arterial pressure, and heart rate increased in a unidirectional manner associated with increases in physical activity levels in the order from NREM sleep, quiet awake, moving, and grooming state. Thus, the relationship between RSNA vs. LSNA and systemic arterial pressure vs. heart rate observed during REM sleep was dissociated compared with that obtained during the other behavioral states. It is suggested that the diverse changes in sympathetic outflows during REM sleep may be needed to increase systemic arterial pressure by balancing vascular resistance between muscles and vegetative organs without depending on the heart.
Van Deun, D; Verhaert, V; Willemen, T; Wuyts, J; Verbraecken, J; Exadaktylos, V; Haex, B; Vander Sloten, J
Proper body support plays an import role in the recuperation of our body during sleep. Therefore, this study uses an automatically adapting bedding system that optimises spinal alignment throughout the night by altering the stiffness of eight comfort zones. The aim is to investigate the influence of such a dynamic sleep environment on objective and subjective sleep parameters. The bedding system contains 165 sensors that measure mattress indentation. It also includes eight actuators that control the comfort zones. Based on the measured mattress indentation, body movements and posture changes are detected. Control of spinal alignment is established by fitting personalized human models in the measured indentation. A total of 11 normal sleepers participated in this study. Sleep experiments were performed in a sleep laboratory where subjects slept three nights: a first night for adaptation, a reference night and an active support night (in counterbalanced order). Polysomnographic measurements were recorded during the nights, combined with questionnaires aiming at assessing subjective information. Subjective information on sleep quality, daytime quality and perceived number of awakenings shows significant improvements during the active support (ACS) night. Objective results showed a trend towards increased slow wave sleep. On the other hand, it was noticed that % N1-sleep was significantly increased during ACS night, while % N2-sleep was significantly decreased. No prolonged N1 periods were found during or immediately after steering.
Irwin, Michael R; Wang, Minge; Campomayor, Capella O; Collado-Hidalgo, Alicia; Cole, Steve
Inflammation is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disorders, arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and mortality. The effects of sleep loss on the cellular and genomic mechanisms that contribute to inflammatory cytokine activity are not known. In 30 healthy adults, monocyte intracellular proinflammatory cytokine production was repeatedly assessed during the day across 3 baseline periods and after partial sleep deprivation (awake from 11 pm to 3 am). We analyzed the impact of sleep loss on transcription of proinflammatory cytokine genes and used DNA microarray analyses to characterize candidate transcription-control pathways that might mediate the effects of sleep loss on leukocyte gene expression. In the morning after a night of sleep loss, monocyte production of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha was significantly greater compared with morning levels following uninterrupted sleep. In addition, sleep loss induced a more than 3-fold increase in transcription of interleukin 6 messenger RNA and a 2-fold increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that the inflammatory response was mediated by the nuclear factor kappaB inflammatory signaling system as well as through classic hormone and growth factor response pathways. Sleep loss induces a functional alteration of the monocyte proinflammatory cytokine response. A modest amount of sleep loss also alters molecular processes that drive cellular immune activation and induce inflammatory cytokines; mapping the dynamics of sleep loss on molecular signaling pathways has implications for understanding the role of sleep in altering immune cell physiologic characteristics. Interventions that target sleep might constitute new strategies to constrain inflammation with effects on inflammatory disease risk.
Porcú, S; Casagrande, M; Ferrara, M; Bellatreccia, A
People involved in shift work often have to face altered patterns of sleep and wakefulness. This is particularly true for schedules involving night shifts and/or fragmentation of duty periods throughout the 24-hr day. In such conditions, it can be difficult to obtain satisfactory periods of sleep, and sleepiness on duty is a frequent and dangerous occurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep and wakefulness periods of subjects whose work schedule was characterized by an alternation of 2 hours of activity and 4 hours of rest (sleep allowed), repeated 4 times throughout the 24-hr day. This schedule was alternated with 24 hours off duty. Nine healthy male volunteers were monitored by means of ambulatory polysomnography while attending their 24-hr rest-activity schedule. Sleep periods were visually scored according to standard criteria. Wake periods were visually scored using both 30 s and 5 s epochs in order to reveal episodes of drowsiness and/or microsleep. Results showed that total sleep time was substantially reduced as compared to the usual 7-8 hour monophasic nocturnal sleep. Subjects did not sleep during the first rest period (11.00-15.00). Time in sleep linearly increased in the course of the 3 remaining rest periods. Normal sleep stage distribution was substantially spared only in the last rest period (3.00-7.00 a.m.). With regard to duty periods, only a few microsleeps were detected and their number did not significantly vary across the four 2-hr activity periods. In conclusion, this rest-activity schedule, despite the considerable sleep reduction, allowed maintaining good levels of vigilance as shown by the virtual absence of EEG microsleeps. Whether future research will prove that this regimen does not cause an impairment of performance, it should be a suitable strategy for the management of continuous operations.
Ohayon, Maurice M; Reynolds, Charles F; Dauvilliers, Yves
Using population-based data, we document the comorbidities (medical, neurologic, and psychiatric) and consequences for daily functioning of excessive quantity of sleep (EQS), defined as a main sleep period or 24-hour sleep duration ≥ 9 hours accompanied by complaints of impaired functioning or distress due to excessive sleep, and its links to excessive sleepiness. A cross-sectional telephone study using a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals living in the United States, aged ≥ 18 years (participation rate = 83.2%). The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision; International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual II, International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th edition). Sleeping at least 9 hours per 24-hour period was reported by 8.4% (95% confidence interval = 8.0-8.8%) of participants; EQS (prolonged sleep episode with distress/impairment) was observed in 1.6% (1.4-1.8%) of the sample. The likelihood of EQS was 3 to 12× higher among individuals with a mood disorder. EQS individuals were 2 to 4× more likely to report poor quality of life than non-EQS individuals as well as interference with socioprofessional activities and relationships. Although between 33 and 66% of individuals with prolonged sleep perceived it as a major problem, only 6.3 to 27.5% of them reported having sought medical attention. EQS is widespread in the general population, co-occurring with a broad spectrum of sleep, medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, physicians must recognize EQS as a mixed clinical entity indicating careful assessment and specific treatment planning. © 2013 American Neurological Association.
Frandsen, Rune; Nikolic, Miki; Zoetmulder, Marielle
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and REM sleep without atonia. Atonia is evaluated on the basis of visual criteria, but there is a need for more objective, quantitative measurements. We aimed to define and optimize a method for establishing...... baseline and all other parameters in automatic quantifying submental motor activity during REM sleep. We analysed the electromyographic activity of the submental muscle in polysomnographs of 29 patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), 29 controls and 43 Parkinson's (PD) patients. Six adjustable parameters...... were validated on PD patients. Automatic baseline estimation improved characterization of atonia during REM sleep, as it eliminates inter/intra-observer variability and can be standardized across diagnostic centres. We found an optimized method for quantifying motor activity during REM sleep...
Løppenthin, Katrine; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Jennum, Poul Jørgen
a rheumatology outpatient clinic were recruited consecutively to participate in an observational cross-sectional study. The self-administered questionnaire covered the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain and fatigue, Physical Activity Scale (PAS), Multidimensional Fatigue...... to Physical Activity (PA) and fatigue. Understanding PA, fatigue and the impact on sleep disturbances could illuminate ways to promote sufficient sleep in RA patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association between sleep disturbance, PA, and fatigue. Methods A total of 500 RA patients from...... of 58 years), and 80% were women. The mean disease duration was 14 years and mean DAS score was 2.7. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 61 %. Higher level of general fatigue, mental fatigue, physical fatigue, reduced activity and reduced motivation was reported in patients with poor sleep quality...
Basner, Mathias; Spaeth, Andrea M; Dinges, David F
Chronic sleep restriction is prevalent in the U.S. population and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The primary reasons for reduced sleep are unknown. Using population data on time use, we sought to identify individual characteristics and behaviors associated with short sleep that could be targeted for intervention programs. Analysis of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). Cross-sectional annual survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Representative cohort (N = 124,517) of Americans 15 years and older surveyed between 2003 and 2011. None. Telephone survey of activities over 24 hours. Relative to all other waking activities, paid work time was the primary waking activity exchanged for sleep. Time spent traveling, which included commuting to/ from work, and immediate pre- and post-sleep activities (socializing, grooming, watching TV) were also reciprocally related to sleep duration. With every hour that work or educational training started later in the morning, sleep time increased by approximately 20 minutes. Working multiple jobs was associated with the highest odds for sleeping ≤6 hours on weekdays (adjusted OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.44; 1.81). Self-employed respondents were less likely to be short sleepers compared to private sector employees (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72; 0.95). Sociodemographic characteristics associated with paid work (age 25-64, male sex, high income, and employment per se) were consistently associated with short sleep. U.S. population time use survey findings suggest that interventions to increase sleep time should concentrate on delaying the morning start time of work and educational activities (or making them more flexible), increasing sleep opportunities, and shortening morning and evening commute times. Reducing the need for multiple jobs may increase sleep time, but economic disincentives from working fewer hours will need to be offset. Raising awareness of the importance of sufficient sleep for health and safety may
Background: Good quality sleep and adequate amount of sleep are important in order to have better cognitive performance and avoid health problems and psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates, interns and postgraduate students ...
Kamphuis, Jeanine; Lancel, Marike; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Meerlo, Peter
Sleep is considered to be a recovery process of prior wakefulness. Not only duration of the waking period affects sleep architecture and sleep EEG, the quality of wakefulness is also highly important. Studies in rats have shown that social defeat stress, in which experimental animals are attacked and defeated by a dominant conspecific, is followed by an acute increase in NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA). However, it is not known whether this effect is specific for the stress of social defeat or a result of the conflict per se. In the present experiment, we examined how sleep is affected in both the winners and losers of a social conflict. Sleep-wake patterns and sleep EEG were recorded in male wild-type Groningen rats that were subjected to 1h of social conflict in the middle of the light phase. All animals were confronted with a conspecific of similar aggression level and the conflict took place in a neutral arena where both individuals had an equal chance to either win or lose the conflict. NREM sleep SWA was significantly increased after the social conflict compared to baseline values and a gentle stimulation control condition. REM sleep was significantly suppressed in the first hours after the conflict. Winners and losers did not differ significantly in NREM sleep time, NREM sleep SWA and REM sleep time immediately after the conflict. Losers tended to have slightly more NREM sleep later in the recovery period. This study shows that in rats a social conflict with an unpredictable outcome has quantitatively and qualitatively largely similar acute effects on subsequent sleep in winners and losers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mahesh K Kaushik
Full Text Available Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint which occurs due to difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining it. Most of currently available drugs for insomnia develop dependency and/or adverse effects. Hence natural therapies could be an alternative choice of treatment for insomnia. The root or whole plant extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera has been used to induce sleep in Indian system of traditional home medicine, Ayurveda. However, its active somnogenic components remain unidentified. We investigated the effect of various components of Ashwagandha leaf on sleep regulation by oral administration in mice. We found that the alcoholic extract that contained high amount of active withanolides was ineffective to induce sleep in mice. However, the water extract which contain triethylene glycol as a major component induced significant amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep with slight change in rapid eye movement sleep. Commercially available triethylene glycol also increased non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice in a dose-dependent (10-30 mg/mouse manner. These results clearly demonstrated that triethylene glycol is an active sleep-inducing component of Ashwagandha leaves and could potentially be useful for insomnia therapy.
Jackson, Melinda L; Hughes, Matthew E; Croft, Rodney J; Howard, Mark E; Crewther, David; Kennedy, Gerard A; Owens, Katherine; Pierce, Rob J; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Johnston, Patrick
Sleep loss, widespread in today's society and associated with a number of clinical conditions, has a detrimental effect on a variety of cognitive domains including attention. This study examined the sequelae of sleep deprivation upon BOLD fMRI activation during divided attention. Twelve healthy males completed two randomized sessions; one after 27 h of sleep deprivation and one after a normal night of sleep. During each session, BOLD fMRI was measured while subjects completed a cross-modal divided attention task (visual and auditory). After normal sleep, increased BOLD activation was observed bilaterally in the superior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobe during divided attention performance. Subjects reported feeling significantly more sleepy in the sleep deprivation session, and there was a trend towards poorer divided attention task performance. Sleep deprivation led to a down regulation of activation in the left superior frontal gyrus, possibly reflecting an attenuation of top-down control mechanisms on the attentional system. These findings have implications for understanding the neural correlates of divided attention and the neurofunctional changes that occur in individuals who are sleep deprived.
Kaushik, Mahesh K; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Urade, Yoshihiro
Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint which occurs due to difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining it. Most of currently available drugs for insomnia develop dependency and/or adverse effects. Hence natural therapies could be an alternative choice of treatment for insomnia. The root or whole plant extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has been used to induce sleep in Indian system of traditional home medicine, Ayurveda. However, its active somnogenic components remain unidentified. We investigated the effect of various components of Ashwagandha leaf on sleep regulation by oral administration in mice. We found that the alcoholic extract that contained high amount of active withanolides was ineffective to induce sleep in mice. However, the water extract which contain triethylene glycol as a major component induced significant amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep with slight change in rapid eye movement sleep. Commercially available triethylene glycol also increased non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice in a dose-dependent (10-30 mg/mouse) manner. These results clearly demonstrated that triethylene glycol is an active sleep-inducing component of Ashwagandha leaves and could potentially be useful for insomnia therapy.
McClain, James J; Lewin, Daniel S; Laposky, Aaron D; Kahle, Lisa; Berrigan, David
To examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA) or sedentary behavior and self-reported sleep duration or daytime sleepiness in a nationally representative sample of healthy US adults (N=2128). We report analyses of four aspects of sedentary behavior and PA derived from accelerometry data (minutes of sedentary time, activity counts/minute, Minutes of Moderate and Vigorous PA [MVPA], and MVPA in 10-minute bouts) versus self-report of sleep duration and frequency of daytime sleepiness from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Age and sex dependence of associations between PA and sleep were observed. Aspects of PA were significantly lower in adults reporting more frequent daytime sleepiness in younger (20-39) and older (≥ 60) age groups, but not in middle-aged (40-59), respondents. In younger respondents, PA increased with sleep duration, but in middle aged and older respondents PA was either unrelated to sleep duration or lower in those reporting ≥ 8 h of sleep. Objectively measured sedentary time showed limited evidence of associations with sleep duration. Further research delineating the relationships between sleep and PA is important because both activities have been implicated in diverse health outcomes as well as in the etiology of obesity. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sufrinko, Alicia M; Howie, Erin K; Elbin, R J; Collins, Michael W; Kontos, Anthony P
Describe changes in postconcussion activity levels and sleep throughout recovery in a sample of pediatric sport-related concussion (SRC) patients, and examine the predictive value of accelerometer-derived activity and sleep on subsequent clinical outcomes at a follow-up clinic visit. Outpatient concussion clinic. Twenty athletes aged 12 to 19 years with diagnosed SRC. Prospective study including visit 1 (sleep across recovery. Symptom, neurocognitive, and vestibular/oculomotor scores; sleep and activity data (Actigraph GT3x+) RESULTS:: The maximum intensity of physical activity increased (P = .009) and time in bed decreased throughout recovery (P = .026). Several physical activity metrics from 0 to 6 days postinjury were predictive of worse vestibular/oculomotor scores at visit 2 (P sleep 0 to 6 days postinjury were associated with worse reaction time at visit 2 (P sleep change from the acute to subacute postinjury time period in adolescent SRC patients. In our small sample, excess physical activity and poor sleep the first week postinjury may be associated with worse outcomes at follow-up in the subacute stage of recovery. This study further supported the feasibility of research utilizing wearable technology in concussion patients, and future research in a large, diverse sample of concussion patients examined at concise time intervals postinjury is needed.
Takahashi, H; Sassa, T; Shibuya, T; Kato, M; Koeda, M; Murai, T; Matsuura, M; Asai, K; Suhara, T; Okubo, Y
Weight gain has been identified as being responsible for increased morbidity and mortality rates of schizophrenia patients. For the management of weight gain, exercise is one of the most acknowledged interventions. At the same time, exercise and sports have been recognized for their positive impact on psychiatric symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the neurobiological basis for this remains poorly understood. We aimed to examine the effect of sports participation on weight gain, psychiatric symptoms and brain activation during sports observation in schizophrenia patients. Thirteen schizophrenia patients who participated in a 3-month program, including sports participation and 10 control schizophrenia patients were studied. In both groups, body mass index (BMI), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and brain activation during observation of sports-related actions measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging were accessed before and after a 3-month interval. BMI and general psychopathology scale of PANSS were significantly reduced in the program group but not in the control group after a 3-month interval. Compared with baseline, activation of the body-selective extrastriate body area (EBA) in the posterior temporal-occipital cortex during observation of sports-related actions was increased in the program group. In this group, increase in EBA activation was associated with improvement in the general psychopathology scale of PANSS. Sports participation had a positive effect not only on weight gain but also on psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia. EBA might mediate these beneficial effects of sports participation. Our findings merit further investigation of neurobiological mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of sports for schizophrenia.
Full Text Available Electroacupuncture (EA possesses various therapeutic effects, including alleviation of pain, reduction of inflammation and improvement of sleep disturbance. The mechanisms of EA on sleep improvement, however, remain to be determined. It has been stated in ancient Chinese literature that the Anmian (EX17 acupoint is one of the trigger points that alleviates insomnia. We previously demonstrated that EA stimulation of Anmian acupoints in rats during the dark period enhances non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, which involves the induction of cholinergic activity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. In addition to cholinergic activation of the NTS, activation of the endogenous opioidergic system may also be a mechanism by which acupuncture affects sleep. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the involvement of the NTS opioidergic system in EA-induced alterations in sleep. Our present results indicate that EA of Anmian acupoints increased NREM sleep, but not rapid eye movement sleep, during the dark period in rats. This enhancement in NREM sleep was dose-dependently blocked by microinjection of opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine, into the NTS; administrations of δ-receptor antagonist, natrindole, and the κ-receptor antagonist, nor-binaltrophimine, however, did not affect EA-induced alterations in sleep. Furthermore, β-endorphin was significantly increased in both the brainstem and hippocampus after the EA stimuli, an effect blocked by administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine into the NTS. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of EA-induced NREM sleep enhancement may be mediated, in part, by cholinergic activation, stimulation of the opiodergic neurons to increase the concentrations of β-endorphin and the involvement of the μ-opioid receptors.
Mallick, Birendra Nath; Singh, Abhishek; Khanday, Mudasir Ahmad
Interactions among REM-ON and REM-OFF neurons form the basic scaffold for rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) regulation; however, precise mechanism of their activation and cessation, respectively, was unclear. Locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenalin (NA)-ergic neurons are REM-OFF type and receive GABA-ergic inputs among others. GABA acts postsynaptically on the NA-ergic REM-OFF neurons in the LC and presynaptically on the latter's projection terminals and modulates NA-release on the REM-ON neurons. Normally during wakefulness and non-REMS continuous release of NA from the REM-OFF neurons, which however, is reduced during the latter phase, inhibits the REM-ON neurons and prevents REMS. At this stage GABA from substantia nigra pars reticulate acting presynaptically on NA-ergic terminals on REM-ON neurons withdraws NA-release causing the REM-ON neurons to escape inhibition and being active, may be even momentarily. A working-model showing neurochemical-map explaining activation of inactivation process, showing contribution of GABA-ergic presynaptic inhibition in withdrawing NA-release and dis-inhibition induced activation of REM-ON neurons, which in turn activates other GABA-ergic neurons and shutting-off REM-OFF neurons for the initiation of REMS-generation has been explained. Our model satisfactorily explains yet unexplained puzzles (i) why normally REMS does not appear during waking, rather, appears following non-REMS; (ii) why cessation of LC-NA-ergic-REM-OFF neurons is essential for REMS-generation; (iii) factor(s) which does not allow cessation of REM-OFF neurons causes REMS-loss; (iv) the association of changes in levels of GABA and NA in the brain during REMS and its deprivation and associated symptoms; v) why often dreams are associated with REMS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sadeghi Bahmani D
Full Text Available Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Markus Gerber,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,3 Peter J Clough,4 Pasquale Calabrese,5 Vahid Shaygannejad,6 Uwe Pühse,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Serge Brand1,2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, 4Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; 5Division of Molecular and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Neurology and Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD, and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods: A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females, 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females, and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results: Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy
Mrdalj, Jelena; Pallesen, Ståle; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Murison, Robert; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Grønli, Janne
Exposure to early life stress may profoundly influence the developing brain in lasting ways. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with early life adversity may involve neural changes reflected in EEG power as a measure of brain activity and disturbed sleep. The main aim of the present study was for the first time to characterize possible changes in adult EEG power after postnatal maternal separation in rats. Furthermore, in the same animals, we investigated how EEG power and sleep architecture were affected after exposure to a chronic mild stress protocol. During postnatal day 2–14 male rats were exposed to either long maternal separation (180 min) or brief maternal separation (10 min). Long maternally separated offspring showed a sleep-wake nonspecific reduction in adult EEG power at the frontal EEG derivation compared to the brief maternally separated group. The quality of slow wave sleep differed as the long maternally separated group showed lower delta power in the frontal-frontal EEG and a slower reduction of the sleep pressure. Exposure to chronic mild stress led to a lower EEG power in both groups. Chronic exposure to mild stressors affected sleep differently in the two groups of maternal separation. Long maternally separated offspring showed more total sleep time, more episodes of rapid eye movement sleep and higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement episodes ending in rapid eye movement sleep compared to brief maternal separation. Chronic stress affected similarly other sleep parameters and flattened the sleep homeostasis curves in all offspring. The results confirm that early environmental conditions modulate the brain functioning in a long-lasting way. PMID:23922857
Smagula, Stephen F; Krafty, Robert T; Taylor, Briana J; Martire, Lynn M; Schulz, Richard; Hall, Martica H
Depression is associated with disturbances to sleep and the 24-h sleep-wake pattern (known as the rest-activity rhythm: RAR). However, there remains a need to identify the specific sleep/RAR correlates of depression symptom severity in population subgroups, such as strained dementia caregivers, who are at elevated risk for major depressive disorder. We assessed the cross-sectional associations of sleep/RARs with non-sleep depression symptom severity among 57 (mean age: 74 years, standard deviation: 7.4) strained dementia caregivers who were currently without clinical depression. We derived sleep measures from polysomnography and actigraphy, modelled RARs using a sigmoidally transformed cosine curve and measured non-sleep depression symptom severity using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HRDS) with sleep items removed. The following sleep-wake measures were associated with greater depression symptom severity (absolute Spearman's correlations ranged from 0.23 to 0.32): more time awake after sleep onset (WASO), higher RAR middle level (mesor), relatively shorter active periods (alpha), earlier evening settling time (down-mesor) and less steep RARs (beta). In multivariable analysis, high WASO and low RAR beta were associated independently with depression symptom severity. Predicted non-sleep HDRS means (95% confidence intervals) in caregivers with and without these characteristics were: normal WASO/beta = 3.7 (2.3-5.0), high WASO/normal beta = 5.5 (3.5-7.6), normal WASO/low beta = 6.3 (3.6-8.9) and high WASO/low beta = 8.1 (5.3-10.9). Thus, in our sample of strained caregivers, greater sleep fragmentation (WASO) and less sustained/sharply segregated resting and active periods (low RAR beta) correlate uniquely with depression symptom severity. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish whether these independent sleep-wake correlates of depression symptoms explain heightened depression risk in dementia caregivers. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.
Takahashi, H; Masaki, C; Makino, M; Yoshida, M; Mukaibo, T; Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Hosokawa, R
To treat sleep bruxism (SB), symptomatic therapy using stabilisation splints (SS) is frequently used. However, their effects on psychological stress and sleep quality have not yet been examined fully. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of SS use on psychological stress and sleep quality. The subjects (11 men, 12 women) were healthy volunteers. A crossover design was used. Sleep measurements were performed for three consecutive days or longer without (baseline) or with an SS or palatal splint (PS), and data for the final day were evaluated. We measured masseter muscle activity during sleep using portable electromyography to evaluate SB. Furthermore, to compare psychological stress before and after sleep, assessments were made based on STAI-JYZ and the measurement of salivary chromogranin A. To compare each parameter among the three groups (baseline, SS and PS), Friedman's and Dunn's tests were used. From the results of the baseline measurements, eight subjects were identified as high group and 15 as low group. Among the high group, a marked decrease in the number of bruxism events per hour and an increase in the difference in the total STAI Y-1 scores were observed in the SS group compared with those at baseline (P sleep stages. SS use may be effective in reducing the number of SB events, while it may increase psychological stress levels, and SS use did not apparently influence sleep stages. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Raphael, Karen G.; Janal, Malvin N.; Sirois, David A.; Dubrovsky, Boris; Wigren, Pia E.; Klausner, Jack J.; Krieger, Ana C.; Lavigne, Gilles J.
Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n=124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n=46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artifacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non SB-event periods was significantly higher (pcases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0–10 numerical scale) on post sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance. PMID:24237356
Raphael, K G; Janal, M N; Sirois, D A; Dubrovsky, B; Wigren, P E; Klausner, J J; Krieger, A C; Lavigne, G J
Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n = 124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n = 46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artefacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non-SB event periods was significantly higher (P cases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0-10 numerical scale) on post-sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Holtbernd, Florian; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ron B; Ma, Yilong; Tang, Chris C; Feigin, Andrew; Dhawan, Vijay; Vendette, Mélanie; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Eidelberg, David; Montplaisir, Jacques
To determine whether the Parkinson disease-related covariance pattern (PDRP) expression is abnormally increased in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and whether increased baseline activity is associated with greater individual risk of subsequent phenoconversion. For this cohort study, we recruited 2 groups of RBD and control subjects. Cohort 1 comprised 10 subjects with RBD (63.5 ± 9.4 years old) and 10 healthy volunteers (62.7 ± 8.6 years old) who underwent resting-state metabolic brain imaging with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET. Cohort 2 comprised 17 subjects with RBD (68.9 ± 4.8 years old) and 17 healthy volunteers (66.6 ± 6.0 years old) who underwent resting brain perfusion imaging with ethylcysteinate dimer SPECT. The latter group was followed clinically for 4.6 ± 2.5 years by investigators blinded to the imaging results. PDRP expression was measured in both RBD groups and compared with corresponding control values. PDRP expression was elevated in both groups of subjects with RBD (cohort 1: p abnormalities in subjects with idiopathic RBD are associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent phenoconversion to a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome.
Chou, Han-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chou, Yu-Ching; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Huang, San-Yuan; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng
The military is a unique occupational group and, because of this, military personnel face different kinds of stress than civilian populations. Sleep problems are an example. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep problems, depression level and coping strategies among military personnel. In this cross-sectional study, military personnel completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. An evaluation of the test scores showed that officers had better sleep quality and fewer depressive symptoms than enlisted personnel. Military personnel with higher educational levels and less physical illness also had fewer depressive symptoms. Officers and noncommissioned officers preferred problem-focused strategies. Those with higher Beck Depression Inventory and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores and those who drank alcohol frequently preferred affective-focused strategies. Our results revealed that sleep quality, physical illness and alcohol consumption were associated with the mental health of military personnel. Treating these factors may improve the mental health of military personnel and enhance effective coping strategies. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... turn every night. Consider simple tips for better sleep, from setting a sleep schedule to including physical activity in your daily ... factors that can interfere with a good night's sleep — from work stress and family responsibilities to unexpected ...
Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity
Yasova Barbeau, Daphna; Weiss, Michael D.
The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over time, neonates spend the most time in active sleep and have a progressive shortening of active sleep and lengthening of quiet sleep. Additionally, the sleep cycle is disrupted by many things including disease state and environmen...
Staples, Patrick; Torous, John; Barnett, Ian; Carlson, Kenzie; Sandoval, Luis; Keshavan, Matcheri; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka
Sleep abnormalities are considered an important feature of schizophrenia, yet convenient and reliable sleep monitoring remains a challenge. Smartphones offer a novel solution to capture both self-reported and objective measures of sleep in schizophrenia. In this three-month observational study, 17 subjects with a diagnosis of schizophrenia currently in treatment downloaded Beiwe, a platform for digital phenotyping, on their personal Apple or Android smartphones. Subjects were given tri-weekly ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) on their own smartphones, and passive data including accelerometer, GPS, screen use, and anonymized call and text message logs was continuously collected. We compare the in-clinic assessment of sleep quality, assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Inventory (PSQI), to EMAs, as well as sleep estimates based on passively collected accelerometer data. EMAs and passive data classified 85% (11/13) of subjects as exhibiting high or low sleep quality compared to the in-clinic assessments among subjects who completed at least one in-person PSQI. Phone-based accelerometer data used to infer sleep duration was moderately correlated with subject self-assessment of sleep duration (r = 0.69, 95% CI 0.23-0.90). Active and passive phone data predicts concurrent PSQI scores for all subjects with mean average error of 0.75 and future PSQI scores with a mean average error of 1.9, with scores ranging from 0-14. These results suggest sleep monitoring via personal smartphones is feasible for subjects with schizophrenia in a scalable and affordable manner. SMARTPHONES CAN TRACK SCHIZOPHRENIA-RELATED SLEEP ABNORMALITIES: Smartphones may one-day offer accessible, clinically-useful insights into schizophrenia patients' sleep quality. Despite the clinical relevance of sleep to disease severity, monitoring technologies still evade convenience and reliability. In search of a preferential method, a group of Harvard University researchers led by Patrick
Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W .
Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that these animals exhibited an increase in phasic pontine-wave (P-wave) activity during post-training REM sleep, which was absent in the 43% of animals that failed to retain fear extinction memory. The results of this study provide evidence that brainstem activation, specifically potentiation of phasic P-wave activity, during post-training REM sleep is critical for consolidation of fear extinction memory. The results of this study also suggest that, contrary to the popular hypothesis of sleep and memory, increased sleep after training alone does not guarantee consolidation and/or retention of fear extinction memory. Rather, the potentiation of specific sleep-dependent physiological events may be a more accurate predictor for successful consolidation of fear extinction memory. Identification of this unique mechanism will significantly improve our present understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the sleep-dependent regulation of emotional memory. Additionally, this discovery may also initiate development of a new, more targeted treatment method for clinical disorders of fear and anxiety in humans that is more efficacious than existing methods such as exposure therapy that incorporate only fear extinction. PMID:23467372
Full Text Available Sleep is an important component of pediatric health and is crucial for cognitive development. Actigraphy is a validated, objective tool to capture sleep and movement data that is increasingly being used in the perioperative context. The aim of this review is to present recent pediatric studies that utilized actigraphy in the perioperative period, highlight gaps in the literature, and provide recommendations for future research. A literature search was completed using OVID and PubMed databases and articles were selected for inclusion based on relevance to the topic. The literature search resulted in 13 papers that utilized actigraphic measures. Results of the review demonstrated that actigraphy has been used to identify predictors and risk factors for poor postoperative sleep, examine associations among perioperative pain and sleep patterns, and assess activity and energy expenditure in both inpatient and outpatient settings. We propose expansion of actigraphy research to include assessment of sleep via actigraphy to: predict functional recovery in pediatric populations, to study postoperative sleep in high-risk pediatric patients, to test the efficacy of perioperative interventions, and to assess outcomes in special populations for which self-report data on sleep and activity is difficult to obtain.
Sleep deprivation is a critical public health problem, especially in Korean adolescents. This study aimed to identify the association between sleep duration and dietary behaviors, physical activity, mental status, and nutritional status among high school students in South Korea. Based on the data collected from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, 31,407 high school students who met the inclusion criteria were selected and the association between sleep duration and selected health risk factors was identified using multivariable logistic regression models. The average daily sleep duration was 5.7 hours, and the mean BMI was 21.3 kg/m2. Participants with shorter durations of sleep (=7 hours of sleep) were more likely to feel sad or hopeless (adjusted OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.00-1.18), have suicidal ideation (adjusted OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27), and feel much or very much stressed (adjusted OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.66-2.00). Moreover, shorter sleep was associated with less frequent muscle-strengthening exercises, >=3 times per week (adjusted OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.94), and more frequent cracker consumption, >=3 times per week (adjusted OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.13-1.35). High school students in South Korea suffer from extreme sleep deprivation; only 16% of the students were found to have >=7 hours of sleep during weekdays. Sleep education should be provided to students to improve their physical and mental health.
Loppenthin, K.; Esbensen, B. A.; Østergaard, M.
. An inverse univariate association was found between moderate to vigorous physical activity, and fatigue (MFI mental, MFI activity, MFI physical and MFI general), sleep, diabetes, depression, pain, patient global assessment, HAQ and disease activity. The multivariate prediction model demonstrated that fatigue......The aim of this study was to examine physical activity behavior in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to identify potential correlates of regular physical activity including fatigue, sleep, pain, physical function and disease activity. A total of 443 patients were recruited from a rheumatology...... outpatient clinic and included in this cross-sectional study. Physical activity was assessed by a four-class questionnaire, in addition to the Physical Activity Scale. Other instruments included the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Health Assessment...
Shirazi, S.P.; Pakula, J.; Young, I.J.; Crayton, J.W.; Konopka, L.M.; Rybak, M.
Aim: The thalamus is considered to be an important sub-cortical system involved in modulation of cortical activities. A relationship between thalamic activity and surface EEG was recently reported. In this study we evaluated a group of patients with psychiatric disorders who presented with asymmetric perfusion of the thalamus based on brain SPECT HMPAO studies. We predicted that asymmetrical activity of the thalamus would have asymmetrically distributed surface qEEG activity patterns. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three male psychiatric patients (age 54±14) with a primary diagnosis of depression and co-morbid substance abuse (83%) were studied with qEEG and HMPAO brain SPECT. The HMPAO ligand was administered while the EEG activity was being recorded. The SPECT analysis was conducted by means of ROI and SPM. ROI regions were determined based on the Talairach atlas coordinate system. ROI locations were verified by the automated utility, Talairach Demon. QEEG data was analyzed by a standardized protocol involving the NxLink database. Correlations between SPECT findings and qEEG absolute power were calculated. Results: Patients were divided into two groups based on thalamic perfusion patterns. Group 1 (Gr 1) had decreased perfusion to the right thalamus whereas Group 2 (Gr 2) had decreased perfusion to the left thalamus. SPM comparison of the patient groups to normal control subjects indicated significant findings. Comparison of Gr 1 to controls showed increased activity in the left temporal lobe and vermis. Decreased activity was observed in the left and right medial frontal lobes (right Brodmann 9;left Brodmann 6) as well as the left (Brodmann 30) and right (Brodmann 24) cingulate. Gr 2 comparison showed increased activity in the right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann 10) and left inferior parietal lobe. Decreased activity was found in the left inferior frontal lobe (Brodmann 47). A positive correlation between alpha power and thalamic perfusion was identified in Gr
Effing, Tanja W; Olds, Timothy; Williams, Marie T
Objectives: Physical activity, sedentary and sleep behaviours have strong associations with health. This systematic review aimed to identify how clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) report specific recommendations and strategies for these movement behaviours. Methods: A systematic search of databases (Medline, Scopus, CiNAHL, EMbase, Clinical Guideline), reference lists and websites identified current versions of CPGs published since 2005. Specific recommendations and strategies concerning physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep were extracted verbatim. The proportions of CPGs providing specific recommendations and strategies were reported. Results: From 2370 citations identified, 35 CPGs were eligible for inclusion. Of these, 21 (60%) provided specific recommendations for physical activity, while none provided specific recommendations for sedentary behaviour or sleep. The most commonly suggested strategies to improve movement behaviours were encouragement from a healthcare provider (physical activity n = 20; sedentary behaviour n = 2) and referral for a diagnostic sleep study (sleep n = 4). Conclusion: Since optimal physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep durations and patterns are likely to be associated with mitigating the effects of COPD, as well as with general health and well-being, there is a need for further COPD-specific research, consensus and incorporation of recommendations and strategies into CPGs. PMID:28774202
Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Jennum, Poul Jørgen
, the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, and the ADHD Rating Scale. RESULTS: We found a moderate, positive correlation between sleep problems and impaired functioning in both children with ADHD and in typically developed children. ADHD presentations did not differ significantly with respect to sleep......OBJECTIVE: Little systematic information is available regarding how sleep problems influence daytime functioning in children with ADHD, as the role of ADHD presentations and comorbidity is unclear. METHOD: In total, 397 children were assessed with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire...... problem profile, but having a comorbid internalizing or autistic disorder lead to higher sleep problem score. CONCLUSION: Sleep problems and impaired daily functioning were more common in children with ADHD, but the overall association between sleep problems and impaired daily functioning was similar...
Folmann Hempler, Nana; Saurbrey Pals, Regitze; Oest, Lone
Compared to the general population, users of psychiatric services (users) are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, which is associated with lifestyle behaviours. The aim of this study was to pilot test a new collaborative approach in health promotion targeting users. The approach is based...... with course participants and users. Professionals had to test at least one tool in a health promoting activity such as health checks, exercise etc. Data were collected through observations of health promoting activities (n=15) and questionnaires (n=54). Data were analysed using systematic text condensation...... and descriptive statistics. The majority of professionals found that the new approach to a moderate/high degree had improved their collaborative skills (89.3%) and Research Center of Health Promotionwas well-suited for their practice (93.5%). Observations showed that professionals successfully integrated...
Basner, Mathias; Fomberstein, Kenneth M; Razavi, Farid M; Banks, Siobhan; William, Jeffrey H; Rosa, Roger R; Dinges, David F
To gain some insight into how various behavioral (lifestyle) factors influence sleep duration, by investigation of the relationship of sleep time to waking activities using the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). Cross-sectional data from ATUS, an annual telephone survey of a population sample of US citizens who are interviewed regarding how they spent their time during a 24-hour period between 04:00 on the previous day and 04:00 on the interview day. Data were pooled from the 2003, 2004, and 2005 ATUS databases involving N=47,731 respondents older than 14 years of age. N/A. Adjusted multiple linear regression models showed that the largest reciprocal relationship to sleep was found for work time, followed by travel time, which included commute time. Only shorter than average sleepers (socializing, relaxing, and engaging in leisure activities, while both short ( or =8.5 h) watched more TV than the average sleeper. The extent to which sleep time was exchanged for waking activities was also shown to depend on age and gender. Sleep time was minimal while work time was maximal in the age group 45-54 yr, and sleep time increased both with lower and higher age. Work time, travel time, and time for socializing, relaxing, and leisure are the primary activities reciprocally related to sleep time among Americans. These activities may be confounding the frequently observed association between short and long sleep on one hand and morbidity and mortality on the other hand and should be controlled for in future studies.
Quantitative differences among EMG activities of muscles innervated by subpopulations of hypoglossal and upper spinal motoneurons during non-REM sleep - REM sleep transitions: a window on neural processes in the sleeping brain.
Rukhadze, I; Kamani, H; Kubin, L
In the rat, a species widely used to study the neural mechanisms of sleep and motor control, lingual electromyographic activity (EMG) is minimal during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep and then phasic twitches gradually increase after the onset of REM sleep. To better characterize the central neural processes underlying this pattern, we quantified EMG of muscles innervated by distinct subpopulations of hypoglossal motoneurons and nuchal (N) EMG during transitions from non-REM sleep to REM sleep. In 8 chronically instrumented rats, we recorded cortical EEG, EMG at sites near the base of the tongue where genioglossal and intrinsic muscle fibers predominate (GG-I), EMG of the geniohyoid (GH) muscle, and N EMG. Sleep-wake states were identified and EMGs quantified relative to their mean levels in wakefulness in successive 10 s epochs. During non-REM sleep, the average EMG levels differed among the three muscles, with the order being N>GH>GG-I. During REM sleep, due to different magnitudes of phasic twitches, the order was reversed to GG-I>GH>N. GG-I and GH exhibited a gradual increase of twitching that peaked at 70-120 s after the onset of REM sleep and then declined if the REM sleep episode lasted longer. We propose that a common phasic excitatory generator impinges on motoneuron pools that innervate different muscles, but twitching magnitudes are different due to different levels of tonic motoneuronal hyperpolarization. We also propose that REM sleep episodes of average durations are terminated by intense activity of the central generator of phasic events, whereas long REM sleep episodes end as a result of a gradual waning of the tonic disfacilitatory and inhibitory processes.
Werth, E; Achermann, P; Dijk, D J; Borbély, A A
The brain topography of EEG power spectra in the frequency range of sleep spindles was investigated in 34 sleep recordings from 20 healthy young men. Referential (F3-A2, C3-A2, P3-A2 and O1-A2) and bipolar derivations (F3-C3, C3-P3 and P3-O1) along the anteroposterior axis were used. Sleep spindles gave rise to a distinct peak in the EEG power spectrum. The distribution of the peak frequencies pooled over subjects and derivations showed a bimodal pattern with modes at 11.5 and 13.0 Hz, and a trough at 12.25 Hz. The large inter-subject variation in peak frequency (range: 1.25 Hz) contrasted with the small intra-subject variation between derivations, non-REM sleep episodes and different nights. In some individuals and/or some derivations, only a single spindle peak was present. The topographic distributions from referential and bipolar recordings showed differences. The power showed a declining trend over consecutive non-REM sleep episodes in the low range of spindle frequency activity and a rising trend in the high range. The functional and topographic heterogeneity of sleep spindles in conjunction with the intra-subject stability of their frequency are important characteristics for the analysis of sleep regulation on the basis of the EEG.
Full Text Available Research to date suggests that physical activity (PA is associated with distinct aspects of sleep, but studies have predominantly focused on sleep quality, been carried out in younger adults, and have not accounted for many covariates. Of particular interest is also the reported relationship between physical activity and depression in older adults and as such, their associations with sleep duration. Here we examine the cross-sectional relation between physical activity and sleep duration in a community-dwelling sample of 5265 older adults from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We analysed the data using multiple regression, with physical activity as a categorical exposure and sleep duration a continuous outcome, as well as testing the interaction between physical activity and depressive symptoms, which was significant (p 0.05. Our findings suggest that a potentially effective way of improving sleep in older adults with depressive symptoms is via physical activity interventions.
Wei, Qian; Ta, Guang; He, Wenjing; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qiucheng
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for treating insomnia for centuries. The most used CHM for insomnia was Polygonum multiflorum. However, the molecular mechanism for CHM preventing insomnia is unknown. Stilbene glucoside (THSG), an important active component of P. multiflorum, may play an important role for treating insomnia. To test the hypothesis, Kunming mice were treated with different dosages of THSG. To examine the sleep duration, a computer-controlled sleep-wake detection system was implemented. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) electrodes were implanted to determine sleep-wake state. RT-PCR and Western blot was used to measure the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and saliva alpha amylase. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to identify the strength of correlation between the variables. The results showed that THSG significantly prolonged the sleep time of the mice (palpha amylase (palpha amylase (pamylase were negatively associated with sleep duration (palpha amylase.
Li, Junxin; Yang, Binbin; Varrasse, Miranda; Ji, Xiaopeng; Wu, MaoChun; Li, Manman; Li, Kun
This cross-sectional study was conducted to describe physical activity and sleep in 290 community-dwelling Chinese older adults and to examine the association between physical activity and poor sleep outcomes. Almost half of the sample were poor sleepers. The majority of the sample regularly participated in walking, some household activity and light sports; yet, only a small portion were involved in work-related activity or in strenuous sports. A greater level of overall physical activity [Odds Ratio (OR) =0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (0.73,0.86)], leisure-time exercise [OR=0.77, 95%CI=(0.68,0.85)], and household activity [OR=0.66, 95%CI= (0.56,0.78)] were associated with reduced likelihood of being poor sleepers and other poor sleep outcomes, independent of covariates including age, sex, education, family income, the number of children, drinking, and sleep hygiene. Future larger scale studies that incorporate both objective and subjective measures are needed to further examine the association and to explore the effects of different types of activity on sleep and other well-beings in older adults.
Sabir, Meriem; Gaudreault, Pierre-Olivier; Freyburger, Marlène; Massart, Renaud; Blanchet-Cohen, Alexis; Jaber, Manar; Gosselin, Nadia; Mongrain, Valérie
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mild TBI (mTBI), is importantly associated with vigilance and sleep complaints. Because sleep is required for learning, plasticity and recovery, we here evaluated the bidirectional relationship between mTBI and sleep with two specific objectives: (1) Test that mTBI rapidly impairs sleep-wake architecture and the dynamics of the electrophysiological marker of sleep homeostasis (i.e., non-rapid eye movement sleep delta (1-4Hz) activity); (2) evaluate the impact of sleep loss following mTBI on the expression of plasticity markers that have been linked to sleep homeostasis and on genome-wide gene expression. A closed-head injury model was used to perform a 48h electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording in mice submitted to mTBI or Sham surgery. mTBI was found to immediately decrease the capacity to sustain long bouts of wakefulness as well as the amplitude of the time course of ECoG delta activity during wakefulness. Significant changes in ECoG spectral activity during wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep were observed mainly on the second recorded day. A second experiment was performed to measure gene expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus after a mTBI followed either by two consecutive days of 6h sleep deprivation (SD) or of undisturbed behavior (quantitative PCR and next-generation sequencing). mTBI modified the expression of genes involved in immunity, inflammation and glial function (e.g., chemokines, glial markers) and SD changed that of genes linked to circadian rhythms, synaptic activity/neuronal plasticity, neuroprotection and cell death and survival. SD appeared to affect gene expression in the cerebral cortex more importantly after mTBI than Sham surgery including that of the astrocytic marker Gfap, which was proposed as a marker of clinical outcome after TBI. Interestingly, SD impacted the hippocampal expression of the plasticity elements Arc and EfnA3 only after mTBI. Overall, our
Gögenur, Ismail; Bisgaard, Thue; Burgdorf, Stefan
BACKGROUND: Studies on the circadian variation in bodily functions and sleep are important for understanding the pathophysiological processes in the postoperative period. We aimed to investigate changes in the circadian variation in activity after minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopic...... scale (sleep quality, general well-being and pain) and fatigue was measured by a ten-point fatigue scale. The activity levels of the patients were monitored by actigraphy (a wrist-worn device measuring patient activity). Measures of circadian activity level [interday stability (IS), intraday variability...
Hart, C N; Hawley, N; Davey, A; Carskadon, M; Raynor, H; Jelalian, E; Owens, J; Considine, R; Wing, R R
Paediatric observational studies demonstrate associations between sleep, television viewing and potential changes in daytime activity levels. To determine whether experimental changes in sleep lead to changes in children's sedentary and physical activities. Using a within-subject counterbalanced design, 37 children 8-11 years old completed a 3-week study. Children slept their typical amount during a baseline week and were then randomized to increase or decrease mean time in bed by 1.5 h/night for 1 week; the alternate schedule was completed the final week. Children wore actigraphs on their non-dominant wrist and completed 3-d physical activity recalls each week. Children reported watching more television (p television viewing and decreased mean activity levels. Although additional time awake may help to counteract negative effects of short sleep, increases in reported sedentary activities could contribute to weight gain over time. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab
Behaviours of several animal species have been linked to lunar periodicity. Evidence for such links in humans is weak; however, recently, shorter sleep duration was reported around full moon in two small samples of adults. As restrictions in sleep duration have been shown to adversely affect...... and sleep as well as 2000 measurements of different cardiometabolic risk factors, including insulin sensitivity, appetite hormones and blood pressure, during nine lunar phases. During the period around full moon, children were 5.0 and 3.2 min per day less active, slept 2.4 and 4.1 min per night longer, had...... compared with days around half moon (both P sleep is responsible for the metabolic alterations observed around full moon. However, we have no understanding of potential mechanisms that may mediate a potential true link between childhood...
Paul, Karel; Krajca, Vladimír; Roth, Zdenek; Melichar, Jan; Petránek, Svojmil
The aim of the present study was to verify whether the proposed method of computer-supported EEG analysis is able to differentiate the EEG activity in quiet sleep (QS) from that in active sleep (AS) in newborns. A quantitative description of the neonatal EEG may contribute to a more exact evaluation of the functional state of the brain, as well as to a refinement of diagnostics of brain dysfunction manifesting itself frequently as 'dysrhythmia' or 'dysmaturity'. Twenty-one healthy newborns (10 full-term and 11 pre-term) were examined polygraphically (EEG-eight channels, respiration, ECG, EOG and EMG) in the course of sleep. From each EEG record, two 5-min samples (one from QS and one from AS) were subject to an off-line computerized analysis. The obtained data were averaged with respect to the sleep state and to the conceptional age. The number of variables was reduced by means of factor analysis. All factors identified by factor analysis were highly significantly influenced by sleep states in both developmental periods. Likewise, a comparison of the measured variables between QS and AS revealed many statistically significant differences. The variables describing (a) the number and length of quasi-stationary segments, (b) voltage and (c) power in delta and theta bands contributed to the greatest degree to the differentiation of EEGs between both sleep states. The presented method of the computerized EEG analysis which has good discriminative potential is adequately sensitive and describes the neonatal EEG with convenient accuracy.
Suzuki, Masahiro; Konno, Chisato; Furihata, Ryuji; Osaki, Koichi; Uchiyama, Makoto
Most psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, or neurotic disorders are associated with sleep disorders of various kinds, among which insomnia is most prevalent and important in psychiatric practice. Almost all patients suffering from major depression complain of insomnia. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia associated with major depression shortens the duration to achieve remission of depression. Insomnia has been recently reported to be a risk factor for depression. In patients with schizophrenia, insomnia is often an early indicator of the aggravation of psychotic symptoms. Electroencephalographic sleep studies have also revealed sleep abnormalities characteristic to mood disorders, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. A shortened REM sleep latency has been regarded as a biological marker of depression. Reduced amount of deep non-REM sleep has been reported to be correlated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, REM sleep abnormalities were found in teenagers having post-traumatic stress disorder after a boat accident. Although these facts indicate that insomnia plays an important role in the development of psychiatric disorders, there are few hypotheses explaining the cause and effect of insomnia in these disorders. Here, we reviewed recent articles on insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders together with their clinical managements.
Rosenberger, Mary E.; Buman, Matthew P.; Haskell, William L.; McConnell, Michael V.; Carstensen, Laura L.
Getting enough sleep, exercising and limiting sedentary activities can greatly contribute to disease prevention and overall health and longevity. Measuring the full 24-hour activity cycle - sleep, sedentary behavior (SED), light intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) - may now be feasible using small wearable devices. PURPOSE This study compares nine devices for accuracy in 24-hour activity measurement. METHODS Adults (N=40, 47% male) wore nine devices for 24-hours: Actigraph GT3X+, activPAL, Fitbit One, GENEactiv, Jawbone Up, LUMOback, Nike Fuelband, Omron pedometer, and Z-Machine. Comparisons (to standards) were made for total sleep time (Z-machine), time spent in SED (activPAL), LPA (GT3x+), MVPA (GT3x+), and steps (Omron). Analysis included mean absolute percent error, equivalence testing, and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS Error rates ranged from 8.1–16.9% for sleep; 9.5–65.8% for SED; 19.7–28.0% for LPA; 51.8–92% for MVPA; and 14.1–29.9% for steps. Equivalence testing indicated only two comparisons were significantly equivalent to standards: the LUMOback for sedentary behavior and the GT3X+ for sleep. Bland-Altman plots indicated GT3X+ had the closest measurement for sleep, LUMOback for sedentary behavior, GENEactiv for LPA, Fitbit for MVPA and GT3X+ for steps. CONCLUSIONS Currently, no device accurately captures activity data across the entire 24-hour day, but the future of activity measurement should aim for accurate 24-hour measurement as a goal. Researchers should continue to select measurement devices based on their primary outcomes of interest. PMID:26484953
Roveda, E; Montaruli, A; Galasso, L; Pesenti, C; Bruno, E; Pasanisi, P; Cortellini, M; Rampichini, S; Erzegovesi, S; Caumo, A; Esposito, F
Recent findings suggest that altered rest-activity circadian rhythms (RARs) are associated with a compromised health status. RARs abnormalities have been observed also in several pathological conditions, such as cardiovascular, neurological, and cancer diseases. Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder, with a prevalence of 3.5% in women and 2% in men. BED and its associate obesity and motor inactivity could induce RARs disruption and have negative consequences on health-related quality of life. However, the circadian RARs and sleep behavior in patients with BED has been so far assessed only by questionnaires. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine RARs and sleep parameters by actigraphy in patients with BED compared to a body mass index-matched control group (Ctrl). Sixteen participants (eight obese women with and eight obese women without BED diagnosis) were recruited to undergo 5-day monitoring period by actigraphy (MotionWatch 8®, CamNtech, Cambridge, UK) to evaluate RARs and sleep parameters. In order to determine the RARs, the actigraphic data were analyzed using the single cosinor method. The rhythmometric parameters of activity levels (MESOR, amplitude and acrophase) were then processed with the population mean cosinor. The Actiwatch Sleep Analysis Software (Cambridge Neurotecnology, Cambridge, UK) evaluated the sleep patterns. In each participant, we considered seven sleep parameters (sleep onset: S-on; sleep offset: S-off; sleep duration: SD; sleep latency: SL; movement and fragmentation index: MFI; immobility time: IT; sleep efficiency: SE) calculated over a period of five nights. The population mean cosinor applied to BED and Ctrl revealed the presence of a significant circadian rhythm in both groups (p < 0.001). The MESOR (170.0 vs 301.6 a.c., in BED and Ctrl, respectively; p < 0.01) and amplitude (157.66 vs 238.19 a.c., in BED and Ctrl, respectively p < 0.05) differed significantly between the two groups
DeMasi, Orianna; Feygin, Sidney; Dembo, Aluma; Aguilera, Adrian; Recht, Benjamin
Automatically tracking mental well-being could facilitate personalization of treatments for mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder. Smartphones present a novel and ubiquitous opportunity to track individuals' behavior and may be useful for inferring and automatically monitoring mental well-being. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which activity and sleep tracking with a smartphone can be used for monitoring individuals' mental well-being. A cohort of 106 individuals was recruited to install an app on their smartphone that would track their well-being with daily surveys and track their behavior with activity inferences from their phone's accelerometer data. Of the participants recruited, 53 had sufficient data to infer activity and sleep measures. For this subset of individuals, we related measures of activity and sleep to the individuals' well-being and used these measures to predict their well-being. We found that smartphone-measured approximations for daily physical activity were positively correlated with both mood (P=.004) and perceived energy level (PSleep duration was positively correlated with mood (P=.02) but not energy. Our measure for sleep disturbance was not found to be significantly related to either mood or energy, which could imply too much noise in the measurement. Models predicting the well-being measures from the activity and sleep measures were found to be significantly better than naive baselines (Psleep inferred from smartphone activity were strongly related to and somewhat predictive of participants' well-being. Whereas the improvement over naive models was modest, it reaffirms the importance of considering physical activity and sleep for predicting mood and for making automatic mood monitoring a reality. ©Orianna DeMasi, Sidney Feygin, Aluma Dembo, Adrian Aguilera, Benjamin Recht. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 05.10.2017.
The effects of Snoezelen (multi-sensory behavior therapy) and psychiatric care on agitation, apathy, and activities of daily living in dementia patients on a short term geriatric psychiatric inpatient unit.
Staal, Jason A; Sacks, Amanda; Matheis, Robert; Collier, Lesley; Calia, Tina; Hanif, Henry; Kofman, Eugene S
A randomized, controlled, single-blinded, between group study of 24 participants with moderate to severe dementia was conducted on a geriatric psychiatric unit. All participants received pharmacological therapy, occupational therapy, structured hospital environment, and were randomized to receive multi sensory behavior therapy (MSBT) or a structured activity session. Greater independence in activities of daily living (ADLs) was observed for the group treated with MSBT and standard psychiatric inpatient care on the Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living (KI-ADL; P = 0.05) than standard psychiatric inpatient care alone. The combination treatment of MSBT and standard psychiatric care also reduced agitation and apathy greater than standard psychiatric inpatient care alone as measured with the Pittsburgh Agitation Scale and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease (P = 0.05). Multiple regression analysis predicted that within the multi-sensory group, activities of daily living (KI-ADL) increased as apathy and agitation reduced (R2 = 0.42; p = 0.03). These data suggest that utilizing MSBT with standard psychiatric inpatient care may reduce apathy and agitation and additionally improve activities of daily living in hospitalized people with moderate to severe dementia more than standard care alone.
Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe
We investigated the associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity and body weight among Canadian adults, and tested whether trouble sleeping and physical activity moderated the relationship between work/life stress and body weight, and whether work/life stress and physical activity moderated the relationship between trouble sleeping and body weight. Data on 13,926 Canadian adults aged 20years and older were derived from the nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, household income, marital status and job insecurity, self-perceived work and life stress and trouble sleeping were associated with a higher BMI. The associations of work and life stress with higher BMI were independent of trouble sleeping and physical activity in addition to other covariates, while that of trouble sleeping and higher BMI was independent of work and life stress. Results further indicated that trouble sleeping among inactive participants was related to a higher BMI; however, this relationship was almost null for adults who self-reported being physically active for about 8h/week. These findings suggest that work and life stress are both associated with excess weight in adults, regardless of physical activity level, while the link of trouble sleeping with BMI varies by physical activity level. Future research is necessary to determine whether reducing work and life stress and improving sleep habits would benefit the prevention of weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,
Full Text Available Sleep slow wave activity (SWA is thought to reflect sleep need, increasing in proportion to the length of prior wakefulness and decreasing during sleep. However, the process responsible for SWA regulation is not known. We showed recently that SWA increases locally after a learning task involving a circumscribed brain region, suggesting that SWA may reflect plastic changes triggered by learning.To test this hypothesis directly, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in conjunction with high-density EEG in humans. We show that 5-Hz TMS applied to motor cortex induces a localized potentiation of TMS-evoked cortical EEG responses. We then show that, in the sleep episode following 5-Hz TMS, SWA increases markedly (+39.1+/-17.4%, p<0.01, n = 10. Electrode coregistration with magnetic resonance images localized the increase in SWA to the same premotor site as the maximum TMS-induced potentiation during wakefulness. Moreover, the magnitude of potentiation during wakefulness predicts the local increase in SWA during sleep.These results provide direct evidence for a link between plastic changes and the local regulation of sleep need.
Wennman, Heini; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Peltonen, Markku; Vasankari, Tommi; Borodulin, Katja
Associations of behaviorally modifiable factors like physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and sleep with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are complicated. We examined whether membership in latent classes (LCs) differentiated by PA and sleep profiles (real-life clustering of behaviors in population subgroups) associate with metabolic risk factors and CVD risk. The National FINRISK 2012 Study comprise a cross-sectional sample of 10,000 Finns aged 25 to 74 years. Analyses included participants with complete data on a health questionnaire, a health examination, who had no prevalent CVD (n = 4031). LCs with PA and sleep profiles were previously defined using latent class analysis. Ten metabolic risk factors and the Framingham 10-year CVD risk score were compared between the LCs. PA and sleep class profiles were substantially similar for genders. Compared to LC-1, with a profile including high PA and sufficient sleep, membership in LC-4, with a profile including sedentariness and insufficient sleep was associated with high metabolic risk factors in women but not in men. In women, also membership in LC-2, with a profile including light PA, sufficient sleep, and high sedentariness was associated with high metabolic risk factors. The Framingham 10-year CVD risk score was highest in LCs 2 and 4 in both genders. Membership in LCs differentiated by PA and sleep profiles was associated with metabolic risk factors merely in women, suggesting gender differences in the interrelationships of health behaviors and metabolic risk factors. Total CVD risk differed between the LCs despite of gender; however, the effect was small.
Huang, Chun-Ta; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying; Chen, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yi-Ju
Sleep deprivation is common in patients with neuropathic pain, but the effect of sleep deprivation on pathological pain remains uncertain. This study investigated whether sleep deprivation aggravates neuropathic symptoms and enhances microglial activation in the cuneate nucleus (CN) in a median nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Also, we assessed if melatonin supplements during the sleep deprived period attenuates these effects. Rats were subjected to sleep deprivation for 3 days by the disc-on-water method either before or after CCI. In the melatonin treatment group, CCI rats received melatonin supplements at doses of 37.5, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg during sleep deprivation. Melatonin was administered at 23:00 once a day. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 180-250 g (n = 190), were used. Seven days after CCI, behavioral testing was conducted, and immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of microglial activation and measurements of proinflammatory cytokines. In rats who underwent post-CCI sleep deprivation, microglia were more profoundly activated and neuropathic pain was worse than those receiving pre-CCI sleep deprivation. During the sleep deprived period, serum melatonin levels were low over the 24-h period. Administration of melatonin to CCI rats with sleep deprivation significantly attenuated activation of microglia and development of neuropathic pain, and markedly decreased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines. Sleep deprivation makes rats more vulnerable to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, probably because of associated lower melatonin levels. Melatonin supplements to restore a circadian variation in melatonin concentrations during the sleep deprived period could alleviate nerve injury-induced behavioral hypersensitivity. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Hjorth, Mads F.; Sørensen, Louise B.; Andersen, Rikke
% of expected learning within one school year (P breakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three...
DePorter, Danielle P; Coborn, Jamie E; Teske, Jennifer A
Sufficient sleep is required for weight maintenance. Sleep deprivation due to noise exposure stimulates weight gain by increasing hyperphagia and reducing energy expenditure (EE). Yet the mechanistic basis underlying the weight gain response is unclear. Orexin-A promotes arousal and negative energy balance, and orexin terminals project to the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), which is involved in sleep-to-wake transitions. To determine whether sleep deprivation reduces orexin function in VLPO and to test the hypothesis that sleep deprivation would attenuate the orexin-A-stimulated increase in arousal, physical activity (PA), and EE. Electroencephalogram, electromyogram, distance traveled, and EE were determined in male Sprague-Dawley rats following orexin-A injections into VLPO both before and after acute (12-h) and chronic (8 h/d, 9 d) sleep deprivation by noise exposure. Orexin-A in the VLPO significantly increased arousal, PA, total EE, and PA-related EE and reduced sleep and respiratory quotient before sleep deprivation. In contrast to after acute sleep deprivation in which orexin-A failed to stimulate EE during PA only, orexin-A failed to significantly increase arousal, PA, fat oxidation, total EE, and PA-related EE after chronic sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation may reduce sensitivity to endogenous stimuli that enhance EE due to PA and thus stimulate weight gain. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M
Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.
Nikonova, Elena V; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Zhang, Lin; Cater, Jacqueline R; Galante, Raymond J; Ward, Stephen E; Avadhani, Narayan G; Pack, Allan I
Increased mRNA level of subunit 1 cytochrome c oxidase (COXI) during wakefulness and after short-term sleep deprivation has been described in brain. We hypothesized that this might contribute to increased activity of cytochrome oxidase (COX) enzyme during wakefulness, as part of the mechanisms to provide sufficient amounts of adenosine triphosphate to meet increased neuronal energy demands. COX activity was measured in isolated mitochondria from different brain regions in groups of rats with 3 hours of spontaneous sleep, 3 hours of spontaneous wake, and 3 hours of sleep deprivation. The group with 3 hours of spontaneous wake was added to delineate the circadian component of changes in the enzyme activity. Northern blot analysis was performed to examine the mRNA levels of 2 subunits of the enzyme COXI and COXIV, encoded by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, respectively. Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Animal Biology, and Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania. 2-month-old male Fischer rats (N = 21) implanted for polygraphic recording. For COX activity, there was a main effect by analysis of variance of experimental group (P sleep-deprived groups as compared to the sleep group. A main effect of brain region was also significant (P sleep. There is an increase in COX activity after both 3 hours of spontaneous wake and 3 hours of sleep deprivation as compared with 3 hours of spontaneous sleep in diverse brain regions, which could be, in part, explained by the increased levels of bigenomic transcripts of the enzyme. This likely contributes to increased adenosine triphosphate production during wakefulness. ADP, adenosine diphosphate; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; COXI, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mRNA; COX, cytochrome c oxidase (protein); CREB, cyclic AMP response element binding protein; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; EEG, electroencephalography; EMG, electromyography; GABP, GA binding
Garbarino, Sergio; Lanteri, Paola; Durando, Paolo; Magnavita, Nicola; Sannita, Walter G
Sleep disorders are frequent (18%-23%) and constitute a major risk factor for psychiatric, cardiovascular, metabolic or hormonal co-morbidity and mortality. Low social status or income, unemployment, life events such as divorce, negative lifestyle habits, and professional requirements (e.g., shift work) are often associated with sleep problems. Sleep disorders affect the quality of life and impair both professional and non-professional activities. Excessive daytime drowsiness resulting from sleep disorders impairs efficiency and safety at work or on the road, and increases the risk of accidents. Poor sleep (either professional or voluntary) has detrimental effects comparable to those of major sleep disorders, but is often neglected. The high incidence and direct/indirect healthcare and welfare costs of sleep disorders and poor sleep currently constitute a major medical problem. Investigation, monitoring and strategies are needed in order to prevent/reduce the effects of these disorders.
Full Text Available Sleep disorders are frequent (18%–23% and constitute a major risk factor for psychiatric, cardiovascular, metabolic or hormonal co-morbidity and mortality. Low social status or income, unemployment, life events such as divorce, negative lifestyle habits, and professional requirements (e.g., shift work are often associated with sleep problems. Sleep disorders affect the quality of life and impair both professional and non-professional activities. Excessive daytime drowsiness resulting from sleep disorders impairs efficiency and safety at work or on the road, and increases the risk of accidents. Poor sleep (either professional or voluntary has detrimental effects comparable to those of major sleep disorders, but is often neglected. The high incidence and direct/indirect healthcare and welfare costs of sleep disorders and poor sleep currently constitute a major medical problem. Investigation, monitoring and strategies are needed in order to prevent/reduce the effects of these disorders.
Andressa Juliane Martins
Full Text Available Physical activity has been recommended as a strategy for improving sleep. Nevertheless, physical effort at work might not be not the ideal type of activity to promote sleep quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of type of job (low vs. high physical effort and life-style on sleep of workers from an Amazonian Extractivist Reserve, Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 148 low physical activity (factory workers and 340 high physical activity (rubber tappers was conducted between September and November 2011. The workers filled out questionnaires collecting data on demographics (sex, age, occupation, marital status and children, health (reported morbidities, sleep disturbances, musculoskeletal pain and body mass index and life-style (smoking, alcohol use and practice of leisure-time physical activity. Logistic regression models were applied with the presence of sleep disturbances as the primary outcome variable. The prevalence of sleep disturbances among factory workers and rubber tappers was 15.5% and 27.9%, respectively. The following independent variables of the analysis were selected based on a univariate model (p40 years, and having musculoskeletal pain (≥5 symptoms. Rubber tapper work, owing to greater physical effort, pain and musculoskeletal fatigue, was associated with sleep disturbances. Being female and older than 40 years were also predictors of poor sleep. In short, these findings suggest that demanding physical exertion at work may not improve sleep quality.
Rodriguez, Alexander V; Funk, Chadd M; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara
During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, cortical neurons alternate between ON periods of firing and OFF periods of silence. This bi-stability, which is largely synchronous across neurons, is reflected in the EEG as slow waves. Slow-wave activity (SWA) increases with wake duration and declines homeostatically during sleep, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One possibility is neuronal "fatigue": high, sustained firing in wake would force neurons to recover with more frequent and longer OFF periods during sleep. Another possibility is net synaptic potentiation during wake: stronger coupling among neurons would lead to greater synchrony and therefore higher SWA. Here, we obtained a comparable increase in sustained firing (6 h) in cortex by: (1) keeping mice awake by exposure to novel objects to promote plasticity and (2) optogenetically activating a local population of cortical neurons at wake-like levels during sleep. Sleep after extended wake led to increased SWA, higher synchrony, and more time spent OFF, with a positive correlation between SWA, synchrony, and OFF periods. Moreover, time spent OFF was correlated with cortical firing during prior wake. After local optogenetic stimulation, SWA and cortical synchrony decreased locally, time spent OFF did not change, and local SWA was not correlated with either measure. Moreover, laser-induced cortical firing was not correlated with time spent OFF afterward. Overall, these results suggest that high sustained firing per se may not be the primary determinant of SWA increases observed after extended wake. A long-standing hypothesis is that neurons fire less during slow-wave sleep to recover from the "fatigue" accrued during wake, when overall synaptic activity is higher than in sleep. This idea, however, has rarely been tested and other factors, namely increased cortical synchrony, could explain why sleep slow-wave activity (SWA) is higher after extended wake. We forced neurons in the mouse cortex to fire
Takahashi, H; Sassa, T; Shibuya, T; Kato, M; Koeda, M; Murai, T; Matsuura, M; Asai, K; Suhara, T; Okubo, Y
Weight gain has been identified as being responsible for increased morbidity and mortality rates of schizophrenia patients. For the management of weight gain, exercise is one of the most acknowledged interventions. At the same time, exercise and sports have been recognized for their positive impact on psychiatric symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the neurobiological basis for this remains poorly understood. We aimed to examine the effect of sports participation on weight gain, psychiatric s...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that disturbed activity of the autonomic nervous system is one of the factors involved in gastroesophageal reflux (GER in adults. We sought to establish whether transient ANS dysfunction (as assessed by heart rate variability is associated with the occurrence of GER events in neonates during sleep and wakefulness. METHODS: Nineteen neonates with suspected GER underwent simultaneous, synchronized 12-hour polysomnography and esophageal multichannel impedance-pH monitoring. We compared changes in HRV parameters during three types of periods (control and prior to and during reflux with respect to the vigilance state. RESULTS: The vigilance state influenced the distribution of GER events (P<0.001, with 53.4% observed during wakefulness, 37.6% observed during active sleep and only 9% observed during quiet sleep. A significant increase in the sympathovagal ratio (+32%, P=0.013 was observed in the period immediately prior to reflux (due to a 15% reduction in parasympathetic activity (P=0.017, relative to the control period. This phenomenon was observed during both wakefulness and active sleep. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that GER events were preceded by a vigilance-state-independent decrease in parasympathetic tone. This suggests that a pre-reflux change in ANS activity is one of the factors contributing to the mechanism of reflux in neonates.
Santos, Patrícia Dos; Targa, Adriano D S; Noseda, Ana Carolina D; Rodrigues, Lais S; Fagotti, Juliane; Lima, Marcelo M S
Several efforts have been made to understand the involvement of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep for cognitive processes. Consolidation or retention of recognition memories is severely disrupted by REM sleep deprivation (REMSD). In this regard, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) and other brainstem nuclei, such as pontine nucleus (Pn) and oculomotor nucleus (OCM), appear to be candidates to take part in this REM sleep circuitry with potential involvement in cognition. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate a possible association between the performance of Wistar rats in a declarative memory and PPT, Pn, and OCM activities after different periods of REMSD. We examined c-Fos and choline acetyltransferase (ChaT) expressions as indicators of neuronal activity as well as a familiarity-based memory test. The animals were distributed in groups: control, REMSD, and sleep rebound (REB). At the end of the different REMSD (24, 48, 72, and 96 h) and REB (24 h) time points, the rats were immediately tested in the object recognition test and then the brains were collected. Results indicated that OCM neurons presented an increased activity, due to ChaT-labeling associated with REMSD that negatively correlated (r = -0.32) with the cognitive performance. This suggests the existence of a cholinergic compensatory mechanism within the OCM during REMSD. We also showed that 24 h of REMSD impacted similarly in memory, compared to longer periods of REMSD. These data extend the notion that REM sleep is influenced by areas other than PPT, i.e., Pn and OCM, which could be key players in both sleep processes and cognition.
Full Text Available Jihui Wang, Guangxia Yin, Guanying Li, Wenjing Liang, Qinling Wei Department of Psychiatry, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: Lack of physical activity (PA is common in patients with chronic insomnia. Studies to increase PA and decrease sedentary behavior in those patients are limited. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of “PA counseling combined with sleep restriction (SR therapy (PASR” vs only SR in the patients with chronic insomnia. Methods: Seventy-one outpatients were assigned to either PASR (n=35, consisting of four weekly PA counseling sessions based on 5A model (assess, advise, agree, assist, and arrange + SR, or SR (n=36, consisting of four weekly SR. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Chinese version and pedometer-based daily steps were evaluated as the primary endpoints. Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Fatigue Scale-14, and Sleep Diary were evaluated as the secondary endpoints. Results: The results showed that the patients in the PASR group gained more benefits than the SR group in terms of PA level and pedometer-based daily steps (all P<0.05. Better improvements of the study group were also shown in Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Fatigue Scale-14, and Sleep efficiency (all P<0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that PA counseling based on 5A model combined with SR cannot only effectively increase the PA levels but also improve the sleep quality for patients with chronic insomnia. Keywords: behavioral therapy, physical activity, sleep disorders, sleep restriction, counseling
Peralta, Gabriela P; Forns, Joan; García de la Hera, Manuela; González, Llúcia; Guxens, Mònica; López-Vicente, Mónica; Sunyer, Jordi; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith
To analyze associations between time spent sleeping, watching TV, engaging in cognitively stimulating activities, and engaging in physical activity, all at 4 years, and (1) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and (2) behavior problems, both assessed at 7 years, in ADHD-free children at baseline. In total, 817 participants of the Infancia y Medio Ambiente birth cohort, without ADHD at baseline, were included. At the 4-year follow-up, parents reported the time that their children spent sleeping, watching TV, engaging in cognitively stimulating activities, and engaging in physical activity. At the 7-year follow-up, parents completed the Conners' Parent Rating Scales and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which measure ADHD symptoms and behavior problems, respectively. Negative binomial regression models were used to assess associations between the activities at 4 years and ADHD symptoms and behavior problems at 7 years. Children (48% girls) spent a median (p25-p75) of 10 (10-11) hours per day sleeping, 1.5 (0.9-2) hours per day watching TV, 1.4 (0.9-1.9) hours per day engaging in cognitively stimulating activities, and 1.5 (0.4-2.3) hours per day engaging in physical activity. Longer sleep duration (>10 hours per day) was associated with a lower ADHD symptom score (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 0.97, 95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.00). Longer time spent in cognitively stimulating activities (>1 hours per day) was associated with lower scores of both ADHD symptoms (0.96, 0.94-0.98) and behavior problems (0.89, 0.83-0.97). Time spent watching TV and engaging in physical activity were not associated with either outcomes. A shorter sleep duration and less time spent in cognitively stimulating activities were associated with an increased risk of developing ADHD symptoms and behavior problems.
Full Text Available Sleep slow wave activity (SWA, the major electrophysiological characteristic of deep sleep, mirrors both cortical restructuring and functioning. The incidence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD substantially rises during the vulnerable developmental phase of adolescence, where essential cortical restructuring is taking place. The goal of this study was to assess characteristics of SWA topography in adolescents with MDD, in order to assess abnormalities in both cortical restructuring and functioning on a local level. All night high-density EEG was recorded in 15 patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for MDD and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The actual symptom severity was assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale—Revised (CDRS-R. Topographical power maps were calculated based on the average SWA of the first non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep episode. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly more SWA in a cluster of frontal electrodes compared to controls. SWA over frontal brain regions correlated positively with the CDRS-R subscore “morbid thoughts”. Self-reported sleep latency was significantly higher in depressed adolescents compared to controls whereas sleep architecture did not differ between the groups. Higher frontal SWA in depressed adolescents may represent a promising biomarker tracing cortical regions of intense use and/or restructuring.
Moreira, Pedro; Santos, Susana; Padrão, Patrícia; Cordeiro, Tânia; Bessa, Mariana; Valente, Hugo; Barros, Renata; Teixeira, Vitor; Mitchell, Vanessa; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, André
Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables. PMID:20617022
Full Text Available Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables.
Jeppesen, Jesper; Otto, Marit; Frederiksen, Yoon
OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is defined by dream enactment due to a failure of normal muscle atonia. Visual assessment of this muscle activity is time consuming and rater-dependent. METHODS: An EMG computer algorithm for scoring 'tonic', 'phasic' and 'any......' submental muscle activity during REM sleep was evaluated compared with human visual ratings. Subsequently, 52 subjects were analyzed with the algorithm. Duration and maximal amplitude of muscle activity, and self-awareness of RBD symptoms were assessed. RESULTS: The computer algorithm showed high congruency...... sleep without atonia. CONCLUSIONS: Our proposed algorithm was able to detect and rate REM sleep without atonia allowing identification of RBD. Increased duration and amplitude of muscle activity bouts were characteristics of RBD. Quantification of REM sleep without atonia represents a marker of RBD...
Bundgaard, Anne Katrine F.; Asmussen, Jette; Pedersen, Nadia S.
This study investigated whether early signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in toddlers aged 2-3 years are associated with disturbed sleep and activity levels. Participants were recruited from the Odense Child Cohort, and children scoring above the 93rd percentile on the ADHD...
Laurson, Kelly R; Lee, Joey A; Gentile, Douglas A; Walsh, David A; Eisenmann, Joey C
Aim. To examine the simultaneous influence of physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration recommendations on the odds of childhood obesity (including overweight). Methods. Physical activity was assessed via pedometer and screen time, and sleep duration were assessed via survey in a cross sectional sample of 674 children (aged 7-12 years) from two Midwestern communities in the fall of 2005. Participants were cross tabulated into four groups depending on how many recommendations were being met (0, 1, 2, or all 3). Linear and logistic regression were used to examine the influence of physical activity, screen time and sleep duration on obesity and interactions among the three variables. Results. Children achieving all three recommendations simultaneously (9.2% of total sample) were the least likely to be obese. Approximately 16% of boys and 9% of girls achieving all recommendations were overweight or obese compared to 53% of boys and 42.5% of girls not achieving any. Conclusions. The odds of obesity increased in a graded manner for each recommendation which was not met. Meeting all three recommendations appears to have a protective effect against obesity. Continued efforts are warranted to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors that include meeting physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration recommendations concurrently.
Brychta, Robert J; Arnardóttir, Nanna Ýr; Jóhannsson, Erlingur
Study Objectives: To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. Methods: A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 +/- 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger...
Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta
We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Krenk, Lene; Jennum, Poul; Kehlet, Henrik
Optimized perioperative care after total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA) has decreased length of stay (LOS) but data on activity, sleep and cognition after discharge are limited. We included 20 patients ≥60years undergoing THA/TKA, monitoring them for 3days preoperatively and 9days...
Busto-Zapico, Raquel; Amigo-Vázquez, Isaac; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Fernández-Rodríguez, Concepción
The aim of this study is to show how sedentary leisure activities and a decrease in hours of sleep interact to lead to an increase in the body mass index (BMI) in children. A random sample of 291 nine-year-old and ten-year-old schoolchildren from Asturias (Spain) was taken. A cross-sectional design was used, the children's weight and height were measured and an individual interview was carried out. Using path analysis, a model was tested in which bedtime, the number of hours spent sleeping and sedentary leisure activities were the independent variables and the BMI was the dependent variable. The results show that sedentary leisure activities and hours spent sleeping are predictors of a greater BMI in children. Moreover, the effect of the time spent sleeping is mediated by sedentary leisure activities. That is to say, it is those children who go to bed late and who use that extra time to watch the television or play with the computer that tend to have a greater BMI. Attention should be drawn to the importance of this fact and to the implications it may have for education and children's health.
Cooke, Brian K.; Cooke, Erinn O.; Sharfstein, Steven S.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the workload inventory of on-call psychiatry residents and to evaluate which activities were associated with reductions in on-call sleep. Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted, following 20 psychiatry residents at a 231-bed psychiatry hospital, from July 1, 2008 through June 30, 2009.…
Full Text Available EEG sleep spindle activity (SpA during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep has been reported to be associated with measures of intelligence and overnight performance improvements. The reticular nucleus of the thalamus is generating sleep spindles in interaction with thalamocortical connections. The same system enables efficient encoding and processing during wakefulness. Thus, we examined if the triangular relationship between SpA, measures of intelligence and declarative learning reflect the efficiency of the thalamocortical system. As expected, SpA was associated with general cognitive ability, e.g. information processing speed. SpA was also associated with learning efficiency, however, not with overnight performance improvement in a declarative memory task. SpA might therefore reflect the efficiency of the thalamocortical network and can be seen as a marker for learning during encoding in wakefulness, i.e. learning efficiency.
Christoph, Mary J; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Baingana, Rhona; Ntambi, James M
Uganda is experiencing a dual burden of over- and undernutrition, with overweight prevalence increasing while underweight remains common. Potential weight-related factors, particularly physical activity, sleep, and rural/urban status, are not currently well understood or commonly assessed in Ugandan youth. The purpose of this study was to pilot test a survey measuring weight-related factors in rural and urban Ugandan schoolchildren. A cross-sectional survey measured sociodemographics, physical activity, sleep patterns, and dietary factors in 148 rural and urban schoolchildren aged 11-16 in central Uganda. Height and weight were objectively measured. Rural and urban youth were compared on these factors using χ 2 and t tests. Regression was used to identify correlates of higher body mass index (BMI) percentile in the full sample and nonstunted youth. Youth were on average 12.1 ± 1.1 years old; underweight (10%) was more common than overweight (1.4%). Self-reported sleep duration and subjective sleep quality did not differ by rural/urban residence. Rural children overall had higher BMI percentile and marginally higher stunting prevalence. In adjusted analyses in both the full and nonstunted samples, higher BMI percentile was related to living in a rural area, higher frequency of physical activity, and higher subjective sleep quality; it was negatively related to being active on weekends. In the full sample, higher BMI percentile was also related to female gender, whereas in nonstunted youth, higher BMI was related to age. BMI percentile was unrelated to sedentary time, performance of active chores and sports, and dietary factors. This study is one of the first to pilot test a survey assessing weight-related factors, particularly physical activity and sleep, in Ugandan schoolchildren. BMI percentile was related to several sociodemographic, sleep, and physical activity factors among primarily normal-weight school children in Uganda, providing a basis for
Greco, M A; McCarley, R W; Shiromani, P J
The present study examined whether the expression of the messenger RNA encoding the protein responsible for acetylcholine synthesis is associated with sleep-wakefulness. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were analysed using a semi-quantitative assay in which reverse transcription was coupled to complementary DNA amplification using the polymerase chain reaction. To examine the relationship between steady-state messenger RNA and behavioral activity, rats were killed during the day (4.00 p.m.) or night (4.00 a.m.), and tissue from the vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal bands of Broca was analysed. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were higher during the day than during the night. The second study examined more closely the association between choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels and individual bouts of wakefulness, slow-wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were low during wakefulness, intermediate in slow-wave sleep and high during rapid eye movement sleep. In contrast, protein activity, measured at a projection site of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, was higher during wakefulness than during sleep. These findings suggest that choline acetyltransferase protein and messenger RNA levels exhibit an inverse relationship during sleep and wakefulness. The increased messenger RNA expression during sleep is consistent with a restorative function of sleep.
Fogel, Robert B; White, David P; Pierce, Robert J; Malhotra, Atul; Edwards, Jill K; Dunai, Judy; Kleverlaan, Darci; Trinder, John
Pharyngeal dilator muscles are clearly important in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA). We have previously shown that the activity of both the genioglossus (GGEMG) and tensor palatini (TPEMG) are decreased at sleep onset, and that this decrement in muscle activity is greater in the apnoea patient than in healthy controls. We have also previously shown this decrement to be greater in older men when compared with younger ones. In order to explore the mechanisms responsible for this decrement in muscle activity nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was applied to reduce negative pressure mediated muscle activation. We then investigated the effect of sleep onset (transition from predominantly α to predominantly θ EEG activity) on ventilation, upper airway muscle activation and upper airway resistance (UAR) in middle-aged and younger healthy men. We found that both GGEMG and TPEMG were reduced by the application of nasal CPAP during wakefulness, but that CPAP did not alter the decrement in activity in either muscle seen in the first two breaths following an α to θ transition. However, CPAP prevented both the rise in UAR at sleep onset that occurred on the control night, and the recruitment in GGEMG seen in the third to fifth breaths following the α to θ transition. Further, GGEMG was higher in the middle-aged men than in the younger men during wakefulness and was decreased more in the middle-aged men with the application of nasal CPAP. No differences were seen in TPEMG between the two age groups. These data suggest that the initial sleep onset reduction in upper airway muscle activity is due to loss of a ‘wakefulness’ stimulus, rather than to loss of responsiveness to negative pressure. In addition, it suggests that in older men, higher wakeful muscle activity is due to an anatomically more collapsible upper airway with more negative pressure driven muscle activation. Sleep onset per se does not appear to have a greater
Kline, Christopher E; Krafty, Robert T; Mulukutla, Suresh; Hall, Martica H
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between daytime activity (sedentary time, moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity [MVPA]) and indices of polysomnographically (PSG) assessed sleep, including sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). One hundred and thirty-six adults (65% female, 59.8 ± 9.1 years, body mass index [BMI] 30.3 ± 6.9 kg m -2 ) provided daily estimates of time spent in light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity activity for 6-14 days (mean 9.9 ± 1.8 days) prior to laboratory PSG. Daily sedentary time was calculated as the amount of time spent awake and not in light-, moderate-, or vigorous-intensity activity; time spent in moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity were combined for MVPA. Indices of PSG sleep included timing (sleep midpoint), duration (total sleep time), continuity (sleep efficiency), depth (% slow-wave sleep), and SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]). Using median splits of sedentary time and MVPA, analyses of covariance examined their relationship with sleep following adjustment for age, sex, race, employment, education, BMI, existing cardiovascular disease, depression history, and mean daily wake time. Binary logistic regression examined the odds of having at least mild-severity SDB (AHI ≥ 5) according to sedentary time, MVPA, and their combination. Adults with above-median sedentary time (i.e., >841.9 min/day) had significantly greater AHI (P = .04) and lower odds of mild SDB (P = .03) compared to adults with low sedentary time; adults with high MVPA (>30.5 min/day) had significantly lower AHI compared to adults with low MVPA (P = .04). When examined in the same model, adults with high sedentary time and low MVPA had significantly higher AHI (P < .01) and higher odds of having mild SDB (P = .03) than all the other groups. No other sleep measures were related to sedentary time, MVPA, or their combination. Sedentary time and MVPA were associated with SDB. Whether reducing sedentary
Ferrarelli, Fabio; Smith, Richard; Dentico, Daniela; Riedner, Brady A.; Zennig, Corinna; Benca, Ruth M.; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J.; Tononi, Giulio
Over the past several years meditation practice has gained increasing attention as a non-pharmacological intervention to provide health related benefits, from promoting general wellness to alleviating the symptoms of a variety of medical conditions. However, the effects of meditation training on brain activity still need to be fully characterized. Sleep provides a unique approach to explore the meditation-related plastic changes in brain function. In this study we performed sleep high-density electroencephalographic (hdEEG) recordings in long-term meditators (LTM) of Buddhist meditation practices (approximately 8700 mean hours of life practice) and meditation naive individuals. We found that LTM had increased parietal-occipital EEG gamma power during NREM sleep. This increase was specific for the gamma range (25–40 Hz), was not related to the level of spontaneous arousal during NREM and was positively correlated with the length of lifetime daily meditation practice. Altogether, these findings indicate that meditation practice produces measurable changes in spontaneous brain activity, and suggest that EEG gamma activity during sleep represents a sensitive measure of the long-lasting, plastic effects of meditative training on brain function. PMID:24015304
Fanning, Jason; Mackenzie, Michael; Roberts, Sarah; Crato, Ines; Ehlers, Diane; McAuley, Edward
A considerable portion of daily thought is spent in mind wandering. This behavior has been related to positive (eg, future planning, problem solving) and negative (eg, unhappiness, impaired cognitive performance) outcomes. Based on previous research suggesting future-oriented (ie, prospective) mind wandering may support autobiographical planning and self-regulation, this study examined associations between hourly mind wandering and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and the impact of affect and daily sleep on these relations. College-aged adults (N=33) participated in a mobile phone-delivered ecological momentary assessment study for 1 week. Sixteen hourly prompts assessing mind wandering and affect were delivered daily via participants' mobile phones. Perceived sleep quality and duration was assessed during the first prompt each day, and participants wore an ActiGraph accelerometer during waking hours throughout the study week. Study findings suggest present-moment mind wandering was positively associated with future MVPA (P=.03), and this relationship was moderated by affective state (P=.04). Moreover, excessive sleep the previous evening was related to less MVPA across the following day (P=.007). Further, mind wandering was positively related to activity only among those who did not oversleep (P=.007). Together, these results have implications for multiple health behavior interventions targeting physical activity, affect, and sleep. Researchers may also build on this work by studying these relationships in the context of other important behaviors and psychosocial factors (eg, tobacco use, depression, loneliness).
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With rapid urbanization accompanied by lifestyle changes, children and adolescents living in metropolitan areas are faced with many time use choices that compete with sleep. This study reports on the sleep hygiene of urban Chinese school students, and investigates the relationship between habitual after-school activities and sleep duration, schedule and quality on a regular school day. METHODS: Cross-sectional, school-based survey of school children (Grades 4-8 living in Shanghai, China, conducted in 2011. Self-reported data were collected on students' sleep duration and timing, sleep quality, habitual after-school activities (i.e. homework, leisure-time physical activity, recreational screen time and school commuting time, and potential correlates. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration of this sample (mean age: 11.5-years; 48.6% girls was 9 hours. Nearly 30% of students reported daytime tiredness. On school nights, girls slept less (p<0.001 and went to bed later (p<0.001, a sex difference that was more pronounced in older students. Age by sex interactions were observed for both sleep duration (p=0.005 and bedtime (p=0.002. Prolonged time spent on homework and mobile phone playing was related to shorter sleep duration and later bedtime. Adjusting for all other factors, with each additional hour of mobile phone playing, the odds of daytime tiredness and having difficulty maintaining sleep increased by 30% and 27% among secondary students, respectively. CONCLUSION: There are sex differences in sleep duration, schedule and quality. Habitual activities had small but significant associations with sleep hygiene outcomes especially among secondary school students. Intervention strategies such as limiting children's use of electronic screen devices after school are implicated.
Cecchini, Marco; Iannoni, Maria Elena; Aceto, Paola; Baroni, Eleonora; Di Vito, Cinzia; Lai, Carlo
Aim of this study was to investigate the preferential looking behaviour, subsequent to a familiarization task (8-min) with a previously responsive or motionless face, before and after a sleep cycle. Moreover, the role of the active sleep in memory consolidation of the responsive or motionless faces was explored. Hypotheses were that the newborns undergoing a motionless familiarization will exhibit a novelty effect (preference for the novel face) whereas the newborns undergoing a responsive familiarization will show a familiarity effect (preference for the known face) before and after the sleep cycle; moreover, the amount of active sleep will be associated with the looking time at the known face after a sleep cycle. Forty-five healthy full-term newborns were randomly assigned to two groups (group 1: motionless-familiarization and group 2: responsive-familiarization); in both groups newborns were video-recorded during four post-familiarization face-preference tasks, two of them performed before and two after a sleep cycle. During the pre-sleep-trials, there was not a significant preference for one face in both groups. During the post-sleep trials, the newborns showed a clear preference for the novel face. This effect was more evident in group 1. Only in group 2 there was a significant positive correlation between the active sleep duration and the looking duration at the known-face during the post-sleep trials (r=0.41; p=0.040). Multiple regression confirmed that only in the group 2 the total duration of the active sleep was associated with the looking duration at the known-face during the post-sleep trials (Adjusted R 2 =0.13; β=0.41; t=2.2; p=0.040). Findings showed that in newborns the face representation can be recalled after a sleep cycle. Moreover, the amount of the active sleep predicted the post-sleep looking toward the known-face only in the newborns who interactively familiarized with the face. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suichies, H.E.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Okken, A.; Jentink, H.W.; de Mul, F.F.M.; Greve, Jan
Changes in forehead skin blood flow during active and quiet sleep were determined in 16 healthy neonates using a recently developed semi-conductor laser Doppler flow meter without light conducting fibres. Measurements were carried out at a postnatal age varying from 5 hours to 7 days. The two sleep
Isaac, R Elwyn; Li, Chenxi; Leedale, Amy E; Shirras, Alan D
Quiescence, or a sleep-like state, is a common and important feature of the daily lives of animals from both invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, suggesting that sleep appeared early in animal evolution. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster has been shown to be a relevant and powerful model for the genetic analysis of sleep behaviour. The sleep architecture of D. melanogaster is sexually dimorphic, with females sleeping much less than males during day-time, presumably because reproductive success requires greater foraging activity by the female as well as the search for egg-laying sites. However, this loss of sleep and increase in locomotor activity will heighten the risk for the female from environmental and predator hazards. In this study, we show that virgin females can minimize this risk by behaving like males, with an extended afternoon 'siesta'. Copulation results in the female losing 70 per cent of day-time sleep and becoming more active. This behaviour lasts for at least 8 days after copulation and is abolished if the mating males lack sex peptide (SP), normally present in the seminal fluid. Our results suggest that SP is the molecular switch that promotes wakefulness in the post-mated female, a change of behaviour compatible with increased foraging and egg-laying activity. The stress resulting from SP-dependent sleep deprivation might be an important contribution to the toxic side-effects of male accessory gland products that are known to reduce lifespan in post-mated females.
McKenna, Sean; Donnelly, Alan; Fraser, Alexander; Kennedy, Norelee
Sleep is important in maintaining the body's circadian rhythm and in maintaining health. Aim was to investigate sleep and physical activity among people who have inflammatory arthritis and their engagement with Health Professionals. Members from a national charitable organisation for patients with arthritis and a national rheumatology health professionals society were invited to participate in separate cross-sectional surveys hosted on SurveyMonkey (R)TM . Ninety people responded and report an average of 5.7 (SD 1.46) hours sleep per night. A majority (61%) report their sleep quality as bad, with 31% taking medications at least once a week to help sleep. There was a statistically significant association between longer years with symptoms, taking medication at least once a week and limited in their activities, when rating their sleep quality as bad. Twenty eight (65%) health professional's responded with 53% discussing sleep with their patients. People with inflammatory arthritis report low sleep with those having symptoms longer, taking medications regularly and having limitations with their activities, reporting poorer sleep quality. Only half of health professionals discuss sleep. More research is needed in investigating poor sleep quality, disturbances, and physical activity in order to promote health and well-being in this population. Implications for Rehabilitation People with inflammatory arthritis fall far below the National Sleep Foundations' "sleep needs spectrum", which is concerning as those who have reduced levels of sleep have been associated with decreased quality of life and physical function. Due to the importance of receiving sufficient sleep, there is a need to develop education and training for health professionals in the importance of engaging their patients in their sleep quality and disturbances. The effects of physical activity interventions on poor sleep need to be examined to show if it is a positive non-pharmacological treatment approach
Uy, Jessica Phuong; Galván, Adriana
Insufficient sleep has been associated with increased risk-taking and poor decision-making, enhanced physiological responses to stress, and attenuated anterior insula (AI) activity to risk. The AI has also been linked to risky decision-making under acute stress. However, it is yet unknown how naturalistic sleep habits affect risky decision-making and AI activity when individuals feel stressed. In the current study, a daily diary approach was used to document participants' daily stress. Adolescents and adults reported their recent sleep duration and completed two fMRI visits during which they performed a risky decision-making task: once each when they endorsed a high and low level of stress. Results revealed that, regardless of age, individuals who reported receiving more sleep took fewer non-advantageous risks during high stress relative to those who reported receiving fewer hours of sleep per night while sleep duration was not associated with risky behavior under low stress. Among individuals who reported less sleep, those who exhibited reduced AI activation during risk-taking under high stress also took more disadvantageous risks whereas this effect was attenuated for those who reported longer sleep duration. Moreover, longer sleep duration was associated with greater functional coupling between the AI and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) under high stress whereas sleep duration was not associated with AI-DLPFC functional coupling under low stress. These findings suggest that naturalistic sleep duration may amplify the effects of daily stress and alter risky decision-making behavior through interactions with the AI. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lerner, Itamar; Lupkin, Shira M; Sinha, Neha; Tsai, Alan; Gluck, Mark A
Sleep, and particularly rapid eye movement sleep (REM), has been implicated in the modulation of neural activity following fear conditioning and extinction in both human and animal studies. It has long been presumed that such effects play a role in the formation and persistence of posttraumatic stress disorder, of which sleep impairments are a core feature. However, to date, few studies have thoroughly examined the potential effects of sleep prior to conditioning on subsequent acquisition of fear learning in humans. Furthermore, these studies have been restricted to analyzing the effects of a single night of sleep-thus assuming a state-like relationship between the two. In the current study, we used long-term mobile sleep monitoring and functional neuroimaging (fMRI) to explore whether trait-like variations in sleep patterns, measured in advance in both male and female participants, predict subsequent patterns of neural activity during fear learning. Our results indicate that higher baseline levels of REM sleep predict reduced fear-related activity in, and connectivity between, the hippocampus, amygdala and ventromedial PFC during conditioning. Additionally, skin conductance responses (SCRs) were weakly correlated to the activity in the amygdala. Conversely, there was no direct correlation between REM sleep and SCRs, indicating that REM may only modulate fear acquisition indirectly. In a follow-up experiment, we show that these results are replicable, though to a lesser extent, when measuring sleep over a single night just before conditioning. As such, baseline sleep parameters may be able to serve as biomarkers for resilience, or lack thereof, to trauma. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Numerous studies over the past two decades have established a clear role of sleep in fear-learning processes. However, previous work has focused on the effects of sleep following fear acquisition, thus neglecting the potential effects of baseline sleep levels on the acquisition itself. The
Arcady A. Putilov
Full Text Available Background and Objective. Depressive state is often associated with such physical symptoms as general weakness, fatigue, tiredness, slowness, reduced activity, low energy, and sleepiness. The involvement of the sleep-wake regulating mechanisms has been proposed as one of the plausible explanations of this association. Both physical depressive symptoms and increased physiological sleep propensity can result from disordered and insufficient sleep. In order to avoid the influence of disordered and insufficient sleep, daytime and nighttime sleepiness were tested in winter depression characterized by normal night sleep duration and architecture. Materials and Methods. A total sample consisted of 6 healthy controls and 9 patients suffered from depression in the previous winter season. Sleep latency was determined across 5 daytime and 4 nighttime 20-min attempts to nap in summer as well as in winter before and after a week of 2-hour evening treatment with bright light. Results and Conclusions. Patients self-reported abnormally lowered well-being, activity, and mood only in winter before the treatment. Physiological sleep propensity was neither abnormal nor linked to significant changes in well-being, activity, and mood following the treatment and change in season. It seems unlikely that the mechanisms regulating the sleep-wake cycle contributed to the development of the physical depressive symptoms.
Huang, Y M; Yang, C C H; Lai, C J; Kuo, T B J
Significant changes in autonomic activity occur at sleep-wake transitions and constitute an ideal setting for investigating the modulatory role of the autonomic nervous system on gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA). Using continuous power spectral analysis of electroencephalogram, electromyogram, and electrogastromyogram (EGMG) data from freely moving rats that had undergone chemical sympathetomy and/or truncal vagotomy, sleep-wake-related fluctuations in GMA were compared among the intervention groups. The pattern and extent of fluctuations in EGMG power across the sleep-wake states was blunted most significantly in rats undergoing both chemical sympathectomy and truncal vagotomy. The effect of these interventions also varied with respect to the transition between different sleep-wake states. The most prominent influences were observed between active waking and quiet sleep and between paradoxical sleep and quiet sleep. The sleep-wake-related fluctuations in EGMG power are a result of joint contributions from both sympathetic and vagal innervation. Vagotomy mainly resulted in a reduction in EGMG power, while the role of sympathetic innervation was unveiled by vagotomy and this was reflected most obviously in the extent of the fluctuations in EGMG power. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
characteristics, psychiatric illness, and some types of physical illness. ... to poor sleep qualities are significant problems among medical students in our institution. Caffeine and .... prepare for post graduation and also get to play a role (albeit a.
Full Text Available Previous studies suggested a remediation role of acupuncture in insomnia, and acupuncture also has been used in insomnia empirically and clinically. In this study, we employed fMRI to test the role of acupuncture in sleep deprivation (SD. Sixteen healthy volunteers (8 males were recruited and scheduled for three fMRI scanning procedures, one following the individual’s normal sleep and received acupuncture SP6 (NOR group and the other two after 24 h of total SD with acupuncture on SP6 (SD group or sham (Sham group. The sessions were counterbalanced approximately two weeks apart. Acupuncture stimuli elicited significantly different activation patterns of three groups. In NOR group, the right superior temporal lobe, left inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus were activated; in SD group, the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left basal ganglia, and thalamus were significantly activated while, in Sham group, the bilateral thalamus and left cerebellum were activated. Different activation patterns suggest a unique role of acupuncture on SP6 in remediation of SD. SP6 elicits greater and anatomically different activations than those of sham stimuli; that is, the salience network, a unique interoceptive autonomic circuit, may indicate the mechanism underlying acupuncture in restoring sleep deprivation.
Full Text Available Purpose: Although exercise and sleep duration habits are associated with cognitive function, their beneficial effects on cognitive function remain unclear. We aimed to examine the effect of sleep duration and daily physical activity on cognitive function, elucidating the neural mechanisms using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Methods: A total of 23 healthy young adults (age 22.0 ± 2.2 years participated in this study. Exercise amount was assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer. We evaluated total sleep time (TST and sleep efficiency by actigraphy. Cognitive function was tested using the N-back task, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, and the Continuous Performance Test–Identical Pairs (CPT-IP, and the cortical oxygenated hemoglobin levels during a word fluency task were measured with NIRS. Results: Exercise amount was significantly correlated with reaction time on 0- and 1-back tasks (r = −0.602, p = 0.002; r = −0.446, p = 0.033, respectively, whereas TST was significantly correlated with % corrects on the 2-back task (r = 0.486, p = 0.019. Multiple regression analysis, including exercise amount, TST, and sleep efficiency, revealed that exercise amount was the most significant factor for reaction time on 0- and 1-back tasks (β = −0.634, p = 0.002; β = −0.454, p = 0.031, respectively, and TST was the most significant factor for % corrects on the 2-back task (β = 0.542, p = 0.014. The parameter measured by WCST and CPT-IP was not significantly correlated with TST or exercise amount. Exercise amount, but not TST, was significantly correlated with the mean area under the NIRS curve in the prefrontal area (r = 0.492, p = 0.017. Conclusion: Exercise amount and TST had differential effects on working memory and cortical activation in the prefrontal area. Daily physical activity and appropriate sleep duration may play an important role in working memory. Keywords: Cortical
This article summarizes the activity of the Programa de Investigaciones en Epidemiología Psiquiátrica (PEPSI) (Research Program in Psychiatric Epidemiology) of the CONICET, directed for more than thirty years by Fernando Pages Larraya. After an anthropologic psychiatric experience done in the Gran Chaco Gualamba, by the end of the 60s, Pages Larraya and his team developed the theory of Cultural Isoidias, zones into which the country could be divided for epidemiologic studies. This article summarizes some of the principal lines of investigation of this program which departures from an initial study of the prevalence of mental diseases in Argentina. Other lines of research (such as a study about marginality, about Alzheimer's disease, about alcoholism and about AIDS) are summarized very briefly so as to give the reader an idea about the enormous field of study embraced by the PEPSI.
McMinn, Sheri B.; Lay, C. Marvin
William Menninger (1948) reported research results indicating a significant relationship in a former patient's ability to stay well and his participation in recreation. J. Bates (1963) indicated one reason patients return to psychiatric facilities was the lack of skills that center around recreation. This study was conducted to investigate the…
Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin
The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…
G. and Tsotsos, J. K. Neurobiology of Attention. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford, 2005. Jennings, J. R., Monk, T. H. and van der Molen , M. W. Sleep...education: 15.3 ± 1.6) free of medical and psychiatric disor- ders participated in this study after providing written informed consent. All subjects...fMRI activation during parametric variations of attentional load.Neuron, 2001, 32: 737–745. Doran, S. M., Van Dongen, H. P. A. and Dinges, D. F
Francisco J Urbano
Full Text Available The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN is a major component of the reticular activating system (RAS that regulates waking and REM sleep, states of high frequency EEG activity. Recently, we described the presence of high threshold, voltage-dependent N- and P/Q-type calcium channels in RAS nuclei that subserve gamma band oscillations in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf, and pontine Subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD. Cortical gamma band activity participates in sensory perception, problem solving, and memory. Rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as in the cortex, gamma band activity in the RAS may participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions. That is, the RAS may play an early permissive role in volition. Our latest results suggest that, 1 the manifestation of gamma band activity during waking may employ a separate intracellular pathway compared to that during REM sleep, 2 neuronal calcium sensor (NCS-1 protein, which is over expressed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, modulates gamma band oscillations in the PPN in a concentration-dependent manner, 3 leptin, which undergoes resistance in obesity resulting in sleep dysregulation, decreases sodium currents in PPN neurons, accounting for its normal attenuation of waking, and 4 following our discovery of electrical coupling in the RAS, we hypothesize that there are cell clusters within the PPN that may act in concert. These results provide novel information on the mechanisms controlling high frequency activity related to waking and REM sleep by elements of the RAS.
Diagnostic thresholds for quantitative REM sleep phasic burst duration, phasic and tonic muscle activity, and REM atonia index in REM sleep behavior disorder with and without comorbid obstructive sleep apnea.
McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Duwell, Ethan J; Timm, Paul C; Sandness, David J; Boeve, Bradley F; Silber, Michael H
We aimed to determine whether phasic burst duration and conventional REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) methods could accurately diagnose REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients with comorbid OSA. We visually analyzed RSWA phasic burst durations, phasic, "any," and tonic muscle activity by 3-s mini-epochs, phasic activity by 30-s (AASM rules) epochs, and conducted automated REM atonia index (RAI) analysis. Group RSWA metrics were analyzed and regression models fit, with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determining the best diagnostic cutoff thresholds for RBD. Both split-night and full-night polysomnographic studies were analyzed. N/A. Parkinson disease (PD)-RBD (n = 20) and matched controls with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) OSA. N/A. All mean RSWA phasic burst durations and muscle activities were higher in PD-RBD patients than controls (P sleep without atonia diagnostic thresholds applicable in Parkinson disease-REM sleep behavior disorder (PD-RBD) patient populations with comorbid OSA that may be useful toward distinguishing PD-RBD in typical outpatient populations. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
O'Connell, Sophie E; Griffiths, Paula L; Clemes, Stacy A
Physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), sleep and diet have all been associated with increased risk for chronic disease. Seasonality is often overlooked as a determinant of these behaviours in adults. Currently, no study has simultaneously monitored these behaviours in UK adults to assess seasonal variation. The present study investigated whether PA, SB, sleep and diet differed over season in UK adults. Forty-six adults (72% female; age = 41.7 ± 14.4 years, BMI = 24.9 ± 4.4 kg/m(2)) completed four 7-day monitoring periods; one during each season of the year. The ActiGraph GT1M was used to monitor PA and SB. Daily sleep diaries monitored time spent in bed (TIB) and total sleep time (TST). The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessed diet. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to identify seasonal differences in behaviours. Light-intensity PA was significantly higher in summer and spring (p diet (p > 0.05). Findings support the concept that health promotion campaigns need to encourage year-round participation in light intensity PA, whilst limiting SB, particularly during the winter months.
John A Lesku
Full Text Available Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement (REM sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas, the most basal (or 'ancient' group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus, a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals.
Ji, Meimei; Tang, Amber; Zhang, Yefu; Zou, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Guangyu; Deng, Jing; Yang, Lina; Li, Mingzhi; Chen, Jihua; Qin, Hong; Lin, Qian
Pediatric overweight and obesity has become a major public health problem in China. The goal of this study is to understand overweight and obesity in preschool children in Changsha City in the context of their sleep and physical activity. These results offer feasible proposals to reduce levels of overweight and obesity among preschool children. A total of 112 preschoolers aged three to six years old were investigated using multiple stage stratified cluster sampling and simple random sampling. Questionnaires were used to collect general information about children and their families. Body mass index (BMI) was used as an indicator of overweight and obesity. Age- and sex-specific cutoff values for Chinese children and adolescents were used to determine child weight status. Children's sedentary time was reported by caregivers, while physical activity and sleep were recorded using fitness bracelets (Misfit Shine 2). The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity were 15.2% and 9.8% respectively. Preschool-aged children travelled 11,111 ± 3357 and 10,350 ± 2973 steps per day on weekdays and weekends respectively. The number of daily steps was not statistically different between weekdays and weekends. The amount of time spent daily doing vigorous activity on weekdays and weekends was significantly different, with an average time of 20.5 ± 31.6 min and 10.3 ± 15.3 min respectively ( p = 0.002). Furthermore, 10.7% and 50.9% of children used screens for more than two hours on weekdays and weekends respectively ( p preschool children in this study. Students also demonstrated poor sleep and physical activity habits. Future research is necessary to explore the relationship between sleep, physical activity and weight status for young children in China.
Nolfe, Giovanni; Mancini, Paola; Mancusi, Riccardo; Zontini, Gemma; Nolfe, Giuseppe
The link between work distress and negative mental health outcome is an emergent topic in the scientific literature. The studies that evaluated the risk of work-related psychopathologies in the different job sectors have obtained so far controversial and inconclusive results. The identification, by means of standardized evaluation tools, of the work activities at higher risk of poor mental health is a relevant target for the occupational psychiatry and medicine. To evaluate the relationship between the psychosocial work conditions and work related psychiatric disturbances and to verify the relationship between the higher pathogenic effect of work and specific job activities. A six-month diagnostic trial was conducted on 234 patients (35.4% women and 64.6% men). Psychiatric diagnoses were according to DSM-IV criteria; anxious and depressive dimensions were studied by means of Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression; psychosocial work environments and bio-psycho-social features were measured by Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress. Groups with higher and lower work-related pathogenesis were compared and their distribution among specific job activities was evaluated. Mood disorders were strongly linked to negative work environment. Patients with severe bullying obtained higher scores on Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression than those with lower work-pathogenesis. The highest scores on Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress were related to mood disorders, to poorer bio-psycho-social functioning and to higher work etiology. No significant relationship between work activities and work-related psychopathologies was found. Workplace bullying is predictive of work-related psychiatric disturbances with more severe clinical features and bio-psycho-social consequences. No significant differences were found about the relationship between work-related psychopathologies and work activities.
Abbasi, Moslem; Sadeghi, Hasan; Pirani, Zabih; Vatandoust, Leyla
Background: Nowadays, prevalence of addictive behaviors among bipolar patients is considered to be a serious health threat by the World Health Organization. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of behavioral activation and inhibition systems in predicting addictive behaviors of male patients with bipolar disorder at the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. Materials and Methods: The research method used in this study is correlation. The study population consisted of 80 male patients with bipolar disorder referring to the psychiatrics clinics of Tehran city in 2014 who were referred to the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. To collect data, the international and comprehensive inventory diagnostic interview, behavioral activation and inhibition systems scale, and addictive behaviors scale were used. Results: The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between behavioral activation systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, television addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction, etc.). In addition, correlation between behavioral inhibition systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, TV addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction) is significantly negative. Finally, regression analysis showed that behavioral activation and inhibition systems could significantly predict 47% of addictive behaviors in patients with bipolar disorder. Conclusions: It can be said that the patients with bipolar disorder use substance and addictive behaviors for enjoyment and as pleasure stimulants; they also use substances to suppress unpleasant stimulants and negative emotions. These results indicate that behavioral activation and inhibition systems have an important role in the incidence and exacerbation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, preventive interventions in this direction seem to be necessary. PMID:28194203
Full Text Available Many modern people suffer from sleep debt that has accumulated in everyday life but is not subjectively noticed [potential sleep debt (PSD]. Our hypothesis for this study was that resolution of PSD through sleep extension optimizes mood regulation by altering the functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Fifteen healthy male participants underwent an experiment consisting of a baseline (BL evaluation followed by two successive interventions, namely, a 9-day sleep extension followed by one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD. Tests performed before and after the interventions included a questionnaire on negative mood and neuroimaging with arterial spin labeling MRI for evaluating regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF and functional connectivity. Negative mood and amygdala rCBF were significantly reduced after sleep extension compared with BL. The amygdala had a significant negative functional connectivity with the medial prefrontal cortex (FCamg–MPFC, and this negative connectivity was greater after sleep extension than at BL. After TSD, these indices reverted to the same level as at BL. An additional path analysis with structural equation modeling showed that the FCamg–MPFC significantly explained the amygdala rCBF and that the amygdala rCBF significantly explained the negative mood. These findings suggest that the use of our sleep extension protocol normalized amygdala activity via negative amygdala–MPFC functional connectivity. The resolution of unnoticed PSD may improve mood by enhancing frontal suppression of hyperactivity in the amygdala caused by PSD accumulating in everyday life.
Perrault, Rosemarie; Carrier, Julie; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio
Sleepwalkers have been shown to have an unusually high number of arousals from slow wave sleep and lower slow wave activity (SWA) power during the night than controls. Because sleep deprivation increases the frequency of slow wave sleep (SWS) arousals in sleepwalkers, it may also affect the expression of the homeostatic process to a greater extent than shown previously. We thus investigated SWA power as well as slow wave oscillation (SWO) density in 10 sleepwalkers and nine controls at baseline and following 38 h of sleep deprivation. There was a significant increase in SWA during participants' recovery sleep, especially during their second non-rapid eye movement (NREM) period. SWO density was similarly increased during recovery sleep's first two NREM periods. A fronto-central gradient in SWA and SWO was also present on both nights. However, no group differences were noted on any of the 2 nights on SWA or SWO. This unexpected result may be related to the heterogeneity of sleepwalkers as a population, as well as our small sample size. SWA pressure after extended sleep deprivation may also result in a ceiling effect in both sleepwalkers and controls. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.
Moreira; Santos; Padrão; Cordeiro; Bessa; Valente; Barros; Teixeira; Mitchell; Lopes; Moreira
Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant po...
Gorbunov, A. V.; Egorov, V. S.; Neprokin, A. V.
Information about the physical activity of a person during sleep is an important component of information about the state of one’s nervous system, the interpretation of which can be used for disease monitoring, diagnostics and prediction of diseases of the nervous system. This will significantly reduce the risks of disability and improve the quality of life of the patient in accordance with the concept of mobile telemedicine (mHealth).
Utaş Akhan, Latife; Atasoy, Nuray
Purpose: Study was conducted to explore the impact of marbling art therapy on the anxiety levels of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.Methods: Data for the study were at a university hospital and in the psychiatric service,polyclinic of a State Hospital with 34 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 34 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Investigations were carried out with study groups and a control group.Findings:Following marbling, it was found that there were signi...
Rayward, Anna T; Duncan, Mitch J; Brown, Wendy J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Burton, Nicola W
This study aimed to identify how different patterns of physical activity, sleep duration and sleep quality cluster together, and to examine how the identified clusters differ in terms of socio-demographic and health characteristics. Participants were adults from Brisbane, Australia, aged 42-72 years who reported their physical activity, sleep duration, sleep quality, socio-demographic and health characteristics in 2011 (n=5854). Two-step Cluster Analyses were used to identify clusters. Cluster differences in socio-demographic and health characteristics were examined using chi square tests (phealth characteristics and a high proportion of participants with low physical activity. Physical activity, sleep duration and sleep quality cluster together in distinct patterns and clusters of poor behaviours are associated with poor health status. Multiple health behaviour change interventions which target both physical activity and sleep should be prioritised to improve health outcomes in mid-aged adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Riedner, Brady A; Goldstein, Michael R; Plante, David T; Rumble, Meredith E; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M
To examine nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in insomnia using high-density electroencephalography (EEG). All-night sleep recordings with 256 channel high-density EEG were analyzed for 8 insomnia subjects (5 females) and 8 sex and age-matched controls without sleep complaints. Spectral analyses were conducted using unpaired t-tests and topographical differences between groups were assessed using statistical non-parametric mapping. Five minute segments of deep NREM sleep were further analyzed using sLORETA cortical source imaging. The initial topographic analysis of all-night NREM sleep EEG revealed that insomnia subjects had more high-frequency EEG activity (> 16 Hz) compared to good sleeping controls and that the difference between groups was widespread across the scalp. In addition, the analysis also showed that there was a more circumscribed difference in theta (4-8 Hz) and alpha (8-12 Hz) power bands between groups. When deep NREM sleep (N3) was examined separately, the high-frequency difference between groups diminished, whereas the higher regional alpha activity in insomnia subjects persisted. Source imaging analysis demonstrated that sensory and sensorimotor cortical areas consistently exhibited elevated levels of alpha activity during deep NREM sleep in insomnia subjects relative to good sleeping controls. These results suggest that even during the deepest stage of sleep, sensory and sensorimotor areas in insomnia subjects may still be relatively active compared to control subjects and to the rest of the sleeping brain. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Guilleminault, Christian; Moscovitch, Adam; Yuen, Kin; Poyares, Dalva
This article reports a case series of atypical sexual behavior during sleep, which is often harmful to patients or bed partners. Eleven subjects underwent clinical evaluation of complaints of sleep-related atypical sexual behavior. Complaints included violent masturbation, sexual assaults, and continuous (and loud) sexual vocalizations during sleep. One case was a medical-legal case. Sleep logs, clinical evaluations, sleep questionnaires, structured psychiatric interviews, polysomnography, actigraphy, home electroencephalographic monitoring during sleep, and clinical electroencephalographic monitoring while awake and asleep were used to determine clinical diagnoses. Atypical sexual behaviors during sleep were associated with feelings of guilt, shame, and depression. Because of these feelings, patients and bed partners often tolerated the abnormal behavior for long periods of time without seeking medical attention. The following pathologic sleep disorders were demonstrated on polysomnography: partial complex seizures, sleep-disordered breathing, stage 3 to 4 non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep parasomnias, and REM sleep behavior disorder. These findings were concurrent with morning amnesia. The atypical behaviors were related to different syndromes despite the similarity of complaints from bed partners. In most cases the disturbing and often harmful symptoms were controlled when counseling was instituted and sleep disorders were treated. In some cases treatment of seizures or psychiatric disorders was also needed. Clonazepam with simultaneous psychotherapy was the most common successful treatment combination. The addition of antidepressant or antiepileptic medications was required in specific cases.
Ezeugwu, Victor E; Manns, Patricia J
The aim of this study was to describe accelerometer-derived sleep duration, sedentary behavior, physical activity, and quality of life and their association with demographic and clinical factors within the first month after inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Thirty people with stroke (mean ± standard deviation, age: 63.8 ± 12.3 years, time since stroke: 3.6 ± 1.1 months) wore an activPAL3 Micro accelerometer (PAL Technologies, Glasgow, Scotland) continuously for 7 days to measure whole-day activity behavior. The Stroke Impact Scale and the Functional Independence Measure were used to assess quality of life and function, respectively. Sleep duration ranged from 6.6 to 11.6 hours/day. Fifteen participants engaged in long sleep greater than 9 hours/day. Participants spent 74.8% of waking hours in sedentary behavior, 17.9% standing, and 7.3% stepping. Of stepping time, only a median of 1.1 (interquartile range: .3-5.8) minutes were spent walking at a moderate-to-vigorous intensity (≥100 steps/minute). The time spent sedentary, the stepping time, and the number of steps differed significantly by the hemiparetic side (P stroke. There were moderate to strong correlations between the stepping time and the number of steps with gait speed (Spearman r = .49 and .61 respectively, P stroke, and cognition were not significant. People with stroke sleep for longer than the normal duration, spend about three quarters of their waking hours in sedentary behaviors, and engage in minimal walking following stroke rehabilitation. Our findings provide a rationale for the development of behavior change strategies after stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hjorth, Mads F; Sørensen, Louise B; Andersen, Rikke; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Ritz, Christian; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne; Egelund, Niels; Sjödin, Anders
Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated by approximately 100days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test associations between lifestyle indicators as well as BMI category and cognitive performance. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, and multiple lifestyle indicators, normal weight children had higher cognitive test scores than overweight/obese and underweight children of up to 89% and 48% of expected learning within one school year (Pbreakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three cognitive tests (Pperformance compared to overweight/obese as well as underweight children, independent of multiple lifestyle indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... improve health, productivity, wellness, quality of life, and safety on roads and in the workplace. Overview Poor sleep health ... adopt strategies that reduce risks to health and safety. Without sleep health education, individuals often prioritize other activities over sleep and ...
Lin, Yingyi; Tremblay, Mark S; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Chaput, Jean-Philippe
The purpose of this multinational and cross-sectional study was to investigate whether nighttime sleep duration was associated with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) the following day, whether daytime PA/SED were associated with sleep duration the subsequent night, and whether the associations were modified by sex and study sites. Data from 5779 children aged 9-11years were analyzed. A waist-worn Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was used to assess children's 24-h movement behaviours for 7days, i.e. sleep duration, total SED, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Multilevel linear regression models were used to account for the repeated measures nested within participants (there were up to 7 sleep→PA/SED and PA/SED→sleep pairings per participant) and schools, and adjusted for covariates. To facilitate interpretation, all sleep and PA/SED variables were standardized. Results showed that the relationship between sleep and PA/SED is bi-directional in this international sample of children. Specifically, for each one standard deviation (SD) unit increase in sleep duration, SED the following day decreased by 0.04 SD units, while LPA and MVPA increased by 0.04 and 0.02 SD units, respectively. Sleep duration decreased by 0.02 SD units and increased by 0.04 SD units for each one SD unit increase in SED and MVPA, respectively. Sleep duration was not affected by changes in LPA. These associations differed across sex and study sites in both directions. However, since the observed effect sizes are subtle, public health initiatives should consider the clinical and practical relevance of these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available What is the function of sleep in humans? One claim is that sleep consolidates learning. Slow wave activity (SWA, i.e. slow oscillations of frequency < 4 Hz, has been observed in electroencephalograms (EEG during sleep; it increases with prior wakefulness and decreases with sleep. Studies have claimed that increase in SWA in specific regions of the sleeping brain is correlated with overnight improved performance, i.e. overnight consolidation, on a demanding motor learning task. We wondered if SWA change during sleep is attributable to overnight consolidation or to metabolic demand. Participants executed out-and-back movements to a target using a pen-like cursor with their dominant hand while the target and cursor position were displayed on a screen. They trained on three different conditions on separate nights, differing in the amount and degree of rotation between the actual hand movement direction and displayed cursor movement direction. In the no-rotation (NR condition, there was no rotation. In the single rotation (SR condition, the amount of rotation remained the same throughout, and performance improved both across pre-sleep training and after sleep, i.e. overnight consolidation occurred; in the random rotation (RR condition, the amount of rotation varied randomly from trial to trial, and no overnight consolidation occurred; SR and RR were cognitively demanding. The average EEG power density of SWA for the first 30 min. of non-rapid eye movement sleep after training was computed. Both SR and RR elicited increase in SWA in the parietal region; furthermore, the topographic distribution of SWA in each was remarkably similar. No correlation was found between the overnight performance improvement on SR and the SWA change in the parietal region on measures of learning. Our results argue that regulation of SWA in early sleep is associated with high levels of cognitive effort during prior wakefulness, and not just overnight consolidation.
Full Text Available Background: Pediatric overweight and obesity has become a major public health problem in China. The goal of this study is to understand overweight and obesity in preschool children in Changsha City in the context of their sleep and physical activity. These results offer feasible proposals to reduce levels of overweight and obesity among preschool children. Methods: A total of 112 preschoolers aged three to six years old were investigated using multiple stage stratified cluster sampling and simple random sampling. Questionnaires were used to collect general information about children and their families. Body mass index (BMI was used as an indicator of overweight and obesity. Age- and sex-specific cutoff values for Chinese children and adolescents were used to determine child weight status. Children’s sedentary time was reported by caregivers, while physical activity and sleep were recorded using fitness bracelets (Misfit Shine 2. Results: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity were 15.2% and 9.8% respectively. Preschool-aged children travelled 11,111 ± 3357 and 10,350 ± 2973 steps per day on weekdays and weekends respectively. The number of daily steps was not statistically different between weekdays and weekends. The amount of time spent daily doing vigorous activity on weekdays and weekends was significantly different, with an average time of 20.5 ± 31.6 min and 10.3 ± 15.3 min respectively (p = 0.002. Furthermore, 10.7% and 50.9% of children used screens for more than two hours on weekdays and weekends respectively (p < 0.001. Children slept for significantly longer on weekends (8.3 ± 0.9 h than on weekdays (8.1 ± 0.7 h (p = 0.037. A significantly higher proportion of students also fell asleep before 10:00 p.m. on weekends (26.8% compared to weekdays (15.2% (p < 0.001. Parent’s BMI values were positively correlated with child BMI, the monthly household income was negatively associated with child BMI. Male children were
Full Text Available Sleep is divided into two main sleep stages: 1 non-rapid eye movement sleep (non-REMS, characterized among others by reduced global brain activity; and 2 rapid eye movement sleep (REMS, characterized by global brain activity similar to that of wakefulness. Results of heart rate variability (HRV analysis, which is widely used to explore autonomic modulation, have revealed higher parasympathetic tone during normal non-REMS and a shift toward sympathetic predominance during normal REMS. Moreover, HRV analysis combined with brain imaging has identified close connectivity between autonomic cardiac modulation and activity in brain areas such as the amygdala and insular cortex during REMS, but no connectivity between brain and cardiac activity during non-REMS. There is also some evidence for an association between HRV and dream intensity and emotionality. Following some technical considerations, this review addresses how brain activity during sleep contributes to changes in autonomic cardiac activity, organized into three parts: 1 the knowledge on autonomic cardiac control, 2 differences in brain and autonomic activity between non-REMS and REMS, and 3 the potential of HRV analysis to explore the sleeping brain, and the implications for psychiatric disorders.
Galvani, C; Ardigò, L P; Alberti, M; Daniele, F; Capelli, C
The aim of the present study was to quantify total energy expenditure, activity energy expenditure and time spent at three levels of physical activity (low, moderate, high intensity) in four two-person crews during a 500-mile double-handed sailing regatta. Physical activity intensity and energy expenditure were assessed during a 500-nautical-mile double-handed offshore competition in eight male sailors (46.3±3.4 years; 180±13 cm; 85.4±12.5 kg). During the whole regatta, they wore an activity monitor that estimated energy expenditure and minutes spent at each level of intensity (sedentary, 6.0 METs). The sailors spent longer periods (Penergy expenditure was 14.26±1.89 MJ/day and the activity energy expenditure was 5.06±1.42 MJ/day. Activity energy expenditure was significantly correlated with total sleep time, boat speed, and distance covered each day (Penergy expenditure was more likely a consequence of the short and rare periods of sleep during the competition rather than of the bouts of moderate and vigorous physical activities.
Strijkstra, AM; Daan, S
Sleep regulation processes have been hypothesized to be involved in function and timing of arousal episodes in hibernating ground squirrels. We investigated the importance of sleep regulation during arousal episodes by sleep deprivation experiments. After sleep deprivation of 4, 12, and 24 h,
Martoni, Monica; Carissimi, Alicia; Fabbri, Marco; Filardi, Marco; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Natale, Vincenzo
Within a chronobiological perspective, the present study aimed to describe 24 h of sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and food intake patterns in different body mass index (BMI) categories of children through 7 days of actigraphic recording. Height and weight were objectively measured for BMI calculation in a sample of 115 Italian primary schoolchildren (10.21 ± 0.48 years, 62.61 % females). According to BMI values, 2.60 % were underweight, 61.70 % were of normal weight, 29.60 % were overweight and 6.10 % were obese. Participants wore a wrist actigraph continuously for 7 days to record motor activity and describe sleep-wake patterns. In addition, participants were requested to push the event-marker button of the actigraph each time they consumed food to describe their circadian eating patterns. BMI group differences were found for sleep quantity (i.e. midpoint of sleep and amplitude), while sleep quality, 24-h motor activity and food intake patterns were similar between groups. Regression analyses showed that BMI was negatively predicted by sleep duration on schooldays. BMI was also predicted by motor activity and by food intake frequencies recorded at particular times of day during schooldays and at the weekend. The circadian perspective seems to provide promising insight into childhood obesity, but this aspect needs to be further explored.
Yamuy, J; Mancillas, J R; Morales, F R; Chase, M H
Microinjection of carbachol into the rostral pontine tegmentum of the cat induces a state that is comparable to naturally occurring active (REM, rapid eye movement) sleep. We sought to determine, during this pharmacologically induced behavioral state, which we refer to as active sleep-carbachol, the distribution of activated neuron within the pons and medulla using c-fos immunocytochemistry as a functional marker. Compared with control cats, which were injected with saline, active sleep-carbachol cats exhibited higher numbers of c-fos-expressing neurons in (1) the medial and portions of the lateral reticular formation of the pons and medulla, (2) nuclei in the dorsolateral rostral pons, (3) various raphe nuclei, including the dorsal, central superior, magnus, pallidus, and obscurus, (4) the medial and lateral vestibular, prepositus hypoglossi, and intercalatus nuclei, and (5) the abducens nuclei. On the other hand, the mean number of c-fos-expressing neurons found in the masseter, facial, and hypoglossal nuclei was lower in carbachol-injected than in control cats. The data indicate that c-fos expression can be employed as a marker of state-dependent neuronal activity. The specific sites in which there were greater numbers of c-fos-expressing neurons during active sleep-carbachol are discussed in relation to the state of active sleep, as well as the functional role that these sites play in generating the various physiological patterns of activity that occur during this state.
Basner, Mathias; Müller, Uwe; Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Kluge, Götz; Griefahn, Barbara
Polysomnography is the gold standard for investigating noise effects on sleep, but data collection and analysis are sumptuous and expensive. We recently developed an algorithm for the automatic identification of cardiac activations associated with cortical arousals, which uses heart rate information derived from a single electrocardiogram (ECG) channel. We hypothesized that cardiac activations can be used as estimates for EEG awakenings. Polysomnographic EEG awakenings and automatically detected cardiac activations were systematically compared using laboratory data of 112 subjects (47 male, mean ± SD age 37.9 ± 13 years), 985 nights and 23 855 aircraft noise events (ANEs). The probability of automatically detected cardiac activations increased monotonically with increasing maximum sound pressure levels of ANEs, exceeding the probability of EEG awakenings by up to 18.1%. If spontaneous reactions were taken into account, exposure–response curves were practically identical for EEG awakenings and cardiac activations. Automatically detected cardiac activations may be used as estimates for EEG awakenings. More investigations are needed to further validate the ECG algorithm in the field and to investigate inter-individual differences in its ability to predict EEG awakenings. This inexpensive, objective and non-invasive method facilitates large-scale field studies on the effects of traffic noise on sleep
Full Text Available Amid numerous complications that plague the health and quality of life of people living with HIV, neurocognitive and psychiatric illnesses pose unique challenges. While there remains uncertainty with respect to the pathophysiology surrounding these disorders, their adverse implications are increasingly recognized. Left undetected, they have the potential to significantly impact patient well being, adherence to antiretroviral treatment and overall health outcomes. As such, early identification of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND and psychiatric illnesses will be paramount in the proactive management of affected patients. The present review focuses on strategies to ensure optimal screening and detection of HAND, depression and substance abuse in routine practice. For each topic, currently available screening methods are discussed. These include identification of risk factors, recognition of relevant symptomatology and an update on validated screening tools that can be efficiently implemented in the clinical setting. Specifically addressed in the present review are the International HIV Dementia Scale, a novel screening equation and algorithm for HAND, as well as brief, validated, verbal questionnaires for detection of depression and substance abuse. Adequate understanding and usage of these screening mechanisms can ensure effective use of resources by distinguishing patients who require referral for more extensive diagnostic procedures from those who likely do not.
Carvalhal, Adriana; Baril, Jean-Guy; Crouzat, Frederic; De Wet, Joss; Junod, Patrice; Kovacs, Colin; Sheehan, Nancy
Amid numerous complications that plague the health and quality of life of people living with HIV, neurocognitive and psychiatric illnesses pose unique challenges. While there remains uncertainty with respect to the pathophysiology surrounding these disorders, their adverse implications are increasingly recognized. Left undetected, they have the potential to significantly impact patient well being, adherence to antiretroviral treatment and overall health outcomes. As such, early identification of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and psychiatric illnesses will be paramount in the proactive management of affected patients. The present review focuses on strategies to ensure optimal screening and detection of HAND, depression and substance abuse in routine practice. For each topic, currently available screening methods are discussed. These include identification of risk factors, recognition of relevant symptomatology and an update on validated screening tools that can be efficiently implemented in the clinical setting. Specifically addressed in the present review are the International HIV Dementia Scale, a novel screening equation and algorithm for HAND, as well as brief, validated, verbal questionnaires for detection of depression and substance abuse. Adequate understanding and usage of these screening mechanisms can ensure effective use of resources by distinguishing patients who require referral for more extensive diagnostic procedures from those who likely do not. PMID:24294277
Carvalhal, Adriana; Baril, Jean-Guy; Crouzat, Frederic; De Wet, Joss; Junod, Patrice; Kovacs, Colin; Sheehan, Nancy
Amid numerous complications that plague the health and quality of life of people living with HIV, neurocognitive and psychiatric illnesses pose unique challenges. While there remains uncertainty with respect to the pathophysiology surrounding these disorders, their adverse implications are increasingly recognized. Left undetected, they have the potential to significantly impact patient well being, adherence to antiretroviral treatment and overall health outcomes. As such, early identification of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and psychiatric illnesses will be paramount in the proactive management of affected patients. The present review focuses on strategies to ensure optimal screening and detection of HAND, depression and substance abuse in routine practice. For each topic, currently available screening methods are discussed. These include identification of risk factors, recognition of relevant symptomatology and an update on validated screening tools that can be efficiently implemented in the clinical setting. Specifically addressed in the present review are the International HIV Dementia Scale, a novel screening equation and algorithm for HAND, as well as brief, validated, verbal questionnaires for detection of depression and substance abuse. Adequate understanding and usage of these screening mechanisms can ensure effective use of resources by distinguishing patients who require referral for more extensive diagnostic procedures from those who likely do not.
Long, Xi; Fonseca, Pedro; Aarts, Ronald M; Haakma, Reinder; Rolink, Jerome; Leonhardt, Steffen
Human slow wave sleep (SWS) during bedtime is paramount for energy conservation and memory consolidation. This study aims at automatically detecting SWS from nocturnal sleep using cardiorespiratory signals that can be acquired with unobtrusive sensors in a home-based scenario. From the signals, time-dependent features are extracted for continuous 30-s epochs. To reduce the measuring noise, body motion artifacts, and/or within-subject variability in physiology conveyed by the features, and thus, enhance the detection performance, we propose to smooth the features over each night using a spline fitting method. In addition, it was found that the changes in cardiorespiratory activity precede the transitions between SWS and the other sleep stages (non-SWS). To this matter, a novel scheme is proposed that performs the SWS detection for each epoch using the feature values prior to that epoch. Experiments were conducted with a large dataset of 325 overnight polysomnography (PSG) recordings using a linear discriminant classifier and tenfold cross validation. Features were selected with a correlation-based method. Results show that the performance in classifying SWS and non-SWS can be significantly improved when smoothing the features and using the preceding feature values of 5-min earlier. We achieved a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.57 (at an accuracy of 88.8%) using only six selected features for 257 recordings with a minimum of 30-min overnight SWS that were considered representative of their habitual sleeping pattern at home. These features included the standard deviation, low-frequency spectral power, and detrended fluctuation of heartbeat intervals as well as the variations of respiratory frequency and upper and lower respiratory envelopes. A marked drop in Kappa to 0.21 was observed for the other nights with SWS time of less than 30 min, which were found to more likely occur in elderly. This will be the future challenge in cardiorespiratory-based SWS detection.
Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep deprivation induces several behavioral changes. Among these, a decrease in yawning behavior produced by low doses of cholinergic agonists is observed which indicates a change in brain cholinergic neurotransmission after REM sleep deprivation. Acetylcholinesterase (Achase controls acetylcholine (Ach availability in the synaptic cleft. Therefore, altered Achase activity may lead to a change in Ach availability at the receptor level which, in turn, may result in modification of cholinergic neurotransmission. To determine if REM sleep deprivation would change the activity of Achase, male Wistar rats, 3 months old, weighing 250-300 g, were deprived of REM sleep for 96 h by the flower-pot technique (N = 12. Two additional groups, a home-cage control (N = 6 and a large platform control (N = 6, were also used. Achase was measured in the frontal cortex using two different methods to obtain the enzyme activity. One method consisted of the obtention of total (900 g supernatant, membrane-bound (100,000 g pellet and soluble (100,000 g supernatant Achase, and the other method consisted of the obtention of a fraction (40,000 g pellet enriched in synaptic membrane-bound enzyme. In both preparations, REM sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease in rat frontal cortex Achase activity when compared to both home-cage and large platform controls. REM sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease of 16% in the membrane-bound Achase activity (nmol thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 in the 100,000 g pellet enzyme preparation (home-cage group 152.1 ± 5.7, large platform group 152.7 ± 24.9 and REM sleep-deprived group 127.9 ± 13.8. There was no difference in the soluble enzyme activity. REM sleep deprivation also induced a significant decrease of 20% in the enriched synaptic membrane-bound Achase activity (home-cage group 126.4 ± 21.5, large platform group 127.8 ± 20.4, REM sleep-deprived group 102.8 ± 14.2. Our results
Yamamoto, K; Matsushita, A; Sawada, T; Naito, Y; Yoshimura, K; Takesue, H; Utsumi, S; Kawasaki, K; Hirono, S; Koshida, H
The sleep-inducing activity and effect on the motor system of the 1H-1,2,4-triazolyl benzophenone derivative 450191-S were examined behaviorally, electroencephalographically and electro-physiologically with various species of animals and were compared with those of diazepam, nitrazepam, estazolam and triazolam. In the rhesus monkey, rabbit and rat with chronically indwelling brain electrodes, 0.6 to 3 mg/kg, p.o. of 450191-S caused a shorter latency of sleep onset, an increase of and a stable continuity of slow wave deep sleep (SWDS) with higher amplitude, and the appearance of clear spindle bursts in the slow wave light sleeping (SWLS) state with little muscle relaxation. Animals treated with nitrazepam and/or estazolam showed a smaller increase in SWDS and its unstable continuity with remarkable disturbance of gait. The doses needed to induce sleep in the rhesus monkey were 0.6 to 1 mg/kg p.o. for 450191-S, 3 mg/kg for nitrazepam, 1 mg/kg for estazolam and 0.3 mg/kg for triazolam. The cat treated with 450191-S showed the phenomena caused by benzodiazepines (BDZ), i.e., behavioral excitation and decrease of frequencies in the hippocampal theta waves. The suppressive effects of 450191-S on the EEG arousal reaction and/or blood pressure elevation induced by hypothalamic stimulation in the rabbit suggested that the inhibitory effects acted on the posterior hypothalamus to the limbic system. The inhibitory effect of 450191-S on the amygdaloid kindling in the rat was as potent as those of diazepam and nitrazepam. Successive daily oral administration of both 3 mg/kg of 450191-S and/or 3 to 6 mg/kg of nitrazepam for 15 days in the rabbit caused slight decrease of SWDS and increase of fast wave (REM) sleep (FWS). During the withdrawal period of both compounds, a slight but insignificant increase in the waking state was noticed for 1 to 2 days, but not a rebound increase of FWS. Intravenously administered 450191-S showed the same action as BDZ on the spinal reflex and the
Martínez-Moyá, María; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; García de la Hera, Manuela; Giménez-Monzo, Daniel; González-Palacios, Sandra; Valera-Gran, Desirée; Sempere-Orts, María; Vioque, Jesús
To explore the association between excess weight or body mass index (BMI) and the time spent watching television, self-reported physical activity and sleep duration in a young adult population. We analyzed cross-sectional baseline data of 1,135 participants (17-35 years old) from the project Dieta, salud y antropometría en población universitaria (Diet, Health and Anthrompmetric Variables in Univeristy Students). Information about time spent watching television, sleep duration, self-reported physical activity and self-reported height and weight was provided by a baseline questionnaire. BMI was calculated as kg/m(2) and excess of weight was defined as ≥25. We used multiple logistic regression to explore the association between excess weight (no/yes) and independent variables, and multiple linear regression for BMI. The prevalence of excess weight was 13.7% (11.2% were overweight and 2.5% were obese). A significant positive association was found between excess weight and a greater amount of time spent watching television. Participants who reported watching television >2h a day had a higher risk of excess weight than those who watched television ≤1h a day (OR=2.13; 95%CI: 1.37-3.36; p-trend: 0.002). A lower level of physical activity was associated with an increased risk of excess weight, although the association was statistically significant only in multiple linear regression (p=0.037). No association was observed with sleep duration. A greater number of hours spent watching television and lower physical activity were significantly associated with a higher BMI in young adults. Both factors are potentially modifiable with preventive strategies. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Alricsson, Marie; Domalewski, Debra; Romild, Ulla; Asplund, Ragnar
Adolescents in the industrial world are becoming less physically active and are increasingly adopting a sedentary life-style in front of computers and television screens. to determine self-related health, physical activity, sleeping habits, prevalence of overweight, and body complaints in Australian senior high school students. Participants were 466 high school students aged 15-17 years enrolled in academic and vocational programs. A questionnaire was completed at two senior high schools with questions about weight and height, health, physical activity, type of physical activity/sport, intensity, sleeping habits, and possible injuries or complaints during the last three months. Seventy seven percent of the high school students participated in sports on a regular basis. Compared with vocational programs, more males and females in academic programs participated in sports (71% and 80% respectively) (p = .036). Males reported significantly better health than females (p sleep was reported in 82.1% of males and in 76.6% of females. In males, 44.3% were often sleepy in the daytime (females 56.6%, p sleep are factors with significant positive effect on good health, whereas overweight is a negative factor. Proper sleep habits and higher physical activity levels should be promoted among high school students, and TV viewing time and video game use restricted. Additionally, schools should provide opportunities for young people to participate in a wider range of physical activities that address their individual needs while promoting the health benefits of engaging in regular exercise.
Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Sehgal, Amita
Sleep rebound-the increase in sleep that follows sleep deprivation-is a hallmark of homeostatic sleep regulation that is conserved across the animal kingdom. However, both the mechanisms that underlie sleep rebound and its relationship to habitual daily sleep remain unclear. To address this, we developed an efficient thermogenetic method of inducing sleep deprivation in Drosophila that produces a substantial rebound, and applied the newly developed method to assess sleep rebound in a screen of 1,741 mutated lines. We used data generated by this screen to identify lines with reduced sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation, and to probe the relationship between habitual sleep amount and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. To develop a thermogenetic method of sleep deprivation suitable for screening, we thermogenetically stimulated different populations of wake-promoting neurons labeled by Gal4 drivers. Sleep rebound following thermogenetically-induced wakefulness varies across the different sets of wake-promoting neurons that were stimulated, from very little to quite substantial. Thermogenetic activation of neurons marked by the c584-Gal4 driver produces both strong sleep loss and a substantial rebound that is more consistent within genotypes than rebound following mechanical or caffeine-induced sleep deprivation. We therefore used this driver to induce sleep deprivation in a screen of 1,741 mutagenized lines generated by the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. Flies were subjected to 9 h of sleep deprivation during the dark period and released from sleep deprivation 3 h before lights-on. Recovery was measured over the 15 h following sleep deprivation. Following identification of lines with reduced sleep rebound, we characterized baseline sleep and sleep depth before and after sleep deprivation for these hits. We identified two lines that consistently exhibit a blunted increase in the duration and depth of sleep after
Kilani, Hashem; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Waly, Mostafa I; Musaiger, Abdulrahman
This study aimed to investigate the lifestyle habits-physical activity (PA), eating habits (EH), and sleep duration (SD)-of Omani adolescents, and to examine gender differences in such variables. 802 Omani adolescents (442 females and 360 males), aged 15-18 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometric indices, PA level, and EH and SD were evaluated by the Arab Teenage Lifestyle questionnaire. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment was also administered. The results showed that although the study subjects had a sedentary lifestyle (lack of PA, average of 6.7 hours sleep, and consumption of high calorie foods), they maintained a normal body mass (less than 25 Kg/m(2)). Males were more than twice as active as females. With respect to EH, there were few gender differences, except in dairy and meat consumption where 62.5% and 55.5% of males consumed more than 3 servings, respectively, compared to 18.78 % and 35.2% of females, respectively. In addition, waist/height ratio, height, reasons for being active, energy drinks, potato consumption, eating sweets, vigorous PA and breakfast EHs were statistically significant independent predictors for BMI, P habits were also widely found among both genders. There is an urgent need for more research as well as a national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and discouraging sedentary behaviour among Omani adolescents.
Morselli, Lisa L; Gamazon, Eric R; Tasali, Esra; Cox, Nancy J; Van Cauter, Eve; Davis, Lea K
Over the past 20 years, a large body of experimental and epidemiologic evidence has linked sleep duration and quality to glucose homeostasis, although the mechanistic pathways remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine whether genetic variation influencing both sleep and glucose regulation could underlie their functional relationship. We hypothesized that the genetic regulation of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep, a highly heritable trait with fingerprint reproducibility, is correlated with the genetic control of metabolic traits including insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. We tested our hypotheses through univariate and bivariate heritability analyses in a three-generation pedigree with in-depth phenotyping of both sleep EEG and metabolic traits in 48 family members. Our analyses accounted for age, sex, adiposity, and the use of psychoactive medications. In univariate analyses, we found significant heritability for measures of fasting insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, for time spent in slow-wave sleep, and for EEG spectral power in the delta, theta, and sigma ranges. Bivariate heritability analyses provided the first evidence for a shared genetic control of brain activity during deep sleep and fasting insulin secretion rate. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.
Szentirmai, Éva; Kapás, Levente
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system via β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR). Here we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological stimulation of β3-ARs leads to increased sleep in mice and if this change is BAT dependent. In wild-type (WT) animals, administration of CL-316,243, a selective β3-AR agonist, induced significant increases in non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS) lasting for 4-10 h. Simultaneously, electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (SWA) was significantly decreased and body temperature was increased with a delay of 5-6 h. In uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) knockout mice, the middle and highest doses of the β3-AR agonist increased sleep and suppressed SWA, however, these effects were significantly attenuated and shorter-lasting as compared to WT animals. To determine if somnogenic signals arising from BAT in response to β3-AR stimulation are mediated by the sensory afferents of BAT, we tested the effects of CL-316,243 in mice with the chemical deafferentation of the intra-scapular BAT pads. Sleep responses to CL-316,243 were attenuated by ~50% in intra-BAT capsaicin-treated mice. Present findings indicate that the activation of BAT via β3-AR leads to increased sleep in mice and that this effect is dependent on the presence of UCP-1 protein and sleep responses require the intact sensory innervation of BAT.
Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Czernecki, Virginie; Yelnik, Jerome; Dubois, Bruno; Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Grabli, David; Levy, Richard; Arnulf, Isabelle
Bilateral damage to the basal ganglia causes auto-activation deficit, a neuropsychological syndrome characterized by striking apathy, with a loss of self-driven behaviour that is partially reversible with external stimulation. Some patients with auto-activation deficit also experience a mental emptiness, which is defined as an absence of any self-reported thoughts. We asked whether this deficit in spontaneous activation of mental processing may be reversed during REM sleep, when dreaming activity is potentially elicited by bottom-up brainstem stimulation on the cortex. Sleep and video monitoring over two nights and cognitive tests were performed on 13 patients with auto-activation deficit secondary to bilateral striato-pallidal lesions and 13 healthy subjects. Dream mentations were collected from home diaries and after forced awakenings in non-REM and REM sleep. The home diaries were blindly analysed for length, complexity and bizarreness. A mental blank during wakefulness was complete in six patients and partial in one patient. Four (31%) patients with auto-activation deficit (versus 92% of control subjects) reported mentations when awakened from REM sleep, even when they demonstrated a mental blank during the daytime (n = 2). However, the patients' dream reports were infrequent, short, devoid of any bizarre or emotional elements and tended to be less complex than the dream mentations of control subjects. The sleep duration, continuity and stages were similar between the groups, except for a striking absence of sleep spindles in 6 of 13 patients with auto-activation deficit, despite an intact thalamus. The presence of spontaneous dreams in REM sleep in the absence of thoughts during wakefulness in patients with auto-activation deficit supports the idea that simple dream imagery is generated by brainstem stimulation and is sent to the sensory cortex. However, the lack of complexity in these dream mentations suggests that the full dreaming process (scenario
Avinun, Reut; Nevo, Adam; Knodt, Annchen R; Elliott, Maxwell L; Radtke, Spenser R; Brigidi, Bartholomew D; Hariri, Ahmad R
Sleep disturbances represent one risk factor for depression. Reward-related brain function, particularly the activity of the ventral striatum (VS), has been identified as a potential buffer against stress-related depression. We were therefore interested in testing whether reward-related VS activity would moderate the effect of sleep disturbances on depression in a large cohort of young adults. Data were available from 1129 university students (mean age 19.71 ± 1.25 years; 637 women) who completed a reward-related functional MRI task to assay VS activity and provided self-reports of sleep using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and symptoms of depression using a summation of the General Distress/Depression and Anhedonic Depression subscales of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire-short form. Analyses revealed that as VS activity increased the association between sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms decreased. The interaction between sleep disturbances and VS activity was robust to the inclusion of sex, age, race/ethnicity, past or present clinical disorder, early and recent life stress, and anxiety symptoms, as well as the interactions between VS activity and early or recent life stress as covariates. We provide initial evidence that high reward-related VS activity may buffer against depressive symptoms associated with poor sleep. Our analyses help advance an emerging literature supporting the importance of individual differences in reward-related brain function as a potential biomarker of relative risk for depression. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sleep disturbances are a common risk factor for depression. An emerging literature suggests that reward-related activity of the ventral striatum (VS), a brain region critical for motivation and goal-directed behavior, may buffer against the effect of negative experiences on the development of depression. Using data from a large sample of 1129 university students we demonstrate that as reward-related VS activity
Oyanedel, Carlos N; Binder, Sonja; Kelemen, Eduard; Petersen, Kimberley; Born, Jan; Inostroza, Marion
Our previous experiments showed that sleep in rats enhances consolidation of hippocampus dependent episodic-like memory, i.e. the ability to remember an event bound into specific spatio-temporal context. Here we tested the hypothesis that this enhancing effect of sleep is linked to the occurrence of slow oscillatory and spindle activity during slow wave sleep (SWS). Rats were tested on an episodic-like memory task and on three additional tasks covering separately the where (object place recognition), when (temporal memory), and what (novel object recognition) components of episodic memory. In each task, the sample phase (encoding) was followed by an 80-min retention interval that covered either a period of regular morning sleep or sleep deprivation. Memory during retrieval was tested using preferential exploration of novelty vs. familiarity. Consistent with previous findings, the rats which had slept during the retention interval showed significantly stronger episodic-like memory and spatial memory, and a trend of improved temporal memory (although not significant). Object recognition memory was similarly retained across sleep and sleep deprivation retention intervals. Recall of episodic-like memory was associated with increased slow oscillatory activity (0.85-2.0Hz) during SWS in the retention interval. Spatial memory was associated with increased proportions of SWS. Against our hypothesis, a relationship between spindle activity and episodic-like memory performance was not detected, but spindle activity was associated with object recognition memory. The results provide support for the role of SWS and slow oscillatory activity in consolidating hippocampus-dependent memory, the role of spindles in this process needs to be further examined. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kato, Takafumi; Toyota, Risa; Haraki, Shingo; Yano, Hiroyuki; Higashiyama, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshio; Yano, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumihiko; Yatani, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Atsushi
Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity can be a normal variant of oromotor activity, which can be exaggerated in patients with sleep bruxism. However, few studies have tested the possibility in naturally sleeping animals to study the neurophysiological mechanisms of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity. This study aimed to investigate the similarity of cortical, cardiac and electromyographic manifestations of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity occurring during non-rapid eye movement sleep between guinea pigs and human subjects. Polysomnographic recordings were made in 30 freely moving guinea pigs and in eight healthy human subjects. Burst cycle length, duration and activity of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity were compared with those for chewing. The time between R-waves in the electrocardiogram (RR interval) and electroencephalogram power spectrum were calculated to assess time-course changes in cardiac and cortical activities in relation to rhythmic masticatory muscle activity. In animals, in comparison with chewing, rhythmic masticatory muscle activity had a lower burst activity, longer burst duration and longer cycle length (P motor activation in comparison to human subjects. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.
Podhorecka, Marta; Cytarska, Magdalena; Gębka, Dominika; Perkowski, Radosław; Androsiuk-Perkowska, Joanna; Jaroch, Alina; Siedlecka-Główczewska, Emilia; Sokołowski, Remigiusz; Zukow, Walery; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia
Podhorecka Marta, Cytarska Magdalena, Gębka Dominika, Perkowski Radosław, Androsiuk-Perkowska Joanna, Jaroch Alina, Siedlecka–Główczewska Emilia, Sokołowski Remigiusz, Zukow Walery, Kędziora-Kornatowska Kornelia. Can physical activity influence the quality of sleep among the elderly? Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(12):288-305. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1133730 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/5177 ...
Full Text Available In order to verify if the full moon is associated with sleep and activity behaviors, we used a 12-country study providing 33710 24-hour accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9-11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, United Kingdom and United States. Three moon phases were used in this analysis: full moon (±4 days; reference, half moon (±5-9 days and new moon (±10-14 days from nearest full moon. Nocturnal sleep duration, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, light-intensity physical activity (LPA and total sedentary time (SED were monitored over 7 consecutive days using a waist-worn accelerometer worn 24 hours a day. Only sleep duration was found to significantly differ between moon phases (~5 min per night shorter during full moon compared to new moon. Differences in MVPA, LPA and SED between moon phases were negligible and non-significant (<2 min per day difference. There was no difference in the associations between study sites. In conclusion, sleep duration was 1% shorter at full moon compared to new moon while activity behaviors were not significantly associated with the lunar cycle in this global sample of children. Whether this seemingly minimal difference is clinically meaningful is questionable.
Salín-Pascual, Rafael J; Alcocer-Castillejos, Natasha V; Alejo-Galarza, Gabriel
Nicotine addiction is the single largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Smoking is not any more just a bad habit, but a substance addiction problem. The pharmacological aspects of nicotine show that this substance has a broad distribution in the different body compartnents, due mainly to its lipophilic characteristic. There are nicotinic receptors as members of cholinergic receptors' family. They are located in neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system (CNS). Although they are similar, pentameric structure with an ionic channel to sodium, there are some differences in the protein chains characteristics. Repeated administration of nicotine in rats, results in the sensitization phenomenon, which produces increase in the behavioral locomotor activity response. It has been found that most psychostimulants-induced behavioral sensitization through a nicotine receptor activation. Nicotine receptors in CNS are located mainly in presynaptic membrane and in that way they regulated the release of several neurotransmitters, among them acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. In some activities like sleep-wake cycle, nicotine receptors have a functional significance. Nicotine receptor stimulation promotes wake time, reduces both, total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). About nicotine dependence, this substance full fills all the criteria for dependence and withdrawal syndrome. There are some people that have more vulnerability for to become nicotine dependent, those are psychiatric patients. Among them schizophrenia, major depression, anxiety disorders and attention deficit disorder, represent the best example in this area. Nicotine may have some beneficial effects, among them are some neuroprotective effects in disorders like Parkinson's disease, and Gilles de la Tourette' syndrome. Also there are several evidences that support the role of nicotine in cognitive improvement functions like attention
Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Impaired autonomic cardiac function is an important consequence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. This impairment is mainly due to intermittent hypoxia episodes following apneas. However, the impact of apnea severity on autonomic cardiac function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the severity of sleep apnea and heart rate turbulence (HRT and heart rate variability (HRV in OSA. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional study conducted in the Departments of Cardiology and Pulmonary Diseases, Afyon Kocatepe University, Turkey. METHODS: 106 patients with OSA and 27 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Based on apnea hypopnea index (AHI values, obstructive sleep apnea severity was classified as follows: mild OSA (AHI ≥ 5 and 30. HRV and HRT parameters were assessed via 24-hour digital Holter electrocardiogram recordings for all subjects. RESULTS: HRV and HRT results were significantly lower among OSA patients than among control subjects (P < 0.05. However, there were no significant differences in HRT and HRV between the three patient subgroups. Correlations did emerge between AHI and the NN-interval parameter RMSSD and between oxygen desaturation and turbulence slope (respectively: r = -0.22, P = 0.037; and r = -0.28, P = 0.025. CONCLUSION: HRT and HRV results deteriorate in OSA. Correlations between apnea severity and these parameters seem to be present.
and van der Molen , M. W. Sleep deprivation influences some but not all processes of supervisory attention. Psychol. Sci., 2003, 14: 473–479. Kelly...and psychiatric disor- ders participated in this study after providing written informed consent. All subjects reported habitually obtaining 7–9 h of...characterizing brain areas using fMRI activation during parametric variations of attentional load.Neuron, 2001, 32: 737–745. Doran, S. M., Van Dongen
Riedner, Brady A.; Goldstein, Michael R.; Plante, David T.; Rumble, Meredith E.; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M.
Study Objectives: To examine nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in insomnia using high-density electroencephalography (EEG). Methods: All-night sleep recordings with 256 channel high-density EEG were analyzed for 8 insomnia subjects (5 females) and 8 sex and age-matched controls without sleep complaints. Spectral analyses were conducted using unpaired t-tests and topographical differences between groups were assessed using statistical non-parametric mapping. Five minute segments of deep NREM sleep were further analyzed using sLORETA cortical source imaging. Results: The initial topographic analysis of all-night NREM sleep EEG revealed that insomnia subjects had more high-frequency EEG activity (> 16 Hz) compared to good sleeping controls and that the difference between groups was widespread across the scalp. In addition, the analysis also showed that there was a more circumscribed difference in theta (4–8 Hz) and alpha (8–12 Hz) power bands between groups. When deep NREM sleep (N3) was examined separately, the high-frequency difference between groups diminished, whereas the higher regional alpha activity in insomnia subjects persisted. Source imaging analysis demonstrated that sensory and sensorimotor cortical areas consistently exhibited elevated levels of alpha activity during deep NREM sleep in insomnia subjects relative to good sleeping controls. Conclusions: These results suggest that even during the deepest stage of sleep, sensory and sensorimotor areas in insomnia subjects may still be relatively active compared to control subjects and to the rest of the sleeping brain. Citation: Riedner BA, Goldstein MR, Plante DT, Rumble ME, Ferrarelli F, Tononi G, Benca RM. Regional patterns of elevated alpha and high-frequency electroencephalographic activity during nonrapid eye movement sleep in chronic insomnia: a pilot study. SLEEP 2016;39(4):801–812. PMID:26943465
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals......, difficulty with morning awakenings, sleep onset difficulties, sleep-disordered breathing, night awakenings and daytime sleepiness in subjective studies. ADHD is also frequently coincident with sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, peripheral limb movement disorder, restless legs syndrome and circadian......-rhythm sleep disorders). Psychostimulant medications are associated with disrupted or disturbed sleep, but also 'paradoxically' calm some patients with ADHD for sleep by alleviating their symptoms. Long-acting formulations may have insufficient duration of action, leading to symptom rebound at bedtime. Current...
Arzilli, Cinzia; Cerasuolo, Mariangela; Conte, Francesca; Bittoni, Valentina; Gatteschi, Claudia; Albinni, Benedetta; Giganti, Fiorenza; Ficca, Gianluca
The aim of this study is to assess the effects of a learning task on the characteristics of a subsequent daytime nap. Thirty-eight subjects were administered a control nap (C) and one preceded by a cognitive training session (TR). Relative to C, TR naps showed significantly increased sleep duration with decreased sleep latency, as well as significantly increased sleep efficiency due to reduced awakening frequency. Meaningful trends were also found toward an increase of Stage 2 sleep proportion and a reduction of Stage 1 sleep, percentage of wake after sleep onset (WASO), and frequency of state transitions. Our results indicate that presleep learning favors sleep propensity and maintenance, offering the possibility to explore planned cognitive training as a low-cost treatment for sleep impairments.
Brand, Serge; Colledge, Flora; Beeler, Nadja; Pühse, Uwe; Kalak, Nadeem; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Mikoteit, Thorsten; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Gerber, Markus
Background Physical activity and exercise programs (PAEPs) are an important factor in increasing and maintaining physical and mental health. This holds particularly true for patients with psychiatric disorders undergoing treatment in a psychiatric hospital. To understand whether the benefits reported in the literature are mirrored in current treatment modalities, the aim of the present study was to assess the current state of PAEPs in psychiatric hospitals in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Methods All psychiatric hospitals (N=55) in the German-speaking part of Switzerland were contacted in spring 2014. Staff responsible for PAEPs were asked to complete an online questionnaire covering questions related to PAEPs such as type, frequency, staff training, treatment rationale, importance of PAEPs within the treatment strategy, and possible avenues to increase PAEPs. Results Staff members of 48 different psychiatric hospitals completed the survey. Hospitals provided the following therapeutic treatments: relaxation techniques (100%), sports therapy (97%), activity-related psychotherapeutic interventions (95%), physiotherapy (85%), body therapies (59%), far-east techniques (57%), and hippotherapy (22%). Frequencies ranged from once/week to five times/week. Approximately 25% of patients participated in the PAEPs. Interventions were offered irrespective of psychiatric disorders. PAEP providers wanted and needed more vocational training. Conclusion All participating psychiatric hospitals offer a broad variety of PAEPs in their treatment curricula. However, the majority of inpatients do not participate in PAEPs. Furthermore, those who do participate cannot continue to do so following discharge. PAEP providers need specific extended vocational trainings and believe that the potential of PA should be improved. PMID:27350748
Askenasy, J J M
The present article is meant to suggest an approach to the guidelines for the therapy of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.The factors affecting the quality of life in PD patients are depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. A large review of the literature on sleep disturbances in PD patients, provided the basis for the following classification of the sleep-arousal disturbances in PD patients. We suggest a model based on 3 steps in the treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients. This model allowing the patient, the spouse or the caregiver a quiet sleep at night, may postpone the retirement and the institutionalization of the PD patient. I. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders based on detailed anamnesis of the patient and of the spouse or of the caregiver. One week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders co morbidities. Selection of the most appropriate sleep test among: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, actigraphy or video-PSG. II. The nonspecific therapeutic approach consists in: a) Checking the sleep effect on motor performance, is it beneficial, worse or neutral. b) Psycho-physical assistance. c) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary owing to the progression of the nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals, which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of the motor centers in PD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and NonREM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates PD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. The permanent adjustment
Eklund, Mona; Argentzell, Elisabeth; Bejerholm, Ulrika; Tjörnstrand, Carina; Brunt, David
The home is imperative for the possibilities for meaningful everyday activities among people with psychiatric disabilities. Knowledge of whether such possibilities vary with type of housing and housing support might reveal areas for improved support. We aimed to compare people with psychiatric disabilities living in supported housing (SH) and ordinary housing with support (OHS) regarding perceived well-being, engaging and satisfying everyday activities, and perceived meaning of activity in one's accommodation. The importance of these factors and socio-demographics for satisfaction with housing was also explored. This naturalistic cross-sectional study was conducted in municipalities and city districts (n = 21) in Sweden, and 155 SH residents and 111 OHS residents participated in an interview that included both self-reports and interviewer ratings. T-test and linear regression analysis were used. The SH group expressed more psychological problems, but better health, quality of life and personal recovery compared to the OHS residents. The latter were rated as having less symptom severity, and higher levels of functioning and activity engagement. Both groups rated themselves as under-occupied in the domains of work, leisure, home management and self-care, but the SH residents less so regarding home management and self-care chores. Although the groups reported similar levels of activity, the SH group were more satisfied with everyday activities and rated their housing higher on possibilities for social interaction and personal development. The groups did not differ on access to activity in their homes. The participants generally reported sufficient access to activity, social interaction and personal development, but those who wanted more personal development in the OHS group outnumbered those who stated they received enough. Higher scores on satisfaction with daily occupations, access to organization and information, wanting more social interaction, and personal
Berninger, Michael; Erk, Christine; Fuß, Antje; Skaf, Joseph; Al-Momani, Ehab; Israel, Ina; Raschig, Martina; Güntzel, Paul; Samnick, Samuel; Holzgrabe, Ulrike
Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as African sleeping sickness, is caused by the parasitic protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma. If there is no pharmacological intervention, the parasites can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), inevitably leading to death of the patients. Previous investigation identified the quinolone amide GHQ168 as a promising lead compound having a nanomolar activity against T. b. brucei. Here, the role of a fluorine substitution at different positions was investigated in regard to toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and antitrypanosomal activity. This 'fluorine walk' led to new compounds with improved metabolic stability and consistent activity against T. b. brucei. The ability of the new quinolone amides to cross the BBB was confirmed using an 18 F-labelled quinolone amide derivative by means of ex vivo autoradiography of a murine brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Miyawaki, Shouichi; Tanimoto, Yuko; Araki, Yoshiko; Katayama, Akira; Imai, Mikako; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among nocturnal jaw muscle activities, decreased esophageal pH, and sleep positions. Twelve adult volunteers, including 4 bruxism patients, participated in this study. Portable pH monitoring, electromyography of the temporal muscle, and audio-video recordings were conducted during the night in the subjects' homes. Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) episodes were observed most frequently, with single short-burst episodes the second most frequent. The frequencies of RMMA, single short-burst, and clenching episodes were significantly higher during decreased esophageal pH episodes than those during other times. Both the electromyography and the decreased esophageal pH episodes were most frequently observed in the supine position. These results suggest that most jaw muscle activities, ie, RMMA, single short-burst, and clenching episodes, occur in relation to gastroesophageal reflux mainly in the supine position.
Desouzart, Gustavo; Matos, Rui; Melo, Filipe; Filgueiras, Ernesto
The increase in life expectancy of elderly population has aroused the interest of different knowledge areas in understanding the variables that are involved in the aging process, linking them to other concepts such as active aging, healthy aging and the bio-psycho-social changes. This paper presents the results of the first controlled, experimental pilot study that aimed to analyze the relationship between the perception of back pain and the sleeping position adopted by physically active female seniors. Twenty female seniors (mean age 62.70 ± 3.827) participated in this study. The individuals were separated in 2 groups (Experimental and Control Group). For the carrying out of this study, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to measure the intensity of back pain in the spine before and after four consecutive weeks an Intervention program. Individuals in the Experimental Group were instructed regarding the recommended way to sleep position (Intervention program) according to the pathological problems or the amount of pain reported. The Experimental Group (N = 10) presented significantly (p = 0.009) fewer complaints of back pain after an Intervention program in comparison to individuals who did not receive this type of information (Control Group).
Carroll, Judith E; Cole, Steven W; Seeman, Teresa E; Breen, Elizabeth C; Witarama, Tuff; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; Irwin, Michael R
Age-related disease risk has been linked to short sleep duration and sleep disturbances; however, the specific molecular pathways linking sleep loss with diseases of aging are poorly defined. Key cellular events seen with aging, which are thought to contribute to disease, may be particularly sensitive to sleep loss. We tested whether one night of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) would increase leukocyte gene expression indicative of DNA damage responses (DDR), the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and senescence indicator p16(INK4a) in older adult humans, who are at increased risk for cellular senescence. Community-dwelling older adults aged 61-86years (n=29; 48% male) underwent an experimental partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol over 4 nights, including adaptation, an uninterrupted night of sleep, partial sleep deprivation (sleep restricted 3-7AM), and a subsequent full night of sleep. Blood samples were obtained each morning to assess peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression using Illumina HT-12 arrays. Analyses of microarray results revealed that SASP (psleep deprivation activates PBMC gene expression patterns consistent with biological aging in this older adult sample. PSD enhanced the SASP and increased the accumulation of damage that initiates cell cycle arrest and promotes cellular senescence. These findings causally link sleep deprivation to the molecular processes associated with biological aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thomasson, Julien; Canini, Frédéric; Poly-Thomasson, Betty; Trousselard, Marion; Granon, Sylvie; Chauveau, Frédéric
Sleep restriction (SR) impairs short term memory (STM) that might be related to different processes. Neuropeptide S (NPS), an endogenous neuropeptide that improves short term memory, activates arousal and decreases anxiety is likely to counteract the SR-induced impairment of STM. The objective of the present study was to find common cerebral pathways in sleep restriction and NPS action in order to ultimately antagonize SR effect on memory. The STM was assessed using a spontaneous spatial alternation task in a T-maze. C57-Bl/6J male mice were distributed in 4 groups according to treatment (0.1nmol of NPS or vehicle intracerebroventricular injection) and to 20h-SR. Immediately after behavioural testing, regional c-fos immunohistochemistry was performed and used as a neural activation marker for spatial short term memory (prefrontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus) and emotional reactivity (basolateral amygdala and ventral hippocampus). Anxiety-like behaviour was assessed using elevated-plus maze task. Results showed that SR impaired short term memory performance and decreased neuronal activation in cingular cortex.NPS injection overcame SR-induced STM deficits and increased neuronal activation in infralimbic cortex. SR spared anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze. Neural activation in basolateral nucleus of amygdala and ventral hippocampus were not changed after SR.In conclusion, the present study shows that NPS overcomes SR-induced STM deficits by increasing prefrontal cortex activation independently of anxiety-like behaviour. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cipolli, Carlo; Mazzetti, Michela; Plazzi, Giuseppe
Sleep can improve the off-line memory consolidation of new items of declarative and non-declarative information in healthy subjects, whereas acute sleep loss, as well as sleep restriction and fragmentation, impair consolidation. This suggests that, by modifying the amount and/or architecture of sleep, chronic sleep disorders may also lead to a lower gain in off-line consolidation, which in turn may be responsible for the varying levels of impaired performance at memory tasks usually observed in sleep-disordered patients. The experimental studies conducted to date have shown specific impairments of sleep-dependent consolidation overall for verbal and visual declarative information in patients with primary insomnia, for verbal declarative information in patients with obstructive sleep apnoeas, and for visual procedural skills in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that impaired consolidation is a consequence of the chronically altered organization of sleep. Moreover, they raise several novel questions as to: a) the reversibility of consolidation impairment in the case of effective treatment, b) the possible negative influence of altered prior sleep also on the encoding of new information, and c) the relationships between altered sleep and memory impairment in patients with other (medical, psychiatric or neurological) diseases associated with quantitative and/or qualitative changes of sleep architecture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Plante, David T; Trksak, George H; Jensen, J Eric; Penetar, David M; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Riedner, Brady A; Tartarini, Wendy L; Dorsey, Cynthia M; Renshaw, Perry F; Lukas, Scott E; Harper, David G
A principal function of sleep may be restoration of brain energy metabolism caused by the energetic demands of wakefulness. Because energetic demands in the brain are greater in gray than white matter, this study used linear mixed-effects models to examine tissue-type specific changes in high-energy phosphates derived using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) after sleep deprivation and recovery sleep. Experimental laboratory study. Outpatient neuroimaging center at a private psychiatric hospital. A total of 32 MRS scans performed in eight healthy individuals (mean age 35 y; range 23-51 y). Phosphocreatine (PCr) and β-nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) were measured using 31P MRS three dimensional-chemical shift imaging at high field (4 Tesla) after a baseline night of sleep, acute sleep deprivation (SD), and 2 nights of recovery sleep. Novel linear mixed-effects models were constructed using spectral and tissue segmentation data to examine changes in bioenergetics in gray and white matter. PCr increased in gray matter after 2 nights of recovery sleep relative to SD with no significant changes in white matter. Exploratory analyses also demonstrated that increases in PCr were associated with increases in electroencephalographic slow wave activity during recovery sleep. No significant changes in β-NTP were observed. These results demonstrate that sleep deprivation and subsequent recovery-induced changes in high-energy phosphates primarily occur in gray matter, and increases in PCr after recovery sleep may be related to sleep homeostasis. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Brambilla, Paolo; Giussani, Marco; Pasinato, Angela; Venturelli, Leonello; Privitera, Francesco; Miraglia Del Giudice, Emanuele; Sollai, Sara; Picca, Marina; Di Mauro, Giuseppe; Bruni, Oliviero; Chiappini, Elena
Sleep in childhood and adolescence is crucial for mental and physical health; however several researches reported an increasing trend towards a sleep deprivation in this age. Due to the lack of recent epidemiological studies in Italy, the aim of our study was to depict sleep habits and patterns in Italian children aged 1-14 years and to evaluate their relationships with video devices use (TV, tablet, smartphone, PC) and evening/night child activities. A structured interview was conducted during 2015 by 72 Family Pediatricians in 2030 healthy children aged 1-14 years by a cross-sectional survey named "Ci piace sognare". Total sleep duration was calculated, 2015 National Sleep Foundation Recommendations were used as reference. Optimal sleepers were defined children sleeping in own bed all night without awakenings. Multivariable median regression was performed to identify predictors of sleep duration and multivariable logistic regression for predictors of optimal sleep. Total sleep duration and numbers of awakenings decreased with age. Only 66.9% of children had sleep duration in agreement with Recommendations (50% in 10-14 years group). Before sleeping 63.5% of children used video devices (39.6% at 1-3 years), 39.1% read, 27.5% drank and 19.5% ate. Bottle users at bedtime were 30.8% at 1-3 years, 16.6% at 3-5 years and 4.9% at 5-7 years. Overall, 23.4% of children changed sleeping place during the night, 22.4% referred sleeping problems in the first year of life. Video devices use was negative predictor of sleep duration (-0.25 h [95%CI:-0.35,-0.14], p sleep was inversely related with bedroom TV (OR 0.63 [0.50,0.79], p sleeping disorders in the first year (OR 0.62 [0.48,0.80], p sleep less than recommended, one half in teenage. Modifiable risk factors for sleep abnormalities such as video devices use, bedroom TV and bottle use should be target of preventive strategies for a correct sleep. Pediatricians should give priority to the identification of sleep
Ohayon, Maurice M.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dauvilliers, Yves
Objectives Using population-based data, we document the comorbidities (medical, neurologic and psychiatric) and consequences for daily functioning of excessive quantity of sleep (EQS), defined as a main sleep period or 24-hour sleep duration ≥9 hours accompanied by complaints of impaired functioning or distress due to excessive sleep, and its links to excessive sleepiness. Methods A cross-sectional telephone study using a representative sample of 19,136 non-institutionalized individuals living in the United States, aged ≥18 (participation rate: 83.2%). The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental and organic disorders (DSM-IV-TR, ICSD-II, ICD-10). Results Sleeping at least 9 hours per 24-hour period was reported by 8.4% (95% confidence intervals: 8.0%-8.8%) of participants; EQS (prolonged sleep episode with distress/impairment) was observed in 1.6% (1.4% to 1.8%) of the sample. The likelihood of EQS was 3-12 times higher among individuals with a mood disorder. EQS individuals were 2-4 times more likely to report poor quality of life than non-EQS individuals as well as interference with socio-professional activities and relationships. Although between 33% and 66% of individuals with prolonged sleep perceived it as a major problem, only 6.3% to 27.5% of them reported having sought medical attention. Interpretation Excessive Quantity of Sleep is widespread in the general population, co-occurring with a broad spectrum of sleep, medical, neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, physicians must recognize EQS as a mixed clinical entity indicating careful assessment and specific treatment planning. PMID:23846792
Henderson, Fiona; Vialou, Vincent; El Mestikawy, Salah; Fabre, Véronique
Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD) on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice that develop long-lasting social avoidance, and unsusceptible mice. Sleep-wake stages in mice of both groups were analyzed by means of polysomnographic recordings at baseline, after the first, third, and tenth stress sessions and on the 5th recovery day (R5) following the 10-day CSDS. In susceptible mice, each SD session produced biphasic changes in sleep-wake states that were preserved all along 10-day CSDS. These sessions elicited a short-term enhancement of wake time while rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep was strongly inhibited. Concomitantly, delta power was increased during non REM (NREM) sleep. During the following dark period, an increase in total sleep time, as well as wake fragmentation, were observed after each analyzed SD session. Similar changes were observed in unsusceptible mice. At R5, elevated high-frequency EEG activity, as observed in insomniacs, emerged during NREM sleep in both susceptible and unsusceptible groups suggesting that CSDS impaired sleep quality. Furthermore, susceptible but not unsusceptible mice displayed stress-anticipatory arousal during recovery, a common feature of anxiety disorders. Altogether, our findings show that CSDS has profound impacts on vigilance states and further support that sleep is tightly regulated by exposure to stressful events. They also revealed that susceptibility to chronic psychological stress is associated with heightened arousal, a physiological feature of stress vulnerability.
Full Text Available Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice that develop long-lasting social avoidance, and unsusceptible mice. Sleep-wake stages in mice of both groups were analyzed by means of polysomnographic recordings at baseline, after the first, third, and tenth stress sessions and on the 5th recovery day (R5 following the 10-day CSDS. In susceptible mice, each SD session produced biphasic changes in sleep-wake states that were preserved all along 10-day CSDS. These sessions elicited a short-term enhancement of wake time while rapid eye-movement (REM sleep was strongly inhibited. Concomitantly, delta power was increased during non REM (NREM sleep. During the following dark period, an increase in total sleep time, as well as wake fragmentation, were observed after each analyzed SD session. Similar changes were observed in unsusceptible mice. At R5, elevated high-frequency EEG activity, as observed in insomniacs, emerged during NREM sleep in both susceptible and unsusceptible groups suggesting that CSDS impaired sleep quality. Furthermore, susceptible but not unsusceptible mice displayed stress-anticipatory arousal during recovery, a common feature of anxiety disorders. Altogether, our findings show that CSDS has profound impacts on vigilance states and further support that sleep is tightly regulated by exposure to stressful events. They also revealed that susceptibility to chronic psychological stress is associated with heightened arousal, a physiological feature of stress vulnerability.
Arima, Taro; Takeuchi, Tamiyo; Tomonaga, Akio; Yachida, Wataru; Ohata, Noboru; Svensson, Peter
AimThe choice of biomaterials for occlusal splints may significantly influence biological outcome. In dentistry, hard acrylic occlusal splints (OS) have been shown to have a temporary and inhibitory effect on jaw-muscle activity, such as tooth clenching and grinding during sleep, i.e., sleep bruxism (SB). Traditionally, this inhibitory effect has been explained by changes in the intraoral condition rather than the specific effects of changes in occlusion. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of another type of occlusal surface, such as a soft-material OS in addition to a hard-type OS in terms of changes in jaw-muscle activity during sleep. Materials and methodsSeven healthy subjects (mean ± SD, six men and one woman: 28.9 ± 2.7 year old), participated in this study. A soft-material OS (ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer) was fabricated for each subject and the subjects used the OS for five continuous nights. The EMG activity during sleep was compared to baseline (no OS). Furthermore, the EMG activity during the use of a hard-type OS (Michigan-type OS, acrylic resin), and hard-type OS combined with contingent electrical stimulation (CES) was compared to baseline values. Each session was separated by at least two weeks (washout). Jaw-muscle activity during sleep was recorded with single-channel ambulatory devices (GrindCare, MedoTech, Herlev, Denmark) in all sessions for five nights. ResultsJaw-muscle activity during sleep was 46.6 ± 29.8 EMG events/hour at baseline and significantly decreased during the hard-type OS (17.4 ± 10.5, P = 0.007) and the hard-type OS + CES (10.8 ± 7.1, P = 0.002), but not soft-material OS (36.3 ± 24.5, P = 0.055). Interestingly, the soft-material OS (coefficient of variance = 98.6 ± 35.3%) was associated with greater night-to-night variations than baseline (39.0 ± 11.8%) and the hard-type OS + CES (53.3 ± 13.7%, P < 0.013). ConclusionThe present pilot study in small sample showed that a soft
Bola, Michał; Barrett, Adam B; Pigorini, Andrea; Nobili, Lino; Seth, Anil K; Marchewka, Artur
Loss of consciousness can result from a wide range of causes, including natural sleep and pharmacologically induced anesthesia. Important insights might thus come from identifying neuronal mechanisms of loss and re-emergence of consciousness independent of a specific manipulation. Therefore, to seek neuronal signatures of loss of consciousness common to sleep and anesthesia we analyzed spontaneous electrophysiological activity recorded in two experiments. First, electrocorticography (ECoG) acquired from 4 macaque monkeys anesthetized with different anesthetic agents (ketamine, medetomidine, propofol) and, second, stereo-electroencephalography (sEEG) from 10 epilepsy patients in different wake-sleep stages (wakefulness, NREM, REM). Specifically, we investigated co-activation patterns among brain areas, defined as correlations between local amplitudes of gamma-band activity. We found that resting wakefulness was associated with intermediate levels of gamma-band coupling, indicating neither complete dependence, nor full independence among brain regions. In contrast, loss of consciousness during NREM sleep and propofol anesthesia was associated with excessively correlated brain activity, as indicated by a robust increase of number and strength of positive correlations. However, such excessively correlated brain signals were not observed during REM sleep, and were present only to a limited extent during ketamine anesthesia. This might be related to the fact that, despite suppression of behavioral responsiveness, REM sleep and ketamine anesthesia often involve presence of dream-like conscious experiences. We conclude that hyper-correlated gamma-band activity might be a signature of loss of consciousness common across various manipulations and independent of behavioral responsiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Sandness, David J; Arndt, Katlyn; Erickson, Maia; Tabatabai, Grace; Boeve, Bradley F; Silber, Michael H
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is associated with antidepressant treatment, especially in younger patients; but quantitative REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) analyses of psychiatric RBD patients remain limited. We analyzed RSWA in adults receiving antidepressants, with and without RBD. We comparatively analyzed visual, manual, and automated RSWA between RBD and control groups. RSWA metrics were compared between groups, and regression was used to explore associations with clinical variables. Tertiary-care sleep center. Participants included traditional RBD without antidepressant treatment (n = 30, 15 Parkinson disease [PD-RBD] and 15 idiopathic); psychiatric RBD receiving antidepressants (n = 30); and adults without RBD, including antidepressant-treated psychiatric (n = 30), untreated psychiatric (n = 15), and OSA (n = 60) controls. N/A. RSWA was highest in traditional and psychiatric RBD, intermediate in treated psychiatric controls, and lowest in untreated psychiatric and OSA controls (P sleep without atonia (RSWA) even without REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), suggesting that antidepressants, not depression, promote RSWA. Differences in RSWA distribution and type were also seen, with higher anterior tibialis RSWA in antidepressant-treated patients and higher tonic RSWA in Parkinson disease-RBD patients, which could aid distinction between RBD subtypes. These findings suggest that antidepressants may mediate different RSWA mechanisms or, alternatively, that RSWA type and distribution evolve during progressive neurodegeneration. Further prospective RSWA analyses are necessary to clarify the relationships between antidepressant treatment, psychiatric disease, and RBD. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Tada, Yuki; Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Tanaka, Izumi; Kanehara, Rieko; Kato, Misao; Hatta, Naoko; Hida, Azumi; Kawano, Yukari
Previous studies have found more frequent increases in dietary intake and nonrestorative nocturnal sleep during the luteal phase than in the follicular phase, but few studies have investigated how increased energy intake at dinner influences sleep by considering the correlation between female hormone and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. This study examined the effects of energy intake at dinner on ANS activity during nighttime sleep in order to evaluate restorative sleep in healthy women. We also examined whether ANS activity is associated with female hormone dynamics. Twenty-four healthy collegiate women participated in this randomized crossover trial. Each was assigned to receive a High Energy Dinner (HED) or Low Energy Dinner (LED) treatment. Energy ratios of each test meal (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) to total energy intake were 1:1:2 and 1:2:1 for HED and LED treatments, respectively. Each participant wore an ECG recorder before dinner and removed it upon waking the next morning. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was used to calculate low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and total spectral power (TP). Cardiac sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) nervous system activity were evaluated as LF/HF and HF/TP, respectively. Mean HF/TP for the entire sleeping period was lower with HED treatment compared to LED treatment (41.7 ± 11.4 vs. 45.0 ± 12.13, P = .034). Intergroup comparisons of the initial 3-h sleeping period revealed that LF/HF (0.87 ± 0.82 vs. 0.66 ± 0.82, P = .013) and HF/TP (45.6 ± 13.9 vs. 51.5 ± 11.8, P = .002) were higher and lower, respectively, with HED treatment compared to LED treatment. Progesterone levels were positively correlated with LF/HF with LED treatment, and negatively correlated with HF/TP with both HED and LED treatments. Higher energy intake at dinner increases and decreases SNS and PNS activities, respectively, resulting in nonrestorative nocturnal
Van Veen, M M; Karsten, J; Lancel, M
Studies investigating sleep and personality disorders consistently demonstrate a relation between personality disorders characterized by behavioral disinhibition and/or emotional dysregulation (traditionally termed cluster B personality disorders) and poor sleep. This finding is in line with previous studies associating insomnia with impulsive behavior, since this is a core characteristic of both antisocial and borderline personality disorder. The current study investigates a group (n = 112) of forensic psychiatric inpatients with antisocial or borderline personality disorder or traits thereof. Subjective sleep characteristics and impulsivity were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Sleep Diagnosis List, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, respectively. More than half of the patients (53.6%) report poor sleep quality and 22.3% appears to suffer from severe chronic insomnia. Both poor sleep quality and chronic insomnia are significantly associated with self-reported impulsivity, in particular with attentional impulsiveness. This association was not significantly influenced by comorbid disorders. Actively treating sleep problems in these patients may not only improve sleep quality, mental health, and physical well-being, but may also have impact on impulsivity-related health risks by increasing self-control.
Pekurinen, Virve; Willman, Laura; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Välimäki, Maritta
Wellbeing of nurses is associated with patient aggression. Little is known about the differences in these associations between nurses working in different specialties. We aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of patient aggression and the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses in psychiatric and non-psychiatric specialties (medical and surgical, and emergency medicine). A sample of 5288 nurses (923 psychiatric nurses, 4070 medical and surgical nurses, 295 emergency nurses) participated in the study. Subjective measures were used to assess both the occurrence of patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses (self-rated health, sleep disturbances, psychological distress and perceived work ability). Binary logistic regression with interaction terms was used to compare the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses. Psychiatric nurses reported all types of patient aggression more frequently than medical and surgical nurses, whereas nurses working in emergency settings reported physical violence and verbal aggression more frequently than psychiatric nurses. Psychiatric nurses reported poor self-rated health and reduced work ability more frequently than both of the non-psychiatric nursing groups, whereas medical and surgical nurses reported psychological distress and sleep disturbances more often. Psychiatric nurses who had experienced at least one type of patient aggression or mental abuse in the previous year, were less likely to suffer from psychological distress and sleep disturbances compared to medical and surgical nurses. Psychiatric nurses who had experienced physical assaults and armed threats were less likely to suffer from sleep disturbances compared to nurses working in emergency settings. Compared to medical and surgical nurses, psychiatric nurses face patient aggression more often, but certain types of aggression are more common in emergency settings. Psychiatric nurses have worse subjective
Matsuda, Shinpei; Yamaguchi, Taihiko; Mikami, Saki; Okada, Kazuki; Gotouda, Akihito; Sano, Kazuo
The aim of this study was to elucidate characteristics of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) during sleep by comparing masseteric EMG (electromyogram) activities of RMMA with gum chewing. The parts of five or more consecutive phasic bursts in RMMA of 23 bruxers were analyzed. Wilcoxon signed-rank test for matched pairs and Spearman's correlation coefficient by the rank test were used for statistical analysis. Root mean square value of RMMA phasic burst was smaller than that during gum chewing, but correlates to that of gum chewing. The cycle of RMMA was longer than that of gum chewing due to the longer burst duration of RMMA, and variation in the cycles of RMMA was wider. These findings suggest that the longer but smaller EMG burst in comparison with gum chewing is one of the characteristics of RMMA. The relation between size of RMMA phasic bursts and gum chewing is also suggested.
Nielsen, F S; Hansen, H P; Jacobsen, P
AIMS: To elucidate the putative factors involved in the blunted nocturnal blood pressure reduction in hypertensive Type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Extracellular fluid volume and fluid shift from interstitial to plasma volume (haematocrit), sympathetic nervous activity...... (plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline) and the internal 'body clock' (serum melatonin) were investigated in 31 hypertensive Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with diabetic nephropathy (24 males, age 60 (45-73) years). All variables, except extracellular volume, were measured repeatedly...... constant in both groups. Extracellular fluid volume and plasma melatonin levels were comparable in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Sustained adrenergic activity during sleep is associated with blunted nocturnal blood pressure reduction in hypertensive Type 2DM patients with diabetic nephropathy, probably...
Tamminen, Jakke; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Lewis, Penelope A
Assimilating new information into existing knowledge is a fundamental part of consolidating new memories and allowing them to guide behavior optimally and is vital for conceptual knowledge (semantic memory), which is accrued over many years. Sleep is important for memory consolidation, but its impact upon assimilation of new information into existing semantic knowledge has received minimal examination. Here, we examined the integration process by training human participants on novel words with meanings that fell into densely or sparsely populated areas of semantic memory in two separate sessions. Overnight sleep was polysomnographically monitored after each training session and recall was tested immediately after training, after a night of sleep, and 1 week later. Results showed that participants learned equal numbers of both word types, thus equating amount and difficulty of learning across the conditions. Measures of word recognition speed showed a disadvantage for novel words in dense semantic neighborhoods, presumably due to interference from many semantically related concepts, suggesting that the novel words had been successfully integrated into semantic memory. Most critically, semantic neighborhood density influenced sleep architecture, with participants exhibiting more sleep spindles and slow-wave activity after learning the sparse compared with the dense neighborhood words. These findings provide the first evidence that spindles and slow-wave activity mediate integration of new information into existing semantic networks.
Gozukirmizi, E.; Meyer, J.S.; Okabe, T.; Amano, T.; Mortel, K.; Karacan, I.
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements were combined with sleep polysomnography in nine patients with complex partial seizures. Two methods were used: the 133Xe method for measuring regional (rCBF) and the stable xenon CT method for local (LCBF). Compared to nonepileptic subjects, who show diffuse CBF decreases during stages I-II, non-REM sleep onset, patients with complex partial seizures show statistically significant increases in CBF which are maximal in regions where the EEG focus is localized and are predominantly seen in one temporal region but are also propagated to other cerebral areas. Both CBF methods gave comparable results, but greater statistical significance was achieved by stable xenon CT methodology. CBF increases are more diffuse than predicted by EEG paroxysmal activity recorded from scalp electrodes. An advantage of the 133Xe inhalation method was achievement of reliable data despite movement of the head. This was attributed to the use of a helmet which maintained the probes approximated to the scalp. Disadvantages were poor resolution (7 cm3) and two-dimensional information. The advantage of stable xenon CT method is excellent resolution (80 mm3) in three dimensions, but a disadvantage is that movement of the head in patients with seizure disorders may limit satisfactory measurements
Silva, Anabela G; Sa-Couto, Pedro; Queirós, Alexandra; Neto, Maritza; Rocha, Nelson P
Studies exploring the association between physical activity, screen time and sleep and pain usually focus on a limited number of painful body sites. Nevertheless, pain at different body sites is likely to be of different nature. Therefore, this study aims to explore and compare the association between time spent in self-reported physical activity, in screen based activities and sleeping and i) pain presence in the last 7-days for 9 different body sites; ii) pain intensity at 9 different body sites and iii) global disability. Nine hundred sixty nine students completed a questionnaire on pain, time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity, screen based time watching TV/DVD, playing, using mobile phones and computers and sleeping hours. Univariate and multivariate associations between pain presence, pain intensity and disability and physical activity, screen based time and sleeping hours were investigated. Pain presence: sleeping remained in the multivariable model for the neck, mid back, wrists, knees and ankles/feet (OR 1.17 to 2.11); moderate physical activity remained in the multivariate model for the neck, shoulders, wrists, hips and ankles/feet (OR 1.06 to 1.08); vigorous physical activity remained in the multivariate model for mid back, knees and ankles/feet (OR 1.05 to 1.09) and screen time remained in the multivariate model for the low back (OR = 2.34. Pain intensity: screen time and moderate physical activity remained in the multivariable model for pain intensity at the neck, mid back, low back, shoulder, knees and ankles/feet (Rp 2 0.02 to 0.04) and at the wrists (Rp 2 = 0.04), respectively. Disability showed no association with sleeping, screen time or physical activity. This study suggests both similarities and differences in the patterns of association between time spent in physical activity, sleeping and in screen based activities and pain presence at 8 different body sites. In addition, they also suggest that the factors associated
Full Text Available Background: It has been discussed that being held hostage can have harmful short and often long-term physical, psychological, familial and social effects on the victims. This is a complex area of research and the data is sparse yet. The aim of our study is to present our experience concerning some psychological and psychiatric consequences on Bulgarian seamen victims of pirate's attack long captivity and to suggest a suitable methodology of a psychological investigation in such cases. Methods: Seven Bulgarian hostage survivors underwent comprehensive psychological and psychiatric assessments twenty days after pirate’s captivity release. Results and discussion: In general terms, the psychological and psychiatric impact on the victims is similar to that of being exposed to other serious life-threatening events, including terrorist incidents and natural disasters. All the subjects, who have been examined in our study, reported feelings of detachment and alienation from close others and startle by noises, nightmares and sleep disturbances. Anxiety symptoms, characterized by apprehension, tension and fear in particular situations, and some depressive features (depressive mood, lack of interest and activities, lassitude on a sub- clinical level were registered. Conclusion: Despite some limitations our report discusses important issues, concerning psychological and psychiatric consequences on Bulgarian seamen victims of pirate’s attack long captivity and present a suitable model of a psychological investigation in such cases and states the need of supportive care of the victims.
Staiano, Amanda E; Broyles, Stephanie T; Katzmarzyk, Peter T
This cross-sectional study examined differences in children's health behaviors during school term (ST) versus school holiday (SH: June-July) and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5-18 years (n = 406) from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score (BMIz) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth's physical activity and TV viewing.
With the ever-increasing availability of health information technology (HIT) enabling health consumers to measure, store, and manage their health data (e.g., self-tracking devices), more people are logging and managing their own health data for the purpose of promoting general well-being. To develop and implement effective and efficient strategies for improving personal monitoring devices, a rigorous theoretical framework to explain the health consumer's attitude, intention, and behavior needs to be established. The aim of this study is to verify the HIT acceptance model (HITAM) in the context of the health consumer's attitude, behavioral intention, and behavior of utilizing self-trackers. Furthermore, the study aims to gain better understanding of self-tracking behavior in the context of logging daily activity level, sleep patterns, and dietary habits. Forty-four female college students were selected as voluntary study participants. They used self-trackers for activity, sleep, and diet monitoring for 90 or more consecutive days. The logged data were analyzed and fitted to the HITAM to verify whether the model was suitable for capturing the various behavioral and intention-related characteristics observed. The overall fitness indices for the HITAM using the field data yielded an acceptable fitness to the model, with all path coefficients being statistically significant. The model accounts for 66.8% of the variance in perceived usefulness, 43.9% of the variance in perceived ease of use, 83.1% of the variance in attitude, and 48.4% of the variance in behavioral intention. The compliance ranking of self-tracking behavior, in order of decreasing compliance, was activity, sleep, and diet. This ranking was consistent with that of ease of use of the personal monitoring device used in the study. The HITAM was verified for its ability to describe the health consumer's attitude, behavioral intention, and behavior. The analysis indicated that the ease of use of a particular
... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...
... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...
Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Klingenberg, Lars; Sjödin, Anders
To discuss the benefits of having a good night's sleep for body weight stability. Experimental studies have shown that short-term partial sleep restriction decreases glucose tolerance, increases sympathetic tone, elevates cortisol concentrations, decreases the satiety hormone leptin, increases the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin, and increases hunger and appetite. Short sleep duration might increase the risk of becoming obese, because it does not allow the recovery of a hormonal profile facilitating appetite control. Lack of sleep could also lead to weight gain and obesity by increasing the time available for eating and by making the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle more difficult. Furthermore, the increased fatigue and tiredness associated with sleeping too little could lessen one's resolve to follow exercise regimens. Short sleep duration appears to be a novel and independent risk factor for obesity. With the growing prevalence of chronic sleep restriction, any causal association between reduced sleep and obesity would have substantial importance from a public health standpoint. Future research is needed to determine whether sleep extension in sleep-deprived obese individuals will influence appetite control and/or reduce the amount of body fat.
White, Kaitlin Hanley; Rumble, Meredith E; Benca, Ruth M
Depression is often associated with disruptions in sleep and circadian rhythms. We aimed to confirm these relationships via actigraphic assessment in a large, population-based sample and test whether sex moderates these relationships. A total of 418 participants (age = 35-85 years, mean [standard deviation] = 57.04 [11.47]) completed questionnaires and 1 week of actigraphy, used to calculate sleep and rest-activity statistics including mesor (mean activity level), amplitude (height of rhythm), and acrophase (time of day that rhythm peaks). Depressive symptoms, assessed via Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, were associated with disrupted sleep and rest-activity rhythms. Furthermore, men demonstrated longer sleep onset latency (SOL, B = -13.28, p continuity and rest-activity rhythms in this population-based sample; however, these relationships differed by sex. Women with greater depressive symptoms exhibited difficulty with sleep continuity, whereas men with greater depressive symptoms demonstrated disruption throughout the 24-hour rhythm.
Full Text Available Abstract: Insomnia is a very common pediatric condition that causes a serious impact on psychophysical performance. The present paper, based on the scientific literature, aims to analyze some questions about how physical activity affects sleep in the adolescent population. Finally, some general and useful recommendations are established for professionals working in this population group.
Lewthwaite, Hayley; Effing, Tanja W.; Lenferink, Anke; Olds, Tim; Williams, Marie T.
Background. Little is known about how to achieve enduring improvements in physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and sleep for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to: (1) identify what people with COPD from South Australia and the Netherlands, and
Zhang, Jing; Zhang, YunTing; Jiang, YanRui; Sun, WanQi; Zhu, Qi; Ip, Patrick; Zhang, DongLan; Liu, ShiJian; Chen, Chang; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Tang, MingYu; Dong, WenFang; Wu, YuFeng; Yin, Yong; Jiang, Fan
Background: This was a cross-sectional survey to investigate the relationship of age, parent education, sleep duration, physical activity, and dietary habits with overweight or obesity in school-age children in Shanghai. Methods: The survey gathered information from 13,001 children in grades 1 through 5 (age 6 to 10 years) among 26 elementary…
Depoortere, H.; Francon, D.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.
Hypnotic drugs are known to possess antiepileptic activity. Therefore, the effects of the benzodiazepine hypnotic midazolam (10 mg/kg) and the novel imidazopyridine hypnotic zolpidem (10 mg/kg) on sleep-wake states and on the number of spike-wave discharges were evaluated in WAG/Rij rats. Rats of
Full Text Available Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use
Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leduc, Geneviève; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S
To examine whether the number and type of electronic screens available in children's bedrooms matter in their relationship to adiposity, physical activity and sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 502 children aged 9-11 years from Ottawa, Ontario. The presence (yes/no) of a television (TV), computer or video game system in the child's bedroom was reported by the parents. Percentage body fat was measured using bioelectrical impedance. An accelerometer was worn over seven days to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), total sedentary time, sleep duration and sleep efficiency. Screen time was self-reported by the child. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, annual household income and highest level of parental education, children with 2-3 screens in their bedroom had a significantly higher percentage of body fat than children with no screen in their bedroom. However, while children with 2-3 screens in their bedroom engaged in more screen time overall than those with no screen, total sedentary time and MVPA were not significantly different. Sleep duration was not related to the number of screens in the bedroom, but sleep efficiency was significantly lower in children with at least 2 screens in the bedroom. Finally, children having only a TV in their bedroom had significantly higher adiposity than those having no screen at all. In contrast, the presence of a computer in children's bedrooms was not associated with higher adiposity than that of children with no screen. A higher number of screens in a child's bedroom was associated with higher adiposity, more total screen time and lower sleep efficiency. Having a TV in the bedroom appears to be the type of screen presence associated with higher levels of adiposity. Given the popularity of screens among children, these findings are increasingly relevant to health promotion strategies.
Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Mehlsen, Jesper; Jennum, Poul
More than 50% of patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) will develop Parkinson's disease or Lewy body dementia. In a previous study, we found attenuated heart rate responses in iRBD and Parkinson's disease patients during sleep. The current study aimed to evaluate heart rate...... variability further in order to identify possible changes in these components during wakefulness and sleep in patients with iRBD and Parkinson's disease....
Kamphuis, Jeanine; Lancel, Marike; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meerlo, Peter
Sleep is considered to be a recovery process of prior wakefulness. Not only duration of the waking period affects sleep architecture and sleep EEG, the quality of wakefulness is also highly important. Studies in rats have shown that social defeat stress, in which experimental animals are attacked
Suntsova, Natalia; Guzman-Marin, Ruben; Kumar, Sunil; Alam, Md Noor; Szymusiak, Ronald; McGinty, Dennis
The perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF/LH) contains neuronal groups playing an important role in control of waking and sleep. Among the brain regions that regulate behavioral states, one of the strongest sources of projections to the PF/LH is the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) containing a sleep-active neuronal population. To evaluate the role of MnPN afferents in the control of PF/LH neuronal activity, we studied the responses of PF/LH cells to electrical stimulation or local chemical manipulation of the MnPN in freely moving rats. Single-pulse electrical stimulation evoked responses in 79% of recorded PF/LH neurons. No cells were activated antidromically. Direct and indirect transsynaptic effects depended on sleep-wake discharge pattern of PF/LH cells. The majority of arousal-related neurons, that is, cells discharging at maximal rates during active waking (AW) or during AW and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, exhibited exclusively or initially inhibitory responses to stimulation. Sleep-related neurons, the cells with elevated discharge during non-REM and REM sleep or selectively active in REM sleep, exhibited exclusively or initially excitatory responses. Activation of the MnPN via microdialytic application of L-glutamate or bicuculline resulted in reduced discharge of arousal-related and in excitation of sleep-related PF/LH neurons. Deactivation of the MnPN with muscimol caused opposite effects. The results indicate that the MnPN contains subset(s) of neurons, which exert inhibitory control over arousal-related and excitatory control over sleep-related PF/LH neurons. We hypothesize that MnPN sleep-active neuronal group has both inhibitory and excitatory outputs that participate in the inhibitory control of arousal-promoting PF/LH mechanisms.
Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martín
In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575).
Full Text Available The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH is a peptidergic neuromodulator synthesized by neurons of the lateral hypothalamus and incerto-hypothalamic area. MCHergic neurons project throughout the central nervous system, including areas such as the dorsal (DR and median (MR raphe nuclei, which are involved in the control of sleep and mood.Major Depression (MD is a prevalent psychiatric disease diagnosed on the basis of symptomatic criteria such as sadness or melancholia, guilt, irritability and anhedonia. A short REM sleep latency (i.e. the interval between sleep onset and the first REM sleep period, as well as an increase in the duration of REM sleep and the density of rapid-eye movements during this state, are considered important biological markers of depression. The fact that the greatest firing rate of MCHergic neurons occurs during REM sleep and that optogenetic stimulation of these neurons induces sleep, tends to indicate that MCH plays a critical role in the generation and maintenance of sleep, especially REM sleep. In addition, the acute microinjection of MCH into the DR promotes REM sleep, while immunoneutralization of this peptide within the DR decreases the time spent in this state. Moreover, microinjections of MCH into either the DR or MR promote a depressive-like behavior. In the DR, this effect is prevented by the systemic administration of antidepressant drugs (either fluoxetine or nortriptyline and blocked by the intra-DR microinjection of a specific MCH receptor antagonist. Using electrophysiological and microdialysis techniques we demonstrated also that MCH decreases the activity of serotonergic DR neurons.Therefore, there are substantive experimental data suggesting that the MCHergic system plays a role in the control of REM sleep and, in addition, in the pathophysiology of depression. Consequently, in the present report, we summarize and evaluate the current data and hypotheses related to the role of MCH in REM sleep and MD.
Nunn, Charles L; Samson, David R; Krystal, Andrew D
Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or 'nest'. Further evolutionary change characterizes human sleep, with humans having the shortest sleep duration, yet the highest proportion of rapid eye movement sleep among primates. These changes likely reflect that our ancestors experienced fitness benefits from being active for a greater portion of the 24-h cycle than other primates, potentially related to advantages arising from learning, socializing and defending against predators and hostile conspecifics. Perspectives from evolutionary medicine have implications for understanding sleep disorders; we consider these perspectives in the context of insomnia, narcolepsy, seasonal affective disorder, circadian rhythm disorders and sleep apnea. We also identify how human sleep today differs from sleep through most of human evolution, and the implications of these changes for global health and health disparities. More generally, our review highlights the importance of phylogenetic comparisons in understanding human health, including well-known links between sleep, cognitive performance and health in humans. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.
Mascetti, Gian Gastone
Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep).
Batool-Anwar, Salma; Goodwin, James L; Drescher, Amy A; Baldwin, Carol M; Simon, Richard D; Smith, Terry W; Quan, Stuart F
Patients with severe OSA consume greater amounts of cholesterol, protein, and fat as well as have greater caloric expenditure. However, it is not known whether their activity levels or diet change after treatment with CPAP. To investigate this issue, serial assessments of activity and dietary intake were performed in the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES); a 6-month randomized controlled study of CPAP vs. sham CPAP on neurocognitive outcomes. Subjects were recruited into APPLES at 5 sites through clinic encounters or public advertisement. After undergoing a diagnostic polysomnogram, subjects were randomized to CPAP or sham if their AHI was ≥ 10. Adherence was assessed using data cards from the devices. At the Tucson and Walla Walla sites, subjects were asked to complete validated activity and food frequency questionnaires at baseline and their 4-month visit. Activity and diet data were available at baseline and after 4 months treatment with CPAP or sham in up to 231 subjects (117 CPAP, 114 Sham). Mean age, AHI, BMI, and Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) for this cohort were 55 ± 13 [SD] years, 44 ± 27 /h, 33 ± 7.8 kg/m(2), and 10 ± 4, respectively. The participants lacking activity and diet data were younger, had lower AHI and arousal index, and had better sleep efficiency (p Level of adherence defined as hours of device usage per night at 4 months was significantly higher among men in CPAP group (4.0 ± 2.9 vs. 2.6 ± 2.6). No changes in consumption of total calories, protein, carbohydrate or fat were noted after 4 months. Except for a modest increase in recreational activity in women (268 ± 85 vs. 170 ± 47 calories, p increase in recreational activity in women, OSA patients treated with CPAP do not substantially change their diet or physical activity habits after treatment. .
Good sleep is important for our emotional stability and aggression control. Although most people do not become violent after a period of poor sleep, this may be different for certain vulnerable individuals. Forensic psychiatric patients may represent a group of such individuals. We studied patients
Insomnia is the most common, and often frustrating, sleep-related complaint doc- tors have to deal with. Up to one-third of the population suffers from a sleep disor- der at some time in their life. Insomnia can be a primary problem, or it can be secondary to medical or psychiatric disor- ders or to medications and drugs of.
Eugene, Andy R; Masiak, Jolanta
Sleep is an important component of human life, yet many people do not understand the relationship between the brain and the process of sleeping. Sleep has been proven to improve memory recall, regulate metabolism, and reduce mental fatigue. A minimum of 7 hours of daily sleep seems to be necessary for proper cognitive and behavioral function. The emotional and mental handicaps associated with chronic sleep loss as well as the highly hazardous situations which can be contributed to the lack of sleep is a serious concern that people need to be aware of. When one sleeps, the brain reorganizes and recharges itself, and removes toxic waste byproducts which have accumulated throughout the day. This evidence demonstrates that sleeping can clear the brain and help maintain its normal functioning. Multiple studies have been done to determine the effects of total sleep deprivation; more recently some have been conducted to show the effects of sleep restriction, which is a much more common occurrence, have the same effects as total sleep deprivation. Each phase of the sleep cycle restores and rejuvenates the brain for optimal function. When sleep is deprived, the active process of the glymphatic system does not have time to perform that function, so toxins can build up, and the effects will become apparent in cognitive abilities, behavior, and judgment. As a background for this paper we have reviewed literature and research of sleep phases, effects of sleep deprivation, and the glymphatic system of the brain and its restorative effect during the sleep cycle.
Cvejic, Erin; Sandler, Carolina X; Keech, Andrew; Barry, Benjamin K; Lloyd, Andrew R; Vollmer-Conna, Uté
To explore changes in autonomic functioning, sleep, and physical activity during a post-exertional symptom exacerbation induced by physical or cognitive challenge in participants with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Thirty-five participants with CFS reported fatigue levels 24-h before, immediately before, immediately after, and 24-h after the completion of previously characterised physical (stationary cycling) or cognitive (simulated driving) challenges. Participants also provided ratings of their sleep quality and sleep duration for the night before, and after, the challenge. Continuous ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG) and physical activity was recorded from 24-h prior, until 24-h after, the challenge. Heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV, as high frequency power in normalized units) was derived from the ECG trace for periods of wake and sleep. Both physical and cognitive challenges induced an immediate exacerbation of the fatigue state (pfatigue in a well-defined group of participants with CFS. Larger studies employing challenge paradigms are warranted to further explore the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of post-exertional fatigue in CFS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Castrillon, Eduardo; Dreyer Nielsen, Patricia; Haugland, Morten
, Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neuroscience (SCON), Aarhus, DENMARK; M. Haugland, DELTA, Copenhagen, DENMARK; W. Yachida, T. Arima, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, JAPAN; Group Author Abstracts: ABSTRACT: Objectives: Background: Bruxism has two different circadian manifestations (awake and sleep) that have...... been proposed to have different underlying pathophysiology. Objectives: To compare the characteristics of multiple days EMG assessment of the anterior temporalis muscles between patients with self-reported awake bruxism, sleep bruxism and healthy individuals. Methods: Methods: Participants...... with possible sleep bruxism (n=9) or awake bruxism (n=9) bruxism were included in an open study and compared with healthy individuals during awake (n=9) and sleep (n=7) states. All participants were assessed for a minimum of 4 days (awake or sleep) with a portable single-channel EMG recorder. The outcome...
Full Text Available Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1 describe profiles of children’s lifestyle behaviours; (2 identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3 estimate combined effects of individual/ socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74–10.41, and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98–4.72 were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43–0.84. Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05.
Uchiyama, Makoto; Suzuki, Masahiro; Konno, Chisato; Furihata, Ryuji; Osaki, Koichi; Konno, Michiko; Takahashi, Sakae
Most psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, or neurotic disorders are associated with sleep disorders of various kinds, among which insomnia is most prevalent and important in psychiatric practice. Almost all patients suffering from major depression complain of insomnia. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia associated with major depression shortens the duration to achieve remission of depression. Insomnia has been recently reported to be a risk factor for depression. Hypersomnia is also a major sleep problem in patient suffering from depression. There have been no clinical guide to treat the symptoms of hypersomnia in depression, but some clinical trials treating them with NDRI or adjunctive administration of psychostimulants. In patients with schizophrenia, insomnia is often an early indicator of the aggravation of psychotic symptoms. Electroencephalographic sleep studies have also revealed sleep abnormalities characteristic to mood disorders, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. A shortened REM sleep latency has been regarded as a biological marker of depression. Reduced amount of deep Non-REM sleep has been reported to be correlated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, REM sleep abnormalities were found in teenagers having post-traumatic stress disorder after a boat accident. Although these facts indicate that insomnia plays an important role in the development of psychiatric disorders, there are few hypotheses explaining the cause and effect of insomnia in these disorders. Here, we reviewed recent articles on insomnia and hypersomnia associated with psychiatric disorders together with their clinical managements.
Diez, Joaquín J; Vigo, Daniel E; Lloret, Santiago Pérez; Rigters, Stephanie; Role, Noelia; Cardinali, Daniel P; Chada, Daniel Pérez
To evaluate sleep, alertness, salivary cortisol levels, and autonomic activity in the afternoon and morning shifts of a sample of short-distance bus drivers. A sample of 47 bus drivers was evaluated. Data regarding subjects and working characteristics, alertness (psychomotor vigilance task), sleep habits (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Actigraphy), endocrine stress response (salivary cortisol), and autonomic activity (heart-rate variability) were collected. Sleep restriction was highly prevalent. Drivers in the morning shift slept 1 hour less than those in the afternoon shift, showed lower reaction time performance, a flattening of cortisol morning-evening difference, and higher overweight prevalence. The differences found between morning and afternoon shifts point out to the need of the implementation of educational strategies to compensate the sleep loss associated with an early work schedule.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Results Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. Conclusion A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.
Vogt, Lena Johanna; Gärtner, Simone; Hannich, Hans Joachim; Steveling, Antje; Lerch, Markus M.
Background Among health care personnel working regular hours or rotating shifts can affect parameters of general health and nutrition. We have investigated physical activity, sleep quality, metabolic activity and stress levels in health care workers from both groups. Methods We prospectively recruited 46 volunteer participants from the workforce of a University Medical Department of which 23 worked in rotating shifts (all nursing) and 21 non-shift regular hours (10 nursing, 13 clerical staff). All were investigated over 7 days by multisensory accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia® armband) and kept a detailed food diary. Physical activity and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured in metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Quality of sleep was assessed as Pittsburgh Sleeping Quality Index and stress load using the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress questionnaire (TICS). Results No significant differences were found for overall physical activity, steps per minute, time of exceeding the 3 METs level or sleep quality. A significant difference for physical activity during working hours was found between shift-workers vs. non-shift-workers (pshift-working nurses (median = 2.1 METs SE = 0.1) vs. non-shift-working clerical personnel (median = 1.5 METs SE = 0.07, pshift-working nurses had a significantly lower REE than the other groups (pshift-working nurses consumed significantly more carbohydrates (median = 46% SE = 1.4) than clerical staff (median = 41% SE = 1.7). Stress assessment by TICS confirmed a significantly higher level of social overload in the shift working group (pshift-working had no influence on overall physical activity. Lower physical activity during working hours appears to be compensated for during off-hours. Differences in nutritional habits and stress load warrant larger scale trials to determine the effect on implicit health-associated conditions. PMID:28081231
Hartescu, Iuliana; Morgan, Kevin; Stevinson, Clare D
While high levels of activity and exercise training have been associated with improvements in sleep quality, minimum levels of activity likely to improve sleep outcomes have not been explored. A two-armed parallel randomized controlled trial (N=41; 30 females) was designed to assess whether increasing physical activity to the level recommended in public health guidelines can improve sleep quality among inactive adults meeting research diagnostic criteria for insomnia. The intervention consisted of a monitored program of ≥150 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week, for 6 months. The principal end-point was the Insomnia Severity Index at 6 months post-baseline. Secondary outcomes included measures of mood, fatigue and daytime sleepiness. Activity and light exposure were monitored throughout the trial using accelerometry and actigraphy. At 6 months post-baseline, the physical activity group showed significantly reduced insomnia symptom severity (F(8,26) = 5.16, P = 0.03), with an average reduction of four points on the Insomnia Severity Index; and significantly reduced depression and anxiety scores (F(6,28) = 5.61, P = 0.02; and F(6,28) = 4.41, P = 0.05, respectively). All of the changes were independent of daily light exposure. Daytime fatigue showed no significant effect of the intervention (F(8,26) = 1.84, P = 0.18). Adherence and retention were high. Internationally recommended minimum levels of physical activity improve daytime and night-time symptoms of chronic insomnia independent of daily light exposure levels. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.
Roskoden, Frederick Charles; Krüger, Janine; Vogt, Lena Johanna; Gärtner, Simone; Hannich, Hans Joachim; Steveling, Antje; Lerch, Markus M; Aghdassi, Ali A
Among health care personnel working regular hours or rotating shifts can affect parameters of general health and nutrition. We have investigated physical activity, sleep quality, metabolic activity and stress levels in health care workers from both groups. We prospectively recruited 46 volunteer participants from the workforce of a University Medical Department of which 23 worked in rotating shifts (all nursing) and 21 non-shift regular hours (10 nursing, 13 clerical staff). All were investigated over 7 days by multisensory accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia® armband) and kept a detailed food diary. Physical activity and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured in metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Quality of sleep was assessed as Pittsburgh Sleeping Quality Index and stress load using the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress questionnaire (TICS). No significant differences were found for overall physical activity, steps per minute, time of exceeding the 3 METs level or sleep quality. A significant difference for physical activity during working hours was found between shift-workers vs. non-shift-workers (pworking nurses (median = 2.1 METs SE = 0.1) vs. non-shift-working clerical personnel (median = 1.5 METs SE = 0.07, pworking nurses had a significantly lower REE than the other groups (pworking nurses consumed significantly more carbohydrates (median = 46% SE = 1.4) than clerical staff (median = 41% SE = 1.7). Stress assessment by TICS confirmed a significantly higher level of social overload in the shift working group (pworking had no influence on overall physical activity. Lower physical activity during working hours appears to be compensated for during off-hours. Differences in nutritional habits and stress load warrant larger scale trials to determine the effect on implicit health-associated conditions.
Tsai, Shao-Yu; Lee, Chien-Chang; Chen, Li-Chiou; Tung, Yi-Ching
To examine the sleep characteristics of infants with parentally reported sleep problems, with parentally reported no sleep problems and with parentally reported uncertain sleep conditions. Infant sleep problems are recognized as a major health issue worldwide. However, in our daily clinical practices, it is not uncommon for parents not to know whether their infant sleep is problematic. A prospective study conducted between 2012 - 2015 where 219 parents completed questionnaires and infants wore an actigraph monitor for 7 days. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to evaluate the actigraphic and parentally reported infant sleep behaviours between the groups. Thirty-two (14.61%) parents did not know whether their infant sleep was problematic and 118 (53.88%) parents considered their infant sleep a problem. Compared with infants without sleep problems, infants with uncertain sleep conditions had significantly increased odds of having shortened longest sleep duration according to parental report. A significant association was found for infants without sleep problems compared with those with sleep problems who had significantly more wake after sleep onset as measured by actigraphy, as well as reduced longest sleep duration according to parental report. Infants with uncertain sleep conditions have the same problematic sleep behaviours resembling those of children with reported sleep problems. Healthcare professionals should actively disseminate sleep knowledge to help parents interpret infant sleep behaviours and consider possible intervention strategies for improving parental sleep-related knowledge and infant sleep. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel
mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas....... As every organ in the body is affected by sleep directly or indirectly, sleep and sleep-associated disorders are frequent and only now starting to be understood....
Full Text Available Reactivations of waking experiences during sleep have been considered fundamental neural processes for memory consolidation. In songbirds, evidence suggests the importance of sleep-related neuronal activity in song system motor pathway nuclei for both juvenile vocal learning and maintenance of adult song. Like those in singing motor nuclei, neurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X, part of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit essential for vocal plasticity, exhibit singing-related activity. It is unclear, however, whether Area X neurons show any distinctive spiking activity during sleep similar to that during singing. Here we demonstrate that, during sleep, Area X pallidal neurons exhibit phasic spiking activity, which shares some firing properties with activity during singing. Shorter interspike intervals that almost exclusively occurred during singing in awake periods were also observed during sleep. The level of firing variability was consistently higher during singing and sleep than during awake non-singing states. Moreover, deceleration of firing rate, which is considered to be an important firing property for transmitting signals from Area X to the thalamic nucleus DLM, was observed mainly during sleep as well as during singing. These results suggest that songbird basal ganglia circuitry may be involved in the off-line processing potentially critical for vocal learning during sensorimotor learning phase.
Yoong, Sze Lin; Chai, Li Kheng; Williams, Christopher M; Wiggers, John; Finch, Meghan; Wolfenden, Luke
This review aimed to examine the impact of interventions involving an explicit sleep component on child body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity. A systematic search was undertaken in six databases to identify randomized controlled trials examining the impact of interventions with a sleep component on child BMI, dietary intake, and/or physical activity. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted assessing the impact of included interventions on child BMI. Of the eight included trials, three enforced a sleep protocol and five targeted sleep as part of multicomponent behavioral interventions either exclusively or together with nutrition and physical activity. Meta-analysis of three studies found that multicomponent behavioral interventions involving a sleep component were not significantly effective in changing child BMI (n = 360,-0.04 kg/m(2) [-0.18, 0.11], I(2) = 0%); however, only one study included in the meta-analysis successfully changed sleep duration in children. There were some reported improvements to adolescent diet, and only one trial examined the impact on child physical activity, where a significant effect was observed. Findings from the included studies suggest that where improvements in child sleep duration were achieved, a positive impact on child BMI, nutrition, and physical activity was also observed. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Full Text Available Kathrin Wunsch, Nadine Kasten, Reinhard Fuchs Department of Sport Science, Sport Psychology Unit, Albert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany Abstract: The stress-buffering hypothesis postulates that physical activity and exercise can buffer the negative effects of (academic stress on health. It still remains an open question whether students, who regularly engage in physical activity and exercise within their academic examination period, can successfully diminish these negative effects. Sixty-four subjects participated in this study and completed a total of five surveys, with T1 at the end of the semester break (baseline and T2–T5 being presented every Friday in the last 4 weeks of the semester (examination period. They were asked to answer questions about their activity level, sleep quality, well-being and affect. Hierarchical linear models showed significant dependencies on time for all dependent measures. The expansion of the model for exercise also showed significant main effects of this predictor on well-being and positive affect (PA and negative affect. Moreover, significant interactions with time for sleep quality and PA were found. Results suggest that physical activity and exercise in the academic examination period may be able to buffer the negative effects of stress on health-related outcomes. Therefore, activity levels should be maintained in times of high stress to prevent negative effects on sleep, well-being and affect in students. Keywords: examination stress, exercise, stress-buffering hypothesis
Wunsch, Kathrin; Kasten, Nadine; Fuchs, Reinhard
The stress-buffering hypothesis postulates that physical activity and exercise can buffer the negative effects of (academic) stress on health. It still remains an open question whether students, who regularly engage in physical activity and exercise within their academic examination period, can successfully diminish these negative effects. Sixty-four subjects participated in this study and completed a total of five surveys, with T1 at the end of the semester break (baseline) and T2-T5 being presented every Friday in the last 4 weeks of the semester (examination period). They were asked to answer questions about their activity level, sleep quality, well-being and affect. Hierarchical linear models showed significant dependencies on time for all dependent measures. The expansion of the model for exercise also showed significant main effects of this predictor on well-being and positive affect (PA) and negative affect. Moreover, significant interactions with time for sleep quality and PA were found. Results suggest that physical activity and exercise in the academic examination period may be able to buffer the negative effects of stress on health-related outcomes. Therefore, activity levels should be maintained in times of high stress to prevent negative effects on sleep, well-being and affect in students.
Full Text Available Background: Sleep paralysis is one of the many conditions of which visual hallucinations can be a part but has received relatively little attention. It can be associated with other dramatic symptoms of a psychotic nature likely to cause diagnostic uncertainty. Methods and results: These points are illustrated by the case of a young man with a severe bipolar affective disorder who independently developed terrifying visual, auditory and somatic hallucinatory episodes at sleep onset, associated with a sense of evil influence and presence. The episodes were not obviously related to his psychiatric disorder. Past diagnoses included nightmares and night terrors. Review provided no convincing evidence of various other sleep disorders nor physical conditions in which hallucinatory experiences can occur. A diagnosis of predormital isolated sleep paralysis was made and appropriate treatment recommended. Conclusions: Sleep paralysis, common in the general population, can be associated with dramatic auxiliary symptoms suggestive of a psychotic state. Less common forms are either part of the narcolepsy syndrome or (rarely they are familial in type. Interestingly, sleep paralysis (especially breathing difficulty features prominently in the folklore of various countries.
Hoshii, Junko; Yotsumoto, Kayano; Tatsumi, Eri; Tanaka, Chito; Mori, Takashi; Hashimoto, Takeshi
To compare the therapeutic effects of subject-chosen and therapist-chosen activities in occupational therapy for inpatients with chronic schizophrenia. Prospective comparative study. A psychiatric hospital in Japan. Fifty-nine patients with chronic schizophrenia who had been hospitalized for many years. The subjects received six-months occupational therapy, participating in either activities of their choice (subject-chosen activity group, n = 30) or activities chosen by occupational therapists based on treatment recommendations and patient consent (therapist-chosen activity group, n = 29). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale were used to evaluate psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial function, respectively. After six-months occupational therapy, suspiciousness and hostility scores of the positive scale and preoccupation scores of the general psychopathology scale significantly improved in the subject-chosen activity group compared with the therapist-chosen activity group, with 2(2) (median (interquartile range)) and 3(1.25), 2(1) and 2.5(1), and 2(1) and 3(1), respectively. There were no significant differences in psychosocial functions between the two groups. In within-group comparisons before and after occupational therapy, suspiciousness scores of the positive scale, preoccupation scores of the general psychopathology scale, and psychosocial function significantly improved only in the subject-chosen activity group, with 3(1) to 2(2), 3(1) to 2(1), and 40(9) to 40(16) respectively, but not in the therapist-chosen activity group. The results suggested that the subject-chosen activities in occupational therapy could improve the psychiatric symptoms, suspiciousness, and preoccupation of the inpatients with chronic schizophrenia.
... activities also affect sleep, so regular exercise and avoidance of napping can greatly improve nighttime sleep. Unfortunately, ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax- deductible donation. Make Donation Adapted from IFFGD Publication # ...
Full Text Available Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS is characterized by activation of the cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG and atonia of non-respiratory muscles with superimposed phasic activity or twitching, particularly of cranial muscles such as those of the eye, tongue, face and jaw. While phasic activity is a characteristic feature of REMS, the neural substrates driving this activity remain unresolved. Here we investigated the neural circuits underlying masseter (jaw phasic activity during REMS. The trigeminal motor nucleus (Mo5, which controls masseter motor function, receives glutamatergic inputs mainly from the parvocellular reticular formation (PCRt, but also from the adjacent paramedian reticular area (PMnR. On the other hand, the Mo5 and PCRt do not receive direct input from the sublaterodorsal (SLD nucleus, a brainstem region critical for REMS atonia of postural muscles. We hypothesized that the PCRt-PMnR, but not the SLD, regulates masseter phasic activity during REMS.To test our hypothesis, we measured masseter electromyogram (EMG, neck muscle EMG, electrooculogram (EOG and EEG in rats with cell-body specific lesions of the SLD, PMnR, and PCRt. Bilateral lesions of the PMnR and rostral PCRt (rPCRt, but not the caudal PCRt or SLD, reduced and eliminated REMS phasic activity of the masseter, respectively. Lesions of the PMnR and rPCRt did not, however, alter the neck EMG or EOG. To determine if rPCRt neurons use glutamate to control masseter phasic movements, we selectively blocked glutamate release by rPCRt neurons using a Cre-lox mouse system. Genetic disruption of glutamate neurotransmission by rPCRt neurons blocked masseter phasic activity during REMS.These results indicate that (1 premotor glutamatergic neurons in the medullary rPCRt and PMnR are involved in generating phasic activity in the masseter muscles, but not phasic eye movements, during REMS; and (2 separate brainstem neural circuits control postural and cranial muscle
Full Text Available In rodents, exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH, a hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, is associated with neurobehavioral impairments, increased apoptosis in the hippocampus and cortex, as well as increased oxidant stress and inflammation. Excessive NADPH oxidase activity may play a role in IH-induced CNS dysfunction.The effect of IH during light period on two forms of spatial learning in the water maze and well as markers of oxidative stress was assessed in mice lacking NADPH oxidase activity (gp91phox(_/Y and wild-type littermates. On a standard place training task, gp91phox(_/Y displayed normal learning, and were protected from the spatial learning deficits observed in wild-type littermates exposed to IH. Moreover, anxiety levels were increased in wild-type mice exposed to IH as compared to room air (RA controls, while no changes emerged in gp91phox(_/Y mice. Additionally, wild-type mice, but not gp91phox(_/Y mice had significantly elevated levels of NADPH oxidase expression and activity, as well as MDA and 8-OHDG in cortical and hippocampal lysates following IH exposures.The oxidative stress responses and neurobehavioral impairments induced by IH during sleep are mediated, at least in part, by excessive NADPH oxidase activity, and thus pharmacological agents targeting NADPH oxidase may provide a therapeutic strategy in sleep-disordered breathing.
... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation No. 52; Updated October 2017 Evaluation ... with serious emotional and behavioral problems need a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation. Comprehensive psychiatric evaluations usually require a ...
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Full Text Available Parkinson′s disease (PD is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the "tip of the iceberg" of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control, sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD.
Jerde, E.A.; Glasgow, D.C.
At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux (φ) of ∼ 4 x 10 14 n/cm 2 · s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of ∼ 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about ± 0.5 s) make irradiations of 9 Be(γ,n) 8 Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to ∼ 1 x 10 10 n/cm 2 · s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to ∼ 6 x 10 8 . Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant
Tester, Nicole J; Foss, Joanne Jackson
In the same way the human body requires food, hydration, and oxygen, it also requires sleep. Even among healthy people, the amount and quality of sleep substantially influence health and quality of life because sleep helps regulate physiological functioning. Given the impact of sleep on participation, the American Occupational Therapy Association reclassified sleep from an activity of daily living to an occupational domain. Poor sleep is a frequent medical complaint, especially among populations with neurological impairment. Occupational therapy practitioners should consider routinely screening for factors affecting their clients' sleep. By addressing such factors, as well as related routines and habits, practitioners can enhance the effectiveness of rehabilitation, promote health and well-being, and increase engagement and life quality. Practitioners should acknowledge the importance of sleep in practice, and the study of sleep should be prioritized by researchers in the field to meet client needs and establish evidence for interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Lim, Man Sup; Lee, Chang Hee; Sim, Songyong; Hong, Sung Kwang; Choi, Hyo Geun
Since pathophysiologic evidence has been raised to suggest that obesity could facilitate an allergic reaction, obesity has been known as an independent risk factor for allergic disease such as asthma. However, the relationship between sedentary behavior and lifestyle which could lead to obesity, and those allergic diseases remains unclear. We analyzed the relations between physical activity, including sitting time for study, sitting time for leisure and sleep time, and obesity, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, which was conducted in 2013. Total 53769 adolescent participants (12 through 18 years old) were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Longer sitting time for study and short sitting time for leisure were associated with allergic rhinitis. High physical activity and short sleep time were associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Underweight was negatively associated with atopic dermatitis, whereas overweight was positively correlated with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. High physical activity, and short sleep time were associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017
Full Text Available Few psychosocial approaches address the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, which shares common features with depression and anxiety. Behavioral activation (BA is effective for addressing depression and anxiety in adults with various mental disorders. Motivational Interviewing (MI has been successfully applied to address ambivalence or lack of motivation towards treatment. Motivational and behavioral activation (mBA has been developed by incorporating the core principles from BA and MI with recent findings on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of mBA in a non-randomized controlled pilot study that included individuals with schizophrenia with mild to moderate negative symptoms receiving psychiatric rehabilitation. A total of 73 individuals with schizophrenia were recruited. Forty-seven of the participants who met the study inclusion and exclusion criteria were assigned to either an mBA + usual psychiatric rehabilitation group (mBA or a usual psychiatric rehabilitation only group (treatment as usual, TAU. Administering mBA to individuals with schizophrenia with mild to moderate negative symptoms was feasible in a community mental health setting. Relative to TAU, mBA was associated with large effects in reducing negative symptoms measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS. However, after considering PANSS cognitive deficits and marital status as covariates due to significant differences in their baseline levels, the treatment effects on the BNSS were partially observed. In addition, participants in the mBA group showed improved verbal learning and memory compared with those in the TAU group. In individuals with schizophrenia receiving the usual forms of psychiatric rehabilitation in a community mental health setting, mBA appears to offer a promising adjunctive approach for addressing mild to moderate
Sanford, Larry D.; Wellman, Laurie L.
Stress can have a significant negative impact on health and stress-induced alterations in sleep are implicated in both human sleep disorders and in psychiatric disorders in which sleep is affected. We have demonstrated that the amygdala, a region critical for regulating emotion, is a key modulator of sleep. Our current research is focused on understanding how the amygdala and stressful emotion affect sleep and on the role sleep plays in recovery from stress. We have implemented animal models to examine the how stress and stress-related memories impact sleep. Experiencing uncontrollable stress and reminders of uncontrollable stress can produce significant reductions in sleep, in particular rapid eye movement sleep. We are using these models to explore the neurobiology linking stress-related emotion and sleep. This research is relevant for sleep disorders such as insomnia and into mental disorders in which sleep is affected such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is typically characterized by a prominent sleep disturbance in the aftermath of exposure to a psychologically traumatic event.
Yoshimoto, M; Higuchi, H; Kamata, M; Yoshida, K; Shimizu, T; Hishikawa, Y
In order to investigate the relative efficacy and safety of zopiclone and zolpidem, we compared the effects of higher doses of zopiclone and zolpidem on the frequency of hippocampal theta activity and sleep structure with that of triazolam. Rats were divided into triazolam treatment group (1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg), zopiclone treatment group (20 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg) and zolpidem treatment group (20 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg). Rats were injected intraperitoneally with these drugs or their vehicle. Polygraphic sleep recording and visual frequency analysis of the hippocampal EEG activity in REM sleep were carried out for 6 h after each injection. Zolpidem, unlike triazolam and zopiclone, had a much milder reducing-effect on the frequency of hippocampal theta activity and suppressing-effect on REM sleep. These results suggest that zolpidem may prove to be a safer hypnotic drug which has fewer or milder side effects than are benzodiazepine and cyclopyrrolone hypnotics.
Leonid A Safonov
Full Text Available A neuron embedded in an intact brain, unlike an isolated neuron, participates in network activity at various spatial resolutions. Such multiple scale spatial dynamics is potentially reflected in multiple time scales of temporal dynamics. We identify such multiple dynamical time scales of the inter-spike interval (ISI fluctuations of neurons of waking/sleeping rats by means of multiscale analysis. The time scale of large non-Gaussianity in the ISI fluctuations, measured with the Castaing method, ranges up to several minutes, markedly escaping the low-pass filtering characteristics of neurons. A comparison between neural activity during waking and sleeping reveals that non-Gaussianity is stronger during waking than sleeping throughout the entire range of scales observed. We find a remarkable property of near scale independence of the magnitude correlations as the primary cause of persistent non-Gaussianity. Such scale-invariance of correlations is characteristic of multiplicative cascade processes and raises the possibility of the existence of a scale independent memory preserving mechanism.
Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M
Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ(2) /df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults.
Full Text Available Biological lifestyle factors such as physical activity, sleep and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between biological lifestyle factors and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these biological lifestyle factors to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df=0.8, CFI=1.00, RMSEA<.001, SRMR=.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df=2.75, CFI=0.95, RMSEA<.056, SRMR=.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle aged adults.
Mendelson, Monique; Tamisier, Renaud; Laplaud, David; Dias-Domingos, Sonia; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Moreau, Laurent; Koltes, Christian; Chavez, Léonidas; de Lamberterie, Gilles; Herengt, Frédéric; Levy, Patrick; Flore, Patrice; Pépin, Jean-Louis
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity, including hypertension. Beyond the severity of nocturnal hypoxia, other factors such as metabolic abnormalities but also sedentary behaviors and insufficient physical activity may contribute to elevated blood pressure (BP). To clarify the respective role of these factors as determinants of BP in OSA patients, we examined the relationship between BP and anthropometrics, severity of sleep apnea, and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Ninety-five adults presenting with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index > 10 events/h) and high cardiovascular risk (63.3 ± 8.8 y; body mass index: 29.9 ± 4.9 kg/m(2); apnea-hypopnea index: 41.3 ± 17.5/h; cardiovascular risk score: 13.5 ± 3.7%) were included. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were objectively assessed by actigraphy, and self-measured home BP monitoring was measured. Logistic regression models adjusted for sex, age, and body mass index were built to identify the predictors of self-measured morning and evening BP. Physical activity was significantly related to obesity but not to the severity of sleep apnea or sleepiness. Sedentary behaviors were associated with self-measured morning and evening systolic BP (r = 0.32, P = .002; r = 0.29, P = .004). Steps per day were inversely associated with evening BP (r = -0.27, P = .01). Univariate analysis identified steps/d and time spent in vigorous physical activity as determinants for evening self-measured BP. In multivariate analysis, only steps/d were identified as a significant determinant of evening BP. Physical activity is the major determinant for evening BP in adults with OSA presenting high cardiovascular risk. Our results emphasize the need for lifestyle counseling programs in combination with CPAP to encourage regular physical activity in OSA subjects to obtain better BP control. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT01226641.)
Sørgaard Knut W
Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared demography, diagnoses and clinical needs in acutely admitted psychiatric hospital patients in northwest Russia and northern Norway. Method All acutely admitted psychiatric patients in 1 psychiatric hospital in north-west Russia and 2 in northern Norway were in a three months period assessed with HoNOS and a Norwegian form developed to study acute psychiatric services (MAP. Data from a total of 841 patients were analysed (377 Norwegian, 464 Russian with univariate and multivariate statistics. Results Russian patients were more often males who had paid work. 2/3 were diagnosed with alcohol and organic disorders, and 70% reported problems related to sleep. Depression was widespread, as were problems associated with occupation. Many more Norwegian patients were on various forms of social security and lived in community supported homes. They had a clinical profile of affective disorders, use of drugs, suicidality and problems with activities involved of daily life. Slightly more Norwegian patients were involuntary admitted. Conclusion Acutely admitted psychiatric patients in North West Russia and Northern Norwegian showed different clinical profiles: alcohol, depression and organic disorders characterised Russian patients, affective disorders, suicidality and use of drugs characterised the Norwegians. Whereas Norwegian patients are mainly referred from GPs the Russians come via 1.line psychiatric services (“dispensaries”. Average length of stay for Russian patients was 2.5 times longer than that of the Norwegian.
Levy, Roi; Levitan, David; Susswein, Abraham J
Brief experiences while a memory is consolidated may capture the consolidation, perhaps producing a maladaptive memory, or may interrupt the consolidation. Since consolidation occurs during sleep, even fleeting experiences when animals are awakened may produce maladaptive long-term memory, or may interrupt consolidation. In a learning paradigm affecting Aplysia feeding, when animals were trained after being awakened from sleep, interactions between new experiences and consolidation were prevented by blocking long-term memory arising from the new experiences. Inhibiting protein synthesis eliminated the block and allowed even a brief, generally ineffective training to produce long-term memory. Memory formation depended on consolidative proteins already expressed before training. After effective training, long term memory required subsequent transcription and translation. Memory formation during the sleep phase was correlated with increased CREB1 transcription, but not CREB2 transcription. Increased C/EBP transcription was a correlate of both effective and ineffective training and of treatments not producing memory.
Nanjo, Shuji; Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Yamashiro, Yoshihiro
Because increased sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) associated with sleep breathing disorder (SBD) is known to deteriorate the prognosis of cardiac failure, 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy was used as the investigative tool in the present study. The study group comprised 53 patients (47 men, 6 women; mean age 56±3 years) with chronic stable DCM. Patients were divided into SBD(+) or SBD(-) group according to 24-h pulse oximetry results. SBD(+) was defined when the 3% oxygen desaturation index was more than 15/h during sleep. In total, 32 patients were SBD(-) and 21 were SBD(+). In both groups, pulse oximetry were performed during sleep and awakening pulse rate, and measurement of the blood levels of catecholamines and B-type natriuretic peptide was performed. MIBG myocardial scintigraphy and echocardiography were performed at the same time. No significant difference was found between the 2 groups in catecholamine levels or left ventricular ejection fraction. However, MIBG had a significantly increased washout rate and a significantly decreased delayed heart to mediastinum ratio in the SBD(+) group compared with the SBD(-) group. SNA is increased in DCM patients when associated with SBD. MIBG myocardial scintigraphy may be a sensitive method of detecting increased SNA. (author)
Watson, Brendon O; Buzsáki, György
Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called "sharp-wave ripple" seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep-REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity-might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function.
Feng, Li; Motelow, Joshua E; Ma, Chanthia; Biche, William; McCafferty, Cian; Smith, Nicholas; Liu, Mengran; Zhan, Qiong; Jia, Ruonan; Xiao, Bo; Duque, Alvaro; Blumenfeld, Hal
The thalamus plays diverse roles in cortical-subcortical brain activity patterns. Recent work suggests that focal temporal lobe seizures depress subcortical arousal systems and convert cortical activity into a pattern resembling slow-wave sleep. The potential simultaneous and paradoxical role of the thalamus in both limbic seizure propagation, and in sleep-like cortical rhythms has not been investigated. We recorded neuronal activity from the central lateral (CL), anterior (ANT), and ventral posteromedial (VPM) nuclei of the thalamus in an established female rat model of focal limbic seizures. We found that population firing of neurons in CL decreased during seizures while the cortex exhibited slow waves. In contrast, ANT showed a trend toward increased neuronal firing compatible with polyspike seizure discharges seen in the hippocampus. Meanwhile, VPM exhibited a remarkable increase in sleep spindles during focal seizures. Single-unit juxtacellular recordings from CL demonstrated reduced overall firing rates, but a switch in firing pattern from single spikes to burst firing during seizures. These findings suggest that different thalamic nuclei play very different roles in focal limbic seizures. While limbic nuclei, such as ANT, appear to participate directly in seizure propagation, arousal nuclei, such as CL, may contribute to depressed cortical function, whereas sleep spindles in relay nuclei, such as VPM, may interrupt thalamocortical information flow. These combined effects could be critical for controlling both seizure severity and impairment of consciousness. Further understanding of differential effects of seizures on different thalamocortical networks may lead to improved treatments directly targeting these modes of impaired function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Temporal lobe epilepsy has a major negative impact on quality of life. Previous work suggests that the thalamus plays a critical role in thalamocortical network modulation and subcortical arousal
Paterson, Jessica L; Reynolds, Amy C; Ferguson, Sally A; Dawson, Drew
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic mental illness that can have a debilitating effect on daily functioning. A body of research reveals altered sleep behaviour in OCD sufferers; however, findings are inconsistent and there is no consensus on the nature of this relationship. Understanding sleep disturbance in OCD is of critical importance given the known negative consequences of disturbed sleep for mood and emotional wellbeing. A systematic literature search was conducted of five databases for studies assessing sleep in adults diagnosed with OCD. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria and qualitative data analysis methods were used to identify common themes. There was some evidence of reduced total sleep time and sleep efficiency in OCD patients. Many of the sleep disturbances noted were characteristic of depression. However, some OCD sufferers displayed delayed sleep onset and offset and an increased prevalence of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Severe OCD symptoms were consistently associated with greater sleep disturbance. While the sleep of OCD patients has not been a major focus to date, the existing literature suggests that addressing sleep disturbance in OCD patients may ensure a holistic approach to treatment, enhance treatment efficacy, mitigate relapse and protect against the onset of co-morbid psychiatric illnesses. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Michelle A Miller
It is becoming increasingly apparent that sleep plays an important role in the maintenance, disease prevention, repair and restoration of both mind and body. The sleep and wake cycles are controlled by the pacemaker activity of the superchiasmic nucleus in the hypothalamus but can be disrupted by diseases of the nervous system causing disordered sleep. A lack of sleep has been associated with an increase in all–cause mortality. Likewise, sleep disturbances and sleep disorders may disrupt neu...
Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Clews, Kelsey
The Chicago Follow-up Study has followed the course of severe mental illness among psychiatric patients for over 20 years after their index hospitalization. Among these patients are 97 schizophrenia patients, 45 patients with schizoaffective disorders, 102 patients with unipolar nonpsychotic depression, and 53 patients with a bipolar disorder. Maximum suicidal activity (suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts and suicide completions) generally declines over the three time periods (early, middle, and late follow-ups) following discharge from the acute psychiatric hospitalization for both males and females across diagnostic categories with two exceptions: female schizophrenia patients and female bipolar patients. A weighted mean suicidal activity score tended to decrease across follow-ups for male patients in the schizophrenia, schizoaffective and depressive diagnostic groups with an uneven trend in this direction for the male bipolars. No such pattern emerges for our female patients except for female depressives. Males’ suicidal activity seems more triggered by psychotic symptoms and potential chronic disability while females’ suicidal activity seems more triggered by affective symptoms. PMID:26881891
Connaughton, J; Patman, S; Pardoe, C
Good mental health is imperative to well-being. Symptoms of fatigue, chronic pain and poor sleep are common in people with mental illness and contribute to substantial loss of functioning. Physical exercise interventions have shown to decrease these symptoms in a range of populations; however, their possible association with physical activity related to day-to-day functioning have not been explored in people hospitalized with severe mental illness. Inpatients (n = 4) of a metropolitan mental health facility were fitted with an Actiwatch, which collected physical activity and sleep measures for an anticipated 14-day data collection period. During this time, morning and evening pain and fatigue scores were collected on an 11-point numerical rating scale. Significant associations were found between morning pain and morning fatigue scores (β = -0.44, P = 0.023), morning pain and physical activity (β = 12.34, P = 0.042), and physical activity and evening pain scores (β = 0.20, P = 0.017). Fatigue tended towards interfering more with quality of life than did pain, but this was not significant (P = 0.07). This study provided preliminary data suggesting associations between pain and fatigue, and intensity of pain and physical activity levels. This information can be used to generate hypotheses for future clinical trials. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Richardson, C; Cain, N; Bartel, K; Micic, G; Maddock, B; Gradisar, M
A randomised controlled trial evaluated bright light therapy and morning activity for the treatment of Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) in young people. 60 adolescents and young adults (range = 13-24 years, mean = 15.9 ± 2.2 y, 63% f) diagnosed with DSWPD were randomised to receive three weeks of post-awakening Green Bright Light Therapy (∼507 nm) and Sedentary Activity (sitting, watching TV), Green Bright Light Therapy and Morning Activity (standing, playing motion-sensing videogame), Red Light Therapy (∼643 nm) and Sedentary Activity or Red Light Therapy and Morning Activity. Sleep (ie sleep onset time, wake up time, sleep onset latency, total sleep time) and daytime functioning (ie morning alertness, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, functional impairment) were measured pre-treatment, post-treatment and at one and three month follow-up. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant differences in outcomes between treatment groups; and interaction effects between treatment group and time for all outcome variables were not statistically significant. However, adolescents and young adults in morning activity conditions did not meaningfully increase their objective activity (ie movement frequency). Overall, adolescents reported significantly improved sleep timing (d = 0.30-0.46), sleep onset latency (d = 0.32) and daytime functioning (d = 0.45-0.87) post-treatment. Improvements in sleep timing (d = 0.53-0.61), sleep onset latency (d = 0.57), total sleep time (d = 0.51), and daytime functioning (d = 0.52-1.02) were maintained, or improved upon, at the three month follow-up. However, relapse of symptomology was common and 38% of adolescents and young adults requested further treatment in addition to the three weeks of light therapy. Although there is convincing evidence for the short-term efficacy of chronobiological treatments for DSWPD, long-term treatment outcomes can be improved. To address this gap in our current knowledge
Qiu Chun; Zhao Jun; Guan Yihui
Sleep disorders may affect the health and normal life of human badly. However, the pathophysiology underlying adult sleep disorders is still unclear. Functional neuroimaging can be used to investigate whether sleep disorders are associated with specific changes in brain structure or regional activity. This paper reviews functional brain imaging findings in major intrinsic sleep disorders (i.e., idiopathic insomnia, narcolepsy, and obstructive sleep apnea) and in abnormal motor behavior during sleep (i.e., periodic limb movement disorder and REM sleep behavior disorder). Metabolic/functional investigations (positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging) are mainly reviewed, as well as neuroanatomical assessments (voxel-based morphometry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Meanwhile, here are some brief introduction of different kinds of sleep disorders. (authors)
Merlino, Giovanni; Gigli, Gian Luigi
Several movement disorders may occur during nocturnal rest disrupting sleep. A part of these complaints is characterized by relatively simple, non-purposeful and usually stereotyped movements. The last version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders includes these clinical conditions (i.e. restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism and sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder) under the category entitled sleep-related movement disorders. Moreover, apparently physiological movements (e.g. alternating leg muscle activation and excessive hypnic fragmentary myoclonus) can show a high frequency and severity impairing sleep quality. Clinical and, in specific cases, neurophysiological assessments are required to detect the presence of nocturnal movement complaints. Patients reporting poor sleep due to these abnormal movements should undergo non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments.
Stokholm, Morten Gersel; Iranzo, Alex; Østergaard, Karen
BACKGROUND: The majority of patients diagnosed with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD) progress over time to a Lewy-type α-synucleinopathy such as Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies. This in vivo molecular imaging study aimed to investigate if extrastriatal...
Kato, Takafumi; Yamaguchi, Taihiko; Okura, Kazuo; Abe, Susumu; Lavigne, Gilles J
Occlusal overload during sleep is a significant clinical issue that has negative impacts on the maintenance of teeth and the longevity of dental prostheses. Sleep is usually viewed as an 'out-of-functional' mode for masticatory muscles. However, orodental structures and prostheses are not free from occlusal loads during sleep since masticatory muscles can be activated at a low level within normal sleep continuity. Thus, an increase in masticatory muscle contractions, by whatever the cause, can be associated with a risk of increased occlusal loads during sleep. Among such conditions, sleep bruxism (SB) is a type of sleep-related movement disorders with potential load challenge to the tooth and orofacial structures. Patients with SB usually report frequent tooth grinding noises during sleep and there is a consecutive increase in number and strength of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA). Other types of masticatory muscle contractions can be non-specifically activated during sleep, such as brief contractions with tooth tapping, sleep talking, non-rhythmic contractions related to non-specific body movements, etc.; these occur more frequently in sleep disorders. Studies have shown that clinical signs and symptoms of SB can be found in patients with sleep disorders. In addition, sleep becomes compromised with aging process, and a prevalence of most sleep disorders is high in the elderly populations, in which prosthodontic rehabilitations are more required. Therefore, the recognition and understanding of the role of sleep disorders can provide a comprehensive vision for prosthodontic rehabilitations when prosthodontists manage complex orodental cases needing interdisciplinary collaborations between dentistry and sleep medicine. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baud, Maxime O.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Petit, Jean Marie
Study Objectives: Sleep fragmentation (SF) is an integral feature of sleep apnea and other prevalent sleep disorders. Although the effect of repetitive arousals on cognitive performance is well documented, the effects of long-term SF on electroencephalography (EEG) and molecular markers of sleep homeostasis remain poorly investigated. To address this question, we developed a mouse model of chronic SF and characterized its effect on EEG spectral frequencies and the expression of genes previously linked to sleep homeostasis including clock genes, heat shock proteins, and plasticity-related genes. Design: N/A. Setting: Animal sleep research laboratory. Participants : Sixty-six C57BL6/J adult mice. Interventions: Instrumental sleep disruption at a rate of 60/h during 14 days Measurements and Results: Locomotor activity and EEG were recorded during 14 days of SF followed by recovery for 2 days. Despite a dramatic number of arousals and decreased sleep bout duration, SF minimally reduced total quantity of sleep and did not significantly alter its circadian distribution. Spectral analysis during SF revealed a homeostatic drive for slow wave activity (SWA; 1-4 Hz) and other frequencies as well (4-40 Hz). Recordings during recovery revealed slow wave sleep consolidation and a transient rebound in SWA, and paradoxical sleep duration. The expression of selected genes was not induced following chronic SF. Conclusions: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) increased sleep pressure confirming that altered quality with preserved quantity triggers core sleep homeostasis mechanisms. However, it did not induce the expression of genes induced by sleep loss, suggesting that these molecular pathways are not sustainably activated in chronic diseases involving SF.
Baud, Maxime O.
Study Objectives: Sleep fragmentation (SF) is an integral feature of sleep apnea and other prevalent sleep disorders. Although the effect of repetitive arousals on cognitive performance is well documented, the effects of long-term SF on electroencephalography (EEG) and molecular markers of sleep homeostasis remain poorly investigated. To address this question, we developed a mouse model of chronic SF and characterized its effect on EEG spectral frequencies and the expression of genes previously linked to sleep homeostasis including clock genes, heat shock proteins, and plasticity-related genes. Design: N/A. Setting: Animal sleep research laboratory. Participants : Sixty-six C57BL6/J adult mice. Interventions: Instrumental sleep disruption at a rate of 60/h during 14 days Measurements and Results: Locomotor activity and EEG were recorded during 14 days of SF followed by recovery for 2 days. Despite a dramatic number of arousals and decreased sleep bout duration, SF minimally reduced total quantity of sleep and did not significantly alter its circadian distribution. Spectral analysis during SF revealed a homeostatic drive for slow wave activity (SWA; 1-4 Hz) and other frequencies as well (4-40 Hz). Recordings during recovery revealed slow wave sleep consolidation and a transient rebound in SWA, and paradoxical sleep duration. The expression of selected genes was not induced following chronic SF. Conclusions: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) increased sleep pressure confirming that altered quality with preserved quantity triggers core sleep homeostasis mechanisms. However, it did not induce the expression of genes induced by sleep loss, suggesting that these molecular pathways are not sustainably activated in chronic diseases involving SF.
Sjödin, A; Hjorth, M F; Damsgaard, C T; Ritz, C; Astrup, A; Michaelsen, K F
Behaviours of several animal species have been linked to lunar periodicity. Evidence for such links in humans is weak; however, recently, shorter sleep duration was reported around full moon in two small samples of adults. As restrictions in sleep duration have been shown to adversely affect glucose regulation and physical activity to improve glucose regulation, one could speculate that cardiometabolic risk factors might also be affected by the lunar phase. We retrospectively examined 795 Danish children, aged 8-11 years, with more than 13,000 24-h accelerometer recordings of activity and sleep as well as 2000 measurements of different cardiometabolic risk factors, including insulin sensitivity, appetite hormones and blood pressure, during nine lunar phases. During the period around full moon, children were 5.0 and 3.2 min per day less active, slept 2.4 and 4.1 min per night longer, had 0.03 and 0.05 higher homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and 0.6 and 0.8 mmHg higher mean arterial blood pressure compared with days around half moon and new moon, respectively (all P ≤ 0.02). Furthermore, ghrelin was lower and leptin was higher during the period around full moon compared with days around half moon (both P lunar cycle or confounders that may explain this, apparently leading to fluctuation in a number of cardiometabolic risk markers conjointly with lunar phases. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.
Kenney, Erica L; Gortmaker, Steven L
To quantify the relationships between youth use of television (TV) and other screen devices, including smartphones and tablets, and obesity risk factors. TV and other screen device use, including smartphones, tablets, computers, and/or videogames, was self-reported by a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample of 24 800 US high school students (2013-2015 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys). Students also reported on health behaviors including sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, physical activity, sleep, and weight and height. Sex-stratified logistic regression models, adjusting for the sampling design, estimated associations between TV and other screen device use and SSB intake, physical activity, sleep, and obesity. Approximately 20% of participants used other screen devices for ≥5 hours daily. Watching TV ≥5 hours daily was associated with daily SSB consumption (aOR = 2.72, 95% CI: 2.23, 3.32) and obesity (aOR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.27). Using other screen devices ≥5 hours daily was associated with daily SSB consumption (aOR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.69, 2.32), inadequate physical activity (aOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.69, 2.25), and inadequate sleep (aOR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.54, 2.08). Using smartphones, tablets, computers, and videogames is associated with several obesity risk factors. Although further study is needed, families should be encouraged to limit both TV viewing and newer screen devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Cancer is a physical disorder with concurrent mental and social components. During cancer, the feelings of fear, hopelessness, guilt, helplessness, abandonment perceived as a crisis leading to destruction in the suffering person. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients is approximately 50% and most of disorders are related with the occurrence of cancer and cancer treatment. Majority of patients present with major depression, adjustment disorder, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, suicidial ideation, and delirium. Treatment of psychiatric disorders and cancer therapy should be conducted along with special consideration of drug interactions. This article reviews the adaptation process experienced by individuals during diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, it psychological effects, resulting psychiatric comorbidites and their treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 189-219
Dena Sadeghi Bahmani
Full Text Available Background: Previous research of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS focused prevalently on fatigue, depression, and cognitive dysfunction during the clinical course. By contrast, research on the longer-term characteristics of physical activity (PA, psychological functioning, and sleep problems is scarce. The aims of the present study were therefore to examine changes in PA, mental toughness (MT as a proxy of psychological functioning, and sleep disturbances over a 2-year period of time after disease onset.Methods: A total of 18 patients with diagnosed MS (mean age: M = 34.29 years took part in this longitudinal study. First, 1–4 weeks after the first symptoms, a neurologist diagnosed the MS. Second, they completed a series of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, PA, MT, and sleep disturbances. Third, the same questionnaires were completed again 2 years later (follow-up. Last, a neurologist assessed the degree of disability with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS.Results: Two years after MS onset, patients had lower levels of vigorous PA, but no statistically significant changes in moderate PA were observed. Further, walking time increased and sedentary time decreased. Patients with sleep disturbances at disease onset also reported poor sleep 2 years later. MT scores remained stable over time. EDSS scores worsened, though, change in EDSS was not associated with PA, MT, or sleep.Conclusions: Two years after disease onset, patients with MS reported similar MT levels and sleep disturbances. PA shifted from vigorous PA toward walking and a less sedentary lifestyle, while moderate PA remained unchanged. The pattern of results of the present pilot study suggests that at the early stage of the MS course, there is no obstacle for being physically active, nor did sleep and MT as a proxy of psychological functioning decrease in a substantial way.
Yamuy, J; Sampogna, S; López-Rodríguez, F; Luppi, P H; Morales, F R; Chase, M H
The microinjection of carbachol into the nucleus pontis oralis produces a state which is polygraphically and behaviorally similar to active sleep (rapid eye movement sleep). In the present study, using double-labeling techniques for serotonin and the protein product of c-fos (Fos), we sought to examine whether immunocytochemically identified serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei of the cat were activated, as indicated by their expression of c-fos, during this pharmacologically-induced behavioral state (active sleep-carbachol). Compared with control cats, which were injected with saline, active sleep-carbachol cats exhibited a significantly greater number of c-fos-expressing neurons in the raphe dorsalis, magnus and pallidus. Whereas most of the c-fos-expressing neurons in the raphe dorsalis were small, those in the raphe magnus were medium-sized and in the raphe pallidus they were small and medium-sized. The mean number of serotonergic neurons that expressed c-fos (i.e. double-labeled cells) was similar in control and active sleep-carbachol cats. These data indicate that there is an increased number of non-serotonergic, c-fos-expressing neurons in the raphe dorsalis, magnus and pallidus during the carbachol-induced state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S
In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common
Adjei, Nicholas Kofi; Brand, Tilman
After retirement, elderly men and women allocate more time to housework activities, compared to working-age adults. Nonetheless, sleep constitutes the lengthiest time use activity among the elderly, but there has not been any study on the associations between time spent on housework activities, sleep duration and self-reported health among the older population. This study not only examined individual associations between self-reported health and both housework activities and sleep duration, but it also explored self-reported health by the interaction effect between housework activities and sleep duration separately for men and women. Pooled data from the Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS) on 15,333 men and 20,907 women from Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, France, the Netherlands and the US were analysed. Multiple binary logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between three broad categories of housework activities ((1) cooking, cleaning and shopping, (2) gardening and maintenance; (3) childcare) and health. We further investigated the extent to which total housework hours and sleep duration were associated with self-reported health for men and women separately. We found a positive association between time devoted to housework activities, total housework and health status among elderly men and women. Compared to those who spent 1 to 3 h on total productive housework, elderly people who spent >3 to 6 h/day had higher odds of reporting good health (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.14-1.37 among men and OR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.01-1.20 among women). Both short (8 h) sleep duration were negatively associated with health for both genders. However, the interactive associations between total productive housework, sleep duration, and self-reported health varied among men and women. Among women, long hours of housework combined with either short or long sleep was negatively associated with health. Although time allocation to housework activities may
Full Text Available This study on a breast cancer survivor suffering from cancer-related fatigue (CaRF and depression investigated the bidirectional relationship between cellular immune activity and subjective sleep. The 49-year-old patient (breast cancer diagnosis 5 years before the study, currently in remission collected her full urine output for 28 days in 12-h intervals (8:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.. These urine samples were used to determine urinary neopterin (cellular immune activation marker and creatinine concentrations via high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Each morning, the patient answered questions on five sleep variables: sleep quality (SQ, sleep recreational value (SRV, total sleep time (TST, total wake time (TWT, and awakenings during sleep period (ADS. For the purpose of this study, the time series of the nighttime urinary neopterin levels and the five sleep variables were determined. Using centered moving average (CMA smoothing and cross-correlational analysis, this study showed that increases in the positive sleep variables SQ and SRV were followed by urinary neopterin concentration decreases after 96–120 h (SQ, lag 4: r = −0.411; p = 0.044; SRV: lag 4: r = −0.472; p = 0.021 and 120–144 h (SRV, lag 5: r = −0.464; p = 0.026. Increases in the negative sleep variable TWT, by contrast, were followed by increases in urinary neopterin concentrations 72–96 h later (lag 3: r = 0.522; p = 0.009. No systematic effects in the other direction, i.e., from urinary neopterin levels to sleep, were observed in this study. Although preliminary, the findings of this study highlight the benefit of carefully investigating temporal delays and directions of effects when studying the dynamic relationship between sleep and immune variables in the natural context of everyday life.
Fattore, G; Percudani, M; Pugnoli, C; Contini, A; Beecham, J
The Magenta Community Mental Health Centre (CMHC) is the public agency responsible for providing adult psychiatric care to about 85,000 adult residents. In 1995, it had 1,145 clients and incurred costs of Euro 1.9 millions. Average cost per patient and per adult resident were Euro 1,661 and Euro 22.2, respectively. These values mask large variation across diagnosis: while patients with schizophrenia and related disorders had an average cost of Euro 3,771, those with neurotic and related disorders had an average cost of Euro 439. Patients with schizophrenia and related disorders (28% of the patients) absorbed about 60% of total costs and made extensive use of several types of services (hospital, outpatient, domiciliary, social and rehabilitative care). Since integrating different types of services is the key element of Italian psychiatric care, the new fee-for-service system adopted by the NHS to fund providers does not appear appropriate, particularly for schizophrenic patients.
Ward-Ritacco, Christie L; Adrian, Amanda L; O'Connor, Patrick J; Binkowski, Jessica A; Rogers, Laura Q; Johnson, Mary Ann; Evans, Ellen M
Feelings of fatigue and low energy are widespread among middle-aged women and have been shown to negatively affect quality of life. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations among adiposity, physical activity, and feelings of fatigue and energy in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women (N = 74; mean [SD] age, 58.9 [3.8] y) were assessed for adiposity (via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), steps per day, minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day (via an accelerometer), prior week intensity of psychological vigor (via the Profile of Mood States-Short Form), and prior month frequency of energy feelings (via the vitality scale of the 36-item Medical Outcomes Survey--Short Form). Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale. Adiposity was negatively related to steps per day (r = -0.55, P quality was also a significant predictor of vitality (both P < 0.05). Engaging in recommended amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day is associated with higher monthly frequency of energy feelings, regardless of adiposity status, in middle-aged postmenopausal women.
Nijs, Jo; Loggia, Marco L; Polli, Andrea; Moens, Maarten; Huysmans, Eva; Goudman, Lisa; Meeus, Mira; Vanderweeën, Luc; Ickmans, Kelly; Clauw, Daniel
The mechanism of sensitization of the central nervous system partly explains the chronic pain experience in many patients, but the etiological mechanisms of this central nervous system dysfunction are poorly understood. Recently, an increasing number of studies suggest that aberrant glial activation takes part in the establishment and/or maintenance of central sensitization. Areas covered: This review focused on preclinical work and mostly on the neurobiochemistry studied in animals, with limited human studies available. Glial overactivation results in a low-grade neuroinflammatory state, characterized by high levels of BDNF, IL-1β, TNF-α, which in turn increases the excitability of the central nervous system neurons through mechanisms like long-term potentiation and increased synaptic efficiency. Aberrant glial activity in chronic pain might have been triggered by severe stress exposure, and/or sleeping disturbances, each of which are established initiating factors for chronic pain development. Expert opinion: Potential treatment avenues include several pharmacological options for diminishing glial activity, as well as conservative interventions like sleep management, stress management and exercise therapy. Pharmacological options include propentofylline, minocycline, β -adrenergic receptor antagonists, and cannabidiol. Before translating these findings from basic science to clinical settings, more human studies exploring the outlined mechanisms in chronic pain patients are needed.
Ram, Saravanan; Seirawan, Hazem; Kumar, Satish K S; Clark, Glenn T
Epidemiologic studies on sleep disorders in the USA have mostly focused on specific disorders in specific groups of individuals. Most studies on sleep habits and sleep-related difficulties have focused on children and adolescents. The authors describe the prevalence of the three common physician-diagnosed sleep disorders (insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless legs syndrome (RLS)) by age, gender, and race in the US population. In addition, the authors describe the sleep habits and sleep-related difficulties in carrying routine daily activities. The authors also investigate the impact of the sleep disorders on performing routine daily activities. Data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 6,139 individuals over the age of 16 was analyzed for sleep-related parameters. The prevalence was highest for sleep apnea (4.2%), followed by insomnia (1.2%) and RLS (0.4%). Hispanics and Whites reported longer sleep duration than Blacks by 24 to 30 min. The predominant sleep habits were snoring while sleeping (48%), feeling unrested during the day (26.5%), and not getting enough sleep (26%). Difficulty concentrating (25%) or remembering (18%) were the main sleep-related difficulties in our sample. Insomnia, sleep apnea, and RLS had the highest impact on concentration and memory. Our findings suggest that the prevalence of sleep disorders in the USA is much lower than previously reported in the literature suggesting under diagnosis of sleep disorders by primary care physicians.
Paterson, Louise M; Nutt, David J; Wilson, Sue J
The study of sleep is a useful approach to studying the brain in psychiatric disorders and in investigating the effects of psychotropic drugs. Sleep physiology lends itself well to pharmacological and physiological manipulation, as it has the advantage of a functional output, the electroencephalograph, which is common to all mammals, and can be measured in freely moving (or naturally sleeping) animals under controlled laboratory conditions or in a naturalistic home environment. The complexity of sleep architecture varies between species but all share features which are comparable. In addition, sleep architecture is sensitive to changes in brain neurotransmitters such as serotonin, so cross-species sleep measurement can be combined with pharmacological manipulation to investigate the receptor mechanisms controlling sleep-wake regulation and sleep architecture in response to known and novel agents. Translational approaches such as these have improved our understanding of sleep circuitry and facilitated the development of new treatments for sleep disorders, particularly insomnia. This review provides examples of how research findings within the sleep field have been translated between animal models, healthy volunteers and patient populations with particular focus on the serotonergic system.
Kawai, Makoto; Beaudreau, Sherry A; Gould, Christine E; Hantke, Nathan C; Cotto, Isabelle; Jordan, Josh T; Hirst, Rayna B; O'Hara, Ruth
This investigation sought to determine whether delta activity at sleep onset (DASO) in the sleep electroencephalography of older adults represents normal variation or is associated with clinical pathology. To this end, we examined its longitudinal associations with cognitive and affective function in older adults without dementia. Participants were 153 community-dwelling older adults without dementia. We evaluated polysomnography (PSG), cognitive performance, and affective function at four time points: baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months. All participants completed PSG and measures of global cognition, delayed verbal memory, information processing speed, attention, inhibition, verbal naming, visuospatial ability, and measures of anxiety and depression. DASO was defined as sequences of rhythmic anterior delta activity on PSG in the transition from awake to sleep during the baseline assessment (Figure ). At the baseline, 83 women and 70 men, mean age 71.3 ± 0.6 years participated and 19.6% of participants exhibited DASO. Age, years of education, gender, and body mass index did not differ according to DASO status. Linear mixed modeling showed that the presence of DASO was actually associated with lower levels of anxiety and depression. Further, participants with DASO, versus those without DASO, exhibited a trend towards better cognitive performance over time, although none of these associations reached statistical significance. Whereas DASO was associated with better affective function, no significant association was found between DASO and cognitive change over time. These longitudinal findings support the view that the presence of DASO in healthy older adults represents normal variation rather than pathological aging. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Serge Brand,1,2,* Stefanie Jossen,2,* Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Uwe Pühse,2 Markus Gerber21Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders (ZASS, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland*These authors contributed equally to this work and share the first authorshipBackground: Prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD have increased dramatically in the last two decades. In addition to the core symptoms such as impaired communication, difficulties in social interaction, and restricted and stereotypical patterns of behavior and interests, poor sleep and motor skill (MS deficits have also been observed in children with ASD. On the other hand, there is evidence that aerobic exercise training (AET has a positive impact on sleep, and that specific training improves MSs. Accordingly, the aim of the present pilot study was to investigate to what extent a combination of AET and MS training (MST would improve sleep and physical performance in a small sample of children with ASD. Method: Ten children with ASD (mean age: 10 years took part in the study. After a thorough medical examination and psychiatric assessment, children participated in thrice-weekly 60-minute sessions of AET and MST lasting for 3 consecutive weeks. Sleep was assessed both objectively (sleep-encephalography [sleep-EEG] and subjectively (parents’ questionnaire. MSs were assessed via standardized test batteries. Parents completed sleep and mood logs, and ratings of mood. Results: Mild-to-moderate insomnia was reported in 70% of children. Compared to nights without previous AET and MS, on nights following AET and MS, sleep efficiency increased (d=1.07, sleep onset latency shortened (d=0.38, and wake time after sleep onset decreased for 63% of the sample (d=1.09, as assessed via sleep-EEG. Mood in the morning, as rated by parents, improved after three weeks (d=0
Bauer, Anna E; Maegbaek, Merete L; Liu, Xiaoqin
OBJECTIVE: Postpartum psychiatric disorders are common and morbid complications of pregnancy. The authors sought to evaluate how family history of psychiatric disorders is associated with postpartum psychiatric disorders in proband mothers with and without a prior psychiatric history by assessing...
... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...
Full Text Available ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...
... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...
McIver, David J; Hawkins, Jared B; Chunara, Rumi; Chatterjee, Arnaub K; Bhandari, Aman; Fitzgerald, Timothy P; Jain, Sachin H; Brownstein, John S
Sleep issues such as insomnia affect over 50 million Americans and can lead to serious health problems, including depression and obesity, and can increase risk of injury. Social media platforms such as Twitter offer exciting potential for their use in studying and identifying both diseases and social phenomenon. Our aim was to determine whether social media can be used as a method to conduct research focusing on sleep issues. Twitter posts were collected and curated to determine whether a user exhibited signs of sleep issues based on the presence of several keywords in tweets such as insomnia, "can't sleep", Ambien, and others. Users whose tweets contain any of the keywords were designated as having self-identified sleep issues (sleep group). Users who did not have self-identified sleep issues (non-sleep group) were selected from tweets that did not contain pre-defined words or phrases used as a proxy for sleep issues. User data such as number of tweets, friends, followers, and location were collected, as well as the time and date of tweets. Additionally, the sentiment of each tweet and average sentiment of each user were determined to investigate differences between non-sleep and sleep groups. It was found that sleep group users were significantly less active on Twitter (P=.04), had fewer friends (Pcost-effective, and customizable data to be gathered.
Morselli, Lisa L; Guyon, Aurore; Spiegel, Karine
Evidence for the role of sleep on metabolic and endocrine function has been reported more than four decades ago. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has greatly increased in industrialized countries, and self-imposed sleep curtailment, now very common, is starting to be recognized as a contributing factor, alongside with increased caloric intake and decreased physical activity. Furthermore, obstructive sleep apnea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction leading to intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, has also become highly prevalent as a consequence of the epidemic of obesity and has been shown to contribute, in a vicious circle, to the metabolic disturbances observed in obese patients. In this article, we summarize the current data supporting the role of sleep in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the hormones involved in the regulation of appetite. We also review the results of the epidemiologic and laboratory studies that investigated the impact of sleep duration and quality on the risk of developing diabetes and obesity, as well as the mechanisms underlying this increased risk. Finally, we discuss how obstructive sleep apnea affects glucose metabolism and the beneficial impact of its treatment, the continuous positive airway pressure. In conclusion, the data available in the literature highlight the importance of getting enough good sleep for metabolic health.
McKenna, Benjamin Scott
Total sleep deprivation (TSD) leads to neurobehavioral changes in experimental tasks of alertness, attention, learning, and motor responses. However, results from working memory (WM) studies are more equivocal. WM comprises multiple cognitive processes and the cerebral basis of this differential vulnerability is not known. The current experiment utilized tasks employing parametric manipulations within an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design to better understand th...
Levy, Roi; Levitan, David; Susswein, Abraham J
Brief experiences while a memory is consolidated may capture the consolidation, perhaps producing a maladaptive memory, or may interrupt the consolidation. Since consolidation occurs during sleep, even fleeting experiences when animals are awakened may produce maladaptive long-term memory, or may interrupt consolidation. In a learning paradigm affecting Aplysia feeding, when animals were trained after being awakened from sleep, interactions between new experiences and consolidation were prevented by blocking long-term memory arising from the new experiences. Inhibiting protein synthesis eliminated the block and allowed even a brief, generally ineffective training to produce long-term memory. Memory formation depended on consolidative proteins already expressed before training. After effective training, long term memory required subsequent transcription and translation. Memory formation during the sleep phase was correlated with increased CREB1 transcription, but not CREB2 transcription. Increased C/EBP transcription was a correlate of both effective and ineffective training and of treatments not producing memory. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17769.001 PMID:27919318
Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...
Singh, Niranjan N; Sahota, Pradeep
apnea, which includes cluster headache, hypnic headache, and headache related to obstructive sleep apnea; and (2) headaches with high prevalence of insomnia, medication overuse, and psychiatric comorbidity including chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache. The initial step in the management of sleep related headache is proper diagnosis with exclusion of secondary headaches. Screening for sleep disorders with the use of proper tests including polysomnography and referral to sleep clinic, when appropriate is very helpful. Control of individual episode in less than 2 hours should be the initial goal using measures to abort and prevent a relapse. Cluster headache responds very well to injectable Imitrex and oxygen. Verapamil, steroids and lithium are used for preventive treatment of cluster headache. Intractable cluster headache patients have responded to hypothalamic deep brain stimulation. Hypnic headache patients respond to nightly caffeine, indomethacin, and lithium. Paroxysmal hemicrania responds very well to indomethacin. Early morning headaches associated with obstructive sleep apnea respond to CPAP or BiPAP with complete resolution of headache within a month. Patient education and lifestyle modification play a significant role in overall success of the treatment. Chronic tension-type headache and chronic migraine have high prevalence of insomnia and comorbid psychiatric disorders, which require behavioral insomnia treatment and medication if needed along with psychiatric evaluation. Apart from the abortive treatment tailored to the headache types, - such as triptans and DHE 45 for migraine and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication for chronic tension-type headache, preventive treatment with different class of medications including antiepileptics (Topamax and Depakote), calcium channel blockers (verapamil), beta blockers (propranolol), antidepressants (amitriptyline), and Botox may be used depending upon the comorbid conditions.
Werth, J.V.S.W.; Atallah, L.; Andriessen, P.; Long, X.; Zwartkruis-Pelgrim, E.; Aarts, R.M.
Sleep is important for the development of preterm infants. During sleep, neural connections are formed and the development of brain regions is triggered. In general, various rudimentary sleep states can be identified in the preterm infant, namely active sleep (AS), quiet sleep (QS) and intermediate
Towne, Samuel D; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee; Peres, S Camille; Pickens, Adam W; Mehta, Ranjana K; Benden, Mark
Identifying factors associated with recommended physical activity (PA) levels are critical in efforts to combat the obesity epidemic and related comorbidities. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of college students (n = 490) enrolled in a large southern state university in October of 2014. Our aim was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, technology use, and sleep patterns among college students and their independent relationship to recommended PA. An online survey was sent to all enrolled students. Logistic regression predicted achieving recommended ≥150 min per week of moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) versus not (≤149 min MVPA). Approximately 69% of study participants were males, 18% were Hispanic, and more than half (60%) were within the normal body mass index (12% were obese). The average age of students was 21 years. On a daily average, individuals used smartphones most often (nearly 4.4 h), followed by laptops at 4.0 h, desktops at 1.2 h, and tablets at 0.6 h. The mean number of hours individuals reported sleeping was 6.7. Sociodemographic factors associated with reporting ≥150 min of MVPA included being male (OR = 4.0, 95% CI 2.2-7.1) versus female, being non-Hispanic White (OR = 1.8, CI 1.1-3.2) versus being a member of minority race group. Behavioral factors associated with reporting ≥150 min of MVPA included technology use (being moderate-heavy (OR = 2.3, CI 1.1-4.8) or heavy (OR = 3.4, CI 1.6-7.5) users of technology), and receiving low-moderate (OR = 1.9, 1.01-3.7) levels of sleep versus the lowest level of sleep. In the current study, minority status and being female were the strongest sociodemographic factors associated with inadequate PA levels, while high technology use (primarily driven by smartphone use) were associated with recommended PA levels. Identifying factors associated with being physically active will allow for targeted interventions to improve the health of young adults.
Samuel D. Towne
Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying factors associated with recommended physical activity (PA levels are critical in efforts to combat the obesity epidemic and related comorbidities. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analyses of college students (n = 490 enrolled in a large southern state university in October of 2014. Our aim was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, technology use, and sleep patterns among college students and their independent relationship to recommended PA. An online survey was sent to all enrolled students. Logistic regression predicted achieving recommended ≥150 min per week of moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA versus not (≤149 min MVPA. Results Approximately 69% of study participants were males, 18% were Hispanic, and more than half (60% were within the normal body mass index (12% were obese. The average age of students was 21 years. On a daily average, individuals used smartphones most often (nearly 4.4 h, followed by laptops at 4.0 h, desktops at 1.2 h, and tablets at 0.6 h. The mean number of hours individuals reported sleeping was 6.7. Sociodemographic factors associated with reporting ≥150 min of MVPA included being male (OR = 4.0, 95% CI 2.2–7.1 versus female, being non-Hispanic White (OR = 1.8, CI 1.1–3.2 versus being a member of minority race group. Behavioral factors associated with reporting ≥150 min of MVPA included technology use (being moderate-heavy (OR = 2.3, CI 1.1–4.8 or heavy (OR = 3.4, CI 1.6–7.5 users of technology, and receiving low-moderate (OR = 1.9, 1.01–3.7 levels of sleep versus the lowest level of sleep. Conclusions In the current study, minority status and being female were the strongest sociodemographic factors associated with inadequate PA levels, while high technology use (primarily driven by smartphone use were associated with recommended PA levels. Identifying factors associated with being physically active will allow for targeted interventions to
Girard, Vincent; Sarradon-Eck, Aline; Payan, Noura; Bonin, Jean-Pierre; Perrot, Sylvain; Vialars, Vanessa; Boyer, Laurent; Tinland, Aurélie; Simeoni, Marie-Claude
Since their creation in 2005 in France, mobile mental health outreach teams (EMPP) have been working to improve the health of the homeless who, for 30 to 50% of them, present severe mental disorders. Their missions are defined by ministerial circular's specifications. Few studies have been undertaken in France to analyze the practices of these teams' professionals, nor the characteristics of the populations with whom they are involved. The EMPP described in this paper had in 2010 a greater staff than other French EMPPs. It has 15 full-time staff, including four doctors (two psychiatrists, one GP, one house physician), two nurses, two educators, one social worker, three peer-workers, one secretary and two coordinators. The article analyzes the way of support developed within the range of EMPP's missions defined by the ministerial circular. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out using standardized data from four different sources (round sheet, record of activity, record of hospitalization, housing information, interviews conducted by medical and social professionals with patients). Another source of data consists of records describing the operation of the team (reference framework) and annual activities (annual report). The method of care was developed based on a street working, involving a full medical and its relationship with the hospital and a place to live in a semi-community context. The Mobile Mental Health Outreach team documented 318 rounds in 2010, describing 666 contacts among whom 87.9% were followed regularly thereafter. It focuses to a target population. The team actively followed 198 people including 161 for whom a psychiatric diagnosis was done: 48.5% of the patients followed presented schizophrenic-type disorders, 21.8% bipolar disorders and other mood-linked problems, 13% behavioral disorders and 6.2% substance-use disorders. A percentage of 44.9 presented with a physical disease. Among the 89 hospitalizations, 86.5% were motivated by
Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Putkonen, Hanna; Sailas, Eila; Takala, Pirjo; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti
The rate of violent crimes among girls and women appears to be increasing. One in every five female prisoners has been reported to have antisocial personality disorder. However, it has been quite unclear whether the impulsive, aggressive behaviour among women is affected by the same biological mechanisms as among men. Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Most psychiatric disorders are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep (SWS), the physiologically significant, refreshing part of sleep. Among men with antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, increased SWS has been reported, reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of human sleep patterns. In our preliminary study among medication-free, detoxified female homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder, the same profound abnormality in sleep architecture was found. From the perspective of sleep research, the biological correlates of severe impulsive aggression seem to share similar features in both sexes.
Full Text Available Sleep loss affects attention by reducing levels of arousal and alertness. The neural mechanisms underlying the compensatory efforts of the brain to maintain attention and performance after sleep deprivation are not fully understood. Previous neuroimaging studies of sleep deprivation have not been able to exclude the effects of reduced arousal and vigilance when examining cerebral responses to cognitive challenges. Here, we used a simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI approach to study the effects of 36 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD. Specifically, we focused on changes in selective attention processes as induced by an active acoustic oddball task, with the ability to isolate runs with objective EEG signs of high or reduced vigilance. At high vigilance, task-related activity appears to be sustained by compensatory co-activation of insular regions, but task-negative activity in the right posterior node of the default mode network is altered following TSD. When EEG shows signs of reduced vigilance, task-positive activity was massively impaired, but task-negative activation was showing levels comparable with the control condition after a well-rested night. Our results suggest that loss of strict anti-correlation between task-positive and task-negative activation reflects the effects of TSD, while the actual state of vigilance and task performance either affects task-related or task-negative activity.
Wennberg, Alexandra M.; Canham, Sarah L.; Smith, Michael T.; Spira, Adam P.
As the world’s population ages, the elevated prevalence of insomnia in older adults is a growing concern. Insomnia is characterized by difficulty falling or remaining asleep, or by non-restorative sleep, and resultant daytime dysfunction. In addition to being at elevated risk for primary insomnia, older adults are at greater risk for comorbid insomnia, which results from, or occurs in conjunction with another medical or psychiatric condition. In this review, we discuss normal changes in sleep...
Gubin, D G; Weinert, D; Rybina, S V; Danilova, L A; Solovieva, S V; Durov, A M; Prokopiev, N Y; Ushakov, P A
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of endogenous and exogenous factors for the expression of the daily rhythms of body temperature (BT), blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). One hundred and seventy-three young adults (YA), 17-24 years old (y.o.), of both genders were studied under a modified constant-routine (CR) protocol for 26 h. Participants were assigned randomly to groups with different lighting regimens: CR-LD, n = 77, lights (>400 l×) on from 09:00 to 17:00 h and off (lights on (>400 l×) during the whole experimental session; CR-DD, n = 15, constant dim light (Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) records from 27 YA (16-38 y.o.) and BT self-measurement data from 70 YA (17-30 y.o.) taken on ≥ 3 successive days at 08:00, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, 20:00, 23:00 and 03:00 were available. The obtained daily patterns were different between Control and CR-DD groups, due to effects of activity, sleep and light. The comparison of Control and CR-LD groups allowed the effects of sleep and activity to be estimated since the lighting conditions were similar. The activity level substantially elevated SBP, but not DBP. Sleep, on the other hand, lowered the nighttime DBP, but has no effect on SBP. HR was affected both by activity and sleep. In accordance with previous studies, these results confirm that the steep BP increase in the morning is not driven by the circadian clock, but rather by sympathoadrenal factors related to awakening and corresponding anticipatory mechanisms. The effect on BT was not significant. To investigate the impact of light during the former dark time and darkness during the former light time, the CR-LL and CR-DD groups were each compared with the CR-LD group. Light delayed the evening decrease of BT, most likely via a suppression of the melatonin rise. Besides, it had a prominent arousal effect on SBP both in the former light and dark phases, a moderate effect on DBP and no effect on HR. Darkness induced decline in BT. BP
Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5-3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning.
Verhave, P.S.; Jongsma, M.J.; Berg, R.M. van den; Vis, J.C.; Vanwersch, R.A.P.; Smit, A.B.; Someren, E.J.W. van; Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.
Study Objectives: Sleep problems are a common phenomenon in most neurological and psychiatric diseases. In Parkinson disease (PD), for instance, sleep problems may be the most common and burdensome non-motor symptoms in addition to the well-described classical motor symptoms. Since sleep
Andrés Barrera Medina
Full Text Available Sleep disturbances in depression are up to 70%. Patients frequently have difficulty in falling asleep, frequent awakenings during the night and non-restorative sleep. Sleep abnormalities in depression are mainly characterized by increased rapid eye movement (REM sleep and reduced slow wave sleep. Among the mechanisms of sleep disturbances in depression are hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, CLOCK gene polymorphism and primary sleep disorders. The habenula is a structure regulating the activities of monoaminergic neurons in the brain. The hyperactivation of the habenula has also been implicated, together with sleep disturbances, in depression. The presence of depression in primary sleep disorders is common. Sleep disturbances treatment include pharmacotherapy or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.
Medina, Andrés Barrera; Lechuga, DeboraYoaly Arana; Escandón, Oscar Sánchez; Moctezuma, Javier Velázquez
Sleep disturbances in depression are up to 70%. Patients frequently have difficulty in falling asleep, frequent awakenings during the night and non-restorative sleep. Sleep abnormalities in depression are mainly characterized by increased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and reduced slow wave sleep. Among the mechanisms of sleep disturbances in depression are hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, CLOCK gene polymorphism and primary sleep disorders. The habenula is a structure regulating the activities of monoaminergic neurons in the brain. The hyperactivation of the habenula has also been implicated, together with sleep disturbances, in depression. The presence of depression in primary sleep disorders is common. Sleep disturbances treatment include pharmacotherapy or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. PMID:26483922
Kalmbach, David A.; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J. Todd; Drake, Christopher L.
Study Objectives: We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans. Methods: This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional. The community-based sample consisted of 3,911 subjects (46.0 y ± 13.3; 65.4% female; 25.0% black) across six sleep groups based on DSM-5 insomnia classification (never vs. remitted vs. current) and self-reported habitual sleep duration (normal vs. short). Vascular events, cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric symptoms were self-reported. Results: Short sleeping insomniacs were at elevated risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, treated hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, back pain, depression, and anxiety, independent of sex, age, and obesity. Morbidity profiles for insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs, irrespective of sleep duration, were similar with elevations in treated hypertension, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. Regarding racial disparities, cardiometabolic and psychiatric illness burden was greater for blacks, who were more likely to have short sleep and the short sleep insomnia phenotype. Evidence suggested that health disparities may be attributable in part to race-related differences in sleep. Conclusions: Insomnia disorder with short sleep is the most severe phenotype of insomnia and comorbid with many cardiometabolic and psychiatric illnesses, whereas morbidity profiles are highly similar between insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs. Short sleep endemic to black Americans increases risk for the short sleep insomnia phenotype and likely contributes to racial disparities in cardiometabolic disease
Tsai, Ling-Ling; Li, Sheng-Ping
In this study we evaluated the effect of a two-credit (100 min./week) "Sleep Management" course on the sleep patterns of college students as the course progressed over an 18-wk. semester. Curricular activity included lectures, group discussions, and practice of self-evaluation of sleep. Instead of giving the students the whole list of sleep hygiene at the outset of the course, each concept of sleep hygiene was introduced and discussed under related lecture topics. A total of 241 students (131 men and 110 women) took the course and kept 7-day sleep logs three times. Concurrently, sleep-log data were collected from 65 students (32 men and 33 women) who were not taking the course. Both groups showed similar varieties of academic backgrounds and characteristics of sleep patterns at the beginning. Similarly, their sleep patterns, namely, rise time, nighttime awakenings, time asleep, time in bed, sleep efficiency, and rise time regularity, changed over the semester. Women in both groups had more nighttime awakenings. In contrast, sleep quality was progressively better for the group in the course but not for the control group. Only women in the course decreased their nap time in the second and third months. Thus, the course of "Sleep Management" only had a mild and limited effect on sleep patterns. The course content needs refinement to maximize influence on students' sleep patterns and habits, particularly, on reduction of insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness which are the highest ranking sleep problems among college students.
Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini
Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α (p-eIF2α), in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged/sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep/ sleep debt discharge. PMID:24444805
Brown, Marishka K; Chan, May T; Zimmerman, John E; Pack, Allan I; Jackson, Nicholas E; Naidoo, Nirinjini
Alterations in the quality, quantity, and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response. The effectiveness of the adaptive unfolded protein response is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of X-box binding protein 1 and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α, in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged or sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep or sleep debt discharge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raquel Munhoz da Silveira Campos
Full Text Available O objetivo foi identificar o nível de atividade física e sua relação com sonolência excessiva diurna e qualidade de sono em 15 mulheres com fibromialgia, com idade média de 58±7 anos. Foi utilizado o Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física, o Índice de Qualidade de Sono de Pittsburgh e a Escala de Sonolência de Epworth. O programa SPSS Statistics versão 17 foi utilizado para as analises estatísticas e o valor para significância foi de α The objective was to identify the level of physical activity and its relation to excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality in 15 women with fibromyalgia and mean age 58 ± 7 years. We used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Sleep Quality Index in Pittsburgh and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. We used SPSS Statistics Version 17 and the value for significance was α < 0.05. The results showed that 33,3% of patients rated themselves inactive and 66,7% minimally active. We observed excessive daytime sleepiness in 60% of patients. The poor quality of sleep was observed in 55,6% of patients in minimally active and 60% of inactive. The average time was 34,3 minutes to fall asleep, sleep efficiency was 81% and total sleep time was 5,9 hours. The low level of physical activity seems to be one of the factors that can worsen sleep quality in women with fibromyalgia.
García-García, Fabio; Acosta-Peña, Eva; Venebra-Muñoz, Arturo; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric
Kuniomi Ishimori and Henri Piéron were the first researchers to introduce the concept and experimental evidence for a chemical factor that would presumably accumulate in the brain during waking and eventually induce sleep. This substance was named hypnotoxin. Currently, the variety of substances which have been shown to alter sleep includes peptides, cytokines, neurotransmitters and some substances of lipidic nature, many of which are well known for their involvement in other biological activities. In this chapter, we describe the sleep-inducing properties of the vasoactive intestinal peptide, prolactin, adenosine and anandamide.
Saengsuwan, Jiamjit; Boonyaleepan, Suwanna; Tiamkao, Somsak
The aim of this study was to find out how people with epilepsy in NE Thailand feel about their levels of stress, sleep, diet, exercise habits, and sex lives using a cross-sectional design. Two hundred and three people with epilepsy (PWE) were randomly recruited from a university epilepsy clinic in Khon Kaen and then completed an interview and a questionnaire. A total of 27.6% of the patients believed that diet had an influence on their epilepsy (of those who reported changes, 41.1% stopped consuming alcohol, while 32.1% stopped drinking caffeinated beverages). A total of 47.2% of the patients exercised at least three times per week, while 52.8% exercised two times or less a week. Daytime sleeping was prevalent, with 43.3% saying that they slept during the day frequently or every day. There were 44.3% of the patients who believed that their sex lives changed after the onset of epilepsy, with decreased sexual arousal being most commonly mentioned. A total of 76.4% of the patients said that they had medium or high levels of stress, and epilepsy was listed as the most common reason for their stress (50.2%). Focusing on the problem was the most common method to reduce stress (80.3%). The findings illuminate the need to increase attention towards improving and promoting self-management of epilepsy. As a whole, diet, exercise, sleep, stress reduction, and sex therapy can be valuable tools to improve the quality of life of people with epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Thornton, Louise; Lappin, Julia M; Hanstock, Tanya; Sylvia, Louisa; Jacka, Felice; Baker, Amanda L; Berk, Michal; Mitchell, Phillip B; Callister, Robin; Rogers, Naomi; Webster, Stephanie; Dennis, Simon; Oldmeadow, Christopher; MacKinnon, Andrew; Doran, Christopher; Turner, Alyna; Hunt, Sally
People with bipolar disorder (BD) have a mortality gap of up to 20 years compared to the general population. Physical conditions, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, cause the majority of excess deaths in psychiatric populations and are the leading causes of mortality in people with BD. However, comparatively little attention has been paid to reducing the risk of physical conditions in psychiatric populations. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors are among the potentially modifiable risk factors for a range of commonly comorbid chronic medical conditions, including CVD, diabetes, and obesity. This systematic review will identify and evaluate the available evidence for effective interventions to reduce risk and promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in BD. We will search MEDLINE, Embase, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL for published research studies (with at least an abstract published in English) that evaluate behavioral or psychosocial interventions to address the following lifestyle factors in people with BD: tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, overweight or obesity, sleep-wake disturbance, and alcohol/other drug use. Primary outcomes for the review will be changes in tobacco use, level of physical activity, diet quality, sleep quality, alcohol use, and illicit drug use. Data on each primary outcome will be synthesized across available studies in that lifestyle area (e.g., tobacco abstinence, cigarettes smoked per day), and panel of research and clinical experts in each of the target lifestyle behaviors and those experienced with clinical and research with individuals with BD will determine how best to represent data related to that primary outcome. Seven members of the systematic review team will extract data, synthesize the evidence, and rate it for quality. Evidence will be synthesized via a narrative description of the behavioral interventions and their effectiveness in improving the healthy lifestyle behaviors
Kendler, Kenneth S
A foundational question for the discipline of psychiatry is the nature of psychiatric disorders. What kinds of things are they? In this paper, I review and critique three major relevant theories: realism, pragmatism and constructivism. Realism assumes that the content of science is real and independent of human activities. I distinguish two "flavors" of realism: chemistry-based, for which the paradigmatic example is elements of the periodic table, and biology-based, for which the paradigm is species. The latter is a much better fit for psychiatry. Pragmatism articulates a sensible approach to psychiatric disorders just seeking categories that perform well in the world. But it makes no claim about the reality of those disorders. This is problematic, because we have a duty to advocate for our profession and our patients against other physicians who never doubt the reality of the disorders they treat. Constructivism has been associated with anti-psychiatry activists, but we should admit that social forces play a role in the creation of our diagnoses, as they do in many sciences. However, truly socially constructed psychiatric disorders are rare. I then describe powerful arguments against a realist theory of psychiatric disorders. Because so many prior psychiatric diagnoses have been proposed and then abandoned, can we really claim that our current nosologies have it right? Much of our current nosology arose from a series of historical figures and events which could have gone differently. If we re-run the tape of history over and over again, the DSM and ICD would not likely have the same categories on every iteration. Therefore, we should argue more confidently for the reality of broader constructs of psychiatric illness rather than our current diagnostic categories, which remain tentative. Finally, instead of thinking that our disorders are true because they correspond to clear entities in the world, we should consider a coherence theory of truth by which disorders
Labree, Wim; van de Mheen, Dike; Rutten, Frans; Rodenburg, Gerda; Koopmans, Gerrit; Foets, Marleen
A cross-sectional survey was performed to examine to what degree differences in overweight and obesity between native Dutch and migrant primary school children could be explained by differences in physical activity, dietary intake, and sleep duration among these children. Subjects (n=1943) were primary school children around the age of 8-9 years old and their primary caregivers: native Dutch children (n=1546), Turkish children (n=93), Moroccan children (n=66), other non-western children (n=105), and other western children (n=133). Multivariate regressions and logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between migrant status, child's behavior, and BMI or prevalence of overweight, including obesity (logistic). Main explanatory variables were physical activity, dietary intake, and sleep duration. We controlled for age, sex, parental educational level, and parental BMI. Although sleep duration, dietary intake of fruit, and dietary intake of energy-dense snacks were associated with BMI, ethnic differences in sleep duration and dietary intake did not have a large impact on ethnic differences in overweight and obesity among children from migrant and native origin. It is suggested that future preventive strategies to reduce overweight and obesity, in general, consider the role of sleep duration. Also, cross-cultural variation in preparation of food among specific migrant groups, focusing on fat, sugar, and salt, deserves more attention. In order to examine which other variables may clarify ethnic differences in overweight and obesity, future research is needed.
Full Text Available Background: Cyproterone acetate (CPA is a steroidal anti-androgenic medication used in the field of psychiatry for the treatment of paraphilic disorders, hypersexuality, and inappropriate sexual behaviour which may be present in patients with disorders such as mild and major neurocognitive disorders. In the forensic psychiatric population, it is prescribed for these indications especially for patients with a history of committing a sexual offence or who are at moderate to high risk of recidivism. Objectives: To investigate the use of CPA in a forensic psychiatric cohort of male sex offenders and its associations with sexual activity and sexual functioning. Methods: Seventy-six forensic psychiatric patients from Weskoppies Hospital in Pretoria, South Africa, participated in the study which measured their sexual functioning. A specifically designed questionnaire was used to capture relevant background information. The use of CPA was studied. The Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, Male Clinical Version (CSFQ-M-C was used to measure sexual functioning of participants. The CSFQ-M-C scores, and those of all its subscales, of participants on CPA were compared to those not on the drug. Relevant statistical analyses were performed. Results: Thirteen out of the 76 participants were being treated with CPA (17.11%. In total, 53.85% of the participants on CPA and 65.08% not on CPA had scores indicating the presence of sexual dysfunction. The total CSFQ-M-C scores for participants on CPA (mean = 40.54; median = 42 were not statistically significantly lower than those not on the drug (mean = 41.22; median = 41. More notable is that the use of CPA in this population was associated with lower levels of desire, frequency of and pleasure from sexual activity. There was an association between having intellectual disability and being treated with CPA. Conclusion: That all the participants were being treated with psychotropic medication could account for
Goes, Ana Claudia Janiszewski; Reis, Larissa Aparecida Busatto; Silva, Marilia Barreto G; Kahlow, Barbara Stadler; Skare, Thelma L
Sleep disturbances are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and contribute to loss of life quality. To study associations of sleep quality with pain, depression and disease activity in RA. This is a transversal observational study of 112 RA patients submitted to measurement of DAS-28, Epworth scale for daily sleepiness, index of sleep quality by Pittsburg index, risk of sleep apnea by the Berlin questionnaire and degree of depression by the CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale) questionnaire. We also collected epidemiological, clinical, serological and treatment data. Only 18.5% of RA patients had sleep of good quality. In univariate analysis a bad sleep measured by Pittsburg index was associated with daily doses of prednisone (p=0.03), DAS-28 (p=0.01), CES-D (p=0.0005) and showed a tendency to be associated with Berlin sleep apnea questionnaire (p=0.06). In multivariate analysis only depression (p=0.008) and Berlin sleep apnea questionnaire (p=0.004) kept this association. Most of RA patients do not have a good sleep quality. Depression and risk of sleep apnea are independently associated with sleep impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Salater, Julie; Røhr, Marthe
Objective : To examine (a) the prevalence of sleep problems among 4-year-olds in the general population, (b) the prevalence of sleep problems among children with emotional and/or behavioural problems, and (c) whether specific sleep problems are associated with particular emotional/behavioural problems. Method: Using The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) , data about sleep and emotional/behavioural problems was obtained from 727 parents of 4-year-olds, recruited for a large...
White, David P; Younes, Magdy K
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by repetitive collapse of the pharyngeal airway during sleep. Control of pharyngeal patency is a complex process relating primarily to basic anatomy and the activity of many pharyngeal dilator muscles. The control of these muscles is regulated by a number of processes including respiratory drive, negative pressure reflexes, and state (sleep) effects. In general, patients with OSA have an anatomically small airway the patency of which is maintained during wakefulness by reflex-driven augmented dilator muscle activation. At sleep onset, muscle activity falls, thereby compromising the upper airway. However, recent data suggest that the mechanism of OSA differs substantially among patients, with variable contributions from several physiologic characteristics including, among others: level of upper airway dilator muscle activation required to open the airway, increase in chemical drive required to recruit the pharyngeal muscles, chemical control loop gain, and arousal threshold. Thus, the cause of sleep apnea likely varies substantially between patients. Other physiologic mechanisms likely contributing to OSA pathogenesis include falling lung volume during sleep, shifts in blood volume from peripheral tissues to the neck, and airway edema. Apnea severity may progress over time, likely due to weight gain, muscle/nerve injury, aging effects on airway anatomy/collapsibility, and changes in ventilatory control stability. © 2012 American Physiological Society
Clinical Feasibility of Continuously Monitored Data for Heart Rate, Physical Activity, and Sleeping by Wearable Activity Trackers in Patients with Thyrotoxicosis: Protocol for a Prospective Longitudinal Observational Study.
Lee, Jie-Eun; Lee, Dong Hwa; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Park, Young Joo; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Moon, Jae Hoon
Thyrotoxicosis is a common disease caused by an excess of thyroid hormones. The prevalence of thyrotoxicosis about 2% and 70-90% of thyrotoxicosis cases are caused by Graves' disease, an autoimmune disease, which has a high recurrence rate when treated with antithyroid drugs such as methimazole or propylthiouracil. The clinical symptoms and signs of thyrotoxicosis include palpitation, weight loss, restlessness, and difficulty sleeping. Although these clinical changes in thyrotoxicosis can be detected by currently available wearable activity trackers, there have been few trials of the clinical application of wearable devices in patients with thyrotoxicosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical applicability of wearable device-generated data to the management of thyrotoxicosis. We are analyzing continuously monitored data for heart rate, physical activity, and sleep in patients with thyrotoxicosis during their clinical course after treatment. Thirty thyrotoxic patients and 10 control subjects were enrolled in this study at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Heart rate, physical activity, and sleep are being monitored using a Fitbit Charge HR or Fitbit Charge 2. Clinical data including anthropometric measures, thyroid function test, and hyperthyroidism symptom scale are recorded. Study enrollment began in December 2016, and the intervention and follow-up phases are ongoing. The results of the data analysis are expected to be available by September 2017. This study will provide a foundational feasibility trial of the clinical applications of biosignal measurements to the differential diagnosis, prediction of clinical course, early detection of recurrence, and treatment in patients with thyrotoxicosis. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03009357; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03009357 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6wh4MWPm2). ©Jie-Eun Lee, Dong Hwa Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Kyoung Min Kim, Sung Hee Choi, Soo Lim, Young Joo Park, Do
Clinical Feasibility of Continuously Monitored Data for Heart Rate, Physical Activity, and Sleeping by Wearable Activity Trackers in Patients with Thyrotoxicosis: Protocol for a Prospective Longitudinal Observational Study
Lee, Jie-Eun; Lee, Dong Hwa; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Park, Young Joo; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul
Background Thyrotoxicosis is a common disease caused by an excess of thyroid hormones. The prevalence of thyrotoxicosis about 2% and 70-90% of thyrotoxicosis cases are caused by Graves' disease, an autoimmune disease, which has a high recurrence rate when treated with antithyroid drugs such as methimazole or propylthiouracil. The clinical symptoms and signs of thyrotoxicosis include palpitation, weight loss, restlessness, and difficulty sleeping. Although these clinical changes in thyrotoxicosis can be detected by currently available wearable activity trackers, there have been few trials of the clinical application of wearable devices in patients with thyrotoxicosis. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical applicability of wearable device-generated data to the management of thyrotoxicosis. We are analyzing continuously monitored data for heart rate, physical activity, and sleep in patients with thyrotoxicosis during their clinical course after treatment. Methods Thirty thyrotoxic patients and 10 control subjects were enrolled in this study at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Heart rate, physical activity, and sleep are being monitored using a Fitbit Charge HR or Fitbit Charge 2. Clinical data including anthropometric measures, thyroid function test, and hyperthyroidism symptom scale are recorded. Results Study enrollment began in December 2016, and the intervention and follow-up phases are ongoing. The results of the data analysis are expected to be available by September 2017. Conclusions This study will provide a foundational feasibility trial of the clinical applications of biosignal measurements to the differential diagnosis, prediction of clinical course, early detection of recurrence, and treatment in patients with thyrotoxicosis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03009357; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03009357 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6wh4MWPm2) PMID:29467121
Paradoxical (REM) sleep deprivation in mice using the small-platforms-over-water method: polysomnographic analyses and melanin-concentrating hormone and hypocretin/orexin neuronal activation before, during and after deprivation.
Arthaud, Sebastien; Varin, Christophe; Gay, Nadine; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Chauveau, Frederic; Fort, Patrice; Luppi, Pierre-Herve; Peyron, Christelle
Studying paradoxical sleep homeostasis requires the specific and efficient deprivation of paradoxical sleep and the evaluation of the subsequent recovery period. With this aim, the small-platforms-over-water technique has been used extensively in rats, but only rare studies were conducted in mice, with no sleep data reported during deprivation. Mice are used increasingly with the emergence of transgenic mice and technologies such as optogenetics, raising the need for a reliable method to manipulate paradoxical sleep. To fulfil this need, we refined this deprivation method and analysed vigilance states thoroughly during the entire protocol. We also studied activation of hypocretin/orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone neurones using Fos immunohistochemistry to verify whether mechanisms regulating paradoxical sleep in mice are similar to those in rats. We showed that 48 h of deprivation was highly efficient, with a residual amount of paradoxical sleep of only 2.2%. Slow wave sleep and wake quantities were similar to baseline, except during the first 4 h of deprivation, where slow wave sleep was strongly reduced. After deprivation, we observed a 124% increase in paradoxical sleep quantities during the first hour of rebound. In addition, 34% of hypocretin/orexin neurones were activated during deprivation, whereas melanin-concentrated hormone neurones were activated only during paradoxical sleep rebound. Corticosterone level showed a twofold increase after deprivation and returned to baseline level after 4 h of recovery. In summary, a fairly selective deprivation and a significant rebound of paradoxical sleep can be obtained in mice using the small-platforms-over-water method. As in rats, rebound is accompanied by a selective activation of melanin-concentrating hormone neurones. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.
Full Text Available To test the independent and interactive associations of physical activity (PA and screen time (ST with self-reported mental health and sleep quality among Chinese college students.Data were collected in October, 2013. The gender, age, residential background, body mass index (BMI, perceived family economy and perceived study burden were obtained from a total of 4747 college students (41.6% males and 58.4% females. The outcomes were self-reported PA status, ST, anxiety, depression, psychopathological symptoms and sleep quality. Analyses were conducted with logistic regression models.Overall, 16.3%, 15.9% and 17.3% of the students had psychological problems, such as anxiety, depression and psychopathological symptoms, respectively. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 9.8%. High ST was significantly positively associated with anxiety (OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.15-1.65, depression (OR=1.76, 95%CI: 1.47-2.09, psychopathological symptoms (OR=1.69, 95%CI: 1.43-2.01 and poor sleep quality (OR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.06-1.65. High PA was insignificantly negatively associated with anxiety, depression, psychopathological symptoms and poor sleep. Low PA and high ST were independently and interactively associated with increased risks of mental health problems and poor sleep quality (p<0.05 for all.Interventions are needed to reduce ST and increase PA in the lifestyles of young people. Future research should develop and measure the impacts of interventions and their potential consequences on sleep, health, and well being.
Amanda E. Staiano
Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examined differences in children’s health behaviors during school term (ST versus school holiday (SH: June–July and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5–18 years (n = 406 from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score（BMIz ） were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth’s physical activity and TV viewing.
Lin, Wei-Chen; Winkelman, John W
Sleep complaints are commonly encountered in psychiatric clinics. Underlying medical disorders or sleep disorders need to be identified and treated to optimize treatment of the mental illness. Excessive daytime sleepiness, which is the main symptom of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), overlaps with those of many severe mental illnesses. Medication side effects or the disorder itself maybe account for daytime sleepiness but comorbid OSA is a possibility that should not be overlooked. The diagnosis of OSA is straightforward but treatment compliance is problematic in psychiatric patients. This article summarizes studies concerning comorbid OSA in patients with severe mental illness and includes suggestions for future investigations.
Allegrini, Paolo; Paradisi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Laurino, Marco; Piarulli, Andrea; Gemignani, Angelo
Criticality reportedly describes brain dynamics. The main critical feature is the presence of scale-free neural avalanches, whose auto-organization is determined by a critical branching ratio of neural-excitation spreading. Other features, directly associated to second-order phase transitions, are: (i) scale-free-network topology of functional connectivity, stemming from suprathreshold pairwise correlations, superimposable, in waking brain activity, with that of ferromagnets at Curie temperature; (ii) temporal long-range memory associated to renewal intermittency driven by abrupt fluctuations in the order parameters, detectable in human brain via spatially distributed phase or amplitude changes in EEG activity. Herein we study intermittent events, extracted from 29 night EEG recordings, including presleep wakefulness and all phases of sleep, where different levels of mentation and consciousness are present. We show that while critical avalanching is unchanged, at least qualitatively, intermittency and functional connectivity, present during conscious phases (wakefulness and REM sleep), break down during both shallow and deep non-REM sleep. We provide a theory for fragmentation-induced intermittency breakdown and suggest that the main difference between conscious and unconscious states resides in the backwards causation, namely on the constraints that the emerging properties at large scale induce to the lower scales. In particular, while in conscious states this backwards causation induces a critical slowing down, preserving spatiotemporal correlations, in dreamless sleep we see a self-organized maintenance of moduli working in parallel. Critical avalanches are still present, and establish transient auto-organization, whose enhanced fluctuations are able to trigger sleep-protecting mechanisms that reinstate parallel activity. The plausible role of critical avalanches in dreamless sleep is to provide a rapid recovery of consciousness, if stimuli are highly arousing.
Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Drake, Christopher L
We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans. This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional. The community-based sample consisted of 3,911 subjects (46.0 y ± 13.3; 65.4% female; 25.0% black) across six sleep groups based on DSM-5 insomnia classification ( never vs. remitted vs. current ) and self-reported habitual sleep duration ( normal vs. short ). Vascular events, cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric symptoms were self-reported. Short sleeping insomniacs were at elevated risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, treated hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, back pain, depression, and anxiety, independent of sex, age, and obesity. Morbidity profiles for insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs, irrespective of sleep duration, were similar with elevations in treated hypertension, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. Regarding racial disparities, cardiometabolic and psychiatric illness burden was greater for blacks, who were more likely to have short sleep and the short sleep insomnia phenotype. Evidence suggested that health disparities may be attributable in part to race-related differences in sleep. Insomnia disorder with short sleep is the most severe phenotype of insomnia and comorbid with many cardiometabolic and psychiatric illnesses, whereas morbidity profiles are highly similar between insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs. Short sleep endemic to black Americans increases risk for the short sleep insomnia phenotype and likely contributes to racial disparities in cardiometabolic disease and psychiatric illness. © 2016 Associated
This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.
Genzel, L.K.E.; Kroes, M.C.W.; Dresler, M.; Battaglia, F.P.
Sleep is strongly involved in memory consolidation, but its role remains unclear. 'Sleep replay', the active potentiation of relevant synaptic connections via reactivation of patterns of network activity that occurred during previous experience, has received considerable attention. Alternatively,
Biggs, Sarah N; Walter, Lisa M; Nisbet, Lauren C; Jackman, Angela R; Anderson, Vicki; Nixon, Gillian M; Davey, Margot J; Trinder, John; Hoffmann, Robert; Armitage, Roseanne; Horne, Rosemary S C
Daytime deficits in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) are theorized to result from hypoxic insult to the developing brain or fragmented sleep. Yet, these do not explain why deficits occur in primary snorers (PS). The time course of slow wave EEG activity (SWA), a proxy of homeostatic regulation and cortical maturation, may provide insight. Clinical and control subjects (N=175: mean age 4.3±0.9 y: 61% male) participated in overnight polysomnography (PSG). Standard sleep scoring and power spectral analyses were conducted on EEG (C4/A1; 0.5-sleep stages and respiratory parameters. Repeated-measures ANCOVA evaluated group differences in the time course of SWA. Four groups were classified: controls (OAHI ≤ 1 event/h; no clinical history); PS (OAHI ≤ 1 event/h; clinical history); mild OSA (OAHI=1-5 events/h); and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA: OAHI>5 events/h). Group differences were found in the percentage of time spent in NREM Stages 1 and 4 (psleep pressure but impaired restorative sleep function in pre-school children with SDB, providing new insights into the possible mechanism for daytime deficits observed in all severities of SDB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Quist, Jonas Salling; Chaput, Jean-Philippe
the association between accelerometer determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and sleep (7 days/8 nights) and fasting C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and adiponectin in 806 school children. A sleep variability score was calculated. RESULTS: MVPA was negatively...... associated with adiponectin in boys and girls (Psleep duration, sedentary time, age, fat mass index (FMI), and pubertal status. Sedentary time was positively associated with adiponectin in boys and girls (both Psleep duration...... with adiponectin in boys independent of age, FMI, and pubertal status (PSleep duration variability was positively associated with CRP in girls independent of all covariates (P
L.J.W. Labree (Wim); H. van de Mheen (Dike); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen); G. Rodenburg (Gerda); G.T. Koopmans (Gerrit); M.M.E. Foets (Marleen)
textabstractA cross-sectional survey was performed to examine to what degree differences in overweight and obesity between native Dutch and migrant primary school children could be explained by differences in physical activity, dietary intake, and sleep duration among these children. Subjects
Miles, Jessica A.
The purpose of this research was to identify the impact of students' choice of time of day for class activity and their sleep quality on academic performance in multidisciplinary distance education courses at a southeastern U.S. state college. The research addressed the relationship of other individual student characteristics (i.e., age, gender,…
Kong, Il Gyu; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Choi, Hyo Geun
Low physical activity, long leisure sitting time, and short sleep time are risk factors for obesity, but the association with study sitting time is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between these factors and obesity.We analyzed the association between physical activity, study sitting time, leisure sitting time, and sleep time and subject weight (underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese), using data from a large population-based survey, the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Data from 53,769 participants were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, region of residence, economic level, smoking, stress level, physical activity, sitting time for study, sitting time for leisure, and sleep time were adjusted as the confounders.Low physical activity (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] = 1.03, 1.12) and long leisure sitting time (AORs = 1.15, 1.32) were positively associated with overweight and obese. Low physical activity (AOR = 1.33) and long leisure sitting time (AOR = 1.12) were also associated with underweight. Study sitting time was negatively associated with underweight (AOR = 0.86) but was unrelated to overweight (AOR = 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91-1.03) and obese (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.84-1.04). Sleep time (physical activity, decreasing leisure sitting time, and obtaining sufficient sleep would be beneficial in maintaining a healthy weight. However, study sitting time was not associated with overweight or obese.
Phillips, Derrick J; Schei, Jennifer L; Rector, David M
Our previous studies showed that evoked hemodynamic responses are smaller during wake compared to sleep; suggesting neural activity is associated with vascular expansion and decreased compliance. We explored whether prolonged activity during sleep deprivation may exacerbate vascular expansion and blunt hemodynamic responses. Evoked auditory responses were generated with periodic 65 dB speaker clicks over a 72-h period and measured with cortical electrodes. Evoked hemodynamic responses were measured simultaneously with optical techniques using three light-emitting diodes, and a photodiode. Animals were housed in separate 30×30×80 cm enclosures, tethered to a commutator system and maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. Seven adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Following a 24-h baseline recording, sleep deprivation was initiated for 0 to 10 h by gentle handling, followed by a 24-h recovery sleep recording. Evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses were measured before, during, and after sleep deprivation. Following deprivation, evoked hemodynamic amplitudes were blunted. Steady-state oxyhemoglobin concentration increased during deprivation and remained high during the initial recovery period before returning to baseline levels after approximately 9-h. Sleep deprivation resulted in blood vessel expansion and decreased compliance while lower basal neural activity during recovery sleep may allow blood vessel compliance to recover. Chronic sleep restriction or sleep deprivation could push the vasculature to critical levels, limiting blood delivery, and leading to metabolic deficits with the potential for neural trauma.
Hafner, Marco; Stepanek, Martin; Taylor, Jirka; Troxel, Wendy M.; van Stolk, Christian
Abstract The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States has declared insufficient sleep a “public health problem.” Indeed, according to a recent CDC study, more than a third of American adults are not getting enough sleep on a regular basis. However, insufficient sleep is not exclusively a US problem, and equally concerns other industrialised countries such as the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, or Canada. According to some evidence, the proportion of people sleeping less than the recommended hours of