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Sample records for activity sleep psychiatric

  1. Sleep disturbances in a clinical forensic psychiatric population

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Karsten, Julie; de Weerd, Al; Lancel, Marike

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Poor sleep is known to cause detrimental effects on the course of diverse psychiatric disorders and is a putative risk factor for hostility and aggression. Thus, sleep may be crucial in forensic psychiatric practice. However, little is known about the prevalence of sleep disturbances in t

  2. The Role of Sleep in Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    Alfano, Candice A.; Gamble, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep problems often comprise core features of psychiatric disorders, inadequate attention has been paid to the complex, reciprocal relationships involved in the early regulation of sleep, emotion, and behavior. In this paper, we review the pediatric literature examining sleep in children with primary psychiatric disorders as well as…

  3. Sleep in psychiatric disorders: where are we now?

    Kyung Lee, Elliott; Douglass, Alan B

    2010-07-01

    Although the precise function of sleep is unknown, decades of research strongly implicate that sleep has a vital role in central nervous system (CNS) restoration, memory consolidation, and affect regulation. Slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been of significant interest to psychiatrists; SWS because of its putative role in CNS energy recuperation and cognitive function, and REM sleep because of its suggested involvement in memory, mood regulation, and possible emotional adaptation. With the advent of the polysomnogram, researchers are now beginning to understand some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. The same neurochemistry that controls the sleep-wake cycle has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous psychiatric disorders. Thus it is no surprise that several psychiatric disorders have prominent sleep symptoms. This review will summarize normal sleep architecture, and then examine sleep abnormalities and comorbid sleep disorders seen in schizophrenia, as well as anxiety, cognitive, and substance abuse disorders.

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea: management considerations in psychiatric patients

    Heck T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taryn Heck,1 Monica Zolezzi21Pharmacy Department, University of Alberta Hospital, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 2Clinical Pharmacy and Practice, College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, QatarAbstract: Psychiatric disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA are often comorbid. However, there is limited information on the impact of psychotropic medications on OSA symptoms, on how to manage psychiatric pharmacotherapy in patients presenting with OSA, or on the effectiveness and challenges of OSA treatments in patients with comorbid mental illness. As such, the objective of this article is to provide an overview of some epidemiological aspects of OSA and treatment considerations in the management of OSA in individuals with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Predefined keywords were used to search for relevant literature in electronic databases. Data show that OSA is particularly prevalent in patients with psychiatric disorders. The medical care that patients with these comorbidities require can be challenging, as some of the psychiatric medications used by these patients may exacerbate OSA symptoms. As such, continuous positive airway pressure continues to be the first-line treatment, even in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. However, more controlled studies are required, particularly to determine continuous positive airway pressure compliance in patients with mental illness, the impact of treating OSA on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of the use of psychotropic medications on OSA symptoms.Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea, psychiatric disorders, comorbidity, psychotropic medications

  5. Sleep ameliorating effects of acupuncture in a psychiatric population

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Lim, S.; Egger, J.I.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    The interest of psychiatric patients for complementary medicine, such as acupuncture, is stable, but effect studies in psychiatry remain scarce. In this pilot study, the effects of 3 months of acupuncture treatment on sleep were evaluated and compared between a group of patients with schizophrenia (

  6. Sleep Ameliorating Effects of Acupuncture in a Psychiatric Population

    Bosch, Peggy; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; van den Noort, Maurits; Lim, Sabina; Egger, Jos; Coenen, Anton

    2013-01-01

    The interest of psychiatric patients for complementary medicine, such as acupuncture, is stable, but effect studies in psychiatry remain scarce. In this pilot study, the effects of 3 months of acupuncture treatment on sleep were evaluated and compared between a group of patients with schizophrenia (n = 16) and a group with depression (n = 16). Healthy controls were included in order to establish reference values (n = 8). Patients with schizophrenia and depression were randomly assigned to either a waiting list or a treatment condition. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory was completed before and after the acupuncture treatment (individualized and according to traditional Chinese medicine principles) or the waiting list condition. Both acupuncture groups showed significant lower scores on the sleep inventory, which was not the case for the waiting list condition. Moreover, it was found that the effectiveness of the acupuncture treatment was higher in the patients with schizophrenia than in the patients with depression. Acupuncture seems able to improve sleep in this convenient sample of patients with long-lasting psychiatric problems and may be a suitable and cost-effective add-on treatment for this group, particularly if conducted group-wise. PMID:23781273

  7. Sleep Ameliorating Effects of Acupuncture in a Psychiatric Population

    Peggy Bosch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest of psychiatric patients for complementary medicine, such as acupuncture, is stable, but effect studies in psychiatry remain scarce. In this pilot study, the effects of 3 months of acupuncture treatment on sleep were evaluated and compared between a group of patients with schizophrenia (n=16 and a group with depression (n=16. Healthy controls were included in order to establish reference values (n=8. Patients with schizophrenia and depression were randomly assigned to either a waiting list or a treatment condition. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory was completed before and after the acupuncture treatment (individualized and according to traditional Chinese medicine principles or the waiting list condition. Both acupuncture groups showed significant lower scores on the sleep inventory, which was not the case for the waiting list condition. Moreover, it was found that the effectiveness of the acupuncture treatment was higher in the patients with schizophrenia than in the patients with depression. Acupuncture seems able to improve sleep in this convenient sample of patients with long-lasting psychiatric problems and may be a suitable and cost-effective add-on treatment for this group, particularly if conducted group-wise.

  8. Relationships of sleep duration with sociodemographic and health-related factors, psychiatric disorders and sleep disturbances in a community sample of Korean adults.

    Park, Subin; Cho, Maeng Je; Chang, Sung Man; Bae, Jae Nam; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Soo; Chung, In-Won; Ahn, Joon Ho; Lee, Hae Woo; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine relationships of sleep duration with sociodemographic and health-related factors, psychiatric disorders and sleep disturbances in a nationwide sample in Korea. A total of 6510 subjects aged 18-64 years participated in this study. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the covariates, psychiatric disorders and sleep disturbances across the following sleep duration categories: 5 h or less, 6, 7, 8 and 9 h or more per day. Low levels of education, unemployment and physical illness were associated with sleeping for 5 h or less and 9 h or more. Being older and widowed/divorced/separated, high levels of physical activity, pain/discomfort, obesity and high scores on the General Health Questionnaires were associated with sleeping for 5 h or less. Female, being younger and underweight were associated with sleeping for 9 h or more. Alcohol dependence, anxiety disorder and social phobia were associated significantly with sleeping for 5 h or less and 9 h or more. Other psychiatric disorders were more common in subjects who slept for 5 h or less (e.g. alcohol use disorder, mood disorder, major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and specific phobia) or 9 h or more (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder). In addition, subjects who slept for 5 h or less reported more sleep disturbances than did subjects who slept for 7 h. Short or long sleep is associated with psychiatric disorders and/or sleep disturbance, therefore attention to the mental health of short or long sleepers is needed.

  9. Sleep and its importance in adolescence and in common adolescent somatic and psychiatric conditions

    Br

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand1, Roumen Kirov21Depression and Sleep Research Unit, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Institute of Neurobiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, BulgariaThe authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Restoring sleep is strongly associated with a better physical, cognitive, and psychological well-being. By contrast, poor or disordered sleep is related to impairment of cognitive and psychological functioning and worsened physical health. These associations are well documented not only in adults but also in children and adolescents. Importantly, adolescence is hallmarked by dramatic maturational changes in sleep and its neurobiological regulation, hormonal status, and many psychosocial and physical processes. Thus, the role of sleep in mental and physical health during adolescence and in adolescent patients is complex. However, it has so far received little attention. This review first presents contemporary views about the complex neurobiology of sleep and its functions with important implications for adolescence. Second, existing complex relationships between common adolescent somatic/organic, sleep-related, and psychiatric disorders and certain sleep alterations are discussed. It is concluded that poor or altered sleep in adolescent patients may trigger and maintain many psychiatric and physical disorders or combinations of these conditions, which presumably hinder recovery and may cross into later stages of life. Therefore, timely diagnosis and management of sleep problems appear critical for growth and development in adolescent patients.Keywords: cognitive, psychological, neurobiology, growth, development, sleep physiology, rapid eye movement, non-REM sleep, behavioral disorders, adolescents

  10. Association between sleep quality and psychiatric disorders in patients with subjective tinnitus in China.

    Xu, Yaping; Yao, Jie; Zhang, Zhili; Wang, Wenxuan

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to investigate the relationship between quality of sleep and psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression in patients with subjective tinnitus. Early intervention is associated with improved therapeutic outcomes. We used Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), self-rating depression scale (SDS) and tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) in 543 patients [224 male (41.3 %); 319 female (58.7 %)] with subjective tinnitus enrolled in the ENT outpatient clinic from 2013 to 2015. Tinnitus characteristics and hearing status were recorded. A binary step-wise logistic regression analysis was performed. Two hundred cases (36.8 %) including 65 men (32.5 %) and 135 women (67.5 %) were diagnosed with sleep disorders. The PSQI score was the highest in patients with anxiety plus depression. Prolonged sleep latency and daytime dysfunction were positively associated with anxiety and depression. Increased sleep latency score was associated with 1.521- and 1.667-fold increased risk of anxiety and depression. Increase in the daytime dysfunction score was associated with 1.941- and 1.477-fold increases in the risk of anxiety and depression, respectively. Psychiatric and sleep disorders are highly prevalent in patients with subjective tinnitus. The most severe sleep impairment was found in patients with anxiety plus depression, resulting from prolonged sleep latency and severe daytime dysfunction. Acute duration, young people, hearing loss, impaired sleep, and severity of tinnitus were the major risk factors for tinnitus accompanied with anxiety symptoms. Severity of tinnitus and sleep impairment appeared to be the major risk factors of tinnitus accompanied with depression symptoms.

  11. How Sleep Activates Epileptic Networks?

    Peter Halász

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The relationship between sleep and epilepsy has been long ago studied, and several excellent reviews are available. However, recent development in sleep research, the network concept in epilepsy, and the recognition of high frequency oscillations in epilepsy and more new results may put this matter in a new light. Aim. The review address the multifold interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy networks and with networks of cognitive functions. Material and Methods. The work is a conceptual update of the available clinical data and relevant studies. Results and Conclusions. Studies exploring dynamic microstructure of sleep have found important gating mechanisms for epileptic activation. As a general rule interictal epileptic manifestations seem to be linked to the slow oscillations of sleep and especially to the reactive delta bouts characterized by A1 subtype in the CAP system. Important link between epilepsy and sleep is the interference of epileptiform discharges with the plastic functions in NREM sleep. This is the main reason of cognitive impairment in different forms of early epileptic encephalopathies affecting the brain in a special developmental window. The impairment of cognitive functions via sleep is present especially in epileptic networks involving the thalamocortical system and the hippocampocortical memory encoding system.

  12. [Physical activities, psychiatric care and mental health].

    Davanture, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    At Ville-Evrard psychiatric hospital, sports activities are used as one of several therapeutic tools. The day-long multi-sport sessions, led notably by a nurse, form part of the care programme. Sport not only enables the patients to exert themselves, it is above all a form of therapeutic mediation which encourages verbal and non-verbal communication.

  13. Opposite Impact of REM Sleep on Neurobehavioral Functioning in Children with Common Psychiatric Disorders Compared to Typically Developing Children

    Kirov, Roumen; Brand, Serge; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2017-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been shown to be related to many adaptive cognitive and behavioral functions. However, its precise functions are still elusive, particularly in developmental psychiatric disorders. The present study aims at investigating associations between polysomnographic (PSG) REM sleep measurements and neurobehavioral functions in children with common developmental psychiatric conditions compared to typically developing children (TDC). Twenty-four children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 21 with Tourette syndrome/tic disorder (TD), 21 with ADHD/TD comorbidity, and 22 TDC, matched for age and gender, underwent a two-night PSG, and their psychopathological scores and intelligence quotient (IQ) were assessed. Major PSG findings showed more REM sleep and shorter REM latency in the children with psychiatric disorders than in the TDC. Multiple regression analyses revealed that in groups with developmental psychopathology, REM sleep proportion correlated positively with scores of inattention and negatively with performance IQ. In contrast, in the group of TDC, REM sleep proportion correlated negatively with scores of inattention and positively with performance IQ. Whilst shorter REM latency was associated with greater inattention scores in children with psychopathology, no such an association existed in the group of TDC. Altogether, these results indicate an opposite impact of REM sleep on neurobehavioral functioning, related to presence or absence of developmental psychiatric disorders. Our findings suggest that during development, REM sleep functions may interact dissimilarly with different pathways of brain maturation.

  14. Impact of Sleep and Its Disturbances on Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity

    Marcella Balbo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The daily rhythm of cortisol secretion is relatively stable and primarily under the influence of the circadian clock. Nevertheless, several other factors affect hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. Sleep has modest but clearly detectable modulatory effects on HPA axis activity. Sleep onset exerts an inhibitory effect on cortisol secretion while awakenings and sleep offset are accompanied by cortisol stimulation. During waking, an association between cortisol secretory bursts and indices of central arousal has also been detected. Abrupt shifts of the sleep period induce a profound disruption in the daily cortisol rhythm, while sleep deprivation and/or reduced sleep quality seem to result in a modest but functionally important activation of the axis. HPA hyperactivity is clearly associated with metabolic, cognitive and psychiatric disorders and could be involved in the well-documented associations between sleep disturbances and the risk of obesity, diabetes and cognitive dysfunction. Several clinical syndromes, such as insomnia, depression, Cushing's syndrome, sleep disordered breathing (SDB display HPA hyperactivity, disturbed sleep, psychiatric and metabolic impairments. Further research to delineate the functional links between sleep and HPA axis activity is needed to fully understand the pathophysiology of these syndromes and to develop adequate strategies of prevention and treatment.

  15. Forebrain activation in REM sleep: an FDG PET study.

    Nofzinger, E A; Mintun, M A; Wiseman, M; Kupfer, D J; Moore, R Y

    1997-10-03

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a behavioral state characterized by cerebral cortical activation with dreaming as an associated behavior. The brainstem mechanisms involved in the generation of REM sleep are well-known, but the forebrain mechanisms that might distinguish it from waking are not well understood. We report here a positron emission tomography (PET) study of regional cerebral glucose utilization in the human forebrain during REM sleep in comparison to waking in six healthy adult females using the 18F-deoxyglucose method. In REM sleep, there is relative activation, shown by increased glucose utilization, in phylogenetically old limbic and paralimbic regions which include the lateral hypothalamic area, amygdaloid complex, septal-ventral striatal areas, and infralimbic, prelimbic, orbitofrontal, cingulate, entorhinal and insular cortices. The largest area of activation is a bilateral, confluent paramedian zone which extends from the septal area into ventral striatum, infralimbic, prelimbic, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. There are only small and scattered areas of apparent deactivation. These data suggest that an important function of REM sleep is the integration of neocortical function with basal forebrain-hypothalamic motivational and reward mechanisms. This is in accordance with views that alterations in REM sleep in psychiatric disorders, such as depression, may reflect dysregulation in limbic and paralimbic structures.

  16. Parasympathetic nervous system activity and children's sleep.

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Erath, Stephen A; Bagley, Erika J

    2013-06-01

    We examined indices of children's parasympathetic nervous system activity (PNS), including respiratory sinus arrhythmia during baseline (RSAB) and RSA reactivity (RSAR), to a laboratory challenge, and importantly the interaction between RSAB and RSAR as predictors of multiple parameters of children's sleep. Lower RSAR denotes increased vagal withdrawal (reductions in RSA between baseline and task) and higher RSAR represents decreased vagal withdrawal or augmentation (increases in RSA between baseline and task). A community sample of school-attending children (121 boys and 103 girls) participated [mean age = 10.41 years; standard deviation (SD) = 0.67]. Children's sleep parameters were examined through actigraphy for 7 consecutive nights. Findings demonstrate that RSAB and RSAR interact to predict multiple sleep quality parameters (activity, minutes awake after sleep onset and long wake episodes). The overall pattern of effects illustrates that children who exhibit more disrupted sleep (increased activity, more minutes awake after sleep onset and more frequent long wake episodes) are those with lower RSAB in conjunction with lower RSAR. This combination of low RSAB and low RSAR probably reflects increased autonomic nervous system arousal, which interferes with sleep. Results illustrate the importance of individual differences in physiological regulation indexed by interactions between PNS baseline activity and PNS reactivity for a better understanding of children's sleep quality.

  17. Sleep apnea in active acromegaly.

    Hart, T B; Radow, S K; Blackard, W G; Tucker, H S; Cooper, K R

    1985-05-01

    Previous case reports have shown an association between acromegaly and the sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). Some of the patients described had central SAS, raising the possibility that an elevation of the growth hormone (GH) level may cause a defect in respiratory drive. We determined the prevalence of SAS in 21 patients with a history of acromegaly. We separated them into two groups based on serum GH concentrations. Ten patients had active acromegaly (mean GH concentration, 62.2 ng/mL; range, 12.6 to 148 ng/mL), while 11 patients had inactive acromegaly (mean GH, 3.2 ng/mL; range, 0.7 to 6.4 ng/mL). Four of the ten patients with active acromegaly had SAS; none of the 11 patients with inactive acromegaly had SAS. Three patients with SAS had the purely obstructive type, and one had the mixed central and obstructive type. The hypercapnic ventilatory response was normal in all patients tested and was not influenced by the GH level. We conclude that SAS is associated with active acromegaly and that the GH level does not affect the hypercapnic ventilatory response. The absence of SAS in successfully treated patients suggests that it may resolve after a normal GH level is restored.

  18. The Effect of Psychiatric Rehabilitation on the Activity and Participation Level of Clients with Long-Term Psychiatric Disabilities

    Wel, Tom van; Felling, Albert; Persoon, Jean

    2003-01-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century, many psychiatric hospitals changed the living environments of their clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities. We investigated the effect of this environmental psychiatric rehabilitation and normalization process on the activity and participation le

  19. The effect of psychiatric rehabilitation on the activity and participation level of clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities

    Wel, T.F. van; Felling, A.J.A.; Persoon, J.M.G.

    2003-01-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century, many psychiatric hospitals changed the living environments of their clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities. We investigated the effect of this environmental psychiatric rehabilitation and normalization process on the activity and participation le

  20. Purposeful Activity in Psychiatric Rehabilitation: Is Neurogenesis a Key Player?

    Joyce Siu-Chong Cheung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis, defined as the generation of new neurons in adulthood, has been a fascinating discovery in neuroscience, as the continuously replenishing neuronal population provides a new perspective to understand neuroplasticity. Besides maintaining normal physiological function, neurogenesis also plays a key role in pathophysiology and symptomatology for psychiatric conditions. In the past decades, extensive effort has been spent on the understanding of the functional significance of neurogenesis in psychiatric conditions, mechanisms of pharmacological treatment, and discovery of novel drug candidates for different conditions. In a clinical situation, however, long-term rehabilitation treatment, in which occupational therapy is the key discipline, is a valuable, economical, and commonly used treatment alternative to psychotropic medications. Surprisingly, comparatively few studies have investigated the biological and neurogenic effects of different psychiatric rehabilitative treatments. To address the possible linkage between psychiatric rehabilitation and neurogenesis, this review discusses the role of neurogenesis in schizophrenia, major depression, and anxiety disorders. The review also discusses the potential neurogenic effect of currently used psychiatric rehabilitation treatments. With a better understanding of the biological effect of psychiatric rehabilitation methods and future translational studies, it is hoped that the therapeutic effect of psychiatric rehabilitation methods could be explained with a novel perspective. Furthermore, this knowledge will benefit future formulation of treatment methods, especially purposeful activities in occupational therapy, for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

  1. The melatonergic system: effects on sleep and implications for the treatment of psychiatric disorders

    De Berardis D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Domenico De Berardis1,2, Tiziano Acciavatti1, Giuseppe Di Iorio1, Mariangela Corbo1, Nicola Serroni2, Daniela Campanella2, Fabiola Di Emidio2, Monica Piersanti3, Marilde Cavuto4, Giovanni Martinotti5, Francesco Saverio Moschetta2, Massimo Di Giannantonio11Department of Neurosciences and Imaging, Chair of Psychiatry, University “G. D'Annunzio”, Chieti; 2NHS, Department of Mental Health, Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and Treatment, Hospital “G. Mazzini”; 3NHS, Pharmaceutical Service, Hospital “G. Mazzini”, Teramo; 4IASM, L'Aquila; 5Institute of Psychiatry, Catholic University Medical School, Rome, ItalyAbstract: The circadian pacemaker or biological clock, located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, is the generation site of circadian rhythms. The light/dark cycle is the circadian pacemaker's dominant synchronizing agent, though it is also influenced by neurotransmitters and the phase-shifting effects of various chemical and pharmacological components, of which melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine is the most well established. In recent years, melatonin and melatonin analogs have been commercialized in many countries, mainly with hypnotic purposes. A new compound, agomelatine, has been recently synthesized and studied. Among melatonin analogs, this drug possesses unique pharmacological and clinical features; it is an antagonist at 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors and has well established antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Agomelatine opens new perspectives in the chronobiotic treatment of depression. The purpose of the present review was to elucidate the effects of the melatonergic system on sleep and the implications for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.Keywords: melatonin, agomelatine, circadian rhythms, depression

  2. Prevalence and illness beliefs of sleep paralysis among Chinese psychiatric patients in China and the United States.

    Yeung, Albert; Xu, Yong; Chang, Doris F

    2005-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence and illness beliefs of sleep paralysis (SP) among Chinese patients in a psychiatric out-patient clinic, consecutive Chinese/Chinese-American patients who attended psychiatric out-patient clinics in Boston and Shanghai were asked about their lifetime prevalence, personal experience and perceptions regarding the causes, precipitating factors, consequences, and help-seeking of SP. During the 4-month study period, 42 non-psychotic psychiatric out-patients from the Boston site and 150 patients from the Shanghai site were interviewed. The prevalence of SP was found to be 26.2% in Boston and 23.3% in Shanghai. Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or panic disorder reported a higher prevalence of SP than did patients without these disorders. Patients attributed SP to fatigue, stress, and other psychosocial factors. Although the experience has traditionally been labeled 'ghost oppression' among the Chinese, only two patients, one from each site, endorsed supernatural causes of their SP. Sleep paralysis is common among Chinese psychiatric out-patients. The endorsement of supernatural explanations for SP is rare among contemporary Chinese patients.

  3. Sleep paralysis and trauma, psychiatric symptoms and disorders in an adult African American population attending primary medical care.

    Mellman, Thomas A; Aigbogun, Notalelomwan; Graves, Ruth Elaine; Lawson, William B; Alim, Tanya N

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of sleep paralysis (SP) absent narcolepsy appears to not be uncommon in African Americans and probably other non-European groups. Prior research has linked SP to trauma and psychiatric disorders and suggested a specific relationship to panic disorder in African Americans. The objective of our study was to evaluate relationships of SP with trauma, concurrent psychiatric symptoms and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in an adult African American population recruited from primary care. Cross sectional study with surveys and diagnostic interviews; Patients attending primary care clinics filled out a survey that determined the 6 month prevalence and associated features of SP, a panic disorder screen, the self-rated Hamilton Depression Scale, and an inventory of trauma exposure. A subset of trauma-exposed participants (N = 142) received comprehensive diagnostic interviews that incorporated the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Clinician Assessed PTSD Scale. Four hundred and forty-one adults participated (mean age-40.0 SD = 13.3, 68% female, 95% African American). Fourteen percent endorsed recent SP. In approximately 1/3 of those with SP, episodes also featured panic symptoms. SP was strongly associated with trauma history, and concurrent anxiety and mood symptoms. SP was not associated with specific psychiatric disorders other than lifetime (but not current) alcohol or substance use disorders. Our findings suggest that SP is not uncommon in adult African Americans and is associated with trauma and concurrent distress but not with a specific psychiatric diagnosis.

  4. Investigation on the sleep quality of psychiatric nurses%精神科护士睡眠质量调查分析

    廖湘交; 罗丽新; 谢志妹

    2014-01-01

    目的了解精神科护士的睡眠质量。方法采用匹兹堡睡眠指数量表(PSQI)对在本院精神科工作的174名护士进行调查。结果40.2%的护士存在睡眠质量问题;女性睡眠障碍因子分高于男性,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);治疗组的睡眠总分及各因子分均明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.01)。结论精神科护士睡眠质量差,女性更易发生睡眠障碍,发生睡眠障碍的护士其总体睡眠质量及睡眠的各个环节均受影响。%Objective To investigate the sleep quality of psychiatric nurses.Methods Totally 174 psychiatric nurses on clinical front line were investigated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI).Results There were 40.2% psychiatric nurses with bad sleep quality;The factor scores of sleep disorder of female nurses were significantly higher than those of male nurses(P <0.05).The factor scores and total scores of PSQI in the observer group were much higher than those in the control group,showed marked significance(P <0.01).Conclusion Psychiatric nurses had poor sleep quality;Female nurses got sleep disorder easier than male nurses;The whole sleep quality and all sleep parts of psychiatric nurses with poor sleep quality were af-fected.

  5. Assessment of the EEG complexity during activations from sleep.

    Chouvarda, I; Rosso, V; Mendez, M O; Bianchi, A M; Parrino, L; Grassi, A; Terzano, M; Cerutti, S

    2011-12-01

    The present study quantitatively analyzes the EEG characteristics during activations (Act) that occur during NREM sleep, and constitute elements of sleep microstructure (i.e. the Cyclic Alternating Pattern). The fractal dimension (FD) and the sample entropy (SampEn) measures were used to study the different sleep stages and the Act that build up the sleep structure. Polysomnographic recordings from 10 good sleepers were analyzed. The complexity indexes of the Act were compared with the non-activation (NAct) periods during non-REM sleep. In addition, complexity measures among the different Act subtypes (A1, A2 and A3) were analyzed. A3 presented a quite similar complexity independently of the sleep stage, while A1 and A2 showed higher complexity in light sleep than during deep sleep. The current results suggest that Act present a hierarchic complexity between subtypes A3 (higher), A2 (intermediate) and A1 (lower) in all sleep stages.

  6. Sleep and activity rhythms in mice: a description of circadian patterns and unexpected disruptions in sleep.

    Mitler, M M; Lund, R; Sokolove, P G; Pittendrigh, C S; Dement, W C

    1977-08-05

    Studies on daily and circadian rhythms in wheel running and electrographically defined wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep in M. musculus were done to gather data on the temporal distribution of activity and sleep. Generally, peaks in NREM and sleep tended to coincide and to alternate with the coincident peaks of wakefulness and wheel running. However, during the active phase of the circadian wheel running cycle some NREM and REM sleep did occur; conversely, during its rest phase, wakefulness was often present. The most striking finding was that in mice with clearly entrained or free-running activity onsets, the circadian peak-through patterns in wakefulness, NREM, and REM sleep were not always distinct--they could be damped and/or polyphasic. Several explanations of these phenomena are considered.

  7. Neuronal activity in the preoptic hypothalamus during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep.

    Alam, Md Aftab; Kumar, Sunil; McGinty, Dennis; Alam, Md Noor; Szymusiak, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    The preoptic hypothalamus is implicated in sleep regulation. Neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) have been identified as potential sleep regulatory elements. However, the extent to which MnPO and VLPO neurons are activated in response to changing homeostatic sleep regulatory demands is unresolved. To address this question, we continuously recorded the extracellular activity of neurons in the rat MnPO, VLPO and dorsal lateral preoptic area (LPO) during baseline sleep and waking, during 2 h of sleep deprivation (SD) and during 2 h of recovery sleep (RS). Sleep-active neurons in the MnPO (n = 11) and VLPO (n = 13) were activated in response to SD, such that waking discharge rates increased by 95.8 ± 29.5% and 59.4 ± 17.3%, respectively, above waking baseline values. During RS, non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep discharge rates of MnPO neurons initially increased to 65.6 ± 15.2% above baseline values, then declined to baseline levels in association with decreases in EEG delta power. Increase in non-REM sleep discharge rates in VLPO neurons during RS averaged 40.5 ± 7.6% above baseline. REM-active neurons (n = 16) in the LPO also exhibited increased waking discharge during SD and an increase in non-REM discharge during RS. Infusion of A2A adenosine receptor antagonist into the VLPO attenuated SD-induced increases in neuronal discharge. Populations of LPO wake/REM-active and state-indifferent neurons and dorsal LPO sleep-active neurons were unresponsive to SD. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep-active neurons in the MnPO and VLPO, and REM-active neurons in the LPO, are components of neuronal circuits that mediate homeostatic responses to sustained wakefulness.

  8. Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and sleep/wake patterns of Japanese elementary school children.

    Oka, Yasunori; Suzuki, Shuhei; Inoue, Yuich

    2008-01-01

    Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and their impact on sleep/wake patterns were assessed in 509 elementary school children (6-12 years of age; 252 males and 257 females). Television viewing, playing video games, and surfing the Internet had negative impact on sleep/wake parameters. Moreover, presence of a television set or video game in the child's bedroom increased their activity before bedtime. Time to return home later than 8 p.m. from after-school activity also had a negative impact on sleep/wake patterns. Health care practitioners should be aware of the potential negative impact of television, video games, and the Internet before bedtime, and also the possibility that late after-school activity can disturb sleep/wake patterns.

  9. Temporal associations between daytime physical activity and sleep in children.

    Anu-Katriina Pesonen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We examined temporal associations between objectively-measured physical activity (PA during the day and in the evening, and sleep quantity and quality. STUDY DESIGN: PA and sleep were measured by actigraphs for an average of one week in an epidemiological cohort study of 275 eight-year-old children. RESULTS: For each one standard deviation (SD unit of increased PA during the day, sleep duration was decreased by 0.30, sleep efficiency by 0.16, and sleep fragmentation increased by 0.08 SD units that night. For each one SD unit increase in sleep duration and efficiency the preceding night, PA the following day decreased by 0.09 and 0.16 SD units, respectively. When we contrasted days with a high amount of moderate to vigorous activity during the day or in the evening to days with a more sedentary profile, the results were essentially similar. However, moderate to vigorous PA in the evening shortened sleep latency. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between a higher level of PA and poorer sleep is bidirectional. These within-person findings challenge epidemiological findings showing that more active people report better sleep. Since only a few studies using objective measurements of both PA and sleep have been conducted in children, further studies are needed to confirm/refute these results.

  10. Case Study: Psychiatric Misdiagnosis of Non-24-Hours Sleep-Wake Schedule Disorder Resolved by Melatonin

    Dagan, Yaron; Ayalon, Liat

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes a 14-year-old male suffering from significant academic and personal difficulties, who has been diagnosed with depression, schizotypal personality disorder, and learning disabilities. Because of excessive sleepiness, assessment for a potential sleep disorder was performed. An overnight polysomnographic study revealed no…

  11. Structural Determinants of Sleeping Beauty Transposase Activity.

    Abrusán, György; Yant, Stephen R; Szilágyi, András; Marsh, Joseph A; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Barabás, Orsolya; Ivics, Zoltán

    2016-08-01

    Transposases are important tools in genome engineering, and there is considerable interest in engineering more efficient ones. Here, we seek to understand the factors determining their activity using the Sleeping Beauty transposase. Recent work suggests that protein coevolutionary information can be used to classify groups of physically connected, coevolving residues into elements called "sectors", which have proven useful for understanding the folding, allosteric interactions, and enzymatic activity of proteins. Using extensive mutagenesis data, protein modeling and analysis of folding energies, we show that (i) The Sleeping Beauty transposase contains two sectors, which span across conserved domains, and are enriched in DNA-binding residues, indicating that the DNA binding and endonuclease functions of the transposase coevolve; (ii) Sector residues are highly sensitive to mutations, and most mutations of these residues strongly reduce transposition rate; (iii) Mutations with a strong effect on free energy of folding in the DDE domain of the transposase significantly reduce transposition rate. (iv) Mutations that influence DNA and protein-protein interactions generally reduce transposition rate, although most hyperactive mutants are also located on the protein surface, including residues with protein-protein interactions. This suggests that hyperactivity results from the modification of protein interactions, rather than the stabilization of protein fold.

  12. 精神科医护人员睡眠质量对照分析%Comparative study on the sleep quality of psychiatric medical staff

    廖湘交; 罗丽新; 谢志妹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sleep quality of psychiatric medical staff. Methods Totally 237 psychiatric medical staff of psychiatric clinical of Psychiatric Hospital of Guangzhou Civil Administration were selected by a cluster sampling method,and they were investigated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI). Results There were 84 psychiatric doctors and nurses whose PSQI scores was over 7(35. 4% ). The scores of sleep factor disorder of female staff were higher than those of male. The score of day-time functional factor of the stuff who worked less than 10 years was higher than those who worked less than 10 years. The score of sleep efficiency factor of the psychiatric staff with level of education in the college here were higher than those of the psychiatric staffs with level of education in undergraduate course or above. The nurses needed more time to sleep than the doctors(t = - 2. 107,1. 994, 2. 609,- 2. 529,P 7分者有84人(35.4%);女性睡眠障碍因子评分高于男性,工龄10年者,受教育程度在大专以下者睡眠效率因子分高于本科以上者,护士入睡时间比医生长,差异均有统计学意义(t =-2.107,1.994,2.609,-2.529,P 均<0.05);护士 PSQI 总评分高于医生,差异有统计学意义(t =-2.667,P<0.01);护士睡眠效率较医生差,差异有统计学意义( t =-3.595,P <0.01)。结论精神科医护人员睡眠质量差,女性更容易发生睡眠障碍,工龄短者日间功能易受影响,受教育程度低者睡眠效率差,护士入睡时间长,睡眠质量较医生差。

  13. Slow Activity in Focal Epilepsy During Sleep and Wakefulness

    Pellegrino, Giovanni; Tombini, Mario; Curcio, Giuseppe;

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to test differences between healthy subjects and patients with respect to slow wave activity during wakefulness and sleep. Methods Fifteen patients affected by nonlesional focal epilepsy originating within temporal areas and fourteen matched controls underwent a 24-hour EEG...... recording. We studied the EEG power spectral density during wakefulness and sleep in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (5-7 Hz), alpha (8-11 Hz), sigma (12-15 Hz), and beta (16-20 Hz) bands. Results During sleep, patients with focal epilepsy showed higher power from delta to beta frequency bands compared with controls...... was the delta band during the first 2 sleep cycles (sleep cycle 1, P = .014; sleep cycle 2, P = .002). During wakefulness, patients showed higher delta/theta activity over the affected regions compared with controls. Conclusions Patients with focal epilepsy showed a pattern of power increases characterized...

  14. Sleep

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Sleep: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is sleep? Sleep is a period of unconsciousness during which ...

  15. Chronotype influences activity circadian rhythm and sleep: differences in sleep quality between weekdays and weekend.

    Vitale, Jacopo A; Roveda, Eliana; Montaruli, Angela; Galasso, Letizia; Weydahl, Andi; Caumo, Andrea; Carandente, Franca

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have shown the differences among chronotypes in the circadian rhythm of different physiological variables. Individuals show variation in their preference for the daily timing of activity; additionally, there is an association between chronotype and sleep duration/sleep complaints. Few studies have investigated sleep quality during the week days and weekends in relation to the circadian typology using self-assessment questionnaires or actigraphy. The purpose of this study was to use actigraphy to assess the relationship between the three chronotypes and the circadian rhythm of activity levels and to determine whether sleep parameters respond differently with respect to time (weekdays versus the weekend) in Morning-types (M-types), Neither-types (N-types) and Evening-types (E-types). The morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ) was administered to 502 college students to determine their chronotypes. Fifty subjects (16 M-types, 15 N-types and 19 E-types) were recruited to undergo a 7-days monitoring period with an actigraph (Actiwacth® actometers, CNT, Cambridge, UK) to evaluate their sleep parameters and the circadian rhythm of their activity levels. To compare the amplitude and the acrophase among the three chronotypes, we used a one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. To compare the Midline Estimating Statistic of Rhythm (MESOR) among the three chronotypes, we used a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test followed by pairwise comparisons that were performed using Dunn's procedure with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The analysis of each sleep parameter was conducted using the mixed ANOVA procedure. The results showed that the chronotype was influenced by sex (χ(2) with p = 0.011) and the photoperiod at birth (χ(2) with p sleep parameters: Sleep end, Assumed Sleep, Immobility Time and Sleep Efficiency. Sleep Efficiency showed the same patterns as did Assumed Sleep and Immobility Time: the Sleep

  16. Sleeping dendrites: fiber-optic measurements of dendritic calcium activity in freely moving and sleeping animals

    Julie Seibt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendrites are the post-synaptic sites of most excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the brain, making them the main location of cortical information processing and synaptic plasticity. Although current hypotheses suggest a central role for sleep in proper cognitive function and brain plasticity, virtually nothing is known about changes in dendritic activity across the sleep-wake cycle and how waking experience modifies this activity. To start addressing these questions, we developed a method that allows long-term recordings of EEGs/EMG combined with in vivo cortical calcium (Ca2+ activity in freely moving and sleeping rats. We measured Ca2+ activity from populations of dendrites of layer (L 5 pyramidal neurons (n = 13 rats that we compared with Ca2+ activity from populations of neurons in L2/3 (n = 11 rats. L5 and L2/3 neurons were labelled using bolus injection of OGB1-AM or GCaMP6 (1. Ca2+ signals were detected using a fiber-optic system (cannula diameter = 400µm, transmitting the changes in fluorescence to a photodiode. Ca2+ fluctuations could then be correlated with ongoing changes in brain oscillatory activity during 5 major brain states: active wake [AW], quiet wake [QW], NREM, REM and NREM-REM transition (or intermediate state, [IS]. Our Ca2+ recordings show large transients in L5 dendrites and L2/3 neurons that oscillate predominantly at frequencies In summary, we show that this technique is successful in monitoring fluctuations in ongoing dendritic Ca2+ activity during natural brain states and allows, in principle, to combine behavioral measurement with imaging from various brain regions (e.g. deep structures in freely behaving animals. Using this method, we show that Ca2+ transients from populations of L2/3 neurons and L5 dendrites are deferentially regulated across the sleep/wake cycle, with dendritic activity being the highest during the IS sleep. Our correlation analysis suggests that specific sleep EEG activity during NREM and IS

  17. The role of REM sleep theta activity in emotional memory.

    Hutchison, Isabel C; Rathore, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    While non-REM (NREM) sleep has been strongly implicated in the reactivation and consolidation of memory traces, the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep remains unclear. A growing body of research on humans and animals provide behavioral evidence for a role of REM sleep in the strengthening and modulation of emotional memories. Theta activity-which describes low frequency oscillations in the local field potential within the hippocampus, amygdala and neocortex-is a prominent feature of both wake and REM sleep in humans and rodents. Theta coherence between the hippocampus and amygdala drives large-scale pontine-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves, the density of which predicts increases in plasticity-related gene expression. This could potentially facilitate the processing of emotional memory traces within the hippocampus during REM sleep. Further, the timing of hippocampal activity in relation to theta phase is vital in determining subsequent potentiation of neuronal activity. This could allow the emotionally modulated strengthening of novel and gradual weakening of consolidated hippocampal memory traces during REM sleep. Hippocampal theta activity is also correlated with REM sleep levels of achetylcholine - which is thought to reduce hippocampal inputs in the neocortex. The additional low levels of noradrenaline during REM sleep, which facilitate feedback within the neocortex, could allow the integration of novel memory traces previously consolidated during NREM sleep. We therefore propose that REM sleep mediates the prioritized processing of emotional memories within the hippocampus, the integration of previously consolidated memory traces within the neocortex, as well as the disengagement of consolidated neocortical memory traces from the hippocampus.

  18. Widespread reduction in sleep spindle activity in socially anxious children and adolescents.

    Wilhelm, Ines; Groch, Sabine; Preiss, Andrea; Walitza, Susanne; Huber, Reto

    2017-05-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric diseases typically emerging during childhood and adolescence. Biological vulnerabilities such as a protracted maturation of prefrontal cortex functioning together with heightened reactivity of the limbic system leading to increased emotional reactivity are discussed as factors contributing to the emergence and maintenance of SAD. Sleep slow wave activity (SWA, 0.75-4.5 Hz) and sleep spindle activity (9-16 Hz) reflect processes of brain maturation and emotion regulation. We used high-density electroencephalography to characterize sleep SWA and spindle activity and their relationship to emotional reactivity in children and adolescents suffering from SAD and healthy controls (HC). Subjectively rated arousal was assessed using an emotional picture-word association task. SWA did not differ between socially anxious and healthy participants. We found a widespread reduction in fast spindle activity (13-16 Hz) in SAD patients compared to HC. SAD patients rated negative stimuli to be more arousing and these arousal ratings were negatively correlated with fast spindle activity. These results suggest electrophysiological alterations that are evident at an early stage of psychopathology and that are closely linked to one core symptom of anxiety disorders such as increased emotional reactivity. The role of disturbed GABAergic neurotransmission is discussed as an underlying factor.

  19. Neuroligin-1 links neuronal activity to sleep-wake regulation

    El Helou, Janine; Bélanger-Nelson, Erika; Freyburger, Marlène; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Curie, Thomas; La Spada, Francesco; Gaudreault, Pierre-Olivier; Beaumont, Éric; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric; Frank, Marcos G.; Franken, Paul; Mongrain, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining wakefulness is associated with a progressive increase in the need for sleep. This phenomenon has been linked to changes in synaptic function. The synaptic adhesion molecule Neuroligin-1 (NLG1) controls the activity and synaptic localization of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, which activity is impaired by prolonged wakefulness. We here highlight that this pathway may underlie both the adverse effects of sleep loss on cognition and the subsequent changes in cortical synchrony. We found that the expression of specific Nlg1 transcript variants is changed by sleep deprivation in three mouse strains. These observations were associated with strain-specific changes in synaptic NLG1 protein content. Importantly, we showed that Nlg1 knockout mice are not able to sustain wakefulness and spend more time in nonrapid eye movement sleep than wild-type mice. These changes occurred with modifications in waking quality as exemplified by low theta/alpha activity during wakefulness and poor preference for social novelty, as well as altered delta synchrony during sleep. Finally, we identified a transcriptional pathway that could underlie the sleep/wake-dependent changes in Nlg1 expression and that involves clock transcription factors. We thus suggest that NLG1 is an element that contributes to the coupling of neuronal activity to sleep/wake regulation. PMID:23716671

  20. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation of a new task is inhibited in psychiatric patients.

    Genzel, Lisa; Ali, Elias; Dresler, Martin; Steiger, Axel; Tesfaye, Markos

    2011-04-01

    Schizophrenic and depressive patients show impeded sleep-dependent procedural memory consolidation. But this has been shown mainly for tasks testing the adaptation of old skills. This study tested the overnight memory consolidation of a new task and the transfer of this new skill to a similar task. Using an adapted version of the sequential finger tapping task, keyboard-naïve Ethiopian depressive (n = 8) and schizophrenic (n = 15) patients and healthy controls (n = 11 and n = 17) were tested twice, 24 h apart. In addition the subjects underwent training in a second sequence after the retest of the first sequence. Both schizophrenic and depressive patients did not show a significant overnight change in performance (1% and 4% improvement respectively) in the task and differed significantly from the healthy control groups who did show significant improvement (16% and 22%). Further in contrast to the healthy controls both patients groups showed no significant transfer of the newly acquired skill to the second sequence. This study shows that depressive and schizophrenic patients are not only deficient in the overnight memory consolidation of a new task, but also fail to show a transfer of this new skill to similar tasks.

  1. Masculine sexual activity affects slow wave sleep in Golden hamsters.

    Jiménez-Anguiano, A; Arteaga-Silva, M; Velázquez-Moctezuma, J

    2003-02-15

    The sleep pattern is modified by events occurring during wakefulness. In rats, it has been shown that male sexual behavior has a direct influence on sleeping patterns, increasing slow wave sleep (SWS) duration. On the other hand, the sexual behavior pattern of the male Golden hamster differs from the copulatory pattern of male rats. Male hamsters copulate faster and they do not display the motor inhibition observed in rats after each ejaculation. Moreover, close to exhaustion, hamsters display a behavioral pattern known as Long Intromission, which has been linked to an sexual inhibitory process. The present study was performed to determine the effects of male sexual activity on the sleep pattern in hamsters. Subjects were allowed to copulate for 30 and 60 min. In addition, the effect of locomotor activity was also assessed. The results show that male sexual behavior induced a significant increase of SWS II, with a reduction of wakefulness. No effect was observed on REM sleep. Locomotor activity produced only a slight effect on sleep. The results are discussed in terms of the similarities between the effects observed after sexual behavior on sleep in rats and hamsters, despite the substantial differences in the behavioral pattern.

  2. Sustaining sleep spindles through enhanced SK2 channel activity consolidates sleep and elevates arousal threshold

    Wimmer, Ralf D.; Astori, Simone; Bond, Chris T.; Rovó, Zita; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Adelman, John P.; Franken, Paul; Lüthi, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Sleep spindles are synchronized 11–15 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations predominant during non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS). Rhythmic bursting in the reticular thalamic nucleus (nRt), arising from interplay between Cav3.3-type Ca2+ channels and Ca2+-dependent small-conductance-type 2 (SK2) K+ channels, underlies spindle generation. Correlative evidence indicates that spindles contribute to memory consolidation and protection against environmental noise in human NREMS. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism through which spindle power is selectively extended and we probed the actions of intensified spindling in the naturally sleeping mouse. Using electrophysiological recordings in acute brain slices from SK2 channel-over-expressing (SK2-OE) mice, we found that nRt bursting was potentiated and thalamic circuit oscillations were prolonged. Moreover, nRt cells showed greater resilience to transit from burst to tonic discharge in response to gradual depolarization, mimicking transitions out of NREMS. Compared to wild-type littermates, chronic EEG recordings of SK2-OE mice contained less fragmented NREMS, while the NREMS EEG power spectrum was conserved. Furthermore, EEG spindle activity was prolonged at NREMS exit. Finally, when exposed to white noise, SK2-OE mice needed stronger stimuli to arouse. Increased nRt bursting thus strengthens spindles and improves sleep quality through mechanisms independent of EEG slow-waves (< 4 Hz), suggesting SK2 signaling as a new potential therapeutic target for sleep disorders and for neuropsychiatric diseases accompanied by weakened sleep spindles. PMID:23035101

  3. Sustaining sleep spindles through enhanced SK2-channel activity consolidates sleep and elevates arousal threshold.

    Wimmer, Ralf D; Astori, Simone; Bond, Chris T; Rovó, Zita; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Adelman, John P; Franken, Paul; Lüthi, Anita

    2012-10-03

    Sleep spindles are synchronized 11-15 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations predominant during nonrapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS). Rhythmic bursting in the reticular thalamic nucleus (nRt), arising from interplay between Ca(v)3.3-type Ca(2+) channels and Ca(2+)-dependent small-conductance-type 2 (SK2) K(+) channels, underlies spindle generation. Correlative evidence indicates that spindles contribute to memory consolidation and protection against environmental noise in human NREMS. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism through which spindle power is selectively extended and we probed the actions of intensified spindling in the naturally sleeping mouse. Using electrophysiological recordings in acute brain slices from SK2 channel-overexpressing (SK2-OE) mice, we found that nRt bursting was potentiated and thalamic circuit oscillations were prolonged. Moreover, nRt cells showed greater resilience to transit from burst to tonic discharge in response to gradual depolarization, mimicking transitions out of NREMS. Compared with wild-type littermates, chronic EEG recordings of SK2-OE mice contained less fragmented NREMS, while the NREMS EEG power spectrum was conserved. Furthermore, EEG spindle activity was prolonged at NREMS exit. Finally, when exposed to white noise, SK2-OE mice needed stronger stimuli to arouse. Increased nRt bursting thus strengthens spindles and improves sleep quality through mechanisms independent of EEG slow waves (<4 Hz), suggesting SK2 signaling as a new potential therapeutic target for sleep disorders and for neuropsychiatric diseases accompanied by weakened sleep spindles.

  4. Uncovering representations of sleep-associated hippocampal ensemble spike activity

    Chen, Zhe; Grosmark, Andres D.; Penagos, Hector; Wilson, Matthew A.

    2016-08-01

    Pyramidal neurons in the rodent hippocampus exhibit spatial tuning during spatial navigation, and they are reactivated in specific temporal order during sharp-wave ripples observed in quiet wakefulness or slow wave sleep. However, analyzing representations of sleep-associated hippocampal ensemble spike activity remains a great challenge. In contrast to wake, during sleep there is a complete absence of animal behavior, and the ensemble spike activity is sparse (low occurrence) and fragmental in time. To examine important issues encountered in sleep data analysis, we constructed synthetic sleep-like hippocampal spike data (short epochs, sparse and sporadic firing, compressed timescale) for detailed investigations. Based upon two Bayesian population-decoding methods (one receptive field-based, and the other not), we systematically investigated their representation power and detection reliability. Notably, the receptive-field-free decoding method was found to be well-tuned for hippocampal ensemble spike data in slow wave sleep (SWS), even in the absence of prior behavioral measure or ground truth. Our results showed that in addition to the sample length, bin size, and firing rate, number of active hippocampal pyramidal neurons are critical for reliable representation of the space as well as for detection of spatiotemporal reactivated patterns in SWS or quiet wakefulness.

  5. Relationships between Sleep Problems and Psychiatric Comorbidities among China's Wenchuan Earthquake Survivors Remaining in Temporary Housing Camps

    Jiang, Suo; Yan, Zheng; Jing, Pan; Li, Changjin; Zheng, Tiansheng; He, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    Earthquake survivors are a diverse population. This study focused on a special group of earthquake survivors, who had still stayed in temporary housing camps for about 2 years after China's Wenchuan Earthquake rather than those who moved back to rebuild their lives or immigrated to large cities to seek new lives. The research goals were to (1) assess their sleep problems as well as their PTSD, depression and anxiety and (2) examine the relationship between different dimensions of sleep quality and PTSD, depression, and anxiety among these survivors. Three-hundred and eighty seven earthquake survivors who remained in temporary housing camps and had sleep problems were recruited 17–27 months after Wenchuan Earthquake. Four standardized instruments-The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, Self-rating Depression Scale, Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and face-to-face one-on-one structured interviews were used to assess these survivors' sleep quality, PTSD, depression, and anxiety. It was found that (1) 83.20% of these survivors reported having sleep problems, and 79.33% of them considered insomnia as the most common sleep problem; (2) 12.14% suffered PTSD, 36.43% experienced depression, and 38.24% had anxiety; (3) sleep disturbance, sleep medication use, and subjective sleep quality were significantly related to PTSD; (4) habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, sleep medication use, and daytime dysfunction were significantly related to depression; and (5) sleep disturbance, sleep medication use, and daytime dysfunction were significantly related to anxiety. Clinic implications of the study are discussed.

  6. Optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in the PPT or LDT induces REM sleep.

    Van Dort, Christa J; Zachs, Daniel P; Kenny, Jonathan D; Zheng, Shu; Goldblum, Rebecca R; Gelwan, Noah A; Ramos, Daniel M; Nolan, Michael A; Wang, Karen; Weng, Feng-Ju; Lin, Yingxi; Wilson, Matthew A; Brown, Emery N

    2015-01-13

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is an important component of the natural sleep/wake cycle, yet the mechanisms that regulate REM sleep remain incompletely understood. Cholinergic neurons in the mesopontine tegmentum have been implicated in REM sleep regulation, but lesions of this area have had varying effects on REM sleep. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the role of cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) and laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) in REM sleep generation. Selective optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in the PPT or LDT during non-REM (NREM) sleep increased the number of REM sleep episodes and did not change REM sleep episode duration. Activation of cholinergic neurons in the PPT or LDT during NREM sleep was sufficient to induce REM sleep.

  7. Sleep disorders and inflammatory disease activity: chicken or the egg?

    Parekh, Parth J; Oldfield Iv, Edward C; Challapallisri, Vaishnavi; Ware, J Catsby; Johnson, David A

    2015-04-01

    Sleep dysfunction is a highly prevalent condition that has long been implicated in accelerating disease states characterized by having an inflammatory component such as systemic lupus erythematosus, HIV, and multiple sclerosis. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, debilitating disease that is characterized by waxing and waning symptoms, which are a direct result of increased circulating inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have demonstrated sleep dysfunction and the disruption of the circadian rhythm to result in an upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Not only does this pose a potential trigger for disease flares but also an increased risk of malignancy in this subset of patients. This begs to question whether or not there is a therapeutic role of sleep cycle and circadian rhythm optimization in the prevention of IBD flares. Further research is needed to clarify the role of sleep dysfunction and alterations of the circadian rhythm in modifying disease activity and also in reducing the risk of malignancy in patients suffering from IBD.

  8. Active reward processing during human sleep: insights from sleep-related eating disorder

    Lampros ePerogamvros

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present two carefully documented cases of patients with sleep-related eating disorder (SRED, a parasomnia which is characterized by involuntary compulsive eating during the night and whose pathophysiology is not known. Using video-polysomnography and psychometric examination, we found that both patients present elevated novelty seeking and increased reward sensitivity on reward-related questionnaires. In light of new evidence on the mesolimbic dopaminergic implication in compulsive eating disorders, our findings suggest a role of an active reward system during sleep in the manifestation of SRED.

  9. Active Reward Processing during Human Sleep: Insights from Sleep-Related Eating Disorder.

    Perogamvros, Lampros; Baud, Patrick; Hasler, Roland; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Schwartz, Sophie; Perrig, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present two carefully documented cases of patients with sleep-related eating disorder (SRED), a parasomnia which is characterized by involuntary compulsive eating during the night and whose pathophysiology is not known. Using video-polysomnography, a dream diary and psychometric examination, we found that both patients present elevated novelty seeking and increased reward sensitivity. In light of new evidence on the mesolimbic dopaminergic implication in compulsive eating disorders, our findings suggest a role of an active reward system during sleep in the manifestation of SRED.

  10. The current state of physical activity and exercise programs in German-speaking, Swiss psychiatric hospitals: results from a brief online survey

    Br

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand,1,2 Flora Colledge,2 Nadja Beeler,2 Uwe Pühse,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Thorsten Mikoteit,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Markus Gerber2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Physical activity and exercise programs (PAEPs are an important factor in increasing and maintaining physical and mental health. This holds particularly true for patients with psychiatric disorders undergoing treatment in a psychiatric hospital. To understand whether the benefits reported in the literature are mirrored in current treatment modalities, the aim of the present study was to assess the current state of PAEPs in psychiatric hospitals in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Methods: All psychiatric hospitals (N=55 in the German-speaking part of Switzerland were contacted in spring 2014. Staff responsible for PAEPs were asked to complete an online questionnaire covering questions related to PAEPs such as type, frequency, staff training, treatment rationale, importance of PAEPs within the treatment strategy, and possible avenues to increase PAEPs. Results: Staff members of 48 different psychiatric hospitals completed the survey. Hospitals provided the following therapeutic treatments: relaxation techniques (100%, sports therapy (97%, activity-related psychotherapeutic interventions (95%, physiotherapy (85%, body therapies (59%, far-east techniques (57%, and hippotherapy (22%. Frequencies ranged from once/week to five times/week. Approximately 25% of patients participated in the PAEPs. Interventions were offered irrespective of psychiatric disorders. PAEP providers wanted and needed more vocational training. Conclusion: All participating psychiatric hospitals offer a broad variety of PAEPs in their treatment curricula. However, the majority of inpatients do not

  11. Disturbed sleep in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a question of psychiatric comorbidity or ADHD presentation

    Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Thomsen, Per H.;

    2016-01-01

    . Consequently, the goal of the study was to investigate sleep problems in medicine-naive school-aged children (mean age = 9.6 years) with ADHD compared to controls using objective methods and to examine the role of comorbidity and presentations. Ambulatory polysomnography results suggested that children......-group differences were found on the multiple sleep latency test. Stratifying for comorbidity in the ADHD group did not reveal major differences between groups, but mean sleep latency was significantly longer in children with ADHD and no comorbidity compared to controls (36.1 min; SD = 30.1 versus 22.6 min; SD = 15.......2). No differences were found between ADHD presentations. Our results support the presence of night-time sleep disturbances in children with ADHD. Poor sleep does not appear to be attributable to comorbidity alone, nor do sleep disturbances differ within ADHD presentations....

  12. EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH CONTINUOUS SPIKES-WAVES ACTIVITY DURING SLEEP

    E. D. Belousova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author represents the review and discussion of current scientific literature devoted to epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes-waves activity during sleep — the special form of partly reversible age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy, characterized by triad of symptoms: continuous prolonged epileptiform (spike-wave activity on EEG in sleep, epileptic seizures and cognitive disorders. The author describes the aspects of classification, pathogenesis and etiology, prevalence, clinical picture and diagnostics of this disorder, including the peculiar anomalies on EEG. The especial attention is given to approaches to the treatment of epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikeswaves activity during sleep. Efficacy of valproates, corticosteroid hormones and antiepileptic drugs of other groups is considered. The author represents own experience of treatment this disorder with corticosteroids, scheme of therapy and assessment of efficacy.

  13. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  14. Telemetric Study of Sleep Architecture and Sleep Homeostasis in the Day-Active Tree Shrew Tupaia belangeri

    Coolen, Alex; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Barf, R. Paulien; Fuchs, Eberhard; Meerlo, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: In this study the authors characterized sleep architecture and sleep homeostasis in the tree shrew, Tupaia belangeri, a small, omnivorous, day-active mammal that is closely related to primates. Design: Adult tree shrews were individually housed under a 12-hr light/12-hr dark cycle

  15. Quantification of muscle activity during sleep for patients with neurodegenerative diseases

    Hanif, Umaer; Trap, Lotte; Jennum, Poul;

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a very strong predictor for later development of Parkinson's disease (PD), and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia (RSWA), resulting in increased muscle activity during REM sleep. Abundant studies have shown the loss of atonia during REM...... sleep, but our aim was to investigate whether iRBD and PD patients have increased muscle activity in both REM and NREM sleep compared to healthy controls. This was achieved by developing a semi-automatic algorithm for quantification of mean muscle activity per second during all sleep stages...... to the different sleep stages and muscle activity beyond the threshold was counted. The results were evaluated statistically using the two-sided Mann-Whitney U-test. The results suggested that iRBD patients also exhibit distinctive muscle activity characteristics in NREM sleep, however not as evident as in REM...

  16. Association between patterns of jaw motor activity during sleep and clinical signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism.

    Yoshida, Yuya; Suganuma, Takeshi; Takaba, Masayuki; Ono, Yasuhiro; Abe, Yuka; Yoshizawa, Shuichiro; Sakai, Takuro; Yoshizawa, Ayako; Nakamura, Hirotaka; Kawana, Fusae; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between patterns of jaw motor activity during sleep and clinical signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism. A total of 35 university students and staff members participated in this study after providing informed consent. All participants were divided into either a sleep bruxism group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 14), based on the following clinical diagnostic criteria: (1) reports of tooth-grinding sounds for at least two nights a week during the preceding 6 months by their sleep partner; (2) presence of tooth attrition with exposed dentin; (3) reports of morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness; and (4) presence of masseter muscle hypertrophy. Video-polysomnography was performed in the sleep laboratory for two nights. Sleep bruxism episodes were measured using masseter electromyography, visually inspected and then categorized into phasic or tonic episodes. Phasic episodes were categorized further into episodes with or without grinding sounds as evaluated by audio signals. Sleep bruxism subjects with reported grinding sounds had a significantly higher total number of phasic episodes with grinding sounds than subjects without reported grinding sounds or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P < 0.05). Similarly, sleep bruxism subjects with tooth attrition exhibited significantly longer phasic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P < 0.05). Furthermore, sleep bruxism subjects with morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness exhibited significantly longer tonic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P < 0.05). These results suggest that each clinical sign and symptom of sleep bruxism represents different aspects of jaw motor activity during sleep.

  17. Regulation of myelin genes implicated in psychiatric disorders by functional activity in axons

    Philip R Lee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Myelination is a highly dynamic process that continues well into adulthood in humans. Several recent gene expression studies have found abnormal expression of genes involved in myelination in the prefrontal cortex of brains from patients with schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses. Defects in myelination could contribute to the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness by impairing information processing as a consequence of altered impulse conduction velocity and synchrony between cortical regions carrying out higher level cognitive functions. Myelination can be altered by impulse activity in axons and by environmental experience. Psychiatric illness is treated by psychotherapy, behavioral modification, and drugs affecting neurotransmission, raising the possibility that myelinating glia may not only contribute to such disorders, but that activity-dependent effects on myelinating glia could provide one of the cellular mechanisms contributing to the therapeutic effects of these treatments. This review examines evidence showing that genes and gene networks important for myelination can be regulated by functional activity in axons.

  18. A longitudinal examination of sleep quality and physical activity in older adults.

    Holfeld, Brett; Ruthig, Joelle C

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between sleep quality and physical activity is bidirectional, yet prior research on older adults has mainly focused on investigating whether increasing levels of physical activity leads to improvements in sleep quality. The current longitudinal study examined both directional relationships by assessing sleep quality and physical activity twice over a two-year period among 426 community-dwelling older adults (ages 61-100). A cross-lagged panel analysis that included age, gender, perceived stress, functional ability, and severity of chronic health conditions as covariates, revealed that better initial sleep quality predicted higher levels of later physical activity beyond the effects of prior physical activity; whereas initial physical activity did not predict later sleep quality after accounting for prior sleep quality. These findings highlight sleep quality as an important contributor to a physically active lifestyle among older adults.

  19. 精神科护士睡眠质量与职业倦怠相关性的研究%Research of the correlation between the quality of sleep and job burnout among psychiatric nurses

    赵丽俊; 张卫东; 王海荣; 王庆

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨精神科护士睡眠质量的现状及其与职业倦怠之间的相关性.方法 采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数和Maslach职业倦怠量表对210名精神科护士进行问卷调查.结果 匹兹堡睡眠质量指数总分高于正常人群(P<0.01),68名精神科护士存在睡眠质量问题,占32.38%;情感耗竭与PSQI各维度及总分呈正相关,去人格化与睡眠质量、睡眠时间、日间功能障碍及PSQI总分呈正相关,个人成就感与睡眠质量、睡眠时间、睡眠效率及PSQI总分呈负相关.结论 精神科护士职业倦怠与睡眠质量存在一定相关性,改善精神科护士睡眠质量是降低职业倦怠的有效途径.%Objective To explore the correlation between the quality of sleep and job burnout of psychiatric nurses. Methods A total of 210 psychiatric nurses were investigated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Results The total score of PSQI of the involved nurses was higher than normal population, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). There were 68 psychiatric nurses with sleep disorder, and the ratio was up to 32.38%.The scores of various dimensions and the total score of PSOI were positively correlated with the score of emotional exhaustion,the scores of the sleep quality, sleep time,and daytime dysfunction dimensions and the total score were positively correlated with the score of removal of personalization,while the score of personal accomplishment was negatively correlated with the dimension scores of sleep quality,sleep time,and sleep efficiency and the total score. Conclusion The quality of sleep has significant interaction with job burnout. Improvement of the quality of sleep of psychiatric nurses is an effective method to reduce the job burnout.

  20. Essential roles of GABA transporter-1 in controlling rapid eye movement sleep and in increased slow wave activity after sleep deprivation.

    Xin-Hong Xu

    Full Text Available GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of sleep. GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1 constructs high affinity reuptake sites for GABA and regulates GABAergic transmission in the brain. However, the role of GAT1 in sleep-wake regulation remains elusive. In the current study, we characterized the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and responses to sleep deprivation in GAT1 knock-out (KO mice. GAT1 KO mice exhibited dominant theta-activity and a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies across all vigilance stages. Under baseline conditions, spontaneous rapid eye movement (REM sleep of KO mice was elevated both during the light and dark periods, and non-REM (NREM sleep was reduced during the light period only. KO mice also showed more state transitions from NREM to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness, as well as more number of REM and NREM sleep bouts than WT mice. During the dark period, KO mice exhibited more REM sleep bouts only. Six hours of sleep deprivation induced rebound increases in NREM and REM sleep in both genotypes. However, slow wave activity, the intensity component of NREM sleep was briefly elevated in WT mice but remained completely unchanged in KO mice, compared with their respective baselines. These results indicate that GAT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of REM sleep and homeostasis of NREM sleep.

  1. Essential roles of GABA transporter-1 in controlling rapid eye movement sleep and in increased slow wave activity after sleep deprivation.

    Xu, Xin-Hong; Qu, Wei-Min; Bian, Min-Juan; Huang, Fang; Fei, Jian; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2013-01-01

    GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of sleep. GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1) constructs high affinity reuptake sites for GABA and regulates GABAergic transmission in the brain. However, the role of GAT1 in sleep-wake regulation remains elusive. In the current study, we characterized the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and responses to sleep deprivation in GAT1 knock-out (KO) mice. GAT1 KO mice exhibited dominant theta-activity and a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies across all vigilance stages. Under baseline conditions, spontaneous rapid eye movement (REM) sleep of KO mice was elevated both during the light and dark periods, and non-REM (NREM) sleep was reduced during the light period only. KO mice also showed more state transitions from NREM to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness, as well as more number of REM and NREM sleep bouts than WT mice. During the dark period, KO mice exhibited more REM sleep bouts only. Six hours of sleep deprivation induced rebound increases in NREM and REM sleep in both genotypes. However, slow wave activity, the intensity component of NREM sleep was briefly elevated in WT mice but remained completely unchanged in KO mice, compared with their respective baselines. These results indicate that GAT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of REM sleep and homeostasis of NREM sleep.

  2. Craniofacial pain and jaw-muscle activity during sleep.

    Yachida, W; Castrillon, E E; Baad-Hansen, L; Jensen, R; Arima, T; Tomonaga, A; Ohata, N; Svensson, P

    2012-06-01

    This study compared the jaw-muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep in patients with craniofacial pain (n = 63) or no painful conditions (n = 52) and between patients with tension-type headache (TTH: n = 30) and healthy control individuals (n = 30). All participants used a portable single-channel EMG device (Medotech A/S) for four nights. There was no significant difference in EMG activity between craniofacial pain (24.5 ± 17.9 events/hr) and no painful conditions (19.7 ± 14.5), or between TTH (20.8 ± 15.0) and healthy control individuals (15.2 ± 11.6, p >.050). There were positive correlations between EMG activity and number of painful muscles (r = 0.188; p = 0.044), characteristic pain intensity (r = 0.187; p = 0.046), McGill Pain Questionnaire (r = 0.251; p = 0.008), and depression scores (r = 0.291; p = 0.002). Patients with painful conditions had significantly higher night-to-night variability compared with pain-free individuals (p craniofacial pain conditions and pain-free individuals in terms of jaw-muscle EMG activity recorded with a single-channel EMG device during sleep. However, some associations may exist between the level of EMG activity and various parameters of craniofacial pain. Longitudinal studies are warranted to further explore the relationship between sleep bruxism and craniofacial pain.

  3. Effects of selective REM sleep deprivation on prefrontal gamma activity and executive functions.

    Corsi-Cabrera, M; Rosales-Lagarde, A; del Río-Portilla, Y; Sifuentes-Ortega, R; Alcántara-Quintero, B

    2015-05-01

    Given that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in executive functions and is deactivated and decoupled from posterior associative regions during REM sleep, that Gamma temporal coupling involved in information processing is enhanced during REM sleep, and that adult humans spend about 90 min of every 24h in REM sleep, it might be expected that REM sleep deprivation would modify Gamma temporal coupling and have a deteriorating effect on executive functions. We analyzed EEG Gamma activity and temporal coupling during implementation of a rule-guided task before and after REM sleep deprivation and its effect on verbal fluency, flexible thinking and selective attention. After two nights in the laboratory for adaptation, on the third night subjects (n=18) were randomly assigned to either selective REM sleep deprivation effectuated by awakening them at each REM sleep onset or, the same number of NREM sleep awakenings as a control for unspecific effects of sleep interruptions. Implementation of abstract rules to guide behavior required greater activation and synchronization of Gamma activity in the frontopolar regions after REM sleep reduction from 20.6% at baseline to just 3.93% of total sleep time. However, contrary to our hypothesis, both groups showed an overall improvement in executive task performance and no effect on their capacity to sustain selective attention. These results suggest that after one night of selective REM sleep deprivation executive functions can be compensated by increasing frontal activation and they still require the participation of supervisory control by frontopolar regions.

  4. Compressive Sleeping Wireless Sensor Networks With Active Node Selection

    Chen, Wei; Wassell, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from IEEE via http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/GLOCOM.2014.7036776 In this paper, we propose an active node selection framework for compressive sleeping wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in order to improve the signal acquisition performance and network lifetime. The node selection can be seen as a specialized sensing matrix design problem where the sensing matrix consists of selected rows of an identity matrix. By capitalizing ...

  5. Increases in cAMP, MAPK activity, and CREB phosphorylation during REM sleep: implications for REM sleep and memory consolidation.

    Luo, Jie; Phan, Trongha X; Yang, Yimei; Garelick, Michael G; Storm, Daniel R

    2013-04-10

    The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) transcriptional pathway is required for consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. In mice, this pathway undergoes a circadian oscillation required for memory persistence that reaches a peak during the daytime. Because mice exhibit polyphasic sleep patterns during the day, this suggested the interesting possibility that cAMP, MAPK activity, and CREB phosphorylation may be elevated during sleep. Here, we report that cAMP, phospho-p44/42 MAPK, and phospho-CREB are higher in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared with awake mice but are not elevated in non-REM sleep. This peak of activity during REM sleep does not occur in mice lacking calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, a mouse strain that learns but cannot consolidate hippocampus-dependent memory. We conclude that a preferential increase in cAMP, MAPK activity, and CREB phosphorylation during REM sleep may contribute to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  6. The immune theory of psychiatric diseases : a key role for activated microglia and circulating monocytes

    Beumer, Wouter; Gibney, Sinead M.; Drexhage, Roosmarijn C.; Pont-Lezica, Lorena; Doorduin, Janine; Klein, Hans C.; Steiner, Johann; Connor, Thomas J.; Harkin, Andrew; Versnel, Marjan A.; Drexhage, Hemmo A.

    2012-01-01

    This review describes a key role for mononuclear phagocytes in the pathogenesis of major psychiatric disorders. There is accumulating evidence for activation of microglia (histopathology and PET scans) and circulating monocytes (enhanced gene expression of immune genes, an overproduction of monocyte

  7. The immune theory of psychiatric diseases: A key role for activated microglia and circulating monocytes

    W. Beumer (Wouter); S.M. Gibney (Sinead); R.C. Drexhage (Roos); L. Pont-Lezica (Lorena); J. Doorduin (Janine); H.C. Klein (Hans); J. Steiner (Johann); L. Connor; A. Harkin (Andrew); M.A. Versnel (Marjan); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis review describes a key role for mononuclear phagocytes in the pathogenesis of major psychiatric disorders. There is accumulating evidence for activation of microglia (histopathology and PET scans) and circulating monocytes (enhanced gene expression of immune genes, an overproduction

  8. Patients with electrical status epilepticus in sleep share similar clinical features regardless of their focal or generalized sleep potentiation of epileptiform activity.

    Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Peters, Jurriaan; Takeoka, Masanori; Rotenberg, Alexander; Prabhu, Sanjay; Gregas, Matt; Riviello, James J; Kothare, Sanjeev; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to compare qualitatively the clinical features of patients with electrical status epilepticus in sleep with focal versus generalized sleep potentiated epileptiform activity. We enrolled patients 2 to 20 years of age, studied between 2001 and 2009, and with sleep potentiated epileptiform activity defined as an increase of epileptiform activity of 50% or more during non-rapid eye movement sleep compared with wakefulness. Eighty-five patients met the inclusion criteria, median age was 7.3 years, and 54 (63.5%) were boys. Sixty-seven (78.8%) patients had focal sleep potentiated epileptiform activity, whereas 18 (21.2%) had generalized sleep potentiated epileptiform activity. The 2 groups did not differ with respect to sex, age, presence of a structural brain abnormality, epilepsy, or other qualitative cognitive, motor, or behavioral problems. Our data suggest that there are no qualitative differences in the clinical features of patients with focal versus generalized sleep potentiated epileptiform activity.

  9. Association between Sleep Disturbances and Leisure Activities in the Elderly: A Comparison between Men and Women

    Amanda Hellström

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that physical or social activity is associated with fewer sleep disturbances among elderly people. Women report more sleep disturbances than men, which could indicate a variation in activity patterns between the genders. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between sleep disturbances and leisure activities in men and women (n = 945 aged ≥60 years in a Swedish population. Sleep disturbances were measured using eight dichotomous questions and seventeen variables, covering a wide range of leisure activities. Few leisure activities were found to be associated with sleep disturbances and their importance decreased when the models were adjusted for confounders and gender interactions. After clustering the leisure activities and investigating individual activities, sociointellectual activities were shown to be significant for sleep. However, following adjustment for confounders and gender interactions, home maintenance was the only activity significant for sleep. Being a female increased the effect of home maintenance. Besides those leisure activities, poor/fair self-rated health (OR 7.50, CI: 4.27–11.81 and being female (OR 4.86, CI: 2.75–8.61 were found to have the highest association with poor sleep. Leisure activities pursued by elderly people should focus on activities of a sociointellectual nature, especially among women, to promote sleep.

  10. A Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Psychiatric Symptomatology between Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    So, Soo-Jung; Kang, Seung-Gul; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Leen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the personality characteristics of patients with upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) and those of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Methods Eighty-eight patients with UARS and 365 patients with OSAS participated. All patients had a diagnostic full-night attended polysomnography (PSG) and completed the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Symptom Checklist-90-Revision (SCL-90-R) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Results The UARS group scored significantly higher than the OSAS group on the ESS, AIS, and PSQI (psubscales in the UARS group were significantly higher than those in the OSA group (all plie) (p<0.001) than those with OSA. UARS patients also showed higher scores on EPQ-P (psychoticism) (p=0.002) and EPQ-N (neuroticism) (p<0.001) than OSAS patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that patients with UARS have worse subjective sleep quality than OSAS patients in spite of their better PSG findings. UARS patients tend to have more neurotic and sensitive personalities than patients with OSAS, which may be a cause of the clinical features of UARS. PMID:25866518

  11. 沈阳市精神科护士睡眠质量状况调查%Sleep Quality in Psychiatric Nurses in Shenyang

    徐海春; 张昌; 王春丽; 王雪红

    2016-01-01

    Objective :To study the sleep quality of three psychiatric hospitals'nurses in Shenyang and analyze the factors which affect the sleep quality ,and propose appropriate measures to improre the sleep quality of nurses ,which can promote physical and mental health .Methods :The study adopted the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index Scale(PSQI) and self - made general quedtionnaire to 255 nurses in three psychiatric hospitals of Shenyang as the research object , using cluster sampling method to collect and analyze the data by statistics .Results :There were 88 people who got more 7 points in the PSQI total scores and the average points was (7 .86 ± 3 .613) .The scores of shift nurses on day‐time dysfunction ,PSQI ,falling asleep time ,sleep time ,the using of sleep medicine were more than the day shift nur‐ses in psychiatry department ,the difference was statistically significant (F = 2 .514 ,3 .945 ,5 .422 ,3 .893 ,3 .132 ;P <0 .05) .The scores of the older nurses on sleep disorder ,PSQI ,falling asleep time ,the using of sleep medicine were more than the young nurses ,the difference was statistically significant (F = 2 .489 ,2 .942 ,2 .962 ,3 .067 ;P < 0 .05) . Conclusion :The overall sleep quality of clinical nurses is poor .Effective measures should be taken to intervene in or‐der to raise the level of their physical and mental health .%目的:研究沈阳市精神卫生专科医院护士睡眠质量的状况,分析影响其睡眠质量的因素,提出相应对策,从而提高护士的睡眠质量,促进身心健康。方法:采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表(PSQI)及自编的一般情况调查表,以沈阳市3所精神卫生专科医院255名在职护士为研究对象,进行问卷调查,资料收集,并进行统计分析。结果:PSQI 总分>7分者,共88人(34.51%),PSQI 平均得分(7.85±3.613),与常模比较差异显著(t =6.96,P <0.01);不同岗位精神科护士白天功能障碍项目

  12. Workplace bullying, sleep problems and leisure-time physical activity: a prospective cohort study

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gullander, Maria; Hogh, Annie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Workplace bullying is a potent stressor that may increase sleep problems. Since physical fitness improves resilience to stress, it seems plausible that recreational physical activities may moderate the association between bullying and sleep. The study aimed to examine prospectively...... and Harassment (WBH) cohort (N=3278) or the Psychosocial Risk Factors for Stress and Mental Disease (PRISME) cohort (N=4455). We measured workplace bullying using one question that was preceded by a definition of bullying. We used the Karolinska sleep questionnaire to assess sleep problems. The number of hours...... per week spent on LTPA estimated the degree of physical activity. RESULTS: Workplace bullying at baseline (T1) was associated with awakening problems and lack of restful sleep at follow-up (T2) but not with overall sleep problems and disturbed sleep. T1-LTPA did not moderate the association between T1...

  13. Age-related influences of prior sleep on brain activation during verbal encoding

    Michelle B Jonelis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Disrupted sleep is more common in older adults (OA than younger adults (YA, often co-morbid with other conditions. How these sleep disturbances affect cognitive performance is an area of active study. We examined whether brain activation during verbal encoding correlates with sleep quantity and quality the night before testing in a group of healthy OA and YA. Twenty-seven OA (ages 59-82 and twenty-seven YA (ages 19-36 underwent one night of standard polysomnography. Twelve hours post-awakening, subjects performed a verbal encoding task while undergoing functional MRI. Analyses examined the group (OA vs. YA by prior sleep quantity (Total Sleep Time (TST or quality (Sleep Efficiency (SE interaction on cerebral activation, controlling for performance. Longer TST promoted higher levels of activation in the bilateral anterior parahippocampi in OA and lower activation levels in the left anterior parahippocampus in YA. Greater SE promoted higher activation levels in the left posterior parahippocampus and right inferior frontal gyrus in YA, but not in OA. The roles of these brain regions in verbal encoding suggest, in OA, longer sleep duration may facilitate functional compensation during cognitive challenges. By contrast, in YA, shorter sleep duration may necessitate functional compensation to maintain cognitive performance, similar to what is seen following acute sleep deprivation. Additionally, in YA, better sleep quality may improve semantic retrieval processes, thereby aiding encoding.

  14. Activation of the motor cortex during phasic rapid eye movement sleep

    De Carli, Fabrizio; Proserpio, Paola; Morrone, Elisa; Sartori, Ivana; Ferrara, Michele; Gibbs, Steve Alex; De Gennaro, Luigi; Lo Russo, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    When dreaming during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, we can perform complex motor behaviors while remaining motionless. How the motor cortex behaves during this state remains unknown. Here, using intracerebral electrodes sampling the human motor cortex in pharmacoresistant epileptic patients, we report a pattern of electroencephalographic activation during REM sleep similar to that observed during the performance of a voluntary movement during wakefulness. This pattern is present during phasic REM sleep but not during tonic REM sleep, the latter resembling relaxed wakefulness. This finding may help clarify certain phenomenological aspects observed in REM sleep behavior disorder. Ann Neurol 2016;79:326–330 PMID:26575212

  15. Investigation on the sleep quality and mental health status of psychiatric nurses%精神科护士睡眠质量与心理健康状况的调查

    孙丽娟

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解精神科护士睡眠质量及心理健康状况,为改善睡眠质量、促进心身健康制订措施提供依据.方法 采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)量表、SCL-90及自制一般情况问卷,对165名精神科护士、145名综合医院护士进行问卷调查.结果 精神科护士中52.12%有睡眠质量问题;综合医院护士中27.58%有睡眠问题.精神科护士PSQI平均得分(7.66±3.07)分,综合医院护士(5.96±2.81)分,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);PSQI总分与SCL-90各因子分均呈正相关(P<0.05).结论 精神科护士睡眠质量差,躯体化问题严重,睡眠质量与心理健康密切相关.%Objective To assess sleep quality and mental health status of psychiatric department nurses, so that we can make measures to improve sleep quality, promote physical and mental health. Methods A total of 165 psychiatric department nurses and 145 general hospital nurses were investigated by adopting PSQI scale, SCL-90 and general self-designed questionnaire. We sent out 318 questionnaires and took back 310, the recovery rate is 97.48%. Results 86 of the 165 (52. 12%) psychiatric department nurses showed problems in sleep; while only 40 of the 145 (27.58%) general hospital nurses had problems in sleep. The average score in PSQI scale of psychiatric department nurses was higher than general hospital nurses, the difference was statistically significant;the PQSI total scores and SCL-90 each factor score had a positive correlation. Conclusions The sleep quality of psychiatric department nurses is very poor, somatization problems are very serious, sleep quality is closely related to mental health.

  16. Impact of psychiatric symptoms and sleep disorders on the quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Gómez-Esteban, Juan Carlos; Tijero, Beatriz; Somme, Johanne; Ciordia, Roberto; Berganzo, Koldo; Rouco, Idoia; Bustos, Jose Luis; Valle, Maria Antonia; Lezcano, Elena; Zarranz, Juan J

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study is to assess how the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), such as depression, cognitive deterioration, neuropsychiatric and sleep disorders, affect the quality of life, and to compare them with the motor symptoms in order to determine their real impact. A cross-sectional study was designed including 99 patients (mean age 68.5 ± 9.9 years, duration of disease 8.7 ± 6.2 years). Demographic data, onset of PD, years on treatment with levodopa (LD), class of dopaminergic drug prescribed, and dosages were obtained. The following scales were used: quality of life (PDQ-39), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS I-IV), Parkinson Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth), Mini-Mental State Examination, depression (HAM-D), and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI-10). The PDQ-39 summary index (PDQ-39 SI) was 24.7 ± 13.2. A linear regression model including all variables showed that four independent variables accounted for 67.2% of the variance in the PDQ-39 SI (F = 33,277; p < 0.001): NPI, PDSS, UPDRS IV, and UPDRS I. When sub-items of the NPI, PDSS and UPDRS IV scales are analyzed, significant correlations (p < 0.001) are found between the PDQ-39 SI and depression, agitation, apathy, anxiety, hallucinations, delusions, incontinence of urine, morning painful posturing, restlessness in bed, morning fatigue, duration of off periods, unpredictable and predictable off periods, early morning dystonia, and sudden off periods. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, especially depression, nighttime sleep disorders such as urinary incontinence, nighttime restlessness, morning fatigue and somnolence, off-period dystonia and motor fluctuations are the variables that most affect the quality of life of patients with PD.

  17. THE EFFECT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON SERUM IGG RESPONSES TO AEROBIC ACTIVITY IN COLLEGE STUDENT ATHLETES

    Saeed Jamshidi Far

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Sleep is a restorative process for the immune system. There are many situations in which sleep is disturbed prior to an athletic event. However, the effect of sleep deprivation on immune indices in response to exercise remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum IgG responses to aerobic activity. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 10 male physical education students were voluntarily participated. Study was performed in two separate occasions; control and experimental within two weeks. In the control occasion, normal sleep and aerobic activity and in the experimental occasion, sleep deprivation and aerobic activity was applied. Aerobic activity was performed on bicycle ergometer for 30 minutes at intensity of 70 to 75 percent of maximum heart rate. Changes in serum IgG concentrations in pre-test, before and after aerobic activity in both occasions were analyzed by the two repeated measures ANOVA and dependent T-test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that sleep deprivation not significantly effect on Serum IgG response to aerobic activity (p=0.130. Also, aerobic activity not significantly effect on Serum IgG concentration (p=0.357. But sleep deprivation caused a significantly increase in serum IgG concentration (p=0.035. Conclusion: No significant effect of sleep deprivation on serum IgG concentrations response to aerobic activity.

  18. The Effects of Group Musical Activity on Psychiatric Patients in India.

    Katrina Rumball

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Musical activity, particularly as the application of music therapy, has been found to produce numerous benefits within a psychiatric setting. This study has explored a selection of these benefits in psychiatric patients in a hospital in India, examining these effects within a culture not typically studied in this field. Observations of seven sessions of group musical activity was undertaken and questionnaire and interview data collected from both patients and staff. Questionnaire data demonstrated improvements in mood, energy, and attention levels, both during and following the sessions. The quantitative data was integrated with interview responses and is discussed with reference to previous research. Interviews and observation found improvements in the categories of interaction, learning and confidence. Alongside these variables, specific musical factors were considered which strongly indicate that the application of musical activity as a therapy, as distinct from other group effects, contributed to the benefits found.

  19. Analysis of automated quantification of motor activity in REM sleep behaviour disorder

    Frandsen, Rune; Nikolic, Miki; Zoetmulder, Marielle;

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and REM sleep without atonia. Atonia is evaluated on the basis of visual criteria, but there is a need for more objective, quantitative measurements. We aimed to define and optimize a method for establishing...... were validated on PD patients. Automatic baseline estimation improved characterization of atonia during REM sleep, as it eliminates inter/intra-observer variability and can be standardized across diagnostic centres. We found an optimized method for quantifying motor activity during REM sleep....... The method was stable and can be used to differentiate RBD from controls and to quantify motor activity during REM sleep in patients with neurodegeneration. No control had more than 30% of REM sleep with increased motor activity; patients with known RBD had as low activity as 4.5%. We developed and applied...

  20. Analysis of EEG activity during sleep - brain hemisphere symmetry of two classes of sleep spindles

    Smolen, Magdalena M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents automatic analysis of some selected human electroencephalographic patterns during deep sleep using the Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm. The periodicity of deep sleep EEG patterns was observed by calculating autocorrelation functions of their percentage contributions. The study confirmed the increasing trend of amplitude-weighted average frequency of sleep spindles from frontal to posterior derivations. The dominant frequencies from the left and the right brain hemisphere were strongly correlated.

  1. 精神科护士睡眠质量及影响因素调查分析%Study on sleep quality and its contributing factors of the psychiatric nurses

    张云; 王艳; 苗纪云

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨影响精神科临床护士睡眠质量的因素,为提高精神科临床护士睡眠质量提供参考依据.方法 随机抽取我院精神科84名临床护士,采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表( PSQI)调查其睡眠质量并分析相关影响因素.结果 (1)精神科临床护士PSQI总分为(7.69±4.36),有54.8%存在不同程度的睡眠质量问题;(2)婚恋问题、是否喝茶(咖啡)、身体不适、环境嘈杂、睡眠的错误认知与精神科临床护士睡眠质量有显著相关(P <0.05或P<0.01).结论 精神科临床护士睡眠质量较差,需采取相应措施改善其睡眠,提高他们心理健康水平.%Objective To investigate sleep quality and its related contributing factors of the psychiatric nurses.Methods Totaled of 84 nurses were randomly selected.Their sleep qualities and related contributing factors were assessed by the scale of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).Results ( 1 ) The scores of PSQI were (7.69 + 4.36).There was sleep disorders accounting for 54.8% in the psychiatric nurses.(2) There were correlation between sleep quality with marriage,tes/coffee,malaise,environment noisy and sleep fault cognition (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 ).Conclusions There exist sleep disorders in the psychiatric nurses,and special measures should be taken to improve their sleep quality and the level of mental health.

  2. Study on sleep quality in psychiatric nurses and its influencing factors%精神科护士睡眠质量及影响因素相关性的研究

    赵丽俊; 刘艳; 王珍宝; 张春雨

    2010-01-01

    Objective To discuss sleep quality in psychiatric nurses and analyze its influencing factors. Methods A total of 160 psychiatric nurses were investigated by using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Self - Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Results The average sleep duration was (7.18 ± 1.319 )hours and sleep duration in male nurses was lower than that in female nurses ( P = 0. 005 ). A total of 110people accounted for 68.75% of respondents had high sleep quality with PSQI total score equal to or below 7points. A total of 50 people accounted for 31.25% of respondents had low sleep quality with PSQI total score above 7 points. High sleep quality group had statistically significant difference with low sleep quality group in each aspect score and total score in PSQI (P < 0. 01 ); Gender, education, marital status, technology titles did not have a statistically significant difference in the PSQI total score (P >0. 05); 20 ~ 30 year-old and 6 ~ 15years of working experience had the highest scores in PSQI ( P < 0. 05 ); 20 ~ 30 years old, secondary educational background, single nurse groups had the highest incidence of sleep disorder ( P < 0. 01 ); seven components of PSQI scores and total scores significantly related to anxiety ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusions Sleep quality in psychiatric nurses are lower than the general population and one to third psychiatric nurses have problems of sleep quality. Sleep quality have a significant interaction with demographic factors and anxiety.%目的 探讨精神科护士睡眠质量及其影响因素.方法 采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)和焦虑自评量表(SAS)对160名精神科护士进行调查.结果 本组平均睡眠时间为(7.18±1.319)h,男护士睡眠时间低于女护士(P<0.05);睡眠质量较好(PSQI总分≤7分)护士占被调查者68.75%,有睡眠质量问题(PSQI总分>7分)占被调查者31.25%,两组PSQI各成分得分和总分差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);性别、学历、

  3. Sleep restriction by forced activity reduces hippocampal cell proliferation

    Roman, Viktor; Van der Borght, K; Leemburg, SA; Van der Zee, EA; Meerlo, P

    2005-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that sleep loss negatively affects learning and memory processes through disruption of hippocampal function. In the present study, we examined whether sleep loss alters the generation, differentiation, and survival of new cells in the dentate gyrus. Rats were sleep restric

  4. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi; Korbo, Lise; Friberg, Lars; Jennum, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown that patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD) have an increased risk of developing an α-synucleinopathy in later life. Although abundant studies have shown that degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is associated with daytime motor function in Parkinson disease, only few studies have investigated the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. Methods: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients without RBD, and 10 healthy controls were included and assessed with (123)I-N-omega-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT) Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning (123I-FP-CIT SPECT), neurological examination, and polysomnography. Results: iRBD patients and PD patients with RBD had increased EMG-activity compared to healthy controls. 123I-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen-region was highest in controls, followed by iRBD patients, and lowest in PD patients. In iRBD patients, EMG-activity in the mentalis muscle was correlated to 123I-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD. Citation: Zoetmulder M, Nikolic M, Biernat H, Korbo L, Friberg L, Jennum P. Increased motor activity during rem sleep is linked with dopamine function in idiopathic REM sleep behavior

  5. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown...... that patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD) have an increased risk of developing an α-synucleinopathy in later life. Although abundant studies have shown that degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is associated with daytime motor function in Parkinson disease, only few studies have investigated...... in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....

  6. Sleep problems in children.

    Baweja, R; Calhoun, S; Baweja, R; Singareddy, R

    2013-10-01

    Sleep complaints and sleep disorders are common during childhood and adolescence. The impact of not getting enough sleep may affect children's' physical health as well emotional, cognitive and social development. Insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, parasomnias and sleep disturbances associated with medical and psychiatric disorders are some of the commonly encountered sleep disorders in this age group. Changes in sleep architecture and the amount of sleep requirement associated with each stage of development should be considered during an evaluation of sleep disorders in children. Behavioral treatments should be used initially wherever possible especially considering that most pharmacologic agents used to treat pediatric sleep disorders are off-label. In this review we address the most common sleep problems in children/adolescents as they relate to prevalence, presentation and symptoms, evaluation and management.

  7. Brief Report: Influence of Physical Activity on Sleep Quality in Children with Autism

    Wachob, David; Lorenzi, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-related problems are often documented in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study examined physical activity as a variable that might influence sleep quality in children with ASD. Ten children, ages 9-16 years, were asked to wear accelerometer devices for 7 days in order to track objective measures of activity and sleep…

  8. Computerized monitoring of physical activity and sleep in postoperative abdominal surgery patients

    Bisgaard, T; Kjaersgaard, M; Bernhard, A;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assessment of early postoperative activity is important in the documentation of improvements of peri-operative care. This study was designed to validate computerized activity-based monitoring of physical activity and sleep (actigraphy) in patients after abdominal surgery. METHODS...... physical activity and sleep-wake cycles after major abdominal surgery.......: The study included twelve hospitalized patients after major abdominal surgery studied on day 2 to 4 after operation and twelve unhospitalized healthy volunteers. Measurements were performed for 24 consecutive hours. The actigraphy measurements were compared with self-reported activity- and sleep...

  9. Characterising infant inter-breath interval patterns during active and quiet sleep using recurrence plot analysis.

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M

    2009-01-01

    Breathing patterns are characteristically different between active and quiet sleep states in infants. It has been previously identified that breathing dynamics are governed by a non-linear controller which implies the need for a nonlinear analytical tool. Further, it has been shown that quantified nonlinear variables are different between adult sleep states. This study aims to determine whether a nonlinear analytical tool known as recurrence plot analysis can characterize breath intervals of active and quiet sleep states in infants. Overnight polysomnograms were obtained from 32 healthy infants. The 6 longest periods each of active and quiet sleep were identified and a software routine extracted inter-breath interval data for recurrence plot analysis. Determinism (DET), laminarity (LAM) and radius (RAD) values were calculated for an embedding dimension of 4, 6, 8 and 16, and fixed recurrence of 0.5, 1, 2, 3.5 and 5%. Recurrence plots exhibited characteristically different patterns for active and quiet sleep. Active sleep periods typically had higher values of RAD, DET and LAM than for quiet sleep, and this trend was invariant to a specific choice of embedding dimension or fixed recurrence. These differences may provide a basis for automated sleep state classification, and the quantitative investigation of pathological breathing patterns.

  10. Actigraphic motor activity during sleep from infancy to adulthood.

    Tonetti, Lorenzo; Scher, Anat; Atun-Einy, Osnat; Samuel, Moran; Boreggiani, Michele; Natale, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    A secondary analysis of longitudinal and cohort studies was carried out to quantitatively investigate the motor activity pattern, recorded through actigraphy, during the first six hours of nocturnal sleep. The first study was of longitudinal nature. Ten healthy participants (four females) were monitored three times, at baseline (T1) when they were infants (mean age 7.10 ± 0.32 months), at the first follow-up examination (T2) around 4 months later (mean age 11.20 ± 0.63 months) and at the second follow-up (T3) around three years later, when they were preschoolers (mean age 4.68 ± 0.14 years). At T1, T2 and T3 each participant wore the actigraph Basic Mini-Motionlogger (Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc., Ardsley, NY, USA) over at least two consecutive nycthemeral cycles, with the aim to measure the mean hourly motor activity count. Seven- and 11-month-old infants had a higher level of motor activity over the night compared to preschoolers. Furthermore, motor activity increased as the night progressed, with a pronounced increment at both T1 and T2, while at T3 such an increase was less marked. The second study was cross-sectional and aimed to explore the motor activity pattern, using actigraphy, during the first six hours of nocturnal sleep in multiple-age healthy groups, from infancy to adulthood. We assigned participants to eight groups according to age: 20 (five females) aged around 10 months old (mean age 10.65 ± 0.67 months); 13 (nine females) aged around 4 years (mean age 4.38 ± 0.51 years); 21 (10 females) aged around 10 years (mean age 9.67 ± 0.91 years); 21 (nine females) aged around 20 years (mean age 19.33 ± 2.44 years); 20 (10 females) aged around 30 years (mean age 29.80 ± 1.99 years); 20 (15 females) aged around 40 years (mean age 40.70 ± 1.26 years); 20 (11 females) aged around 50 years (mean age 50.15 ± 2.80 years) and 20 (nine females) aged around 60 years (mean age 59.25 ± 3.23 years). The participants aged between 10 and 60 years wore the

  11. Sleep and alertness during alternating monophasic and polyphasic rest-activity cycles.

    Porcú, S; Casagrande, M; Ferrara, M; Bellatreccia, A

    1998-07-01

    People involved in shift work often have to face altered patterns of sleep and wakefulness. This is particularly true for schedules involving night shifts and/or fragmentation of duty periods throughout the 24-hr day. In such conditions, it can be difficult to obtain satisfactory periods of sleep, and sleepiness on duty is a frequent and dangerous occurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep and wakefulness periods of subjects whose work schedule was characterized by an alternation of 2 hours of activity and 4 hours of rest (sleep allowed), repeated 4 times throughout the 24-hr day. This schedule was alternated with 24 hours off duty. Nine healthy male volunteers were monitored by means of ambulatory polysomnography while attending their 24-hr rest-activity schedule. Sleep periods were visually scored according to standard criteria. Wake periods were visually scored using both 30 s and 5 s epochs in order to reveal episodes of drowsiness and/or microsleep. Results showed that total sleep time was substantially reduced as compared to the usual 7-8 hour monophasic nocturnal sleep. Subjects did not sleep during the first rest period (11.00-15.00). Time in sleep linearly increased in the course of the 3 remaining rest periods. Normal sleep stage distribution was substantially spared only in the last rest period (3.00-7.00 a.m.). With regard to duty periods, only a few microsleeps were detected and their number did not significantly vary across the four 2-hr activity periods. In conclusion, this rest-activity schedule, despite the considerable sleep reduction, allowed maintaining good levels of vigilance as shown by the virtual absence of EEG microsleeps. Whether future research will prove that this regimen does not cause an impairment of performance, it should be a suitable strategy for the management of continuous operations.

  12. Quality of sleep, physical activity and fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Løppenthin, Katrine; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Jennum, Poul Jørgen;

    2012-01-01

    to Physical Activity (PA) and fatigue. Understanding PA, fatigue and the impact on sleep disturbances could illuminate ways to promote sufficient sleep in RA patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association between sleep disturbance, PA, and fatigue. Methods A total of 500 RA patients from...... a rheumatology outpatient clinic were recruited consecutively to participate in an observational cross-sectional study. The self-administered questionnaire covered the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain and fatigue, Physical Activity Scale (PAS), Multidimensional Fatigue...... of 58 years), and 80% were women. The mean disease duration was 14 years and mean DAS score was 2.7. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 61 %. Higher level of general fatigue, mental fatigue, physical fatigue, reduced activity and reduced motivation was reported in patients with poor sleep quality...

  13. The supramammillary nucleus and the claustrum activate the cortex during REM sleep.

    Renouard, Leslie; Billwiller, Francesca; Ogawa, Keiko; Clément, Olivier; Camargo, Nutabi; Abdelkarim, Mouaadh; Gay, Nadine; Scoté-Blachon, Céline; Touré, Rouguy; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Ravassard, Pascal; Salvert, Denise; Peyron, Christelle; Claustrat, Bruno; Léger, Lucienne; Salin, Paul; Malleret, Gael; Fort, Patrice; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé

    2015-04-01

    Evidence in humans suggests that limbic cortices are more active during rapid eye movement (REM or paradoxical) sleep than during waking, a phenomenon fitting with the presence of vivid dreaming during this state. In that context, it seemed essential to determine which populations of cortical neurons are activated during REM sleep. Our aim in the present study is to fill this gap by combining gene expression analysis, functional neuroanatomy, and neurochemical lesions in rats. We find in rats that, during REM sleep hypersomnia compared to control and REM sleep deprivation, the dentate gyrus, claustrum, cortical amygdaloid nucleus, and medial entorhinal and retrosplenial cortices are the only cortical structures containing neurons with an increased expression of Bdnf, FOS, and ARC, known markers of activation and/or synaptic plasticity. Further, the dentate gyrus is the only cortical structure containing more FOS-labeled neurons during REM sleep hypersomnia than during waking. Combining FOS staining, retrograde labeling, and neurochemical lesion, we then provide evidence that FOS overexpression occurring in the cortex during REM sleep hypersomnia is due to projections from the supramammillary nucleus and the claustrum. Our results strongly suggest that only a subset of cortical and hippocampal neurons are activated and display plasticity during REM sleep by means of ascending projections from the claustrum and the supramammillary nucleus. Our results pave the way for future studies to identify the function of REM sleep with regard to dreaming and emotional memory processing.

  14. Reduced Sleep Spindle Activity in Early-Onset and Elevated Risk for Depression

    Lopez, Jorge; Hoffmann, Robert; Armitage, Roseanne

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sleep disturbances are common in major depressive disorder (MDD), although polysomnographic (PSG) abnormalities are more prevalent in adults than in children and adolescents with MDD. Sleep spindle activity (SPA) is associated with neuroplasticity mechanisms during brain maturation and is more abundant in childhood and adolescence than…

  15. The Memory Function of Noradrenergic Activity in Non-REM Sleep

    Gais, Steffen; Rasch, Bjorn; Dahmen, Johannes C.; Sara, Susan; Born, Jan

    2011-01-01

    There is a long-standing assumption that low noradrenergic activity during sleep reflects mainly the low arousal during this brain state. Nevertheless, recent research has demonstrated that the locus coeruleus, which is the main source of cortical noradrenaline, displays discrete periods of intense firing during non-REM sleep, without any signs of…

  16. Effects of sports participation on psychiatric symptoms and brain activations during sports observation in schizophrenia.

    Takahashi, H; Sassa, T; Shibuya, T; Kato, M; Koeda, M; Murai, T; Matsuura, M; Asai, K; Suhara, T; Okubo, Y

    2012-03-20

    Weight gain has been identified as being responsible for increased morbidity and mortality rates of schizophrenia patients. For the management of weight gain, exercise is one of the most acknowledged interventions. At the same time, exercise and sports have been recognized for their positive impact on psychiatric symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the neurobiological basis for this remains poorly understood. We aimed to examine the effect of sports participation on weight gain, psychiatric symptoms and brain activation during sports observation in schizophrenia patients. Thirteen schizophrenia patients who participated in a 3-month program, including sports participation and 10 control schizophrenia patients were studied. In both groups, body mass index (BMI), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and brain activation during observation of sports-related actions measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging were accessed before and after a 3-month interval. BMI and general psychopathology scale of PANSS were significantly reduced in the program group but not in the control group after a 3-month interval. Compared with baseline, activation of the body-selective extrastriate body area (EBA) in the posterior temporal-occipital cortex during observation of sports-related actions was increased in the program group. In this group, increase in EBA activation was associated with improvement in the general psychopathology scale of PANSS. Sports participation had a positive effect not only on weight gain but also on psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia. EBA might mediate these beneficial effects of sports participation. Our findings merit further investigation of neurobiological mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of sports for schizophrenia.

  17. Analysis of automated quantification of motor activity in REM sleep behaviour disorder.

    Frandsen, Rune; Nikolic, Miki; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Kempfner, Lykke; Jennum, Poul

    2015-10-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and REM sleep without atonia. Atonia is evaluated on the basis of visual criteria, but there is a need for more objective, quantitative measurements. We aimed to define and optimize a method for establishing baseline and all other parameters in automatic quantifying submental motor activity during REM sleep. We analysed the electromyographic activity of the submental muscle in polysomnographs of 29 patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), 29 controls and 43 Parkinson's (PD) patients. Six adjustable parameters for motor activity were defined. Motor activity was detected and quantified automatically. The optimal parameters for separating RBD patients from controls were investigated by identifying the greatest area under the receiver operating curve from a total of 648 possible combinations. The optimal parameters were validated on PD patients. Automatic baseline estimation improved characterization of atonia during REM sleep, as it eliminates inter/intra-observer variability and can be standardized across diagnostic centres. We found an optimized method for quantifying motor activity during REM sleep. The method was stable and can be used to differentiate RBD from controls and to quantify motor activity during REM sleep in patients with neurodegeneration. No control had more than 30% of REM sleep with increased motor activity; patients with known RBD had as low activity as 4.5%. We developed and applied a sensitive, quantitative, automatic algorithm to evaluate loss of atonia in RBD patients.

  18. Calcium imaging of sleep-wake related neuronal activity in the dorsal pons.

    Cox, Julia; Pinto, Lucas; Dan, Yang

    2016-02-25

    The dorsal pons has long been implicated in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, but the underlying circuit mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using cell-type-specific microendoscopic Ca(2+) imaging in and near the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, we found that many glutamatergic neurons are maximally active during REM sleep (REM-max), while the majority of GABAergic neurons are maximally active during wakefulness (wake-max). Furthermore, the activity of glutamatergic neurons exhibits a medio-lateral spatial gradient, with medially located neurons more selectively active during REM sleep.

  19. Increases in cAMP, MAPK Activity and CREB Phosphorylation during REM Sleep: Implications for REM Sleep and Memory Consolidation

    Luo, Jie; Phan, Trongha X.; Yang, Yimei; Garelick, Michael G.; Storm, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) transcriptional pathway is required for consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. In mice, this pathway undergoes a circadian oscillation required for memory persistence that reaches a peak during the daytime. Since mice exhibit polyphasic sleep patterns during the day, this suggested the interesting possibility that cAMP, MAPK activity and CREB phosphorylat...

  20. Triethylene glycol, an active component of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) leaves, is responsible for sleep induction

    Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint which occurs due to difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining it. Most of currently available drugs for insomnia develop dependency and/or adverse effects. Hence natural therapies could be an alternative choice of treatment for insomnia. The root or whole plant extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has been used to induce sleep in Indian system of traditional home medicine, Ayurveda. However, its active somnogenic components remain unidentified. We investigated the effect of various components of Ashwagandha leaf on sleep regulation by oral administration in mice. We found that the alcoholic extract that contained high amount of active withanolides was ineffective to induce sleep in mice. However, the water extract which contain triethylene glycol as a major component induced significant amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep with slight change in rapid eye movement sleep. Commercially available triethylene glycol also increased non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice in a dose-dependent (10–30 mg/mouse) manner. These results clearly demonstrated that triethylene glycol is an active sleep-inducing component of Ashwagandha leaves and could potentially be useful for insomnia therapy. PMID:28207892

  1. Triethylene glycol, an active component of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) leaves, is responsible for sleep induction.

    Kaushik, Mahesh K; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint which occurs due to difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining it. Most of currently available drugs for insomnia develop dependency and/or adverse effects. Hence natural therapies could be an alternative choice of treatment for insomnia. The root or whole plant extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has been used to induce sleep in Indian system of traditional home medicine, Ayurveda. However, its active somnogenic components remain unidentified. We investigated the effect of various components of Ashwagandha leaf on sleep regulation by oral administration in mice. We found that the alcoholic extract that contained high amount of active withanolides was ineffective to induce sleep in mice. However, the water extract which contain triethylene glycol as a major component induced significant amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep with slight change in rapid eye movement sleep. Commercially available triethylene glycol also increased non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice in a dose-dependent (10-30 mg/mouse) manner. These results clearly demonstrated that triethylene glycol is an active sleep-inducing component of Ashwagandha leaves and could potentially be useful for insomnia therapy.

  2. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates the association between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among psychiatrically healthy adults.

    Gillihan, Seth J; Rao, Hengyi; Brennan, Lauretta; Wang, Danny J J; Detre, John A; Sankoorikal, Geena Mary V; Brodkin, Edward S; Farah, Martha J

    2011-09-30

    Recent attempts to understand the biological bases of depression vulnerability have revealed that both the short allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and activity in the amygdala are associated with depression. Other studies have reported amygdala hyperactivity associated with the 5-HTTLPR short allele, linking the genetic and neuroimaging lines of research and suggesting a mechanism whereby the short allele confers depression risk. However, fewer investigations have examined the associations among depression, 5-HTTLPR variability, and amygdala activation in a single study. The current study thus investigated whether 5-HTTLPR genotype modulates the association between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among psychiatrically healthy adults. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with perfusion fMRI during a task-free scan. We hypothesized differential associations between depressive symptoms and amygdala activity among individuals homozygous for the short allele and individuals homozygous for the long allele. Both whole brain analyses and region-of-interest analyses confirmed this prediction, revealing a significant negative association among the long allele group and a trend of positive association among the short allele group. These results complement existing reports of short allele related amygdala hyperactivity and suggest an additional neurobiological mechanism whereby the 5-HTTLPR is associated with psychiatric outcomes.

  3. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    Sadeghi Bahmani D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Markus Gerber,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,3 Peter J Clough,4 Pasquale Calabrese,5 Vahid Shaygannejad,6 Uwe Pühse,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Serge Brand1,2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, 4Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; 5Division of Molecular and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Neurology and Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD, and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods: A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females, 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females, and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results: Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy

  4. Sleep Tips: 7 Steps to Better Sleep

    ... turn every night. Consider simple tips for better sleep, from setting a sleep schedule to including physical activity in your daily ... simply worn out? Perhaps the solution is better sleep. Think about all the factors that can interfere ...

  5. ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY AT THE BASE AND TIP OF THE TONGUE ACROSS SLEEP-WAKE STATES IN RATS

    Lu, Jackie W.; Kubin, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients have elevated tonic and phasic inspiratory activity in the genioglossus and other upper airway muscles during wakefulness; this protects their upper airway from collapse. In this group, sleep-related decrements of upper airway motor tone result in sleep-related upper airway obstructions. We previously reported that in the rat, a species widely used to study the neural mechanisms of both sleep and breathing, lingual electromyographic activity (EMG) is min...

  6. Endogenous Opiates in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Mediate Electroacupuncture-Induced Sleep Activities in Rats

    Chiung-Hsiang Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture (EA possesses various therapeutic effects, including alleviation of pain, reduction of inflammation and improvement of sleep disturbance. The mechanisms of EA on sleep improvement, however, remain to be determined. It has been stated in ancient Chinese literature that the Anmian (EX17 acupoint is one of the trigger points that alleviates insomnia. We previously demonstrated that EA stimulation of Anmian acupoints in rats during the dark period enhances non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, which involves the induction of cholinergic activity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. In addition to cholinergic activation of the NTS, activation of the endogenous opioidergic system may also be a mechanism by which acupuncture affects sleep. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the involvement of the NTS opioidergic system in EA-induced alterations in sleep. Our present results indicate that EA of Anmian acupoints increased NREM sleep, but not rapid eye movement sleep, during the dark period in rats. This enhancement in NREM sleep was dose-dependently blocked by microinjection of opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine, into the NTS; administrations of δ-receptor antagonist, natrindole, and the κ-receptor antagonist, nor-binaltrophimine, however, did not affect EA-induced alterations in sleep. Furthermore, β-endorphin was significantly increased in both the brainstem and hippocampus after the EA stimuli, an effect blocked by administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine into the NTS. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of EA-induced NREM sleep enhancement may be mediated, in part, by cholinergic activation, stimulation of the opiodergic neurons to increase the concentrations of β-endorphin and the involvement of the μ-opioid receptors.

  7. The suitcase simulation: an effective and inexpensive psychiatric nursing teaching activity.

    Masters, Joan C; Kane, Mary Frances; Pike, Mary Ellen

    2014-08-01

    A tabletop simulation was developed as a patient safety activity that involved checking in a patient admitted to a psychiatric care unit. Students were second-degree (n = 79) and traditional (n = 53) BSN students. They were given suitcases or backpacks containing various items, and following a fictional hospital policy, they had to decide whether to give the items to the patient, place them in a secured area, or send them to the pharmacy or security personnel. The activity was evaluated using the Simulation Effectiveness Tool (SET) and two open-ended questions. Students reported that they found the simulation to be enjoyable and a good learning experience. Checking in a patient's belongings is not an activity students typically perform, but the simulation can help prepare them for situations they will experience in the workplace. This inexpensive activity can easily be adapted for staff orientation and competencies. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 52(8), 39-44.].

  8. Reduced physical activity in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes who curtail their sleep.

    Booth, John N; Bromley, Lindsay E; Darukhanavala, Amy P; Whitmore, Harry R; Imperial, Jacqueline G; Penev, Pamen D

    2012-02-01

    Adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes have high metabolic morbidity, which is exacerbated by physical inactivity. Self-reported sleep diabetes, which may be mediated in part by sleep-loss-related reduction in physical activity. We examined the relationship between habitual sleep curtailment and physical activity in adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight young urban adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes (27 F/21 M; mean (s.d.) age 26 (4) years; BMI 23.8 (2.5) kg/m(2)) each completed 13 (2) days of sleep and physical activity monitoring by wrist actigraphy and waist accelerometry while following their usual lifestyle at home. Laboratory polysomnography was used to screen for sleep disorders. The primary outcome of the study was the comparison of total daily activity counts between participants with habitual sleep diabetes who habitually curtail their sleep have less daily physical activity and more sedentary living, which may enhance their metabolic risk.

  9. Perchance to dream? Primordial motor activity patterns in vertebrates from fish to mammals: their prenatal origin, postnatal persistence during sleep, and pathological reemergence during REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Corner, Michael A; Schenck, Carlos H

    2015-12-01

    An overview is presented of the literature dealing with sleep-like motility and concomitant neuronal activity patterns throughout the life cycle in vertebrates, ectothermic as well as endothermic. Spontaneous, periodically modulated, neurogenic bursts of non-purposive movements are a universal feature of larval and prenatal behavior, which in endothermic animals (i.e. birds and mammals) continue to occur periodically throughout life. Since the entire body musculature is involved in ever-shifting combinations, it is proposed that these spontaneously active periods be designated as 'rapid-BODY-movement' (RBM) sleep. The term 'rapid-EYE-movement (REM) sleep', characterized by attenuated muscle contractions and reduced tonus, can then be reserved for sleep at later stages of development. Mature stages of development in which sustained muscle atonia is combined with 'paradoxical arousal' of cortical neuronal firing patterns indisputably represent the evolutionarily most recent aspect of REM sleep, but more research with ectothermic vertebrates, such as fish, amphibians and reptiles, is needed before it can be concluded (as many prematurely have) that RBM is absent in these species. Evidence suggests a link between RBM sleep in early development and the clinical condition known as 'REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD)', which is characterized by the resurgence of periodic bouts of quasi-fetal motility that closely resemble RBM sleep. Early developmental neuromotor risk factors for RBD in humans also point to a relationship between RBM sleep and RBD.

  10. Early and later life stress alter brain activity and sleep in rats.

    Mrdalj, Jelena; Pallesen, Ståle; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Murison, Robert; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Grønli, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress may profoundly influence the developing brain in lasting ways. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with early life adversity may involve neural changes reflected in EEG power as a measure of brain activity and disturbed sleep. The main aim of the present study was for the first time to characterize possible changes in adult EEG power after postnatal maternal separation in rats. Furthermore, in the same animals, we investigated how EEG power and sleep architecture were affected after exposure to a chronic mild stress protocol. During postnatal day 2-14 male rats were exposed to either long maternal separation (180 min) or brief maternal separation (10 min). Long maternally separated offspring showed a sleep-wake nonspecific reduction in adult EEG power at the frontal EEG derivation compared to the brief maternally separated group. The quality of slow wave sleep differed as the long maternally separated group showed lower delta power in the frontal-frontal EEG and a slower reduction of the sleep pressure. Exposure to chronic mild stress led to a lower EEG power in both groups. Chronic exposure to mild stressors affected sleep differently in the two groups of maternal separation. Long maternally separated offspring showed more total sleep time, more episodes of rapid eye movement sleep and higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement episodes ending in rapid eye movement sleep compared to brief maternal separation. Chronic stress affected similarly other sleep parameters and flattened the sleep homeostasis curves in all offspring. The results confirm that early environmental conditions modulate the brain functioning in a long-lasting way.

  11. Long-term changes in sleep and electroencephalographic activity by chronic vagus nerve stimulation in cats.

    Valdés-Cruz, Alejandro; Magdaleno-Madrigal, Victor M; Martínez-Vargas, David; Fernández-Mas, Rodrigo; Almazán-Alvarado, Salvador

    2008-04-01

    We previously reported the effect of vagus nerve electrical stimulation (VNS) on sleep and behavior in cats. The aim of the present study is to analyze the long-term effects of VNS on the electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectrum and on the different stages of the sleep-wakefulness cycle in the freely moving cat. To achieve this, six male cats were implanted with electrodes on the left vagal nerve and submitted to 15 rounds of 23 h continuous sleep recordings in three categories: baseline (BL), VNS and post-stimulus recording (PSR). The following parameters were analyzed: EEG power spectrum, total time and number of sleep phases, ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) wave density of the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and the number of times the narcoleptic reflex was present (sudden transition from wakefulness to REM sleep). Significant changes were detected, such as an enhancement of slow-wave sleep (SWS) stage II; a power increase in the bands corresponding to sleep spindles (8-14 Hz) and delta waves (1-4 Hz) with VNS and PSR; an increase in the total time, number of stages, and density of PGO wave in REM sleep with VNS; a decrease of wakefulness in PSR, and the eventual appearance of the narcoleptic reflex with VNS. The results show that the effect of the VNS changes during different stages of the sleep-wakefulness cycle. In REM sleep, the effect was present only during VNS, while the SWS II was affected beyond VNS periods. This suggests that ponto-medullar and thalamic mechanisms of slow EEG activity may be due to plastic changes elicited by vagal stimulation.

  12. Activity-based sleep-wake identification in infants.

    Sazonov, Edward; Sazonova, Nadezhda; Schuckers, Stephanie; Neuman, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Actigraphy offers one of the best-known alternatives to polysomnography for sleep-wake identification. The advantages of actigraphy include high accuracy, simplicity of use and low intrusiveness. These features allow the use of actigraphy for determining sleep-wake states in such highly sensitive groups as infants. This study utilizes a motion sensor (accelerometer) for a dual purpose: to determine an infant's position in the crib and to identify sleep-wake states. The accelerometer was positioned over the sacral region on the infant's diaper, unlike commonly used attachment to an ankle. Opposed to broadly used discriminant analysis, this study utilized logistic regression and neural networks as predictors. The accuracy of predicted sleep-wake states was established in comparison to the sleep-wake states recorded by technicians in a polysomnograph study. Both statistical and neural predictors of this study provide an accuracy of approximately 77-92% which is comparable to similar studies achieving prediction rates of 85-95%, thus validating the suggested methodology. The results support the use of body motion as a simple and reliable method for determining sleep-wake states in infants. Nonlinear mapping capabilities of the neural network benefit the accuracy of sleep-wake state identification. Utilization of the accelerometer for the dual purpose allows us to minimize intrusiveness of home infant monitors.

  13. [Neurobiological disturbances in insomnia: clinical utility of objective sleep measures].

    Pejović-Nikolić, Slobodanka

    2011-01-01

    Numerious studies conducted over the last 40 years assessing different physiological domains including autonomic nervous system status, whole body and brain metabolic rate, stress and immune system activity suggest that (1) insomnia is a disorder of physiologic hyperarousal present throughout 24-hour sleep-wake cycle, and (2) insomnia and sleep loss are two distinct states. Central nervous system hyperarousal, either as pre-existing and/or induced by psychiatric pathology and worsened by stressful events, as well as aging- and menopause-related physiological decline of sleep mechanisms appears to be at the core of this common sleep disorder. Finally, there is emerging evidence that the levels of physiologic hyperarousal are directly related to the degree of polysomnographically documented sleep disturbance in insomnia patients, suggesting that objective measures of sleep duration in insomnia may be a useful marker of the medical severity of the disorder.

  14. Sleep, sex steroid hormones, sexual activities, and aging in Asian men.

    Goh, Victor H-H; Tong, Terry Y-Y

    2010-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study to examine the different associations of age and sleep duration with sex steroid hormones and sexual activities in 531 Asian Chinese men aged between 29 and 72 years old. Sleep duration and sexual activities were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire, and total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol (E2), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were measured by established immunoassay methods in a single blood sample collected between 8:00 and 11:00 am. Bioavailable T (BioT) was calculated using the Vermeulen formula. Age was a major determinant of sleep, sex steroid hormones, and sexual activities in men. BioT, DHEAS, coital frequency, masturbation, and sleep duration declined with age. On the other hand, SHBG and E2 increased with age. Sleep duration, independently of age, aerobic exercise, and body fat, was positively associated with T and BioT, but not with DHEAS, E2, or any of the sexual activities studied. Men who masturbated had higher levels of both T and BioT. DHEAS was significantly associated with coital frequency and desire for sex. The present study showed that besides age, sleep duration was associated with androgen concentrations in men, and thus the evaluation of sleep hygiene may be beneficial in the management of men with low androgen concentrations. DHEAS may be independently associated with some sexual functions in men.

  15. Early gene activation initiates neuroinflammation prior to VSV neuroinvasion: Impact on antiviral responses and sleep.

    Ciavarra, Richard P; Lundberg, Patric; Machida, Mayumi; Ambrozewicz, Marta A; Wellman, Laurie L; Breving, Kimberly; Steel, Christina; Sanford, Larry D

    2017-02-15

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is rapidly and persistently suppressed during vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) encephalitis in C57Bl/6J (B6) mice. REM sleep suppression was associated with a complex global brain chemokine/cytokine response with bimodal kinetics although regionally distinct cytokine profiles were readily identified. Cytokine mRNA was translated either immediately or suppressed until the pathogen was cleared from the CNS. Innate signaling pathway (TLRs, RIG-I) activation occurred rapidly and sequentially prior to VSV neuroinvasion suggesting that antiviral states are quickly established in the CNS in advance of viral pathogen penetration. Il1β suppressed REM sleep mimicking aspects of VSV-induced sleep alterations whereas some robustly induced chemokines may be protective of REM. Thus, multiple brain chemokines may mediate sleep across VSV encephalitis via differential somnogenic effects.

  16. Sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents: associations with TV watching and leisure-time physical activity.

    Ortega, Francisco B; Chillón, Palma; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Delgado, Manuel; Albers, Ulrike; Alvarez-Granda, Jesús L; Marcos, Ascensión; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2010-10-01

    We aimed to describe the sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents and to examine the relationships of sleep duration and morning tiredness with participation in leisure-time physical-sporting activities (LT-PA) and television (TV) watching. Sleep duration, morning tiredness, participation in LT-PA and time spent on watching TV were reported by 2,179 (1,139 females) Spanish adolescents (AVENA study). Data were analyzed by binary logistic regression. One-fifth of the adolescents reported insufficient night sleep (sleep as long as adolescents from central Europe, and longer than those from other Mediterranean countries, South Africa, Asia and North America. Insufficient sleep duration doubled the odds of excessive TV watching (≥3 h/day) in males, regardless of morning tiredness (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.42-3.27). Morning tiredness reduced the odds of participating in any LT-PA in both males and females (0.49, 0.34-0.70 and 0.49, 0.35-0.69, respectively), and increased the odds of excessive TV watching in females, regardless of sleep duration (2.49, 1.64-3.79). We conclude that non-participation in LT-PA is associated with morning tiredness in male and female adolescents, while excessive TV watching is more associated with short sleep or morning tiredness depending on gender.

  17. Relation between sleep quality and physical activity in chronic heart failure patients.

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi; Oka, Koichiro; Hiraki, Koji; Morio, Yuji; Kasahara, Yusuke; Takeichi, Naoya; Tsukamoto, Takae; Osada, Naohiko; Omiya, Kazuto; Makuuchi, Haruo

    2011-09-01

    To determine self-reported sleep quality-related differences in physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and target values of PA for high-quality sleep in chronic heart failure (CHF) outpatients, 149 CHF outpatients (mean age 58 years) were divided into two groups by sleep-quality level determined via self-reported questionnaire: shallow sleep (SS) group (n = 77) and deep sleep (DS) group (n = 72). Steps were assessed by electronic pedometer, HRQOL was assessed with the Short Form 36 (SF-36) survey, and data were compared between groups. PA resulting in high-quality sleep was determined by receiver-operating characteristics curves. All SF-36 subscale scores except that of bodily pain were significantly decreased in the SS versus DS group. A cutoff value of 5723.6 steps/day and 156.4 Kcal/day for 1 week were determined as target values for PA. Sleep quality may affect PA and HRQOL, and attaining target values of PA may improve sleep quality and HRQOL of CHF outpatients. Patents relevant to heart failure are also discussed in this article.

  18. Application of histamine or serotonin to the hypoglossal nucleus increases genioglossus muscle activity across the wake-sleep cycle.

    Neuzeret, Pierre-Charles; Sakai, Kazuya; Gormand, Frédéric; Petitjean, Thierry; Buda, Colette; Sastre, Jean-Pierre; Parrot, Sandrine; Guidon, Gérard; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2009-03-01

    The decrease in genioglossus (GG) muscle activity during sleep, especially rapid eye movement (REM) or paradoxical sleep, can lead to airway occlusion and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The hypoglossal nucleus innervating the GG muscle is under the control of serotonergic, noradrenergic and histaminergic neurons that cease firing during paradoxical sleep. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect on GG muscle activity during different wake-sleep states of the microdialysis application of serotonin, histamine (HA) or noradrenaline (NE) to the hypoglossal nucleus in freely moving cats. Six adult cats were implanted with electroencephalogram, electro-oculogram and neck electromyogram electrodes to record wake-sleep states and with GG muscle and diaphragm electrodes to record respiratory muscle activity. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the hypoglossal nucleus for monoamine application. Changes in GG muscle activity were assessed by power spectrum analysis. In the baseline conditions, tonic GG muscle activity decreased progressively and significantly from wakefulness to slow-wave sleep and even further during slow-wave sleep with ponto-geniculo-occipital waves and paradoxical sleep. Application of serotonin or HA significantly increased GG muscle activity during the wake-sleep states when compared with controls. By contrast, NE had no excitatory effect. Our results indicate that both serotonin and HA have a potent excitatory action on GG muscle activity, suggesting multiple aminergic control of upper airway muscle activity during the wake-sleep cycle. These data might help in the development of pharmacological approaches for the treatment of OSA.

  19. Spindle-like activity appearing during paradoxical sleep in rats with iron-induced cortical focus.

    Uezu,Eiko

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Under barbiturate anesthesia, male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were injected with 2.5 microliters of 0.2 M FeCl3 solution into the left sensori-motor cortex to induce an epileptic focus with minimal abnormal activities. Polygraphy started 1 week after the surgery, showed a spindle-like hypersynchronous activity that appeared not only in the slow wave sleep period but also during paradoxical sleep (PS. This activity had a frequency of 8-14 Hz. The amplitude was more than 200 mu v in the right (non-injected side cortex but very small in the left cortex (injected side. Isolated spike discharges were observed in an ECoG of slow wave sleep. Apart from this activity there was nothing resembling the usual sleep spindles.

  20. Evaluation of neuromuscular activity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea using chin surface electromyography of polysomnography

    YIN Guo-ping; YE Jing-ying; HAN De-min; WANG Xiao-yi; ZHANG Yu-huan; LI Yan-ru

    2013-01-01

    Background It is believed that defects in upper airway neuromuscular control play a role in sleep apnea pathogenesis.Currently,there is no simple and non-invasive method for evaluating neuromuscular activity for the purpose of screening in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.This study was designed to assess the validity of chin surface electromyography of routine polysomnography in evaluating the neuromuscular activity of obstructive sleep apnea subjects and probe the neuromuscular contribution in the pathogenesis of the condition.Methods The chin surface electromyography of routine polysomnography during normal breathing and obstructive apnea were quantified in 36 male patients with obstructive sleep apnea.The change of chin surface electromyography from normal breathing to obstructive apnea was expressed as the percent compensated electromyography value,where the percent compensated electromyography value =(normal breath surface electromyography-apnea surface electromyography)/normal breath surface electromyography,and the percent compensated electromyography values among subjects were compared.The relationship between sleep apnea related parameters and the percent compensated electromyography value was examined.Results The percent compensated electromyography value of the subjects varied from 1% to 90% and had a significant positive correlation with apnea hypopnea index (R2=0.382,P <0.001).Conclusions Recording and analyzing chin surface electromyography by routine polysomnography is a valid way of screening the neuromuscular activity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.The neuromuscular contribution is different among subjects with obstructive sleep apnea.

  1. Increased sleep spindle activity in patients with Costello syndrome (HRAS gene mutation).

    Della Marca, Giacomo; Leoni, Chiara; Dittoni, Serena; Battaglia, Domenica; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Colicchio, Salvatore; Gnoni, Valentina; Gambardella, Maria L; Mariotti, Paolo; Alfieri, Paolo; Tartaglia, Marco; Zampino, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Costello syndrome is a congenital disorder because of HRAS gene mutation, frequently associated with neurologic impairment and sleep disorders. The aims of the study were to evaluate the sleep EEG, and particularly the sleep spindles, in a population of patients with Costello syndrome and to compare them with those characterizing unaffected subjects. Eleven subjects (5 men and 6 women) with Costello syndrome were included in the study; age ranged between 18 months and 31 years (mean, 9.6 ± 9.4 years). The diagnosis was posed on the basis of established clinical criteria and confirmed molecularly. Sleep EEG was studied by means of full-night, laboratory-based video-polysomnography, performed overnight, during hospitalization. Sleep activity was quantified by means of power spectral analysis. Patients heterozygous for an HRAS mutation exhibited increased EEG power in 12- to 15-Hz activity band compared with age-matched control subjects. In conclusion, the authors observed a consistent increase in the amplitude of cortical sleep spindles in all our subjects with an HRAS mutation. These "giant" spindles were not associated with any evidence of structural damage of the cortex or the thalami and should be considered as phenotypic feature of sleep EEG activity in Costello syndrome because of HRAS mutation.

  2. Remote long-term registrations of sleep-wake rhythms, core body temperature and activity in marmoset monkeys

    Hoffmann, Kerstin; Coolen, Alex; Schlumbohm, Christina; Meerlo, Peter; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    Initial studies in the day active marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) indicate that the sleep-wake cycle of these non-human primates resembles that of humans and therefore conceivably represent an appropriate model for human sleep. The methods currently employed for sleep studies in marmosets are l

  3. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induces an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete rat brain regions

    Benedito M.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity

  4. Spindle Activity Orchestrates Plasticity during Development and Sleep

    Christoph Lindemann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spindle oscillations have been described during early brain development and in the adult brain. Besides similarities in temporal patterns and involved brain areas, neonatal spindle bursts (NSBs and adult sleep spindles (ASSs show differences in their occurrence, spatial distribution, and underlying mechanisms. While NSBs have been proposed to coordinate the refinement of the maturating neuronal network, ASSs are associated with the implementation of acquired information within existing networks. Along with these functional differences, separate synaptic plasticity mechanisms seem to be recruited. Here, we review the generation of spindle oscillations in the developing and adult brain and discuss possible implications of their differences for synaptic plasticity. The first part of the review is dedicated to the generation and function of ASSs with a particular focus on their role in healthy and impaired neuronal networks. The second part overviews the present knowledge of spindle activity during development and the ability of NSBs to organize immature circuits. Studies linking abnormal maturation of brain wiring with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders highlight the importance to better elucidate neonatal plasticity rules in future research.

  5. Quantitative differences among EMG activities of muscles innervated by subpopulations of hypoglossal and upper spinal motoneurons during non-REM sleep - REM sleep transitions: a window on neural processes in the sleeping brain.

    Rukhadze, I; Kamani, H; Kubin, L

    2011-12-01

    In the rat, a species widely used to study the neural mechanisms of sleep and motor control, lingual electromyographic activity (EMG) is minimal during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep and then phasic twitches gradually increase after the onset of REM sleep. To better characterize the central neural processes underlying this pattern, we quantified EMG of muscles innervated by distinct subpopulations of hypoglossal motoneurons and nuchal (N) EMG during transitions from non-REM sleep to REM sleep. In 8 chronically instrumented rats, we recorded cortical EEG, EMG at sites near the base of the tongue where genioglossal and intrinsic muscle fibers predominate (GG-I), EMG of the geniohyoid (GH) muscle, and N EMG. Sleep-wake states were identified and EMGs quantified relative to their mean levels in wakefulness in successive 10 s epochs. During non-REM sleep, the average EMG levels differed among the three muscles, with the order being N>GH>GG-I. During REM sleep, due to different magnitudes of phasic twitches, the order was reversed to GG-I>GH>N. GG-I and GH exhibited a gradual increase of twitching that peaked at 70-120 s after the onset of REM sleep and then declined if the REM sleep episode lasted longer. We propose that a common phasic excitatory generator impinges on motoneuron pools that innervate different muscles, but twitching magnitudes are different due to different levels of tonic motoneuronal hyperpolarization. We also propose that REM sleep episodes of average durations are terminated by intense activity of the central generator of phasic events, whereas long REM sleep episodes end as a result of a gradual waning of the tonic disfacilitatory and inhibitory processes.

  6. Fear extinction memory consolidation requires potentiation of pontine-wave activity during REM sleep.

    Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W

    2013-03-06

    Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that these animals exhibited an increase in phasic pontine-wave (P-wave) activity during post-training REM sleep, which was absent in the 43% of animals that failed to retain fear extinction memory. The results of this study provide evidence that brainstem activation, specifically potentiation of phasic P-wave activity, during post-training REM sleep is critical for consolidation of fear extinction memory. The results of this study also suggest that, contrary to the popular hypothesis of sleep and memory, increased sleep after training alone does not guarantee consolidation and/or retention of fear extinction memory. Rather, the potentiation of specific sleep-dependent physiological events may be a more accurate predictor for successful consolidation of fear extinction memory. Identification of this unique mechanism will significantly improve our present understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the sleep-dependent regulation of emotional memory. Additionally, this discovery may also initiate development of a new, more targeted treatment method for clinical disorders of fear and anxiety in humans that is more efficacious than existing methods such as exposure therapy that incorporate only fear extinction.

  7. Enhanced Frontoparietal Synchronized Activation During the Wake-Sleep Transition in Patients with Primary Insomnia

    Corsi-Cabrera, María; Figueredo-Rodríguez, Pedro; del Río-Portilla, Yolanda; Sánchez-Romero, Jorge; Galán, Lídice; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive and brain hyperactivation have been associated with trouble falling asleep and sleep misperception in patients with primary insomnia (PI). Activation and synchronization/temporal coupling in frontal and frontoparietal regions involved in executive control and endogenous attention might be implicated in these symptoms. Methods: Standard polysomnography (PSG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) were recorded in 10 unmedicated young patients (age 19-34 yr) with PI with no other sleep/medical condition, and in 10 matched control subjects. Absolute power, temporal coupling, and topographic source distribution (variable resolution electromagnetic tomography or VARETA) were obtained for all time spent in waking, Stage 1 and Stage 2 of the wake-sleep transition period (WSTP), and the first 3 consecutive min of N3. Subjective sleep quality and continuity were evaluated. Results: In comparison with control subjects, patients with PI exhibited significantly higher frontal beta power and current density, and beta and gamma frontoparietal temporal coupling during waking and Stage 1. Conclusion: These findings suggest that frontal deactivation and disengagement of brain regions involved in executive control, attention, and self-awareness are impaired in patients with PI. The persistence of this activated and coherent network during the wake-sleep transition period (WSTP) may contribute to a better understanding of underlying mechanisms involved in difficulty in falling asleep, in sleep misperception, and in the lighter, poorer, and nonrefreshing sleep experienced by some patients with PI. Citation: Corsi-Cabrera M; Figueredo-Roríguez P; del Río-Portilla Y; Sánchez-Romero J; Galán L; Bosch-Bayard J. Enhanced frontoparietal synchronized activation during the wake-sleep transition in patients with primary insomnia. SLEEP 2012;35(4):501-511. PMID:22467988

  8. Physical activity and the association with fatigue and sleep in Danish patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Loppenthin, K.; Esbensen, B. A.; Østergaard, M.;

    2015-01-01

    . An inverse univariate association was found between moderate to vigorous physical activity, and fatigue (MFI mental, MFI activity, MFI physical and MFI general), sleep, diabetes, depression, pain, patient global assessment, HAQ and disease activity. The multivariate prediction model demonstrated that fatigue......The aim of this study was to examine physical activity behavior in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to identify potential correlates of regular physical activity including fatigue, sleep, pain, physical function and disease activity. A total of 443 patients were recruited from a rheumatology...... outpatient clinic and included in this cross-sectional study. Physical activity was assessed by a four-class questionnaire, in addition to the Physical Activity Scale. Other instruments included the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Health Assessment...

  9. Physical activity and psychiatric symptoms in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Snethen, Gretchen A; McCormick, Bryan P; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-12-01

    People diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) experience significant health disparity due to cardiovascular disease. One key to cardiovascular health is physical activity (PA). In addition, sedentary behavior is recognized as a health threat, independent of PA levels. The current study sought to identify the relationship of psychiatric symptoms of SSD to measured PA and sedentary behavior. Findings indicated that less than half of the sample obtained the recommended minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per week. Subjects who were younger and had greater cognitive disorganization engaged in more minutes of MVPA. In contrast, sedentary behavior was only associated with aspects of metacognitive functioning, such that subjects who had greater ability for forming integrated representations of themselves and the related capacity to use knowledge of themselves spent less time in sedentary behaviors. This study expands upon the limited literature available on individuals with SSD and PA levels.

  10. Pink noise: effect on complexity synchronization of brain activity and sleep consolidation.

    Zhou, Junhong; Liu, Dongdong; Li, Xin; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2012-08-07

    In this study, we hypothesized that steady pink noise is able to change the complexity of brain activities into a characteristic level and it might have significant effect on improving sleep stability. First, we carried out the brain synchronization test in which electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of 6 subjects were recorded. The whole experiment procedure was divided into 5 blocks in the alternative feeding process of 10-min quiet and 10-min noise. After the complexity analysis of fractal dimension, we found that the complexity of the EEG signals decreased with the introduction of the pink noise exposure, showing the brain waves tended to synchronize with the pink noise induction to reach a low level. For the sleep quality experiment, 40 subjects were recruited the group of nocturnal sleep experiment and 10 participants were chosen for nap test. Each subjects slept for two consecutive experimental periods, of which one is pink noise exposed and the other is quiet. For both nocturnal sleep and nap tests, the results in the noise exposure group showed significant enhancement in the percentage of stable sleep time compared to the control group based on the analysis of electrocardiography (ECG) signal with cardiopulmonary coupling approach. This study demonstrates that steady pink noise has significant effect on reducing brain wave complexity and inducing more stable sleep time to improve sleep quality of individuals.

  11. Experienced Mindfulness Meditators Exhibit Higher Parietal-Occipital EEG Gamma Activity during NREM Sleep

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years meditation practice has gained increasing attention as a non-pharmacological intervention to provide health related benefits, from promoting general wellness to alleviating the symptoms of a variety of medical conditions. However, the effects of meditation training on brain activity still need to be fully characterized. Sleep provides a unique approach to explore the meditation-related plastic changes in brain function. In this study we performed sleep high-density...

  12. Co-Morbidity, Mortality, Quality of Life and the Healthcare/Welfare/Social Costs of Disordered Sleep: A Rapid Review

    Garbarino, Sergio; Lanteri, Paola; Durando, Paolo; Magnavita, Nicola; Sannita, Walter G.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disorders are frequent (18%–23%) and constitute a major risk factor for psychiatric, cardiovascular, metabolic or hormonal co-morbidity and mortality. Low social status or income, unemployment, life events such as divorce, negative lifestyle habits, and professional requirements (e.g., shift work) are often associated with sleep problems. Sleep disorders affect the quality of life and impair both professional and non-professional activities. Excessive daytime drowsiness resulting from sleep disorders impairs efficiency and safety at work or on the road, and increases the risk of accidents. Poor sleep (either professional or voluntary) has detrimental effects comparable to those of major sleep disorders, but is often neglected. The high incidence and direct/indirect healthcare and welfare costs of sleep disorders and poor sleep currently constitute a major medical problem. Investigation, monitoring and strategies are needed in order to prevent/reduce the effects of these disorders. PMID:27548196

  13. Co-Morbidity, Mortality, Quality of Life and the Healthcare/Welfare/Social Costs of Disordered Sleep: A Rapid Review

    Sergio Garbarino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disorders are frequent (18%–23% and constitute a major risk factor for psychiatric, cardiovascular, metabolic or hormonal co-morbidity and mortality. Low social status or income, unemployment, life events such as divorce, negative lifestyle habits, and professional requirements (e.g., shift work are often associated with sleep problems. Sleep disorders affect the quality of life and impair both professional and non-professional activities. Excessive daytime drowsiness resulting from sleep disorders impairs efficiency and safety at work or on the road, and increases the risk of accidents. Poor sleep (either professional or voluntary has detrimental effects comparable to those of major sleep disorders, but is often neglected. The high incidence and direct/indirect healthcare and welfare costs of sleep disorders and poor sleep currently constitute a major medical problem. Investigation, monitoring and strategies are needed in order to prevent/reduce the effects of these disorders.

  14. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  15. The relationship between physical activity, sleep duration and depressive symptoms in older adults: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA

    Victoria Garfield

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research to date suggests that physical activity (PA is associated with distinct aspects of sleep, but studies have predominantly focused on sleep quality, been carried out in younger adults, and have not accounted for many covariates. Of particular interest is also the reported relationship between physical activity and depression in older adults and as such, their associations with sleep duration. Here we examine the cross-sectional relation between physical activity and sleep duration in a community-dwelling sample of 5265 older adults from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We analysed the data using multiple regression, with physical activity as a categorical exposure and sleep duration a continuous outcome, as well as testing the interaction between physical activity and depressive symptoms, which was significant (p  0.05. Our findings suggest that a potentially effective way of improving sleep in older adults with depressive symptoms is via physical activity interventions.

  16. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  17. Parent reports of sleep disturbances in stimulant-medicated children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Day, H D; Abmayr, S B

    1998-08-01

    In a study of the severity of sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who are taking stimulant medication, parents of 20 children diagnosed as having ADHD and on medication, 20 unmedicated children with some other psychiatric diagnosis (OPD), and 20 nonclinical control children responded to a 40-question structured interview to report the frequency of their children's sleep disturbances occurring during a 1-month interval. Parents of children in the ADHD group reported significantly more problems than parents of children in the other groups on variables within all three categories of behaviors: (a) settling and going to sleep, (b) disruptions during sleep, and (c) morning activities. From 25% to 50% of these parents reported very frequent difficulties in their children settling and going to sleep. These findings indicate that monitoring sleep-related behaviors and providing adjunctive therapies for sleep-related disturbances would be beneficial for many families with ADHD children who are taking stimulant medication.

  18. Sleep duration and activity levels in Estonian and Swedish children and adolescents.

    Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Labayen, Idoia; Kwak, Lydia; Harro, Jaanus; Oja, Leila; Veidebaum, Toomas; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We aimed to examine the associations of sleep duration with time spent on sedentary, moderate and vigorous activities in children and adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,241 (53.5% girls) Estonian and Swedish children (9-10 years) and adolescents (15-16 years), from the European Youth Heart Study, in 1998-1999. Sleep duration was calculated by the difference between self-reported bedtime and time for getting up on a normal weekday. Sedentary time/physical activity was measured by accelerometry (valid data on 1,462 participants). Adolescents had lower odds than children, and Swedish higher odds than Estonian, of meeting the sleep recommendations (>9 h) (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.17-0.27; and 1.32, 1.07-1.61, respectively). Participants sleeping longer than 10 h spent more time on physical activities (all intensities) and less time on sedentary activities than those sleeping shorter durations (all P < 0.001). The associations with physical activity became non-significant after additional adjustment for age or sexual maturation (Tanner stages), whereas the associations with sedentary time became borderline significant (P = 0.09/0.03, for age and Tanner, respectively). In conclusion, these results do not suggest a link between sleep durations and activity in a relatively large sample of children and adolescents from two European countries. Consequently, the common assumption that physical activity is a mediator in the relationship between short sleep durations and obesity is not supported by our findings.

  19. Impact of traumatic brain injury on sleep structure, electrocorticographic activity and transcriptome in mice.

    Sabir, Meriem; Gaudreault, Pierre-Olivier; Freyburger, Marlène; Massart, Renaud; Blanchet-Cohen, Alexis; Jaber, Manar; Gosselin, Nadia; Mongrain, Valérie

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mild TBI (mTBI), is importantly associated with vigilance and sleep complaints. Because sleep is required for learning, plasticity and recovery, we here evaluated the bidirectional relationship between mTBI and sleep with two specific objectives: (1) Test that mTBI rapidly impairs sleep-wake architecture and the dynamics of the electrophysiological marker of sleep homeostasis (i.e., non-rapid eye movement sleep delta (1-4Hz) activity); (2) evaluate the impact of sleep loss following mTBI on the expression of plasticity markers that have been linked to sleep homeostasis and on genome-wide gene expression. A closed-head injury model was used to perform a 48h electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording in mice submitted to mTBI or Sham surgery. mTBI was found to immediately decrease the capacity to sustain long bouts of wakefulness as well as the amplitude of the time course of ECoG delta activity during wakefulness. Significant changes in ECoG spectral activity during wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep were observed mainly on the second recorded day. A second experiment was performed to measure gene expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus after a mTBI followed either by two consecutive days of 6h sleep deprivation (SD) or of undisturbed behavior (quantitative PCR and next-generation sequencing). mTBI modified the expression of genes involved in immunity, inflammation and glial function (e.g., chemokines, glial markers) and SD changed that of genes linked to circadian rhythms, synaptic activity/neuronal plasticity, neuroprotection and cell death and survival. SD appeared to affect gene expression in the cerebral cortex more importantly after mTBI than Sham surgery including that of the astrocytic marker Gfap, which was proposed as a marker of clinical outcome after TBI. Interestingly, SD impacted the hippocampal expression of the plasticity elements Arc and EfnA3 only after mTBI. Overall, our

  20. Sleep- and wake-dependent changes in neuronal activity and reactivity demonstrated in fly neurons using in vivo calcium imaging.

    Bushey, Daniel; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2015-04-14

    Sleep in Drosophila shares many features with mammalian sleep, but it remains unknown whether spontaneous and evoked activity of individual neurons change with the sleep/wake cycle in flies as they do in mammals. Here we used calcium imaging to assess how the Kenyon cells in the fly mushroom bodies change their activity and reactivity to stimuli during sleep, wake, and after short or long sleep deprivation. As before, sleep was defined as a period of immobility of >5 min associated with a reduced behavioral response to a stimulus. We found that calcium levels in Kenyon cells decline when flies fall asleep and increase when they wake up. Moreover, calcium transients in response to two different stimuli are larger in awake flies than in sleeping flies. The activity of Kenyon cells is also affected by sleep/wake history: in awake flies, more cells are spontaneously active and responding to stimuli if the last several hours (5-8 h) before imaging were spent awake rather than asleep. By contrast, long wake (≥29 h) reduces both baseline and evoked neural activity and decreases the ability of neurons to respond consistently to the same repeated stimulus. The latter finding may underlie some of the negative effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance and is consistent with the occurrence of local sleep during wake as described in behaving rats. Thus, calcium imaging uncovers new similarities between fly and mammalian sleep: fly neurons are more active and reactive in wake than in sleep, and their activity tracks sleep/wake history.

  1. Measure of sleep and physical activity by a single accelerator

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2012-01-01

    -dominant wrist for a continuous 7 days and 8 nights. The minute-by-minute sleep–wake agreement was evaluated and the concordance among sleep indicators was assessed using one-way ANOVA, Bland–Altman plots and Pearson correlations. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 98.8–99.7, 29.8–46.9 and 86...

  2. Disturbances in the circadian pattern of activity and sleep after laparoscopic versus open abdominal surgery

    Gögenur, Ismail; Bisgaard, Thue; Burgdorf, Stefan;

    2008-01-01

    scale (sleep quality, general well-being and pain) and fatigue was measured by a ten-point fatigue scale. The activity levels of the patients were monitored by actigraphy (a wrist-worn device measuring patient activity). Measures of circadian activity level [interday stability (IS), intraday variability...

  3. Neuroimaging of sleep and sleep disorders.

    Nofzinger, Eric A

    2006-03-01

    Herein are presented the results of research in the area of sleep neuroimaging over the past year. Significant work has been performed to clarify the basic mechanisms of sleep in humans. New studies also extend prior observations regarding altered brain activation in response to sleep deprivation by adding information regarding vulnerability to sleep deprivation and regarding the influence of task difficulty on aberrant responses. Studies in sleep disorder medicine have yielded significant findings in insomnia, depression, and restless legs syndrome. Extensive advances have been made in the area of sleep apnea where physiologic challenges have been used to probe brain activity in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea syndrome.

  4. Associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity, and body weight among Canadian adults.

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity and body weight among Canadian adults, and tested whether trouble sleeping and physical activity moderated the relationship between work/life stress and body weight, and whether work/life stress and physical activity moderated the relationship between trouble sleeping and body weight. Data on 13,926 Canadian adults aged 20years and older were derived from the nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, household income, marital status and job insecurity, self-perceived work and life stress and trouble sleeping were associated with a higher BMI. The associations of work and life stress with higher BMI were independent of trouble sleeping and physical activity in addition to other covariates, while that of trouble sleeping and higher BMI was independent of work and life stress. Results further indicated that trouble sleeping among inactive participants was related to a higher BMI; however, this relationship was almost null for adults who self-reported being physically active for about 8h/week. These findings suggest that work and life stress are both associated with excess weight in adults, regardless of physical activity level, while the link of trouble sleeping with BMI varies by physical activity level. Future research is necessary to determine whether reducing work and life stress and improving sleep habits would benefit the prevention of weight gain and obesity.

  5. Masticatory Muscle Sleep Background EMG Activity is Elevated in Myofascial TMD Patients

    Raphael, Karen G.; Janal, Malvin N.; Sirois, David A.; Dubrovsky, Boris; Wigren, Pia E.; Klausner, Jack J.; Krieger, Ana C.; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n=124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n=46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artifacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non SB-event periods was significantly higher (p<.01) for women with myofascial TMD (median=3.31 μV and mean=4.98 μV) than for control women (median=2.83 μV and mean=3.88 μV) with median activity in 72% of cases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0–10 numerical scale) on post sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance. PMID:24237356

  6. Masticatory muscle sleep background electromyographic activity is elevated in myofascial temporomandibular disorder patients.

    Raphael, K G; Janal, M N; Sirois, D A; Dubrovsky, B; Wigren, P E; Klausner, J J; Krieger, A C; Lavigne, G J

    2013-12-01

    Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n = 124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n = 46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artefacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non-SB event periods was significantly higher (P myofascial TMD (median = 3·31 μV and mean = 4·98 μV) than for control women (median = 2·83 μV and mean = 3·88 μV) with median activity in 72% of cases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0-10 numerical scale) on post-sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance.

  7. TMS-induced cortical potentiation during wakefulness locally increases slow wave activity during sleep.

    Reto Huber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep slow wave activity (SWA is thought to reflect sleep need, increasing in proportion to the length of prior wakefulness and decreasing during sleep. However, the process responsible for SWA regulation is not known. We showed recently that SWA increases locally after a learning task involving a circumscribed brain region, suggesting that SWA may reflect plastic changes triggered by learning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis directly, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in conjunction with high-density EEG in humans. We show that 5-Hz TMS applied to motor cortex induces a localized potentiation of TMS-evoked cortical EEG responses. We then show that, in the sleep episode following 5-Hz TMS, SWA increases markedly (+39.1+/-17.4%, p<0.01, n = 10. Electrode coregistration with magnetic resonance images localized the increase in SWA to the same premotor site as the maximum TMS-induced potentiation during wakefulness. Moreover, the magnitude of potentiation during wakefulness predicts the local increase in SWA during sleep. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide direct evidence for a link between plastic changes and the local regulation of sleep need.

  8. The impact of allergic rhinitis on sexual activity, sleep, and fatigue.

    Benninger, Michael S; Benninger, Ryan M

    2009-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) has been found to impact the daily activities of allergic patients. This includes the effects on sleep and chronic fatigue. The effect of AR on sexual function has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of AR on sexual function, sleep, and fatigue. The Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI) is a quality of life (QOL), validated outcomes tool that assesses how AR affects QOL. Specific questions address the adverse consequence on sexual function, sleep, and fatigue. Four subsets of patient with AR who completed the RSDI were evaluated for the specific questions as well as the physical, emotional, functional, and total scores. The scores were compared with a cohort of normal subjects, patients with a diffuse group of rhinologic disorders, and patients scheduled for septal surgery (non-AR patients). Patients with AR had significantly higher (worse) sexual and sleep RSDI scores than the non-AR patients and normal subjects. Although the AR subjects also had significantly higher fatigue RSDI scores than the normal subjects, there was no significant difference between the AR and non-AR patients' fatigue scores. Non-AR patients had significantly higher sexual, sleep, and fatigue RSDI scores than the normal subjects. AR has a significant negative impact on sexual function and can result in sleep disturbances and fatigue as measured by the RSDI.

  9. Impact of acetazolamide and CPAP on cortical activity in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    Katrin Stadelmann

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVES: 1 To investigate the impact of acetazolamide, a drug commonly prescribed for altitude sickness, on cortical oscillations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. 2 To examine alterations in the sleep EEG after short-term discontinuation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy. DESIGN: Data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized cross-over design studies were analyzed. SETTING: Polysomnographic recordings in sleep laboratory at 490 m and at moderate altitudes in the Swiss Alps: 1630 or 1860 m and 2590 m. PATIENTS: Study 1: 39 OSAS patients. Study 2: 41 OSAS patients. INTERVENTIONS: Study 1: OSAS patients withdrawn from treatment with CPAP. Study 2: OSAS patients treated with autoCPAP. Treatment with acetazolamide (500-750 mg or placebo at moderate altitudes. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: An evening dose of 500 mg acetazolamide reduced slow-wave activity (SWA; approximately 10% and increased spindle activity (approximately 10% during non-REM sleep. In addition, alpha activity during wake after lights out was increased. An evening dose of 250 mg did not affect these cortical oscillations. Discontinuation of CPAP therapy revealed a reduction in SWA (5-10% and increase in beta activity (approximately 25%. CONCLUSIONS: The higher evening dose of 500 mg acetazolamide showed the "spectral fingerprint" of Benzodiazepines, while 250 mg acetazolamide had no impact on cortical oscillations. However, both doses had beneficial effects on oxygen saturation and sleep quality.

  10. Converging genetic and functional brain imaging evidence links neuronal excitability to working memory, psychiatric disease, and brain activity

    Heck, Angela; Fastenrath, Matthias; Ackermann, Sandra; Auschra, Bianca; Bickel, Horst; Coynel, David; Gschwind, Leo; Jessen, Frank; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; Maier, Wolfgang; Milnik, Annette; Pentzek, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Ripke, Stephan; Spalek, Klara

    2014-01-01

    Working memory, the capacity of actively maintaining task-relevant information during a cognitive task, is a heritable trait. Working memory deficits are characteristic for many psychiatric disorders. We performed genome-wide gene-set enrichment analyses in multiple independent data sets of young and aged cognitively healthy subjects (n = 2’824), and in a large schizophrenia case-control sample (n = 32’143). The voltage-gated cation channel activity gene-set, consisting of genes related to ne...

  11. Emotion in younger and older adults: retrospective and prospective associations with sleep and physical activity.

    Ready, Rebecca E; Marquez, David X; Akerstedt, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Older adults may have superior emotion regulation skills than younger adults and the authors suggest that as emotion regulation capacities increase with age, emotions may be less swayed by external events or even by internal traits. The current retrospective and prospective study further tested this hypothesis by determining if the emotions of younger adults were more reactive to two behaviors (i.e., physical activity, sleep) than for older adults. Results supported predictions. Specifically, retrospective self-reports and prospective diary data about physical activity and sleep exhibited stronger associations with emotion for younger than older persons. Implications for emotional well-being across the life span are discussed.

  12. Role of physical activity and sleep duration in growth and body composition of preschool-aged children

    The impact of physical activity patterns and sleep duration on growth and body composition of preschool-aged children remains unresolved. Aims were (1) to delineate cross-sectional associations among physical activity components, sleep, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body size and composition; ...

  13. Targeting kynurenine aminotransferase II in psychiatric diseases: promising effects of an orally active enzyme inhibitor.

    Wu, Hui-Qiu; Okuyama, Masahiro; Kajii, Yasushi; Pocivavsek, Ana; Bruno, John P; Schwarcz, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Increased brain levels of the tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) have been linked to cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia and other psychiatric diseases. In the rat, local inhibition of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), the enzyme responsible for the neosynthesis of readily mobilizable KYNA in the brain, leads to a prompt reduction in extracellular KYNA levels, and secondarily induces an increase in extracellular glutamate, dopamine, and acetylcholine levels in several brain areas. Using microdialysis in unanesthetized, adult rats, we now show that the novel, systemically active KAT II inhibitor BFF-816, applied orally at 30 mg/kg in all experiments, mimics the effects of local enzyme inhibition. No tolerance was seen when animals were treated daily for 5 consecutive days. Behaviorally, daily injections of BFF-816 significantly decreased escape latency in the Morris water maze, indicating improved performance in spatial and contextual memory. Thus, systemically applied BFF-816 constitutes an excellent tool for studying the neurobiology of KYNA and, in particular, for investigating the mechanisms linking KAT II inhibition to changes in glutamatergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic function in brain physiology and pathology.

  14. Computerized monitoring of physical activity and sleep in postoperative abdominal surgery patients

    Bisgaard, T; Kjaersgaard, M; Bernhard, A

    1999-01-01

    .15). In both study groups, all correlation coefficients between actigraphy measurements and self-reported activity data were statistically significant (r, values for patients 0.4 to 0.8 and volunteers 0.6 to 0.9). A higher mean agreement between automated actigraphy sleep detection and self-reported sleep...... registration were found in the volunteers (85%, SD 15%) compared with the patients (77%, SD 11%) (p value awake was higher in the volunteers than in the patients (p ...: The study included twelve hospitalized patients after major abdominal surgery studied on day 2 to 4 after operation and twelve unhospitalized healthy volunteers. Measurements were performed for 24 consecutive hours. The actigraphy measurements were compared with self-reported activity- and sleep...

  15. The effects of caffeine on sleep in Drosophila require PKA activity, but not the adenosine receptor.

    Wu, Mark N; Ho, Karen; Crocker, Amanda; Yue, Zhifeng; Koh, Kyunghee; Sehgal, Amita

    2009-09-02

    Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed stimulants in the world and has been proposed to promote wakefulness by antagonizing function of the adenosine A2A receptor. Here, we show that chronic administration of caffeine reduces and fragments sleep in Drosophila and also lengthens circadian period. To identify the mechanisms underlying these effects of caffeine, we first generated mutants of the only known adenosine receptor in flies (dAdoR), which by sequence is most similar to the mammalian A2A receptor. Mutants lacking dAdoR have normal amounts of baseline sleep, as well as normal homeostatic responses to sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, these mutants respond normally to caffeine. On the other hand, the effects of caffeine on sleep and circadian rhythms are mimicked by a potent phosphodiesterase inhibitor, IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine). Using in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging, we find that caffeine induces widespread increase in cAMP levels throughout the brain. Finally, the effects of caffeine on sleep are blocked in flies that have reduced neuronal PKA activity. We suggest that chronic administration of caffeine promotes wakefulness in Drosophila, at least in part, by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterase activity.

  16. Subjective and Objective Appraisal of Activity in Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Eileen R. Chasens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, daytime sleepiness, functional activity, and objective physical activity. Setting. Subjects (N=37 being evaluated for OSA were recruited from a sleep clinic. Participants. The sample was balanced by gender (53% male, middle-aged, primarily White, and overweight or obese with a mean BMI of 33.98 (SD=7.35; median BMI=32.30. Over 40% reported subjective sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS ≥10 and had OSA (78% with apnea + hypopnea index (AHI ≥5/hr. Measurements. Evaluation included questionnaires to evaluate subjective sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and functional outcomes (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ, an activity monitor, and an overnight sleep study to determine OSA severity. Results. Increased subjective sleepiness was significantly associated with lower scores on the FOSQ but not with average number of steps walked per day. A multiple regression analysis showed that higher AHI values were significantly associated with lower average number of steps walked per day after controlling patient's age, sex, and ESS. Conclusion. Subjective sleepiness was associated with perceived difficulty in activity but not with objectively measured activity. However, OSA severity was associated with decreased objective physical activity in aging adults.

  17. PM2: A Partitioning-Mining-Measuring Method for Identifying Progressive Changes in Older Adults’ Sleeping Activity

    Qiang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As people age, their health typically declines, resulting in difficulty in performing daily activities. Sleep-related problems are common issues with older adults, including shifts in circadian rhythms. A detection method is proposed to identify progressive changes in sleeping activity using a three-step process: partitioning, mining, and measuring. Specifically, the original spatiotemporal representation of each sleeping activity instance was first transformed into a sequence of equal-sized segments, or symbols, via a partitioning process. A data-mining-based algorithm was proposed to find symbols that are not present in all instances of a sleeping activity. Finally, a measuring process was responsible for evaluating the changes in these symbols. Experimental evaluation conducted on a group of datasets of older adults showed that the proposed method is able to identify progressive changes in sleeping activity.

  18. Associations of physical activity, screen time with depression, anxiety and sleep quality among Chinese college freshmen.

    Qi Feng

    Full Text Available To investigate the independent and interactive associations of physical activity (PA and screen time (ST with depression, anxiety and sleep quality among Chinese college students.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wuhan University, China from November to December 2011. The students reported their PA, ST and socio-economic characteristics using self-administered questionnaires. Sleep quality was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS and Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of the independent and interactive relationships of PA and ST with depression, anxiety and sleep quality.A total of 1106 freshmen (471 females and 635 males aged 18.9±0.9 years were included in the study. After adjustment for potential confounders, high PA and low ST were independently associated with significantly lower risks for poor sleep quality (OR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.30-0.78 and depression (OR: 0.67, 95%CI: 0.44-0.89, respectively. An interactive inverse association was observed for combined effects of PA and low ST on depression (OR: 0.62, 95%CI: 0.40-0.92 and sleep quality (OR: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.27-0.91. No statistically significant associations were found between PA, ST and anxiety among the participants.These findings suggest an independent and interactive relationship of high PA and low ST with significantly reduced prevalence of depressive problems and favorable sleep quality among Chinese college freshmen.

  19. Sleep Disturbances

    ... get up in the middle of the night. Sleep in a cool dark place and use the bed only for sleeping and sexual activity. Do not read or watch television in bed. Avoid “screen time” — television, phones, tablets ...

  20. Neurobiology of psychiatric disorders

    Đokić Gorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiologically spoken, the supstrate of the mind is formed by neuronal networks, and dysregulated neurocircuitry can cause psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders are diagnosed by symptom clusters that are the result of abnormal brain tissue, and/or activity in specialized areas of the brain. Dysregulated circuitry results from abnormal neural function, or abnormal neural connections from one brain area to another, which leads to neurotransmitter imbalances. Each psychiatric disorder has uniquely dysregulated circuitry and thereby unique neurotransmitter imbalance, such as: prefrontal cortical-limbic pathways in depression or prefrontal cortical-striatal pathways in schizophrenia ie. serotonin-norepinephrin-dopamin imbalance in depression, or dopamine hyperactivity in schizophrenia. Biological psychiatry has completely changed the farmacological treatment of psychiatric disorders, and new foundings in that field are supportive to futher more neuropsychopharmacological and nonpharmacological therapy studies, whish has as a result more safe and effective therapy for psychiatric disorders.

  1. Treatment effect of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty on autonomic nervous activity during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    蒋光峰; 孙炜; 李娜; 孙彦; 张念凯

    2004-01-01

    @@ Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. The prevalence of OSAS in middle-aged population is about 2%-4%.1 Many OSAS patients can be accompanied by serious cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension.2 The aim of this study was to find the changes of autonomic nervous system (ANS) during sleep, and the impact of surgical treatment on heart rate variability (HRV) in OSAS patients.

  2. Increased frontal sleep slow wave activity in adolescents with major depression

    Noemi Tesler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep slow wave activity (SWA, the major electrophysiological characteristic of deep sleep, mirrors both cortical restructuring and functioning. The incidence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD substantially rises during the vulnerable developmental phase of adolescence, where essential cortical restructuring is taking place. The goal of this study was to assess characteristics of SWA topography in adolescents with MDD, in order to assess abnormalities in both cortical restructuring and functioning on a local level. All night high-density EEG was recorded in 15 patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for MDD and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The actual symptom severity was assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale—Revised (CDRS-R. Topographical power maps were calculated based on the average SWA of the first non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep episode. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly more SWA in a cluster of frontal electrodes compared to controls. SWA over frontal brain regions correlated positively with the CDRS-R subscore “morbid thoughts”. Self-reported sleep latency was significantly higher in depressed adolescents compared to controls whereas sleep architecture did not differ between the groups. Higher frontal SWA in depressed adolescents may represent a promising biomarker tracing cortical regions of intense use and/or restructuring.

  3. Food Patterns According to Sociodemographics, Physical Activity, Sleeping and Obesity in Portuguese Children

    Carla Lopes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables.

  4. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance – Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Sørensen, Louise B.; Andersen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    by approximately 100 days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF......). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test...... associations between lifestyle indicators as well as BMI category and cognitive performance. Results After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, and multiple lifestyle indicators, normal weight children had higher cognitive test scores than overweight/obese and underweight children of up to 89% and 48...

  5. Influence of Day Length and Physical Activity on Sleep Patterns in Older Icelandic Men and Women

    Brychta, Robert J; Arnardóttir, Nanna Ýr; Jóhannsson, Erlingur

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. Methods: A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 +/- 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger...... to women, men had a shorter sleep duration (462 +/- 80 vs. 487 +/- 68 minutes, p = 0.008), earlier rise time, and a greater number of awakenings per night (46.5 +/- 18.3 vs. 40.2 +/- 15.7, p = 0.007), but sleep efficiency and onset latency were similar between the two sexes. Daily PA was also similar...

  6. Evaluating the Workload of On-Call Psychiatry Residents: Which Activities Are Associated with Sleep Loss?

    Cooke, Brian K.; Cooke, Erinn O.; Sharfstein, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the workload inventory of on-call psychiatry residents and to evaluate which activities were associated with reductions in on-call sleep. Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted, following 20 psychiatry residents at a 231-bed psychiatry hospital, from July 1, 2008 through June 30, 2009.…

  7. Activity, Sleep and Cognition After Fast-Track Hip or Knee Arthroplasty

    Krenk, Lene; Jennum, Poul; Kehlet, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Optimized perioperative care after total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA) has decreased length of stay (LOS) but data on activity, sleep and cognition after discharge are limited. We included 20 patients ≥60years undergoing THA/TKA, monitoring them for 3days preoperatively and 9days postoperat...

  8. Comparison of jaw muscle EMG activity in awake and sleep bruxers

    Castrillon, Eduardo; Dreyer Nielsen, Patricia; Haugland, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    TITLE: Comparison of Jaw Muscle EMG Activity in Awake and Sleep Bruxers AUTHORS: E. E. Castrillon, P. Dreyer, M. Haugland, W. Yachida, T. Arima, P. Svensson AUTHORS/INSTITUTIONS: E.E. Castrillon, P. Dreyer, P. Svensson, Aarhus School of Dentistry, Aarhus C, DENMARK; E.E. Castrillon, P. Svensson, ...

  9. The importance of physical activity and sleep for affect on stressful days: Two intensive longitudinal studies.

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. A Neural Network Underlying Circadian Entrainment and Photoperiodic Adjustment of Sleep and Activity in Drosophila

    Schlichting, Matthias; Menegazzi, Pamela; Lelito, Katharine R.; Yao, Zepeng; Buhl, Edgar; Dalla Benetta, Elena; Bahle, Andrew; Denike, Jennifer; Hodge, James John; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Shafer, Orie Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A sensitivity of the circadian clock to light/dark cycles ensures that biological rhythms maintain optimal phase relationships with the external day. In animals, the circadian clock neuron network (CCNN) driving sleep/activity rhythms receives light input from multiple photoreceptors, but how these

  11. Sleep duration, schedule and quality among urban Chinese children and adolescents: associations with routine after-school activities.

    Xiaoxiao Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With rapid urbanization accompanied by lifestyle changes, children and adolescents living in metropolitan areas are faced with many time use choices that compete with sleep. This study reports on the sleep hygiene of urban Chinese school students, and investigates the relationship between habitual after-school activities and sleep duration, schedule and quality on a regular school day. METHODS: Cross-sectional, school-based survey of school children (Grades 4-8 living in Shanghai, China, conducted in 2011. Self-reported data were collected on students' sleep duration and timing, sleep quality, habitual after-school activities (i.e. homework, leisure-time physical activity, recreational screen time and school commuting time, and potential correlates. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration of this sample (mean age: 11.5-years; 48.6% girls was 9 hours. Nearly 30% of students reported daytime tiredness. On school nights, girls slept less (p<0.001 and went to bed later (p<0.001, a sex difference that was more pronounced in older students. Age by sex interactions were observed for both sleep duration (p=0.005 and bedtime (p=0.002. Prolonged time spent on homework and mobile phone playing was related to shorter sleep duration and later bedtime. Adjusting for all other factors, with each additional hour of mobile phone playing, the odds of daytime tiredness and having difficulty maintaining sleep increased by 30% and 27% among secondary students, respectively. CONCLUSION: There are sex differences in sleep duration, schedule and quality. Habitual activities had small but significant associations with sleep hygiene outcomes especially among secondary school students. Intervention strategies such as limiting children's use of electronic screen devices after school are implicated.

  12. Constitutive spectral EEG peaks in the gamma range: suppressed by sleep, reduced by mental activity and resistant to sensory stimulation

    Tyler Samuel Grummett

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In a systematic study of gamma activity in neuro-psychiatric disease, we unexpectedly observed distinctive, apparently persistent, electroencephalogram (EEG spectral peaks in the gamma range (25-100 Hz. Our objective, therefore, was to examine the incidence, distribution and some of the characteristics of these peaks.Methods: High sample-rate, 128-channel, EEG was recorded in 603 volunteers (510 with neuropsychiatric disorders, 93 controls, whilst performing cognitive tasks, and converted to power spectra. Peaks of spectral power, including in the gamma range, were determined algorithmically for all electrodes. To determine if peaks were stable, 24-hour ambulatory recordings were obtained from 16 subjects with peaks. In 10 subjects, steady-state responses to stimuli at peak frequency were compared with off-peak-frequency stimulation to determine if peaks were a feature of underlying network resonances and peaks were evaluated with easy and hard versions of oddball tasks to determine if peaks might be influenced by mental effort.Results: 57 % of subjects exhibited peaks > 2 dB above trough power at or above 25 Hz. Larger peaks (> 5 dB were present in 13 % of subjects. Peaks were distributed widely over the scalp, more frequent centrally. Peaks were present through the day and were suppressed by slow-wave-sleep. Steady-state responses were the same with on- or off-peak sensory stimulation. In contrast, mental effort resulted in reductions in power and frequency of gamma peaks, although the suppression did not correlate with level of effort.Conclusions: Gamma EEG can be expressed constitutively as concentrations of power in narrow or wide frequency bands that play an, as yet, unknown role in cognitive activity.Significance: These findings expand the described range of rhythmic EEG phenomena. In particular, in addition to evoked, induced and sustained gamma band activity, gamma activity can be present constitutively in spectral peaks.

  13. [A review of thirty years of activity of the Research Program in Psychiatric Epidemiology (PEPSI) of the CONICET].

    Pavlovsky, Federico

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the activity of the Programa de Investigaciones en Epidemiología Psiquiátrica (PEPSI) (Research Program in Psychiatric Epidemiology) of the CONICET, directed for more than thirty years by Fernando Pages Larraya. After an anthropologic psychiatric experience done in the Gran Chaco Gualamba, by the end of the 60s, Pages Larraya and his team developed the theory of Cultural Isoidias, zones into which the country could be divided for epidemiologic studies. This article summarizes some of the principal lines of investigation of this program which departures from an initial study of the prevalence of mental diseases in Argentina. Other lines of research (such as a study about marginality, about Alzheimer's disease, about alcoholism and about AIDS) are summarized very briefly so as to give the reader an idea about the enormous field of study embraced by the PEPSI.

  14. Experienced mindfulness meditators exhibit higher parietal-occipital EEG gamma activity during NREM sleep.

    Fabio Ferrarelli

    Full Text Available Over the past several years meditation practice has gained increasing attention as a non-pharmacological intervention to provide health related benefits, from promoting general wellness to alleviating the symptoms of a variety of medical conditions. However, the effects of meditation training on brain activity still need to be fully characterized. Sleep provides a unique approach to explore the meditation-related plastic changes in brain function. In this study we performed sleep high-density electroencephalographic (hdEEG recordings in long-term meditators (LTM of Buddhist meditation practices (approximately 8700 mean hours of life practice and meditation naive individuals. We found that LTM had increased parietal-occipital EEG gamma power during NREM sleep. This increase was specific for the gamma range (25-40 Hz, was not related to the level of spontaneous arousal during NREM and was positively correlated with the length of lifetime daily meditation practice. Altogether, these findings indicate that meditation practice produces measurable changes in spontaneous brain activity, and suggest that EEG gamma activity during sleep represents a sensitive measure of the long-lasting, plastic effects of meditative training on brain function.

  15. Experienced mindfulness meditators exhibit higher parietal-occipital EEG gamma activity during NREM sleep.

    Ferrarelli, Fabio; Smith, Richard; Dentico, Daniela; Riedner, Brady A; Zennig, Corinna; Benca, Ruth M; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years meditation practice has gained increasing attention as a non-pharmacological intervention to provide health related benefits, from promoting general wellness to alleviating the symptoms of a variety of medical conditions. However, the effects of meditation training on brain activity still need to be fully characterized. Sleep provides a unique approach to explore the meditation-related plastic changes in brain function. In this study we performed sleep high-density electroencephalographic (hdEEG) recordings in long-term meditators (LTM) of Buddhist meditation practices (approximately 8700 mean hours of life practice) and meditation naive individuals. We found that LTM had increased parietal-occipital EEG gamma power during NREM sleep. This increase was specific for the gamma range (25-40 Hz), was not related to the level of spontaneous arousal during NREM and was positively correlated with the length of lifetime daily meditation practice. Altogether, these findings indicate that meditation practice produces measurable changes in spontaneous brain activity, and suggest that EEG gamma activity during sleep represents a sensitive measure of the long-lasting, plastic effects of meditative training on brain function.

  16. Partial sleep restriction activates immune response-related gene expression pathways: experimental and epidemiological studies in humans.

    Vilma Aho

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that short or insufficient sleep is associated with increased risk for metabolic diseases and mortality. To elucidate mechanisms behind this connection, we aimed to identify genes and pathways affected by experimentally induced, partial sleep restriction and to verify their connection to insufficient sleep at population level. The experimental design simulated sleep restriction during a working week: sleep of healthy men (N = 9 was restricted to 4 h/night for five nights. The control subjects (N = 4 spent 8 h/night in bed. Leukocyte RNA expression was analyzed at baseline, after sleep restriction, and after recovery using whole genome microarrays complemented with pathway and transcription factor analysis. Expression levels of the ten most up-regulated and ten most down-regulated transcripts were correlated with subjective assessment of insufficient sleep in a population cohort (N = 472. Experimental sleep restriction altered the expression of 117 genes. Eight of the 25 most up-regulated transcripts were related to immune function. Accordingly, fifteen of the 25 most up-regulated Gene Ontology pathways were also related to immune function, including those for B cell activation, interleukin 8 production, and NF-κB signaling (P<0.005. Of the ten most up-regulated genes, expression of STX16 correlated negatively with self-reported insufficient sleep in a population sample, while three other genes showed tendency for positive correlation. Of the ten most down-regulated genes, TBX21 and LGR6 correlated negatively and TGFBR3 positively with insufficient sleep. Partial sleep restriction affects the regulation of signaling pathways related to the immune system. Some of these changes appear to be long-lasting and may at least partly explain how prolonged sleep restriction can contribute to inflammation-associated pathological states, such as cardiometabolic diseases.

  17. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER

    2004-01-01

    2004536 Association study of clinical presentation in first-episode schizophrenia and possible candidate genes in chromosome 22. MA Xiaohong (马小红), et al. Dept Psychiatr, West China Hosp, Sichuan U-niv, Chengdu 610041. Chin J Psychiatr 2004;37(3): 145-148.

  18. 非人灵长类动物模型睡眠研究在神经精神疾病的早期诊断和药效评价中的作用%Sleep disorder,a potential early diagnostic marker for psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases

    陈艳梅; 秦冬冬; 姜慧慧; 胡新天; 马原野

    2011-01-01

    Sleep/circadian timing depends on several neurotransmitter systems, including 5-HT, NE, DA, Ach,GABA, etc. These neurotransmitter systems play critical roles in mental, emotional and cognitive functions in the brain.Dysfunctions of these systems not only result in sleep disorder, but are also related to many psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Sleep disruption is tightly associated with an increased susceptibility to a broad range of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, such as depression and Parkinson diseases. Non-human primates, especially the thesus monkey is an excellent biomedical model for human sleep and CNS diseases. Establishing nonhuman primates'model of mental disorders and monitoring the sleep changes during the development of the model will help us to know more about the relationships between sleep disorder and psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Sleep disorder as an early marker for psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases would permit early intervention of these diseases and draw attention to the potential therapeutic benefits of normalizing sleep thythms in individuals with brain pathologies.%清醒-睡眠的周期性调节需要众多单胺类神经递质(5-HT、NE、DA 等)、乙酰胆碱等兴奋性神经递质以及GABA 等抑制性神经递质的参与.这些递质系统的异常不仅会导致睡眠周期紊乱,还与一系列的精神性和神经退行性疾病相关.睡眠异常被认为是抑郁症、帕金森氏病等神经系统疾病发生的早期预警信号.相比起低等哺乳动物,非人灵长类动物的睡眠与人类的睡眠具有更好的可比性.近来,利用非人灵长类动物来建立神经精神疾病模型的研究已取得明显进展.在建模的同时监测动物的睡眠状况,有助于我们进一步了解睡眠在这些疾病早期诊断和发展过程中的作用,为疾病的早期诊断、治疗和药效评价提供更好的客观依据.

  19. Do more active children sleep more? A repeated cross-sectional analysis using accelerometry.

    Sheila M Williams

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine whether levels of daytime physical activity are associated with sleep duration and night waking in children assessed using accelerometry, and if these associations change over time. METHODS: 24-hour accelerometry data were obtained from 234 children at 3, 5 and 7 years of age for at least 5 days at each time. Sleep duration was estimated using the Sadeh algorithm. Time spent in sedentary, light and moderate-vigorous (MVPA activity was established using published cut-points. Appropriate statistical techniques were utilised to account for the closed nature of the data (24-hour periods. RESULTS: Time spent asleep was related more to sedentary or light activity and not to MVPA. The most active (95th percentile children spent 55-84 fewer minutes asleep and 16-19 more minutes awake at night compared to the least active (5th percentile children. Children with later bedtimes slept less at night (30-40 minutes and undertook more sedentary (10-15 minutes but also more light (18-23 minutes activity during the day. However, no differences in MVPA were apparent according to bedtime. Children slept slightly less on weekend nights (11 minutes compared with week-nights, but only at 3 years of age. Most relationships were broadly similar at 3, 5 and 7 years of age. CONCLUSION: Children who are more physically active during the day have shorter total sleep time and are more awake at night than less active children. The protective effect of sleep on obesity does not appear to be mediated by increased physical activity.

  20. Childhood epilepsy and sleep

    Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and epilepsy are two well recognized conditions that interact with each other in a complex bi-directional way. Some types of epilepsies have increased activity during sleep disturbing it; while sleep deprivation aggravates epilepsy due to decreased seizure threshold. Epilepsy can deteriorate the sleep-related disorders and at the same time; the parasomnias can worsen the epilepsy. The secretion of sleep-related hormones can also be affected by the occurrence of seizures and supplementat...

  1. Associations of Sleep Quality and Awake Physical Activity with Fluctuations in Nocturnal Blood Pressure in Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    Manabu Kadoya

    Full Text Available Sleep quality and awake physical activity are important behavioral factors involved in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, potentially through nocturnal blood pressure (BP changes. However, the impacts of quantitatively measured sleep quality and awake physical activity on BP fluctuation, and their relationships with several candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension are not well elucidated.This cross-sectional study included 303 patients registered in the HSCAA study. Measurements included quantitatively determined sleep quality parameters and awake physical activity obtained by actigraph, nocturnal systolic BP (SBP fall [100 × (1- sleep SBP/awake SBP ratio], apnea hypopnea index, urinary sodium and cortisol secretion, plasma aldosterone concentration and renin activity, insulin resistance index, parameters of heart rate variability (HRV, and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF.Simple regression analysis showed that time awake after sleep onset (r = -0.150, a parameter of sleep quality, and awake physical activity (r = 0.164 were significantly correlated with nocturnal SBP fall. Among those, time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.179 and awake physical activity (β = 0.190 were significantly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP fall in multiple regression analysis. In a subgroup of patients without taking anti-hypertensive medications, both time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.336 and awake physical activity (β = 0.489 were more strongly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP falls.Sleep quality and awake physical activity were found to be significantly associated with nocturnal SBP fall, and that relationship was not necessarily confounded by candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension.

  2. Repurposing psychiatric medicines to target activated microglia in anxious mild cognitive impairment and early Parkinson’s disease

    Lauterbach, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is common in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the pre-motor stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD). A concomitant and possible cause of this anxiety is microglial activation, also considered a key promoter of neurodegeneration in MCI and early PD via inflammatory mechanisms and the generation of degenerative proinflammatory cytokines. Psychiatric disorders, prevalent in AD and PD, are often treated with psychiatric drugs (psychotropics), raising the question of whether psychotropics might therapeutically affect microglial activation, MCI, and PD. The literature of common psychotropics used in treating psychiatric disorders was reviewed for preclinical and clinical findings regarding microglial activation. Findings potentially compatible with reduced microglial activation or reduced microglial inflammogen release were evident for: antipsychotics including neuroleptics (chlorpromazine, thioridazine, loxapine) and atypicals (aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone); mood stabilizers (carbamazepine, valproate, lithium); antidepressants including tricyclics (amitriptyline, clomipramine, imipramine, nortriptyline), SSRIs (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline), venlafaxine, and bupropion; benzodiazepine anxiolytics (clonazepam, diazepam); cognitive enhancers (donepezil, galantamine, memantine); and other drugs (dextromethorphan, quinidine, amantadine). In contrast, pramipexole and methylphenidate might promote microglial activation. The most promising replicated findings of reduced microglial activation are for quetiapine, valproate, lithium, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine but further study is needed and translation of their microglial effects to human disease still requires investigation. In AD-relevant models, risperidone, valproate, lithium, fluoxetine, bupropion, donepezil, and memantine have therapeutic microglial effects in need of replication. Limited

  3. Heart rate variability: a tool to explore the sleeping brain?

    Florian eChouchou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is divided into two main sleep stages: 1 non-rapid eye movement sleep (non-REMS, characterized among others by reduced global brain activity; and 2 rapid eye movement sleep (REMS, characterized by global brain activity similar to that of wakefulness. Results of heart rate variability (HRV analysis, which is widely used to explore autonomic modulation, have revealed higher parasympathetic tone during normal non-REMS and a shift toward sympathetic predominance during normal REMS. Moreover, HRV analysis combined with brain imaging has identified close connectivity between autonomic cardiac modulation and activity in brain areas such as the amygdala and insular cortex during REMS, but no connectivity between brain and cardiac activity during non-REMS. There is also some evidence for an association between HRV and dream intensity and emotionality. Following some technical considerations, this review addresses how brain activity during sleep contributes to changes in autonomic cardiac activity, organized into three parts: 1 the knowledge on autonomic cardiac control, 2 differences in brain and autonomic activity between non-REMS and REMS, and 3 the potential of HRV analysis to explore the sleeping brain, and the implications for psychiatric disorders.

  4. Single unit activity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and surrounding neurons during the wake-sleep cycle in mice.

    Sakai, K

    2014-02-28

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the mammalian hypothalamus contains a circadian clock for timing of diverse neuronal, endocrine, and behavioral rhythms, such as the cycle of sleep and wakefulness. Using extracellular single unit recordings, we have determined, for the first time, the discharge activity of individual SCN neurons during the complete wake-sleep cycle in non-anesthetized, head restrained mice. SCN neurons (n=79) were divided into three types according to their regular (type I; n=38) or irregular (type II; n=19) discharge activity throughout the wake-sleep cycle or their quiescent activity during waking and irregular discharge activity during sleep (type III; n=22). The type I and II neurons displayed a long-duration action potential, while the type III neurons displayed either a short-duration or long-duration action potential. The type I neurons discharged exclusively as single isolated spikes, whereas the type II and III neurons fired as single isolated spikes, clusters, or bursts. The type I and II neurons showed wake-active, wake/paradoxical (or rapid eye movement) sleep-active, or state-unrelated activity profiles and were, respectively, mainly located in the ventral or dorsal region of the SCN. In contrast, the type III neurons displayed sleep-active discharge profiles and were mainly located in the lateral region of the SCN. The majority of type I and II neurons tested showed an increase in discharge rate following application of light to the animal's eyes. Of the 289 extra-SCN neurons recorded, those displaying sleep-active discharge profiles were mainly located dorsal to the SCN, whereas those displaying wake-active discharge profiles were mainly located lateral or dorsolateral to the SCN. This study shows heterogeneity of mouse SCN and surrounding anterior hypothalamic neurons and suggests differences in their topographic organization and roles in mammalian circadian rhythms and the regulation of sleep and wakefulness.

  5. Chronic escitalopram treatment caused dissociative adaptation in serotonin (5-HT) 2C receptor antagonist-induced effects in REM sleep, wake and theta wave activity.

    Kostyalik, Diána; Kátai, Zita; Vas, Szilvia; Pap, Dorottya; Petschner, Péter; Molnár, Eszter; Gyertyán, István; Kalmár, Lajos; Tóthfalusi, László; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2014-03-01

    Several multi-target drugs used in treating psychiatric disorders, such as antidepressants (e.g. agomelatine, trazodone, nefazodone, amitriptyline, mirtazapine, mianserin, fluoxetine) or most atypical antipsychotics, have 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) receptor-blocking property. Adaptive changes in 5-HT2C receptor-mediated functions are suggested to contribute to therapeutic effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants after weeks of treatment, at least in part. Beyond the mediation of anxiety and other functions, 5-HT2C receptors are involved in sleep regulation. Anxiety-related adaptive changes caused by antidepressants have been studied extensively, although sleep- and electroencephalography (EEG)-related functional studies are still lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic SSRI treatment on 5-HT2C receptor antagonist-induced functions in different vigilance stages and on quantitative EEG (Q-EEG) spectra. Rats were treated with a single dose of the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB-242084 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle at the beginning of passive phase following a 20-day-long SSRI (escitalopram; 10 mg/kg/day, osmotic minipump) or VEHICLE pretreatment. Fronto-parietal electroencephalogram, electromyogram and motility were recorded during the first 3 h of passive phase. We found that the chronic escitalopram pretreatment attenuated the SB-242084-caused suppression in rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). On the contrary, the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist-induced elevations in passive wake and theta (5-9 Hz) power density during active wake and REMS were not affected by the SSRI. In conclusion, attenuation in certain, but not all vigilance- and Q-EEG-related functions induced by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, suggests dissociation in 5-HT2C receptor adaptation.

  6. Sleep deprivation influences diurnal variation of human time perception with prefrontal activity change: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Takahiro Soshi

    Full Text Available Human short-time perception shows diurnal variation. In general, short-time perception fluctuates in parallel with circadian clock parameters, while diurnal variation seems to be modulated by sleep deprivation per se. Functional imaging studies have reported that short-time perception recruits a neural network that includes subcortical structures, as well as cortical areas involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC. It has also been reported that the PFC is vulnerable to sleep deprivation, which has an influence on various cognitive functions. The present study is aimed at elucidating the influence of PFC vulnerability to sleep deprivation on short-time perception, using the optical imaging technique of functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Eighteen participants performed 10-s time production tasks before (at 21:00 and after (at 09:00 experimental nights both in sleep-controlled and sleep-deprived conditions in a 4-day laboratory-based crossover study. Compared to the sleep-controlled condition, one-night sleep deprivation induced a significant reduction in the produced time simultaneous with an increased hemodynamic response in the left PFC at 09:00. These results suggest that activation of the left PFC, which possibly reflects functional compensation under a sleep-deprived condition, is associated with alteration of short-time perception.

  7. Respiratory modulation of lingual muscle activity across sleep-wake states in rats.

    Stettner, Georg M; Rukhadze, Irma; Mann, Graziella L; Lei, Yanlin; Kubin, Leszek

    2013-09-15

    In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients, inspiratory activation (IA) of lingual muscles protects the upper airway from collapse. We aimed to determine when rats' lingual muscles exhibit IA. In 5 Sprague-Dawley and 3 Wistar rats, we monitored cortical EEG and lingual, diaphragmatic and nuchal electromyograms (EMGs), and identified segments of records when lingual EMG exhibited IA. Individual segments lasted 2.4-269 s (median: 14.5 s), most (89%) occurred during slow-wave sleep (SWS), and they collectively occupied 0.3-6.1% of the total recording time. IA usually started to increase with a delay after SWS onset and ended with an arousal, or declined prior to rapid eye movement sleep. IA of lingual EMG was not accompanied by increased diaphragmatic activity or respiratory rate changes, but occurred when cortical EEG power was particularly low in a low beta-1 frequency range (12.5-16.4 Hz). A deep SWS-related activation of upper airway muscles may be an endogenous phenomenon designed to protect the upper airway against collapse.

  8. Converging genetic and functional brain imaging evidence links neuronal excitability to working memory, psychiatric disease, and brain activity.

    Heck, Angela; Fastenrath, Matthias; Ackermann, Sandra; Auschra, Bianca; Bickel, Horst; Coynel, David; Gschwind, Leo; Jessen, Frank; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; Maier, Wolfgang; Milnik, Annette; Pentzek, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Ripke, Stephan; Spalek, Klara; Sullivan, Patrick; Vogler, Christian; Wagner, Michael; Weyerer, Siegfried; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas

    2014-03-05

    Working memory, the capacity of actively maintaining task-relevant information during a cognitive task, is a heritable trait. Working memory deficits are characteristic for many psychiatric disorders. We performed genome-wide gene set enrichment analyses in multiple independent data sets of young and aged cognitively healthy subjects (n = 2,824) and in a large schizophrenia case-control sample (n = 32,143). The voltage-gated cation channel activity gene set, consisting of genes related to neuronal excitability, was robustly linked to performance in working memory-related tasks across ages and to schizophrenia. Functional brain imaging in 707 healthy participants linked this gene set also to working memory-related activity in the parietal cortex and the cerebellum. Gene set analyses may help to dissect the molecular underpinnings of cognitive dimensions, brain activity, and psychopathology.

  9. Sleep Quiz

    ... suffer from sleep disorders, including sleep apnea, insomnia, narcolepsy, and restless legs syndrome. An untreated sleep disorder ... accidents each year--claiming over 1,500 lives. Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder marked by "sleep attacks." ...

  10. Recognizing Cognitive and Psychiatric Changes in the Post-Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era

    Adriana Carvalhal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amid numerous complications that plague the health and quality of life of people living with HIV, neurocognitive and psychiatric illnesses pose unique challenges. While there remains uncertainty with respect to the pathophysiology surrounding these disorders, their adverse implications are increasingly recognized. Left undetected, they have the potential to significantly impact patient well being, adherence to antiretroviral treatment and overall health outcomes. As such, early identification of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND and psychiatric illnesses will be paramount in the proactive management of affected patients. The present review focuses on strategies to ensure optimal screening and detection of HAND, depression and substance abuse in routine practice. For each topic, currently available screening methods are discussed. These include identification of risk factors, recognition of relevant symptomatology and an update on validated screening tools that can be efficiently implemented in the clinical setting. Specifically addressed in the present review are the International HIV Dementia Scale, a novel screening equation and algorithm for HAND, as well as brief, validated, verbal questionnaires for detection of depression and substance abuse. Adequate understanding and usage of these screening mechanisms can ensure effective use of resources by distinguishing patients who require referral for more extensive diagnostic procedures from those who likely do not.

  11. Associations of sleep disturbance with ADHD

    Hvolby, A.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals...... with ADHD with typically developing controls is most concordant for associations of ADHD with: hypopnea/apnea and peripheral limb movements in sleep or nocturnal motricity in polysomnographic studies; increased sleep onset latency and shorter sleep time in actigraphic studies; and bedtime resistance......, difficulty with morning awakenings, sleep onset difficulties, sleep-disordered breathing, night awakenings and daytime sleepiness in subjective studies. ADHD is also frequently coincident with sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, peripheral limb movement disorder, restless legs syndrome and circadian...

  12. Identification of the occurrence and pattern of masseter muscle activities during sleep using EMG and accelerometer systems

    Sato Sadao

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep bruxism has been described as a combination of different orofacial motor activities that include grinding, clenching and tapping, although accurate distribution of the activities still remains to be clarified. Methods We developed a new system for analyzing sleep bruxism to examine the muscle activities and mandibular movement patterns during sleep bruxism. The system consisted of a 2-axis accelerometer, electroencephalography and electromyography. Nineteen healthy volunteers were recruited and screened to evaluate sleep bruxism in the sleep laboratory. Results The new system could easily distinguish the different patterns of bruxism movement of the mandible and the body movement. Results showed that grinding (59.5% was most common, followed by clenching (35.6% based on relative activity to maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC, whereas tapping was only (4.9%. Conclusion It was concluded that the tapping, clenching, and grinding movement of the mandible could be effectively differentiated by the new system and sleep bruxism was predominantly perceived as clenching and grinding, which varied between individuals.

  13. Slow wave activity and slow oscillations in sleepwalkers and controls: effects of 38 h of sleep deprivation.

    Perrault, Rosemarie; Carrier, Julie; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Sleepwalkers have been shown to have an unusually high number of arousals from slow wave sleep and lower slow wave activity (SWA) power during the night than controls. Because sleep deprivation increases the frequency of slow wave sleep (SWS) arousals in sleepwalkers, it may also affect the expression of the homeostatic process to a greater extent than shown previously. We thus investigated SWA power as well as slow wave oscillation (SWO) density in 10 sleepwalkers and nine controls at baseline and following 38 h of sleep deprivation. There was a significant increase in SWA during participants' recovery sleep, especially during their second non-rapid eye movement (NREM) period. SWO density was similarly increased during recovery sleep's first two NREM periods. A fronto-central gradient in SWA and SWO was also present on both nights. However, no group differences were noted on any of the 2 nights on SWA or SWO. This unexpected result may be related to the heterogeneity of sleepwalkers as a population, as well as our small sample size. SWA pressure after extended sleep deprivation may also result in a ceiling effect in both sleepwalkers and controls.

  14. To sleep or not to sleep: The ecology of sleep in artificial organisms

    Nunn Charles L; McNamara Patrick; Acerbi Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background All animals thus far studied sleep, but little is known about the ecological factors that generate differences in sleep characteristics across species, such as total sleep duration or division of sleep into multiple bouts across the 24-hour period (i.e., monophasic or polyphasic sleep activity). Here we address these questions using an evolutionary agent-based model. The model is spatially explicit, with food and sleep sites distributed in two clusters on the landscape. Ag...

  15. Sleeping Beauty screen reveals Pparg activation in metastatic prostate cancer.

    Ahmad, Imran; Mui, Ernest; Galbraith, Laura; Patel, Rachana; Tan, Ee Hong; Salji, Mark; Rust, Alistair G; Repiscak, Peter; Hedley, Ann; Markert, Elke; Loveridge, Carolyn; van der Weyden, Louise; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J; Adams, David J; Leung, Hing Y

    2016-07-19

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common adult male cancer in the developed world. The paucity of biomarkers to predict prostate tumor biology makes it important to identify key pathways that confer poor prognosis and guide potential targeted therapy. Using a murine forward mutagenesis screen in a Pten-null background, we identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), encoding a ligand-activated transcription factor, as a promoter of metastatic CaP through activation of lipid signaling pathways, including up-regulation of lipid synthesis enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)]. Importantly, inhibition of PPARG suppressed tumor growth in vivo, with down-regulation of the lipid synthesis program. We show that elevated levels of PPARG strongly correlate with elevation of FASN in human CaP and that high levels of PPARG/FASN and PI3K/pAKT pathway activation confer a poor prognosis. These data suggest that CaP patients could be stratified in terms of PPARG/FASN and PTEN levels to identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to PPARG/FASN inhibition.

  16. The Link Between Excessive Quantity of Sleep and Deteriorated Quality of Wakefulness – Implications for the DSM-5

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Using population-based data, we document the comorbidities (medical, neurologic and psychiatric) and consequences for daily functioning of excessive quantity of sleep (EQS), defined as a main sleep period or 24-hour sleep duration ≥9 hours accompanied by complaints of impaired functioning or distress due to excessive sleep, and its links to excessive sleepiness. Methods A cross-sectional telephone study using a representative sample of 19,136 non-institutionalized individuals living in the United States, aged ≥18 (participation rate: 83.2%). The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental and organic disorders (DSM-IV-TR, ICSD-II, ICD-10). Results Sleeping at least 9 hours per 24-hour period was reported by 8.4% (95% confidence intervals: 8.0%-8.8%) of participants; EQS (prolonged sleep episode with distress/impairment) was observed in 1.6% (1.4% to 1.8%) of the sample. The likelihood of EQS was 3-12 times higher among individuals with a mood disorder. EQS individuals were 2-4 times more likely to report poor quality of life than non-EQS individuals as well as interference with socio-professional activities and relationships. Although between 33% and 66% of individuals with prolonged sleep perceived it as a major problem, only 6.3% to 27.5% of them reported having sought medical attention. Interpretation Excessive Quantity of Sleep is widespread in the general population, co-occurring with a broad spectrum of sleep, medical, neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, physicians must recognize EQS as a mixed clinical entity indicating careful assessment and specific treatment planning. PMID:23846792

  17. Rapid eye movement (REM sleep deprivation reduces rat frontal cortex acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7 activity

    Camarini R.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep deprivation induces several behavioral changes. Among these, a decrease in yawning behavior produced by low doses of cholinergic agonists is observed which indicates a change in brain cholinergic neurotransmission after REM sleep deprivation. Acetylcholinesterase (Achase controls acetylcholine (Ach availability in the synaptic cleft. Therefore, altered Achase activity may lead to a change in Ach availability at the receptor level which, in turn, may result in modification of cholinergic neurotransmission. To determine if REM sleep deprivation would change the activity of Achase, male Wistar rats, 3 months old, weighing 250-300 g, were deprived of REM sleep for 96 h by the flower-pot technique (N = 12. Two additional groups, a home-cage control (N = 6 and a large platform control (N = 6, were also used. Achase was measured in the frontal cortex using two different methods to obtain the enzyme activity. One method consisted of the obtention of total (900 g supernatant, membrane-bound (100,000 g pellet and soluble (100,000 g supernatant Achase, and the other method consisted of the obtention of a fraction (40,000 g pellet enriched in synaptic membrane-bound enzyme. In both preparations, REM sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease in rat frontal cortex Achase activity when compared to both home-cage and large platform controls. REM sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease of 16% in the membrane-bound Achase activity (nmol thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 in the 100,000 g pellet enzyme preparation (home-cage group 152.1 ± 5.7, large platform group 152.7 ± 24.9 and REM sleep-deprived group 127.9 ± 13.8. There was no difference in the soluble enzyme activity. REM sleep deprivation also induced a significant decrease of 20% in the enriched synaptic membrane-bound Achase activity (home-cage group 126.4 ± 21.5, large platform group 127.8 ± 20.4, REM sleep-deprived group 102.8 ± 14.2. Our results

  18. H-reflex suppression and autonomic activation during lucid REM sleep: a case study.

    Brylowski, A; Levitan, L; LaBerge, S

    1989-08-01

    A single subject, a proficient lucid dreamer experienced with signaling the onset of lucidity (reflective consciousness of dreaming) by means of voluntary eye movements, spent 4 nonconsecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. The subject reported becoming lucid and signaling in 8 of the 18 rapid-eye movement (REM) periods recorded. Ten lucid dream reports were verified by polygraphic examination of signals, providing a total of 12.5 min of signal-verified lucid REM. H-Reflex amplitude was recorded every 5 s, along with continuous recording of electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram, electrocardiogram, finger pulse, and respiration. Significant findings included greater mean H-reflex suppression during lucid REM sleep than during nonlucid REM and correlations of H-reflex suppression with increased eye movement density, heart rate, and respiration rate. These results support previous studies reporting that lucid REM is not, as might be supposed, a state closer to awakening than ordinary, or nonlucid, REM; rather, lucid dreaming occurs during unequivocal REM sleep and is characteristically associated with phasic REM activation.

  19. Comorbid sleep disorders in neuropsychiatric disorders across the life cycle.

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Regen, Wolfram; Nanovska, Svetoslava; Baglioni, Chiara; Riemann, Dieter

    2013-06-01

    The association between psychopathology and poor sleep has long been recognized. The current review focuses on the association between the most prevalent sleep disorders (insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders and restless legs syndrome) and four major psychiatric disorders: alcohol dependence, schizophrenia, depression and anxiety disorders. Decreased total sleep time and increased sleep onset latency as measured by polysomnography as well an increase of the prevalence of insomnia has been reported in all of these psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, sleep disturbance is a risk factor for their development. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia has been shown to have a positive impact on both sleep and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Whether adequate treatment of sleep disorders can prevent the incidence of psychiatric disorders, remains to be investigated.

  20. Sleep disturbances in Parkinsonism.

    Askenasy, J J M

    2003-02-01

    The present article is meant to suggest an approach to the guidelines for the therapy of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.The factors affecting the quality of life in PD patients are depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. A large review of the literature on sleep disturbances in PD patients, provided the basis for the following classification of the sleep-arousal disturbances in PD patients. We suggest a model based on 3 steps in the treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients. This model allowing the patient, the spouse or the caregiver a quiet sleep at night, may postpone the retirement and the institutionalization of the PD patient. I. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders based on detailed anamnesis of the patient and of the spouse or of the caregiver. One week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders co morbidities. Selection of the most appropriate sleep test among: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, actigraphy or video-PSG. II. The nonspecific therapeutic approach consists in: a) Checking the sleep effect on motor performance, is it beneficial, worse or neutral. b) Psycho-physical assistance. c) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary owing to the progression of the nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals, which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of the motor centers in PD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and NonREM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates PD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. The permanent adjustment

  1. The current state of physical activity and exercise programs in German-speaking, Swiss psychiatric hospitals: results from a brief online survey

    Brand, Serge; Colledge, Flora; Beeler, Nadja; Pühse, Uwe; Kalak, Nadeem; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Mikoteit, Thorsten; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Gerber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity and exercise programs (PAEPs) are an important factor in increasing and maintaining physical and mental health. This holds particularly true for patients with psychiatric disorders undergoing treatment in a psychiatric hospital. To understand whether the benefits reported in the literature are mirrored in current treatment modalities, the aim of the present study was to assess the current state of PAEPs in psychiatric hospitals in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Methods All psychiatric hospitals (N=55) in the German-speaking part of Switzerland were contacted in spring 2014. Staff responsible for PAEPs were asked to complete an online questionnaire covering questions related to PAEPs such as type, frequency, staff training, treatment rationale, importance of PAEPs within the treatment strategy, and possible avenues to increase PAEPs. Results Staff members of 48 different psychiatric hospitals completed the survey. Hospitals provided the following therapeutic treatments: relaxation techniques (100%), sports therapy (97%), activity-related psychotherapeutic interventions (95%), physiotherapy (85%), body therapies (59%), far-east techniques (57%), and hippotherapy (22%). Frequencies ranged from once/week to five times/week. Approximately 25% of patients participated in the PAEPs. Interventions were offered irrespective of psychiatric disorders. PAEP providers wanted and needed more vocational training. Conclusion All participating psychiatric hospitals offer a broad variety of PAEPs in their treatment curricula. However, the majority of inpatients do not participate in PAEPs. Furthermore, those who do participate cannot continue to do so following discharge. PAEP providers need specific extended vocational trainings and believe that the potential of PA should be improved. PMID:27350748

  2. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age.

  3. Sleep is associated with task-negative brain activity in fibromyalgia participants with comorbid chronic insomnia

    Vatthauer KE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Karlyn E Vatthauer,1 Jason G Craggs,1 Michael E Robinson,1 Roland Staud,2 Richard B Berry,2 William M Perlstein,1 Christina S McCrae11Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Patients with chronic pain exhibit altered default mode network (DMN activity. This preliminary project questioned whether comorbid disease states are associated with further brain alterations. Thirteen women with fibromyalgia (FM only and 26 women with fibromyalgia with comorbid chronic insomnia (FMI underwent a single night of ambulatory polysomnography and completed a sleep diary each morning for 14 days prior to performing a neuroimaging protocol. Novel imaging analyses were utilized to identify regions associated with significantly disordered sleep that were more active in task-negative periods than task-oriented periods in participants with FMI, when compared to participants with FM. It was hypothesized that core DMN areas (ie, cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobule, medial prefrontal cortex, medial temporal cortex, precuneus would exhibit increased activity during task-negative periods. Analyses revealed that significantly disordered sleep significantly contributed to group differences in the right cingulate gyrus, left lentiform nucleus, left anterior cingulate, left superior gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, right caudate, and the left inferior parietal lobules. Results suggest that FMI may alter some brain areas of the DMN, above and beyond FM. However, future work will need to investigate these results further by controlling for chronic insomnia only before conclusions can be made regarding the effect of FMI comorbidity on the DMN.Keywords: insomnia, fibromyalgia, neuroimaging, task-negative, brain activity, comorbidity

  4. Lingual muscle activity across sleep-wake states in rats with surgically altered upper airway

    Irma eRukhadze

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients have increased upper airway muscle activity, including such lingual muscles as the genioglossus (GG, geniohyoid (GH and hyoglossus (HG. This adaptation partially protects their upper airway against obstructions. Rodents are used to study the central neural control of sleep and breathing but they do not naturally exhibit OSA. We investigated whether, in chronically instrumented, behaving rats, disconnecting the GH and HG muscles from the hyoid (H apparatus would result in a compensatory increase of other upper airway muscle activity (EMG and/or other signs of upper airway instability. We first determined that, in intact rats, lingual (GG and intrinsic muscles maintained stable activity levels when quantified based on 2 h-long recordings conducted on days 6 through 22 after instrumentation. We then studied 5 rats in which the tendons connecting the GH and HG muscles to the H apparatus were experimentally severed. When quantified across all recording days, lingual EMG during SWS was modestly but significantly increased in rats with surgically altered upper airway (8.6% ±0.7(SE vs. 6.2% ±0.7 of the mean during wakefulness; p=0.012. Respiratory modulation of lingual EMG occurred mainly during SWS and was similarly infrequent in both groups, and the incidence of sighs and central apneas also was similar. Thus, a weakened action of selected lingual muscles did not produce sleep-disordered breathing but resulted in a relatively elevated activity in other lingual muscles during SWS. These results encourage more extensive surgical manipulations with the aim to obtain a rodent model with collapsible upper airway.

  5. ON PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHIATRIC IMPACT OF PIRACY ON SEAFARERS.

    Ivan Aleksandrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been discussed that being held hostage can have harmful short and often long-term physical, psychological, familial and social effects on the victims. This is a complex area of research and the data is sparse yet. The aim of our study is to present our experience concerning some psychological and psychiatric consequences on Bulgarian seamen victims of pirate's attack long captivity and to suggest a suitable methodology of a psychological investigation in such cases. Methods: Seven Bulgarian hostage survivors underwent comprehensive psychological and psychiatric assessments twenty days after pirate’s captivity release. Results and discussion: In general terms, the psychological and psychiatric impact on the victims is similar to that of being exposed to other serious life-threatening events, including terrorist incidents and natural disasters. All the subjects, who have been examined in our study, reported feelings of detachment and alienation from close others and startle by noises, nightmares and sleep disturbances. Anxiety symptoms, characterized by apprehension, tension and fear in particular situations, and some depressive features (depressive mood, lack of interest and activities, lassitude on a sub- clinical level were registered. Conclusion: Despite some limitations our report discusses important issues, concerning psychological and psychiatric consequences on Bulgarian seamen victims of pirate’s attack long captivity and present a suitable model of a psychological investigation in such cases and states the need of supportive care of the victims.

  6. Physiology of Sleep.

    Carley, David W; Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Far from a simple absence of wakefulness, sleep is an active, regulated, and metabolically distinct state, essential for health and well-being. In this article, the authors review the fundamental anatomy and physiology of sleep and its regulation, with an eye toward interactions between sleep and metabolism.

  7. [Influence of a program of physical activity in children and obese adolescents with sleep apnea; study protocol].

    Aguilar Cordero, M J; Sánchez López, A M; Mur Villar, N; Sánchez Marenco, A; Guisado Barrilao, R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies show an alarming increase in the rate of overweight / obesity among the infant - juvenile population. Obesity in childhood is associated with a significant number of complications, such as sleep apnea syndrome, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. It is estimated that the prevalence of sleep apnea in children is 2-3% in the general population, while in obese adolescents, varies between 13% and 66%, according to various studies. It is associated with impairment of neurocognitive function, behavior, cardiovascular system, metabolic disorders and growth. Sleep apnea is a serious public health problem that increases when children and adolescents are overweight or obese. We hypothesize that aerobic endurance exercise can be an effective treatment for obesity and apnea at the same time. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of physical activity in children and adolescents with overweight / obesity in sleep apnea. An observational, descriptive, prospective, longitudinal study will be carried out in children with sleep apnea and obesity. The universe will be made up of 60 children and adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years, attending the endocrinology service for suffering of obesity in the Hospital Clinico San Cecilio of Granada during the period September 2012-September 2013. The smple will consist of children and adolescents that meet these characteristics and to whom their parents/tutors have authorized through the informed consent. Sleep apnea in children wil be measured by polysomnography and sleep quality questionnaire. There will also be a nutritional assessment by a food frequency questionnaire and an anthropometric assessment. Among the expected results are the lower overweight and obesity in children through the physical activity program. To reduce apnea and to improve sleep quality.

  8. Sleep of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: actigraphic and parental reports.

    Moreau, Vincent; Rouleau, Nancie; Morin, Charles M

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the sleep of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), using actigraphy and parental questionnaires, and examine the potentially moderating role of psychostimulant medication and psychiatric comorbidity. Children with ADHD significantly differed from controls on parental and actigraphic measures of sleep, with parental reports indicating more severe sleep disturbances, and actigraphic recordings of longer sleep onset latency, lower sleep efficiency, and lower total sleep time. Both medicated and unmedicated ADHD subgroups differed from the control group on sleep measures, but did not differ from each other. Only the subgroup with comorbid psychiatric symptoms differed from the control group on actigraphic measures. The presence of psychiatric comorbidity, but not psychostimulant medication use, was associated with more severe sleep disturbances. The main implication of these findings is that clinicians should systematically attend to sleep disturbances in children with ADHD, particularly when other psychiatric symptoms are also present.

  9. Are children like werewolves? Full moon and its association with sleep and activity behaviors in an international sample of children

    Jean-Philippe eChaput

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify if the full moon is associated with sleep and activity behaviors, we used a 12-country study providing 33710 24-hour accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9-11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, United Kingdom and United States. Three moon phases were used in this analysis: full moon (±4 days; reference, half moon (±5-9 days and new moon (±10-14 days from nearest full moon. Nocturnal sleep duration, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, light-intensity physical activity (LPA and total sedentary time (SED were monitored over 7 consecutive days using a waist-worn accelerometer worn 24 hours a day. Only sleep duration was found to significantly differ between moon phases (~5 min per night shorter during full moon compared to new moon. Differences in MVPA, LPA and SED between moon phases were negligible and non-significant (<2 min per day difference. There was no difference in the associations between study sites. In conclusion, sleep duration was 1% shorter at full moon compared to new moon while activity behaviors were not significantly associated with the lunar cycle in this global sample of children. Whether this seemingly minimal difference is clinically meaningful is questionable.

  10. Partial sleep deprivation activates the DNA damage response (DDR) and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in aged adult humans.

    Carroll, Judith E; Cole, Steven W; Seeman, Teresa E; Breen, Elizabeth C; Witarama, Tuff; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; Irwin, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Age-related disease risk has been linked to short sleep duration and sleep disturbances; however, the specific molecular pathways linking sleep loss with diseases of aging are poorly defined. Key cellular events seen with aging, which are thought to contribute to disease, may be particularly sensitive to sleep loss. We tested whether one night of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) would increase leukocyte gene expression indicative of DNA damage responses (DDR), the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and senescence indicator p16(INK4a) in older adult humans, who are at increased risk for cellular senescence. Community-dwelling older adults aged 61-86years (n=29; 48% male) underwent an experimental partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol over 4 nights, including adaptation, an uninterrupted night of sleep, partial sleep deprivation (sleep restricted 3-7AM), and a subsequent full night of sleep. Blood samples were obtained each morning to assess peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression using Illumina HT-12 arrays. Analyses of microarray results revealed that SASP (psleep deprivation activates PBMC gene expression patterns consistent with biological aging in this older adult sample. PSD enhanced the SASP and increased the accumulation of damage that initiates cell cycle arrest and promotes cellular senescence. These findings causally link sleep deprivation to the molecular processes associated with biological aging.

  11. Psychiatric rehabilitation

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation is an important component in the management of the mentally ill. This article presents a selective review of the publications in this journal. Questions addressed in this review range from assessment of rehabilitation needs to different rehabilitative approaches. Although the number of publications providing the answers is meager, there are innovative initiatives. There is a need for mental health professionals to publish the models they follow across the country.

  12. Simulation study on dynamics transition in neuronal activity during sleep cycle by using asynchronous and symmetry neural network model.

    Nakao, M; Takahashi, T; Mizutani, Y; Yamamoto, M

    1990-01-01

    We have found that single neuronal activities in different regions in the brain commonly exhibit the distinct dynamics transition during sleep-waking cycle in cats. Especially, power spectral densities of single neuronal activities change their profiles from the white to the 1/f along with sleep cycle from slow wave sleep (SWS) to paradoxical sleep (PS). Each region has different neural network structure and physiological function. This suggests a globally working mechanism may be underlying the dynamics transition we concern. Pharmacological studies have shown that a change in a wide-spread serotonergic input to these regions possibly causes the neuronal dynamics transition during sleep cycle. In this paper, based on these experimental results, an asynchronous and symmetry neural network model including inhibitory input, which represents the role of the serotonergic system, is utilized to examine the reality of our idea that the inhibitory input level varying during sleep cycle induce that transition. Simulation results show that the globally applied inhibitory input can control the dynamics of single neuronal state evolution in the artificial neural network: 1/f-like power spectral density profiles result under weak inhibition, which possibly corresponds to PS, and white profiles under strong inhibition, which possibly corresponds to SWS. An asynchronous neural network is known to change its state according to its energy function. The geometrical structure of network energy function is thought to vary along with the change in inhibitory level, which is expected to cause the dynamics transition of neuronal state evolution in the network model. These simulation results support the possibility that the serotonergic system is essential for the dynamics transition of single neuronal activities during sleep cycle.

  13. Sleep Disorders

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  14. Sleep Problems

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  15. Urotensin II modulates rapid eye movement sleep through activation of brainstem cholinergic neurons

    Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Sánchez-Alavez, Manuel;

    2005-01-01

    administration of UII into the PPT nucleus increases REM sleep without inducing changes in the cortical blood flow. Intracerebroventricular injection of UII enhances both REM sleep and wakefulness and reduces slow-wave sleep 2. Intracerebroventricular, but not local, administration of UII increases cortical...

  16. Electric stimulation of the tuberomamillary nucleus affects epileptic activity and sleep-wake cycle in a genetic absence epilepsy model.

    Blik, Vitaliya

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising approach for epilepsy treatment, but the optimal targets and parameters of stimulation are yet to be investigated. Tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) is involved in EEG desynchronization-one of the proposed mechanisms for DBS action. We studied whether TMN stimulation could interfere with epileptic spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in WAG/Rij rats with inherited absence epilepsy and whether such stimulation would affect sleep-wake cycle. EEG and video registration were used to determine SWD occurrence and stages of sleep and wake during three-hours recording sessions. Stimulation (100Hz) was applied in two modes: closed-loop (with previously determined interruption threshold intensity) or open-loop mode (with 50% or 70% threshold intensity). Closed-loop stimulation successfully interrupted SWDs but elevated their number by 148 ± 54% compared to baseline. It was accompanied by increase in number of episodes but not total duration of both active and passive wakefulness. Open-loop stimulation with amplitude 50% threshold did not change measured parameters, though 70% threshold stimulation reduced SWDs number by 40 ± 9%, significantly raised the amount of active wakefulness and decreased the amount of both slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep. These results suggest that the TMN is unfavorable as a target for DBS as its stimulation may cause alterations in sleep-wake cycle. A careful choosing of parameters and control of sleep-wake activity is necessary when applying DBS in epilepsy.

  17. Physical activity, sleep duration and metabolic health in children fluctuate with the lunar cycle

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2015-01-01

    glucose regulation and physical activity to improve glucose regulation, one could speculate that cardiometabolic risk factors might also be affected by the lunar phase. We retrospectively examined 795 Danish children, aged 8-11 years, with more than 13 000 24-h accelerometer recordings of activity...... and sleep as well as 2000 measurements of different cardiometabolic risk factors, including insulin sensitivity, appetite hormones and blood pressure, during nine lunar phases. During the period around full moon, children were 5.0 and 3.2 min per day less active, slept 2.4 and 4.1 min per night longer, had...... behaviour and the lunar cycle or confounders that may explain this, apparently leading to fluctuation in a number of cardiometabolic risk markers conjointly with lunar phases....

  18. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Mascetti GG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use

  19. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH: role in REM sleep and depression

    Pablo eTorterolo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH is a peptidergic neuromodulator synthesized by neurons of the lateral hypothalamus and incerto-hypothalamic area. MCHergic neurons project throughout the central nervous system, including areas such as the dorsal (DR and median (MR raphe nuclei, which are involved in the control of sleep and mood.Major Depression (MD is a prevalent psychiatric disease diagnosed on the basis of symptomatic criteria such as sadness or melancholia, guilt, irritability and anhedonia. A short REM sleep latency (i.e. the interval between sleep onset and the first REM sleep period, as well as an increase in the duration of REM sleep and the density of rapid-eye movements during this state, are considered important biological markers of depression. The fact that the greatest firing rate of MCHergic neurons occurs during REM sleep and that optogenetic stimulation of these neurons induces sleep, tends to indicate that MCH plays a critical role in the generation and maintenance of sleep, especially REM sleep. In addition, the acute microinjection of MCH into the DR promotes REM sleep, while immunoneutralization of this peptide within the DR decreases the time spent in this state. Moreover, microinjections of MCH into either the DR or MR promote a depressive-like behavior. In the DR, this effect is prevented by the systemic administration of antidepressant drugs (either fluoxetine or nortriptyline and blocked by the intra-DR microinjection of a specific MCH receptor antagonist. Using electrophysiological and microdialysis techniques we demonstrated also that MCH decreases the activity of serotonergic DR neurons.Therefore, there are substantive experimental data suggesting that the MCHergic system plays a role in the control of REM sleep and, in addition, in the pathophysiology of depression. Consequently, in the present report, we summarize and evaluate the current data and hypotheses related to the role of MCH in REM sleep and MD.

  20. Sleep and Wakefulness Handbook for Flight Medical Officers

    1987-07-01

    personality disorder or psychiatric problem, such as depression. Some may have been prescribed hypnotics several years ago for a specific reason, and...part of the night. Adult sufferers from anxiety dreams have a high incidence of mental disease with schizoid personality and sometimes schizophrenia...Descriptors Sleep and wakefulness Sleep disorders Circadian rhythms Hypnotics Disturbed sleep Transport operations Sustained performance 14. Abstract

  1. Further Validation of the Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory

    Koffel, Erin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of an expanded version of the Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory (ISDI; Koffel & Watson, 2010) in 2 samples (219 college students and 200 psychiatric patients). The expanded ISDI includes the scales Sleep Paralysis and Sleep Hallucinations. These scales, along with the Nightmares scale, help define a…

  2. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment

    Lin Hung-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Results Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. Conclusion A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.

  3. Better quality sleep promotes daytime physical activity in patients with chronic pain? A multilevel analysis of the within-person relationship.

    Nicole K Y Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Promoting physical activity is key to the management of chronic pain, but little is understood about the factors facilitating an individual's engagement in physical activity on a day-to-day basis. This study examined the within-person effect of sleep on next day physical activity in patients with chronic pain and insomnia. METHODS: 119 chronic pain patients monitored their sleep and physical activity for a week in their usual sleeping and living environment. Physical activity was measured using actigraphy to provide a mean activity score each hour. Sleep was estimated with actigraphy and an electronic diary, providing an objective and subjective index of sleep efficiency (A-SE, SE and a sleep quality rating (SQ. The individual and relative roles of these sleep parameters, as well as morning ratings of pain and mood, in predicting subsequent physical activity were examined in multilevel models that took into account variations in relationships at the 'Day' and 'Participant' levels. RESULTS: Of the 5 plausible predictors SQ was the only significant within-person predictor of subsequent physical activity, such that nights of higher sleep quality were followed by days of more physical activity, from noon to 11 pm. The temporal association was not explained by potential confounders such as morning pain, mood or effects of the circadian rhythm. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of interventions, chronic pain patients spontaneously engaged in more physical activity following a better night of sleep. Improving nighttime sleep may well be a novel avenue for promoting daytime physical activity in patients with chronic pain.

  4. Consequences of acne on stress, fatigue, sleep disorders and sexual activity: a population-based study.

    Misery, Laurent; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Amici, Jean-Michel; Maghia, Rémi; Brenaut, Emilie; Cazeau, Christine; Voisard, Jean-Jacques; Taïeb, Charles

    2015-04-01

    Acne is a common disease among young people, which could have a serious impact on quality of life. Based on a survey using the quotas method on a large sample of the French population, we studied the impact of acne on feelings of stress, fatigue upon waking, sleep disorders and sexual activity. We did not establish any relationship to sleep disorders, but clearly ascertained that people with acne (n = 1,375) feel more stressed and have less sexual intercourse. Hence, 18% of people from acne group declared to be stressed every day (13.9% in control group) and 37.5% had no sexual intercourse (20.4% in control group; n = 891). To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that fatigue upon waking is strongly associated with the presence of acne (65.4% versus 58.4%). This study emphasises the fact that acne could have a deep resounding impact on the lives of people suffering from the disease.

  5. Cerebral blood flow during paroxysmal EEG activation induced by sleep in patients with complex partial seizures

    Gozukirmizi, E.; Meyer, J.S.; Okabe, T.; Amano, T.; Mortel, K.; Karacan, I.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements were combined with sleep polysomnography in nine patients with complex partial seizures. Two methods were used: the 133Xe method for measuring regional (rCBF) and the stable xenon CT method for local (LCBF). Compared to nonepileptic subjects, who show diffuse CBF decreases during stages I-II, non-REM sleep onset, patients with complex partial seizures show statistically significant increases in CBF which are maximal in regions where the EEG focus is localized and are predominantly seen in one temporal region but are also propagated to other cerebral areas. Both CBF methods gave comparable results, but greater statistical significance was achieved by stable xenon CT methodology. CBF increases are more diffuse than predicted by EEG paroxysmal activity recorded from scalp electrodes. An advantage of the 133Xe inhalation method was achievement of reliable data despite movement of the head. This was attributed to the use of a helmet which maintained the probes approximated to the scalp. Disadvantages were poor resolution (7 cm3) and two-dimensional information. The advantage of stable xenon CT method is excellent resolution (80 mm3) in three dimensions, but a disadvantage is that movement of the head in patients with seizure disorders may limit satisfactory measurements.

  6. Combinations of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep: relationships with health indicators in school-aged children and youth.

    Saunders, Travis John; Gray, Casey Ellen; Poitras, Veronica Joan; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Olds, Timothy; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Kho, Michelle E; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S; Carson, Valerie

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to determine how combinations of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and sleep were associated with important health indicators in children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) were searched for relevant studies examining the relationship between time spent engaging in different combinations of PA, SB, and sleep with the following health indicators: adiposity, cardiometabolic biomarkers, physical fitness, emotional regulation/psychological distress, behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour, cognition, quality of life/well-being, injuries, bone density, motor skill development, and self-esteem. PA had to be objectively measured, while sleep and SB could be objectively or subjectively measured. The quality of research evidence and risk of bias for each health indicator and for each individual study was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. A total of 13 cross-sectional studies and a single prospective cohort study reporting data from 36 560 individual participants met the inclusion criteria. Children and youth with a combination of high PA/high sleep/low SB had more desirable measures of adiposity and cardiometabolic health compared with those with a combination of low PA/low sleep/high SB. Health benefits were also observed for those with a combination of high PA/high sleep (cardiometabolic health and adiposity) or high PA/low SB (cardiometabolic health, adiposity and fitness), compared with low PA/low sleep or low PA/high SB. Of the 3 movement behaviours, PA (especially moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA) was most consistently associated with desirable health indicators. Given the lack of randomized trials, the overall quality of the available evidence was low.

  7. Insecure attachment is associated with the α-EEG anomaly during sleep

    Maunder Robert G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The α-EEG anomaly during sleep, originally associated with chronic pain, is noted in several psychiatric and medical conditions and is also present in some normal subjects. The exact significance of the α-EEG anomaly is uncertain, but it has been suggested to be a nonspecific response to a variety of noxious stimuli. We propose that attachment insecurity, which is often associated with a state of hypervigilance during wakefulness, may be associated with the α-EEG anomaly during sleep. Methods Thirty one consecutive patients referred to a Sleep Disorders Clinic for clinical assessment of sleep complaints underwent standard polysomnographic recording. The degree of alpha activity in polysomnographs was scored visually according to standard criteria. Attachment insecurity was measured with the Experience in Close Relationships – Revised questionnaire. Results Attachment anxiety was significantly associated with the proportion of sleep in which α waves were present (df = 1, F = 5.01, p = 0.03. The relationship between the α-EEG anomaly and attachment anxiety was not explained by the distribution of sleep and mood diagnoses, medications, anxiety symptoms or depression symptoms. Conclusion Interpersonal style in close relationships may be related to sleep physiology. Further research to determine the nature of the relationship between attachment, sleep and other factors that are related to each of these, such as a history of personal adversity, is warranted.

  8. [Actigraphy in sleep medicine and sleep research].

    Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Matsuda, Mika; Chiba, Shigeru

    2009-08-01

    Actigraphy is a method that utilizes a miniaturized computerized wristwatch-like device to monitor and collect data generated by body movements over extended periods of time. It allows estimation of sleep and wakefulness based on motor activity. It provides a noninvasive, objective, and longitudinal method for the diagnostic and post-treatment evaluation of patients with sleep disorders in the ambulatory setting. It has been used for researchers to study sleep disturbances in a variety of populations, most frequently for the evaluation of insomnia, paradoxical insomnia, and circadian rhythm sleep disorders. In addition, it is particularly useful in populations where polysomnography would be difficult to record, such as in patients with dementia and delirium. Actigraphy should be extensively carried out in sleep medicine as well as sleep research.

  9. Sleep and sleep disorders in Don Quixote.

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martín

    2004-01-01

    In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575).

  10. Ventromedial prefrontal theta activity during rapid eye movement sleep is associated with improved decision-making on the Iowa Gambling Task.

    Seeley, Corrine J; Smith, Carlyle T; MacDonald, Kevin J; Beninger, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Recent research is beginning to reveal an intricate relationship between sleep and decision-making. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a unique decision-making task that relies on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), an area that integrates and weighs previous experiences with reward and loss to select choices with the highest overall value. Recently, it has been demonstrated that a period of sleep can enhance decision-making on this task. Our study investigated the sleep mechanisms (sleep stages and cortical activity) that underlie this improvement. We recorded electrophysiology for 3 consecutive nights: a habituation, baseline, and acquisition night. On acquisition night participants were administered either a 200-trial IGT (IGT group; n = 13) or a 200-trial control (IGT-control group; n = 8) version of the task prior to sleep. Compared with baseline, the IGT group had a significant increase in theta frequency (4 Hz-8 Hz) on cites located above vmPFC and left prefrontal cortex during REM sleep. This increase correlated with subsequent performance improvement from deck B, a high reward deck with negative long-term outcomes. Furthermore, presleep emotional arousal (measured via skin conductance response) toward deck B correlated to increased theta activity above the right vmPFC during REM sleep. Overall, these results suggests that insight into deck B may be enhanced via vmPFC theta activity during REM sleep and REM sleep may have distinct mechanisms for processing decision-making information. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes’ closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep). PMID:27471418

  12. Sleep and borderline personality disorder: a review.

    Hafizi, Sina

    2013-12-01

    Sleep problems are very common among psychiatric patients. Borderline personality disorder, as a common and severe mental disorder, is associated with different types of sleep disturbances, such as disturbances of sleep continuity, altered REM sleep regulation and nightmares. These disturbances are the result of interaction of the personality traits, concomitant and comorbid diseases and environmental factors. Despite the high prevalence of sleep related disorders in BPD patients, this aspect of BPD is still neglected in clinical and research settings. To date there has been little agreement on sleep characteristics of BPD among different studies, and presence of some uncontrolled confounding factors, make interpretation of the results difficult. However, it seems that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders in BPD patients might lead to better outcome. This article aimed to review the current literature of sleep studies in BPD. Some recommendations and suggestions were made for future researches in this field.

  13. The Neuroprotective Aspects of Sleep.

    Eugene, Andy R; Masiak, Jolanta

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is an important component of human life, yet many people do not understand the relationship between the brain and the process of sleeping. Sleep has been proven to improve memory recall, regulate metabolism, and reduce mental fatigue. A minimum of 7 hours of daily sleep seems to be necessary for proper cognitive and behavioral function. The emotional and mental handicaps associated with chronic sleep loss as well as the highly hazardous situations which can be contributed to the lack of sleep is a serious concern that people need to be aware of. When one sleeps, the brain reorganizes and recharges itself, and removes toxic waste byproducts which have accumulated throughout the day. This evidence demonstrates that sleeping can clear the brain and help maintain its normal functioning. Multiple studies have been done to determine the effects of total sleep deprivation; more recently some have been conducted to show the effects of sleep restriction, which is a much more common occurrence, have the same effects as total sleep deprivation. Each phase of the sleep cycle restores and rejuvenates the brain for optimal function. When sleep is deprived, the active process of the glymphatic system does not have time to perform that function, so toxins can build up, and the effects will become apparent in cognitive abilities, behavior, and judgment. As a background for this paper we have reviewed literature and research of sleep phases, effects of sleep deprivation, and the glymphatic system of the brain and its restorative effect during the sleep cycle.

  14. Rest/activity rhythms and mortality rates in older men: MrOS Sleep Study.

    Paudel, Misti L; Taylor, Brent C; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L; Tranah, Greg; Redline, Susan; Cummings, Steven R; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2010-01-01

    An association between increased risk of mortality and disruptions in rest/activity circadian rhythms (RAR) has been shown among adults with dementia and with metastatic colorectal cancer. However, the association among a more general population of older adults has not been studied. Our study population consisted of 2964 men aged > or = 67 yrs of age enrolled in the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) Study. Rest/activity patterns were measured with wrist actigraphy. RAR parameters were computed and expressed as quintiles, and included acrophase (time of peak activity level), amplitude (peak-to-nadir difference), mesor (middle of the peak), pseudo F-value (overall circadian rhythmicity), beta (steepness), and alpha (peak-to-trough width). After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, men in the lowest quintile of pseudo F-value had a 57% higher mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.03-2.39) than men in the highest quintile. This association was even stronger with increased risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality (CVD) (HR = 2.32, 95% CI, 1.04-5.22). Additionally, men in the lowest quintile of acrophase had a 2.8-fold higher rate of CVD-related mortality (HR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.29-6.24). There was no evidence of independent associations with amplitude, mesor, alpha, beta, and mortality risk. Older men with less robust RAR and earlier acrophase timing have modestly higher all-cause and CVD-related mortality rates. Further research should examine potential biological mechanisms underlying this association.

  15. Physical activity, sleep, and nutrition do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; Barberà, Elena; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisc

  16. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson′s disease

    Sandeep Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson′s disease (PD is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the "tip of the iceberg" of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control, sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD.

  17. Role of corticosterone on sleep homeostasis induced by REM sleep deprivation in rats.

    Machado, Ricardo Borges; Tufik, Sergio; Suchecki, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is regulated by humoral and homeostatic processes. If on one hand chronic elevation of stress hormones impair sleep, on the other hand, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation induces elevation of glucocorticoids and time of REM sleep during the recovery period. In the present study we sought to examine whether manipulations of corticosterone levels during REM sleep deprivation would alter the subsequent sleep rebound. Adult male Wistar rats were fit with electrodes for sleep monitoring and submitted to four days of REM sleep deprivation under repeated corticosterone or metyrapone (an inhibitor of corticosterone synthesis) administration. Sleep parameters were continuously recorded throughout the sleep deprivation period and during 3 days of sleep recovery. Plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone were also evaluated. Metyrapone treatment prevented the elevation of corticosterone plasma levels induced by REM sleep deprivation, whereas corticosterone administration to REM sleep-deprived rats resulted in lower corticosterone levels than in non-sleep deprived rats. Nonetheless, both corticosterone and metyrapone administration led to several alterations on sleep homeostasis, including reductions in the amount of non-REM and REM sleep during the recovery period, although corticosterone increased delta activity (1.0-4.0 Hz) during REM sleep deprivation. Metyrapone treatment of REM sleep-deprived rats reduced the number of REM sleep episodes. In conclusion, reduction of corticosterone levels during REM sleep deprivation resulted in impairment of sleep rebound, suggesting that physiological elevation of corticosterone levels resulting from REM sleep deprivation is necessary for plentiful recovery of sleep after this stressful event.

  18. Deep sleep after social stress : NREM sleep slow-wave activity is enhanced in both winners and losers of a conflict

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Lancel, Marike; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meerlo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is considered to be a recovery process of prior wakefulness. Not only duration of the waking period affects sleep architecture and sleep EEG, the quality of wakefulness is also highly important. Studies in rats have shown that social defeat stress, in which experimental animals are attacked an

  19. Choice of biomaterials—Do soft occlusal splints influence jaw-muscle activity during sleep? A preliminary report

    Arima, Taro; Takeuchi, Tamiyo; Tomonaga, Akio; Yachida, Wataru; Ohata, Noboru; Svensson, Peter

    2012-12-01

    AimThe choice of biomaterials for occlusal splints may significantly influence biological outcome. In dentistry, hard acrylic occlusal splints (OS) have been shown to have a temporary and inhibitory effect on jaw-muscle activity, such as tooth clenching and grinding during sleep, i.e., sleep bruxism (SB). Traditionally, this inhibitory effect has been explained by changes in the intraoral condition rather than the specific effects of changes in occlusion. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of another type of occlusal surface, such as a soft-material OS in addition to a hard-type OS in terms of changes in jaw-muscle activity during sleep. Materials and methodsSeven healthy subjects (mean ± SD, six men and one woman: 28.9 ± 2.7 year old), participated in this study. A soft-material OS (ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer) was fabricated for each subject and the subjects used the OS for five continuous nights. The EMG activity during sleep was compared to baseline (no OS). Furthermore, the EMG activity during the use of a hard-type OS (Michigan-type OS, acrylic resin), and hard-type OS combined with contingent electrical stimulation (CES) was compared to baseline values. Each session was separated by at least two weeks (washout). Jaw-muscle activity during sleep was recorded with single-channel ambulatory devices (GrindCare, MedoTech, Herlev, Denmark) in all sessions for five nights. ResultsJaw-muscle activity during sleep was 46.6 ± 29.8 EMG events/hour at baseline and significantly decreased during the hard-type OS (17.4 ± 10.5, P = 0.007) and the hard-type OS + CES (10.8 ± 7.1, P = 0.002), but not soft-material OS (36.3 ± 24.5, P = 0.055). Interestingly, the soft-material OS (coefficient of variance = 98.6 ± 35.3%) was associated with greater night-to-night variations than baseline (39.0 ± 11.8%) and the hard-type OS + CES (53.3 ± 13.7%, P biomaterials for occlusal splints may have a significant impact on the neurobiological

  20. Sedentary behavior and sleep efficiency in active community-dwelling older adults

    Madden, Kenneth M.; Ashe, Maureen C; Chris Lockhart; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated that aerobic exercise interventions have a positive impact on sleep efficiency in older adults. However, little work has been done on the impact of sedentary behavior (sitting, watching television, etc.) on sleep efficiency. Methods: 54 Community-dwelling men and women >65 years of age living in Whistler, British Columbia (mean 71.5 years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. Measures of sleep efficiency as well as averag...

  1. Serum inflammatory mediators correlate with disease activity in electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) syndrome.

    van den Munckhof, Bart; de Vries, Evelien E; Braun, Kees P J; Boss, H Myrthe; Willemsen, Michèl A; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; de Jager, Wilco; Jansen, Floor E

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to study serum cytokine levels in 11 electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) patients and 20 healthy control children. Patients showed significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-10, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)8/IL-8 than controls, while macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and CCL3 were significantly lower. Follow-up analyses in five patients revealed a significant decrease of IL-6 levels after immunomodulating treatment. IL-6 changes were accompanied by clear improvement of electroencephalography (EEG) patterns and neuropsychological evaluation. We hypothesize that IL-6 correlates with disease activity and immunomodulating treatment efficacy.

  2. Abnormal sexual behavior during sleep in temporal lobe epilepsy: a case report.

    Pelin, Zerrin; Yazla, Ece

    2012-06-01

    Herein, we describe a case who presented with abnormal sexual behaviour during sleep. Video-electroencephalography monitoring during sleep revealed an abnormality suggesting an epileptic basis. The patient was successfully treated with carbamazepin. The psychiatric symptoms that were thought to be related to abnormal sexual behaviours were controlled with antipsychotic treatment. Our findings strongly emphasize the fact that efforts should be spent to increase awareness of seizure activity at night, which can be misinterpreted as benign parasomnias. Such a misinterpretation may have serious consequences, such as insufficient seizure control, progressive personality changes, and cognitive impairment.

  3. The Effects Of Sleep On Autonomic Regulation, Cardiovascular Activity, And Cognitive Processing

    Cellini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is a cyclical behaviour that occurs every day and we spend a significant portion of our life sleeping. While “why do we sleep” remains an unanswered question, we know that sleep is essential for life. Several aspects of our life are dependent on or strictly related to sleep, from molecular and hormonal levels to high-functional behaviours. The main purpose of the present dissertation is to investigate through five experiments two of the most fundamental aspects of human life, cardio...

  4. Respiratory muscle activity during REM sleep in patients with diaphragm paralysis.

    Bennett, J R; Dunroy, H M A; Corfield, D R; Hart, N; Simonds, A K; Polkey, M I; Morrell, M J

    2004-01-13

    The diaphragm is the main inspiratory muscle during REM sleep. It was hypothesized that patients with isolated bilateral diaphragm paralysis (BDP) might not be able to sustain REM sleep. Polysomnography with EMG recordings was undertaken from accessory respiratory muscles in patients with BDP and normal subjects. Patients with BDP had a normal quantity of REM sleep (mean +/- SD, 18.6 +/- 7.5% of total sleep time) achieved by inspiratory recruitment of extradiaphragmatic muscles in both tonic and phasic REM, suggesting brainstem reorganization.

  5. Are Children Like Werewolves? Full Moon and Its Association with Sleep and Activity Behaviors in an International Sample of Children

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Weippert, Madyson; LeBlanc, Allana G.; Hjorth, Mads F.; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Sjödin, Anders M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to verify if the full moon is associated with sleep and activity behaviors, we used a 12-country study providing 33,710 24-h accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9–11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, United Kingdom, and United States). Three moon phases were used in this analysis: full moon (±4 days; reference), half moon (±5–9 days), and new moon (±10–14 days) from nearest full moon. Nocturnal sleep duration, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and total sedentary time (SED) were monitored over seven consecutive days using a waist-worn accelerometer worn 24 h a day. Only sleep duration was found to significantly differ between moon phases (~5 min/night shorter during full moon compared to new moon). Differences in MVPA, LPA, and SED between moon phases were negligible and non-significant (<2 min/day difference). There was no difference in the associations between study sites. In conclusion, sleep duration was 1% shorter at full moon compared to new moon, while activity behaviors were not significantly associated with the lunar cycle in this global sample of children. Whether this seemingly minimal difference is clinically meaningful is questionable. PMID:27047907

  6. Relation of Heart Rate and its Variability during Sleep with Age, Physical Activity, and Body Composition in Young Children

    Herzig, David; Eser, Prisca; Radtke, Thomas; Wenger, Alina; Rusterholz, Thomas; Wilhelm, Matthias; Achermann, Peter; Arhab, Amar; Jenni, Oskar G.; Kakebeeke, Tanja H.; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S.; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Meyer, Andrea H.; Munsch, Simone; Puder, Jardena J.; Schmutz, Einat A.; Stülb, Kerstin; Zysset, Annina E.; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have claimed a positive effect of physical activity and body composition on vagal tone. In pediatric populations, there is a pronounced decrease in heart rate with age. While this decrease is often interpreted as an age-related increase in vagal tone, there is some evidence that it may be related to a decrease in intrinsic heart rate. This factor has not been taken into account in most previous studies. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between physical activity and/or body composition and heart rate variability (HRV) independently of the decline in heart rate in young children. Methods: Anthropometric measurements were taken in 309 children aged 2–6 years. Ambulatory electrocardiograms were collected over 14–18 h comprising a full night and accelerometry over 7 days. HRV was determined of three different night segments: (1) over 5 min during deep sleep identified automatically based on HRV characteristics; (2) during a 20 min segment starting 15 min after sleep onset; (3) over a 4-h segment between midnight and 4 a.m. Linear models were computed for HRV parameters with anthropometric and physical activity variables adjusted for heart rate and other confounding variables (e.g., age for physical activity models). Results: We found a decline in heart rate with increasing physical activity and decreasing skinfold thickness. HRV parameters decreased with increasing age, height, and weight in HR-adjusted regression models. These relationships were only found in segments of deep sleep detected automatically based on HRV or manually 15 min after sleep onset, but not in the 4-h segment with random sleep phases. Conclusions: Contrary to most previous studies, we found no increase of standard HRV parameters with age, however, when adjusted for heart rate, there was a significant decrease of HRV parameters with increasing age. Without knowing intrinsic heart rate correct interpretation of HRV in growing children is

  7. Update on parasomnias: a review for psychiatric practice.

    Markov, Dimitri; Jaffe, Fredric; Doghramji, Karl

    2006-07-01

    Parasomnias, defined as undesirable behavioral, physiological, or experiential events that accompany sleep, are common in the general population. As a rule, they occur more frequently in children than in adults with the exception of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), which is more common in men over 50. No longer considered to be invariably a sign of psychopathology, parasomnias are currently understood as clinical phenomena that arise as brain transitions between REM sleep, non-REM sleep, and wakefulness. This paper presents a clinical approach to diagnosing and treating parasomnias in the general population and in psychiatric patients.

  8. Addressing reverse inference in psychiatric neuroimaging: Meta‐analyses of task‐related brain activation in common mental disorders

    Sprooten, Emma; Rasgon, Alexander; Goodman, Morgan; Carlin, Ariella; Leibu, Evan; Lee, Won Hee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in psychiatry use various tasks to identify case‐control differences in the patterns of task‐related brain activation. Differently activated regions are often ascribed disorder‐specific functions in an attempt to link disease expression and brain function. We undertook a systematic meta‐analysis of data from task‐fMRI studies to examine the effect of diagnosis and study design on the spatial distribution and direction of case‐control differences on brain activation. We mapped to atlas regions coordinates of case‐control differences derived from 537 task‐fMRI studies in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorder comprising observations derived from 21,427 participants. The fMRI tasks were classified according to the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). We investigated whether diagnosis, RDoC domain or construct and use of regions‐of‐interest or whole‐brain analyses influenced the neuroanatomical pattern of results. When considering all primary studies, we found an effect of diagnosis for the amygdala and caudate nucleus and an effect of RDoC domains and constructs for the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and nucleus accumbens. In contrast, whole‐brain studies did not identify any significant effect of diagnosis or RDoC domain or construct. These results resonate with prior reports of common brain structural and genetic underpinnings across these disorders and caution against attributing undue specificity to brain functional changes when forming explanatory models of psychiatric disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1846–1864, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:28067006

  9. Sleep Paralysis and Hallucinosis

    Gregory Stores

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep paralysis is one of the many conditions of which visual hallucinations can be a part but has received relatively little attention. It can be associated with other dramatic symptoms of a psychotic nature likely to cause diagnostic uncertainty. Methods and results: These points are illustrated by the case of a young man with a severe bipolar affective disorder who independently developed terrifying visual, auditory and somatic hallucinatory episodes at sleep onset, associated with a sense of evil influence and presence. The episodes were not obviously related to his psychiatric disorder. Past diagnoses included nightmares and night terrors. Review provided no convincing evidence of various other sleep disorders nor physical conditions in which hallucinatory experiences can occur. A diagnosis of predormital isolated sleep paralysis was made and appropriate treatment recommended. Conclusions: Sleep paralysis, common in the general population, can be associated with dramatic auxiliary symptoms suggestive of a psychotic state. Less common forms are either part of the narcolepsy syndrome or (rarely they are familial in type. Interestingly, sleep paralysis (especially breathing difficulty features prominently in the folklore of various countries.

  10. Cardiovascular physiology and sleep.

    Murali, Narayana S; Svatikova, Anna; Somers, Virend K

    2003-05-01

    Sleep is a natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which processes of rest and restoration occur. The cognitive, reparative and regenerative accompaniments of sleep appear to be essential for maintenance of health and homeostasis. This brief overview will examine the cardiovascular responses to normal and disordered sleep, and their physiologic and pathologic implications. In the past, sleep was believed to be a passive state. The tableau of sleep as it unfolds is anything but a passive process. The brain's activity is as complex as wakefulness, never "resting" during sleep. Following the demise of the 'passive theory of sleep' (the reticular activating system is fatigued during the waking day and hence becomes inactive), there arose the 'active theory of sleep' (sleep is due to an active general inhibition of the brain) (1). Hess demonstrated the active nature of sleep in cats, inducing "physiological sleep" with electrical stimulation of the diencephalon (2). Classical experiments of transection of the cat brainstem (3) at midpontine level inhibited sleep completely, implying that centers below this level were involved in the induction of sleep (1, 4). For the first time, measurement of sleep depth without awakening the sleeper using the electroencephalogram (EEG) was demonstrated in animals by Caton and in humans, by Berger (1). This was soon followed by discovery of the rapid eye movement sleep periods (REM) by Aserinski and Kleitman (5), demonstration of periodical sleep cycles and their association with REM sleep (6, 7). Multiple studies and steady discoveries (4) made polysomnography, with its ability to perform simultaneous whole night recordings of EEG, electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOC), a major diagnostic tool in study of sleep disorders. This facility has been of further critical importance in allowing evaluation of the interaction between sleep and changes in hemodynamics and autonomic cardiovascular control. Consequently the

  11. Psychobiotics: An emerging probiotic in psychiatric practice.

    Kali, Arunava

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal microbial flora plays critical role in maintenance of health. Probiotic organisms have been recognized as an essential therapeutic component in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis. Current research suggests their health benefits extends beyond intestinal disorders. The neuroactive molecules produced by the gut microbiota has been found to modulate neural signals which affect neurological and psychiatric parameters like sleep, appetite, mood and cognition. Use of these novel probiotics opens up the possibility of restructuring of intestinal microbiota for effective management of various psychiatric disorders.

  12. Psychobiotics: An emerging probiotic in psychiatric practice

    Arunava Kali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbial flora plays critical role in maintenance of health. Probiotic organisms have been recognized as an essential therapeutic component in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis. Current research suggests their health benefits extends beyond intestinal disorders. The neuroactive molecules produced by the gut microbiota has been found to modulate neural signals which affect neurological and psychiatric parameters like sleep, appetite, mood and cognition. Use of these novel probiotics opens up the possibility of restructuring of intestinal microbiota for effective management of various psychiatric disorders.

  13. Effects of an occlusal splint compared with cognitive-behavioral treatment on sleep bruxism activity.

    Ommerborn, Michelle A; Schneider, Christine; Giraki, Maria; Schäfer, Ralf; Handschel, Jörg; Franz, Matthias; Raab, Wolfgang H-M

    2007-02-01

    The impact of an occlusal splint (OS) compared with cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) on the management of sleep bruxism (SB) has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an OS with CBT in SB patients. Following a randomized assignment, the OS group consisted of 29, and the CBT group of 28, SB patients. The CBT comprised problem-solving, progressive muscle relaxation, nocturnal biofeedback, and training of recreation and enjoyment. The treatment took place over a period of 12 wk, and the OS group received an OS over the same time period. Both groups were examined pretreatment, post-treatment, and at 6 months of follow-up for SB activity, self-assessment of SB activity and associated symptoms, psychological impairment, and individual stress-coping strategies. The analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in SB activity, self-assessment of SB activity, and psychological impairment, as well as an increase of positive stress-coping strategies in both groups. However, the effects were small and no group-specific differences were seen in any dependent variable. This is an initial attempt to compare CBT and OS in SB patients, and the data collected substantiate the need for further controlled evaluations, using a three-group randomized design with repeated measures to verify treatment effects.

  14. Reduced sympathetic activity in idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Mehlsen, Jesper; Jennum, Poul

    2013-01-01

    More than 50% of patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) will develop Parkinson's disease or Lewy body dementia. In a previous study, we found attenuated heart rate responses in iRBD and Parkinson's disease patients during sleep. The current study aimed to evaluate heart rate...

  15. Ultradian oscillations in plasma renin activity: their relationships to meals and sleep stages.

    Brandenberger, G; Follenius, M; Muzet, A; Ehrhart, J; Schieber, J P

    1985-08-01

    The 24-h pattern of PRA was studied in 6 supine normal subjects, and the relationship between sleep stages and PRA oscillations was analyzed using 18 nighttime profiles and the concomitant polygraphic recordings of sleep. Blood was collected at 10-min intervals. The slow trends obtained by adjusting a third degree polynomial to the 24-h data were not reproducible among individuals, and no circadian pattern was detected. Sustained oscillations in PRA occurred throughout the day. Spectral analysis revealed that PRA oscillated at a regular periodicity of about 100 min during the night. This periodicity was modified during the daytime by meal intake, which induced PRA peaks with large interindividual variations in size. A close relationship was found between the nocturnal PRA oscillations and the alternance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM sleep. Non-REM sleep invariably coincided with increasing or peaking PRA levels. REM sleep occurred as PRA was declining or at nadirs. More precisely, increases in PRA marked the transition from REM sleep to stage II, whereas stages III and IV usually occurred when PRA was highest. This relationship between the periodic nocturnal oscillations in PRA and the alternance of the REM-non-REM cycles may translate a similar oscillatory process in the central nervous system or may be linked to hemodynamic changes during sleep that might be partly controlled by the renin-angiotensin system.

  16. Effects of a Short-Acting Benzodiazepine on Brain Electrical Activity during Sleep.

    1980-12-01

    The sleep spindle: Effects of chlordiazepoxide ; effects of other conditions. Sleep Recearch, 1974, 3: 48. 7. Azumi, K. & S. Shirakawa. Characteristics...poor sleepers during repeated use of flurazepam. Psychopharmacology, 1979, 61: 309-316. 13 25. Sherwin, I. Differential action of diazepam on evoked

  17. Body temperature, activity and melatonin profiles in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and delayed sleep: a case-control study.

    Bijlenga, Denise; Van Someren, Eus J W; Gruber, Reut; Bron, Tannetje I; Kruithof, I Femke; Spanbroek, Elise C A; Kooij, J J Sandra

    2013-12-01

    Irregular sleep-wake patterns and delayed sleep times are common in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but mechanisms underlying these problems are unknown. The present case-control study examined whether circadian abnormalities underlie these sleep problems in a naturalistic home setting. We included 12 medication-naïve patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and delayed sleep phase syndrome, and 12 matched healthy controls. We examined associations between sleep/wake rhythm in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and circadian parameters (i.e. salivary melatonin concentrations, core and skin temperatures, and activity patterns) of the patients and controls during five consecutive days and nights. Daily bedtimes were more variable within patients compared with controls (F = 8.19, P sleep onset was on average 1 h longer in patients compared with controls (U = 1117, Z = -2.62, P = 0.009). This interval was even longer in patients with extremely late chronotype. Melatonin, activity and body temperatures were delayed to comparable degrees in patients. Overall temperatures were lower in patients than controls. Sleep-onset difficulties correlated with greater distal-proximal temperature gradient (DPG; i.e. colder hands, r(2)  = -0.32, P = 0.028) in patients. Observed day-to-day bedtime variability of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and delayed sleep phase syndrome were not reflected in their melatonin profiles. Irregular sleep-wake patterns and delayed sleep in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and delayed sleep phase syndrome are associated with delays and dysregulations of the core and skin temperatures.

  18. Sleep Quiz

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  19. Effects of oral phentolamine, taken before sleep, on nocturnal erectile activity: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Hatzichristou, D G; Apostolidis, A; Tzortzis, V; Hatzimouratidis, K; Kouvelas, D

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of oral phentolamine, administered before sleep, on nocturnal penile erectile activity of men with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (ED). We studied five patients with mild to moderate ED (mean age 34.8 +/- 8.13 and mean duration of ED 31.8 +/- 23.5 months), in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. All patients received oral phentolamine (Vasomax) at a dose of 40 mg and placebo for three consecutive nights respectively and were submitted to nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity monitoring (NPTR) with the Rigiscan device. NPTR parameters of the two 3-night recordings were evaluated and compared. Administration of oral phentolamine before sleep was associated with a statistically significant increase in the number of erectile events with rigidity > or = 60% lasting > or = 10 min (P = 0.02), as well as the rigidity activity units (RAU) value per hour sleep, both at the base (P = 0.023) and the tip of the penis (P = 0.019). The number of events as measured by Rigiscan software (20% change in circumference), as well as tumescence activity units (TAU)/h values did not show any statistical difference. No adverse effects were recorded. It is concluded that oral phentolamine administered before sleep enhanced NPTR parameters associated with the quality of the erectile events. Such results provide a pathway for the development of a prevention strategy for ED. Future studies will elucidate whether vasoactive agents taken on a regular basis before sleep, can prevent ED in men at risk, protecting also minimally and moderately impotent patients to become moderately and severely impotent respectively.

  20. Neurobiological linkage between stress and sleep

    Sanford, Larry D.; Wellman, Laurie L.

    2012-10-01

    Stress can have a significant negative impact on health and stress-induced alterations in sleep are implicated in both human sleep disorders and in psychiatric disorders in which sleep is affected. We have demonstrated that the amygdala, a region critical for regulating emotion, is a key modulator of sleep. Our current research is focused on understanding how the amygdala and stressful emotion affect sleep and on the role sleep plays in recovery from stress. We have implemented animal models to examine the how stress and stress-related memories impact sleep. Experiencing uncontrollable stress and reminders of uncontrollable stress can produce significant reductions in sleep, in particular rapid eye movement sleep. We are using these models to explore the neurobiology linking stress-related emotion and sleep. This research is relevant for sleep disorders such as insomnia and into mental disorders in which sleep is affected such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is typically characterized by a prominent sleep disturbance in the aftermath of exposure to a psychologically traumatic event.

  1. Rapid eye movement sleep disturbances in Huntington disease

    Arnulf, I.; Nielsen, J.; Lohmann, E.;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sleep disorders including insomnia, movements during sleep, and daytime sleepiness are common but poorly studied in Huntington disease (HD). Objective: To evaluate the HD sleep-wake phenotype (including abnormal motor activity during sleep) in patients with various HD stages...... and shortened rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and increased periodic leg movements. Three HD patients (12%) had REM sleep behavior disorders. No sleep abnormality correlated with CAG repeat length. Reduced REM sleep duration (but not REM sleep behavior disorders) was present in premanifest carriers and patients......: The sleep phenotype of HD includes insomnia, advanced sleep phase, periodic leg movements, REM sleep behavior disorders, and reduced REM sleep but not narcolepsy. Reduced REM sleep may precede chorea. Mutant huntingtin may exert an effect on REM sleep and motor control during sleep Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  2. Serotonergic integration of circadian clock and ultradian sleep-wake cycles.

    Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Hamada, Kozo; Hensch, Takao K

    2012-10-17

    In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus generates a 24 h rhythm of sleep and arousal. While neuronal spiking activity in the SCN provides a functional circadian oscillator that propagates throughout the brain, the ultradian sleep-wake state is regulated by the basal forebrain/preoptic area (BF/POA). How this SCN circadian oscillation is integrated into the shorter sleep-wake cycles remains unclear. We examined the temporal patterns of neuronal activity in these key brain regions in freely behaving rats. Neuronal activity in various brain regions presented diurnal rhythmicity and/or sleep-wake state dependence. We identified a diurnal rhythm in the BF/POA that was selectively degraded when diurnal arousal patterns were disrupted by acute brain serotonin depletion despite robust circadian spiking activity in the SCN. Local blockade of serotonergic transmission in the BF/POA was sufficient to disrupt the diurnal sleep-wake rhythm of mice. These results suggest that the serotonergic system enables the BF/POA to couple the SCN circadian signal to ultradian sleep-wake cycles, thereby providing a potential link between circadian rhythms and psychiatric disorders.

  3. Common features of neural activity during singing and sleep periods in a basal ganglia nucleus critical for vocal learning in a juvenile songbird.

    Shin Yanagihara

    Full Text Available Reactivations of waking experiences during sleep have been considered fundamental neural processes for memory consolidation. In songbirds, evidence suggests the importance of sleep-related neuronal activity in song system motor pathway nuclei for both juvenile vocal learning and maintenance of adult song. Like those in singing motor nuclei, neurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X, part of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit essential for vocal plasticity, exhibit singing-related activity. It is unclear, however, whether Area X neurons show any distinctive spiking activity during sleep similar to that during singing. Here we demonstrate that, during sleep, Area X pallidal neurons exhibit phasic spiking activity, which shares some firing properties with activity during singing. Shorter interspike intervals that almost exclusively occurred during singing in awake periods were also observed during sleep. The level of firing variability was consistently higher during singing and sleep than during awake non-singing states. Moreover, deceleration of firing rate, which is considered to be an important firing property for transmitting signals from Area X to the thalamic nucleus DLM, was observed mainly during sleep as well as during singing. These results suggest that songbird basal ganglia circuitry may be involved in the off-line processing potentially critical for vocal learning during sensorimotor learning phase.

  4. Profiling Physical Activity, Diet, Screen and Sleep Habits in Portuguese Children

    Sara Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1 describe profiles of children’s lifestyle behaviours; (2 identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3 estimate combined effects of individual/ socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74–10.41, and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98–4.72 were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43–0.84. Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05.

  5. Profiling physical activity, diet, screen and sleep habits in Portuguese children.

    Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Chaves, Raquel N; Champagne, Catherine M; Barreira, Tiago V; Maia, José A R

    2015-06-02

    Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1) describe profiles of children's lifestyle behaviours; (2) identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3) estimate combined effects of individual/ socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR) = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74-10.41), and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98-4.72) were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43-0.84). Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05).

  6. Profiling Physical Activity, Diet, Screen and Sleep Habits in Portuguese Children

    Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Maia, José A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1) describe profiles of children’s lifestyle behaviours; (2) identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3) estimate combined effects of individual/socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR) = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74–10.41), and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98–4.72) were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43–0.84). Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05). PMID:26043034

  7. Physical Activity, Energy Expenditure, Nutritional Habits, Quality of Sleep and Stress Levels in Shift-Working Health Care Personnel

    Vogt, Lena Johanna; Gärtner, Simone; Hannich, Hans Joachim; Steveling, Antje; Lerch, Markus M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Among health care personnel working regular hours or rotating shifts can affect parameters of general health and nutrition. We have investigated physical activity, sleep quality, metabolic activity and stress levels in health care workers from both groups. Methods We prospectively recruited 46 volunteer participants from the workforce of a University Medical Department of which 23 worked in rotating shifts (all nursing) and 21 non-shift regular hours (10 nursing, 13 clerical staff). All were investigated over 7 days by multisensory accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia® armband) and kept a detailed food diary. Physical activity and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured in metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Quality of sleep was assessed as Pittsburgh Sleeping Quality Index and stress load using the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress questionnaire (TICS). Results No significant differences were found for overall physical activity, steps per minute, time of exceeding the 3 METs level or sleep quality. A significant difference for physical activity during working hours was found between shift-workers vs. non-shift-workers (ppersonnel (median = 1.5 METs SE = 0.07, p<0.05). Non-shift-working nurses had a significantly lower REE than the other groups (p<0.05). The proportion of fat in the diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the office worker group (median = 42% SE = 1.2) whereas shift-working nurses consumed significantly more carbohydrates (median = 46% SE = 1.4) than clerical staff (median = 41% SE = 1.7). Stress assessment by TICS confirmed a significantly higher level of social overload in the shift working group (p<0.05). Conclusion In this prospective cohort study shift-working had no influence on overall physical activity. Lower physical activity during working hours appears to be compensated for during off-hours. Differences in nutritional habits and stress load warrant larger scale trials to determine the effect on implicit health

  8. Iii. Sleep assessment methods.

    Sadeh, Avi

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is a complex phenomenon that could be understood and assessed at many levels. Sleep could be described at the behavioral level (relative lack of movements and awareness and responsiveness) and at the brain level (based on EEG activity). Sleep could be characterized by its duration, by its distribution during the 24-hr day period, and by its quality (e.g., consolidated versus fragmented). Different methods have been developed to assess various aspects of sleep. This chapter covers the most established and common methods used to assess sleep in infants and children. These methods include polysomnography, videosomnography, actigraphy, direct observations, sleep diaries, and questionnaires. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are highlighted.

  9. Sleep in cluster headache

    Barloese, M C J; Jennum, P J; Lund, N T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cluster headache (CH) is a primary headache disorder characterized by severe attacks of unilateral pain following a chronobiological pattern. There is a close connection with sleep as most attacks occur during sleep. Hypothalamic involvement and a particular association...... with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been suggested. Sleep in a large, well-characterized population of CH patients was investigated. METHODS: Polysomnography (PSG) was performed on two nights in 40 CH patients during active bout and one night in 25 age, sex and body mass index matched controls...... in hospital. Macrostructure and other features of sleep were analyzed and related to phenotype. Clinical headache characterization was obtained by semi-structured interview. RESULTS: Ninety-nine nights of PSG were analyzed. Findings included a reduced percentage of REM sleep (17.3% vs. 23.0%, P = 0...

  10. Sleep Disorders

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian sleep has evolved under the influence of the day-night cycle and in response to reproductive needs, food seeking, and predator avoidance, resulting in circadian (predictive) and homeostatic (reactive) regulation. A molecular clock characterized by transcription/translation feedback loops...... mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas...

  11. Motivational and Behavioral Activation as an Adjunct to Psychiatric Rehabilitation for Mild to Moderate Negative Symptoms in Individuals with Schizophrenia: A Proof-of-Concept Pilot Study

    Kee-Hong Choi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Few psychosocial approaches address the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, which shares common features with depression and anxiety. Behavioral activation (BA is effective for addressing depression and anxiety in adults with various mental disorders. Motivational Interviewing (MI has been successfully applied to address ambivalence or lack of motivation towards treatment. Motivational and behavioral activation (mBA has been developed by incorporating the core principles from BA and MI with recent findings on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of mBA in a non-randomized controlled pilot study that included individuals with schizophrenia with mild to moderate negative symptoms receiving psychiatric rehabilitation. A total of 73 individuals with schizophrenia were recruited. Forty-seven of the participants who met the study inclusion and exclusion criteria were assigned to either an mBA + usual psychiatric rehabilitation group (mBA or a usual psychiatric rehabilitation only group (treatment as usual, TAU. Administering mBA to individuals with schizophrenia with mild to moderate negative symptoms was feasible in a community mental health setting. Relative to TAU, mBA was associated with large effects in reducing negative symptoms measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS. However, after considering PANSS cognitive deficits and marital status as covariates due to significant differences in their baseline levels, the treatment effects on the BNSS were partially observed. In addition, participants in the mBA group showed improved verbal learning and memory compared with those in the TAU group. In individuals with schizophrenia receiving the usual forms of psychiatric rehabilitation in a community mental health setting, mBA appears to offer a promising adjunctive approach for addressing mild to moderate

  12. Distribution of delta activity across nonrapid eye movement sleep episodes in healthy young men.

    Preud'homme, X A; Lanquart, J P; Mendlewicz, J; Linkowski, P

    1997-04-01

    The distribution of delta activity across successive nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep episodes and its night-to-night stability across three consecutive nights were investigated by studying delta power with spectral analysis in 31 healthy young men. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with polynomial contrast was applied to grouped data of absolute delta power and three indexes: (1) the rate of delta power per NREM episode to its duration, 2) the standardized rate for the last NREM episode, and 3) the logarithm of the standardized rate. A significant linear decrease across NREM episodes was observed for each variable in each successive night. In addition, using night as a second within-subjects factor, no night effect was observed. Yet, the subsequent analysis of the logarithmic data yielded greater F values in all three nights' data as well as a linear function that accounted for a greater proportion of total variance than the analysis of the nonlogarithmic data. Since a linear decline for the logarithm of a variable implies an exponential distribution for that variable, we conclude that delta activity is distributed exponentially across NREM episodes, and this finding shows a remarkable night-to-night stability.

  13. 夜磨牙症患者咀嚼肌节律性运动特征与睡眠周期的关系%Association between Sleep Bruxism, Rhythmic Masticatory Muscle Activity, and Sleep Cycles

    刘伟才; 范震; 王海波; 李强

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) episodes of sleep bruxism (SB) patients and assess the distribution of RMMA episodes in relation to sleep stage and sleep cycles.Methods: Two consecutive nights of polygraphic recordings were performed on thirty SB subjects and thirty healthy adults without SB participated as controls.Sleep architecture, sleep efficacy,micro arousal (MA) index and RMMA index were scored.RMMA/SB episode clustering and distribution of RMMA episodes in relation to sleep stage and sleep cycles were also analyzed.Results: SB subjects showed normal sleep architecture and sleep efficacy, but incidence of RMMA were higher than control subjects (P<0.0001).RMMA/SB episodes occurred more frequently in stagel and stage 2.No difference was found between two groups in the micro-arousal index (P=0.5641).Within each study group, micro-arousal index and RMMA/SB index were not significantly different between genders.It was observed that 75% of all RMMA/SB episodes occurred in clusters, which was higher than those of the normal subjects (53%).With the RMMA/SB episode, the sleep stage shift occurred with 56.4% of episodes between B20 and A20.However, these values decreased to 29.1% after 60 seconds.There was no difference in the percentage of episodes associated with sleep stage shift for clusters (55.9%) or isolated RMMA/SB episodes (57.6%).Conclusion: SB subjects showed a higher incidence of RMMA than control subjects.Although half of episodes were associated with sleep stage shift, but the shift was transient.Our study showed that sleep bruxism (SB) subjects still have a normal sleep architecture and sleep efficacy.%目的:研究夜磨牙症(sleep bruxim,SB)患者睡眠期咀嚼肌节律性运动(RMMA)的发生特征及其与睡眠周期的关系.方法:对30名SB患者、30名正常人进行连续2夜的多导睡眠监测,统计睡眠结构、睡眠效率、微觉

  14. The effects of single and repeated psychiatric occupational therapy on psychiatric symptoms: assessment using a visual analogue scale.

    Yamashita, Hitomi; Terao, Takeshi; Mizokami, Yoshinori

    2012-04-01

    The main aims of psychiatric occupational therapy are to improve daily activity, to enhance communication with others and to reinforce social adaptation. Also, substantial improvements in psychiatric symptoms have been reported, but the effects on psychiatric symptoms are yet to be established. In the present study, we investigated the effects of single and repeated administrations of psychiatric occupational therapy on psychiatric symptoms and determined whether the effects can be predicted. Our subjects were 215 inpatients or outpatients at our university hospital who participated in psychiatric occupational therapy. Five psychiatric symptoms (i.e. depressive mood, tension, irritability, anxiety and fatigue) were subjectively measured just before and just after each psychiatric occupational therapy by using a visual analogue scale (VAS). As a result, there was a significant short-term effect from single psychiatric occupational therapy, but there was no significant further improvement of any psychiatric symptom from repeated psychiatric occupational therapy. The VAS value at the beginning stage significantly predicted improvement of each psychiatric symptom. These findings suggest that single psychiatric occupational therapy can bring about a short-term effect, whereas repeated psychiatric occupational therapy cannot induce long-term effect (accumulated effect) on psychiatric symptoms, and that the improvement can be predicted by baseline psychiatric symptoms.

  15. A K-ATP channel gene effect on sleep duration : from genome-wide association studies to function in Drosophila

    Allebrandt, K. V.; Amin, N.; Mueller-Myhsok, B.; Esko, T.; Teder-Laving, M.; Azevedo, R. V. D. M.; Hayward, C.; van Mill, J.; Vogelzangs, N.; Green, E. W.; Melville, S. A.; Lichtner, P.; Wichmann, H-E; Oostra, B. A.; Janssens, A. C. J. W.; Campbell, H.; Wilson, Julian; Hicks, A. A.; Pramstaller, P. P.; Dogas, Z.; Rudan, I.; Merrow, Martha; Penninx, B.; Kyriacou, C. P.; Metspalu, A.; van Duijn, C. M.; Meitinger, T.; Roenneberg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Humans sleep approximately a third of their lifetime. The observation that individuals with either long or short sleep duration show associations with metabolic syndrome and psychiatric disorders suggests that the length of sleep is adaptive. Although sleep duration can be influenced by photoperiod

  16. Sleep and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Paterson, Jessica L; Reynolds, Amy C; Ferguson, Sally A; Dawson, Drew

    2013-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic mental illness that can have a debilitating effect on daily functioning. A body of research reveals altered sleep behaviour in OCD sufferers; however, findings are inconsistent and there is no consensus on the nature of this relationship. Understanding sleep disturbance in OCD is of critical importance given the known negative consequences of disturbed sleep for mood and emotional wellbeing. A systematic literature search was conducted of five databases for studies assessing sleep in adults diagnosed with OCD. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria and qualitative data analysis methods were used to identify common themes. There was some evidence of reduced total sleep time and sleep efficiency in OCD patients. Many of the sleep disturbances noted were characteristic of depression. However, some OCD sufferers displayed delayed sleep onset and offset and an increased prevalence of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Severe OCD symptoms were consistently associated with greater sleep disturbance. While the sleep of OCD patients has not been a major focus to date, the existing literature suggests that addressing sleep disturbance in OCD patients may ensure a holistic approach to treatment, enhance treatment efficacy, mitigate relapse and protect against the onset of co-morbid psychiatric illnesses.

  17. Brainstem circuitry regulating phasic activation of trigeminal motoneurons during REM sleep.

    Christelle Anaclet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS is characterized by activation of the cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG and atonia of non-respiratory muscles with superimposed phasic activity or twitching, particularly of cranial muscles such as those of the eye, tongue, face and jaw. While phasic activity is a characteristic feature of REMS, the neural substrates driving this activity remain unresolved. Here we investigated the neural circuits underlying masseter (jaw phasic activity during REMS. The trigeminal motor nucleus (Mo5, which controls masseter motor function, receives glutamatergic inputs mainly from the parvocellular reticular formation (PCRt, but also from the adjacent paramedian reticular area (PMnR. On the other hand, the Mo5 and PCRt do not receive direct input from the sublaterodorsal (SLD nucleus, a brainstem region critical for REMS atonia of postural muscles. We hypothesized that the PCRt-PMnR, but not the SLD, regulates masseter phasic activity during REMS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test our hypothesis, we measured masseter electromyogram (EMG, neck muscle EMG, electrooculogram (EOG and EEG in rats with cell-body specific lesions of the SLD, PMnR, and PCRt. Bilateral lesions of the PMnR and rostral PCRt (rPCRt, but not the caudal PCRt or SLD, reduced and eliminated REMS phasic activity of the masseter, respectively. Lesions of the PMnR and rPCRt did not, however, alter the neck EMG or EOG. To determine if rPCRt neurons use glutamate to control masseter phasic movements, we selectively blocked glutamate release by rPCRt neurons using a Cre-lox mouse system. Genetic disruption of glutamate neurotransmission by rPCRt neurons blocked masseter phasic activity during REMS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that (1 premotor glutamatergic neurons in the medullary rPCRt and PMnR are involved in generating phasic activity in the masseter muscles, but not phasic eye movements, during REMS; and (2

  18. The relationships of leptin, adiponectin levels and paraoxonase activity with metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in females treated with psychiatric drugs

    Aliye Ozenoglu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate serum leptin, adiponectin and paraoxonase1 levels in adult females receiving pharmacotherapy for various psychiatric disorders. METHODS: The study group consisted of 32 obese females (mean age 40.53 ± 11.00 years, mean body mass index 35.44 ± 5.33 kg/m² who were receiving treatment for psychiatric disorders, and the control group included 22 obese females (mean age 35.95 ± 9.16 years, mean body mass index 30.78 ± 3.33 kg/m² who were free of psychiatric disorders. Analyses were performed using a bioelectrical impedance device. Fasting blood samples were obtained for complete blood count and various biochemical tests, including determination of leptin, adiponectin and paraoxonase1 activity. RESULTS: Body mass index, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage, fasting blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, homeostasis model assesment of insulin resistance, alanine transaminase, aspartate tarnsaminase, and leptin levels were significantly higher in the study group than in controls. Although body weight was positively correlated with leptin levels in both groups, body weight was negatively correlated with adiponectin levels in the control group and positively correlated with adiponectin levels in the study group. In the study group, body mass index and hip circumference correlated positively with leptin levels, hip circumference correlated positively with adiponectin levels, and waist to hip ratio correlated positively with paraoxonase levels. In the control group, body mass index as well as waist and hip circumferences were positively correlated with leptin levels. Weight, body mass index, and hip circumference were also negatively correlated with the adiponectin/leptin ratio in the control group. CONCLUSION: This study indicates a higher risk for obesity-related disorders, particularly metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, in patients treated with

  19. Psychiatric Problems in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Munevver Tunel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a physical disorder with concurrent mental and social components. During cancer, the feelings of fear, hopelessness, guilt, helplessness, abandonment perceived as a crisis leading to destruction in the suffering person. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients is approximately 50% and most of disorders are related with the occurrence of cancer and cancer treatment. Majority of patients present with major depression, adjustment disorder, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, suicidial ideation, and delirium. Treatment of psychiatric disorders and cancer therapy should be conducted along with special consideration of drug interactions. This article reviews the adaptation process experienced by individuals during diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, it psychological effects, resulting psychiatric comorbidites and their treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 189-219

  20. Phenotypic dysregulation of microglial activation in young offspring rats with maternal sleep deprivation-induced cognitive impairment

    Zhao, Qiuying; Xie, Xiaofang; Fan, Yonghua; Zhang, Jinqiang; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Xiaohui; Yan, Shuo; Chen, Yubo; Peng, Cheng; You, Zili

    2015-01-01

    Despite the potential adverse effects of maternal sleep deprivation (MSD) on physiological and behavioral aspects of offspring, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study was intended to investigate the roles of microglia on neurodevelopment and cognition in young offspring rats with prenatal sleep deprivation. Pregnant Wistar rats received 72 h sleep deprivation in the last trimester of gestation, and their prepuberty male offspring were given the intraperitoneal injection with or without minocycline. The results showed the number of Iba1+ microglia increased, that of hippocampal neurogenesis decreased, and the hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory were impaired in MSD offspring. The classical microglial activation markers (M1 phenotype) IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, CD68 and iNOS were increased, while the alternative microglial activation markers (M2 phenotype) Arg1, Ym1, IL-4, IL-10 and CD206 were reduced in hippocampus of MSD offspring. After minocycline administration, the MSD offspring showed improvement in MWM behaviors and increase in BrdU+/DCX+ cells. Minocycline reduced Iba1+ cells, suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory molecules, and reversed the reduction of M2 microglial markers in the MSD prepuberty offspring. These results indicate that dysregulation in microglial pro- and anti-inflammatory activation is involved in MSD-induced inhibition of neurogenesis and impairment of spatial learning and memory. PMID:25830666

  1. [Changes in the intragastric contents during sleep affect the statistical characteristics of the neuronal activity in cerebral cortex].

    Pigarev, I N; Bibikov, N G; Busygina, I I

    2014-06-01

    Firing activity in somatosensory cortical area was analyzed in cats during slow wave sleep. Statistical characteristics of the background activity were calculated before and after changes of the intragastric contents (introduction of 50 ml of water into stomach). This procedure did not affect the depth of sleep. There were no changes of the mean firing frequency and the local variation coefficients. To evaluate the degree of chaos in neuronal firing before and after changes of the intragastric contents, the dependence of the Fano factor from the length of the intervals of analysis was calculated. This dependence before water infusion for 40 neurons expressed as a power function with index of power > 0.2 what indicated on fractal nature of the background activity. The changes of the gastric contents in 18 neurons lead to considerable changes of the indexes of power of this function. It is known that in wakefulness for cortical neurons these indexes are dependent on the specific sensory stimulation. Thus, our results can be considered as an indication that during slow wave sleep signals from stomach are included in the afferent flow to the cortical areas, which in wakefulness are involved in somatosensory functions.

  2. Measure of sleep and physical activity by a single accelerometer: Can a waist-worn Actigraph adequately measure sleep in children?

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla T.

    2012-01-01

    -dominant wrist for a continuous 7 days and 8 nights. The minute-by-minute sleep-wake agreement was evaluated and the concordance among sleep indicators was assessed using one-way ANOVA, Bland-Altman plots and Pearson correlations. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 98.8-99.7, 29.8-46.9 and 86...

  3. Sleep duration and total and cause-specific mortality in a large US cohort: interrelationships with physical activity, sedentary behavior, and body mass index.

    Xiao, Qian; Keadle, Sarah K; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Matthews, Charles E

    2014-11-15

    Both short and long durations of sleep are associated with higher mortality, but little is known about the interrelationship between sleep and other modifiable factors in relation to mortality. In the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study (1995-1996), we examined associations between sleep duration and total, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality among 239,896 US men and women aged 51-72 years who were free of cancer, CVD, and respiratory disease. We evaluated the influence of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, television viewing, and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) on the sleep-mortality association and assessed their combined association with mortality. During an average of 14 years of follow-up, we identified 44,100 deaths. Compared with 7-8 hours of sleep per day, both shorter and longer sleep durations were associated with higher total and CVD mortality. We found a greater elevation in CVD mortality associated with shorter sleep among overweight and obese people, suggesting a synergistic interaction between sleep and BMI. People in the unhealthy categories of all 4 risk factors (sleep television viewing ≥3 hours/day, and BMI ≥25) had significantly higher all-cause (relative risk (RR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34, 1.52), CVD (RR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.67, 2.17), and cancer (RR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.34) mortality. Short sleep duration may predict higher mortality, particularly CVD mortality, among overweight and obese people.

  4. Duration of hexobarbital-induced sleep and monoamine oxidase activities in rat brain: Focus on the behavioral activity and on the free-radical oxidation.

    Tseilikman, Vadim E; Kozochkin, Denis A; Manukhina, Eugenia B; Downey, H Fred; Tseilikman, Olga B; Misharina, Maria E; Nikitina, Anna A; Komelkova, Maria V; Lapshin, Maxim S; Kondashevskaya, Marina V; Lazuko, Svetlana S; Kusina, Oxana V; Sahabutdinov, Marat V

    2016-04-01

    The present study is focused on the relationship between monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and hepatic content of cytochrome P450 (CYP), which reflects the status of microsomal oxidation. For vital integrative evaluation of hepatic microsomal oxidation in rats, the hexobarbital sleep test was used, and content of CYP was measured in hepatic microsomes. Rats with short hexobarbital sleep time (SHST) had higher content of microsomal CYP than rats with long hexobarbital sleep time (LHST). Whole brain MAO-A and MAO-B activities, serotonin and carbonylated protein levels were higher in SHST than in LHST rats. MAO-A and MAO-B activities were higher in brain cortex of SHST rats; MAO-A activity was higher only in hypothalamus and medulla of LHST. The same brain regions of LHST rats had higher concentrations of carbonylated proteins and lipid peroxidation products than in SHST rats. MAO activity was correlated with microsomal oxidation phenotype. Rats with higher hepatic content of CYP had higher activities of MAO-A and MAO-B in the brain and higher plasma serotonin levels than rats with lower microsomal oxidation. In conclusion, data obtained in this study showed a correlation between MAO activity and microsomal oxidation phenotype.

  5. Physical Activity, Sleep and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    Hieronymus eGijselaers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological lifestyle factors such as physical activity, sleep and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between biological lifestyle factors and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these biological lifestyle factors to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df=0.8, CFI=1.00, RMSEA<.001, SRMR=.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df=2.75, CFI=0.95, RMSEA<.056, SRMR=.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle aged adults.

  6. Disfacilitation and active inhibition in the neocortex during the natural sleep-wake cycle: An intracellular study

    Timofeev, Igor; Grenier, François; Steriade, Mircea

    2001-01-01

    Earlier extracellular recordings during natural sleep have shown that, during slow-wave sleep (SWS), neocortical neurons display long-lasting periods of silence, whereas they are tonically active and discharge at higher rates during waking and sleep with rapid eye movements (REMs). We analyzed the nature of long-lasting periods of neuronal silence in SWS and the changes in firing rates related to ocular movements during REM sleep and waking using intracellular recordings from electrophysiologically identified neocortical neurons in nonanesthetized and nonparalyzed cats. We found that the silent periods during SWS are associated with neuronal hyperpolarizations, which are due to a mixture of K+ currents and disfacilitation processes. Conventional fast-spiking neurons (presumably local inhibitory interneurons) increased their firing rates during REMs and eye movements in waking. During REMs, the firing rates of regular-spiking neurons from associative areas decreased and intracellular traces revealed numerous, short-lasting, low-amplitude inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), that were reversed after intracellular chloride infusion. In awake cats, regular-spiking neurons could either increase or decrease their firing rates during eye movements. The short-lasting IPSPs associated with eye movements were still present in waking; they preceded the spikes and affected their timing. We propose that there are two different forms of firing rate control: disfacilitation induces long-lasting periods of silence that occur spontaneously during SWS, whereas active inhibition, consisting of low-amplitude, short-lasting IPSPs, is prevalent during REMs and precisely controls the timing of action potentials in waking. PMID:11172052

  7. Impact of aerobic exercise on sleep and motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorders – a pilot study

    Br

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand,1,2,* Stefanie Jossen,2,* Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Uwe Pühse,2 Markus Gerber21Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders (ZASS, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland*These authors contributed equally to this work and share the first authorshipBackground: Prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD have increased dramatically in the last two decades. In addition to the core symptoms such as impaired communication, difficulties in social interaction, and restricted and stereotypical patterns of behavior and interests, poor sleep and motor skill (MS deficits have also been observed in children with ASD. On the other hand, there is evidence that aerobic exercise training (AET has a positive impact on sleep, and that specific training improves MSs. Accordingly, the aim of the present pilot study was to investigate to what extent a combination of AET and MS training (MST would improve sleep and physical performance in a small sample of children with ASD. Method: Ten children with ASD (mean age: 10 years took part in the study. After a thorough medical examination and psychiatric assessment, children participated in thrice-weekly 60-minute sessions of AET and MST lasting for 3 consecutive weeks. Sleep was assessed both objectively (sleep-encephalography [sleep-EEG] and subjectively (parents’ questionnaire. MSs were assessed via standardized test batteries. Parents completed sleep and mood logs, and ratings of mood. Results: Mild-to-moderate insomnia was reported in 70% of children. Compared to nights without previous AET and MS, on nights following AET and MS, sleep efficiency increased (d=1.07, sleep onset latency shortened (d=0.38, and wake time after sleep onset decreased for 63% of the sample (d=1.09, as assessed via sleep-EEG. Mood in the morning, as rated by parents, improved after three weeks (d=0

  8. Sustained sleep fragmentation induces sleep homeostasis in mice

    Baud, Maxime O.

    2015-04-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep fragmentation (SF) is an integral feature of sleep apnea and other prevalent sleep disorders. Although the effect of repetitive arousals on cognitive performance is well documented, the effects of long-term SF on electroencephalography (EEG) and molecular markers of sleep homeostasis remain poorly investigated. To address this question, we developed a mouse model of chronic SF and characterized its effect on EEG spectral frequencies and the expression of genes previously linked to sleep homeostasis including clock genes, heat shock proteins, and plasticity-related genes. Design: N/A. Setting: Animal sleep research laboratory. Participants : Sixty-six C57BL6/J adult mice. Interventions: Instrumental sleep disruption at a rate of 60/h during 14 days Measurements and Results: Locomotor activity and EEG were recorded during 14 days of SF followed by recovery for 2 days. Despite a dramatic number of arousals and decreased sleep bout duration, SF minimally reduced total quantity of sleep and did not significantly alter its circadian distribution. Spectral analysis during SF revealed a homeostatic drive for slow wave activity (SWA; 1-4 Hz) and other frequencies as well (4-40 Hz). Recordings during recovery revealed slow wave sleep consolidation and a transient rebound in SWA, and paradoxical sleep duration. The expression of selected genes was not induced following chronic SF. Conclusions: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) increased sleep pressure confirming that altered quality with preserved quantity triggers core sleep homeostasis mechanisms. However, it did not induce the expression of genes induced by sleep loss, suggesting that these molecular pathways are not sustainably activated in chronic diseases involving SF.

  9. HYPERTENSION IN PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS

    Chaturvedi, Santosh K.; Michael, Albert

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY Known cases of hypertension and those fulfilling WHO criteria for diagnosis of hypertension were identified in psychiatric patients and compared with non - hypertensive psychiatric patients. Hypertension was detected in 141 (9.98%) cases, and was significantly more associated with elder age, married status, urban background and neurotic illness. The implications are in early detection and effective management of hypertension in psychiatric patients.

  10. Nonparametric Signal Extraction and Measurement Error in the Analysis of Electroencephalographic Activity During Sleep.

    Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Caffo, Brian S; Di, Chong-Zhi; Punjabi, Naresh M

    2009-06-01

    We introduce methods for signal and associated variability estimation based on hierarchical nonparametric smoothing with application to the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS). SHHS is the largest electroencephalographic (EEG) collection of sleep-related data, which contains, at each visit, two quasi-continuous EEG signals for each subject. The signal features extracted from EEG data are then used in second level analyses to investigate the relation between health, behavioral, or biometric outcomes and sleep. Using subject specific signals estimated with known variability in a second level regression becomes a nonstandard measurement error problem. We propose and implement methods that take into account cross-sectional and longitudinal measurement error. The research presented here forms the basis for EEG signal processing for the SHHS.

  11. Mood and metabolic consequences of sleep deprivation as a potential endophenotype' in bipolar disorder.

    Aydin, Adem; Selvi, Yavuz; Besiroglu, Lutfullah; Boysan, Murat; Atli, Abdullah; Ozdemir, Osman; Kilic, Sultan; Balaharoglu, Ragıp

    2013-09-05

    It has been commonly recognized that circadian rhythm and sleep/wake cycle are causally involved in bipolar disorder. There has been a paucity of systematic research considering the relations between sleep and mood states in bipolar disorder. The current study examines the possible influences of sleep deprivation on mood states and endocrine functions among first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls. Blood samples were taken at two time points in the consecutive mornings at predeprivation and postdeprivation periods. Participants simultaneously completed the Profiles of Mood States at two time points after giving blood samples. Plasma T3 and TSH levels increased after total sleep deprivation in both groups. Sleep deprivation induced TSH levels were reversely associated with depression-dejection among healthy controls. A paradoxical effect was detected for only the first-degree relatives of the patients that changes in plasma cortisol levels negatively linked to depression-dejection and anger-hostility scores after total sleep deprivation. Plasma DHEA levels became correlated with vigor-activity scores after sleep deprivation among first-degree relatives of bipolar patients. On the contrary, significant associations of depression-dejection, anger-hostility, and confusion-bewilderment with the baseline plasma DHEA levels became statistically trivial in the postdeprivation period. Findings suggested that first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder had completely distinct characteristics with respect to sleep deprivation induced responses in terms of associations between endocrine functions and mood states as compared to individuals whose relatives had no psychiatric problems. Considering the relationships between endocrine functions and mood states among relatives of the patients, it appears like sleep deprivation changes the receptor sensitivity which probably plays a pivotal role on mood outcomes among the first

  12. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER

    2003-01-01

    17.1 Schizophrenia2003155 Baseline and cognition activated regional cerebral brain flow of naive paranoid schizophrenics.LI Huafang(李华芳), et al. Dept Biochem & Pharma-col, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai 200030. Chin J Nucl Med 2002;22(6):348-351.

  13. Increased Reward-Related Behaviors during Sleep and Wakefulness in Sleepwalking and Idiopathic Nightmares.

    Lampros Perogamvros

    Full Text Available We previously suggested that abnormal sleep behaviors, i.e., as found in parasomnias, may often be the expression of increased activity of the reward system during sleep. Because nightmares and sleepwalking predominate during REM and NREM sleep respectively, we tested here whether exploratory excitability, a waking personality trait reflecting high activity within the mesolimbic dopaminergic (ML-DA system, may be associated with specific changes in REM and NREM sleep patterns in these two sleep disorders.Twenty-four unmedicated patients with parasomnia (12 with chronic sleepwalking and 12 with idiopathic nightmares and no psychiatric comorbidities were studied. Each patient spent one night of sleep monitored by polysomnography. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI was administered to all patients and healthy controls from the Geneva population (n = 293.Sleepwalkers were more anxious than patients with idiopathic nightmares (Spielberger Trait anxiety/STAI-T, but the patient groups did not differ on any personality dimension as estimated by the TCI. Compared to controls, parasomnia patients (sleepwalkers together with patients with idiopathic nightmares scored higher on the Novelty Seeking (NS TCI scale and in particular on the exploratory excitability/curiosity (NS1 subscale, and lower on the Self-directedness (SD TCI scale, suggesting a general increase in reward sensitivity and impulsivity. Furthermore, parasomnia patients tended to worry about social separation persistently, as indicated by greater anticipatory worry (HA1 and dependence on social attachment (RD3. Moreover, exploratory excitability (NS1 correlated positively with the severity of parasomnia (i.e., the frequency of self-reported occurrences of nightmares and sleepwalking, and with time spent in REM sleep in patients with nightmares.These results suggest that patients with parasomnia might share common waking personality traits associated to reward-related brain functions

  14. Healthy Sleep Habits

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  15. What Are Sleep Studies?

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Sleep Studies Also known as polysomnography. Sleep studies are ... Sleep Rate This Content: Updated: December 9, 2016 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  16. Sleep in depression and anxiety disorders: A population-based study of elderly persons

    J.F. van den Berg (Julia); H.J. Luijendijk (Hendrika); J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); A. Hofman (Albert); A.K. Neven (Arie); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Sleep disturbance is common in psychiatric disorders. However, the relationships of core parameters in sleep research, such as total sleep time (TST), with depression and anxiety disorders are unclear and have rarely been investigated in large population-based studies. Method:

  17. REM sleep behavior disorder in the marmoset MPTP model of early Parkinson disease

    Verhave, P.S.; Jongsma, M.J.; Berg, R.M. van den; Vis, J.C.; Vanwersch, R.A.P.; Smit, A.B.; Someren, E.J.W. van; Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep problems are a common phenomenon in most neurological and psychiatric diseases. In Parkinson disease (PD), for instance, sleep problems may be the most common and burdensome non-motor symptoms in addition to the well-described classical motor symptoms. Since sleep disturbance

  18. Psychiatrists and psychiatric rehabilitation.

    Torrey, William C; Green, Ronald L; Drake, Robert E

    2005-05-01

    Interventions that focus directly on functional impairments related to mental illnesses are termed psychiatric rehabilitation. Research demonstrates that rehabilitation services are increasingly able to help adults with psychiatric disabilities achieve the functional outcomes they desire, particularly in the areas of housing and employment. To support the community lives of adults with severe mental illnesses, psychiatrists must stay current with advances in this field and know how to integrate psychiatric rehabilitation with other interventions. This article reviews the concept of psychiatric rehabilitation, current approaches in the field, the psychiatrist's role in these services, and implications for psychiatric training and continuing education.

  19. Optogenetics in psychiatric animal models.

    Wentz, Christian T; Oettl, Lars-Lennart; Kelsch, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Optogenetics is the optical control of neuronal excitability by genetically delivered light-activated channels and pumps and represents a promising tool to fuel the study of circuit function in psychiatric animal models. This review highlights three developments. First, we examine the application of optogenetics in one of the neuromodulators central to the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders, the dopaminergic system. We then discuss recent work in translating functional magnetic resonance imaging in small animals (in which optogenetics can be employed to reveal physiological mechanisms underlying disease-related alterations in brain circuits) to patients. Finally, we describe emerging technological developments for circuit manipulation in freely behaving animals.

  20. Mechanism of noradrenaline-induced stimulation of Na-K ATPase activity in the rat brain: implications on REM sleep deprivation-induced increase in brain excitability.

    Mallick, Birendra Nath; Singh, Sudhuman; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-03-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a unique phenomenon expressed in all higher forms of animals. Its quantity varies in different species and with ageing; it is also affected in several psycho-somatic disorders. Several lines of studies showed that after REM sleep loss, the levels of noradrenaline (NA) increase in the brain. The NA in the brain modulates neuronal Na-K ATPase activity, which helps maintaining the brain excitability status. The detailed mechanism of increase in NA level after REM sleep loss and the effect of NA on stimulation of Na-K ATPase in the neurons have been discussed. The findings have been reviewed and discussed with an aim to understand the role of REM sleep in maintaining brain excitability status.

  1. Are there associations among physical activity, fatigue, sleep quality and pain in people with mental illness? A pilot study.

    Connaughton, J; Patman, S; Pardoe, C

    2014-10-01

    Good mental health is imperative to well-being. Symptoms of fatigue, chronic pain and poor sleep are common in people with mental illness and contribute to substantial loss of functioning. Physical exercise interventions have shown to decrease these symptoms in a range of populations; however, their possible association with physical activity related to day-to-day functioning have not been explored in people hospitalized with severe mental illness. Inpatients (n = 4) of a metropolitan mental health facility were fitted with an Actiwatch, which collected physical activity and sleep measures for an anticipated 14-day data collection period. During this time, morning and evening pain and fatigue scores were collected on an 11-point numerical rating scale. Significant associations were found between morning pain and morning fatigue scores (β = -0.44, P = 0.023), morning pain and physical activity (β = 12.34, P = 0.042), and physical activity and evening pain scores (β = 0.20, P = 0.017). Fatigue tended towards interfering more with quality of life than did pain, but this was not significant (P = 0.07). This study provided preliminary data suggesting associations between pain and fatigue, and intensity of pain and physical activity levels. This information can be used to generate hypotheses for future clinical trials.

  2. Sharp wave-associated synchronized inputs from the piriform cortex activate olfactory tubercle neurons during slow-wave sleep.

    Narikiyo, Kimiya; Manabe, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kensaku

    2014-01-01

    During slow-wave sleep, anterior piriform cortex neurons show highly synchronized discharges that accompany olfactory cortex sharp waves (OC-SPWs). The OC-SPW-related synchronized activity of anterior piriform cortex neurons travel down to the olfactory bulb and is thought to be involved in the reorganization of bulbar neuronal circuitry. However, influences of the OC-SPW-related activity on other regions of the central olfactory system are still unknown. Olfactory tubercle is an area of OC and part of ventral striatum that plays a key role in reward-directed motivational behaviors. In this study, we show that in freely behaving rats, olfactory tubercle receives OC-SPW-associated synchronized inputs during slow-wave sleep. Local field potentials in the olfactory tubercle showed SPW-like activities that were in synchrony with OC-SPWs. Single-unit recordings showed that a subpopulation of olfactory tubercle neurons discharged in synchrony with OC-SPWs. Furthermore, correlation analysis of spike activity of anterior piriform cortex and olfactory tubercle neurons revealed that the discharges of anterior piriform cortex neurons tended to precede those of olfactory tubercle neurons. Current source density analysis in urethane-anesthetized rats indicated that the current sink of the OC-SPW-associated input was located in layer III of the olfactory tubercle. These results indicate that OC-SPW-associated synchronized discharges of piriform cortex neurons travel to the deep layer of the olfactory tubercle and drive discharges of olfactory tubercle neurons. The entrainment of olfactory tubercle neurons in the OC-SPWs suggests that OC-SPWs coordinate reorganization of neuronal circuitry across wide areas of the central olfactory system including olfactory tubercle during slow-wave sleep.

  3. Sleep Apnea

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  4. Serum inflammatory mediators correlate with disease activity in electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) syndrome

    van den Munckhof, Bart; de Vries, Evelien E; Braun, Kees P J; Boss, H Myrthe; Willemsen, Michèl A; van Royen, Annet; de Jager, Wilco; Jansen, Floor E

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study serum cytokine levels in 11 electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) patients and 20 healthy control children. Patients showed significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-10, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)8/IL-8 t

  5. Effects of sertindole on sleep-wake states, electroencephalogram, behavioral patterns, and epileptic activity of rats

    Coenen, A.M.L.; Ates, N.; Skarsfeldt, T.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    In this study we addressed the effects of the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist sertindole in rats. The compound was administered in doses of 0.08, 0.32, and 1.28 mg/kg, whereas a control group received the solvent. The effects of sertindole on sleep-wake states, behavioral patterns, and background electroe

  6. Mental health care in Italy: organisational structure, routine clinical activity and costs of a community psychiatric service in Lombardy region.

    Fattore, G; Percudani, M; Pugnoli, C; Contini, A; Beecham, J

    2000-01-01

    The Magenta Community Mental Health Centre (CMHC) is the public agency responsible for providing adult psychiatric care to about 85,000 adult residents. In 1995, it had 1,145 clients and incurred costs of Euro 1.9 millions. Average cost per patient and per adult resident were Euro 1,661 and Euro 22.2, respectively. These values mask large variation across diagnosis: while patients with schizophrenia and related disorders had an average cost of Euro 3,771, those with neurotic and related disorders had an average cost of Euro 439. Patients with schizophrenia and related disorders (28% of the patients) absorbed about 60% of total costs and made extensive use of several types of services (hospital, outpatient, domiciliary, social and rehabilitative care). Since integrating different types of services is the key element of Italian psychiatric care, the new fee-for-service system adopted by the NHS to fund providers does not appear appropriate, particularly for schizophrenic patients.

  7. From estimating activation locality to predicting disorder: A review of pattern recognition for neuroimaging-based psychiatric diagnostics.

    Wolfers, Thomas; Buitelaar, Jan K; Beckmann, Christian F; Franke, Barbara; Marquand, Andre F

    2015-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are increasingly being recognised as having a biological basis, but their diagnosis is made exclusively behaviourally. A promising approach for 'biomarker' discovery has been based on pattern recognition methods applied to neuroimaging data, which could yield clinical utility in future. In this review we survey the literature on pattern recognition for making diagnostic predictions in psychiatric disorders, and evaluate progress made in translating such findings towards clinical application. We evaluate studies on many criteria, including data modalities used, the types of features extracted and algorithm applied. We identify problems common to many studies, such as a relatively small sample size and a primary focus on estimating generalisability within a single study. Furthermore, we highlight challenges that are not widely acknowledged in the field including the importance of accommodating disease prevalence, the necessity of more extensive validation using large carefully acquired samples, the need for methodological innovations to improve accuracy and to discriminate between multiple disorders simultaneously. Finally, we identify specific clinical contexts in which pattern recognition can add value in the short to medium term.

  8. Chronic agomelatine treatment corrects the abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of motor activity and sleep/wake cycle induced by prenatal restraint stress in adult rats.

    Mairesse, Jerome; Silletti, Viviana; Laloux, Charlotte; Zuena, Anna Rita; Giovine, Angela; Consolazione, Michol; van Camp, Gilles; Malagodi, Marithe; Gaetani, Silvana; Cianci, Silvia; Catalani, Assia; Mennuni, Gioacchino; Mazzetta, Alessandro; van Reeth, Olivier; Gabriel, Cecilia; Mocaër, Elisabeth; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Maccari, Stefania

    2013-03-01

    Agomelatine is a novel antidepressant acting as an MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor agonist/5-HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist. Because of its peculiar pharmacological profile, this drug caters the potential to correct the abnormalities of circadian rhythms associated with mood disorders, including abnormalities of the sleep/wake cycle. Here, we examined the effect of chronic agomelatine treatment on sleep architecture and circadian rhythms of motor activity using the rat model of prenatal restraint stress (PRS) as a putative 'aetiological' model of depression. PRS was delivered to the mothers during the last 10 d of pregnancy. The adult progeny ('PRS rats') showed a reduced duration of slow wave sleep, an increased duration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, an increased number of REM sleep events and an increase in motor activity before the beginning of the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. In addition, adult PRS rats showed an increased expression of the transcript of the primary response gene, c-Fos, in the hippocampus just prior to the beginning of the dark phase. All these changes were reversed by a chronic oral treatment with agomelatine (2000 ppm in the diet). The effect of agomelatine on sleep was largely attenuated by treatment with the MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist, S22153, which caused PRS-like sleep disturbances on its own. These data provide the first evidence that agomelatine corrects sleep architecture and restores circadian homeostasis in a preclinical model of depression and supports the value of agomelatine as a novel antidepressant that resynchronizes circadian rhythms under pathological conditions.

  9. Psychopathological Variables and Sleep Quality in Psoriatic Patients

    Maria Luca; Antonina Luca; Maria Letizia Musumeci; Federica Fiorentini; Giuseppe Micali; Carmela Calandra

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease frequently associated with psychiatric disturbances and sleep disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of depression, interaction anxiety, audience anxiety, and sleep quality in psoriatic patients. One hundred and two psoriatic patients were enrolled and underwent the following questionnaires: Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS), Audience Anxiousness Scale (AAS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P...

  10. Activity, sleep and ambient light have a different impact on circadian blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature rhythms.

    Gubin, D G; Weinert, D; Rybina, S V; Danilova, L A; Solovieva, S V; Durov, A M; Prokopiev, N Y; Ushakov, P A

    2017-02-16

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of endogenous and exogenous factors for the expression of the daily rhythms of body temperature (BT), blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). One hundred and seventy-three young adults (YA), 17-24 years old (y.o.), of both genders were studied under a modified constant-routine (CR) protocol for 26 h. Participants were assigned randomly to groups with different lighting regimens: CR-LD, n = 77, lights (>400 l×) on from 09:00 to 17:00 h and off (400 l×) during the whole experimental session; CR-DD, n = 15, constant dim light (measured every 2 h. For comparison, the results of the former studies performed under conditions of regular life with an activity period from 07:00 to 23:00 h and sleep from 23:00 till 07:00 h (Control) were reanalyzed. Seven-day Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) records from 27 YA (16-38 y.o.) and BT self-measurement data from 70 YA (17-30 y.o.) taken on ≥ 3 successive days at 08:00, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, 20:00, 23:00 and 03:00 were available. The obtained daily patterns were different between Control and CR-DD groups, due to effects of activity, sleep and light. The comparison of Control and CR-LD groups allowed the effects of sleep and activity to be estimated since the lighting conditions were similar. The activity level substantially elevated SBP, but not DBP. Sleep, on the other hand, lowered the nighttime DBP, but has no effect on SBP. HR was affected both by activity and sleep. In accordance with previous studies, these results confirm that the steep BP increase in the morning is not driven by the circadian clock, but rather by sympathoadrenal factors related to awakening and corresponding anticipatory mechanisms. The effect on BT was not significant. To investigate the impact of light during the former dark time and darkness during the former light time, the CR-LL and CR-DD groups were each compared with the CR-LD group. Light delayed the evening decrease of BT

  11. Social and environmental contexts modulate sleep deprivation-induced c-Fos activation in rats.

    Deurveilher, Samuel; Ryan, Nathan; Burns, Joan; Semba, Kazue

    2013-11-01

    People often sleep deprive themselves voluntarily for social and lifestyle reasons. Animals also appear to stay awake longer as a result of their natural curiosity to explore novel environments and interact socially with conspecifics. Although multiple arousal systems in the brain are known to act jointly to promote and maintain wakefulness, it remains unclear whether these systems are similarly engaged during voluntary vs. forced wakefulness. Using c-Fos immunohistochemistry, we compared neuronal responses in rats deprived of sleep for 2 h by gentle sensory stimulation, exploration under social isolation, or exploration with social interaction, and rats under undisturbed control conditions. In many arousal, limbic, and autonomic nuclei examined (e.g., anterior cingulate cortex and locus coeruleus), the two sleep deprivation procedures involving exploration were similarly effective, and both were more effective than sleep deprivation with sensory stimulation, in increasing the number of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons. However, some nuclei (e.g., paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and select amygdala nuclei) were more responsive to exploration with social interaction, while others (e.g., histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus) responded more strongly to exploration in social isolation. In the rostral basal forebrain, cholinergic and GABAergic neurons responded preferentially to exploration with social interaction, whereas resident neurons in general responded most strongly to exploration without social interaction. These results indicate that voluntary exploration with/without social interaction is more effective than forced sleep deprivation with gentle sensory stimulation for inducing c-Fos in arousal and limbic/autonomic brain regions, and suggest that these nuclei participate in different aspects of arousal during sustained voluntary wakefulness.

  12. Rhythmic dendritic Ca2+ oscillations in thalamocortical neurons during slow non-REM sleep-related activity in vitro.

    Errington, Adam C; Hughes, Stuart W; Crunelli, Vincenzo

    2012-08-15

    The distribution of T-type Ca2+ channels along the entire somatodendritic axis of sensory thalamocortical (TC) neurons permits regenerative propagation of low threshold spikes (LTS) accompanied by global dendritic Ca2+ influx. Furthermore, T-type Ca2+ channels play an integral role in low frequency oscillatory activity (dynamics of T-type Ca2+ channel-dependent dendritic Ca2+ signalling during slow sleep-associated oscillations remains unknown. Here we demonstrate using patch clamp recording and two-photon Ca2+ imaging of dendrites from cat TC neurons undergoing spontaneous slow oscillatory activity that somatically recorded δ (1–4 Hz) and slow (<1 Hz) oscillations are associated with rhythmic and sustained global oscillations in dendritic Ca2+. In addition, our data reveal the presence of LTS-dependent Ca2+ transients (Δ[Ca2+]) in dendritic spine-like structures on proximal TC neuron dendrites during slow (<1 Hz) oscillations whose amplitudes are similar to those observed in the dendritic shaft. We find that the amplitude of oscillation associated Δ[Ca2+] do not vary significantly with distance from the soma whereas the decay time constant (τdecay) of Δ[Ca2+] decreases significantly in more distal dendrites. Furthermore, τdecay of dendritic Δ[Ca2+] increases significantly as oscillation frequency decreases from δ to slow frequencies where pronounced depolarised UP states are observed. Such rhythmic dendritic Ca2+ entry in TC neurons during sleep-related firing patterns could be an important factor in maintaining the oscillatory activity and associated biochemical signalling processes, such as synaptic downscaling, that occur in non-REM sleep.

  13. Update of sleep alterations in depression

    Andrés Barrera Medina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances in depression are up to 70%. Patients frequently have difficulty in falling asleep, frequent awakenings during the night and non-restorative sleep. Sleep abnormalities in depression are mainly characterized by increased rapid eye movement (REM sleep and reduced slow wave sleep. Among the mechanisms of sleep disturbances in depression are hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, CLOCK gene polymorphism and primary sleep disorders. The habenula is a structure regulating the activities of monoaminergic neurons in the brain. The hyperactivation of the habenula has also been implicated, together with sleep disturbances, in depression. The presence of depression in primary sleep disorders is common. Sleep disturbances treatment include pharmacotherapy or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

  14. Update of sleep alterations in depression.

    Medina, Andrés Barrera; Lechuga, DeboraYoaly Arana; Escandón, Oscar Sánchez; Moctezuma, Javier Velázquez

    2014-09-01

    Sleep disturbances in depression are up to 70%. Patients frequently have difficulty in falling asleep, frequent awakenings during the night and non-restorative sleep. Sleep abnormalities in depression are mainly characterized by increased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and reduced slow wave sleep. Among the mechanisms of sleep disturbances in depression are hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, CLOCK gene polymorphism and primary sleep disorders. The habenula is a structure regulating the activities of monoaminergic neurons in the brain. The hyperactivation of the habenula has also been implicated, together with sleep disturbances, in depression. The presence of depression in primary sleep disorders is common. Sleep disturbances treatment include pharmacotherapy or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

  15. Good morning creativity: task reactivation during sleep enhances beneficial effect of sleep on creative performance.

    Ritter, Simone M; Strick, Madelijn; Bos, Maarten W; van Baaren, Rick B; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2012-12-01

    Both scientists and artists have suggested that sleep facilitates creativity, and this idea has received substantial empirical support. In the current study, we investigate whether one can actively enhance the beneficial effect of sleep on creativity by covertly reactivating the creativity task during sleep. Individuals' creative performance was compared after three different conditions: sleep-with-conditioned-odor; sleep-with-control-odor; or sleep-with-no-odor. In the evening prior to sleep, all participants were presented with a problem that required a creative solution. In the two odor conditions, a hidden scent-diffuser spread an odor while the problem was presented. In the sleep-with-conditioned-odor condition, task reactivation during sleep was induced by means of the odor that was also presented while participants were informed about the problem. In the sleep-with-control-odor condition, participants were exposed to a different odor during sleep than the one diffused during problem presentation. In the no odor condition, no odor was presented. After a night of sleep with the conditioned odor, participants were found to be: (i) more creative; and (ii) better able to select their most creative idea than participants who had been exposed to a control odor or no odor while sleeping. These findings suggest that we do not have to passively wait until we are hit by our creative muse while sleeping. Task reactivation during sleep can actively trigger creativity-related processes during sleep and thereby boost the beneficial effect of sleep on creativity.

  16. Enhancement of sleep slow waves: underlying mechanisms and practical consequences.

    Michele eBellesi; Brady A Riedner; Garcia-Molina, Gary N.; Chiara eCirelli; Giulio eTononi

    2014-01-01

    Even modest sleep restriction, especially the loss of sleep slow wave activity, is invariably associated with slower EEG activity during wake, the occurrence of local sleep in an otherwise awake brain, and impaired performance due to cognitive and memory deficits. Recent studies not only confirm the beneficial role of sleep in memory consolidation, but also point to a specific role for sleep slow waves. Thus, the implementation of methods to enhance sleep slow waves without unwanted arousals ...

  17. Role of corticosterone on sleep homeostasis induced by REM sleep deprivation in rats.

    Ricardo Borges Machado

    Full Text Available Sleep is regulated by humoral and homeostatic processes. If on one hand chronic elevation of stress hormones impair sleep, on the other hand, rapid eye movement (REM sleep deprivation induces elevation of glucocorticoids and time of REM sleep during the recovery period. In the present study we sought to examine whether manipulations of corticosterone levels during REM sleep deprivation would alter the subsequent sleep rebound. Adult male Wistar rats were fit with electrodes for sleep monitoring and submitted to four days of REM sleep deprivation under repeated corticosterone or metyrapone (an inhibitor of corticosterone synthesis administration. Sleep parameters were continuously recorded throughout the sleep deprivation period and during 3 days of sleep recovery. Plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone were also evaluated. Metyrapone treatment prevented the elevation of corticosterone plasma levels induced by REM sleep deprivation, whereas corticosterone administration to REM sleep-deprived rats resulted in lower corticosterone levels than in non-sleep deprived rats. Nonetheless, both corticosterone and metyrapone administration led to several alterations on sleep homeostasis, including reductions in the amount of non-REM and REM sleep during the recovery period, although corticosterone increased delta activity (1.0-4.0 Hz during REM sleep deprivation. Metyrapone treatment of REM sleep-deprived rats reduced the number of REM sleep episodes. In conclusion, reduction of corticosterone levels during REM sleep deprivation resulted in impairment of sleep rebound, suggesting that physiological elevation of corticosterone levels resulting from REM sleep deprivation is necessary for plentiful recovery of sleep after this stressful event.

  18. Sleep deprivation disturbed regional brain activity in healthy subjects: evidence from a functional magnetic resonance-imaging study

    Wang L

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Li Wang, Yin Chen, Ying Yao, Yu Pan, Yi Sun Department of Neurology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF to explore regional brain activities in healthy subjects after sleep deprivation (SD.Materials and methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight females, eight males underwent the session twice: once was after normal sleep (NS, and the other was after SD. ALFF was used to assess local brain features. The mean ALFF-signal values of the different brain areas were evaluated to investigate relationships with clinical features and were analyzed with a receiver-operating characteristic curve.Results: Compared with NS subjects, SD subjects showed a lower response-accuracy rate, longer response time, and higher lapse rate. Compared with NS subjects, SD subjects showed higher ALFF area in the right cuneus and lower ALFF area in the right lentiform nucleus, right claustrum, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left inferior parietal cortex. ALFF differences in regional brain areas showed high sensitivity and specificity. In the SD group, mean ALFF of the right claustrum showed a significant positive correlation with accuracy rate (r=0.687, P=0.013 and a negative correlation with lapse rate (r=-0.706, P=0.01. Mean ALFF of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed a significant positive correlation with response time (r=0.675, P=0.016.Conclusion: SD disturbed the regional brain activity of the default-mode network, its anticorrelated “task-positive” network, and the advanced cognitive function brain areas. Keywords: sleep deprivation, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, default-mode network, functional magnetic resonance imaging

  19. Rapid eye movement sleep disturbances in Huntington disease

    Arnulf, I.; Nielsen, J.; Lohmann, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sleep disorders including insomnia, movements during sleep, and daytime sleepiness are common but poorly studied in Huntington disease (HD). Objective: To evaluate the HD sleep-wake phenotype (including abnormal motor activity during sleep) in patients with various HD stages and the l......Background: Sleep disorders including insomnia, movements during sleep, and daytime sleepiness are common but poorly studied in Huntington disease (HD). Objective: To evaluate the HD sleep-wake phenotype (including abnormal motor activity during sleep) in patients with various HD stages...... interview, nighttime video and sleep monitoring, and daytime multiple sleep latency tests. Their results were compared with those of patients with narcolepsy and control patients. Results: The HD patients had frequent insomnia, earlier sleep onset, lower sleep efficiency, increased stage I sleep, delayed......: The sleep phenotype of HD includes insomnia, advanced sleep phase, periodic leg movements, REM sleep behavior disorders, and reduced REM sleep but not narcolepsy. Reduced REM sleep may precede chorea. Mutant huntingtin may exert an effect on REM sleep and motor control during sleep Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  20. The nature of psychiatric disorders.

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-02-01

    A foundational question for the discipline of psychiatry is the nature of psychiatric disorders. What kinds of things are they? In this paper, I review and critique three major relevant theories: realism, pragmatism and constructivism. Realism assumes that the content of science is real and independent of human activities. I distinguish two "flavors" of realism: chemistry-based, for which the paradigmatic example is elements of the periodic table, and biology-based, for which the paradigm is species. The latter is a much better fit for psychiatry. Pragmatism articulates a sensible approach to psychiatric disorders just seeking categories that perform well in the world. But it makes no claim about the reality of those disorders. This is problematic, because we have a duty to advocate for our profession and our patients against other physicians who never doubt the reality of the disorders they treat. Constructivism has been associated with anti-psychiatry activists, but we should admit that social forces play a role in the creation of our diagnoses, as they do in many sciences. However, truly socially constructed psychiatric disorders are rare. I then describe powerful arguments against a realist theory of psychiatric disorders. Because so many prior psychiatric diagnoses have been proposed and then abandoned, can we really claim that our current nosologies have it right? Much of our current nosology arose from a series of historical figures and events which could have gone differently. If we re-run the tape of history over and over again, the DSM and ICD would not likely have the same categories on every iteration. Therefore, we should argue more confidently for the reality of broader constructs of psychiatric illness rather than our current diagnostic categories, which remain tentative. Finally, instead of thinking that our disorders are true because they correspond to clear entities in the world, we should consider a coherence theory of truth by which disorders

  1. New learning while consolidating memory during sleep is actively blocked by a protein synthesis dependent process

    Levy, Roi; Levitan, David; Susswein, Abraham J

    2016-01-01

    Brief experiences while a memory is consolidated may capture the consolidation, perhaps producing a maladaptive memory, or may interrupt the consolidation. Since consolidation occurs during sleep, even fleeting experiences when animals are awakened may produce maladaptive long-term memory, or may interrupt consolidation. In a learning paradigm affecting Aplysia feeding, when animals were trained after being awakened from sleep, interactions between new experiences and consolidation were prevented by blocking long-term memory arising from the new experiences. Inhibiting protein synthesis eliminated the block and allowed even a brief, generally ineffective training to produce long-term memory. Memory formation depended on consolidative proteins already expressed before training. After effective training, long term memory required subsequent transcription and translation. Memory formation during the sleep phase was correlated with increased CREB1 transcription, but not CREB2 transcription. Increased C/EBP transcription was a correlate of both effective and ineffective training and of treatments not producing memory. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17769.001 PMID:27919318

  2. 浙江省温州市精神专科医院女性医护人员职业倦怠与睡眠质量的相关性分析%The analysis of correlation between job burnout and sleep quality in psychiatric female medical staff of Wenzhou city

    朱文标; 陈策; 杨亚芳; 王蕾; 张伟

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between job burnout feeling and sleep quality in psychiatric female medical staff.Methods 100 female medical staff were randomly selected from two mental hospitals in Wenzhou,and the Pittsburgh sleep quality index was used to evaluate and Maslach burnout inventory;and the relation-ship between sleep quality and job burnout was analyzed.Results Female psychiatric and medical personnel to the personality dimension score was (10.84 ±4.75)points,which was higher than Maslach norm (7.12 ±5.22)points;emotion exhaustion scores of (14.44 ±6.38)points,low achievement sense score of (15.07 ±6.89)points,below the Maslach often die emotion exhaustion scores of (22.19 ±9.53)points and low achievement sense scores (36.54 ± 7.34)points.The differences were statistically significant (t =-12.15,7.84,-31.15,all P <0.01).Job burnout and there were significant correlations between sleep quality and the emotional exhaustion and personification and PQSI seven dimensions and the total score was a positive correlation,low sense of achievement and PQSI total score and negatively correlated with seven dimensions.Conclusion Wenzhou psychiatric female medical staff burnout is significantly higher than the general population,there is a correlation between staff burnout and sleep quality,and the more serious burnout,poorer quality of sleep.Improving the quality of sleep of medical staff is one of the ways to relieve job burnout.%目的:探讨精神专科医院女性医护人员职业倦怠与睡眠质量的关联性。方法从温州市区精神专科医院随机选取女性医护人员100人,采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数和 Maslach 职业倦怠量表对研究对象进行评估;并分析睡眠质量及职业倦怠感之间的关联性。结果精神科女性医护人员去人格化维度得分(10.84±4.75)分,高于 Maslach 常模的(7.12±5.22)分;情感衰竭得分(14.44±6.38)分,低成就感维度得分(15

  3. On the need of objective vigilance monitoring: Effects of sleep loss on target detection and task-negative activity using combined EEG/fMRI

    Michael eCzisch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep loss affects attention by reducing levels of arousal and alertness. The neural mechanisms underlying the compensatory efforts of the brain to maintain attention and performance after sleep deprivation are not fully understood. Previous neuroimaging studies of sleep deprivation have not been able to exclude the effects of reduced arousal and vigilance when examining cerebral responses to cognitive challenges. Here, we used a simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI approach to study the effects of 36 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD. Specifically, we focused on changes in selective attention processes as induced by an active acoustic oddball task, with the ability to isolate runs with objective EEG signs of high or reduced vigilance. At high vigilance, task-related activity appears to be sustained by compensatory co-activation of insular regions, but task-negative activity in the right posterior node of the default mode network is altered following TSD. When EEG shows signs of reduced vigilance, task-positive activity was massively impaired, but task-negative activation was showing levels comparable with the control condition after a well-rested night. Our results suggest that loss of strict anti-correlation between task-positive and task-negative activation reflects the effects of TSD, while the actual state of vigilance and task performance either affects task-related or task-negative activity.

  4. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  5. The effects of chewing versus caffeine on alertness, cognitive performance and cardiac autonomic activity during sleep deprivation.

    Kohler, Mark; Pavy, Alan; van den Heuvel, Cameron

    2006-12-01

    Chewing has been shown to alleviate feelings of sleepiness and improve cognitive performance during the day. This study investigated the effect of chewing on alertness and cognitive performance across one night without sleep as well as the possible mediating role of cardiac autonomic activity. Fourteen adults participated in a randomized, counterbalanced protocol employing a chewing, placebo and caffeine condition. Participants completed tasks assessing psychomotor vigilance, tracking, grammatical reasoning, alertness and sleepiness each hour across the night. All participants received either placebo or caffeine (200 mg), while the chewing condition also chewed on a tasteless and odorless substance for 15 min each hour. Heart rate (HR), root mean square of the successive differences in R-R intervals on the ECG (RMSSD), and preejection period (PEP) were simultaneously recorded. Alertness and cognitive performance amongst the chewing condition did not differ or were in fact worse when compared with placebo. Similarly, measures of HR and RMSSD remained the same between these two conditions; however, PEP was reduced in the later part of the night in the chewing condition compared with a relative increase for placebo. Caffeine led to improved speed and accuracy on cognitive tasks and increased alertness when compared with chewing. Relative increases in RMSSD and reductions in HR were demonstrated following caffeine; however, no change in PEP was seen. Strong associations between cardiac parasympathetic activity and complex cognitive tasks, as well as between subjective alertness and simpler cognitive tasks, suggest a differential process mediating complex versus simple cognitive performance during sleep deprivation.

  6. Daytime nap controls toddlers’ nighttime sleep

    Nakagawa, Machiko; Ohta, Hidenobu; Nagaoki, Yuko; Shimabukuro, Rinshu; Asaka, Yoko; Takahashi, Noriko; Nakazawa, Takayo; Kaneshi, Yousuke; Morioka, Keita; Oishi, Yoshihisa; Azami, Yuriko; Ikeuchi, Mari; Takahashi, Mari; Hirata, Michio; Ozawa, Miwa; Cho, Kazutoshi; Kusakawa, Isao; Yoda, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that afternoon naps can have a negative effect on subsequent nighttime sleep in children. These studies have mainly been based on sleep questionnaires completed by parents. To investigate the effect of napping on such aspects of sleep quality, we performed a study in which child activity and sleep levels were recorded using actigraphy. The parents were asked to attach actigraphy units to their child’s waist by an adjustable elastic belt and complete a sleep diary for 7 consecutive days. 50 healthy young toddlers of approximately 1.5 years of age were recruited. There was a significant negative correlation between nap duration and both nighttime sleep duration and sleep onset time, suggesting that long nap sleep induces short nighttime sleep duration and late sleep onset time. We also found a significant negative correlation between nap timing and nighttime sleep duration and also a significant positive correlation between nap timing and sleep onset time, suggesting that naps in the late afternoon also lead to short nighttime sleep duration and late sleep onset. Our findings suggest that duration-controlled naps starting early in the afternoon can induce a longer nighttime sleep in full-term infants of approximately 1.5 years of age. PMID:27277329

  7. Sleep Disorders in the Older Adult – A Mini-Review

    Neikrug, Ariel B.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 50% of older adults complain of difficulty sleeping. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. The decrements seen in the sleep of the older adult are often due to a decrease in the ability to get needed sleep. However, the decreased ability is less a function of age and more a function of other factors that accompany aging, such as medical and psychiatric illness, increased medication use, advances in the endogenous circadian clock and a highe...

  8. Total sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction and sleep disruption.

    Reynolds, Amy C; Banks, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Sleep loss may result from total sleep deprivation (such as a shift worker might experience), chronic sleep restriction (due to work, medical conditions or lifestyle) or sleep disruption (which is common in sleep disorders such as sleep apnea or restless legs syndrome). Total sleep deprivation has been widely researched, and its effects have been well described. Chronic sleep restriction and sleep disruption (also known as sleep fragmentation) have received less experimental attention. Recently, there has been increasing interest in sleep restriction and disruption as it has been recognized that they have a similar impact on cognitive functioning as a period of total sleep deprivation. Sleep loss causes impairments in cognitive performance and simulated driving and induces sleepiness, fatigue and mood changes. This review examines recent research on the effects of sleep deprivation, restriction and disruption on cognition and neurophysiologic functioning in healthy adults, and contrasts the similarities and differences between these three modalities of sleep loss.

  9. Actigraphic and parental reports of sleep difficulties in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Hvolby, Allan; Jørgensen, Jan; Bilenberg, Niels

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe actigraphically detected and parent-reported sleep problems in nonmedicated children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); to clarify whether or not comorbid oppositional defiant disorder contributes to sleep difficulties; and to compare objectively measured...... (psychiatric control group), and 97 healthy control subjects (reference group). Intervention Sleep was monitored by parent-completed sleep diaries and 5 nights of actigraphy. We used a semistructured interview to diagnose psychiatric disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders...... subjects. Average sleep onset latencies were 26.3 minutes in the ADHD group, 18.6 minutes in the psychiatric control group, and 13.5 minutes in the healthy reference group. There was no apparent relationship between sleep problems and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. We found discrepancies between...

  10. Mammalian sleep

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  11. Registros de enfermería sobre el sueño y percepción de los pacientes en una unidad psiquiátrica: Estudio comparativo Nursing registers on sleep and patient perception in a psychiatric unit: A comparative study

    J. Antomás

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. El insomnio es un problema frecuente en las personas que sufren enfermedades mentales. El personal de enfermería controla y registra si los pacientes duermen o no. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la concordancia entre las percepciones de los pacientes de una unidad psiquiátrica de agudos sobre la calidad de su sueño y las notas recogidas en el evolutivo de enfermería al respecto. Material y métodos. Estudio comparativo entre las respuestas dadas por pacientes de nuestra unidad a 126 cuestionarios sobre insomnio en noches concretas y lo reflejado en sus historias de enfermería. Se utilizó una versión reducida de la Escala Atenas de Insomnio (EAI-5. Resultados. El valor medio obtenido según las respuestas de los pacientes es superior (peor sueño al dado por las enfermeras, tanto de manera global como por ítem. La historia de enfermería refleja valores mucho más bajos que los otorgados por el paciente, el análisis de correlación de Pearson proporcionó un coeficiente de 0,26. El análisis de grado de acuerdo proporcionó un ICC de 0,13 y no difiere de manera significativa al acuerdo nulo. Conclusiones. Hay discordancia entre las observaciones de enfermería y las sensaciones subjetivas de los pacientes sobre cómo duermen. Refieren dormir peor de lo que refleja la historia de enfermería. La observación externa y la autopercepción no son aspectos antagónicos, sino dos aspectos complementarios del sueño de los pacientes.Background. Insomnia is a frequent problem in people who suffer from mental illnesses. The nursing staff control and register whether or not patients sleep. The aim of this article is to analyze the concordance between the perceptions of the patients of a psychiatric unit on the quality of sleep, and the notes in this respect contained in the nursing records. Methods. A comparative study between the answers given by the patients of our unit to 126 questions on insomnia on specific nights, and

  12. Sleep physiology and pathology: pertinence to psychiatry.

    Soldatos, Constantin R; Paparrigopoulos, Thomas J

    2005-08-01

    Sleep should not be considered a behavioural state characterized by brain inertia; instead, it is a highly dynamic process involving numerous brainstem areas and all physiological systems of the body. Our understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for sleep regulation has considerably advanced since the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, about half a century ago. Based on standardized electroencephalographic, electro-oculographic and electromyographic features, two distinct main states periodically alternating throughout the night have been identified: REM and non-REM sleep; the latter is further distinguished into stages 1, 2, 3 and 4. Computerized analysis of sleep recordings yielded more detailed information on sleep physiology and pathology. Although still preliminary, neuroimaging studies promise to elucidate the functional alterations of neuronal substrates during sleep. Regarding sleep disorders, which account for a substantial individual and socio-economic burden, considerable progress has been achieved in terms of their classification, assessment, clinical diagnosis and treatment. Specific sleep disorders within the three major categories, that is, 'dysomnias', 'parasomnias', and 'sleep disorders associated with mental, neurologic, or other medical conditions', exhibit characteristic clinical features; sleep laboratory recordings considerably assist to definitely diagnose several among them. Pertinence of sleep medicine for psychiatrists is obvious, taking into consideration that psychiatric disorders account for the largest diagnostic group of patients with sleep problems. In fact, the basics of this interdisciplinary field should be of special concern both to medical students and clinicians of diverse backgrounds who are interested in acquiring the necessary skills to globally and comprehensively understand and eventually effectively treat their patients.

  13. Light sleep versus slow wave sleep in memory consolidation: a question of global versus local processes?

    Genzel, L.; Kroes, M.C.W.; Dresler, M.; Battaglia, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is strongly involved in memory consolidation, but its role remains unclear. 'Sleep replay', the active potentiation of relevant synaptic connections via reactivation of patterns of network activity that occurred during previous experience, has received considerable attention. Alternatively, sl

  14. Dopaminergic D2 receptor is a key player in the substantia nigra pars compacta neuronal activation mediated by REM sleep deprivation.

    Proença, Mariana B; Dombrowski, Patrícia A; Da Cunha, Claudio; Fischer, Luana; Ferraz, Anete C; Lima, Marcelo M S

    2014-01-01

    Currently, several studies addresses the novel link between sleep and dopaminergic neurotransmission, focusing most closely on the mechanisms by which Parkinson's disease (PD) and sleep may be intertwined. Therefore, variations in the activity of afferents during the sleep cycles, either at the level of DA cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and/or substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) or at the level of dopamine (DA) terminals in limbic areas may impact functions such as memory. Accordingly, we performed striatal and hippocampal neurochemical quantifications of DA, serotonin (5-HT) and metabolites of rats intraperitoneally treated with haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg) or piribedil (8 mg/kg) and submitted to REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) and sleep rebound (REB). Also, we evaluated the effects of REMSD on motor and cognitive parameters and SNpc c-Fos neuronal immunoreactivity. The results indicated that DA release was strongly enhanced by piribedil in the REMSD group. In opposite, haloperidol prevented that alteration. A c-Fos activation characteristic of REMSD was affected in a synergic manner by piribedil, indicating a strong positive correlation between striatal DA levels and nigral c-Fos activation. Hence, we suggest that memory process is severely impacted by both D2 blockade and REMSD and was even more by its combination. Conversely, the activation of D2 receptor counteracted such memory impairment. Therefore, the present evidence reinforce that the D2 receptor is a key player in the SNpc neuronal activation mediated by REMSD, as a consequence these changes may have direct impact for cognitive and sleep abnormalities found in patients with PD. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Synaptic Basis of Neurodegenerative Disorders'.

  15. Fibromialgia: nível de atividade física e qualidade do sono Fibromyalgia: level of physical activity and quality of sleep

    Raquel Munhoz da Silveira Campos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi identificar o nível de atividade física e sua relação com sonolência excessiva diurna e qualidade de sono em 15 mulheres com fibromialgia, com idade média de 58±7 anos. Foi utilizado o Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física, o Índice de Qualidade de Sono de Pittsburgh e a Escala de Sonolência de Epworth. O programa SPSS Statistics versão 17 foi utilizado para as analises estatísticas e o valor para significância foi de α The objective was to identify the level of physical activity and its relation to excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality in 15 women with fibromyalgia and mean age 58 ± 7 years. We used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Sleep Quality Index in Pittsburgh and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. We used SPSS Statistics Version 17 and the value for significance was α < 0.05. The results showed that 33,3% of patients rated themselves inactive and 66,7% minimally active. We observed excessive daytime sleepiness in 60% of patients. The poor quality of sleep was observed in 55,6% of patients in minimally active and 60% of inactive. The average time was 34,3 minutes to fall asleep, sleep efficiency was 81% and total sleep time was 5,9 hours. The low level of physical activity seems to be one of the factors that can worsen sleep quality in women with fibromyalgia.

  16. Can't sleep? Try these tips

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000853.htm Can't sleep? Try these tips To use the sharing ... with your daily activities. References Adams SK, Kisler TS. Sleep quality as a mediator between technology-related ...

  17. Sleep and Women

    ... hygiene sleep length Sleep Movement Disorders Sleep Need Sleep talking Sleeping Pills sleepwalking Snoring stress Stroke Suicide Supplements surgery Technology Teens Telemedicine television The internet Time change Transportation trauma travel Treatments ...

  18. Sleep disorders - overview

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  19. American Sleep Association

    ... Sleep Disorders Book Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Improving public health by increasing awareness about ... Members Username or Email Password Remember Me Register Sleep Blog Changing Bad Sleep Habits Asthma and Sleep ...

  20. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep ... Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  1. Differences in Overweight and Obesity among Children from Migrant and Native Origin: The Role of Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and Sleep Duration.

    Labree, Wim; van de Mheen, Dike; Rutten, Frans; Rodenburg, Gerda; Koopmans, Gerrit; Foets, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to examine to what degree differences in overweight and obesity between native Dutch and migrant primary school children could be explained by differences in physical activity, dietary intake, and sleep duration among these children. Subjects (n=1943) were primary school children around the age of 8-9 years old and their primary caregivers: native Dutch children (n=1546), Turkish children (n=93), Moroccan children (n=66), other non-western children (n=105), and other western children (n=133). Multivariate regressions and logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between migrant status, child's behavior, and BMI or prevalence of overweight, including obesity (logistic). Main explanatory variables were physical activity, dietary intake, and sleep duration. We controlled for age, sex, parental educational level, and parental BMI. Although sleep duration, dietary intake of fruit, and dietary intake of energy-dense snacks were associated with BMI, ethnic differences in sleep duration and dietary intake did not have a large impact on ethnic differences in overweight and obesity among children from migrant and native origin. It is suggested that future preventive strategies to reduce overweight and obesity, in general, consider the role of sleep duration. Also, cross-cultural variation in preparation of food among specific migrant groups, focusing on fat, sugar, and salt, deserves more attention. In order to examine which other variables may clarify ethnic differences in overweight and obesity, future research is needed.

  2. Cutaneous warming promotes sleep onset.

    Raymann, Roy J E M; Swaab, Dick F; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2005-06-01

    Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin warming and heat loss. We have proposed that these intrinsically occurring changes in core and skin temperatures could modulate neuronal activity in sleep-regulating brain areas (Van Someren EJW, Chronobiol Int 17: 313-54, 2000). We here provide results compatible with this hypothesis. We obtained 144 sleep-onset latencies while directly manipulating core and skin temperatures within the comfortable range in eight healthy subjects under controlled conditions. The induction of a proximal skin temperature difference of only 0.78 +/- 0.03 degrees C (mean +/- SE) around a mean of 35.13 +/- 0.11 degrees C changed sleep-onset latency by 26%, i.e., by 3.09 minutes [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.91 to 4.28] around a mean of 11.85 min (CI, 9.74 to 14.41), with faster sleep onsets when the proximal skin was warmed. The reduction in sleep-onset latency occurred despite a small but significant decrease in subjective comfort during proximal skin warming. The induction of changes in core temperature (delta = 0.20 +/- 0.02 degrees C) and distal skin temperature (delta = 0.74 +/- 0.05 degrees C) were ineffective. Previous studies have demonstrated correlations between skin temperature and sleep-onset latency. Also, sleep disruption by ambient temperatures that activate thermoregulatory defense mechanisms has been shown. The present study is the first to experimentally demonstrate a causal contribution to sleep-onset latency of skin temperature manipulations within the normal nocturnal fluctuation range. Circadian and sleep-appetitive behavior-induced variations in skin temperature might act as an input signal to sleep-regulating systems.

  3. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during sleep.

    Madsen, P L; Vorstrup, S

    1991-01-01

    A review of the current literature regarding sleep-induced changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate (CMR) is presented. Early investigations have led to the notion that dreamless sleep was characterized by global values of CBF and CMR practically at the level of wakefulness, while rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (dream sleep) was a state characterized by a dramatically increased level of CBF and possibly also of CMR. However, recent investigations firmly contradict this notion. Investigations on CBF and CMR performed during non-REM sleep, taking the effect of different levels of sleep into consideration, show that light sleep (stage II) is characterized by global levels of CBF and CMR only slightly reduced by 3-10% below the level associated with wakefulness, whereas CBF and CMR during deep sleep (stage III-IV) is dramatically reduced by 25-44%. Furthermore, recent data indicate that global levels of CBF and CMR are about the same during REM sleep as in wakefulness. On the regional level, deep sleep seems to be associated with a uniform decrease in regional CBF and CMR. Investigations concerning regional CBF and CMR during REM sleep are few but data from recent investigations seem to identify site-specific changes in regional CBF and CMR during REM sleep. CBF and CMR are reflections of cerebral synaptic activity and the magnitude of reduction in these variables associated with deep sleep indicates that overall cerebral synaptic activity is reduced to approximately one-half the level associated with wakefulness, while cerebral synaptic activity levels during REM sleep are similar to wakefulness. However, even though the new understanding of CBF and CMR during sleep provides significant and important information of the brain's mode of working during sleep, it does not at its current state identify the physiological processes involved in sleep or the physiological role of sleep.

  4. Diet, exercise, sleep, sexual activity, and perceived stress in people with epilepsy in NE Thailand.

    Saengsuwan, Jiamjit; Boonyaleepan, Suwanna; Tiamkao, Somsak

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to find out how people with epilepsy in NE Thailand feel about their levels of stress, sleep, diet, exercise habits, and sex lives using a cross-sectional design. Two hundred and three people with epilepsy (PWE) were randomly recruited from a university epilepsy clinic in Khon Kaen and then completed an interview and a questionnaire. A total of 27.6% of the patients believed that diet had an influence on their epilepsy (of those who reported changes, 41.1% stopped consuming alcohol, while 32.1% stopped drinking caffeinated beverages). A total of 47.2% of the patients exercised at least three times per week, while 52.8% exercised two times or less a week. Daytime sleeping was prevalent, with 43.3% saying that they slept during the day frequently or every day. There were 44.3% of the patients who believed that their sex lives changed after the onset of epilepsy, with decreased sexual arousal being most commonly mentioned. A total of 76.4% of the patients said that they had medium or high levels of stress, and epilepsy was listed as the most common reason for their stress (50.2%). Focusing on the problem was the most common method to reduce stress (80.3%). The findings illuminate the need to increase attention towards improving and promoting self-management of epilepsy. As a whole, diet, exercise, sleep, stress reduction, and sex therapy can be valuable tools to improve the quality of life of people with epilepsy.

  5. Assessment and treatment for insomnia and fatigue in the symptomatic menopausal woman with psychiatric comorbidity.

    Alexander, Jeanne Leventhal; Neylan, Thomas; Kotz, Krista; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Richardson, Gregg; Rosenbaum, Robert

    2007-11-01

    Studies and treatments for the symptomatic menopausal woman with sleep complaints have been reviewed elsewhere. This article, as part of the clinical review series on the comorbid symptomatic menopausal woman, aims to examine the evidence for diagnosis and treatment of women who present with distressing sleep symptoms that they attribute to menopause. The etiology of these symptoms may be a psychiatric disorder, a pre- or co-existing problem with sleep, or a dynamic interaction among one of these and/or a symptomatic menopause. The relationship between sleep disturbance and cognitive complaints, mood problems, fatigue and low energy will be reviewed. The new research on sleep, clinical consequences of insomnia of various types, the impact of sleep disturbance on morbidity and functioning--in the context of the midlife woman in the menopausal transition--will be explored along with the evidence for different treatment strategies for these sleep problems.

  6. To sleep or not to sleep: the ecology of sleep in artificial organisms

    Nunn Charles L

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All animals thus far studied sleep, but little is known about the ecological factors that generate differences in sleep characteristics across species, such as total sleep duration or division of sleep into multiple bouts across the 24-hour period (i.e., monophasic or polyphasic sleep activity. Here we address these questions using an evolutionary agent-based model. The model is spatially explicit, with food and sleep sites distributed in two clusters on the landscape. Agents acquire food and sleep energy based on an internal circadian clock coded by 24 traits (one for each hour of the day that correspond to "genes" that evolve by means of a genetic algorithm. These traits can assume three different values that specify the agents' behavior: sleep (or search for a sleep site, eat (or search for a food site, or flexibly decide action based on relative levels of sleep energy and food energy. Individuals with higher fitness scores leave more offspring in the next generation of the simulation, and the model can therefore be used to identify evolutionarily adaptive circadian clock parameters under different ecological conditions. Results We systematically varied input parameters related to the number of food and sleep sites, the degree to which food and sleep sites overlap, and the rate at which food patches were depleted. Our results reveal that: (1 the increased costs of traveling between more spatially separated food and sleep clusters select for monophasic sleep, (2 more rapid food patch depletion reduces sleep times, and (3 agents spend more time attempting to acquire the "rarer" resource, that is, the average time spent sleeping is positively correlated with the number of food patches and negatively correlated with the number of sleep patches. "Flexible" genes, in general, do not appear to be advantageous, though their arrangements in the agents' genome show characteristic patterns that suggest that selection acts on their

  7. Low physical activity and high screen time can increase the risks of mental health problems and poor sleep quality among Chinese college students.

    Xiaoyan Wu

    Full Text Available To test the independent and interactive associations of physical activity (PA and screen time (ST with self-reported mental health and sleep quality among Chinese college students.Data were collected in October, 2013. The gender, age, residential background, body mass index (BMI, perceived family economy and perceived study burden were obtained from a total of 4747 college students (41.6% males and 58.4% females. The outcomes were self-reported PA status, ST, anxiety, depression, psychopathological symptoms and sleep quality. Analyses were conducted with logistic regression models.Overall, 16.3%, 15.9% and 17.3% of the students had psychological problems, such as anxiety, depression and psychopathological symptoms, respectively. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 9.8%. High ST was significantly positively associated with anxiety (OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.15-1.65, depression (OR=1.76, 95%CI: 1.47-2.09, psychopathological symptoms (OR=1.69, 95%CI: 1.43-2.01 and poor sleep quality (OR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.06-1.65. High PA was insignificantly negatively associated with anxiety, depression, psychopathological symptoms and poor sleep. Low PA and high ST were independently and interactively associated with increased risks of mental health problems and poor sleep quality (p<0.05 for all.Interventions are needed to reduce ST and increase PA in the lifestyles of young people. Future research should develop and measure the impacts of interventions and their potential consequences on sleep, health, and well being.

  8. TRP channels and psychiatric disorders.

    Chahl, Loris A

    2011-01-01

    Depression and schizophrenia are major psychiatric disorders that cause much human suffering. Current treatments have major limitations and new drug targets are eagerly sought. Study of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in these disorders is at an early stage and the potential of agents that activate or inhibit these channels remains speculative. The findings that TRPC6 channels promote dendritic growth and are selectively activated by hyperforin, the key constitutent of St John's wort, suggest that TRPC6 channels might prove to be a new target for antidepressant drug development. There is now considerable evidence that TRPV1 antagonists have anxiolytic activity but there is no direct evidence that they have antidepressant activity. There is also no direct evidence that TRP channels play a role in schizophrenia. However, the findings that TRPC channels are involved in neuronal development and fundamental synaptic mechanisms, and that TRPV1 channels play a role in central dopaminergic and cannabinoid mechanisms is suggestive of potential roles of these channels in schizophrenia. Investigation of TRP channels in psychiatric disorders holds the promise of yielding further understanding of the aetiology of psychiatric disorders and the development of new drug treatments.

  9. Diurnal Emotional States Impact the Sleep Course.

    Julien Delannoy

    Full Text Available Diurnal emotional experiences seem to affect several characteristics of sleep architecture. However, this influence remains unclear, especially for positive emotions. In addition, electrodermal activity (EDA, a sympathetic robust indicator of emotional arousal, differs depending on the sleep stage. The present research has a double aim: to identify the specific effects of pre-sleep emotional states on the architecture of the subsequent sleep period; to relate such states to the sympathetic activation during the same sleep period.Twelve healthy volunteers (20.1 ± 1.0 yo. participated in the experiment and each one slept 9 nights at the laboratory, divided into 3 sessions, one per week. Each session was organized over three nights. A reference night, allowing baseline pre-sleep and sleep recordings, preceded an experimental night before which participants watched a negative, neutral, or positive movie. The third and last night was devoted to analyzing the potential recovery or persistence of emotional effects induced before the experimental night. Standard polysomnography and EDA were recorded during all the nights.Firstly, we found that experimental pre-sleep emotional induction increased the Rapid Eye Movement (REM sleep rate following both negative and positive movies. While this increase was spread over the whole night for positive induction, it was limited to the second half of the sleep period for negative induction. Secondly, the valence of the pre-sleep movie also impacted the sympathetic activation during Non-REM stage 3 sleep, which increased after negative induction and decreased after positive induction.Pre-sleep controlled emotional states impacted the subsequent REM sleep rate and modulated the sympathetic activity during the sleep period. The outcomes of this study offer interesting perspectives related to the effect of diurnal emotional influences on sleep regulation and open new avenues for potential practices designed to

  10. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    ... More... Home Getting Started National Resource Center on Psychiatric Advance Directives - Getting Started Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  11. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A/2C agonist on the genioglossus activity and sleep apnea in rats

    ZHONG Yi-jue; ZHANG Cheng; WANG Guang-fa

    2010-01-01

    Background 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a common neurotransmitter in the brain which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sleep apnea.Dysfunction of 5-HT and 5-HT2 receptors may lead to the collapse of the upper airway and the instability of respiratory control, which in turn produce apnea.Genioglossus (GG) is one of the most important oropharyngeal muscles maintaining the upper airway open.The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-HT and 5-HT2 receptor on GG activity and the sleep apnea in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.Methods Microinjection probes were placed within the fourth ventricle of sixteen SD rats.After recovery for a week, the electromyogram (EMG) of GG was recorded in the anesthetized and vagotomized rats.The changes of GG activity before and after the microinjection of 5-HT or 5-HT2A/2c agonist -2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI)were observed.Probes were also laid in another eight SD rats.Electroencephalogram (EEG), EMG of neck muscle and respiration were recorded at the same time a week later.The effects of DOI on the occurrence of sleep apnea were explored.Results Both 5-HT and DOI significantly enhanced the activity of GG just 3 minutes after the completion of injection.The effect of 5-HT disappeared quickly and the effect of DOI lasted for more than 27 minutes.DOI also significantly decreased the post-sigh apnea index in non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and decreased the spontaneous apnea index only in NREM sleep (P <0.05, respectively).Conclusion 5-HT and 5-HT2A/2c system correlated closely with the pathogenesis of the sleep apnea syndrome and 5-HT receptors may become the target of the drug treatment.

  12. Self-organized dynamical complexity in human wakefulness and sleep: Different critical brain-activity feedback for conscious and unconscious states

    Allegrini, Paolo; Paradisi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Laurino, Marco; Piarulli, Andrea; Gemignani, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    Criticality reportedly describes brain dynamics. The main critical feature is the presence of scale-free neural avalanches, whose auto-organization is determined by a critical branching ratio of neural-excitation spreading. Other features, directly associated to second-order phase transitions, are: (i) scale-free-network topology of functional connectivity, stemming from suprathreshold pairwise correlations, superimposable, in waking brain activity, with that of ferromagnets at Curie temperature; (ii) temporal long-range memory associated to renewal intermittency driven by abrupt fluctuations in the order parameters, detectable in human brain via spatially distributed phase or amplitude changes in EEG activity. Herein we study intermittent events, extracted from 29 night EEG recordings, including presleep wakefulness and all phases of sleep, where different levels of mentation and consciousness are present. We show that while critical avalanching is unchanged, at least qualitatively, intermittency and functional connectivity, present during conscious phases (wakefulness and REM sleep), break down during both shallow and deep non-REM sleep. We provide a theory for fragmentation-induced intermittency breakdown and suggest that the main difference between conscious and unconscious states resides in the backwards causation, namely on the constraints that the emerging properties at large scale induce to the lower scales. In particular, while in conscious states this backwards causation induces a critical slowing down, preserving spatiotemporal correlations, in dreamless sleep we see a self-organized maintenance of moduli working in parallel. Critical avalanches are still present, and establish transient auto-organization, whose enhanced fluctuations are able to trigger sleep-protecting mechanisms that reinstate parallel activity. The plausible role of critical avalanches in dreamless sleep is to provide a rapid recovery of consciousness, if stimuli are highly arousing.

  13. [Suicide prevention activities of psychiatry-related professional societies: the promotion of suicide prevention in psychiatric care].

    Otsuka, Kotaro; Kawanishi, Chiaki

    2014-01-01

    Suicide prevention is promoted nationally in Japan. In the General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy determined in 2007, the areas in which, psychiatry contributed were shown to be important, for example, psychiatric care, suicide, aftercare program for suicide attempters, mental health promotion, and actual elucidation of the cause of suicide. At a part of these national measures, guidelines on suicide attempters' care are devised by the Japanese Society for Emergency Medicine and the Japanese Association for Emergency Psychiatry, and a training workshop on caring for suicide attempters was held by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The Japanese society for Emergency Medicine devised an educational program of care for patients with mental health problems in emergency care in cooperation with the Japanese Association for Emergency Psychiatry and Japanese Society of General Hospital Psychiatry. On the other hand, suicide prevention and staff care at hospitals are important problems, and the Japan Council for Quality Health Care devised a program and conducted a training workshop. Also, the Japanese Association for Suicide Prevention conducted workshops for both the educational program of cognitive-behavioral therapy and facilitator training program for gatekeeper. The Japanese Society of Mood Disorders conducted a training workshop involving clinical high-risk case discussion. Also, the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology devised clinical guidelines for suicide prevention and distributed them to all society members. In this society, on-site discussion of the guidelines and the holding of workshops are expected in the future. It is hoped that these guidelines will be utilized and training workshops will be held in the future.

  14. Digital footprints: facilitating large-scale environmental psychiatric research in naturalistic settings through data from everyday technologies.

    Bidargaddi, N; Musiat, P; Makinen, V-P; Ermes, M; Schrader, G; Licinio, J

    2017-02-01

    Digital footprints, the automatically accumulated by-products of our technology-saturated lives, offer an exciting opportunity for psychiatric research. The commercial sector has already embraced the electronic trails of customers as an enabling tool for guiding consumer behaviour, and analogous efforts are ongoing to monitor and improve the mental health of psychiatric patients. The untargeted collection of digital footprints that may or may not be health orientated comprises a large untapped information resource for epidemiological scale research into psychiatric disorders. Real-time monitoring of mood, sleep and physical and social activity in a substantial portion of the affected population in a naturalistic setting is unprecedented in psychiatry. We propose that digital footprints can provide these measurements from real world setting unobtrusively and in a longitudinal fashion. In this perspective article, we outline the concept of digital footprints and the services and devices that create them, and present examples where digital footprints have been successfully used in research. We then critically discuss the opportunities and fundamental challenges associated digital footprints in psychiatric research, such as collecting data from different sources, analysis, ethical and research design challenges.

  15. Digital footprints: facilitating large-scale environmental psychiatric research in naturalistic settings through data from everyday technologies

    Bidargaddi, N; Musiat, P; Makinen, V-P; Ermes, M; Schrader, G; Licinio, J

    2017-01-01

    Digital footprints, the automatically accumulated by-products of our technology-saturated lives, offer an exciting opportunity for psychiatric research. The commercial sector has already embraced the electronic trails of customers as an enabling tool for guiding consumer behaviour, and analogous efforts are ongoing to monitor and improve the mental health of psychiatric patients. The untargeted collection of digital footprints that may or may not be health orientated comprises a large untapped information resource for epidemiological scale research into psychiatric disorders. Real-time monitoring of mood, sleep and physical and social activity in a substantial portion of the affected population in a naturalistic setting is unprecedented in psychiatry. We propose that digital footprints can provide these measurements from real world setting unobtrusively and in a longitudinal fashion. In this perspective article, we outline the concept of digital footprints and the services and devices that create them, and present examples where digital footprints have been successfully used in research. We then critically discuss the opportunities and fundamental challenges associated digital footprints in psychiatric research, such as collecting data from different sources, analysis, ethical and research design challenges. PMID:27922603

  16. The serotonin transporter in psychiatric disorders

    Spies, Marie; Knudsen, Karen Birgitte Moos; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    , obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders. Few studies have shown changes in serotonin transporter activity in schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. By showing the scarcity of data in these psychiatric disorders, we highlight the potential for further investigation......Over the past 20 years, psychotropics affecting the serotonergic system have been used extensively in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Molecular imaging, in particular PET, has allowed for elucidation of the essential contribution of the serotonin transporter to the pathophysiology...... of various psychiatric disorders and their treatment. We review studies that use PET to measure cerebral serotonin transporter activity in psychiatric disorders, focusing on major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment. We also discuss opportunities and limitations in the application...

  17. Physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep and the association with inflammatory markers and adiponectin in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children

    Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Quist, Jonas Salling; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    the association between accelerometer determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and sleep (7 days/8 nights) and fasting C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and adiponectin in 806 school children. A sleep variability score was calculated. RESULTS: MVPA was negatively......BACKGROUND: Inflammatory markers, adiponectin, and movement/non-movement behaviors have all been linked to risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however, the association between childhood movement/non-movement behaviors and inflammatory markers and adiponectin is unknown. METHODS: We explored...

  18. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children’s Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep

    Amanda E. Staiano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examined differences in children’s health behaviors during school term (ST versus school holiday (SH: June–July and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5–18 years (n = 406 from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score(BMIz ) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth’s physical activity and TV viewing.

  19. Association between the activation of MCH and orexin immunorective neurons and REM sleep architecture during REM rebound after a three day long REM deprivation.

    Kitka, Tamas; Adori, Csaba; Katai, Zita; Vas, Szilvia; Molnar, Eszter; Papp, Rege S; Toth, Zsuzsanna E; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2011-10-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep rebound following REM deprivation using the platform-on-water method is characterized by increased time spent in REM sleep and activation of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) expressing neurons. Orexinergic neurons discharge reciprocally to MCH-ergic neurons across the sleep-wake cycle. However, the relation between REM architecture and the aforementioned neuropeptides remained unclear. MCH-ergic neurons can be divided into two subpopulations regarding their cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) immunoreactivity, and among them the activation of CART-immunoreactive subpopulation is higher during the REM rebound. However, the possible role of stress in this association has not been elucidated. Our aims were to analyze the relationship between the architecture of REM rebound and the activation of hypothalamic MCH-ergic and orexinergic neurons. We also intended to separate the effect of stress and REM deprivation on the subsequent activation of subpopulations of MCH-ergic neurons. In order to detect neuronal activity, we performed MCH/cFos and orexin/cFos double immunohistochemistry on home cage, sleep deprived and sleep-rebound rats using the platform-on-water method with small and large (stress control) platforms. Furthermore, REM architecture was analyzed and a triple MCH/CART/cFos immunohistochemistry was also performed on the rebound groups in the same animals. We found that the activity of MCH- and orexin-immunoreactive neurons during REM rebound was positively and negatively correlated with the number of REM bouts, respectively. A negative reciprocal correlation was also found between the activation of MCH- and orexin-immunoreactive neurons during REM rebound. Furthermore, difference between the activation of CART-immunoreactive (CART-IR) and non-CART-immunoreactive MCH-ergic neuron subpopulations was found only after selective REM deprivation, it was absent in the large platform (stress control) rebound group

  20. The Temporal Order of Changes in Physical Activity and Subjective Sleep in Depressed Versus Nondepressed Individuals : Findings From the MOOVD Study

    Bouwmans, Mara E J; Oude Oosterik, Nicole A M; Bos, Elisabeth H; de Groot, Izaäk W; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; de Jonge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between physical activity and sleep, but it is unclear what the temporal order of this association is and whether it differs for depressed patients and healthy controls. Using a multiple repeated observations design, 27 depressed and 27 pair-matched

  1. Recent temporal trends in sleep duration, domain-specific sedentary behaviour and physical activity. A survey among 25-79-year-old Danish adults

    Aadahl, Mette; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Hammer-Helmich, Lene

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of sedentary behaviour is high in many countries, but little is known about temporal trends in sitting time. Objective: To examine temporal changes in sleep and domain-specific sedentary behaviour and moderate to vigorous leisure time physical activity (MVPA). Methods: Two ...

  2. Neurology and psychiatry : waking up to opportunities of sleep. : State of the art and clinical/research priorities for the next decade

    Bassetti, C L; Ferini-Strambi, L; Brown, S; Adamantidis, A; Benedetti, F; Bruni, O; Cajochen, C; Dolenc-Groselj, L; Ferri, R; Gais, S; Huber, R; Khatami, R; Lammers, G J; Luppi, P H; Manconi, M; Nissen, C; Nobili, L; Peigneux, P; Pollmächer, T; Randerath, W; Riemann, D; Santamaria, J; Schindler, K; Tafti, M; Van Someren, E; Wetter, T C

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evidence has emerged for a bidirectional relationship between sleep and neurological and psychiatric disorders. First, sleep-wake disorders (SWDs) are very common and may be the first/main manifestation of underlying neurological and psychiatric disorders. Secondly, SWDs may represe

  3. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during sleep

    Madsen, Peter Lund; Vorstrup, S

    1991-01-01

    investigations seem to identify site-specific changes in regional CBF and CMR during REM sleep. CBF and CMR are reflections of cerebral synaptic activity and the magnitude of reduction in these variables associated with deep sleep indicates that overall cerebral synaptic activity is reduced to approximately one......-half the level associated with wakefulness, while cerebral synaptic activity levels during REM sleep are similar to wakefulness. However, even though the new understanding of CBF and CMR during sleep provides significant and important information of the brain's mode of working during sleep, it does not at its...

  4. Paradoxical (REM) sleep deprivation in mice using the small-platforms-over-water method: polysomnographic analyses and melanin-concentrating hormone and hypocretin/orexin neuronal activation before, during and after deprivation.

    Arthaud, Sebastien; Varin, Christophe; Gay, Nadine; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Chauveau, Frederic; Fort, Patrice; Luppi, Pierre-Herve; Peyron, Christelle

    2015-06-01

    Studying paradoxical sleep homeostasis requires the specific and efficient deprivation of paradoxical sleep and the evaluation of the subsequent recovery period. With this aim, the small-platforms-over-water technique has been used extensively in rats, but only rare studies were conducted in mice, with no sleep data reported during deprivation. Mice are used increasingly with the emergence of transgenic mice and technologies such as optogenetics, raising the need for a reliable method to manipulate paradoxical sleep. To fulfil this need, we refined this deprivation method and analysed vigilance states thoroughly during the entire protocol. We also studied activation of hypocretin/orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone neurones using Fos immunohistochemistry to verify whether mechanisms regulating paradoxical sleep in mice are similar to those in rats. We showed that 48 h of deprivation was highly efficient, with a residual amount of paradoxical sleep of only 2.2%. Slow wave sleep and wake quantities were similar to baseline, except during the first 4 h of deprivation, where slow wave sleep was strongly reduced. After deprivation, we observed a 124% increase in paradoxical sleep quantities during the first hour of rebound. In addition, 34% of hypocretin/orexin neurones were activated during deprivation, whereas melanin-concentrated hormone neurones were activated only during paradoxical sleep rebound. Corticosterone level showed a twofold increase after deprivation and returned to baseline level after 4 h of recovery. In summary, a fairly selective deprivation and a significant rebound of paradoxical sleep can be obtained in mice using the small-platforms-over-water method. As in rats, rebound is accompanied by a selective activation of melanin-concentrating hormone neurones.

  5. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

    Gokce Nur Say

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  6. Parasomnias and movement disorders of sleep.

    Avidan, Alon Y

    2009-09-01

    Neurologists are often enlisted to help diagnose, evaluate, and manage a spectrum of abnormal spells during the night ranging from parasomnias to motor disturbance that span the sleep-wake cycle. Parasomnias are undesirable emotional or physical events that accompany sleep. These events typically occur during entry into sleep from wakefulness, or during arousals from sleep, and are often augmented by the sleep state. Some parasomnias, such as the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder may be extremely undesirable, while others such as somniloquy are often of little concern. The parasomnias include a spectrum of abnormal emotions, movements, behaviors, sensory perceptions, dream mentation, and autonomic activity. Basic physiologic drives, such as sex, hunger, and aggression, may manifest as sleep-related eating, sleep-related sexual behaviors, and sleep-related violence. Parasomnias have a very bizarre nature, but are readily explainable, diagnosable, and treatable. They are hypothesized to be due to changes in brain organization across multiple states of being, and are particularly apt to occur during the incomplete transition or oscillation from one sleep state to another. Parasomnias are often explained on the basis that wakefulness and sleep are not mutually exclusive states, and abnormal intrusion of wakefulness into non-REM (NREM) sleep produces arousal disorders, and intrusion of wakefulness into REM sleep produces REM sleep parasomnias and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), two closely related conditions that often result in disturbed sleep onset and sleep maintenance, are also reviewed in this article. Although the mechanisms that underlie idiopathic RLS or PLMD are not fully understood, there is currently substantial evidence that dopaminergic dysfunction is likely involved in both conditions. The discussion will conclude with the "other parasomnias" and sleep

  7. Ancestral sleep.

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Moreno, Claudia; Lowden, Arne; Louzada, Fernando; Marqueze, Elaine; Levandovski, Rosa; Pilz, Luisa K; Valeggia, Claudia; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Czeisler, Charles A; Skene, Debra J; Duffy, Jeanne F; Roenneberg, Till

    2016-04-01

    While we do not yet understand all the functions of sleep, its critical role for normal physiology and behaviour is evident. Its amount and temporal pattern depend on species and condition. Humans sleep about a third of the day with the longest, consolidated episode during the night. The change in lifestyle from hunter-gatherers via agricultural communities to densely populated industrialized centres has certainly affected sleep, and a major concern in the medical community is the impact of insufficient sleep on health [1,2]. One of the causal mechanisms leading to insufficient sleep is altered exposure to the natural light-dark cycle. This includes the wide availability of electric light, attenuated exposure to daylight within buildings, and evening use of light-emitting devices, all of which decrease the strength of natural light-dark signals that entrain circadian systems [3].

  8. Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz study: a randomised controlled trial of sleep, food and activity interventions for preventing overweight from birth

    Taylor Barry J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid weight gain during the first three years of life predicts child and adult obesity, and also later cardiovascular and other morbidities. Cross-sectional studies suggest that infant diet, activity and sleep are linked to excessive weight gain. As intervention for overweight children is difficult, the aim of the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz study is to evaluate two primary prevention strategies during late pregnancy and early childhood that could be delivered separately or together as part of normal health care. Methods/Design This four-arm randomised controlled trial is being conducted with 800 families recruited at booking in the only maternity unit in the city of Dunedin, New Zealand. Mothers are randomised during pregnancy to either a usual care group (7 core contacts with a provider of government funded "Well Child" care over 2 years or to one of three intervention groups given education and support in addition to "Well Child" care: the Food, Activity and Breastfeeding group which receives 8 extra parent contacts over the first 2 years of life; the Sleep group which receives at least 3 extra parent contacts over the first 6 months of life with a focus on prevention of sleep problems and then active intervention if there is a sleep problem from 6 months to 2 years; or the Combination group which receives all extra contacts. The main outcome measures are conditional weight velocity (0-6, 6-12, 12-24 months and body mass index z-score at 24 months, with secondary outcomes including sleep and physical activity (parent report, accelerometry, duration of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of solids, diet quality, and measures of family function and wellbeing (parental depression, child mindedness, discipline practices, family quality of life and health care use. This study will contribute to a prospective meta-analysis of early life obesity prevention studies in Australasia. Discussion Infancy is likely to

  9. Medicines for sleep

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  10. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  11. Cancer and Psychiatric Disorders

    Gulcan Gulec

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer diagnosis which is used as synonym of “death”, “pain” and “sorrow” leads to a hard-coping period in these patients which requires a rapid intervention. Studies conducted in cancer patients regarding prevalance of psychiatric illnesses reported rates ranging from 9 % to 60%. In many cancer patients, psychiatric disorders can be seen as a reaction to disease or cancer tratment, while in ten precent of cases it can be seen as an aggrevation of premorbid personality disorders or anxiety disorders. Although psychiatric disorders in cancer patients can be treated and by this way, morbidity and mortality of these disorders can be prevented, these disorders are underdiagnosed and not properly treated in many patients. In this article, we briefly reviewed literature about psychiatric disorders and symptoms in cancer patients, their diagnosis and treatment suggestions.

  12. Association between striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors and brain activation during visual attention: effects of sleep deprivation

    Tomasi, D; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) disrupts dopamine (DA) signaling and impairs attention. However, the interpretation of these concomitant effects requires a better understanding of dopamine's role in attention processing. Here we test the hypotheses that D2/D3 receptors (D2/D3R) in dorsal and ventral striatum would distinctly regulate the activation of attention regions and that, by decreasing D2/D3, SD would disrupt these associations. We measured striatal D2/D3R using positron emission tomography with [11C]raclopride and brain activation to a visual attention (VA) task using 4-Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fourteen healthy men were studied during rested wakefulness and also during SD. Increased D2/D3R in striatum (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) were linearly associated with higher thalamic activation. Subjects with higher D2/D3R in caudate relative to ventral striatum had higher activation in superior parietal cortex and ventral precuneus, and those with higher D2/D3R in putamen relative to ventral striatum had higher activation in anterior cingulate. SD impaired the association between striatal D2/D3R and VA-induced thalamic activation, which is essential for alertness. Findings suggest a robust DAergic modulation of cortical activation during the VA task, such that D2/D3R in dorsal striatum counterbalanced the stimulatory influence of D2/D3R in ventral striatum, which was not significantly disrupted by SD. In contrast, SD disrupted thalamic activation, which did not show counterbalanced DAergic modulation but a positive association with D2/D3R in both dorsal and ventral striatum. The counterbalanced dorsal versus ventral striatal DAergic modulation of VA activation mirrors similar findings during sensorimotor processing (Tomasi et al., 2015) suggesting a bidirectional influence in signaling between the dorsal caudate and putamen and the ventral striatum. PMID:27219347

  13. Inspiratory-resistive loading increases the ventilatory response to arousal but does not reduce genioglossus muscle activity on the return to sleep.

    Cori, Jennifer M; Nicholas, Christian L; Baptista, Shaira; Huynh, Ivan; Rochford, Peter D; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Trinder, John A; Jordan, Amy S

    2012-09-01

    Arousals from sleep are thought to predispose to obstructive sleep apnea by causing hyperventilation and hypocapnia, which reduce airway dilator muscle activity on the return to sleep. However, prior studies of auditory arousals have not resulted in reduced genioglossus muscle activity [GG-electromyogram (EMG)], potentially because airway resistance prior to arousal was low, leading to a small ventilatory response to arousal and minimal hypocapnia. Thus we aimed to increase the ventilatory response to arousal by resistive loading prior to auditory arousal and determine whether reduced GG-EMG occurred on the return to sleep. Eighteen healthy young men and women were recruited. Subjects were instrumented with a nasal mask with a pneumotachograph, an epiglottic pressure catheter, and intramuscular GG-EMG electrodes. Mask CO(2) levels were monitored. Three- to 15-s arousals from sleep were induced with auditory tones after resting breathing (No-Load) or inspiratory-resistive loading (Load; average 8.4 cmH(2)O·l(-1)·s(-1)). Peak minute ventilation following arousal was greater after Load than No-Load (mean ± SE; 8.0 ± 0.6 vs. 7.4 ± 0.6 l/min, respectively). However, the nadir end tidal partial pressure of CO(2) did not differ between Load conditions (43.1 ± 0.6 and 42.8 ± 0.5 mmHg, respectively), and no period of reduced GG activity occurred following the return to sleep (GG-EMG baseline, minimum after Load and No-Load = 2.9 ± 1.2%, 3.1 ± 1.3%, and 3.0 ± 1.3% max, respectively). These findings indicate that the hyperventilation, which occurs following tone-induced arousal, is appropriate for the prevailing level of respiratory drive, because loading did not induce marked hypocapnia or lower GG muscle activity on the return to sleep. Whether similar findings occur following obstructive events in patients remains to be determined.

  14. Sitting Time, Physical Activity and Sleep by Work Type and Pattern—The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health

    Clark, Bronwyn K.; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L.; Duncan, Mitch J.; Brown, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health were used to examine how work was associated with time spent sleeping, sitting and in physical activity (PA), in working women. Young (31–36 years; 2009) and mid-aged (59–64 years; 2010) women reported sleep (categorised as shorter ≤6 h/day and longer ≥8 h/day) and sitting time (work, transport, television, non-work computer, and other; summed for total sitting time) on the most recent work and non-work day; and moderate and vigorous PA (categorised as meeting/not meeting guidelines) in the previous week. Participants reported occupation (manager/professional; clerical/sales; trades/transport/labourer), work hours (part-time; full-time) and work pattern (shift/night; not shift/night). The odds of shorter sleep on work days was higher in both cohorts for women who worked shift or night hours. Longer sitting time on work days, made up primarily of sitting for work, was found for managers/professionals, clerical/sales and full-time workers. In the young cohort, clerical/sales workers and in the mid-aged cohort, full-time workers were less likely to meet PA guidelines. These results suggest multiple behaviour interventions tailored to work patterns and occupational category may be useful to improve the sleep, sitting and activity of working women. PMID:28287446

  15. Sitting Time, Physical Activity and Sleep by Work Type and Pattern—The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health

    Bronwyn K. Clark

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health were used to examine how work was associated with time spent sleeping, sitting and in physical activity (PA, in working women. Young (31–36 years; 2009 and mid-aged (59–64 years; 2010 women reported sleep (categorised as shorter ≤6 h/day and longer ≥8 h/day and sitting time (work, transport, television, non-work computer, and other; summed for total sitting time on the most recent work and non-work day; and moderate and vigorous PA (categorised as meeting/not meeting guidelines in the previous week. Participants reported occupation (manager/professional; clerical/sales; trades/transport/labourer, work hours (part-time; full-time and work pattern (shift/night; not shift/night. The odds of shorter sleep on work days was higher in both cohorts for women who worked shift or night hours. Longer sitting time on work days, made up primarily of sitting for work, was found for managers/professionals, clerical/sales and full-time workers. In the young cohort, clerical/sales workers and in the mid-aged cohort, full-time workers were less likely to meet PA guidelines. These results suggest multiple behaviour interventions tailored to work patterns and occupational category may be useful to improve the sleep, sitting and activity of working women.

  16. Sleeping Beauty transposon screen identifies signaling modules that cooperate with STAT5 activation to induce B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Heltemes-Harris, Lynn M.; Larson, Jon D.; Starr, Timothy K.; Hubbard, Gregory K.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Largaespada, David A.; Farrar, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    STAT5 activation occurs frequently in human progenitor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). To identify gene alterations that cooperate with STAT5 activation to initiate leukemia we crossed mice expressing a constitutively active form of STAT5 (Stat5b-CA) to mice in which a mutagenic Sleeping Beauty transposon (T2/Onc) was mobilized only in B cells. Stat5b-CA mice typically do not develop B-ALL (<2% penetrance); in contrast, 89% of Stat5b–CA mice in which the T2/Onc transposon had been mobilized died of B-ALL by 3 months of age. High-throughput sequencing approaches were used to identify genes frequently targeted by the T2/Onc transposon; these included Sos1 (74%), Kdm2a (35%), Jak1 (26%), Bmi1 (19%), Prdm14 or Ncoa2 (13%), Cdkn2a (10%), Ikzf1 (8%), Caap1 (6%) and Klf3 (6%). Collectively, these mutations target three major cellular processes: (i) the JAK/STAT5 pathway (ii) progenitor B cell differentiation and (iii) the CDKN2A tumor suppressor pathway. Transposon insertions typically resulted in altered expression of these genes, as well as downstream pathways including STAT5, ERK and p38. Importantly, expression of Sos1 and Kdm2a, and activation of p38, correlated with survival, further underscoring the role these genes and associated pathways play in B-ALL. PMID:26500062

  17. [Molecular basis of stress-evoked psychiatric disturbances].

    Beszczyńska, Beata

    2007-11-20

    Stress, defined as coping with environmental challenges, involves the activation of the neuronal and neurohormonal systems. Central monoaminergic (noradrenergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic) neural networks, limbic structures, the sympathoadrenal system, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, and the immune system are considered the most important stress pathways. Their activation determines stress reactivity and pathological consequences on exposure to situations of distress. Both trauma and long-term stress can cause alterations in the activities of neuroanatomical structures and neural networks within the central nervous system. These neurohormonal changes are associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a disturbance thought to be one of the most serious psychiatric illnesses. PTSD may develop in individuals after exposure to a traumatic event (war, violence, accident) and is manifested by various symptoms, such as re-experiencing, flashbacks, intrusive thoughts, impaired memory of the event, sleep disorders, nightmares, panic attacks, and depression. In this review the neurohormonal changes associated with experiencing stress are presented to highlight the molecular and hormonal basis of PTSD.

  18. The role of sleep and sleep deprivation in consolidating fear memories.

    Menz, M M; Rihm, J S; Salari, N; Born, J; Kalisch, R; Pape, H C; Marshall, L; Büchel, C

    2013-07-15

    Sleep, in particular REM sleep, has been shown to improve the consolidation of emotional memories. Here, we investigated the role of sleep and sleep deprivation on the consolidation of fear memories and underlying neuronal mechanisms. We employed a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm either followed by a night of polysomnographically monitored sleep, or wakefulness in forty healthy participants. Recall of learned fear was better after sleep, as indicated by stronger explicitly perceived anxiety and autonomous nervous responses. These effects were positively correlated with the preceding time spent in REM sleep and paralleled by activation of the basolateral amygdala. These findings suggest REM sleep-associated consolidation of fear memory in the human amygdala. In view of the critical participation of fear learning mechanisms in the etiology of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder, deprivation of REM sleep after exposure to distressing events is an interesting target for further investigation.

  19. Sleep and exercise: a reciprocal issue?

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Léger, Damien

    2015-04-01

    Sleep and exercise influence each other through complex, bilateral interactions that involve multiple physiological and psychological pathways. Physical activity is usually considered as beneficial in aiding sleep although this link may be subject to multiple moderating factors such as sex, age, fitness level, sleep quality and the characteristics of the exercise (intensity, duration, time of day, environment). It is therefore vital to improve knowledge in fundamental physiology in order to understand the benefits of exercise on the quantity and quality of sleep in healthy subjects and patients. Conversely, sleep disturbances could also impair a person's cognitive performance or their capacity for exercise and increase the risk of exercise-induced injuries either during extreme and/or prolonged exercise or during team sports. This review aims to describe the reciprocal fundamental physiological effects linking sleep and exercise in order to improve the pertinent use of exercise in sleep medicine and prevent sleep disorders in sportsmen.

  20. School Characteristics, Child Work, and Other Daily Activities as Sleep Deficit Predictors in Adolescents from Households with Unsatisfied Basic Needs

    Vigo, Daniel E.; Simonelli, Guido; Tuñón, Ianina; Pérez Chada, Daniel; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Golombek, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Sleep in adolescents has been shown to be an important factor when looking at physical, mental, and social well-being. Little evidence is found regarding sleep patterns in adolescents from households facing extreme poverty, where conditions such as crowding, poor housing, sanitation or education, and precarious employment set an adverse…

  1. Sleep quality in professional ballet dancers.

    Fietze, Ingo; Strauch, Jutta; Holzhausen, Martin; Glos, Martin; Theobald, Christiane; Lehnkering, Hanna; Penzel, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Ballet dancers are competitive athletes who undergo extreme physical and mental stress and work according to an irregular schedule, with long days of training, rehearsal, and performance. Their most significant potential risks entail physical injury and altered sleep. The elaborate training requirements for ballet dancers do not allow regular chronobiological patterns or a normal sleep-wake rhythm. Our aim was to investigate the sleep-wake rhythm and sleep quality during rehearsal phases prior to a ballet premiere. We used wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries for a period of 67 days before the ballet premiere performance to study 24 classical ballet dancers. We likewise applied the Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), SF-12 Quality of life Assessment, and d2 Test of Attention to assess quality of sleep, aspects of cognitive performance, and health status. We found significant reduction in sleep duration, from 418+/-43 min to 391+/-42 min, and sleep efficiency, from 81+/-4% to 79+/-5%, over the 67-day course of the rehearsal. We also found a decline in time in bed and an increase in wakefulness after sleep onset. Sleep onset latency did not change. However, the changes in sleep as documented by actigraphy were not reflected by the subjective data of the sleep diaries and sleep scores. As a result of the facts that total sleep efficiency and sleep duration values were already lower than usual for the dancers' age group at the beginning of the study and that mental acuity, concentration, and speed were likewise impaired, we observed exacerbated health deterioration in terms of sleep deprivation in ballet dancers during preparation for a premier. We conclude that individual activity-rest schedules, including daytime naps, may be helpful, especially during the stressful training and rehearsal experienced prior to ballet premieres.

  2. Technical Report: Sleep-Route - Routing through Sleeping Sensors

    Sarkar, Chayan; Rao, Vijay S.; Prasad, R Venkatesha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an energy-efficient data gathering scheme for wireless sensor network called Sleep-Route, which splits the sensor nodes into two sets - active and dormant (low-power sleep). Only the active set of sensor nodes participate in data collection. The sensing values of the dormant sensor nodes are predicted with the help of an active sensor node. Virtual Sensing Framework (VSF) provides the mechanism to predict the sensing values by exploiting the data correlation among ...

  3. Sleep Regulates Incubation of Cocaine Craving.

    Chen, Bo; Wang, Yao; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Zheng; Dong, Yan; Huang, Yanhua H

    2015-09-30

    After withdrawal from cocaine, chronic cocaine users often experience persistent reduction in total sleep time, which is accompanied by increased sleep fragmentation resembling chronic insomnia. This and other sleep abnormalities have long been speculated to foster relapse and further drug addiction, but direct evidence is lacking. Here, we report that after prolonged withdrawal from cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited persistent reduction in nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, as well as increased sleep fragmentation. In an attempt to improve sleep after cocaine withdrawal, we applied chronic sleep restriction to the rats during their active (dark) phase of the day, which selectively decreased the fragmentation of REM sleep during their inactive (light) phase without changing NREM or the total amount of daily sleep. Animals with improved REM sleep exhibited decreased incubation of cocaine craving, a phenomenon depicting the progressive intensification of cocaine seeking after withdrawal. In contrast, experimentally increasing sleep fragmentation after cocaine self-administration expedited the development of incubation of cocaine craving. Incubation of cocaine craving is partially mediated by progressive accumulation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). After withdrawal from cocaine, animals with improved REM sleep exhibited reduced accumulation of CP-AMPARs in the NAc, whereas increasing sleep fragmentation accelerated NAc CP-AMPAR accumulation. These results reveal a potential molecular substrate that can be engaged by sleep to regulate cocaine craving and relapse, and demonstrate sleep-based therapeutic opportunities for cocaine addiction. Significance statement: Sleep abnormalities are common symptoms in chronic drug users long after drug withdrawal. These withdrawal-associated sleep symptoms, particularly reduction in total sleep time and deteriorating sleep quality, have been

  4. [Relationships between sleep and addiction].

    Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis

    2012-01-01

    While it is well known that there is an interaction between sleep disorders and substance abuse, it is certainly more complex than was previously thought. There is a positive relationship both between having a substance use disorder and suffering from a sleep disorder, and vice versa. The effects on sleep depend on the substance used, but it has been shown that both during use and in withdrawal periods consumers have various sleep problems, and basically more fragmented sleep. We know that sleep problems must be taken into account to prevent addiction relapses. Recent research shows that the hypocretinergic system defined by neuropeptide hypocretin / orexin (Hcrt / ox), located in the lateral hypothalamus and involved in, among other things, the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, may play an important role in addictive behaviors. Different studies have demonstrated interactions between the hypocretinergic system, acute response to stress circuits and reward systems. We also know that selective optogenetic activation of the hypocretinergic system increases the probability of transition from sleep to wakefulness, and is sufficient for initiating an addictive compulsive behavior relapse. Hypocretinergic system activation could explain the hyperarousal associated with stress and addiction. Improved knowledge of this interaction would help us to understand better the mechanisms of addiction and find new strategies for the treatment of addictions.

  5. Effects of 12 months continuous positive airway pressure on sympathetic activity related brainstem function and structure in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Luke Anthony Henderson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA is greatly elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA during normoxic daytime wakefulness. Increased MSNA is a precursor to hypertension and elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying the high MSNA in OSA are not well understood. In this study we used concurrent microneurography and magnetic resonance imaging to explore MSNA-related brainstem activity changes and anatomical changes in 15 control and 15 subjects with OSA prior to and following 6 and 12 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP treatment. We found that 6 and 12 months of CPAP treatment significantly reduced the elevated resting MSNA in individuals with OSA. Furthermore, this MSNA reduction was associated with restoration of MSNA-related activity and structural changes in the medullary raphe, rostral ventrolateral medulla, dorsolateral pons and ventral midbrain. This restoration occurred after 6 months of CPAP treatment and was maintained following 12 months CPAP. These findings show that continual CPAP treatment is an effective long-term treatment for elevated MNSA likely due to its effects on restoring brainstem structure and function.

  6. Problems sleeping during pregnancy

    ... sleeping References Balserak BI, Lee KA. Sleep and sleep disorders associated with pregnancy. In: Kryger M, Roth T, ... Elsevier; 2017:chap 156. Ibrahim S, Foldvary-Shaefer N. Sleep disorders in pregnancy: implications, evaluation, and treatment. Neurologic Clinics . ...

  7. Sleep Terrors (Night Terrors)

    ... sleepwalking. Like sleepwalking, sleep terrors are considered a parasomnia — an undesired occurrence during sleep. Although sleep terrors are more common in children, they can also affect adults. A sleep terror ...

  8. American Sleep Apnea Association

    American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself ...

  9. Pediatric sleep apnea

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... During sleep, all of the muscles in the body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep ...

  10. Sleep and Aging

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging About Sleep We all look forward to a good night's ... health and quality of life. Two Types of Sleep There are two types of sleep: non-rapid ...

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  12. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth > For Parents > Obstructive Sleep Apnea Print ... kids and teens can develop it, too. About Sleep Apnea Sleep apnea happens when a person stops ...

  13. "Sleep is not tangible" or what the Hebrew tradition has to say about sleep.

    Ancoli-Israel, S

    2001-01-01

    Much of what is known about sleep disorders has been uncovered in the last forty years. As scientists, we consider these discoveries to be landmarks. Yet there is a tremendous amount of information written about sleep in the Bible and its commentaries. Sleep, and even sleep disorders, are referred to in many instances and can be directly interpreted by what we know today. Our forefathers and foremothers generally viewed sleep as both pleasant and necessary and were aware that sleep was not one continuous stage. They referred to the function of sleep as being restorative. They deplored sleep deprivation, believing that it impaired life. They felt that excessive sleepiness was harmful. They understood that insomnia could be caused by stress and anxiety and by excessive alcohol, and that physical activity (exercise) and drinking milk could improve sleep. They suggested cures for insomnia, including some of the ideas included in today's sleep hygiene rules. They understood that there was a rhythm or timing to sleep. They even understood that it is easier to delay the circadian rhythm that to advance it. Although naps are not recommended, they sometimes took naps in the afternoon, but suggested just how long that nap should last-about one-half hour. And they knew that with age, although sleep is advanced, healthy elderly do not have difficulty sleeping. Although we think we have discovered many new features about sleep disorders, much of what we know today was suggested thousands of years ago and documented in the Bible and the Talmud.

  14. Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality of Third-Trimester Pregnant Women.

    Tsai, Shao-Yu; Lee, Chien-Nan; Wu, Wei-Wen; Landis, Carol A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the associations of sleep hygiene and actigraphy measures of sleep with self-reported sleep quality in 197 pregnant women in northern Taiwan. Third-trimester pregnant women completed the Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale (SHPS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) as well as the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and wore an actigraph for 7 consecutive days. Student's t-test was used to compare the SHPS scores and means as well as variability of actigraphy sleep variables between poor sleepers (i.e., PSQI global score >5) and good sleepers (i.e., PSQI global score ≤5). Compared to good sleepers, poor sleepers reported significantly worse sleep hygiene, with higher SHPS scores and higher sleep schedule, arousal-related behavior, and sleep environment subscale scores. Poor sleepers had significantly greater intra-individual variability of sleep onset latency, total nighttime sleep, and wake after sleep onset than good sleepers. In stepwise linear regression, older maternal age (p = .01), fewer employment hours per week (p = .01), higher CES-D total score (p sleep quality. Findings support avoiding physically, physiologically, emotionally, or cognitively arousing activities before bedtime as a target for sleep-hygiene intervention in women during pregnancy.

  15. Sleep aspnea

    2008-01-01

    2008057 A multi-center study on the association between sleep apnea and prevalence of hypertension. CHEN Baoyuan(陈宝元), et al. Dept Respir Med, Tianjin Med Univ General Hosp, Tianjin 300052. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis, 2007;30(12):894-897. Objective To investigate the prevalence of hypertension among sleep apnea patients and the associated factors. Methods A total of 2297 patients (male 1310, female 211) from 20 teaching hospita

  16. Review of quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy: promising novel imaging technique to resolve neuronal network activity and identify cellular biomarkers of psychiatric disorders

    Marquet, Pierre

    2014-09-22

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) has recently emerged as a new powerful quantitative imaging technique well suited to noninvasively explore a transparent specimen with a nanometric axial sensitivity. In this review, we expose the recent developments of quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM). Quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM) represents an important and efficient quantitative phase method to explore cell structure and dynamics. In a second part, the most relevant QPM applications in the field of cell biology are summarized. A particular emphasis is placed on the original biological information, which can be derived from the quantitative phase signal. In a third part, recent applications obtained, with QP-DHM in the field of cellular neuroscience, namely the possibility to optically resolve neuronal network activity and spine dynamics, are presented. Furthermore, potential applications of QPM related to psychiatry through the identification of new and original cell biomarkers that, when combined with a range of other biomarkers, could significantly contribute to the determination of high risk developmental trajectories for psychiatric disorders, are discussed.

  17. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome as a Reason for Active Management of Pulmonary Embolism

    Jiang Xie; Yong-Xiang Wei; Shuang Liu; Wei Zhang; Xiang-Feng Zhang; Jie Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) constitutes an independent factor for high warfarin dose for patients with pulmonary embolism (PE).The aim of this study was to investigate whether the 6-month anticoagulation treatment by warfarin is enough for patients with PE complicated by OSAHS.Methods:We investigated 97 PE patients,32 of them had OSAHS and 65 non-OSAHS.Warfarin was administered for 6-month if no abnormal circumstances occurred.All patients were followed up for 18 months.Adverse events (AE) included death,major bleeding,hospitalization due to heart failure or pulmonary hypertension,and recurrence or aggravation of PE (including deep vein thrombosis).Recurrence rate of PE after warfarin cessation was compared between the two groups.Results:OSAHS patients required a significantly higher dose of warfarin than their non-OSAHS counterparts (4.73 mg vs.3.61 mg,P < 0.001).During warfarin treatment,no major bleeding and aggravation of PE occurred among OSAHS patients,and the rates of various AE were not significantly different between the OSAHS and non-OSAHS groups.PE recurrence was higher in OSAHS than non-OSAHS groups after withdrawal of warfarin (21.43% vs.6.78%,P =0.047).Compared with non-OSAHS patients,OSAHS group had lower international normalized ratio (INR) value but higher plasminogen on baseline and INR resumed to a relatively low level after warfarin discontinuation.Conclusions:OSAHS patients may present with hypercoagulation and relatively high-risk of recurrence of PE after cessation of 6-month warfarin treatment.

  19. The effects of exercise on self-rated sleep among adults with chronic sleep complaints

    Carmen Erlacher; Daniel Erlacher; Michael Schredl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether and to what extent the observed effects on self-rated sleep in a previous study using a combined treatment program with physical exercise and sleep education can be attributed by the physical activity (PA) component. Methods:The present study reports supplementary analysis of an already described and published study. Data were provided by a nonclinical sample of 98 normal-active adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints. The additional analysis included sleep log, exercise log, and daily pedometer data which were collected during a baseline week and 6-week of a combined intervention. Results:The results indicate that the number of steps ( p=0.02) and the duration of PA ( p=0.01) is significantly related to the improvement in subjective sleep measures and therefore reveal an independent effect within this combined sleep program. Sleep diary data (recuperation of sleep, number of awakenings after sleep onset, and wake time after sleep onset time) improved significant (all p<0.01) over the intervention program. About 50%of the participants stated that the PA had an effect on their improvement. Conclusion:Improvements on subjective sleep quality after a combined intervention cannot be attributed to the cognitive component alone, but PA has an independent effect. Adults with chronic sleep complaints benefit from exercise. Therefore structured PA should be implemented in any sleep management programs.

  20. Novel loci associated with usual sleep duration: The CHARGE Consortium Genome-Wide Association Study

    Gottlieb, D.J.; Hek, K.; Chen, T.H.; Watson, N.F.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Byrne, E.M.; Cornelis, M.; Warby, S.C.; Bandinelli, S.; Cherkas, L.; Evans, D.S.; Grabe, H.J.; Lahti, J.; Li, M.; Lehtimaki, T.; Lumley, T.; Marciante, K.D.; Pérusse, L.; Psaty, B.M.; Robbins, J.; Tranah, G.J.; Vink, J.M.; Wilk, J.B.; Stafford, J.M.; Bellis, C.; Biffar, R.; Bouchard, C.; Cade, B.; Curhan, G.C.; Eriksson, J.G.; Ewert, R.; Ferrucci, L.; Fulop, T.; Gehrman, P.R.; Goodloe, R.; Harris, T.B.; Heath, A.C.; Hernandez, D.G.; Hofman, A.; Hottenga, J.J.; Hunter, D.J.; Jensen, M.K.; Johnson, A.D.; Kahonen, M.; Kao, L.; Kraft, P.; Larkin, E.K.; Lauderdale, D.S.; Luik, A.I.; Medici, M.; Montgomery, G.W.; Palotie, A.; Patel, S.R.; Pistis, G.; Porcu, E.; Quaye, L.; Raitakari, O.; Redline, S.; Rimm, E.B.; Rotter, J.I.; Smith, A.V.; Spector, T.D.; Teumer, A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Vohl, M.C.; Widen, E.; Willemsen, G.; Young, T.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Blangero, J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Gudnason, V.; Hu, F.; Mangino, M.; Martin, N.G.; O'Connor, G.T.; Stone, K.L.; Tanaka, T.; Viikari, J.; Gharib, S.A.; Punjabi, N.M.; Raikkonen, K.; Völzke, H.; Mignot, E.; Tiemeier, H.

    2015-01-01

    Usual sleep duration is a heritable trait correlated with psychiatric morbidity, cardiometabolic disease and mortality, although little is known about the genetic variants influencing this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of usual sleep duration was conducted using 18 population-based c

  1. Novel loci associated with usual sleep duration: The CHARGE Consortium Genome-Wide Association Study

    D.J. Gottlieb (Daniel J); K. Hek (Karin); T.-H. Chen; N.F. Watson; G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); E.M. Byrne; M. Cornelis (Marilyn); S.C. Warby; S. Bandinelli; L. Cherkas (Lynn); D.S. Evans (Daniel); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); J. Lahti (Jari); M. Li (Man); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); T. Lumley (Thomas); K. Marciante (Kristin); L. Perusse (Louis); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Robbins; G.J. Tranah (Gregory); J.M. Vink; J.B. Wilk; J.M. Stafford; C. Bellis (Claire); R. Biffar; C. Bouchard (Claude); B. Cade; G.C. Curhan (Gary); J. Eriksson; R. Ewert; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Fülöp; P.R. Gehrman (Philip); R. Goodloe (Robert); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); A. Hofman (Albert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); D. Hunter (David); M.K. Jensen (Majken K.); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); M. Kähönen (Mika); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); P. Kraft (Peter); E.K. Larkin; D.S. Lauderdale; A.I. Luik (Annemarie I); M. Medici; G.W. Montgomery (Grant W.); A. Palotie; S.R. Patel (Sanjay); G. Pistis (Giorgio); E. Porcu; L. Quaye (Lydia); O. Raitakari (Olli); S. Redline (Susan); E.B. Rimm (Eric B.); J.I. Rotter; A.V. Smith; T.D. Spector (Timothy); A. Teumer (Alexander); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); E. Widen; G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); T.L. Young (Terri L.); X. Zhang; Y. Liu; J. Blangero (John); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); F. Hu; M. Mangino; N.G. Martin (Nicholas); G.T. O'Connor (George); K.L. Stone (Katie L); T. Tanaka; J. Viikari (Jorma); S.A. Gharib (Sina); N.M. Punjabi (Naresh); K. Räikkönen (Katri); H. Völzke (Henry); E. Mignot; H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractUsual sleep duration is a heritable trait correlated with psychiatric morbidity, cardiometabolic disease and mortality, although little is known about the genetic variants influencing this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of usual sleep duration was conducted using 18 popula

  2. Aging changes in sleep

    ... if any of the medicines you take may affect your sleep. If you cannot fall asleep after 20 minutes, get out of bed and do a quiet activity, such as reading or listening to music. When you feel sleepy, get back in bed ...

  3. Physical Activity, TV Watching Time, Sleeping, and Risk of Obesity and Hyperglycemia in the Offspring of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Peng; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Li, Weiqin; Leng, Junhong; Li, Nan; Zhang, Shuang; Qi, Lu; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin; Hu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the association of physical activity, TV watching time, sleeping time with the risks of obesity and hyperglycemia among 1263 offspring aged 1–5 years of mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) in a cross-sectional study. Logistic regression models were used to obtain the odd ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) of childhood obesity and hyperglycemia associated with different levels of indoor activity, outdoor activity, TV watching, and sleeping time. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of obesity based on different levels of TV watching time (0, <1.0, and ≥1.0 hour/day) were 1.00, 1.21 (95% CI 0.72–2.05), and 2.20 (95% CI 1.33–3.63) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia based on different levels of indoor activity (<5.0, 5.0–6.9, and ≥7.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.74 (95% CI 0.45–1.21), and 0.49 (95% CI 0.28–0.84) (Ptrend = 0.034), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia associated with different levels of sleeping time (<11.0, 11.0–11.9, and ≥12.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.67 (95% CI 0.42–1.05), and 0.39 (95% CI 0.23–0.67) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The present study indicated a positive association of TV watching with the risk of obesity, and an inverse association of either indoor activity or sleeping time with the risk of hyperglycemia among offspring born to GDM mothers in Tianjin, China. PMID:28120866

  4. Physical Activity, TV Watching Time, Sleeping, and Risk of Obesity and Hyperglycemia in the Offspring of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Peng; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Li, Weiqin; Leng, Junhong; Li, Nan; Zhang, Shuang; Qi, Lu; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin; Hu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the association of physical activity, TV watching time, sleeping time with the risks of obesity and hyperglycemia among 1263 offspring aged 1–5 years of mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) in a cross-sectional study. Logistic regression models were used to obtain the odd ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) of childhood obesity and hyperglycemia associated with different levels of indoor activity, outdoor activity, TV watching, and sleeping time. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of obesity based on different levels of TV watching time (0, <1.0, and ≥1.0 hour/day) were 1.00, 1.21 (95% CI 0.72–2.05), and 2.20 (95% CI 1.33–3.63) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia based on different levels of indoor activity (<5.0, 5.0–6.9, and ≥7.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.74 (95% CI 0.45–1.21), and 0.49 (95% CI 0.28–0.84) (Ptrend = 0.034), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia associated with different levels of sleeping time (<11.0, 11.0–11.9, and ≥12.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.67 (95% CI 0.42–1.05), and 0.39 (95% CI 0.23–0.67) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The present study indicated a positive association of TV watching with the risk of obesity, and an inverse association of either indoor activity or sleeping time with the risk of hyperglycemia among offspring born to GDM mothers in Tianjin, China.

  5. Hepatitis C treatment in patients with drug addiction: clinical management of interferon-alpha-associated psychiatric side effects.

    Schaefer, Martin; Mauss, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    60-90% of patients with intravenous drug abuse are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Antiviral treatment with pegylated interferon-alfa (IFN-alpha) plus ribavirin is often complicated by psychiatric adverse events, significantly affecting patients adherence. Depression, anxiety, fatigue and irritability as typical IFN-alpha associated side effects occur in 30-80% during antiviral treatment of hepatitis C. Patients with drug addiction were shown to have an increased risk to discontinue HCV-treatment early in the first three treatment months, where most neuropsychiatric side effects appear. Especially vegetative side effects in the first few weeks ("flu-like syndrome") can be misunderstood as withdrawal symptoms, followed by a relapse in drug or alcohol abuse. As a consequence methadone substitution treatment was found to be the best therapeutic setting. In addition side effect management should be intensified during first three months of HCV-treatment. Most data for the management of specific IFN-alpha associated side effects are available for depressive syndromes. Antidepressants (especially serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors) such as citalopram were shown to significantly reduce IFN-alpha associated depressive symptoms. A pre-emptive treatment with antidepressants should be considered at least for patients with additional psychiatric risk factors before interferon-based therapy is started. Because data from prospective controlled trials are lacking, management of other side effects such as sleep disturbances, irritability, psychotic syndromes, mania, suicidal thoughts and delirious syndromes should follow general psychiatric treatment recommendations. Overall, the psychiatric adverse event profile of interferon-based therapy for HCV-infected patients with drug addiction is considerable and requires active management and knowledge about psychiatric medical therapy.

  6. Temporal coordination of olfactory cortex sharp-wave activity with up- and downstates in the orbitofrontal cortex during slow-wave sleep.

    Onisawa, Naomi; Manabe, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kensaku

    2017-01-01

    During slow-wave sleep, interareal communications via coordinated, slow oscillatory activities occur in the large-scale networks of the mammalian neocortex. Because olfactory cortex (OC) areas, which belong to paleocortex, show characteristic sharp-wave (SPW) activity during slow-wave sleep, we examined whether OC SPWs in freely behaving rats occur in temporal coordination with up- and downstates of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) slow oscillation. Simultaneous recordings of local field potentials and spike activities in the OC and OFC showed that during the downstate in the OFC, the OC also exhibited downstate with greatly reduced neuronal activity and suppression of SPW generation. OC SPWs occurred during two distinct phases of the upstate of the OFC: early-phase SPWs occurred at the start of upstate shortly after the down-to-up transition in the OFC, whereas late-phase SPWs were generated at the end of upstate shortly before the up-to-down transition. Such temporal coordination between neocortical up- and downstates and olfactory system SPWs was observed between the prefrontal cortex areas (OFC and medial prefrontal cortex) and the OC areas (anterior piriform cortex and posterior piriform cortex). These results suggest that during slow-wave sleep, OC and OFC areas communicate preferentially in specific time windows shortly after the down-to-up transition and shortly before the up-to-down transition.

  7. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Sleep Quality%身体活动量与睡眠品质的相关性研究

    薛林峰

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to explore the influence of different physical activity and sleep quality among different personal attributes,and discuss the status and interactions of physical activity and sleep quality.By using structured questionnaire to fill in the questionnaire survey data,367 of the valid samples collected from Zhejiang university teachers were surveyed with a multi-stage stratified random sampling.The data were analyzed by using two sets of sample t-test,chi-square and one-way ANOVA statistical methods.Then based on these research results we can find that 65.94% college teachers show insufficient physical activity.There was no significant difference of different gender on the sleep quality;The differences of age,education,marriage status,conscious pressure situation,and conscious health health condition will significantly influence sleep quality;There was no significant difference in effect of physical activity on the overall quality of sleep.There were significant difference in the quality of sleep between the personal subjective factor and the daytime dysfunction.%目的在了解不同的个人属性对身体活动量及睡眠品质的影响,并探讨身体活动量与睡眠品质的现状及其相关性。对浙江省高校教师采用多阶段分层随机抽样,研究工具是采用结构式问卷,以自填问卷方式收集资料,有效样本共计367名,所得资料以两组样本t检验、卡方检验、单因子变异数分析等统计方法进行分析。研究结果表明:高校教师身体活动量不足者占65.94%;不同性别的睡眠品质无差异;不同年龄、教育程度、婚姻状况、自觉压力状况、自觉健康状况及健康比较方面的睡眠品质显著差异;不同的身体活动量对整体睡眠品质无显著差异,对睡眠品质各构成因素方面,个人主观睡眼品质及白天功能障碍有显著差异。

  8. Ecological study of sleep disruption in PTSD: a pilot study.

    Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Katherine Shear, M; Nofzinger, Eric A; Buysse, Daniel J

    2006-07-01

    Laboratory-based sleep studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the presence and nature of objective sleep anomalies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This pilot study aimed at assessing sleep in adult crime victims with PTSD by using in-home polysomnography. Compared to healthy archival subjects, PTSD subjects showed longer sleep latency, reduced total sleep time, and increased duration of nocturnal awakening. Quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) measures of delta and beta activity also differed in PTSD and healthy subjects. These preliminary findings suggest that ambulatory methods can capture objective signs of sleep disruption, and corroborate subjective complaints of disrupted sleep in PTSD.

  9. Asymmetry and basic pathways in sleep-stage transitions

    Lo, Chung-Chuan; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2013-04-01

    We study dynamical aspects of sleep micro-architecture. We find that sleep dynamics exhibits a high degree of asymmetry, and that the entire class of sleep-stage transition pathways underlying the complexity of sleep dynamics throughout the night can be characterized by two independent asymmetric transition paths. These basic pathways remain stable under sleep disorders, even though the degree of asymmetry is significantly reduced. Our findings demonstrate an intriguing temporal organization in sleep micro-architecture at short time scales that is typical for physical systems exhibiting self-organized criticality (SOC), and indicates nonequilibrium critical dynamics in brain activity during sleep.

  10. The yin and yang of sleep and attention

    Kirszenblat, Leonie; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is not a single state, but a complex set of brain processes that supports a number of physiological needs. Sleep deprivation is known to affect attention in many animals, suggesting that a key function of sleep is to regulate attention. Conversely, tasks that require more attention drive sleep need and sleep intensity. Attention involves the ability to filter incoming stimuli based on their relative salience, and this is likely to require coordinated synaptic activity across the brain. ...

  11. About sleep's role in memory.

    Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of "sleep and memory" research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems.

  12. Short sleep duration, complaints of vital exhaustion and perceived stress are prevalent among pregnant women with mood and anxiety disorders

    Qiu Chunfang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric disorders have been associated with sleep disorders in men and non-pregnant women, but little is known about sleep complaints and disorders among pregnant women with psychiatric disorders. Methods A cohort of 1,332 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We ascertained psychiatric diagnosis status and collect information about sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, vital exhaustion and perceived stress. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Approximately 5.1% of the cohort (n=68 reported having a physician-diagnosis of mood or anxiety disorder before interview. Compared with women without a psychiatric diagnosis, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI for short sleep duration in early pregnancy (≤6 hours were 1.95 (1.03-3.69. The corresponding OR (95%CI for long sleep duration (≥9 hours during early pregnancy was 1.13 (0.63-2.03. Women with psychiatric disorders had an increased risk of vital exhaustion (OR=2.41; 95%CI 1.46-4.00 and elevated perceived stress (OR=3.33; 95%CI 1.89-5.88. Observed associations were more pronounced among overweight/obese women. Conclusions Women with a psychiatric disorder were more likely to report short sleep durations, vital exhaustion and elevated perceived stress. Prospective studies are needed to more thoroughly explore factors that mediate the apparent mood/anxiety-sleep comorbidity among pregnant women.

  13. Randomised clinical trial of the effects of prolonged-release melatonin, temazepam and zolpidem on slow-wave activity during sleep in healthy people.

    Arbon, Emma L; Knurowska, Malgorzata; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2015-07-01

    Current pharmacological treatments for insomnia include benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics targeting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors, as well as agonists of the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2. Melatonin, temazepam and zolpidem are thought to exert their effect through different mechanisms of action, but whether this leads to differential effects on electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra during sleep in middle-aged people is currently not known. To establish whether the effects of prolonged-release melatonin (2 mg) on the nocturnal sleep EEG are different to those of temazepam (20 mg) and zolpidem (10 mg). Sixteen healthy men and women aged 55-64 years participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-way cross-over trial. Nocturnal sleep was assessed with polysomnography and spectral analysis of the EEG. The effects of single oral doses of prolonged-release melatonin, temazepam and zolpidem on EEG slow-wave activity (SWA, 0.75-4.5 Hz) and other frequencies during nocturnal non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep were compared. In an entire night analysis prolonged-release melatonin did not affect SWA, whereas temazepam and zolpidem significantly reduced SWA compared with placebo. Temazepam significantly reduced SWA compared with prolonged-release melatonin. Prolonged-release melatonin only reduced SWA during the first third of the night compared with placebo. These data show that the effects of prolonged-release melatonin on the nocturnal sleep EEG are minor and are different from those of temazepam and zolpidem; this is likely due to the different mechanisms of action of the medications.

  14. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    J Matthew Mahoney

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  15. Differential effects of lorazepam on sleep and activity in C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ strain mice.

    Tang, Xiangdong; Yang, Linghui; Fishback, Nancy F; Sanford, Larry D

    2009-09-01

    Compared to C57BL/6 mice, BALB/c mice exhibit greater 'anxiousness' on behavioural tests of anxiety, and can show significantly longer sleep disruptions after exposure to anxiogenic situations. Relative to C57BL/6 mice, BALB/c mice also have reduced benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor densities in the brain and fivefold less BZ receptor density in the amygdala, a region important in anxiety and in the control of arousal. Lorazepam is a BZ receptor full agonist and has been used to treat both anxiety and insomnia. Differences between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice raise the question of whether BZ agonists would impact sleep and activity differentially in the two strains. We examined the effects of two doses of lorazepam (0.5 and 1.5 mg kg(-1)) or saline alone (0.2 mL) on sleep and activity in C57BL/6 (n = 8) and BALB/c (n = 7) mice. Compared to saline, both doses of lorazepam significantly increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and reduced activity in both strains. In C57BL/6 mice, rapid eye movement (REM) was increased at both doses. In BALB/c mice, the 0.5 mg kg(-1) dose had no significant influence on REM, whereas REM was reduced significantly after the 1.5 mg kg(-1) dose. The results demonstrate significant differences between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice in the effects of lorazepam on REM, whereas the effects on NREM and activity were similar. Strain differences in the number of BZ receptors in the amygdala, but not other brain regions, suggests possible site specificity in the effects of lorazepam on REM. These differences in BZ-binding sites in the amygdala could be a significant factor in differences in the sleep response between C57 and BALB/c mice.

  16. The association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, and body mass index z-scores in different settings among toddlers and preschoolers

    Kuzik, Nicholas; Carson, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep are all movement behaviors that range on a continuum from no or low movement, to high movement. Consistent associations between movement behaviors and adiposity indicators have been observed in school-age children. However, limited information exists in younger children. Since approximately 50 % of Canadian children ≤5 years of age attend non-parental care, movement behaviors within and outside of the child care setting are important...

  17. Sleep and Performance Research Center

    2013-05-01

    differentially alter sleep and EEG delta wave activity in rats (Davis, et al., 2012), demonstrating impaired wake-promoting mechanisms in ghrelin...CJ, Clinton JM, Krueger JM (2012). MicroRNA 138, let-7b and 125a inhibitors differentially alter sleep and EEG delta wave activity in rats. J Appl...Animal Minds : Do animals have emotional lives. In Jakobsson, C. (ed). Sustainable Agriculture. Ecosystem Health and Sustainable Agriculture 1. (pp

  18. Modulation of Sleep Homeostasis by Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in REM Sleep-Deprived Rats

    Ricardo Borges Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that sleep recovery following different protocols of forced waking varies according to the level of stress inherent to each method. Sleep deprivation activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH impairs sleep. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate how manipulations of the CRH system during the sleep deprivation period interferes with subsequent sleep rebound. Throughout 96 hours of sleep deprivation, separate groups of rats were treated i.c.v. with vehicle, CRH or with alphahelical CRH9−41, a CRH receptor blocker, twice/day, at 07:00 h and 19:00 h. Both treatments impaired sleep homeostasis, especially in regards to length of rapid eye movement sleep (REM and theta/delta ratio and induced a later decrease in NREM and REM sleep and increased waking bouts. These changes suggest that activation of the CRH system impact negatively on the homeostatic sleep response to prolonged forced waking. These results indicate that indeed, activation of the HPA axis—at least at the hypothalamic level—is capable to reduce the sleep rebound induced by sleep deprivation.

  19. The Two-Factor Structure of Sleep Complaints and Its Relation to Depression and Anxiety

    Koffel, Erin; Watson, David

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep complaints are common in depression and anxiety, there is little agreement as to how they should be organized and assessed. It is also unclear whether sleep complaints show specificity with certain disorders or if they are nonspecific symptoms. We examined the structure of sleep complaints and the relations of these complaints to depression and anxiety in three samples: college students, older adults, and psychiatric patients. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indica...

  20. Altered activity in the central medial thalamus precedes changes in the neocortex during transitions into both sleep and propofol anesthesia.

    Baker, Rowan; Gent, Thomas C; Yang, Qianzi; Parker, Susan; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Wisden, William; Brickley, Stephen G; Franks, Nicholas P

    2014-10-01

    How general anesthetics cause loss of consciousness is unknown. Some evidence points toward effects on the neocortex causing "top-down" inhibition, whereas other findings suggest that these drugs act via subcortical mechanisms, possibly selectively stimulating networks promoting natural sleep. To determine whether some neuronal circuits are affected before others, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to obtain high temporal resolution in the time-varying power spectra of local field potentials recorded simultaneously in discrete brain regions at natural sleep onset and during anesthetic-induced loss of righting reflex in rats. Although we observed changes in the local field potentials that were anesthetic-specific, there were some common changes in high-frequency (20-40 Hz) oscillations (reductions in frequency and increases in power) that could be detected at, or before, sleep onset and anesthetic-induced loss of righting reflex. For propofol and natural sleep, these changes occur first in the thalamus before changes could be detected in the neocortex. With dexmedetomidine, the changes occurred simultaneously in the thalamus and neocortex. In addition, the phase relationships between the low-frequency (1-4 Hz) oscillations in thalamic nuclei and neocortical areas are essentially the same for natural sleep and following dexmedetomidine administration, but a sudden change in phase, attributable to an effect in the central medial thalamus, occurs at the point of dexmedetomidine loss of righting reflex. Our data are consistent with the central medial thalamus acting as a key hub through which general anesthesia and natural sleep are initiated.

  1. [Sleep disorders among physicians on shift work].

    Schlafer, O; Wenzel, V; Högl, B

    2014-11-01

    Sleep disorders in physicians who perform shift work can result in increased risks of health problems that negatively impact performance and patient safety. Even those who cope well with shift work are likely to suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss possible causes, contributing factors and consequences of sleep disorders in physicians and to identify measures that can improve adaptation to shift work and treatment strategies for shift work-associated sleep disorders. The risk factors that influence the development of sleep disorders in physicians are numerous and include genetic factors (15 % of the population), age (> 50 years), undiagnosed sleep apnea,, alcohol abuse as well as multiple stress factors inherent in clinical duties (including shift work), research, teaching and family obligations. Several studies have reported an increased risk for medical errors in sleep-deprived physicians. Shift workers have an increased risk for psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases and shift work may also be a contributing factor to cancer. A relationship has been reported not only with sleep deprivation and changes in food intake but also with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Nicotine and alcohol consumption are more frequent among shift workers. Increased sickness and accident rates among physicians when commuting (especially after night shifts) have a socioeconomic impact. In order to reduce fatigue and to improve performance, short naps during shiftwork or naps plus caffeine, have been proposed as coping strategies; however, napping during adverse circadian phases is less effective, if not impossible when unable to fall asleep. Bright and blue light supports alertness during a night shift. After shiftwork, direct sunlight exposure to the retina can be avoided by using dark sunglasses or glasses with orange lenses for commuting home. The home environment for daytime sleeping after a night shift should be

  2. Effect of sedative-hypnotics, anesthetics and analgesics on sleep architecture in obstructive sleep apnea.

    McEntire, Dan M; Kirkpatrick, Daniel R; Kerfeld, Mitchell J; Hambsch, Zakary J; Reisbig, Mark D; Agrawal, Devendra K; Youngblood, Charles F

    2014-11-01

    The perioperative care of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients is currently receiving much attention due to an increased risk for complications. It is established that postoperative changes in sleep architecture occur and this may have pathophysiological implications for OSA patients. Upper airway muscle activity decreases during rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Severe OSA patients exhibit exaggerated chemoreceptor-driven ventilation during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), which leads to central and obstructive apnea. This article critically reviewed the literature relevant to preoperative screening for OSA, prevalence of OSA in surgical populations and changes in postoperative sleep architecture relevant to OSA patients. In particular, we addressed three questions in regard to the effects of sedative-hypnotics, anesthetics and analgesics on sleep architecture, the underlying mechanisms and the relevance to OSA. Indeed, these classes of drugs alter sleep architecture, which likely significantly contributes to abnormal postoperative sleep architecture, exacerbation of OSA and postoperative complications.

  3. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    Demian Halperin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise.

  4. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    Halperin, Demian

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator) influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise. PMID:26483931

  5. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated...

  6. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  7. [Psychiatric treatment sentences.

    Stevens, Hanne; Nordentoft, Merete; Agerbo, Esben

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous Danish studies of the increasing number of sentences to psychiatric treatment (SPT) have compared prevalent populations of persons undergoing treatment with incident measures of reported crimes. Examining the period 1990-2006, we studied incident sentences, taking the type...

  8. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    Baldaçara,Leonardo; Borgio,João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Tavares de [UNIFESP; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin [UNIFESP

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electron...

  9. Medical image of the week: alpha intrusion into REM sleep

    Shetty S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old woman with a past medical history of hypertension and chronic headaches was referred to the sleep laboratory for high clinical suspicion for sleep apnea based on a history of snoring, witnessed apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. An overnight sleep study was performed. Images during N3 Sleep and REM sleep are shown (Figures 1 and 2. Alpha intrusion in delta sleep is seen in patients with fibromyalgia, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, anxiety disorder, and primary sleep disorders like psychophysiological insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, circadian disorders and narcolepsy (1. Bursts of alpha waves during REM sleep may be more common during phasic REM than tonic REM. The REM alpha bursts (alpha activity lasting at least 3 seconds without an increase in EMG amplitude may represent microarousals (2. Hypersynchronous theta activity should be differentiated from the spike and waveform activity seen in seizures.

  10. A very large number of GABAergic neurons are activated in the tuberal hypothalamus during paradoxical (REM sleep hypersomnia.

    Emilie Sapin

    Full Text Available We recently discovered, using Fos immunostaining, that the tuberal and mammillary hypothalamus contain a massive population of neurons specifically activated during paradoxical sleep (PS hypersomnia. We further showed that some of the activated neurons of the tuberal hypothalamus express the melanin concentrating hormone (MCH neuropeptide and that icv injection of MCH induces a strong increase in PS quantity. However, the chemical nature of the majority of the neurons activated during PS had not been characterized. To determine whether these neurons are GABAergic, we combined in situ hybridization of GAD(67 mRNA with immunohistochemical detection of Fos in control, PS deprived and PS hypersomniac rats. We found that 74% of the very large population of Fos-labeled neurons located in the tuberal hypothalamus after PS hypersomnia were GAD-positive. We further demonstrated combining MCH immunohistochemistry and GAD(67in situ hybridization that 85% of the MCH neurons were also GAD-positive. Finally, based on the number of Fos-ir/GAD(+, Fos-ir/MCH(+, and GAD(+/MCH(+ double-labeled neurons counted from three sets of double-staining, we uncovered that around 80% of the large number of the Fos-ir/GAD(+ neurons located in the tuberal hypothalamus after PS hypersomnia do not contain MCH. Based on these and previous results, we propose that the non-MCH Fos/GABAergic neuronal population could be involved in PS induction and maintenance while the Fos/MCH/GABAergic neurons could be involved in the homeostatic regulation of PS. Further investigations will be needed to corroborate this original hypothesis.

  11. Sleep budgets in a globalizing world: biocultural interactions influence sleep sufficiency among Egyptian families.

    Worthman, Carol M; Brown, Ryan A

    2013-02-01

    Declines in self-reported sleep quotas with globalizing lifestyle changes have focused attention on their possible role in rising global health problems such as obesity or depression. Cultural factors that act across the life course and support sleep sufficiency have received scant attention, nor have the potential interactions of cultural and biological factors in age-related changes in sleep behavior been systematically investigated. This study examines the effects of cultural norms for napping and sleeping arrangements along with sleep schedules, age, and gender on sleep budgets among Egyptian households. Data were collected in 2000 from 16 households with 78 members aged 3-56 years at two sites in Egypt (Cairo and an agrarian village). Each participant provided one week of continuous activity records and details of each sleep event. Records showed that nighttime sleep onsets were late and highly variable. Napping was common and, along with wake time flexibility, played a key role in maintaining sleep sufficiency throughout the life course into later middle age. Cosleeping was prevalent and exhibited contrasting associations with reduced duration and sufficiency of both nocturnal and total sleep, and with earlier, more regular, and less disrupted sleep. Daily sleep quotas met published guidelines and showed age-related changes similar to existing reports, but differed in how they were achieved. Cultural norms organizing sleep practices by age and gender appear to tap their intrinsic biological properties as well. Moreover, flexibility in how sleep was achieved contributed to sleep sufficiency. The findings suggest how biocultural dynamics can play key roles in sleep patterns that sustain favorable sleep quotas from infancy onwards in populations pursuing globalizing contemporary lifestyles.

  12. Combined Effects of Time Spent in Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors and Sleep on Obesity and Cardio-Metabolic Health Markers: A Novel Compositional Data Analysis Approach.

    Chastin, Sebastien F M; Palarea-Albaladejo, Javier; Dontje, Manon L; Skelton, Dawn A

    2015-01-01

    The associations between time spent in sleep, sedentary behaviors (SB) and physical activity with health are usually studied without taking into account that time is finite during the day, so time spent in each of these behaviors are codependent. Therefore, little is known about the combined effect of time spent in sleep, SB and physical activity, that together constitute a composite whole, on obesity and cardio-metabolic health markers. Cross-sectional analysis of NHANES 2005-6 cycle on N = 1937 adults, was undertaken using a compositional analysis paradigm, which accounts for this intrinsic codependence. Time spent in SB, light intensity (LIPA) and moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA) was determined from accelerometry and combined with self-reported sleep time to obtain the 24 hour time budget composition. The distribution of time spent in sleep, SB, LIPA and MVPA is significantly associated with BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, plasma glucose, plasma insulin (all peffect is found for the proportion of time spent in MVPA. Strikingly, the effects of MVPA replacing another behavior and of MVPA being displaced by another behavior are asymmetric. For example, re-allocating 10 minutes of SB to MVPA was associated with a lower waist circumference by 0.001% but if 10 minutes of MVPA is displaced by SB this was associated with a 0.84% higher waist circumference. The proportion of time spent in LIPA and SB were detrimentally associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease markers, but the association with SB was stronger. For diabetes risk markers, replacing SB with LIPA was associated with more favorable outcomes. Time spent in MVPA is an important target for intervention and preventing transfer of time from LIPA to SB might lessen the negative effects of physical inactivity.

  13. Sleep and the processing of emotions.

    Deliens, Gaétane; Gilson, Médhi; Peigneux, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    How emotions interact with cognitive processes has been a topic of growing interest in the last decades, as well as studies investigating the role of sleep in cognition. We review here evidence showing that sleep and emotions entertain privileged relationships. The literature indicates that exposure to stressful and emotional experiences can induce changes in the post-exposure sleep architecture, whereas emotional disturbances are likely to develop following sleep alterations. In addition, post-training sleep appears particularly beneficial for the consolidation of intrinsically emotional memories, suggesting that emotions modulate the off-line brain activity patterns subtending memory consolidation processes. Conversely, sleep contributes unbinding core memories from their affective blanket and removing the latter, eventually participating to habituation processes and reducing aversive reactions to stressful stimuli. Taken together, these data suggest that sleep plays an important role in the regulation and processing of emotions, which highlight its crucial influence on human's abilities to manage and respond to emotional information.

  14. O sono como ativador do eletrencefalograma nos pacientes epilépticos The sleep as an activator on epileptic patient's electroencephalogram

    Rosa Helena Longo

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Visando ao estudo da ação do sono como ativador do eletrencefalograma em pacientes epilépticos, foram estudados 1.868 pacientes com síndromes convulsivas (572 com crises generalizadas, 121 com crises temporais não psicomostras, 118 com crises psicomotoras, 410 com crises focais não temporais, 314 com crises noturnas, 165 com crises febris, 168 com crises convulsivas associadas a retardo psicomotor. Em todos os pacientes foram feitos eletrencefalogramas em vigília (repouso e hiperpnéia e durante o sono (fase lenta sendo os achados comparados. Em nosso material não encontramos diferença significativa de resposta entre o sono espontâneo e o medicamentoso. Na maioria de nossos pacientes o traçado realizado durante o sono confirmou os achados registrados em vigília. A ação ativadora do sono foi evidenciada em um número relativamente pequeno de casos, tendo atingido o seu máximo no grupo de pacientes com crises psicomotoras (26%. Nas crises generalizadas, temporais não psicomotoras, focais não temporais e noturnas o sono funcionou mais como desativador do que como ativador das anormalidades registradas em vigília.In order to study the influence of sleep on the electroencephalograms of epileptic patients the tracings obtained of 1.868 such patients were analised (572 generalized seizures; 121 non-psychomotor temporal; 118 psychomotor; 410 non-temporal focal; 314 noctural seizures; 165 febrile seizures; 168 convulsive seizures associated with psychomotor retard. The electroencephalograms were made with the patients awake (rest and hyperpnea and sleeping (slow phase, the findings being compared. There was not found any significant difference between the EEG tracings obtained during spontaneous sleep and medically induced sleep. In the majority of the cases the records obtained while the patients were asleep merely confirmed the ones made while the patients were awake. The activator action of sleep appeared only in small number of the

  15. The American Psychiatric Association and the history of psychiatry.

    Hirshbein, Laura

    2011-09-01

    The history committee within the American Psychiatric Association was actively involved in the history of psychiatry in the early decades of the twentieth century, as well as from 1942 to 2009.This paper explores the role of this committee in the context of changes in the psychiatric profession over the twentieth century.

  16. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... diagnosis that is listed in the Fourth Edition, Text Revision of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, or in Chapter Five (“Mental Disorders”) of the International... personnel, psychological services, social work services, psychiatric nursing, and therapeutic activities....

  17. Neuroimmunologic aspects of sleep and sleep loss

    Rogers, N. L.; Szuba, M. P.; Staab, J. P.; Evans, D. L.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    The complex and intimate interactions between the sleep and immune systems have been the focus of study for several years. Immune factors, particularly the interleukins, regulate sleep and in turn are altered by sleep and sleep deprivation. The sleep-wake cycle likewise regulates normal functioning of the immune system. Although a large number of studies have focused on the relationship between the immune system and sleep, relatively few studies have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on immune parameters. Studies of sleep deprivation's effects are important for several reasons. First, in the 21st century, various societal pressures require humans to work longer and sleep less. Sleep deprivation is becoming an occupational hazard in many industries. Second, to garner a greater understanding of the regulatory effects of sleep on the immune system, one must understand the consequences of sleep deprivation on the immune system. Significant detrimental effects on immune functioning can be seen after a few days of total sleep deprivation or even several days of partial sleep deprivation. Interestingly, not all of the changes in immune physiology that occur as a result of sleep deprivation appear to be negative. Numerous medical disorders involving the immune system are associated with changes in the sleep-wake physiology--either being caused by sleep dysfunction or being exacerbated by sleep disruption. These disorders include infectious diseases, fibromyalgia, cancers, and major depressive disorder. In this article, we will describe the relationships between sleep physiology and the immune system, in states of health and disease. Interspersed will be proposals for future research that may illuminate the clinical relevance of the relationships between sleeping, sleep loss and immune function in humans. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  18. Sleep spindles predict stress-related increases in sleep disturbances

    Thien Thanh eDang-Vu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Predisposing factors place certain individuals at higher risk for insomnia, especially in the presence of precipitating conditions such as stressful life events. Sleep spindles have been shown to play an important role in the preservation of sleep continuity. Lower spindle density might thus constitute an objective predisposing factor for sleep reactivity to stress. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the relationship between baseline sleep spindle density and the prospective change in insomnia symptoms in response to a standardized academic stressor. Methods: 12 healthy students had a polysomnography (PSG recording during a period of lower stress at the beginning of the academic semester, along with an assessment of insomnia complaints using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI. They completed a second ISI assessment at the end of the semester, a period coinciding with the week prior to final examinations and thus higher stress. Spindle density, amplitude, duration and frequency, as well as sigma power were computed from C4-O2 electroencephalography (EEG derivation during stages N2-N3 of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM sleep, across the whole night and for each NREM sleep period. To test for the relationship between spindle density and changes in insomnia symptoms in response to academic stress, spindle measurements at baseline were correlated with changes in ISI across the academic semester.Results: Spindle density (as well as spindle amplitude and sigma power, particularly during the first NREM sleep period, negatively correlated with changes in ISI (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Lower spindle activity, especially at the beginning of the night, prospectively predicted larger increases in insomnia symptoms in response to stress. This result indicates that individual differences in sleep spindle activity contribute to the differential vulnerability to sleep disturbances in the face of precipitating factors.

  19. Sleep and dreaming are for important matters

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in sleep and dreaming have described an activation of emotional and reward systems, as well as the processing of internal information during these states. Specifically, increased activity in the amygdala and across mesolimbic dopaminergic regions during REM sleep is likely to promote the consolidation of memory traces with high emotional/motivational value. Moreover, coordinated hippocampal-striatal replay during NREM sleep may contribute to the selective strengthening of memor...

  20. Sleep Hygiene and Recovery Strategies in Elite Soccer Players.

    Nédélec, Mathieu; Halson, Shona; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset; Ahmaidi, Said; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep (e.g., playing night matches interspersed with 3 days; performing activities demanding high levels of concentration close to bedtime; use of products containing caffeine or alcohol in the period preceding bedtime; regular daytime napping throughout the week; variable wake-up times or bedtime), potentially leading to sleep deprivation. We outline simple, practical, and pharmaceutical-free sleep strategies that are coordinated to the constraints of elite soccer in order to promote sleep. Sleep deprivation is best alleviated by sleep extension; however, sleep hygiene strategies (i.e., consistent sleep pattern, appropriate napping, and active daytime behaviors) can be utilized to promote restorative sleep. Light has a profound impact on sleep, and sleep hygiene strategies that support the natural environmental light-dark cycle (i.e., red-light treatment prior to sleep, dawn-simulation therapy prior to waking) and prevent cycle disruption (i.e., filtering short wavelengths prior to sleep) may be beneficial to elite soccer players. Under conditions of inordinate stress, techniques such as brainwave entrainment and meditation are promising sleep-promoting strategies, but future studies are required to ascertain the applicability of these techniques to elite soccer players. Consuming high-electrolyte fluids such as milk, high-glycemic index carbohydrates, some forms of protein immediately prior to sleep, as well as tart cherry juice concentrate and tryptophan may promote rehydration, substrate stores replenishment, muscle-damage repair and/or restorative sleep. The influence of cold water immersion performed close to bedtime on subsequent sleep is still debated. Conversely, the potential detrimental effects of sleeping medication must be recognized. Sleep initiation is influenced by numerous factors, reinforcing the need for future research to identify such

  1. Memory consolidation during sleep: interactive effects of sleep stages and HPA regulation.

    Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Sleep is critically involved in the consolidation of previously acquired memory traces. However, nocturnal sleep is not uniform but is subject to distinct changes in electrophysiological and neuroendocrine activity. Specifically, the first half of the night is dominated by slow wave sleep (SWS), whereas rapid eye movement (REM) sleep prevails in the second half. Concomitantly, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity as indicated by cortisol release is suppressed to a minimum during early sleep, while drastically increasing during late sleep. We have shown that the different sleep stages and the concomitant glucocorticoid release are interactively involved in the consolidation of different types of memories. SWS-rich early sleep has been demonstrated to benefit mainly the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memories (i.e. facts and episodes). In contrast, REM sleep-rich late sleep was shown to improve in particular emotional memories involving amygdalar function, as well as procedural memories (for skills) not depending on hippocampal or amygdalar function. Enhancing plasma glucocorticoid concentrations during SWS-rich early sleep counteracted hippocampus-dependent declarative memory consolidation, but did not affect hippocampus-independent procedural memory. Preventing the increase in cortisol during late REM sleep-rich sleep by administration of metyrapone impaired hippocampus-dependent declarative memory but enhanced amygdala-dependent emotional aspects of memory. The data underscore the importance of pituitary-adrenal inhibition during early SWS-rich sleep for efficient consolidation of declarative memory. The increase in cortisol release during late REM sleep-rich sleep may counteract an overshooting consolidation of emotional memories.

  2. Sleep bruxism and sleep arousal: an experimental challenge to assess the role of cyclic alternating pattern.

    Carra, M C; Rompré, P H; Kato, T; Parrino, L; Terzano, M G; Lavigne, G J; Macaluso, G M

    2011-09-01

    Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) is the characteristic electromyographic pattern of sleep bruxism (SB), a sleep-related motor disorder associated with sleep arousal. Sleep arousals are generally organised in a clustered mode known as the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP). CAP is the expression of sleep instability between sleep maintaining processes (phase A1) and stronger arousal processes (phases A2 and A3). This study aimed to investigate the role of sleep instability on RMMA/SB occurrence by analysing CAP and electroencephalographic (EEG) activities. The analysis was performed on the sleep recordings of 8 SB subjects and 8 controls who received sensory stimulations during sleep. Baseline and experimental nights were compared for sleep variables, CAP, and EEG spectral analyses using repeated measure ANOVAs. Overall, no differences in sleep variables and EEG spectra were found between SB subjects and controls. However, SB subjects had higher sleep instability (more phase A3) than controls (P= 0·05). The frequency of phase A3 was higher in the pre-REM sleep periods (P < 0·001), where peaks in RMMA/SB activity were also observed (P = 0·05). When sleep instability was experimentally increased by sensory stimuli, both groups showed an enhancement in EEG theta and alpha power (P = 0·04 and 0·02, respectively) and significant increases in sleep arousal and all CAP variables. No change in RMMA/SB index was found within either groups (RMMA/SB occurred in all SB subjects and only one control during the experimental night). These findings suggest that CAP phase A3 may act as a permissive window rather than a generator of RMMA/SB activity in predisposed individuals.

  3. Internalizing and externalizing traits predict changes in sleep efficiency in emerging adulthood: An actigraphy study

    Ashley eYaugher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on psychopathology and experimental studies of sleep restriction support a relationship between sleep disruption and both internalizing and externalizing disorders. The objective of the current study was to extend this research by examining sleep, impulsivity, antisocial personality traits, and internalizing traits in a university sample. Three hundred and eighty six individuals (161 males between the ages of 18 and 27 years (M = 18.59, SD = 0.98 wore actigraphs for 7 days and completed established measures of disorder-linked personality traits and sleep quality (i.e., Personality Assessment Inventory, Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. As expected, sleep measures and questionnaire scores fell within the normal range of values and sex differences in sleep and personality were consistent with previous research results. Similar to findings in predominantly male forensic psychiatric settings, higher levels of impulsivity predicted poorer subjective sleep quality in both women and men. Consistent with well-established associations between depression and sleep, higher levels of depression in both sexes predicted poorer subjective sleep quality. Bidirectional analyses showed that better sleep efficiency decreases depression. Finally, moderation analyses showed that gender does have a primary role in sleep efficiency and marginal effects were found. The observed relations between sleep and personality traits in a typical university sample add to converging evidence of the relationship between sleep and psychopathology and may inform our understanding of the development of psychopathology in young adulthood.

  4. Age-Dependency of Location of Epileptic Foci in "Continuous Spike-and-Waves during Sleep": A Parallel to the Posterior-Anterior Trajectory of Slow Wave Activity.

    Heinzle, Bigna Katrin Bölsterli; Bast, Thomas; Critelli, Hanne; Huber, Reto; Schmitt, Bernhard

    2017-02-01

    Background Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-waves during sleep (CSWS) occurs during childhood and is characterized by an activation of spike wave complexes during slow wave sleep. The location of epileptic foci is variable, as is etiology. A relationship between the epileptic focus and age has been shown in various focal epilepsies following a posterior-anterior trajectory, and a link to brain maturation has been proposed.We hypothesize that in CSWS, maximal spike wave activity, corresponding to the epileptic focus, is related to age and shows a posterior-anterior evolution. Findings In a retrospective cross-sectional study on CSWS (22 EEGs of 22 patients aged 3.1-13.5 years), the location of the epileptic focus is related to age and follows a posterior-anterior course. Younger patients are more likely to have posterior foci than older ones. Conclusions We propose that the posterior-anterior trajectory of maximal spike waves in CSWS might reflect maturational changes of maximal expression of sleep slow waves, which follow a comparable course. Epileptic spike waves, that is, "hyper-synchronized slow waves" may occur at the place where the highest and therefore most synchronized slow waves meet brain tissue with an increased susceptibility to synchronization.

  5. Sleep after vaccination boosts immunological memory.

    Lange, Tanja; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Bollinger, Thomas; Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2011-07-01

    Sleep regulates immune functions. We asked whether sleep can influence immunological memory formation. Twenty-seven healthy men were vaccinated against hepatitis A three times, at weeks 0, 8, and 16 with conditions of sleep versus wakefulness in the following night. Sleep was recorded polysomnographically, and hormone levels were assessed throughout the night. Vaccination-induced Th cell and Ab responses were repeatedly monitored for 1 y. Compared with the wake condition, sleep after vaccination doubled the frequency of Ag-specific Th cells and increased the fraction of Th1 cytokine-producing cells in this population. Moreover, sleep markedly increased Ag-specific IgG1. The effects were followed up for 1 y and were associated with high sleep slow-wave activity during the postvaccination night as well as with accompanying levels of immunoregulatory hormones (i.e., increased growth hormone and prolactin but decreased cortisol release). Our findings provide novel evidence that sleep promotes human Th1 immune responses, implicating a critical role for slow-wave sleep in this process. The proinflammatory milieu induced during this sleep stage apparently acts as adjuvant that facilitates the transfer of antigenic information from APCs to Ag-specific Th cells. Like the nervous system, the immune system takes advantage of the offline conditions during sleep to foster adaptive immune responses resulting in improved immunological memory.

  6. Prioritizing sleep for healthy work schedules

    Takahashi Masaya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work. Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amounts of sleep prior to work are fundamental to improved performance and alertness in the workplace. In addition, planned naps taken during work maintain appropriate levels of waking function for both daytime and night-time work. Clearly, sufficient sleep after work is vital in promoting recovery from fatigue. Recent data also suggest that the time interval between shifts should be adjusted according to the biological timing of sleep. Although sleep is more likely to be replaced by job and other activities in the real life, research shows that it is worthwhile to revise the work schedules in order to optimize sleep before, sometime during and after the work period. Therefore, we suggest establishing work-sleep balance, similar to work-life balance, as a principle for designing and improving work schedules.

  7. Sleep electroencephalography as a biomarker in depression

    Steiger A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Axel Steiger, Marcel Pawlowski, Mayumi Kimura Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany Abstract: The sleep electroencephalogram (EEG provides biomarkers of depression, which may help with diagnosis, prediction of therapy response, and prognosis in the treatment of depression. In patients with depression, characteristic sleep EEG changes include impaired sleep continuity, disinhibition of rapid-eye-movement (REM sleep, and impaired non-REM sleep. Most antidepressants suppress REM sleep in depressed patients, healthy volunteers, and in animal models. REM suppression appears to be an important, but not an absolute requirement, for antidepressive effects of a substance. Enhanced REM density, a measure for frequency of REM, characterizes high-risk probands for affective disorders. REM-sleep changes were also found in animal models of depression. Sleep-EEG variables were shown to predict the response to treatment with antidepressants. Furthermore, certain clusters of sleep EEG variables predicted the course of the disorder for several years. Some of the predicted sleep EEG markers appear to be related to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal system activity. Keywords: biomarkers, depression, sleep EEG, antidepressants, prediction, animal models

  8. Psychiatric Symptoms and Psychosocial Problems in Patients with Breast Cancer

    İzci, Filiz; İlgün, Ahmet Serkan; Fındıklı, Ebru; Özmen, Vahit

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a physical disease and also one of the leading clinical manifestations where psychosocial problems are prevalent. Psychosocial problems that these patients may have in the long run include anxiety, uneasiness, mourning, helplessness, fatigue, impairment of concentration, sleep disorders, mental and cognitive reservation, sexual dysfunction, infertility, psychological distress, and psychiatric disorders. Psychosocial problems have a nature of underpinning the emergence of psychological troubles. The prevalence of psychological disorders in patients with cancer range from 29% to 47%. Psychiatric disorders that are likely to be seen are severe stress disorder, adjustment disorder, depressive disorder, and other neurotic disorders. It is considered by the present author that in the event of breast cancer, potential psychiatric disorders may affect prognosis of the disease, adherance to and success of therapy, social and societal functioning, and survival rate. This paper aims to review the psychiatric symptoms and diseases that may develop in patients with breast cancer, which is one of the most frequent types of a globally common disease; i.e., cancer, as well as the impact of psychiatric symptoms on the treatment of disease.

  9. Evidence that adrenergic ventrolateral medullary cells are activated whereas precerebellar lateral reticular nucleus neurons are suppressed during REM sleep.

    Georg M Stettner

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS is generated in the brainstem by a distributed network of neurochemically distinct neurons. In the pons, the main subtypes are cholinergic and glutamatergic REMS-on cells and aminergic REMS-off cells. Pontine REMS-on cells send axons to the ventrolateral medulla (VLM, but little is known about REMS-related activity of VLM cells. In urethane-anesthetized rats, dorsomedial pontine injections of carbachol trigger REMS-like episodes that include cortical and hippocampal activation and suppression of motoneuronal activity; the episodes last 4-8 min and can be elicited repeatedly. We used this model to determine whether VLM catecholaminergic cells are silenced during REMS, as is typical of most aminergic neurons studied to date, and to investigate other REMS-related cells in this region. In 18 anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated rats, we obtained extracellular recordings from VLM cells when REMS-like episodes were elicited by pontine carbachol injections (10 mM, 10 nl. One major group were the cells that were activated during the episodes (n = 10. Their baseline firing rate of 3.7±2.1 (SD Hz increased to 9.7±2.1 Hz. Most were found in the adrenergic C1 region and at sites located less than 50 µm from dopamine β-hydroxylase-positive (DBH(+ neurons. Another major group were the silenced or suppressed cells (n = 35. Most were localized in the lateral reticular nucleus (LRN and distantly from any DBH(+ cells. Their baseline firing rates were 6.8±4.4 Hz and 15.8±7.1 Hz, respectively, with the activity of the latter reduced to 7.4±3.8 Hz. We conclude that, in contrast to the pontine noradrenergic cells that are silenced during REMS, medullary adrenergic C1 neurons, many of which drive the sympathetic output, are activated. Our data also show that afferent input transmitted to the cerebellum through the LRN is attenuated during REMS. This may distort the spatial representation of body position

  10. Altered electroencephalographic activity associated with changes in the sleep-wakefulness cycle of C57BL/6J mice in response to a photoperiod shortening

    Stanislav Rozov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AimUnder natural conditions diurnal rhythms of biological processes of the organism are synchronized with each other and to the environmental changes by means of the circadian system. Disturbances of the latter affect hormonal levels, sleep-wakefulness cycle and cognitive performance. To study mechanisms of such perturbations animal models subjected to artificial photoperiods are often used. The goal of current study was to understand the effects of circadian rhythm disruption, caused by a short light-dark cycle regime, on activity of the cerebral cortex in rodents.MethodsWe used electroencephalogram to assess the distribution of vigilance states, perform spectral analysis, and estimate the homeostatic sleep drive. In addition, we analyzed spontaneous locomotion of C57BL/6J mice under symmetric, 22-h-, 21-h-, and 20-h-long light–dark cycles using video recording and tracking methods.Results and ConclusionsWe found that shortening of photoperiod caused a significant increase of slow wave activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep suggesting an elevation of sleep pressure under such conditions. While the rhythm of spontaneous locomotion was completely entrained by all light–dark cycles tested, periodic changes in the power of the θ- and γ-frequency ranges during wakefulness gradually disappeared under 22-h- and 21-h-long light–dark cycles. This was associated with a significant increase in the θ–γ phase-amplitude during wakefulness. Our results thus provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the impairment of learning and memory retention, which is associated with disturbed circadian regulation.

  11. Prevention of depression and sleep disturbances in elderly with memory-problems by activation of the biological clock with light - a randomized clinical trial

    Scheltens Philip

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression frequently occurs in the elderly and in patients suffering from dementia. Its cause is largely unknown, but several studies point to a possible contribution of circadian rhythm disturbances. Post-mortem studies on aging, dementia and depression show impaired functioning of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN which is thought to be involved in the increased prevalence of day-night rhythm perturbations in these conditions. Bright light enhances neuronal activity in the SCN. Bright light therapy has beneficial effects on rhythms and mood in institutionalized moderate to advanced demented elderly. In spite of the fact that this is a potentially safe and inexpensive treatment option, no previous clinical trial evaluated the use of long-term daily light therapy to prevent worsening of sleep-wake rhythms and depressive symptoms in early to moderately demented home-dwelling elderly. Methods/Design This study investigates whether long-term daily bright light prevents worsening of sleep-wake rhythms and depressive symptoms in elderly people with memory complaints. Patients with early Alzheimer's Disease (AD, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and Subjective Memory Complaints (SMC, between the ages of 50 and 75, are included in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. For the duration of two years, patients are exposed to ~10,000 lux in the active condition or ~300 lux in the placebo condition, daily, for two half-hour sessions at fixed times in the morning and evening. Neuropsychological, behavioral, physiological and endocrine measures are assessed at baseline and follow-up every five to six months. Discussion If bright light therapy attenuates the worsening of sleep-wake rhythms and depressive symptoms, it will provide a measure that is easy to implement in the homes of elderly people with memory complaints, to complement treatments with cholinesterase inhibitors, sleep medication or anti-depressants or as a stand

  12. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Mascetti GG

    2016-01-01

    Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a differe...

  13. Psychiatric emergency services in Copenhagen 2012

    Moltke, Katinka; Høegh, Erica B; Sæbye, Ditte;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the first publication of the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen 1985, outpatient facilities have undergone considerable changes. Our aim is to examine how these changes have influenced the activities in the PEUs in the same catchment area. METHODS: We conducted...... reduced the number of visits in the PEUs considerably. The results have shown a change of diagnostic distribution and more severe conditions requiring acute admissions for emergency treatment. Close collaboration with the patients' families, GPs, social authorities and specialized psychiatric outpatient...

  14. Sleep Apnea

    ... of other risk factors linked to a higher risk of heart disease. The conditions that make up metabolic syndrome include high blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol, high blood sugar and an increased waist circumference. Complications with medications and surgery. Obstructive sleep apnea ...

  15. Diagnosing Sleep Disorders

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Diagnosing Sleep Disorders Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents Depending ... several possible tests when trying to diagnose a sleep disorder: Sleep history and sleep log If you believe ...

  16. Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency? Sleep deprivation (DEP-rih-VA-shun) is a condition that ... the following: You don't get enough sleep (sleep deprivation) You sleep at the wrong time of day ( ...

  17. SLEEP AND OLFACTORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY

    Dylan eBarnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many systems, sleep plays a vital role in memory consolidation and synaptic homeostasis. These processes together help store information of biological significance and reset synaptic circuits to facilitate acquisition of information in the future. In this review, we describe recent evidence of sleep-dependent changes in olfactory system structure and function which contribute to odor memory and perception. During slow-wave sleep, the piriform cortex becomes hypo-responsive to odor stimulation and instead displays sharp-wave activity similar to that observed within the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between the piriform cortex and other cortical and limbic regions is enhanced during slow-wave sleep compared to waking. This combination of conditions may allow odor memory consolidation to occur during a state of reduced external interference and facilitate association of odor memories with stored hedonic and contextual cues. Evidence consistent with sleep-dependent odor replay within olfactory cortical circuits is presented. These data suggest that both the strength and precision of odor memories is sleep-dependent. The work further emphasizes the critical role of synaptic plasticity and memory in not only odor memory but also basic odor perception. The work also suggests a possible link between sleep disturbances that are frequently co-morbid with a wide range of pathologies including Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia and depression and the known olfactory impairments associated with those disorders.

  18. [Unusual behaviors in sleep as "compensatory" reactions, aimed at normalizing sleep-alertness cycles].

    Gol'bin, A Ts; Guzeva, V I; Shepoval'nikov, A N

    2013-01-01

    The present article is an attempt to perform a conceptual clinical and physiological analysis of a large spec- trum of sleep-related phenomena called parasomnias in children, based on data from three independent in- stitutions. Parasonmias appear in the process of falling asleep, at the time of sleep stage changes, and upon awakening. They are common for both healthy children and those with neurological and psychiatric disorders. Brief descriptions of clinical pictures of several groups of parasomnias and their polysomnographic characteristics are presented. Instances of stereotyped rhythmic movements (e.g. head rocking), paroxysmal somatic and behavioral episodes (night terrors and nightmares), "static" phenomena (sleep with open eyes, strange body positions), as well as somnambulism are specifically described. Common features of parasomnias as a group have been identified (the "Parasomnia syndrome"). It was found that sleep architecture frequently normalizes after a parasomnia episode, whereas parasomnias are self-liquidated after sleep matures (self-cure). The significance of gender differences in parasomnias have been reviewed. Possible compensatory physiological functions of parasomnias acting as "switches" or "stabilizers" of sleep stages to "off-set" deviated or immature sleep-wake mechanisms were discussed.

  19. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Patients Have Worse Sleep Quality Compared to Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Luciana Balester Mello de Godoy

    Full Text Available To compare sleep quality and sustained attention of patients with Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS, mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA and normal individuals.UARS criteria were presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale-ESS-≥ 10 and/or fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale-MFIS-≥ 38 associated to Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI ≤ 5 and Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI > 5 events/hour of sleep or more than 30% of total sleep time with flow limitation. Mild OSA was considered if the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10 and/or fatigue (MFIS ≥ 38 associated to AHI ≥ 5 and ≤ 15 events/hour. "Control group" criteria were AHI < 5 events/hour and RDI ≤ 5 events/hour and ESS ≤ 9, without any sleep, clinical, neurological or psychiatric disorder. 115 individuals (34 UARS and 47 mild OSA patients and 34 individuals in "control group", adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI and schooling years, performed sleep questionnaires and sustained attention evaluation. Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT was performed five times (each two hours from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.UARS patients had worse sleep quality (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire-FOSQ-and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-PSQI: p < 0.05 and more fatigue than mild OSA patients (p = 0.003 and scored significantly higher in both Beck inventories than "control group" (p < 0.02. UARS patients had more lapses early in the morning (in time 1 compared to the results in the afternoon (time 5 than mild OSA (p = 0.02. Mild OSA patients had more lapses in times 2 than in time 5 compared to "control group" (p = 0.04.UARS patients have a worse sleep quality, more fatigue and a worse early morning sustained attention compared to mild OSA. These last had a worse sustained attention than controls.

  20. Sleep loss, learning capacity and academic performance.

    Curcio, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2006-10-01

    At a time when several studies have highlighted the relationship between sleep, learning and memory processes, an in-depth analysis of the effects of sleep deprivation on student learning ability and academic performance would appear to be essential. Most studies have been naturalistic correlative investigations, where sleep schedules were correlated with school and academic achievement. Nonetheless, some authors were able to actively manipulate sleep in order to observe neurocognitive and behavioral consequences, such as learning, memory capacity and school performance. The findings strongly suggest that: (a) students of different education levels (from school to university) are chronically sleep deprived or suffer from poor sleep quality and consequent daytime sleepiness; (b) sleep quality and quantity are closely related to student learning capacity and academic performance; (c) sleep loss is frequently associated with poor declarative and procedural learning in students; (d) studies in which sleep was actively restricted or optimized showed, respectively, a worsening and an improvement in neurocognitive and academic performance. These results may been related to the specific involvement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in vulnerability to sleep loss. Most methodological limitations are discussed and some future research goals are suggested.

  1. Sleep Promotion Program for Improving Sleep Behaviors in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Bindu John

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine the efficacy of sleep promotion program to adapt it for the use of adolescents studying in various schools of Mangalore, India, and evaluate the feasibility issues before conducting a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of adolescents. Methods. A randomized controlled trial design with stratified random sampling method was used. Fifty-eight adolescents were selected (mean age: 14.02 ± 2.15 years; intervention group, n=34; control group, n=24. Self-report questionnaires, including sociodemographic questionnaire with some additional questions on sleep and activities, Sleep Hygiene Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire, and PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scale, were used. Results. Insufficient weekday-weekend sleep duration with increasing age of adolescents was observed. The program revealed a significant effect in the experimental group over the control group in overall sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and emotional and overall distress. No significant effect was observed in sleep hygiene and other sleep parameters. All target variables showed significant correlations with each other. Conclusion. The intervention holds a promise for improving the sleep behaviors in healthy adolescents. However, the effect of the sleep promotion program treatment has yet to be proven through a future research. This trial is registered with ISRCTN13083118.

  2. Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Muhammad Talha Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex sleep apnea is the term used to describe a form of sleep disordered breathing in which repeated central apneas (>5/hour persist or emerge when obstructive events are extinguished with positive airway pressure (PAP and for which there is not a clear cause for the central apneas such as narcotics or systolic heart failure. The driving forces in the pathophysiology are felt to be ventilator instability associated oscillation in PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide, continuous cositive airway pressure (CPAP related increased CO2 carbon dioxide elimination, and activation of airway and pulmonary stretch receptors triggering these central apneas. The prevalence ranges from 0.56% to 18% with no clear predictive characteristics as compared to simple obstructive sleep apnea. Prognosis is similar to obstructive sleep apnea. The central apnea component in most patients on followup using CPAP therap, has resolved. For those with continued central apneas on simple CPAP therapy, other treatment options include bilevel PAP, adaptive servoventilation, permissive flow limitation and/or drugs.

  3. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH: a new sleep factor?

    Pablo eTorterolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurons that utilize the neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH as a neuromodulator are mainly located in the lateral hypothalamus and the incerto-hypothalamic area, and have widespread projections throughout the brain. While the biological functions of this neuropeptide are exerted in humans through two metabotropic receptors, the MCHR1 and MCHR2, only the MCHR1 is present in rodents. Recently, it has been shown that the MCHergic system is involved in the control of sleep. We can summarize the experimental findings as follows:1. The areas related to the control of sleep and wakefulness have an important density of MCHergic fibers and receptors.2. MCHergic neurons are active during sleep, especially during REM sleep.3. Genetically-modified animals without MCH have less REM sleep, notably under conditions of negative energy balance. 4. Systemically administered MCHR1 antagonists reduce sleep. 5. Intraventricular microinjection of MCH increases both slow wave sleep (SWS and REM sleep; however, the increment in REM sleep is more pronounced.6. Microinjection of MCH into the dorsal raphe nucleus increases REM sleep time. REM seep is inhibited by immunoneutralization of MCH within this nucleus.7. Microinjection of MCH in the nucleus pontis oralis of the cat enhances REM sleep time and reduces REM sleep latency.All these data strongly suggest that MCH has a potent role in the promotion of sleep. Although both SWS and REM sleep are facilitated by MCH, REM sleep seems to be more sensitive to MCH modulation.

  4. Automatic REM sleep detection associated with idiopathic rem sleep Behavior Disorder

    Kempfner, J; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Sorensen, H B D

    2011-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a strong early marker of later development of Parkinsonism. Currently there are no objective methods to identify and discriminate abnormal from normal motor activity during REM sleep. Therefore, a REM sleep detection without the use of chin...... electromyography (EMG) is useful. This is addressed by analyzing the classification performance when implementing two automatic REM sleep detectors. The first detector uses the electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG) and EMG to detect REM sleep, while the second detector only uses the EEG and EOG....

  5. Sleep, aging, and lifespan in Drosophila

    Tononi Giulio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies in humans suggest that a decrease in daily sleep duration is associated with reduced lifespan, but this issue remains controversial. Other studies in humans also show that both sleep quantity and sleep quality decrease with age. Drosophila melanogaster is a useful model to study aging and sleep, and inheriting mutations affecting the potassium current Shaker results in flies that sleep less and have a shorter lifespan. However, whether the link between short sleep and reduced longevity exists also in wild-type flies is unknown. Similarly, it is unknown whether such a link depends on sleep amount per se, rather than on other factors such as waking activity. Also, sleep quality has been shown to decrease in old flies, but it remains unclear whether aging-related sleep fragmentation is a generalized phenomenon. Results We compared 3 short sleeping mutant lines (Hk1, HkY and Hk2 carrying a mutation in Hyperkinetic, which codes for the beta subunit of the Shaker channel, to wild-type siblings throughout their entire lifespan (all flies kept at 20°C. Hk1 and HkY mutants were short sleeping relative to wild-type controls from day 3 after eclosure, and Hk2 flies became short sleepers about two weeks later. All 3 Hk mutant lines had reduced lifespan relative to wild-type flies. Total sleep time showed a trend to increase in all lines with age, but the effect was most pronounced in Hk1 and HkY flies. In both mutant and wild-type lines sleep quality did not decay with age, but the strong preference for sleep at night declined starting in "middle age". Using Cox regression analysis we found that in Hk1 and HkY mutants and their control lines there was a negative relationship between total sleep amount during the first 2 and 4 weeks of age and hazard (individual risk of death, while no association was found in Hk2 flies and their wild-type controls. Hk1 and HkY mutants and their control lines also showed an

  6. Time Perception and Psychiatric Disorders

    Hatice Ceviz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time perception is an ability which we use in every moment of daily life, that guides the formation and continuation of our behaviors and from an evolutionary perspective ensures survival. Internal clock models help us to understand time perception. Time perception is known to vary between individuals and particular situations. This variability is explained with the mechanisms which is associated with the processes related to attention, the speed of the internal clock and the memory unit. It is suggested that time perception is mainly associated with the activities of dopamine and acetylcholine. Some dopaminergic psychoactive substances like cocaine and amphetamine have all been shown to change time perception by increasing the speed of internal clock while on the other hand some antipsychotic drugs make an opposite change in time perception by descreasing the speed of the clock. Similarly, time perception is affected in some psychiatric disorders and an ethiopathological relationship between time perception disturbances and psychiatric disorders is suggested. In this article time perception changes in schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders are briefly reviewed.

  7. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning.

  8. Activation and Inhibition of ATM by Phytochemicals: Awakening and Sleeping the Guardian Angel Naturally.

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Wu, Shyh-Jong; Chang, Yung-Ting; Tang, Jen-Yang; Li, Kun-Tzu; Ismail, Muhammad; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Li, Ruei-Nian; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2015-10-01

    Double-stranded breaks (DSBs) are cytotoxic DNA lesions caused by oxygen radicals, ionizing radiation, and radiomimetic chemicals. Increasing understanding of DNA damage signaling has provided an ever-expanding list of modulators reported to orchestrate DNA damage repair and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is the master regulator and main transducer of the DSB response. Increasingly, it is being realized that DNA damage response is a synchronized and branched network that functionalizes different molecular cascades to activate special checkpoints, thus temporarily arresting progression of the cell cycle while damage is being assessed and processed. It is noteworthy that both nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics have revolutionized the field of molecular biology and rapidly accumulating experimental evidence has started to shed light on biological activities of a wide range of phytochemicals reported to modulate cell cycle, DNA repair, cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis as evidenced by cell-based studies. In this review, we have attempted to provide an overview of DNA damage signaling, how ATM signaling regulates tumor necrosis factors-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced intracellular network. We also illuminate on how resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, curcumin, jaceosidin, cucurbitacin, apigenin, genistein, and others trigger activation of ATM in different cancer cells as well as agents for ATM inactivation. Understanding the interplay of TRAIL-induced intracellular signaling and ATM modulation of downstream effectors is very important. This holds particularly for a reconceptualization of the apparently paradoxical roles and therapeutically targetable for enhancing the response to DNA damage-inducing therapy.

  9. Metabolic signals in sleep regulation: recent insights.

    Shukla, Charu; Basheer, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Sleep and energy balance are essential for health. The two processes act in concert to regulate central and peripheral homeostasis. During sleep, energy is conserved due to suspended activity, movement, and sensory responses, and is redirected to restore and replenish proteins and their assemblies into cellular structures. During wakefulness, various energy-demanding activities lead to hunger. Thus, hunger promotes arousal, and subsequent feeding, followed by satiety that promotes sleep via changes in neuroendocrine or neuropeptide signals. These signals overlap with circuits of sleep-wakefulness, feeding, and energy expenditure. Here, we will briefly review the literature that describes the interplay between the circadian system, sleep-wake, and feeding-fasting cycles that are needed to maintain energy balance and a healthy metabolic profile. In doing so, we describe the neuroendocrine, hormonal/peptide signals that integrate sleep and feeding behavior with energy metabolism.

  10. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism associates with individual differences in sleep physiologic responses to chronic sleep loss.

    Namni Goel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The COMT Val158Met polymorphism modulates cortical dopaminergic catabolism, and predicts individual differences in prefrontal executive functioning in healthy adults and schizophrenic patients, and associates with EEG differences during sleep loss. We assessed whether the COMT Val158Met polymorphism was a novel marker in healthy adults of differential vulnerability to chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD, a condition distinct from total sleep loss and one experienced by millions on a daily and persistent basis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 20 Met/Met, 64 Val/Met, and 45 Val/Val subjects participated in a protocol of two baseline 10h time in bed (TIB nights followed by five consecutive 4 h TIB nights. Met/Met subjects showed differentially steeper declines in non-REM EEG slow-wave energy (SWE-the putative homeostatic marker of sleep drive-during PSD, despite comparable baseline SWE declines. Val/Val subjects showed differentially smaller increases in slow-wave sleep and smaller reductions in stage 2 sleep during PSD, and had more stage 1 sleep across nights and a shorter baseline REM sleep latency. The genotypes, however, did not differ in performance across various executive function and cognitive tasks and showed comparable increases in subjective and physiological sleepiness in response to chronic sleep loss. Met/Met genotypic and Met allelic frequencies were higher in whites than African Americans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The COMT Val158Met polymorphism may be a genetic biomarker for predicting individual differences in sleep physiology-but not in cognitive and executive functioning-resulting from sleep loss in a healthy, racially-diverse adult population of men and women. Beyond healthy sleepers, our results may also provide insight for predicting sleep loss responses in patients with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, since these groups repeatedly experience chronically-curtailed sleep and demonstrate COMT

  11. Advances in Sleep Studies

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Advances in Sleep Studies Past Issues / Summer 2015 ... is the director of the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) in the NIH's National Heart, Lung, ...

  12. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    ... to sleep and wake at the right times. Parasomnia : Acting in unusual ways while falling asleep, sleeping, ... will suggest a sleep disorder clinic for treatment. Children with Somnolence Syndrome Somnolence syndrome (SS) is a side ...

  13. Employees with Sleep Disorders

    ... Cataplexy (a weakness or paralysis of the muscles), sleep paralysis, and hallucinations are common symptoms of narcolepsy (Neurology Channel, 2005). Hypersomnia: Hypersomnia’s symptoms include excessive ... by extended sleep episodes or by daytime sleep episodes that occur ...

  14. Isolated sleep paralysis

    Sleep paralysis - isolated; Parasomnia - isolated sleep paralysis ... Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from a few seconds to 1 or 2 minutes. During these episodes the person is unable to move ...

  15. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Sleep Apnea Information Page Sleep Apnea Information Page Search Disorders Search NINDS SEARCH ... Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to sleep apnea in laboratories at the NIH, and also ...

  16. Sleep and your health

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000871.htm Sleep and your health To use the sharing features ... in a number of ways. Why You Need Sleep Sleep gives your body and brain time to ...

  17. Sleep Issues and Sundowning

    ... We will not sell or share your name. Sleep Issues and Sundowning Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | ... Sleep Changes Back to top Coping strategies for sleep issues and sundowning If the person is awake ...

  18. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy.

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however, a distinct phenotype with respect to other RBD patients and characterized also by absence of gender predominance, elementary rather than complex movements, less violent behavior and earlier age at onset of motor events, and strong association to narcolepsy with cataplexy/hypocretin deficiency. Patients with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic motor activities in REM sleep and dream-enacting behavior are mostly reported in presence of cataplexy. Narcolepsy without cataplexy is a condition rarely associated with hypocretin deficiency. We proposed that hypocretin neurons are centrally involved in motor control during wakefulness and sleep in humans, and that hypocretin deficiency causes a functional defect in the motor control involved in the development of cataplexy during wakefulness and RBD/RSWA/phasic motor activity during REM sleep.

  19. Parasomnias and other sleep-related movement disorders.

    Lee-Chiong, Teofilo L

    2005-06-01

    Parasomnias are common clinical complaints. Formal sleep evaluation including PSG is indicated for parasomnias that are violent and potentially injurious; disruptive to the bed partner or other household members; accompanied by excessive daytime sleepiness; or associated with medical,psychiatric, or neurologic symptoms or findings [2]. Multiple sleep latency testing should be considered for patients who have complaints of excessive daytime sleepiness. An extensive history, including medical, neurologic,psychiatric, and sleep disorder, and a review of medication, alcohol, illicit drug use, and family history of parasomnias, may provide useful clues. Distinguishing between a parasomnia and a seizure may be difficult as both can present as recurrent, stereotypical behaviors. Evaluation may be aided by an expanded EEG montage during overnight PSG studies.

  20. Gender differences dominate sleep disorder patients' body problem complaints

    Ted L. Rosenthal

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied it age, gender, diagnostic status, and psychiatric features affected 291 consecutive sleep disorder patient's body complaints on a brief checklist. Gender had a strong impact on all four (tested dependent measures, with women reporting more distress than men. Age produced significant regressions on two measures, with younger patients complaining more than older. Presence of psychiatric features was associated with more complaints on one dependent measure - previously found to reflect internal medicine patients' emotional distress. The results of regression analyses were largely supported by follow-up ANOVAs. However, contrasting insomniac versus hypersomniac versus all other sleep disorder diagnoses did not affect body complaints on any dependent measure. The results caution against combining males and females to compare self-reported distress between sleep disorders.

  1. Association between sleep disorders, obesity, and exercise: a review

    Hargens, Trent A; Kaleth, Anthony S; Edwards, Elizabeth S; Butner, Katrina L

    2013-01-01

    Decreased sleep duration and quality is associated with an increase in body weight and adiposity. Insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and restless legs syndrome are three of the most prevalent types of sleep disorder that lead to an increased risk for numerous chronic health conditions. Various studies have examined the impact of these sleep disorders on obesity, and are an important link in understanding the relationship between sleep disorders and chronic disease. Physical activity and exercise are important prognostic tools in obesity and chronic disease, and numerous studies have explored the relationship between obesity, sleep disorders, and exercise. As such, this review will examine the relationship between sleep disorders and obesity. In addition, how sleep disorders may impact the exercise response and how exercise may impact patient outcomes with regard to sleep disorders will also be reviewed. PMID:23620691

  2. Replacing sedentary time with sleep, light, or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity: effects on self-regulation and executive functioning.

    Fanning, J; Porter, G; Awick, E A; Ehlers, D K; Roberts, S A; Cooke, G; Burzynska, A Z; Voss, M W; Kramer, A F; McAuley, E

    2017-04-01

    Recent attention has highlighted the importance of reducing sedentary time for maintaining health and quality of life. However, it is unclear how changing sedentary behavior may influence executive functions and self-regulatory strategy use, which are vital for the long-term maintenance of a health behavior regimen. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the estimated self-regulatory and executive functioning effects of substituting 30 min of sedentary behavior with 30 min of light activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), or sleep in a sample of older adults. This study reports baseline data collected from low-active healthy older adults (N = 247, mean age 65.4 ± 4.6 years) recruited to participate in a 6 month randomized controlled exercise trial examining the effects of various modes of exercise on brain health and function. Each participant completed assessments of physical activity self-regulatory strategy use (i.e., self-monitoring, goal-setting, social support, reinforcement, time management, and relapse prevention) and executive functioning. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers during waking hours for seven consecutive days at each time point. Isotemporal substitution analyses were conducted to examine the effect on self-regulation and executive functioning should an individual substitute sedentary time with light activity, MVPA, or sleep. The substitution of sedentary time with both sleep and MVPA influenced both self-regulatory strategy use and executive functioning. Sleep was associated with greater self-monitoring (B = .23, p = .02), goal-setting (B = .32, p sedentary time with MVPA was associated with higher accuracy on 2-item (B = .03, p = .01) and 3-item (B = .02, p = .04) spatial working memory tasks, and with faster reaction times on single (B = -23.12, p = .03) and mixed-repeated task-switching blocks (B = -27.06, p = .04). Substitution of

  3. Nocturnal Mnemonics: Sleep and Hippocampal Memory Processing

    Jared M. Saletin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As critical as waking brain function is to learning and memory, an established literature now describes an equally important yet complementary role for sleep in information processing. This overview examines the specific contribution of sleep to human hippocampal memory processing; both the detriments caused by a lack of sleep, and conversely, the proactive benefits that develop following the presence of sleep. First, a role for sleep before learning is discussed, preparing the hippocampus for initial memory encoding. Second, a role for sleep after learning is considered, modulating the post-encoding consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory. Third, a model is outlined in which these encoding and consolidation operations are symbiotically accomplished, associated with specific NREM sleep physiological oscillations. As a result, the optimal network outcome is achieved, increasing hippocampal independence and hence overnight consolidation, while restoring next-day sparse hippocampal encoding capacity for renewed learning ability upon awakening. Finally, emerging evidence is considered suggesting that, unlike previous conceptions, sleep does not universally consolidate all information equally. Instead, and based on explicit as well as motivational cues during initial encoding, sleep executes the discriminatory offline consolidation only of select information. Consequently, sleep promotes the targeted strengthening of some memories while actively forgetting others; a proposal with significant theoretical and clinical ramifications.

  4. Wireless remote monitoring system for sleep apnea

    Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Sleep plays the important role of rejuvenating the body, especially the central nervous system. However, more than thirty million people suffer from sleep disorders and sleep deprivation. That can cause serious health consequences by increasing the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart attack and so on. Apart from the physical health risk, sleep disorders can lead to social problems when sleep disorders are not diagnosed and treated. Currently, sleep disorders are diagnosed through sleep study in a sleep laboratory overnight. This involves large expenses in addition to the inconvenience of overnight hospitalization and disruption of daily life activities. Although some systems provide home based diagnosis, most of systems record the sleep data in a memory card, the patient has to face the inconvenience of sending the memory card to a doctor for diagnosis. To solve the problem, we propose a wireless sensor system for sleep apnea, which enables remote monitoring while the patient is at home. The system has 5 channels to measure ECG, Nasal airflow, body position, abdominal/chest efforts and oxygen saturation. A wireless transmitter unit transmits signals with Zigbee and a receiver unit which has two RF modules, Zigbee and Wi-Fi, receives signals from the transmitter unit and retransmits signals to the remote monitoring system with Zigbee and Wi-Fi, respectively. By using both Zigbee and Wi-Fi, the wireless sensor system can achieve a low power consumption and wide range coverage. The system's features are presented, as well as continuous monitoring results of vital signals.

  5. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    ... Overview Testing Process & Results CPAP Overview Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient ...

  6. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    ... Overview Testing Process & Results CPAP Overview Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient ...

  7. Chronically Restricted Sleep Leads to Depression-Like Changes in Neurotransmitter Receptor Sensitivity and Neuroendocrine Stress Reactivity in Rats

    Novati, Arianna; Roman, Viktor; Cetin, Timur; Hagewoud, Roelina; den Boer, Johan A.; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Meerlo, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Frequently disrupted and restricted sleep is a common problem for many people in our Western society. In the long run, insufficient sleep may have repercussions for health and may sensitize individuals to psychiatric diseases. In this context, we applied an animal model of chronic

  8. Increased sleep depth in developing neural networks: new insights from sleep restriction in children

    Salome Kurth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain networks respond to sleep deprivation or restriction with increased sleep depth, which is quantified as slow-wave activity (SWA in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG. When adults are sleep deprived, this homeostatic response is most pronounced over prefrontal brain regions. However, it is unknown how children’s developing brain networks respond to acute sleep restriction, and whether this response is linked to myelination, an ongoing process in childhood that is critical for brain development and cortical integration. We implemented a bedtime delay protocol in 5- to 12-year-old children to obtain partial sleep restriction (1-night; 50% of their habitual sleep. High-density sleep EEG was assessed during habitual and restricted sleep and brain myelin content was obtained using mcDESPOT magnetic resonance imaging. The effect of sleep restriction was analyzed using statistical non-parametric mapping with supra-threshold cluster analysis. We observed a localized homeostatic SWA response following sleep restriction in a specific parieto-occipital region. The restricted/habitual SWA ratio was negatively associated with myelin water fraction (MWF in the optic radiation, a developing fiber bundle. This relationship occurred bilaterally over parieto-temporal areas and was adjacent to, but did not overlap with the parieto-occipital region showing the most pronounced homeostatic SWA response. These results provide evidence for increased sleep need in posterior neural networks in children. Sleep need in parieto-temporal areas is related to myelin content, yet it remains speculative whether age-related myelin growth drives the fading of the posterior homeostatic SWA response during the transition to adulthood. Whether chronic insufficient sleep in the sensitive period of early life alters the anatomical generators of deep sleep slow-waves is an important unanswered question.

  9. Automatic REM Sleep Detection Associated with Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    2011-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a strong early marker of later development of Parkinsonism. Currently there are no objective methods to identify and discriminate abnormal from normal motor activity during REM sleep. Therefore, a REM sleep detection without the use of chin...... electromyography (EMG) is useful. This is addressed by analyzing the classification performance when implementing two automatic REM sleep detectors. The first detector uses the electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG) and EMG to detect REM sleep, while the second detector only uses the EEG and EOG....... Method: Ten normal controls and ten age matched patients diagnosed with RBD were enrolled. All subjects underwent one polysomnographic (PSG) recording, which was manual scored according to the new sleep-scoring standard from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Based on the manual scoring...

  10. Pilot study of the efficacy and safety of lettuce seed oil in patients with sleep disorders

    Yakoot M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Yakoot1, Sherine Helmy2, Kamal Fawal31Green Clinic Research Center, 2Pharco Pharmaceutical Company, 3Mamorah Psychiatric Hospital, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: Lactuca sativa (garden lettuce is a popular salad herb. It has been in use in folk medicine since ancient times as both an appetite stimulant and as an aid to sleep. L. sativa seed oil (Sedan® has demonstrated a pronounced sedative effect and potentiated the hypnotic effect of barbiturates in animal models. It also exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effects of L. sativa in patients suffering from insomnia.Methods: Sixty patients suffering from insomnia with or without anxiety were randomized to receive capsules containing L. sativa seed oil 1000 mg (n = 30 or placebo (n = 30. All patients were asked to complete a verbal questionnaire before the start of the trial and 1 week after starting treatment.Results: Improvements in the modified State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Sleep rating scale scores were significantly greater in patients receiving L. sativa seed oil compared with those on placebo (P < 0.05. No side effects were found to be attributable to L. sativa seed oil at the given dosage.Conclusion: L. sativa seed oil was found to be a useful sleeping aid and may be a hazard-free line of treatment, especially in geriatric patients suffering from mild-to-moderate forms of anxiety and sleeping difficulties.Keywords: Lactuca sativa seed oil, insomnia, sleeping disorder, anxiety

  11. Rapid eye movement-sleep is reduced in patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis—an observational study

    Huang, Chenxi; Alamili, Mahdi; Nielsen, Claus Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Sleep disturbances are commonly found in patients in the postoperative period. Sleep disturbances may give rise to several complications including cardiopulmonary instability, transient cognitive dysfunction and prolonged convalescence. Many factors including host inflammatory respo...... eye movement sleep and fatigue. Conclusion. Total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep were reduced during nights with active diverticulitis and correlated with markers of inflammation....

  12. [Neurochemical mechanisms of sleep regulation].

    2009-01-01

    Sleep is a complex, global and reversible behavioral state of all mammals, that is homeostatically regulated. Generally it is also defined as a rapidly reversible state of immobility and reduced sensory responsiveness. Still, there is no definition that has succeded in satisfying all aspects of sleep. The failure to define sleep as a single behavior lies in several facts: (1) sleep is not a homogenous state, but continuum of number of mixed states; (2) the control mechanisms of sleep are manifested at all levels of biological organization--from genes and intracellular mechanisms to the networks of neuronal populations within the central nervous system that control movement, arousal, autonomic functions, behavior and cognition; (3) the activity and interactions of these neurochemically greatly heterogenous neuronal populations are dependent of two biological rhythms--the circadian rhythm of wake/sleep and periodic cycles of NREM/REM sleep as two main sleep states. There are several levels of sleep control. The brain forebrain areas serve to control neuropsychology of dreaming; thalamo-cortical system controls NREM sleep rhythms, EEG activation and deactivation; hippocampo-cortical system controls memory consolidation; hypothalamic nuclei are the sources of circadian rhythm and sleep onset control; the control of periodic NREM/REM cycling is within the pons. The wake promoting neuronal populations are within the brainstem, midbrain, hypothalamus and basal forebrain. The main pontine wake-promoting centers are the noradrenergic neurons of locus coeruleus, the serotonergic neurons of dorsal raphe nucleus and the cholinerigic neurons of pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. The reciprocal connections and interactions of these neurons, and their opposite discharge pattern activity from wake to NREM and REM sleep have been the background of reciprocal interaction hypothesis of REM sleep generation. The wake-promoting neurons at the

  13. Is sleep deprivation a contributor to obesity in children?

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Chronic lack of sleep (called "sleep deprivation") is common in modern societies with 24/7 availability of commodities. Accumulating evidence supports the role of reduced sleep as contributing to the current obesity epidemic in children and youth. Longitudinal studies have consistently shown that short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and the development of obesity. Recent experimental studies have reported that sleep restriction leads to weight gain in humans. Increased food intake appears to be the main mechanism by which insufficient sleep results in weight gain. Voluntary sleep restriction has been shown to increase snacking, the number of meals eaten per day, and the preference for energy-dense foods. Although the causes of sleep loss in the pediatric population are numerous, more research looking at screen exposure before bedtime and its effects on sleep is needed given the pervasiveness of electronic media devices in today's environment. Health professionals should routinely ask questions about sleep and promote a good night's sleep because insufficient sleep impacts activity and eating behaviors. Future research should examine the clinical benefits of increasing sleep duration on eating behaviors and body weight control and determine the importance of adequate sleep to improve the treatment of obesity.

  14. Multifractal Analysis of Human Heartbeat in Sleep

    Ding, Liang-Jing; Peng, Hu; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhou, Pei-Ling

    2007-07-01

    We study the dynamical properties of heart rate variability (HRV) in sleep by analysing the scaling behaviour with the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis method. It is well known that heart rate is regulated by the interaction of two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. By investigating the multifractal properties of light, deep, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and wake stages, we firstly find an increasing multifractal behaviour during REM sleep which may be caused by augmented sympathetic activities relative to non-REM sleep. In addition, the investigation of long-range correlations of HRV in sleep with second order detrended fluctuation analysis presents irregular phenomena. These findings may be helpful to understand the underlying regulating mechanism of heart rate by autonomic nervous system during wake-sleep transitions.

  15. Multifractal Analysis of Human Heartbeat in Sleep

    DING Liang-Jing; PENG Hu; CAI Shi-Min; ZHOU Pei-Ling

    2007-01-01

    We study the dynamical properties of heart rate variability (HRV) in sleep by analysing the scaling behaviour with the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis method. It is well known that heart rate is regulated by the interaction of two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. By investigating the multifractal properties of light, deep, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and wake stages, we firstly find an increasing multifractal behaviour during REM sleep which may be caused by augmented sympathetic activities relative to non-REM sleep. In addition, the investigation of long-range correlations of HRV in sleep with second order detrended fluctuation analysis presents irregular phenomena. These findings may be helpful to understand the underlying regulating mechanism of heart rate by autonomic nervous system during wake-sleep transitions.

  16. SLEEP DISORDERS, SLEEP APNEA. AND STROKE

    ANTONIO CULEBRAS, M.D

    2000-01-01

    @@Sleep is the natural suspension of consciousness during which the powers of the body are restored Sleep recurs with remarkable periodicity in alliance with the geocosmic cycle and in compliance with the circadian rhythms of the body.

  17. A microstructural study of sleep instability in drug-naive patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: sleep spindles, rapid eye movements, and muscle atonia.

    Guénolé, Fabian; Chevrier, Elyse; Stip, Emmanuel; Godbout, Roger

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the functional stability of sleep in schizophrenia by quantifying dissociated stages of sleep (DSS), and to explore their correlation with psychopathology. The sleep of 10 first-break, drug-naive young adults with schizophrenia and 10 co