WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity similar effects

  1. Can "CANISO" Activate "CASINO"? Transposed-Letter Similarity Effects with Nonadjacent Letter Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Nonwords created by transposing two "adjacent" letters (i.e., transposed-letter (TL) nonwords like "jugde") are very effective at activating the lexical representation of their base words. This fact poses problems for most computational models of word recognition (e.g., the interactive-activation model and its extensions), which assume that exact…

  2. Exploiting object constancy: effects of active exploration and shape morphing on similarity judgments of novel objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haemy; Wallraven, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Humans are experts at shape processing. This expertise has been learned and fine tuned by actively manipulating and perceiving thousands of objects during development. Therefore, shape processing possesses an active component and a perceptual component. Here, we investigate both components in six experiments in which participants view and/or interact with novel, parametrically defined 3D objects using a touch-screen interface. For probing shape processing, we use a similarity rating task. In Experiments 1-3, we show that active manipulation leads to a better perceptual reconstruction of the physical parameter space than judging rotating objects, or passively viewing someone else's exploration pattern. In Experiment 4, we exploit object constancy-the fact that the visual system assumes that objects do not change their identity during manipulation. We show that slow morphing of an object during active manipulation systematically biases similarity ratings-despite the participants being unaware of the morphing. Experiments 5 and 6 investigate the time course of integrating shape information by restricting the morphing to the first and second half of the trial only. Interestingly, the results indicate that participants do not seem to integrate shape information beyond 5 s of exploration time. Finally, Experiment 7 uses a secondary task that suggests that the previous results are not simply due to lack of attention during the later parts of the trial. In summary, our results demonstrate the advantage of active manipulation for shape processing and indicate a continued, perceptual integration of complex shape information within a time window of a few seconds during object interactions.

  3. Cold modalities with different thermodynamic properties have similar effects on muscular performance and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A; Oliveira, A B; Costa, J R; Herrera, E; Salvini, T F

    2013-10-01

    Although tissue cooling is widely used in the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries there is still controversy about its effects on muscular performance. The combination of cooling and exercise justifies the study of this topic. The aim was to compare the effects of ice pack and cold-water immersion on the muscular performance parameters of plantar flexors and muscular activation of the triceps surae. 41 healthy men (mean age: 22.1 years, SD: 2.9) were randomly assigned to cooling with either ice pack (n=20) or cold-water immersion (n=21). Independent variables were cold modality (ice pack or cold-water immersion) and pre- and post-cooling measurement time. Dependent variables were muscular performance (measured during isometric and concentric contractions of plantar flexors) and electromyography parameters of the triceps surae (median frequency and root mean square amplitude). Dependent-samples t-tests were used to compare pre- and post-cooling data and independent-samples t-tests were used to compare the difference (pre- and post-cooling) between groups. Ice pack increased isometric peak torque (mean: 9.00 Nm, P=0.01) and both cold modalities reduced muscular activation in triceps surae (Pimmersion and ice pack reduced peak torque and total work during dynamic isokinetic contraction at both velocities (mean: -11,00 Nm, Pimmersion decrease concentric muscular performance. These results indicate that these cooling methods should be chosen with caution, considering the type of task required during training or rehabilitation. New studies investigating other muscle groups and joints are necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. MDMA (N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) and its stereoisomers: Similarities and differences in behavioral effects in an automated activity apparatus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard; Glennon, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Racemic MDMA (0.3-30 mg/kg), S(+)-MDMA (0.3-30 mg/kg), R(-)-MDMA (0.3-50 mg/kg) and saline vehicle (10 ml/kg) were comprehensively evaluated in fully automated and computer-integrated activity chambers, which were designed for mice, and provided a detailed analysis of the frequency, location, and/or duration of 18 different activities. The results indicated that MDMA and its isomers produced stimulation of motor actions, with S(+)-MDMA and (+/-)-MDMA usually being more potent than R(-)-MDMA in measures such as movement (time, distance, velocity), margin distance, rotation (clockwise and counterclockwise), and retraced activities. Interestingly, racemic MDMA appeared to exert a greater than expected potency and/or an enhanced effect on measures such as movement episodes, center actions (entries and distance), clockwise rotations, and jumps; actions that might be explained by additive or synergistic (i.e. potentiation) effects of the stereoisomers. In other measures, the enantiomers displayed different effects: S(+)-MDMA produced a preference to induce counterclockwise (versus clockwise) rotations, and each isomer exerted a different profile of effect on vertical activities and jumps. Furthermore, each isomer of MDMA appeared to attenuate the effect of its opposite enantiomer on some behaviors; antagonism effects that were surmised from a lack of expected activities by racemic MDMA. S(+)-MDMA (but not R(-)-MDMA), for example, produced an increase in vertical entries (rearing) and a preference to increase counterclockwise (versus clockwise) rotations; (+/-)-MDMA also should have induced such effects but did not. Apparently, R(-)-MDMA, when combined with S(+)-MDMA to form (+/-)-MDMA, prevented the appearance of those increases (from control) in activities. Similarly, R(-)-MDMA (but not S(+)-MDMA) produced increases in episodes (i.e. jumps) and vertical distance that racemic MDMA also should have, but were not, exhibited. Evidently, the presence of S(+)-MDMA in the

  5. Extending the Similarity-Attraction Effect : The effects of When-Similarity in mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Castaneda, D.; Fernandez, N.; Nass, C.

    2014-01-01

    The feeling of connectedness experienced in computer-mediated relationships can be explained by the similarity-attraction effect (SAE). Though SAE is well established in psychology, the effects of some types of similarity have not yet been explored. In 2 studies, we demonstrate similarity-attraction

  6. Phonological similarity effect in complex span task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camos, Valérie; Mora, Gérôme; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that two systems are involved in verbal working memory; one is specifically dedicated to the maintenance of phonological representations through verbal rehearsal while the other would maintain multimodal representations through attentional refreshing. This theoretical framework predicts that phonologically related phenomena such as the phonological similarity effect (PSE) should occur when the domain-specific system is involved in maintenance, but should disappear when concurrent articulation hinders its use. Impeding maintenance in the domain-general system by a concurrent attentional demand should impair recall performance without affecting PSE. In three experiments, we manipulated the concurrent articulation and the attentional demand induced by the processing component of complex span tasks in which participants had to maintain lists of either similar or dissimilar words. Confirming our predictions, PSE affected recall performance in complex span tasks. Although both the attentional demand and the articulatory requirement of the concurrent task impaired recall, only the induction of an articulatory suppression during maintenance made the PSE disappear. These results suggest a duality in the systems devoted to verbal maintenance in the short term, constraining models of working memory.

  7. A Similarity Analysis of Audio Signal to Develop a Human Activity Recognition Using Similarity Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra García-Hernández

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human Activity Recognition (HAR is one of the main subjects of study in the areas of computer vision and machine learning due to the great benefits that can be achieved. Examples of the study areas are: health prevention, security and surveillance, automotive research, and many others. The proposed approaches are carried out using machine learning techniques and present good results. However, it is difficult to observe how the descriptors of human activities are grouped. In order to obtain a better understanding of the the behavior of descriptors, it is important to improve the abilities to recognize the human activities. This paper proposes a novel approach for the HAR based on acoustic data and similarity networks. In this approach, we were able to characterize the sound of the activities and identify those activities looking for similarity in the sound pattern. We evaluated the similarity of the sounds considering mainly two features: the sound location and the materials that were used. As a result, the materials are a good reference classifying the human activities compared with the location.

  8. [-25]A Similarity Analysis of Audio Signal to Develop a Human Activity Recognition Using Similarity Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Alejandra; Galván-Tejada, Carlos E; Galván-Tejada, Jorge I; Celaya-Padilla, José M; Gamboa-Rosales, Hamurabi; Velasco-Elizondo, Perla; Cárdenas-Vargas, Rogelio

    2017-11-21

    Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is one of the main subjects of study in the areas of computer vision and machine learning due to the great benefits that can be achieved. Examples of the study areas are: health prevention, security and surveillance, automotive research, and many others. The proposed approaches are carried out using machine learning techniques and present good results. However, it is difficult to observe how the descriptors of human activities are grouped. In order to obtain a better understanding of the the behavior of descriptors, it is important to improve the abilities to recognize the human activities. This paper proposes a novel approach for the HAR based on acoustic data and similarity networks. In this approach, we were able to characterize the sound of the activities and identify those activities looking for similarity in the sound pattern. We evaluated the similarity of the sounds considering mainly two features: the sound location and the materials that were used. As a result, the materials are a good reference classifying the human activities compared with the location.

  9. Reversing the similarity effect: The effect of presentation format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Andrea M; Cohen, Andrew L

    2018-06-01

    A context effect is a change in preference that occurs when alternatives are added to a choice set. Models of preferential choice that account for context effects largely assume a within-dimension comparison process. It has been shown, however, that the format in which a choice set is presented can influence comparison strategies. That is, a by-alternative or by-dimension grouping of the dimension values encourage within-alternative or within-dimension comparisons, respectively. For example, one classic context effect, the compromise effect, is strengthened by a by-dimension presentation format. Extrapolation from this result suggests that a second context effect, the similarity effect, will actually reverse when stimuli are presented in a by-dimension format. In the current study, we presented participants with a series of apartment choice sets designed to elicit the similarity effect, with either a by-alternative or by-dimension presentation format. Participants in the by-alternative condition demonstrated a standard similarity effect; however, participants in the by-dimension condition demonstrated a strong reverse similarity effect. The present data can be accounted for by Multialternative Decision Field Theory (MDFT) and the Multiattribute Linear Ballistic Accumulator (MLBA), but not Elimination by Aspects (EBA). Indeed, when some weak assumptions of within-dimension processes are met, MDFT and the MLBA predict the reverse similarity effect. These modeling results suggest that the similarity effect is governed by either forgetting and inhibition (MDFT), or attention to positive or negative differences (MLBA). These results demonstrate that flexibility in the comparison process needs to be incorporated into theories of preferential choice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Drug target identification using side-effect similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Targets for drugs have so far been predicted on the basis of molecular or cellular features, for example, by exploiting similarity in chemical structure or in activity across cell lines. We used phenotypic side-effect similarities to infer whether two drugs share a target. Applied to 746 marketed...... drugs, a network of 1018 side effect-driven drug-drug relations became apparent, 261 of which are formed by chemically dissimilar drugs from different therapeutic indications. We experimentally tested 20 of these unexpected drug-drug relations and validated 13 implied drug-target relations by in vitro...... binding assays, of which 11 reveal inhibition constants equal to less than 10 micromolar. Nine of these were tested and confirmed in cell assays, documenting the feasibility of using phenotypic information to infer molecular interactions and hinting at new uses of marketed drugs....

  11. The Effect of Script Similarity on Executive Control in Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L Coderre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for executive control (EC during bilingual language processing is thought to enhance these abilities, conferring a ‘bilingual advantage’ on EC tasks. Recently, the reliability and robustness of the bilingual advantage has been questioned, with many variables reportedly affecting the size and presence of the bilingual advantage. This study investigates one further variable that may affect bilingual EC abilities: the similarity of a bilingual’s two languages. We hypothesize that bilinguals whose two languages have a larger degree of orthographic overlap will require greater EC to manage their languages compared to bilinguals who use two languages with less overlap. We tested three groups of bilinguals with language pairs ranging from high- to low-similarity (German-English (GE, Polish-English (PE, and Arabic-English (AE, respectively and a group of English monolinguals on a Stroop and Simon task. Two components of the bilingual advantage were investigated: an interference advantage, such that bilinguals have smaller interference effects than monolinguals; and a global RT advantage, such that bilinguals are faster overall than monolinguals. Between bilingual groups, these effects were expected to be modulated by script similarity. AE bilinguals showed the smallest Stroop interference effects, but the longest overall RTs in both tasks. These seemingly contradictory results are explained by the presence of cross-linguistic interference in the Stroop task. We conclude that similar-script bilinguals demonstrated more effective domain-general EC than different-script bilinguals, since high orthographic overlap creates more cross-linguistic activation and increases the daily demands on cognitive control. The role of individual variation is also discussed. These results suggest that script similarity is an important variable to consider in investigations of bilingual executive control abilities.

  12. MDMA (N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) and its Stereoisomers: Similarities and Differences in Behavioral Effects in an Automated Activity Apparatus in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Richard; Glennon, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Racemic MDMA (0.3 – 30 mg/kg), S(+)-MDMA (0.3 – 30 mg/kg), R(-)-MDMA (0.3 – 50 mg/kg) and saline vehicle (10 ml/kg) were comprehensively evaluated in fully automated and computer-integrated activity chambers, which were designed for mice, and provided a detailed analysis of the frequency, location, and/or duration of 18 different activities. The results indicated that MDMA and its isomers produced stimulation of motor actions, with S(+)-MDMA and (±)-MDMA usually being more potent than R(-)-MD...

  13. Similar effectiveness of Fab and F(ab')2 antivenoms in the neutralization of hemorrhagic activity of Vipera berus snake venom in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lomonte, Bruno; León Montero, Guillermo; Hanson, Lars Ake

    1996-01-01

    The ability of two antivenoms to Vipera spp., consisting of Fab (Therapeutic Antibodies), or of F(ab′)2 (Zagreb Institute of Immunology) antibody fragments, to neutralize the hemorrhagic activity of Vipera berus snake venom in mice, was compared. First, the neutralizing potency was determined by in vitro preincubation of venom and antivenom, followed by intradermal injection into mice and subsequent measurement of the hemorrhagic area. Both antivenoms had the same anti-hemorrhagic potency, in...

  14. Activation analysis. A basis for chemical similarity and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeck, J OP de [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Instituut voor Kernwetenschappen

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that activation analysis is especially suited to serve as a basis for determining the chemical similarity between samples defined by their trace-element concentration patterns. The general problem of classification and identification is discussed. The nature of possible classification structures and their appropriate clustering strategies is considered. A practical computer method is suggested and its application as well as the graphical representation of classification results are given. The possibility for classification using information theory is mentioned. Classification of chemical elements is discussed and practically realized after Hadamard transformation of the concentration variation patterns in a series of samples.

  15. Engaging narratives evoke similar neural activity and lead to similar time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Samantha S; Henin, Simon; Parra, Lucas C

    2017-07-04

    It is said that we lose track of time - that "time flies" - when we are engrossed in a story. How does engagement with the story cause this distorted perception of time, and what are its neural correlates? People commit both time and attentional resources to an engaging stimulus. For narrative videos, attentional engagement can be represented as the level of similarity between the electroencephalographic responses of different viewers. Here we show that this measure of neural engagement predicted the duration of time that viewers were willing to commit to narrative videos. Contrary to popular wisdom, engagement did not distort the average perception of time duration. Rather, more similar brain responses resulted in a more uniform perception of time across viewers. These findings suggest that by capturing the attention of an audience, narrative videos bring both neural processing and the subjective perception of time into synchrony.

  16. Extending the Similarity-Attraction Effect: The Effects of When-Similarity in Computer-Mediated Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Castaneda, D.; Fernandez, N.; Nass, C.

    2014-01-01

    The feeling of connectedness experienced in computer-mediated relationships can be explained by the similarity-attraction effect (SAE). Though SAE is well established in psychology, the effects of some types of similarity have not yet been explored. In 2 studies, we demonstrate similarity-attraction

  17. Interference effects in learning similar sequences of discrete movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijker, J.M.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Beek, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine proactive and retroactive interference effects in learning two similar sequences of discrete movements. In each experiment, the participants in the experimental group practiced two movement sequences on consecutive days (1 on each day, order

  18. Contrasting ecosystem-effects of morphologically similar copepods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Matthews

    Full Text Available Organisms alter the biotic and abiotic conditions of ecosystems. They can modulate the availability of resources to other species (ecosystem engineering and shape selection pressures on other organisms (niche construction. Very little is known about how the engineering effects of organisms vary among and within species, and, as a result, the ecosystem consequences of species diversification and phenotypic evolution are poorly understood. Here, using a common gardening experiment, we test whether morphologically similar species and populations of Diaptomidae copepods (Leptodiaptomus ashlandi, Hesperodiaptomus franciscanus, Skistodiaptomus oregonensis have similar or different effects on the structure and function of freshwater ecosystems. We found that copepod species had contrasting effects on algal biomass, ammonium concentrations, and sedimentation rates, and that copepod populations had contrasting effects on prokaryote abundance, sedimentation rates, and gross primary productivity. The average size of ecosystem-effect contrasts between species was similar to those between populations, and was comparable to those between fish species and populations measured in previous common gardening experiments. Our results suggest that subtle morphological variation among and within species can cause multifarious and divergent ecosystem-effects. We conclude that using morphological trait variation to assess the functional similarity of organisms may underestimate the importance of species and population diversity for ecosystem functioning.

  19. Physical activity for health: examining similarities and differences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the face of a rising diabetes epidemic, a target population for prevention programme is the children of patients with type 2 diabetes. This study examined physical activity of patients with type 2 diabetes and that of their adult children, and characterized the factors associated with physical inactivity among the participants.

  20. Similarities between the irrelevant sound effect and the suffix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J Richard; Bourgaize, Jake

    2018-03-29

    Although articulatory suppression abolishes the effect of irrelevant sound (ISE) on serial recall when sequences are presented visually, the effect persists with auditory presentation of list items. Two experiments were designed to test the claim that, when articulation is suppressed, the effect of irrelevant sound on the retention of auditory lists resembles a suffix effect. A suffix is a spoken word that immediately follows the final item in a list. Even though participants are told to ignore it, the suffix impairs serial recall of auditory lists. In Experiment 1, the irrelevant sound consisted of instrumental music. The music generated a significant ISE that was abolished by articulatory suppression. It therefore appears that, when articulation is suppressed, irrelevant sound must contain speech for it to have any effect on recall. This is consistent with what is known about the suffix effect. In Experiment 2, the effect of irrelevant sound under articulatory suppression was greater when the irrelevant sound was spoken by the same voice that presented the list items. This outcome is again consistent with the known characteristics of the suffix effect. It therefore appears that, when rehearsal is suppressed, irrelevant sound disrupts the acoustic-perceptual encoding of auditorily presented list items. There is no evidence that the persistence of the ISE under suppression is a result of interference to the representation of list items in a postcategorical phonological store.

  1. The Relationship of Cultural Similarity, Communication Effectiveness and Uncertainty Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Jolene; Olebe, Margaret

    To investigate the relationship of cultural similarity/dissimilarity, communication effectiveness, and communication variables associated with uncertainty reduction theory, a study examined two groups of students--a multinational group living on an "international floor" in a dormitory at a state university and an unrelated group of U.S.…

  2. The Moderating Role of Cultural Similarity in Leadership Training Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiumei Jane; Jiang, Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the moderating role of cultural similarity between leaders and followers on leadership training effectiveness in terms of followers' fairness perception and organizational citizenship behavior. Design/methodology/approach: A quasi-experiment was conducted with 40 managers from international corporations as the…

  3. Being similar while judging right and wrong: The effects of personal and situational similarity on moral judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Emilia

    2017-07-20

    This study investigated the effects of similarity with the transgressor and the victim on the perceived immorality of the transgression. Participants read two stories describing a person that cheated on their partner and a police officer that mistreated somebody. In the first story we manipulated participants' personal similarity to the transgressor and in the second their personal similarity to the victim. In each story, participants' past situational similarity to the target character was assessed according to their previous experiences of being in the same position. Results show that both personal and past situational similarity to the transgressor determine less severe moral judgements, while personal and past situational similarity with the victim have the opposite effect. We also tested several potential mediators of these effects, derived from competing theoretical accounts of the influence of similarity on perceived responsibility. Empathy emerged as mediating most of the effects of similarity on moral judgements, except those induced by past situational similarity with the victim. The foreseen probability of being in a similar situation mediated only the effects of similarity to the transgressor, and not those of similarity to the victim. Overall, results highlight the complex mechanisms of the influences of similarity on moral judgements. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. Lineup member similarity effects on children's eyewitness identification

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Ryan J.; Whiting, Brittany F.; Therrien, Natalie M.; Price, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    To date, research investigating the similarity among lineup members has focused on adult eyewitnesses. In the present research, children made identifications from lineups containing members of lower or higher similarity to a target person. In Experiment 1, following a live interaction, children's (6–14 years) correct identification rate was reduced in higher-similarity relative to lower-similarity lineups. In Experiment 2, children (6–12 years) and adults watched a video containing a target p...

  5. Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

  6. Effective Results Analysis for the Similar Software Products’ Orthogonality

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Ivan; Daniel Milodin

    2009-01-01

    It is defined the concept of similar software. There are established conditions of archiving the software components. It is carried out the orthogonality evaluation and the correlation between the orthogonality and the complexity of the homogenous software components is analyzed. Shall proceed to build groups of similar software products, belonging to the orthogonality intervals. There are presented in graphical form the results of the analysis. There are detailed aspects of the functioning o...

  7. Effective Results Analysis for the Similar Software Products’ Orthogonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ivan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It is defined the concept of similar software. There are established conditions of archiving the software components. It is carried out the orthogonality evaluation and the correlation between the orthogonality and the complexity of the homogenous software components is analyzed. Shall proceed to build groups of similar software products, belonging to the orthogonality intervals. There are presented in graphical form the results of the analysis. There are detailed aspects of the functioning of the software product allocated for the orthogonality.

  8. [Similarity of cycloprolylglycine to piracetam in antihypoxic and neuroprotective effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolisnikova, K N; Gudasheva, T A; Nazarova, G A; Antipov, T A; Voronina, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2012-01-01

    The antihypoxic activity of the endogenous cyclic dipeptide cycloprolylglycine (CPG) has been studied on a model of normobaric hypoxia with hypercapnia and its neuroprotective activity has been studied on a model of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell damage by 6-hydroxydopamine. It is established that CPG exhibits the antihypoxic activity at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg (i.p.) on outbred and BALB/c mice, but not on C57B1/6 mice. The neuroprotective activity of CPG was detected in 10(-5) - 10(-8) M concentration range only when the treatment was carried out 24h before toxin introduction. The obtained data confirm the hypothesis that piracetam is a mimetic of the endogenous CPG neuropeptide.

  9. Similarities in functional attributes and nutritional effects of magadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... effects of magadi soda and bean debris-ash used in cooking ... observed, communities should be informed of the negative nutritional effects of these condiments so as .... Sodium levels were significantly (P 三 0.05) lower.

  10. Similarity of hydrolyzing activity of human and rat small intestinal disaccharidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oku T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsuneyuki Oku¹, Kenichi Tanabe¹, Shigeharu Ogawa², Naoki Sadamori¹, Sadako Nakamura¹¹Graduate School of Human Health Science, University of Nagasaki, Siebold, Nagayo, Japan; ²Juzenkai Hospital, Kagomachi, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to clarify whether it is possible to extrapolate results from studies of the hydrolyzing activity of disaccharidases from rats to humans.Materials and methods: We measured disaccharidase activity in humans and rats using identical preparation and assay methods, and investigated the similarity in hydrolyzing activity. Small intestinal samples without malignancy were donated by five patients who had undergone bladder tumor surgery, and homogenates were prepared to measure disaccharidase activity. Adult rat homogenates were prepared using small intestine.Results: Maltase activity was the highest among the five disaccharidases, followed by sucrase and then palatinase in humans and rats. Trehalase activity was slightly lower than that of palatinase in humans and was similar to that of sucrase in rats. Lactase activity was the lowest in humans, but was similar to that of palatinase in rats. Thus, the hydrolyzing activity of five disaccharidases was generally similar in humans and rats. The relative activity of sucrose and palatinase versus maltase was generally similar between humans and rats. The ratio of rat to human hydrolyzing activity of maltase, sucrase, and palatinase was 1.9–3.1, but this was not a significant difference. Leaf extract from Morus alba strongly inhibited the activity of maltase, sucrase, and palatinase, but not trehalase and lactase, and the degree of inhibition was similar in humans and rats. L-arabinose mildly inhibited sucrase activity, but hardly inhibited the activity of maltase, palatinase, trehalase and lactase in humans and rats. The digestibility of 1-kestose, galactosylsucrose, and panose by small intestinal enzymes was very similar between humans and

  11. Methanol extract of grain dust shows complement fixing activity and other characteristics similar to tannic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skea, D; Broder, I

    1986-01-01

    We have found several similarities between tannic acid and grain dust extract prepared with methanol. Both formed a precipitate with IgG, and these interactions were inhibited by albumin. In addition, both preparations fixed complement; this activity was heat stable and was removed by prior adsorption of the preparations with hide powder. Adsorption with polyvinyl polypyrrolidone reduced the complement-fixing activity of tannic acid but not that of the methanol grain dust extract. The similarities between tannic acid and the methanol grain dust extract are consistent with the presence of a tannin or tanninlike material in grain dust. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:3709479

  12. George gives to geology Jane: The name letter effect and incidental similarity cues in fundraising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    People tend to like others with attributes similar to their own (the similarity principle) and favor products with names similar to their own (the name letter effect). In the present field experiment, the name letter effect and similarity principle are tested in a phonaton among alumni of Utrecht

  13. George gives to geology Jane : the name letter effect and incidental similarity cues in fundraising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René H.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    - People tend to like others with attributes similar to their own (the similarity principle) and favor products with names similar to their own (the name letter effect). - In the present field experiment, the name letter effect and similarity principle are tested in a phonaton among alumni of

  14. High-Throughput Gene Expression Profiles to Define Drug Similarity and Predict Compound Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wolf, Hans; Cougnaud, Laure; Van Hoorde, Kirsten; De Bondt, An; Wegner, Joerg K; Ceulemans, Hugo; Göhlmann, Hinrich

    2018-04-01

    By adding biological information, beyond the chemical properties and desired effect of a compound, uncharted compound areas and connections can be explored. In this study, we add transcriptional information for 31K compounds of Janssen's primary screening deck, using the HT L1000 platform and assess (a) the transcriptional connection score for generating compound similarities, (b) machine learning algorithms for generating target activity predictions, and (c) the scaffold hopping potential of the resulting hits. We demonstrate that the transcriptional connection score is best computed from the significant genes only and should be interpreted within its confidence interval for which we provide the stats. These guidelines help to reduce noise, increase reproducibility, and enable the separation of specific and promiscuous compounds. The added value of machine learning is demonstrated for the NR3C1 and HSP90 targets. Support Vector Machine models yielded balanced accuracy values ≥80% when the expression values from DDIT4 & SERPINE1 and TMEM97 & SPR were used to predict the NR3C1 and HSP90 activity, respectively. Combining both models resulted in 22 new and confirmed HSP90-independent NR3C1 inhibitors, providing two scaffolds (i.e., pyrimidine and pyrazolo-pyrimidine), which could potentially be of interest in the treatment of depression (i.e., inhibiting the glucocorticoid receptor (i.e., NR3C1), while leaving its chaperone, HSP90, unaffected). As such, the initial hit rate increased by a factor 300, as less, but more specific chemistry could be screened, based on the upfront computed activity predictions.

  15. Are barriers to physical activity similar for adults with and without abnormal glucose metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Clare; Dunstan, David; Salmon, Jo; Healy, Genevieve; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Owen, Neville

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceived barriers to physical activity among adults with and without abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM), and whether barriers varied according to physical activity status. The 1999 to 2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) was a population-based cross-sectional study among adults aged > or =25 years. AGM was identified through an oral glucose tolerance test. The previous week's physical activity and individual, social, and environmental barriers to physical activity were self-reported. Logistic regression analyses examined differences in barriers to physical activity between those with and without AGM, and for those with and without AGM who did and did not meet the minimum recommendation of 150 minutes/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. Of the 7088 participants (47.5 +/- 12.7 years; 46% male), 18.5% had AGM. Approximately 47.5% of those with AGM met the physical activity recommendation, compared to 54.7% of those without AGM (P barriers to physical activity included lack of time, other priorities, and being tired. Following adjustment for sociodemographic and behavioral factors, there were few differences in barriers to physical activity between those with and without AGM, even after stratifying according to physical activity. Adults with AGM report similar barriers to physical activity, as do those without AGM. Programs for those with AGM can therefore focus on the known generic adult-reported barriers to physical activity.

  16. Priming of disability and elderly stereotype in motor performance: similar or specific effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Frederik; Rohmer, Odile; Louvet, Eva

    2012-04-01

    In three experimental studies, the effects of priming participants with the disability stereotype were investigated with respect to their subsequent motor performance. Also explored were effects of activating two similar stereotypes, persons with a disability and elderly people. In Study 1, participants were primed with the disability stereotype versus with a neutral prime, and then asked to perform on a motor coordination task. In Studies 2 and 3, a third condition was introduced: priming participants with the elderly stereotype. Results indicated that priming participants with the disability stereotype altered their motor performance: they showed decreased manual dexterity and performed slower than the non-primed participants. Priming with the elderly stereotype decreased only performance speed. These findings underline that prime-to-behavior effects may depend on activation of specific stereotype content.

  17. When the World Changes in Your Hands: Similarity Ratings of Objects Morphing during Active Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haemy Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available View-based theories of object recognition posit that coherent object representations are formed by linking together successive views of an actively explored object. This linking process relies on the assumption that the object does not change during exploration. Here, we test how object representations might be influenced when the shape of the object changes slowly during exploration. In our experiment, participants rated the similarity of two novel, 3D objects, whose shape was parametrically defined. Seventeen participants explored each object for 10 sec on an iPad which afforded natural and efficient interaction. The experiment contained a baseline condition, in which two objects of varying parameter-differences were presented, and a morphing condition, in which the first of the two objects slowly morphed during active exploration, making the objects more similar. Interestingly, no participant was aware of this morphing manipulation. Comparing baseline and morph trials, however, we found significantly higher similarity ratings during morphing [F(1,16 = 84.79, p < .001]. Furthermore, correlations between similarity ratings and differences in object parameters were high for the baseline condition (r = −.64, with smaller parameter differences being perceived as more similar. Interestingly, in the morphing condition correlations were lower for parameter differences after the morph (r = −.22, but remained high for differences before (r = −.47 and during morphing (r = −.50. In conclusion, similarity ratings in the baseline condition captured the complex parameter space well. Although participants did not notice the changing shape, morphing did systematically bias the ratings. Interestingly, similarity judgments correlated better in the initial exploration phase, suggesting a capacity limit for view integration of complex shapes.

  18. Bipolar I disorder and major depressive disorder show similar brain activation during depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Michael A; Eliassen, James C; Smith, Christopher T; Fleck, David E; Nelson, Erik B; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Lamy, Martine; DelBello, Melissa P; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2014-11-01

    Despite different treatments and courses of illness, depressive symptoms appear similar in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar I disorder (BP-I). This similarity of depressive symptoms suggests significant overlap in brain pathways underlying neurovegetative, mood, and cognitive symptoms of depression. These shared brain regions might be expected to exhibit similar activation in individuals with MDD and BP-I during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI was used to compare regional brain activation in participants with BP-I (n = 25) and MDD (n = 25) during a depressive episode as well as 25 healthy comparison (HC) participants. During the scans, participants performed an attentional task that incorporated emotional pictures. During the viewing of emotional images, subjects with BP-I showed decreased activation in the middle occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus compared to both subjects with MDD and HC participants. During attentional processing, participants with MDD had increased activation in the parahippocampus, parietal lobe, and postcentral gyrus. However, among these regions, only the postcentral gyrus also showed differences between MDD and HC participants. No differences in cortico-limbic regions were found between participants with BP-I and MDD during depression. Instead, the major differences occurred in primary and secondary visual processing regions, with decreased activation in these regions in BP-I compared to major depression. These differences were driven by abnormal decreases in activation seen in the participants with BP-I. Posterior activation changes are a common finding in studies across mood states in participants with BP-I. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Active site similarity between human and Plasmodium falciparum phosphodiesterases: considerations for antimalarial drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Brittany L.; Thompson, Philip E.; Manallack, David T.

    2011-08-01

    The similarity between Plasmodium falciparum phosphodiesterase enzymes ( PfPDEs) and their human counterparts have been examined and human PDE9A was found to be a suitable template for the construction of homology models for each of the four PfPDE isoforms. In contrast, the architecture of the active sites of each model was most similar to human PDE1. Molecular docking was able to model cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) substrate binding in each case but a docking mode supporting cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) binding could not be found. Anticipating the potential of PfPDE inhibitors as anti-malarial drugs, a range of reported PDE inhibitors including zaprinast and sildenafil were docked into the model of PfPDEα. The results were consistent with their reported biological activities, and the potential of PDE1/9 inhibitor analogues was also supported by docking.

  20. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsbeth Jensen-Otsu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E. 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01. There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09–2.90, but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use.

  1. Age-related similarities and differences in brain activity underlying reversal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru eNashiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to update associative memory is an important aspect of episodic memory and a critical skill for social adaptation. Previous research with younger adults suggests that emotional arousal alters brain mechanisms underlying memory updating; however, it is unclear whether this applies to older adults. Given that the ability to update associative information declines with age, it is important to understand how emotion modulates the brain processes underlying memory updating in older adults. The current study investigated this question using reversal learning tasks, where younger and older participants (age ranges 19-35 and 61-78 respectively learn a stimulus–outcome association and then update their response when contingencies change. We found that younger and older adults showed similar patterns of activation in the frontopolar OFC and the amygdala during emotional reversal learning. In contrast, when reversal learning did not involve emotion, older adults showed greater parietal cortex activity than did younger adults. Thus, younger and older adults show more similarities in brain activity during memory updating involving emotional stimuli than during memory updating not involving emotional stimuli.

  2. A unified frame of predicting side effects of drugs by using linear neighborhood similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Yue, Xiang; Liu, Feng; Chen, Yanlin; Tu, Shikui; Zhang, Xining

    2017-12-14

    Drug side effects are one of main concerns in the drug discovery, which gains wide attentions. Investigating drug side effects is of great importance, and the computational prediction can help to guide wet experiments. As far as we known, a great number of computational methods have been proposed for the side effect predictions. The assumption that similar drugs may induce same side effects is usually employed for modeling, and how to calculate the drug-drug similarity is critical in the side effect predictions. In this paper, we present a novel measure of drug-drug similarity named "linear neighborhood similarity", which is calculated in a drug feature space by exploring linear neighborhood relationship. Then, we transfer the similarity from the feature space into the side effect space, and predict drug side effects by propagating known side effect information through a similarity-based graph. Under a unified frame based on the linear neighborhood similarity, we propose method "LNSM" and its extension "LNSM-SMI" to predict side effects of new drugs, and propose the method "LNSM-MSE" to predict unobserved side effect of approved drugs. We evaluate the performances of LNSM and LNSM-SMI in predicting side effects of new drugs, and evaluate the performances of LNSM-MSE in predicting missing side effects of approved drugs. The results demonstrate that the linear neighborhood similarity can improve the performances of side effect prediction, and the linear neighborhood similarity-based methods can outperform existing side effect prediction methods. More importantly, the proposed methods can predict side effects of new drugs as well as unobserved side effects of approved drugs under a unified frame.

  3. Adult Congenital Heart Disease Patients Experience Similar Symptoms of Disease Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedars, Ari M; Stefanescu Schmidt, Ada; Broberg, Craig; Zaidi, Ali; Opotowsky, Alexander; Grewal, Jasmine; Kay, Joseph; Bhatt, Ami B; Novak, Eric; Spertus, John

    2016-03-01

    There is a lack of objective data on the symptoms characterizing disease activity among adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). The purpose of this study was to elicit the most important symptoms from patients across the spectrum of ACHD and to examine whether reported symptoms were similar across the spectrum of ACHD as a foundation for creating a patient-reported outcome measure(s). We constructed a 39-item survey using input from physicians specializing in ACHD to assess the symptoms patients associate with disease activity. Patients (n=124) prospectively completed this survey, and the results were analyzed based on underlying anatomy and disease complexity. A confirmatory cohort of patients (n=40) was then recruited prospectively to confirm the validity of the initial data. When grouped based on underlying anatomy, significant differences in disease-related symptom rankings were found for only 6 of 39 symptoms. Six symptoms were identified which were of particular significance to patients, regardless of underlying anatomy. Patients with anatomy of great complexity experienced greater overall symptom severity than those with anatomy of low or moderate complexity, attributable exclusively to higher ranking of 5 symptoms. The second patient cohort had symptom experiences similar to those of the initial cohort, differing in only 5 of 39 symptoms. This study identified 6 symptoms relevant to patients across the spectrum of ACHD and remarkable homogeneity of patient experience, suggesting that a single disease-specific patient-reported outcome can be created for quality and outcome assessments. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Conceptual similarity effects on working memory in sentence contexts: testing a theory of anaphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, H Wind; Garnham, Alan; Simner, Julia

    2010-06-01

    The degree of semantic similarity between an anaphoric noun phrase (e.g., the bird) and its antecedent (e.g., a robin) is known to affect the anaphor resolution process, but the mechanisms that underlie this effect are not known. One proposal (Almor, 1999) is that semantic similarity triggers interference effects in working memory and makes two crucial assumptions: First, semantic similarity impairs working memory just as phonological similarity does (e.g., Baddeley, 1992), and, second, this impairment interferes with processes of sentence comprehension. We tested these assumptions in two experiments that compared recall accuracy between phonologically similar, semantically similar, and control words in sentence contexts. Our results do not provide support for Almor's claims: Phonological overlap decreased recall accuracy in sentence contexts, but semantic similarity did not. These results shed doubt on the idea that semantic interference in working memory is an underlying mechanism in anaphor resolution.

  5. Some effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retriactive interference in short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.; Sanders, A.F.

    1972-01-01

    An experiment is reported on the effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retroactive interference (PI, RI) in short term memory. To avoid confounding between cognitive and acoustic similarity, the materials - i.e. words and digits - were matched with respect to vowel pattern. Effects of

  6. Enemies and Friends in the Neighborhood: Orthographic Similarity Effects in Semantic Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, Rene; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2005-01-01

    Studies investigating orthographic similarity effects in semantic tasks have produced inconsistent results. The authors investigated orthographic similarity effects in animacy decision and in contrast with previous studies, they took semantic congruency into account. In Experiments 1 and 2, performance to a target (cat) was better if a previously…

  7. The Stroop effect in English-Japanese bilinguals: the effect of phonological similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, Hiromi; Healy, Alice F

    2008-01-01

    English-Japanese bilinguals performed a Stroop color-word interference task with both English and Japanese stimuli and responded in both English and Japanese. The Japanese stimuli were either the traditional color terms (TCTs) written in Hiragana or loanwords (LWs) from English written in Katakana. Both within-language and between-language interference were found for all combinations of stimuli and responses. The between-language interference was larger for Katakana LWs (phonologically similar to English) than for Hiragana TCTs, especially with Japanese responses. The magnitude of this phonological effect increased with self-rated reading fluency in Japanese. Overall responding was slower and the Stroop effect larger with English than with Japanese stimuli. These results suggest that unintentional lexical access elicits automatic phonological processing even with intermediate-level reading proficiency.

  8. Inflammasome priming is similar for francisella species that differentially induce inflammasome activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G Ghonime

    Full Text Available Inflammasome activation is a two-step process where step one, priming, prepares the inflammasome for its subsequent activation, by step two. Classically step one can be induced by LPS priming followed by step two, high dose ATP. Furthermore, when IL-18 processing is used as the inflammasome readout, priming occurs before new protein synthesis. In this context, how intracellular pathogens such as Francisella activate the inflammasome is incompletely understood, particularly regarding the relative importance of priming versus activation steps. To better understand these events we compared Francisella strains that differ in virulence and ability to induce inflammasome activation for their relative effects on step one vs. step two. When using the rapid priming model, i.e., 30 min priming by live or heat killed Francisella strains (step 1, followed by ATP (step 2, we found no difference in IL-18 release, p20 caspase-1 release and ASC oligomerization between Francisella strains (F. novicida, F. holarctica -LVS and F. tularensis Schu S4. This priming is fast, independent of bacteria viability, internalization and phagosome escape, but requires TLR2-mediated ERK phosphorylation. In contrast to their efficient priming capacity, Francisella strains LVS and Schu S4 were impaired in inflammasome triggering compared to F. novicida. Thus, observed differences in inflammasome activation by F. novicida, LVS and Schu S4 depend not on differences in priming but rather on their propensity to trigger the primed inflammasome.

  9. Tax-1 and Tax-2 similarities and differences: focus on post-translational modifications and NF-κB activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinian, Margret; Kfoury, Youmna; Dassouki, Zeina; El-Hajj, Hiba; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although human T cell leukemia virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) share similar genetic organization, they have major differences in their pathogenesis and disease manifestation. HTLV-1 is capable of transforming T lymphocytes in infected patients resulting in adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma whereas HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. Numerous studies have provided accumulating evidence on the involvement of the viral transactivators Tax-1 versus Tax-2 in T cell transformation. Tax-1 is a potent transcriptional activator of both viral and cellular genes. Tax-1 post-translational modifications and specifically ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been implicated in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation and may contribute to its transformation capacity. Although Tax-2 has similar protein structure compared to Tax-1, the two proteins display differences both in their protein–protein interaction and activation of signal transduction pathways. Recent studies on Tax-2 have suggested ubiquitylation and SUMOylation independent mechanisms of NF-κB activation. In this present review, structural and functional differences between Tax-1 and Tax-2 will be summarized. Specifically, we will address their subcellular localization, nuclear trafficking and their effect on cellular regulatory proteins. A special attention will be given to Tax-1/Tax-2 post-translational modification such as ubiquitylation, SUMOylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, NF-κB activation, and protein–protein interactions involved in oncogenecity both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23966989

  10. Tax-1 and Tax-2 similarities and differences: Focus on post-translational modifications and NF-кB activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margret eShirinian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAlthough human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 share similar genetic organization, they have major differences in their pathogenesis and disease manifestation. HTLV-1 is capable of transforming T lymphocytes in infected patients and subsequently leads to adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL whereas HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. Numerous studies have provided accumulating evidence on the involvement of the viral transactivators Tax-1 versus Tax-2 in T cell transformation. Tax-1 is a potent transcriptional activator of both viral and cellular genes. Tax-1 posttranslational modifications and specifically ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been implicated in NF-кB activation and may contribute to its transformation capacity. Although Tax-2 has similar protein structure compared to Tax-1, the two proteins display differences both in their protein-protein interaction and activation of signal transduction pathways. Recent studies on Tax-2 have suggested ubiquitylation and SUMOylation independent mechanisms of NF-кB activation. In this present review, structural and functional differences between Tax-1 and Tax- 2 will be summarized. Specifically, we will address their subcellular localization, nuclear trafficking and their effect on cellular regulatory proteins. A special attention will be given to Tax-1/Tax-2 post-translational modification such as ubiquitylation, SUMOylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, NF-кB activation and protein-protein interactions involved in oncogenecity both in vivo and in vitro.

  11. Visual and Phonological Similarity Effects in Verbal Immediate Serial Recall: A Test with Kanji Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satoru; Logie, Robert H.; Morita, Aiko; Law, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In a series of three experiments, native speakers of Japanese performed serial ordered written recall of visually presented Japanese kanji characters that varied systematically in visual and phonological similarity. Overall effects of phonological similarity were observed for retention of serial order under silent reading in Experiments 1 and 3…

  12. Coupling effect of nodes popularity and similarity on social network persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaogang; Jin, Cheng; Huang, Jiaxuan; Min, Yong

    2017-02-21

    Network robustness represents the ability of networks to withstand failures and perturbations. In social networks, maintenance of individual activities, also called persistence, is significant towards understanding robustness. Previous works usually consider persistence on pre-generated network structures; while in social networks, the network structure is growing with the cascading inactivity of existed individuals. Here, we address this challenge through analysis for nodes under a coevolution model, which characterizes individual activity changes under three network growth modes: following the descending order of nodes' popularity, similarity or uniform random. We show that when nodes possess high spontaneous activities, a popularity-first growth mode obtains highly persistent networks; otherwise, with low spontaneous activities, a similarity-first mode does better. Moreover, a compound growth mode, with the consecutive joining of similar nodes in a short period and mixing a few high popularity nodes, obtains the highest persistence. Therefore, nodes similarity is essential for persistent social networks, while properly coupling popularity with similarity further optimizes the persistence. This demonstrates the evolution of nodes activity not only depends on network topology, but also their connective typology.

  13. Energy intake adaptations to acute isoenergetic active video games and exercise are similar in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, J P; Schwartz, C; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Tremblay, A; Thivel, D

    2015-11-01

    Although the impact of passive video games (PVGs) on energy intake has been previously explored in lean adolescents, data are missing on the nutritional adaptations to passive and active video games (AVGs) in obese adolescents. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic AVGs and exercise (EX) differently affect food consumption in youth. Nineteen obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-hour sessions in a crossover manner: control (CON; sitting on a chair), PVG (boxing game on Xbox 360), AVG (boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and EX (cycling). The EX was calibrated to generate the same energy expenditure as the AVG session. Energy expenditure was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake (buffet-style meal) and appetite sensations (visual analogue scales) were assessed after the sessions. As expected, mean energy expenditure was similar between AVG (370±4 kcal) and EX (358±3 kcal), both of which were significantly higher than PVG (125±7 kcal) and CON (98±5 kcal) (P<0.001). However, ad libitum food intake after the sessions was not significantly different between CON (1174±282 kcal), PVG (1124±281 kcal), AVG (1098±265 kcal) and EX (1091±290 kcal). Likewise, the energy derived from fat, carbohydrate and protein was not significantly different between sessions, and appetite sensations were not affected. Energy intake and food preferences after an hour of AVG or PVG playing remain unchanged, and isoenergetic sessions of AVG and EX at moderate intensity induce similar nutritional responses in obese adolescent boys.

  14. Is the phonological similarity effect in working memory due to proactive interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J; Quinlan, Philip T

    2018-04-12

    Immediate serial recall of verbal material is highly sensitive to impairment attributable to phonological similarity. Although this has traditionally been interpreted as a within-sequence similarity effect, Engle (2007) proposed an interpretation based on interference from prior sequences, a phenomenon analogous to that found in the Peterson short-term memory (STM) task. We use the method of serial reconstruction to test this in an experiment contrasting the standard paradigm in which successive sequences are drawn from the same set of phonologically similar or dissimilar words and one in which the vowel sound on which similarity is based is switched from trial to trial, a manipulation analogous to that producing release from PI in the Peterson task. A substantial similarity effect occurs under both conditions although there is a small advantage from switching across similar sequences. There is, however, no evidence for the suggestion that the similarity effect will be absent from the very first sequence tested. Our results support the within-sequence similarity rather than a between-list PI interpretation. Reasons for the contrast with the classic Peterson short-term forgetting task are briefly discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Similar expression patterns of bestrophin-4 and cGMP dependent Ca2+-activated chloride channel activity in the vasculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena V.; Larsen, Per; Matchkov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    (abstract by Matchkov et. al) that siRNA mediated downregulation of bestrophin-4 is associated with the disappearance of a recently demonstrated2 cGMP-dependent Ca2+-activated Cl- current in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Here we study the distribution of bestrophin-4-and cGMP dependent Cl- channel...... expressed epitope) Western blot detected a ~65 kDa band in cell lysates from rat mesenteric small arteries and aorta, which was not seen in pulmonary arteries and when preincubated with the immunizing peptide. The distribution of bestrophin-4 mRNA and protein has a pattern similar to the cGMP-dependent Cl......- current in SMCs of different origins. Immunohistochemistry identified bestrophin-4 both in endothelial and SMCs of the vascular tree in the brain, heart, kidney and mesentery, but not in the lungs. We suggest that bestrophin-4 is important for the cGMP dependent, Ca2+ activated Cl- conductance in many...

  16. LASSO-ligand activity by surface similarity order: a new tool for ligand based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Darryl; Sadjad, Bashir S; Zsoldos, Zsolt; Simon, Aniko

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Ligand Screening (VLS) has become an integral part of the drug discovery process for many pharmaceutical companies. Ligand similarity searches provide a very powerful method of screening large databases of ligands to identify possible hits. If these hits belong to new chemotypes the method is deemed even more successful. eHiTS LASSO uses a new interacting surface point types (ISPT) molecular descriptor that is generated from the 3D structure of the ligand, but unlike most 3D descriptors it is conformation independent. Combined with a neural network machine learning technique, LASSO screens molecular databases at an ultra fast speed of 1 million structures in under 1 min on a standard PC. The results obtained from eHiTS LASSO trained on relatively small training sets of just 2, 4 or 8 actives are presented using the diverse directory of useful decoys (DUD) dataset. It is shown that over a wide range of receptor families, eHiTS LASSO is consistently able to enrich screened databases and provides scaffold hopping ability.

  17. LASSO—ligand activity by surface similarity order: a new tool for ligand based virtual screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Darryl; Sadjad, Bashir S.; Zsoldos, Zsolt; Simon, Aniko

    2008-06-01

    Virtual Ligand Screening (VLS) has become an integral part of the drug discovery process for many pharmaceutical companies. Ligand similarity searches provide a very powerful method of screening large databases of ligands to identify possible hits. If these hits belong to new chemotypes the method is deemed even more successful. eHiTS LASSO uses a new interacting surface point types (ISPT) molecular descriptor that is generated from the 3D structure of the ligand, but unlike most 3D descriptors it is conformation independent. Combined with a neural network machine learning technique, LASSO screens molecular databases at an ultra fast speed of 1 million structures in under 1 min on a standard PC. The results obtained from eHiTS LASSO trained on relatively small training sets of just 2, 4 or 8 actives are presented using the diverse directory of useful decoys (DUD) dataset. It is shown that over a wide range of receptor families, eHiTS LASSO is consistently able to enrich screened databases and provides scaffold hopping ability.

  18. An experimental test of the persuasive effect of source similarity in narrative and nonnarrative health blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Amy Shirong

    2013-07-25

    Blogs, or websites containing online personal journals, are a form of popular personal communication with immense potential for health promotion. Narratives are stories with a beginning, middle, and end that provide information about the characters and plot. Source similarity refers to the degree to which the message source and each recipient are alike with respect to certain attributes. Narratives and source similarity have seldom been examined in tandem as strategies for health persuasion. Personal health blogs provide a suitable platform for such an investigation. This study examined the persuasive effects of message type and source similarity on participants' intentions to adopt a specific health behavior (running for exercise). A total of 150 participants were randomly assigned to conditions (n=25 per condition) in a completely crossed, 2 (message type: narrative and nonnarrative) × 3 (source similarity: no similarity, non-health-related similarity, and health-related similarity) between-subjects experiment. First, in an online questionnaire, participants provided personal information in 42 categories and rated the relatedness of each category to running and then completed pretest measures of the dependent variables. Based on their responses, 150 personal health blogs were created. Two weeks later, the initial participants read the blog created with their personal characteristics and completed a questionnaire online. The source similarity effect was stronger in nonnarrative than narrative blogs. When the blogs were nonnarrative, those with health-related similarities were more persuasive than those with non-health-related similarities. Narrative blogs generated more positive thoughts and stronger blogger identification than nonnarrative blogs. Health-related source similarity is key for persuasive health communication, especially when the messages are nonnarrative.

  19. Shift workers have similar leisure-time physical activity levels as day workers but are more sedentary at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Gupta, Nidhi; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-03-01

    Objective Physical inactivity has been hypothesized as an underlying factor for the association between shift work and adverse health outcomes. We compared leisure-time and occupational physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Methods We identified 612 day workers, 139 night shift workers and 61 non-night shift workers aged 18-65 years (54% men) in two Danish studies: the New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD) and the Danish Physical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPhacto) between 2011-2013. Sedentary behavior, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured using an accelerometer. Physical activity was expressed as percentage of leisure and work time spent in each activity. Linear regression analyses were used to test differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Results No differences in leisure-time sedentary behavior and physical activity were observed between day and shift workers (P>0.05). Non-night shift workers spent 7.2% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.3-12.1) more time in occupational sedentary behavior than day workers and 5.9% (95% CI -10.1- -1.7) and 1.9% (95% CI -3.7- -0.2) less time in occupational light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. Compared to day workers, night shift workers spent 4.3% (95% CI 2.4-6.1) more time at work in uninterrupted sedentary periods of ≥30 minutes. Conclusions Shift workers had similar leisure-time physical activity patterns as day workers, but were more sedentary at work. Future research should elucidate whether occupational physical inactivity and sedentary behavior contributes to shift work-related adverse health effects.

  20. Conservation of connectivity of model-space effective interactions under a class of similarity transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Changkui; Gong Yungui; Dong Huining; Reid, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    Effective interaction operators usually act on a restricted model space and give the same energies (for Hamiltonian) and matrix elements (for transition operators, etc.) as those of the original operators between the corresponding true eigenstates. Various types of effective operators are possible. Those well defined effective operators have been shown to be related to each other by similarity transformation. Some of the effective operators have been shown to have connected-diagram expansions. It is shown in this paper that under a class of very general similarity transformations, the connectivity is conserved. The similarity transformation between Hermitian and non-Hermitian Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbative effective operators is one of such transformations and hence the connectivity can be deducted from each other

  1. Conservation of connectivity of model-space effective interactions under a class of similarity transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chang-Kui; Gong, Yungui; Dong, Hui-Ning; Reid, Michael F

    2004-09-15

    Effective interaction operators usually act on a restricted model space and give the same energies (for Hamiltonian) and matrix elements (for transition operators, etc.) as those of the original operators between the corresponding true eigenstates. Various types of effective operators are possible. Those well defined effective operators have been shown to be related to each other by similarity transformation. Some of the effective operators have been shown to have connected-diagram expansions. It is shown in this paper that under a class of very general similarity transformations, the connectivity is conserved. The similarity transformation between Hermitian and non-Hermitian Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbative effective operators is one of such transformations and hence the connectivity can be deducted from each other.

  2. Similarities and differences in signal transduction by interleukin 4 and interleukin 13: analysis of Janus kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, A D; Johnston, J A; Tortolani, P J; McReynolds, L J; Kinzer, C; O'Shea, J J; Paul, W E

    1995-08-15

    The cytokines interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-13 induce many of the same biological responses, including class switching to IgE and induction of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and CD23 on human B cells. It has recently been shown that IL-4 induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 170-kDa protein, a substrate called 4PS, and of the Janus kinase (JAK) family members JAK1 and JAK3. Because IL-13 has many functional effects similar to those of IL-4, we compared the ability of IL-4 and IL-13 to activate these signaling molecules in the human multifactor-dependent cell line TF-1. In this report we demonstrate that both IL-4 and IL-13 induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS and JAK1. Interestingly, although IL-4 induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK3, we did not detect JAK3 phosphorylation in response to IL-13. These data suggest that IL-4 and IL-13 signal in similar ways via the activation of JAK1 and 4PS. However, our data further indicate that there are significant differences because IL-13 does not activate JAK3.

  3. Similarities between pre-eclampsia and atherosclerosis: a protective effect of physical exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Luís; Santos-Silva, Alice; Quintanilha, Alexandre; Rebelo, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE), a characteristic hypertensive disorder of human pregnancy and a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity worldwide, shares some similarities with atherosclerosis, namely the involvement of oxidative stress and of endothelial dysfunction in their pathophysiologies, the presence of similar typical lesions and of common risk factors. Although it is widely accepted that regular physical exercise protects against cardiovascular events, few studies have addressed the impact of physical activity in reducing PE risk. In this paper, similarities between atherosclerosis and PE, involving pathogenic mechanisms, are described. This paper also reviews the studies performed until now that evaluated the impact of regular physical exercise (prenataly or during pregnancy) in reducing risk of PE. The potential mechanisms underlying physical activity as a prophylactic approach of PE, as observed with cardiovascular diseases, are discussed.

  4. Similarity of Deleterious Effects of Divorce on Chinese and American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao

    2001-01-01

    Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

  5. Effects of Self-Similar Collisions in the Theory of Pressure Broadening and Shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharintsev, S.S.; Salakhov, M.Kh.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper the self-similar collision model is developed in terms of fractal Brownian motion. Within this model framework, collisions are assumed to carry a non-Markovian character and, therefore, possible memory collisional effects are not taken into account. Applying a self-similar collision model for the motion of the radiator and Anderson-Talman phase-shift theory of collisional broadening, a general formula for the correlation function in the impact limit is described. (author)

  6. Effective Summation and Interpolation of Series by Self-Similar Root Approximants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gluzman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple analytical method for effective summation of series, including divergent series. The method is based on self-similar approximation theory resulting in self-similar root approximants. The method is shown to be general and applicable to different problems, as is illustrated by a number of examples. The accuracy of the method is not worse, and in many cases better, than that of Padé approximants, when the latter can be defined.

  7. Investigation on the effect of nonlinear processes on similarity law in high-pressure argon discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yangyang; Parsey, Guy M.; Verboncoeur, John P.; Christlieb, Andrew J.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the effect of nonlinear processes (such as three-body collisions and stepwise ionizations) on the similarity law in high-pressure argon discharges has been studied by the use of the Kinetic Global Model framework. In the discharge model, the ground state argon atoms (Ar), electrons (e), atom ions (Ar+), molecular ions (Ar2+), and fourteen argon excited levels Ar*(4s and 4p) are considered. The steady-state electron and ion densities are obtained with nonlinear processes included and excluded in the designed models, respectively. It is found that in similar gas gaps, keeping the product of gas pressure and linear dimension unchanged, with the nonlinear processes included, the normalized density relations deviate from the similarity relations gradually as the scale-up factor decreases. Without the nonlinear processes, the parameter relations are in good agreement with the similarity law predictions. Furthermore, the pressure and the dimension effects are also investigated separately with and without the nonlinear processes. It is shown that the gas pressure effect on the results is less obvious than the dimension effect. Without the nonlinear processes, the pressure and the dimension effects could be estimated from one to the other based on the similarity relations.

  8. The role of similarity in updating numerical information in working memory: decomposing the numerical distance effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendínez, Cristina; Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, M Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the process of updating representations in working memory (WM) and how similarity between the information involved influences this process. In WM updating tasks, the similarity in terms of numerical distance between the number to be substituted and the new one facilitates the updating process. We aimed to disentangle the possible effect of two dimensions of similarity that may contribute to this numerical effect: numerical distance itself and common digits shared between the numbers involved. Three experiments were conducted in which different ranges of distances and the coincidence between the digits of the two numbers involved in updating were manipulated. Results showed that the two dimensions of similarity had an effect on updating times. The greater the similarity between the information maintained in memory and the new information that substituted it, the faster the updating. This is consistent both with the idea of distributed representations based on features, and with a selective updating process based on a feature overwriting mechanism. Thus, updating in WM can be understood as a selective substitution process influenced by similarity in which only certain parts of the representation stored in memory are changed.

  9. Similarity-based search of model organism, disease and drug effect phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2015-02-19

    Background: Semantic similarity measures over phenotype ontologies have been demonstrated to provide a powerful approach for the analysis of model organism phenotypes, the discovery of animal models of human disease, novel pathways, gene functions, druggable therapeutic targets, and determination of pathogenicity. Results: We have developed PhenomeNET 2, a system that enables similarity-based searches over a large repository of phenotypes in real-time. It can be used to identify strains of model organisms that are phenotypically similar to human patients, diseases that are phenotypically similar to model organism phenotypes, or drug effect profiles that are similar to the phenotypes observed in a patient or model organism. PhenomeNET 2 is available at http://aber-owl.net/phenomenet. Conclusions: Phenotype-similarity searches can provide a powerful tool for the discovery and investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying an observed phenotypic manifestation. PhenomeNET 2 facilitates user-defined similarity searches and allows researchers to analyze their data within a large repository of human, mouse and rat phenotypes.

  10. Prosodic Similarity Effects in Short-Term Memory in Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Usha; Barnes, Lisa; Mead, Natasha; Power, Alan James; Leong, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    Children with developmental dyslexia are characterized by phonological difficulties across languages. Classically, this 'phonological deficit' in dyslexia has been investigated with tasks using single-syllable words. Recently, however, several studies have demonstrated difficulties in prosodic awareness in dyslexia. Potential prosodic effects in short-term memory have not yet been investigated. Here we create a new instrument based on three-syllable words that vary in stress patterns, to investigate whether prosodic similarity (the same prosodic pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables) exerts systematic effects on short-term memory. We study participants with dyslexia and age-matched and younger reading-level-matched typically developing controls. We find that all participants, including dyslexic participants, show prosodic similarity effects in short-term memory. All participants exhibited better retention of words that differed in prosodic structure, although participants with dyslexia recalled fewer words accurately overall compared to age-matched controls. Individual differences in prosodic memory were predicted by earlier vocabulary abilities, by earlier sensitivity to syllable stress and by earlier phonological awareness. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of prosodic similarity effects in short-term memory. The implications of a prosodic similarity effect for theories of lexical representation and of dyslexia are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Temperature Dependence of Field-Effect Mobility in Organic Thin-Film Transistors: Similarity to Inorganic Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Jun; Nagase, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Naito, Hiroyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Carrier transport in solution-processed organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) based on dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C8-BTBT) has been investigated in a wide temperature range from 296 to 10 K. The field-effect mobility shows thermally activated behavior whose activation energy becomes smaller with decreasing temperature. The temperature dependence of field-effect mobility found in C8-BTBT is similar to that of others materials: organic semiconducting polymers, amorphous oxide semiconductors and hydrogenated amorphous silicon. These results indicate that hopping transport between isoenergetic localized states becomes dominated in a low temperature regime in these materials.

  12. Characterizing Chemical Similarity with Vibrational Spectroscopy: New Insights into the Substituent Effects in Monosubstituted Benzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yunwen; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi

    2017-10-26

    A novel approach is presented to assess chemical similarity based the local vibrational mode analysis developed by Konkoli and Cremer. The local mode frequency shifts are introduced as similarity descriptors that are sensitive to any electronic structure change. In this work, 59 different monosubstituted benzenes are compared. For a subset of 43 compounds, for which experimental data was available, the ortho-/para- and meta-directing effect in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions could be correctly reproduced, proving the robustness of the new similarity index. For the remaining 16 compounds, the directing effect was predicted. The new approach is broadly applicable to all compounds for which either experimental or calculated vibrational frequency information is available.

  13. "Seed-Milarity" confers to hsa-miR-210 and hsa-miR-147b similar functional activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bertero

    Full Text Available Specificity of interaction between a microRNA (miRNA and its targets crucially depends on the seed region located in its 5'-end. It is often implicitly considered that two miRNAs sharing the same biological activity should display similarity beyond the strict six nucleotide region that forms the seed, in order to form specific complexes with the same mRNA targets. We have found that expression of hsa-miR-147b and hsa-miR-210, though triggered by different stimuli (i.e. lipopolysaccharides and hypoxia, respectively, induce very similar cellular effects in term of proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Hsa-miR-147b only shares a "minimal" 6-nucleotides seed sequence with hsa-miR-210, but is identical with hsa-miR-147a over 20 nucleotides, except for one base located in the seed region. Phenotypic changes induced after heterologous expression of miR-147a strikingly differ from those induced by miR-147b or miR-210. In particular, miR-147a behaves as a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation and migration. These data fit well with the gene expression profiles observed for miR-147b and miR-210, which are very similar, and the gene expression profile of miR-147a, which is distinct from the two others. Bioinformatics analysis of all human miRNA sequences indicates multiple cases of miRNAs from distinct families exhibiting the same kind of similarity that would need to be further characterized in terms of putative functional redundancy. Besides, it implies that functional impact of some miRNAs can be masked by robust expression of miRNAs belonging to distinct families.

  14. The effects of familiarity and similarity on compliance in social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Nass, C.; Markopoulos, P.

    2014-01-01

    Advertisers on social network sites often use recommendations by others in a user's networks to endorse products. While these familiar others are hypothesised to be more effective in influencing users than unfamiliar others, there is a catch: familiarity does not necessarily ensure similarity to the

  15. Student and Professor Similarity: Exploring the Effects of Gender and Relative Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrt, Kenneth; Louie, Therese A.; Osland, Asbjorn

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined student responses to faculty traits. Earlier findings revealing a preference for male instructors were obtained before female faculty and students were prevalent on college campuses and may have reflected a male demographic similarity effect. It was hypothesized that students would more favorably evaluate faculty who were…

  16. Gender Similarities and Differences in Factors Associated with Adolescent Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenthe, Phyllis J.; Janz, Kathleen F; Levy, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors conceptualized within the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model (YPAP) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of adolescent males and females. Specifically, self-efficacy to overcome barriers, enjoyment of physical activity; family support, peer support, perceived school climate, neighborhood safety and access to physical activity were examined. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) and the Actigraph 7164 were used to obtain three different measures of MVPA in 205 adolescents (102 males, 103 females). Family support emerged as the most significant and consistent factor associated with the MVPA of both adolescent males and females. This relationship was noted even when different methods of measuring MVPA were employed. These findings should increase the confidence of public health officials that family support has the potential to positively alter the physical activity behavior of adolescents. PMID:19827453

  17. Effect of Heterogeneous Interest Similarity on the Spread of Information in Mobile Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Narisa; Sui, Guoqin; Yang, Fan

    2018-06-01

    Mobile social networks (MSNs) are important platforms for spreading news. The fact that individuals usually forward information aligned with their own interests inevitably changes the dynamics of information spread. Thereby, first we present a theoretical model based on the discrete Markov chain and mean field theory to evaluate the effect of interest similarity on the information spread in MSNs. Meanwhile, individuals' interests are heterogeneous and vary with time. These two features result in interest shift behavior, and both features are considered in our model. A leveraging simulation demonstrates the accuracy of our model. Moreover, the basic reproduction number R0 is determined. Further extensive numerical analyses based on the model indicate that interest similarity has a critical impact on information spread at the early spreading stage. Specifically, the information always spreads more quickly and widely if the interest similarity between an individual and the information is higher. Finally, five actual data sets from Sina Weibo illustrate the validity of the model.

  18. Perceived Similarity With Gay Men Mediates the Effect of Antifemininity on Heterosexual Men's Antigay Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries.

  19. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: Similar patterns of rehearsal and similar effects of word length, presentation rate, and articulatory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Smith, Jessica; Hayes, Louise

    2009-07-01

    In five experiments, rehearsal and recall phenomena were examined using the free recall and immediate serial recall (ISR) tasks. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with lists of eight words, were precued or postcued to respond using free recall or ISR, and rehearsed out loud during presentation. The patterns of rehearsal were similar in all the conditions, and there was little difference between recall in the precued and postcued conditions. In Experiment 2, both free recall and ISR were sensitive to word length and presentation rate and showed similar patterns of rehearsal. In Experiment 3, both tasks were sensitive to word length and articulatory suppression. The word length effects generalized to 6-item (Experiment 4) and 12-item (Experiment 5) lists. These findings suggest that the two tasks are underpinned by highly similar rehearsal and recall processes.

  20. Effect of acoustic similarity on short-term auditory memory in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer; Yin, Pingbo

    2013-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the monkey's short-term memory in audition depends on a passively retained sensory trace as opposed to a trace reactivated from long-term memory for use in working memory. Reliance on a passive sensory trace could render memory particularly susceptible to confusion between sounds that are similar in some acoustic dimension. If so, then in delayed matching-to-sample, the monkey's performance should be predicted by the similarity in the salient acoustic dimension between the sample and subsequent test stimulus, even at very short delays. To test this prediction and isolate the acoustic features relevant to short-term memory, we examined the pattern of errors made by two rhesus monkeys performing a serial, auditory delayed match-to-sample task with interstimulus intervals of 1 s. The analysis revealed that false-alarm errors did indeed result from similarity-based confusion between the sample and the subsequent nonmatch stimuli. Manipulation of the stimuli showed that removal of spectral cues was more disruptive to matching behavior than removal of temporal cues. In addition, the effect of acoustic similarity on false-alarm response was stronger at the first nonmatch stimulus than at the second one. This pattern of errors would be expected if the first nonmatch stimulus overwrote the sample's trace, and suggests that the passively retained trace is not only vulnerable to similarity-based confusion but is also highly susceptible to overwriting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effective self-similar expansion for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modugno, Michele; Pagnini, Gianni; Valle-Basagoiti, Manuel Angel

    2018-04-01

    We consider an effective scaling approach for the free expansion of a one-dimensional quantum wave packet, consisting in a self-similar evolution to be satisfied on average, i.e., by integrating over the coordinates. A direct comparison with the solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation shows that the effective scaling reproduces with great accuracy the exact evolution—the actual wave function is reproduced with a fidelity close to one—for arbitrary values of the interactions. This result represents a proof of concept of the effectiveness of the scaling ansatz, which has been used in different forms in the literature but never compared against the exact evolution.

  2. A Novel Drug-Mouse Phenotypic Similarity Method Detects Molecular Determinants of Drug Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Prinz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms that translate drug treatment into beneficial and unwanted effects are largely unknown. We present here a novel approach to detect gene-drug and gene-side effect associations based on the phenotypic similarity of drugs and single gene perturbations in mice that account for the polypharmacological property of drugs. We scored the phenotypic similarity of human side effect profiles of 1,667 small molecules and biologicals to profiles of phenotypic traits of 5,384 mouse genes. The benchmarking with known relationships revealed a strong enrichment of physical and indirect drug-target connections, causative drug target-side effect links as well as gene-drug links involved in pharmacogenetic associations among phenotypically similar gene-drug pairs. The validation by in vitro assays and the experimental verification of an unknown connection between oxandrolone and prokineticin receptor 2 reinforces the ability of this method to provide new molecular insights underlying drug treatment. Thus, this approach may aid in the proposal of novel and personalized treatments.

  3. The impact of distracter-target similarity on contextual cueing effects of children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingying; Merrill, Edward C

    2014-05-01

    Contextual cueing reflects a memory-based attentional guidance process that develops through repeated exposure to displays in which a target location has been consistently paired with a specific context. In two experiments, we compared 20 younger children's (6-7 years old), 20 older children's (9-10 years old), and 20 young adults' (18-21 years old) abilities to acquire contextual cueing effects from displays in which half of the distracters predicted the location of the target and half did not. Across experiments, we varied the similarity between the predictive and nonpredictive distracters and the target. In Experiment 1, the predictive distracters were visually similar to the target and dissimilar from the nonpredictive distracters. In Experiment 2, the nonpredictive distracters were also similar to the target and predictive distracters. All three age groups exhibited contextual cueing in Experiment 1, although the effect was not as strong for the younger children relative to older children and adults. All participants exhibited weaker contextual cueing effects in Experiment 2, with the younger children not exhibiting significant contextual cueing at all. Apparently, when search processes could not be guided to the predictive distracters on the basis of salient stimulus features, younger children in particular experienced difficulty in implicitly identifying and using aspects of the context to facilitate with the acquisition of contextual cueing effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Waveguiding and mirroring effects in stochastic self-similar and Cantorian ε(∞) universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovane, G.

    2005-01-01

    A waveguiding effect is considered with respect to the large scale structure of the Universe, where the structures formation appears as if it were a classically self-similar random process at all astrophysical scales. The result is that it seems we live in an El Naschie's ε (∞) Cantorian space-time, where gravitational lensing and waveguiding effects can explain the appearing Universe. In particular, we consider filamentary and planar large scale structures as possible refraction channels for electromagnetic radiation coming from cosmological structures. From this vision the Universe appears like a large self-similar adaptive mirrors set. Consequently, an infinite Universe is just an optical illusion that is produced by mirroring effects connected with the large scale structure of a finite and not so large Universe. Thanks to the presented analytical model supported by a numerical simulation, it is possible to explain the quasar luminosity distribution and the presence of 'twin' or 'brother' objects. More generally, the infinity and the abundance of astrophysical objects could be just a mirroring effect due to the peculiar self-similarity of the Universe

  5. Identification with the retail organization and customer-perceived employee similarity: effects on customer spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Heilman, Carrie M; Maxham, James G

    2012-09-01

    Two constructs important to academicians and managers are the degree to which employees and customers identify with an organization, employee organizational identification (employee OI) and customer-company identification (customer identification), respectively. This research examines the effects of these identification constructs and the related construct of customer perceived similarity to employees on customer spending. Via a 1-year multilevel study of 12,047 customers and 1,464 store employees (sales associates) covering 212 stores of a specialty apparel retailer, our study contributes to the literature in 2 critical ways. First, we expand the theoretical network of employee OI and customer identification by examining the related construct of a customer's perceived similarity to store employees. We examine the incremental (not fully mediated) main and interaction effects of customer-perceived similarity to employees and employee OI on customer spending. Second, we examine the effect of customer identification on customer spending relative to the effect of customer satisfaction on customer spending. Thus, our study also contributes by demonstrating a potential complementary route to achieve customer spending (customer identification), a route that may be more readily affected by management than the efforts required for a sustained increase in customer satisfaction. Implications for academics and managers are offered.

  6. Effects of potassium on kesterite solar cells: Similarities, differences and synergies with sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Haass

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of alkali dopants is essential for achieving high-efficiency conversion efficiency of thin film solar cells based on chalcogenide semiconductors like Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS and Cu2ZnSn(S,Se4 (CZTSSe also called kesterite. Whereas the treatment with potassium allows boosting the performance of CIGS solar cells as compared to the conventional sodium doping, it is debated if similar effects can be expected for kesterite solar cells. Here the influence of potassium is investigated by introducing the dopant during the solution processing of kesterite absorbers. It is confirmed that the presence of potassium leads to an enhanced grain growth and a ten-fold lower potassium concentration is sufficient for obtaining grain size similar to sodium-containing absorbers. Potassium is located predominantly at grain boundaries and it suppresses incorporation of sodium into the absorber layer. The potassium doping increases the apparent carrier concentration to ∼2×1016 cm-3 for a potassium concentration of 0.2 at%. The potassium-doped solar cells yield conversion efficiency close to 10%, on par with only sodium-doped samples. Co-doping with potassium and sodium has not revealed any beneficial synergetic effects and it is concluded that both dopants exhibit similar effects on the kesterite solar cell performance.

  7. Investigating the effect of non-similar fins in thermoeconomic optimization of plate fin heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajabdollahi, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Thermoeconomic optimization of plate fin heat exchanger with similar (SF) and different (DF) or non-similar fin in each side is presented in this work. For this purpose, both heat exchanger effectiveness and total annual cost (TAC) are optimized simultaneously using multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm. The above procedure is performed for various mass flow rates in each side. The optimum results reveal that no thermoeconomic improvement is observed in the case of same mass flow rate in each side while both effectiveness and TAC are improved in the case of different mass flow rate. For example, effectiveness and TAC are improved 0.95% and 10.17% respectively, for the DF compared with SF. In fact, the fin configuration should be selected more compact in a side with lower mass flow rate compared with the other side in the thermoeconomic viewpoint. Furthermore, for the thermodynamic optimization viewpoint both SF and DF have the same optimum result while for the economic (or thermoeconomic) optimization viewpoint, the significant decrease in TAC is accessible in the case of DF compared with SF. - Highlights: • Thermoeconomic modeling of compact heat exchanger. • Selection of fin and heat exchanger geometries as nine decision variables. • Applying MOPSO algorithm for multi objective optimization. • Considering the similar and different fin specification in each side. • Investigation of optimum design parameters for various mass flow rates

  8. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards

  9. 78 FR 52087 - Commercial Filming and Similar Projects and Still Photography Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... form of free speech and should not be subject to a permit. Response: As intended by Congress, most... a representative of the news media found in 43 CFR 2.3, the regulation governing the DOI Freedom of... have also added a definition of news-gathering activities based on the definition found in the Freedom...

  10. False memory for context and true memory for context similarly activate the parahippocampal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2017-06-01

    The role of the parahippocampal cortex is currently a topic of debate. One view posits that the parahippocampal cortex specifically processes spatial layouts and sensory details (i.e., the visual-spatial processing view). In contrast, the other view posits that the parahippocampal cortex more generally processes spatial and non-spatial contexts (i.e., the general contextual processing view). A large number of studies have found that true memories activate the parahippocampal cortex to a greater degree than false memories, which would appear to support the visual-spatial processing view as true memories are typically associated with greater visual-spatial detail than false memories. However, in previous studies, contextual details were also greater for true memories than false memories. Thus, such differential activity in the parahippocampal cortex may have reflected differences in contextual processing, which would challenge the visual-spatial processing view. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we employed a source memory paradigm to investigate the functional role of the parahippocampal cortex during true memory and false memory for contextual information to distinguish between the visual-spatial processing view and the general contextual processing view. During encoding, abstract shapes were presented to the left or right of fixation. During retrieval, old shapes were presented at fixation and participants indicated whether each shape was previously on the "left" or "right" followed by an "unsure", "sure", or "very sure" confidence rating. The conjunction of confident true memories for context and confident false memories for context produced activity in the parahippocampal cortex, which indicates that this region is associated with contextual processing. Furthermore, the direct contrast of true memory and false memory produced activity in the visual cortex but did not produce activity in the parahippocampal cortex. The present

  11. Similarity-based grouping to support teachers on collaborative activities in exploratory learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez-Santos, Sergio; Mavrikis, M.; Geraniou, E.; Poulovassilis, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-based tool that helps teachers group their students for collaborative activities in the classroom, the challenge being to organise groups of students based on their recent work so that their collaboration results in meaningful interactions. Students first work on an exploratory task individually, and then the computer suggests possible groupings of students to the teacher. The complexity of the tasks is such that teachers would require too long a time to create...

  12. Effect of similar elements on improving glass-forming ability of La-Ce-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Li Ran; Pang Shujie

    2009-01-01

    To date the effect of unlike component elements on glass-forming ability (GFA) of alloys have been studied extensively, and it is generally recognized that the main consisting elements of the alloys with high GFA usually have large difference in atomic size and atomic interaction (large negative heat of mixing) among them. In our recent work, a series of rare earth metal-based alloy compositions with superior GFA were found through the approach of coexistence of similar constituent elements. The quinary (La 0.5 Ce 0.5 ) 65 Al 10 (Co 0.6 Cu 0.4 ) 25 bulk metallic glass (BMG) in a rod form with a diameter up to 32 mm was synthesized by tilt-pour casting, for which the glass-forming ability is significantly higher than that for ternary Ln-Al-TM alloys (Ln = La or Ce; TM = Co or Cu) with critical diameters for glass-formation of several millimeters. We suggest that the strong frustration of crystallization by utilizing the coexistence of La-Ce and Co-Cu to complicate competing crystalline phases is helpful to construct BMG component with superior GFA. The results of our present work indicate that similar elements (elements with similar atomic size and chemical properties) have significant effect on GFA of alloys.

  13. Design of Open Content Social Learning Based on the Activities of Learner and Similar Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Benneaser; Jayakumar, J.; Thavavel, V.; Arumugam, Muthukumar; Poornaselvan, K. J.

    2017-01-01

    Teaching and learning are increasingly taking advantage of the rapid growth in Internet resources, open content, mobile technologies and social media platforms. However, due to the generally unstructured nature and overwhelming quantity of learning content, effective learning remains challenging. In an effort to close this gap, the authors…

  14. The effect of target and non-target similarity on neural classification performance: A boost from confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar R Marathe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interaction (BCI technologies have proven effective in utilizing single-trial classification algorithms to detect target images in rapid serial visualization presentation tasks. While many factors contribute to the accuracy of these algorithms, a critical aspect that is often overlooked concerns the feature similarity between target and non-target images. In most real-world environments there are likely to be many shared features between targets and non-targets resulting in similar neural activity between the two classes. It is unknown how current neural-based target classification algorithms perform when qualitatively similar target and non-target images are presented. This study address this question by comparing behavioral and neural classification performance across two conditions: first, when targets were the only infrequent stimulus presented amongst frequent background distracters; and second when targets were presented together with infrequent non-targets containing similar visual features to the targets. The resulting findings show that behavior is slower and less accurate when targets are presented together with similar non-targets; moreover, single-trial classification yielded high levels of misclassification when infrequent non-targets are included. Furthermore, we present an approach to mitigate the image misclassification. We use confidence measures to assess the quality of single-trial classification, and demonstrate that a system in which low confidence trials are reclassified through a secondary process can result in improved performance.

  15. [Recognition of visual objects under forward masking. Effects of cathegorial similarity of test and masking stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, N Iu; Slavutskaia, A V; Kalinin, S A; Kulikov, M A; Mikhaĭlova, E S

    2013-01-01

    In 38 healthy subjects accuracy and response time were examined during recognition of two categories of images--animals andnonliving objects--under forward masking. We revealed new data that masking effects depended of categorical similarity of target and masking stimuli. The recognition accuracy was the lowest and the response time was the most slow, when the target and masking stimuli belongs to the same category, that was combined with high dispersion of response times. The revealed effects were more clear in the task of animal recognition in comparison with the recognition of nonliving objects. We supposed that the revealed effects connected with interference between cortical representations of the target and masking stimuli and discussed our results in context of cortical interference and negative priming.

  16. The effective thermal conductivity of porous media based on statistical self-similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou Jianlong; Wu Fengmin; Lu Hangjun; Xu Yousheng; Song Fuquan

    2009-01-01

    A fractal model is presented based on the thermal-electrical analogy technique and statistical self-similarity of fractal saturated porous media. A dimensionless effective thermal conductivity of saturated fractal porous media is studied by the relationship between the dimensionless effective thermal conductivity and the geometrical parameters of porous media with no empirical constant. Through this study, it is shown that the dimensionless effective thermal conductivity decreases with the increase of porosity (φ) and pore area fractal dimension (D f ) when k s /k g >1. The opposite trends is observed when k s /k g t ). The model predictions are compared with existing experimental data and the results show that they are in good agreement with existing experimental data.

  17. High doses of dextromethorphan, an NMDA antagonist, produce effects similar to classic hallucinogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Klinedinst, Margaret A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Although reports of dextromethorphan (DXM) abuse have increased recently, few studies have examined the effects of high doses of DXM. Objective This study in humans evaluated the effects of supratherapeutic doses of DXM and triazolam. Methods Single, acute, oral doses of DXM (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 mg/70 kg), triazolam (0.25, 0.5 mg/70kg), and placebo were administered to twelve healthy volunteers with histories of hallucinogen use, under double-blind conditions, using an ascending dose run-up design. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects were assessed repeatedly after drug administration for 6 hours. Results Triazolam produced dose-related increases in subject-rated sedation, observer-rated sedation, and behavioral impairment. DXM produced a profile of dose-related physiological and subjective effects differing from triazolam. DXM effects included increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and emesis, increases in observer-rated effects typical of classic hallucinogens (e.g. distance from reality, visual effects with eyes open and closed, joy, anxiety), and participant ratings of stimulation (e.g. jittery, nervous), somatic effects (e.g. tingling, headache), perceptual changes, end-of-session drug liking, and mystical-type experience. After 400 mg/70kg DXM, 11 of 12 participants indicated on a pharmacological class questionnaire that they thought they had received a classic hallucinogen (e.g. psilocybin). Drug effects resolved without significant adverse effects by the end of the session. In a 1-month follow up volunteers attributed increased spirituality and positive changes in attitudes, moods, and behavior to the session experiences. Conclusions High doses of DXM produced effects distinct from triazolam and had characteristics that were similar to the classic hallucinogen psilocybin. PMID:22526529

  18. Interference between Maintenance and Processing in Working Memory: The Effect of Item-Distractor Similarity in Complex Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Farrell, Simon; Jarrold, Christopher; Pasiecznik, Kazimir; Greaves, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effect of phonological similarity between items and distractors on complex span performance. Item-distractor similarity benefited serial recall when distractors followed the items they were similar to, but not when distractors preceded the items they were similar to. These findings are predicted by C-SOB (contextual…

  19. Similar patterns of neural activity predict memory function during encoding and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragel, James E; Ezzyat, Youssef; Sperling, Michael R; Gorniak, Richard; Worrell, Gregory A; Berry, Brent M; Inman, Cory; Lin, Jui-Jui; Davis, Kathryn A; Das, Sandhitsu R; Stein, Joel M; Jobst, Barbara C; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Sheth, Sameer A; Rizzuto, Daniel S; Kahana, Michael J

    2017-07-15

    Neural networks that span the medial temporal lobe (MTL), prefrontal cortex, and posterior cortical regions are essential to episodic memory function in humans. Encoding and retrieval are supported by the engagement of both distinct neural pathways across the cortex and common structures within the medial temporal lobes. However, the degree to which memory performance can be determined by neural processing that is common to encoding and retrieval remains to be determined. To identify neural signatures of successful memory function, we administered a delayed free-recall task to 187 neurosurgical patients implanted with subdural or intraparenchymal depth electrodes. We developed multivariate classifiers to identify patterns of spectral power across the brain that independently predicted successful episodic encoding and retrieval. During encoding and retrieval, patterns of increased high frequency activity in prefrontal, MTL, and inferior parietal cortices, accompanied by widespread decreases in low frequency power across the brain predicted successful memory function. Using a cross-decoding approach, we demonstrate the ability to predict memory function across distinct phases of the free-recall task. Furthermore, we demonstrate that classifiers that combine information from both encoding and retrieval states can outperform task-independent models. These findings suggest that the engagement of a core memory network during either encoding or retrieval shapes the ability to remember the past, despite distinct neural interactions that facilitate encoding and retrieval. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The potential indirect effects among plants via shared hummingbird pollinators are structured by phenotypic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, Pedro Joaquim; Wolowski, Marina; Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Sazima, Marlies

    2017-07-01

    Plant species within communities may overlap in pollinators' use and influence visitation patterns of shared pollinators, potentially engaging in indirect interactions (e.g., facilitation or competition). While several studies have explored the mechanisms regulating insect-pollination networks, there is a lack of studies on bird-pollination systems, particularly in species-rich tropical areas. Here, we evaluated if phenotypic similarity, resource availability (floral abundance), evolutionary relatedness and flowering phenology affect the potential for indirect effects via shared pollinators in hummingbird-pollinated plant species within four communities in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Among the evaluated factors, phenotypic similarity (corolla length and anther height) was the most important variable, while resource availability (floral abundance) had a secondary importance. On the other hand, evolutionary relatedness and flowering phenology were less important, which altogether highlights the relevance of convergent evolution and that the contribution of a plant to the diet of the pollinators of another plant is independent of the level of temporal overlap in flowering in this tropical system. Interestingly, our findings contrast with results from multiple insect-pollinated plant communities, mostly from temperate regions, in which floral abundance was the most important driver, followed by evolutionary relatedness and phenotypic similarity. We propose that these contrasting results are due to high level of specialization inherent to tropical hummingbird-pollination systems. Moreover, our results demonstrated that factors defining linkage rules of plant-hummingbird networks also determinate plant-plant potential indirect effects. Future studies are needed to test if these findings can be generalized to other highly specialized systems. Overall, our results have important implications for the understanding of ecological processes due resource sharing in

  1. Filling Predictable and Unpredictable Gaps, with and without Similarity-Based Interference: Evidence for LIFG Effects of Dependency Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiken, Kimberly; McElree, Brian; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2015-01-01

    One of the most replicated findings in neurolinguistic literature on syntax is the increase of hemodynamic activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in response to object relative (OR) clauses compared to subject relative clauses. However, behavioral studies have shown that ORs are primarily only costly when similarity-based interference is involved and recently, Leiken and Pylkkänen (2014) showed with magnetoencephalography (MEG) that an LIFG increase at an OR gap is also dependent on such interference. However, since ORs always involve a cue indicating an upcoming dependency formation, OR dependencies could be processed already prior to the gap-site and thus show no sheer dependency effects at the gap itself. To investigate the role of gap predictability in LIFG dependency effects, this MEG study compared ORs to verb phrase ellipsis (VPE), which was used as an example of a non-predictable dependency. Additionally, we explored LIFG sensitivity to filler-gap order by including right node raising structures, in which the order of filler and gap is reverse to that of ORs and VPE. Half of the stimuli invoked similarity-based interference and half did not. Our results demonstrate that LIFG effects of dependency can be elicited regardless of whether the dependency is predictable, the stimulus materials evoke similarity-based interference, or the filler precedes the gap. Thus, contrary to our own prior data, the current findings suggest a highly general role for the LIFG in dependency interpretation that is not limited to environments involving similarity-based interference. Additionally, the millisecond time-resolution of MEG allowed for a detailed characterization of the temporal profiles of LIFG dependency effects across our three constructions, revealing that the timing of these effects is somewhat construction-specific.

  2. Gender similarities and differences in brain activation strategies: Voxel-based meta-analysis on fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlRyalat, Saif Aldeen

    2017-01-01

    Gender similarities and differences have long been a matter of debate in almost all human research, especially upon reaching the discussion about brain functions. This large scale meta-analysis was performed on functional MRI studies. It included more than 700 active brain foci from more than 70 different experiments to study gender related similarities and differences in brain activation strategies for three of the main brain functions: Visual-spatial cognition, memory, and emotion. Areas that are significantly activated by both genders (i.e. core areas) for the tested brain function are mentioned, whereas those areas significantly activated exclusively in one gender are the gender specific areas. During visual-spatial cognition task, and in addition to the core areas, males significantly activated their left superior frontal gyrus, compared with left superior parietal lobule in females. For memory tasks, several different brain areas activated by each gender, but females significantly activated two areas from the limbic system during memory retrieval tasks. For emotional task, males tend to recruit their bilateral prefrontal regions, whereas females tend to recruit their bilateral amygdalae. This meta-analysis provides an overview based on functional MRI studies on how males and females use their brain.

  3. Stuttering Prevalence among Kurdish-Farsi Students Effects of the Two Languages Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwa Mohamadi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It has been noted that stuttering is more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals. The similarities of the languages involved have been mentioned to justify the difference between stuttering prevalence among bilingual and monolingual speakers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of language similarities on prevalence of stuttering among Kurdish-Farsi bilingual students. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, we examined all of Javanroud’s schools’ bilingual students. We used teacher referral method for the primary screening of speech disorders. Essential information about speech disorders, specifically stuttering, had been given to teachers before this primary step. The bilingual researcher then diagnosed stuttering students based on DSM-IV criteria through personal interview, text reading, and spontaneous speech in Kurdish and Farsi. Results: Among 11425 bilingual students of Javanroud’s schools, 129 students were identified as stutterers. These findings indicated that overall prevalence of stuttering in this population is 1.13%. Among elementary, guidance and high school students the prevalence of stuttering was 2.06%, 0.87% and 0.5% respectively. Prevalence of stuttering among boys was 1.35% and 0.88% among girls. An overall male/female ratio was 1.5/1. Prevalence of stuttering in elementary, guidance and high school differed significantly (P=0.000. Prevalence of stuttering in males was significantly higher than females (P=0.034. Discussion: Prevalence of stuttering among Javanroud’s bilingual students was higher than the universal accepted prevalence in monolinguals (1% but lower than other studies in bilingual population. The similarities of Kurdish and Farsi languages play an important role in this and are discussed in the paper.

  4. Memory effect in gated single-photon avalanche diodes: a limiting noise contribution similar to afterpulsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, D.; Dalla Mora, A.; Di Sieno, L.; Cubeddu, R.; Tosi, A.; Boso, G.; Pifferi, A.

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, emerging applications, such as diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy (e.g., functional brain imaging and optical mammography), in which a wide dynamic range is crucial, have turned the interest towards Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD). In these fields, the use of a fast-gated SPAD has proven to be a successful technique to increase the measurement sensitivity of different orders of magnitude. However, an unknown background noise has been observed at high illumination during the gate-OFF time, thus setting a limit to the maximum increase of the dynamic range. In this paper we describe this noise in thin-junction silicon single-photon avalanche diode when a large amount of photons reaches the gated detector during the OFF time preceding the enabling time. This memory effect increases the background noise with respect to primary dark count rate similarly to a classical afterpulsing process, but differently it is not related to a previous avalanche ignition in the detector. We discovered that memory effect increases linearly with the power of light impinging on the detector and it has an exponential trend with time constants far different from those of afterpulsing and independently of the bias voltage applied to the junction. For these reasons, the memory effect is not due to the same trapping states of afterpulsing and must be described as a different process.

  5. 20 CFR 667.262 - Are employment generating activities, or similar activities, allowable under WIA title I?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... enterprise zone vouchering services, (4) Active participation in local business resource centers (incubators... employers for the purpose of placement of WIA participants; (2) Participation in business associations (such as chambers of commerce); joint labor management committees, labor associations, and resource centers...

  6. Evaluating the effect of annotation size on measures of semantic similarity

    KAUST Repository

    Kulmanov, Maxat

    2017-02-13

    Background: Ontologies are widely used as metadata in biological and biomedical datasets. Measures of semantic similarity utilize ontologies to determine how similar two entities annotated with classes from ontologies are, and semantic similarity is increasingly applied in applications ranging from diagnosis of disease to investigation in gene networks and functions of gene products.

  7. Antimalarial activity of synthetic 1,2,4-trioxanes and cyclic peroxy ketals, a quantum similarity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés, X.; Gallegos, A.; Carbó-Dorca, R.

    2001-12-01

    In this work, the antimalarial activity of two series of 20 and 7 synthetic 1,2,4-trioxanes and a set of 20 cyclic peroxy ketals are tested for correlation search by means of Molecular Quantum Similarity Measures (MQSM). QSAR models, dealing with different biological responses (IC90, IC50 and ED90) of the parasite Plasmodium Falciparum, are constructed using MQSM as molecular descriptors and are satisfactorily correlated. The statistical results of the 20 1,2,4-trioxanes are deeply analyzed to elucidate the relevant structural features in the biological activity, revealing the importance of phenyl substitutions.

  8. The parietal memory network activates similarly for true and associative false recognition elicited via the DRM procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kathleen B; Gilmore, Adrian W; Nelson, Steven M; Watson, Jason M; Ojemann, Jeffrey G

    2017-02-01

    Neuroimaging investigations of human memory encoding and retrieval have revealed that multiple regions of parietal cortex contribute to memory. Recently, a sparse network of regions within parietal cortex has been identified using resting state functional connectivity (MRI techniques). The regions within this network exhibit consistent task-related responses during memory formation and retrieval, leading to its being called the parietal memory network (PMN). Among its signature patterns are: deactivation during initial experience with an item (e.g., encoding); activation during subsequent repetitions (e.g., at retrieval); greater activation for successfully retrieved familiar words than novel words (e.g., hits relative to correctly-rejected lures). The question of interest here is whether novel words that are subjectively experienced as having been recently studied would elicit PMN activation similar to that of hits. That is, we compared old items correctly recognized to two types of novel items on a recognition test: those correctly identified as new and those incorrectly labeled as old due to their strong associative relation to the studied words (in the DRM false memory protocol). Subjective oldness plays a strong role in driving activation, as hits and false alarms activated similarly (and greater than correctly-rejected lures). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly.

  10. The effects of similarity of theme and instantiation in analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanowitz, K L

    2001-01-01

    The influence of 2 types of structural similarity on analogical reasoning was examined. The theme of a story is a structural component that constrains other relationships in the story. Another structural component is the way in which the theme is implemented. Participants received pairs of stories that varied in the similarity of these two components. Participants in Experiment 1 judged stories containing similar themes as more analogous than stories with dissimilar themes. Likewise, stories with similar implementations were judged as more analogous than stories with dissimilar implementations. Experiment 2 revealed a similar pattern when participants had the opportunity to transfer information from source to target stories. Greater transfer was seen for stories with similar themes than for stories with dissimilar themes. Greater transfer was also seen for stories with similar implementations of different themes than for stories with different implementations.

  11. Similar effects of substance P on learning and memory function between hippocampus and striatal marginal division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Zeng, Changchun; Shu, Siyun; Liu, Xuemei; Li, Chuhua

    2014-01-01

    Substance P is an endogenous neurokinin that is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The neuropeptide substance P and its high-affinity receptor neurokinin 1 receptor are known to play an important role in the central nervous system in inflammation, blood pressure, motor behavior and anxiety. The effects of substance P in the hippocampus and the marginal division of the striatum on memory remain poorly understood. Compared with the hippocampus as a control, immunofluorescence showed high expression of the substance P receptor, neurokinin 1, in the marginal division of the striatum of normal rats. Unilateral or bilateral injection of an antisense oligonucleotide against neurokinin 1 receptor mRNA in the rat hippocampus or marginal division of the striatum effectively reduced neurokinin 1 receptor expression. Independent of injection site, rats that received this antisense oligonucleotide showed obviously increased footshock times in a Y-maze test. These results indicate that the marginal division of the striatum plays a similar function in learning and memory to the hippocampus, which is a valuable addition to our mechanistic understanding of the learning and memory functions of the marginal division of the striatum. PMID:25206901

  12. Physical Therapy Activities in Stroke, Knee Arthroplasty, and Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation: Their Variation, Similarities, and Association With Functional Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching-Hui; Putman, Koen; Smout, Randall J.; Horn, Susan D.; Tian, Wenqiang

    2011-01-01

    Background The mix of physical therapy services is thought to be different with different impairment groups. However, it is not clear how much variation there is across impairment groups. Furthermore, the extent to which the same physical therapy activities are associated with functional outcomes across different types of patients is unknown. Objective The purposes of this study were: (1) to examine similarities and differences in the mix of physical therapy activities used in rehabilitation among patients from different impairment groups and (2) to examine whether the same physical therapy activities are associated with functional improvement across impairment groups. Design This was a prospective observational cohort study. Methods The study was conducted in inpatient rehabilitation facilities. The participants were 433 patients with stroke, 429 patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and 207 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Measures used in this study included: (1) the Comprehensive Severity Index to measure the severity of each patient's medical condition, (2) the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) to measure function, and (3) point-of-care instruments to measure time spent in specific physical therapy activities. Results All 3 groups had similar admission motor FIM scores but varying cognitive FIM scores. Patients with TKA spent more time on exercise than the other 2 groups (average=31.7 versus 6.2 minutes per day). Patients with TKA received the most physical therapy (average=65.3 minutes per day), whereas the TBI group received the least physical therapy (average=38.3 minutes per day). Multivariate analysis showed that only 2 physical therapy activities (gait training and community mobility) were both positively associated with discharge motor FIM outcomes across all 3 groups. Three physical therapy activities (assessment time, bed mobility, and transfers) were negatively associated with discharge motor FIM outcome. Limitations The study

  13. Physical therapy activities in stroke, knee arthroplasty, and traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: their variation, similarities, and association with functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Gerben; Hsieh, Ching-Hui; Putman, Koen; Smout, Randall J; Horn, Susan D; Tian, Wenqiang

    2011-12-01

    The mix of physical therapy services is thought to be different with different impairment groups. However, it is not clear how much variation there is across impairment groups. Furthermore, the extent to which the same physical therapy activities are associated with functional outcomes across different types of patients is unknown. The purposes of this study were: (1) to examine similarities and differences in the mix of physical therapy activities used in rehabilitation among patients from different impairment groups and (2) to examine whether the same physical therapy activities are associated with functional improvement across impairment groups. This was a prospective observational cohort study. The study was conducted in inpatient rehabilitation facilities. The participants were 433 patients with stroke, 429 patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and 207 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Measures used in this study included: (1) the Comprehensive Severity Index to measure the severity of each patient's medical condition, (2) the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) to measure function, and (3) point-of-care instruments to measure time spent in specific physical therapy activities. All 3 groups had similar admission motor FIM scores but varying cognitive FIM scores. Patients with TKA spent more time on exercise than the other 2 groups (average=31.7 versus 6.2 minutes per day). Patients with TKA received the most physical therapy (average=65.3 minutes per day), whereas the TBI group received the least physical therapy (average=38.3 minutes per day). Multivariate analysis showed that only 2 physical therapy activities (gait training and community mobility) were both positively associated with discharge motor FIM outcomes across all 3 groups. Three physical therapy activities (assessment time, bed mobility, and transfers) were negatively associated with discharge motor FIM outcome. The study focused primarily on physical therapy without

  14. Effect of surfaces similarity on contact resistance of fractal rough surfaces under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanwen; Liu, Limei; Ta, Wurui; Song, Jihua

    2018-03-01

    Although numerous studies have shown that contact resistance depends significantly on roughness and fractal dimension, it remains elusive how they affect contact resistance between rough surfaces. The interface similarity index is first proposed to describe the similarity of the contact surfaces, which gives a good indication of the actual contact area between surfaces. We reveal that the surfaces' similarity be an origin of contact resistance variation. The cyclic loading can increase the contact stiffness, and the contact stiffness increases with the increase of the interface similarity index. These findings explain the mechanism of surface roughness and fractal dimension on contact resistance, and also provide reference for the reliability design of the electrical connection.

  15. Pre- versus post-exercise protein intake has similar effects on muscular adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan; Wilborn, Colin; Urbina, Stacie L; Hayward, Sara E; Krieger, James

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the anabolic window theory by investigating muscle strength, hypertrophy, and body composition changes in response to an equal dose of protein consumed either immediately pre- versus post-resistance training (RT) in trained men. Subjects were 21 resistance-trained men (>1 year RT experience) recruited from a university population. After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a group that consumed a supplement containing 25 g protein and 1 g carbohydrate immediately prior to exercise (PRE-SUPP) ( n  = 9) or a group that consumed the same supplement immediately post-exercise (POST-SUPP) ( n  = 12). The RT protocol consisted of three weekly sessions performed on non-consecutive days for 10 weeks. A total-body routine was employed with three sets of 8-12 repetitions for each exercise. Results showed that pre- and post-workout protein consumption had similar effects on all measures studied ( p  > 0.05). These findings refute the contention of a narrow post-exercise anabolic window to maximize the muscular response and instead lends support to the theory that the interval for protein intake may be as wide as several hours or perhaps more after a training bout depending on when the pre-workout meal was consumed.

  16. Pre- versus post-exercise protein intake has similar effects on muscular adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Jon Schoenfeld

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the anabolic window theory by investigating muscle strength, hypertrophy, and body composition changes in response to an equal dose of protein consumed either immediately pre- versus post-resistance training (RT in trained men. Subjects were 21 resistance-trained men (>1 year RT experience recruited from a university population. After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a group that consumed a supplement containing 25 g protein and 1 g carbohydrate immediately prior to exercise (PRE-SUPP (n = 9 or a group that consumed the same supplement immediately post-exercise (POST-SUPP (n = 12. The RT protocol consisted of three weekly sessions performed on non-consecutive days for 10 weeks. A total-body routine was employed with three sets of 8–12 repetitions for each exercise. Results showed that pre- and post-workout protein consumption had similar effects on all measures studied (p > 0.05. These findings refute the contention of a narrow post-exercise anabolic window to maximize the muscular response and instead lends support to the theory that the interval for protein intake may be as wide as several hours or perhaps more after a training bout depending on when the pre-workout meal was consumed.

  17. Asymmetric Effects of Subaerial and Subaqueous Basement Slopes on Self-Similar Morphology of Prograding Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Steven Yueh Jen; Hsiao, Yung-Tai; Wu, Fu-Chun

    2017-12-01

    Deltas form over basements of various slope configurations. While the morphodynamics of prograding deltas over single-slope basements have been studied previously, our understanding of delta progradation over segmented basements is still limited. Here we use experimental and analytical approaches to investigate the deltaic morphologies developing over two-slope basements with unequal subaerial and subaqueous slopes. For each case considered, the scaled profiles of the evolving delta collapse to a single profile for constant water and sediment influxes, allowing us to use the analytical self-similar profiles to investigate the individual effects of subaerial/subaqueous slopes. Individually varying the subaerial/subaqueous slopes exerts asymmetric effects on the morphologies. Increasing the subaerial slope advances the entire delta; increasing the subaqueous slope advances the upstream boundary of the topset yet causes the downstream boundary to retreat. The delta front exhibits a first-retreat-then-advance migrating trend with increasing subaqueous slope. A decrease in subaerial topset length is always accompanied by an increase in subaqueous volume fraction, no matter which segment is steepened. Applications are presented for estimating shoreline retreat caused by steepening of basement slopes, and estimating subaqueous volume and delta front using the observed topset length. The results may have implications for real-world delta systems subjected to upstream tectonic uplift and/or downstream subsidence. Both scenarios would exhibit reduced topset lengths, which are indicative of the accompanied increases in subaqueous volume and signal tectonic uplift and/or subsidence that are at play. We highlight herein the importance of geometric controls on partitioning of sediment between subaerial and subaqueous delta components.

  18. Both food restriction and high-fat diet during gestation induce low birth weight and altered physical activity in adult rat offspring: the "Similarities in the Inequalities" model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio da Silva Cunha

    Full Text Available We have previously described a theoretical model in humans, called "Similarities in the Inequalities", in which extremely unequal social backgrounds coexist in a complex scenario promoting similar health outcomes in adulthood. Based on the potential applicability of and to further explore the "similarities in the inequalities" phenomenon, this study used a rat model to investigate the effect of different nutritional backgrounds during gestation on the willingness of offspring to engage in physical activity in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were time mated and randomly allocated to one of three dietary groups: Control (Adlib, receiving standard laboratory chow ad libitum; 50% food restricted (FR, receiving 50% of the ad libitum-fed dam's habitual intake; or high-fat diet (HF, receiving a diet containing 23% fat. The diets were provided from day 10 of pregnancy until weaning. Within 24 hours of birth, pups were cross-fostered to other dams, forming the following groups: Adlib_Adlib, FR_Adlib, and HF_Adlib. Maternal chow consumption and weight gain, and offspring birth weight, growth, physical activity (one week of free exercise in running wheels, abdominal adiposity and biochemical data were evaluated. Western blot was performed to assess D2 receptors in the dorsal striatum. The "similarities in the inequalities" effect was observed on birth weight (both FR and HF groups were smaller than the Adlib group at birth and physical activity (both FR_Adlib and HF_Adlib groups were different from the Adlib_Adlib group, with less active males and more active females. Our findings contribute to the view that health inequalities in fetal life may program the health outcomes manifested in offspring adult life (such as altered physical activity and metabolic parameters, probably through different biological mechanisms.

  19. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes : A six-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is

  20. Personality similarity in negotiations: Testing the dyadic effects of similarity in interpersonal traits and the use of emotional displays on negotiation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kelly Schwind; DeRue, D Scott; Matta, Fadel K; Howe, Michael; Conlon, Donald E

    2016-10-01

    We build on the small but growing literature documenting personality influences on negotiation by examining how the joint disposition of both negotiators with respect to the interpersonal traits of agreeableness and extraversion influences important negotiation processes and outcomes. Building on similarity-attraction theory, we articulate and demonstrate how being similarly high or similarly low on agreeableness and extraversion leads dyad members to express more positive emotional displays during negotiation. Moreover, because of increased positive emotional displays, we show that dyads with such compositions also tend to reach agreements faster, perceive less relationship conflict, and have more positive impressions of their negotiation partner. Interestingly, these results hold regardless of whether negotiating dyads are similar in normatively positive (i.e., similarly agreeable and similarly extraverted) or normatively negative (i.e., similarly disagreeable and similarly introverted) ways. Overall, these findings demonstrate the importance of considering the dyad's personality configuration when attempting to understand the affective experience as well as the downstream outcomes of a negotiation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Evidence for similar patterns of neural activity elicited by picture- and word-based representations of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Federmeier, Kara D; Fei-Fei, Li; Beck, Diane M

    2017-07-15

    A long-standing core question in cognitive science is whether different modalities and representation types (pictures, words, sounds, etc.) access a common store of semantic information. Although different input types have been shown to activate a shared network of brain regions, this does not necessitate that there is a common representation, as the neurons in these regions could still differentially process the different modalities. However, multi-voxel pattern analysis can be used to assess whether, e.g., pictures and words evoke a similar pattern of activity, such that the patterns that separate categories in one modality transfer to the other. Prior work using this method has found support for a common code, but has two limitations: they have either only examined disparate categories (e.g. animals vs. tools) that are known to activate different brain regions, raising the possibility that the pattern separation and inferred similarity reflects only large scale differences between the categories or they have been limited to individual object representations. By using natural scene categories, we not only extend the current literature on cross-modal representations beyond objects, but also, because natural scene categories activate a common set of brain regions, we identify a more fine-grained (i.e. higher spatial resolution) common representation. Specifically, we studied picture- and word-based representations of natural scene stimuli from four different categories: beaches, cities, highways, and mountains. Participants passively viewed blocks of either phrases (e.g. "sandy beach") describing scenes or photographs from those same scene categories. To determine whether the phrases and pictures evoke a common code, we asked whether a classifier trained on one stimulus type (e.g. phrase stimuli) would transfer (i.e. cross-decode) to the other stimulus type (e.g. picture stimuli). The analysis revealed cross-decoding in the occipitotemporal, posterior parietal and

  2. Recall of short word lists presented visually at fast rates: effects of phonological similarity and word length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltheart, V; Langdon, R

    1998-03-01

    Phonological similarity of visually presented list items impairs short-term serial recall. Lists of long words are also recalled less accurately than are lists of short words. These results have been attributed to phonological recoding and rehearsal. If subjects articulate irrelevant words during list presentation, both phonological similarity and word length effects are abolished. Experiments 1 and 2 examined effects of phonological similarity and recall instructions on recall of lists shown at fast rates (from one item per 0.114-0.50 sec), which might not permit phonological encoding and rehearsal. In Experiment 3, recall instructions and word length were manipulated using fast presentation rates. Both phonological similarity and word length effects were observed, and they were not dependent on recall instructions. Experiments 4 and 5 investigated the effects of irrelevant concurrent articulation on lists shown at fast rates. Both phonological similarity and word length effects were removed by concurrent articulation, as they were with slow presentation rates.

  3. Line-up member similarity influences the effectiveness of a salient rejection option for eyewitnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Bruer, Kaila C.; Fitzgerald, Ryan J.; Therrien, Natalie M.; Price, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    Visually salient line-up rejection options have not been systematically studied with adult eyewitnesses. We explored the impact of using a non-verbal, salient rejection option on adults' identification accuracy for line-ups containing low- or high-similarity fillers. The non-verbal, salient rejection option had minimal impact on accuracy in low-similarity line-ups, but in high-similarity line-ups its inclusion increased correct rejections for target-absent line-ups as well as incorrect reject...

  4. A little similarity goes a long way: the effects of peripheral but self-revealing similarities on improving and sustaining interracial relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Tessa V; Magee, Joe C; Gordon, Sarah H; Gullett, Lindy

    2014-07-01

    Integrating theory on close relationships and intergroup relations, we construct a manipulation of similarity that we demonstrate can improve interracial interactions across different settings. We find that manipulating perceptions of similarity on self-revealing attributes that are peripheral to the interaction improves interactions in cross-race dyads and racially diverse task groups. In a getting-acquainted context, we demonstrate that the belief that one's different-race partner is similar to oneself on self-revealing, peripheral attributes leads to less anticipatory anxiety than the belief that one's partner is similar on peripheral, nonself-revealing attributes. In another dyadic context, we explore the range of benefits that perceptions of peripheral, self-revealing similarity can bring to different-race interaction partners and find (a) less anxiety during interaction, (b) greater interest in sustained contact with one's partner, and (c) stronger accuracy in perceptions of one's partners' relationship intentions. By contrast, participants in same-race interactions were largely unaffected by these manipulations of perceived similarity. Our final experiment shows that among small task groups composed of racially diverse individuals, those whose members perceive peripheral, self-revealing similarity perform superior to those who perceive dissimilarity. Implications for using this approach to improve interracial interactions across different goal-driven contexts are discussed.

  5. The effect of lineup member similarity on recognition accuracy in simultaneous and sequential lineups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowe, Heather D; Ebbesen, Ebbe B

    2007-02-01

    Two experiments investigated whether remembering is affected by the similarity of the study face relative to the alternatives in a lineup. In simultaneous and sequential lineups, choice rates and false alarms were larger in low compared to high similarity lineups, indicating criterion placement was affected by lineup similarity structure (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, foil choices and similarity ranking data for target present lineups were compared to responses made when the target was removed from the lineup (only the 5 foils were presented). The results indicated that although foils were selected more often in target-removed lineups in the simultaneous compared to the sequential condition, responses shifted from the target to one of the foils at equal rates across lineup procedures.

  6. Similarity-based search of model organism, disease and drug effect phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Gruenberger, Michael; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Schofield, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Semantic similarity measures over phenotype ontologies have been demonstrated to provide a powerful approach for the analysis of model organism phenotypes, the discovery of animal models of human disease, novel pathways, gene functions

  7. Intrinsic atopic dermatitis shows similar TH2 and higher TH17 immune activation compared with extrinsic atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Dhingra, Nikhil; Gittler, Julia; Shemer, Avner; Cardinale, Irma; de Guzman Strong, Cristina; Krueger, James G; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2013-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is classified as extrinsic and intrinsic, representing approximately 80% and 20% of patients with the disease, respectively. Although sharing a similar clinical phenotype, only extrinsic AD is characterized by high serum IgE levels. Because most patients with AD exhibit high IgE levels, an "allergic"/IgE-mediated disease pathogenesis was hypothesized. However, current models associate AD with T-cell activation, particularly TH2/TH22 polarization, and epidermal barrier defects. We sought to define whether both variants share a common pathogenesis. We stratified 51 patients with severe AD into extrinsic AD (n = 42) and intrinsic AD (n = 9) groups (with similar mean disease activity/SCORAD scores) and analyzed the molecular and cellular skin pathology of lesional and nonlesional intrinsic AD and extrinsic AD by using gene expression (real-time PCR) and immunohistochemistry. A significant correlation between IgE levels and SCORAD scores (r = 0.76, P extrinsic AD. Marked infiltrates of T cells and dendritic cells and corresponding epidermal alterations (keratin 16, Mki67, and S100A7/A8/A9) defined lesional skin of patients with both variants. However, higher activation of all inflammatory axes (including TH2) was detected in patients with intrinsic AD, particularly TH17 and TH22 cytokines. Positive correlations between TH17-related molecules and SCORAD scores were only found in patients with intrinsic AD, whereas only patients with extrinsic AD showed positive correlations between SCORAD scores and TH2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-5) levels and negative correlations with differentiation products (loricrin and periplakin). Although differences in TH17 and TH22 activation exist between patients with intrinsic AD and those with extrinsic AD, we identified common disease-defining features of T-cell activation, production of polarized cytokines, and keratinocyte responses to immune products. Our data indicate that a TH2 bias is not the sole cause of high Ig

  8. The production and perception of emotionally expressive walking sounds: similarities between musical performance and everyday motor activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Giordano

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the encoding and perception of emotional expressivity in music performance. A relevant question concerns how the ability to communicate emotions in music performance is acquired. In accordance with recent theories on the embodiment of emotion, we suggest here that both the expression and recognition of emotion in music might at least in part rely on knowledge about the sounds of expressive body movements. We test this hypothesis by drawing parallels between musical expression of emotions and expression of emotions in sounds associated with a non-musical motor activity: walking. In a combined production-perception design, two experiments were conducted, and expressive acoustical features were compared across modalities. An initial performance experiment tested for similar feature use in walking sounds and music performance, and revealed that strong similarities exist. Features related to sound intensity, tempo and tempo regularity were identified as been used similarly in both domains. Participants in a subsequent perception experiment were able to recognize both non-emotional and emotional properties of the sound-generating walkers. An analysis of the acoustical correlates of behavioral data revealed that variations in sound intensity, tempo, and tempo regularity were likely used to recognize expressed emotions. Taken together, these results lend support the motor origin hypothesis for the musical expression of emotions.

  9. Intrinsic atopic dermatitis (AD) shows similar Th2 and higher Th17 immune activation compared to extrinsic AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Fariñas, M; Dhingra, N; Gittler, J; Shemer, A; Cardinale, I; de Guzman Strong, C; Krueger, JG; Guttman-Yassky, E

    2013-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is classified as extrinsic (ADe) and intrinsic (ADi), representing approximately 80% and 20% of patients, respectively. While sharing a similar clinical phenotype, only ADe is characterized by high serum IgE. Since most AD patients exhibit high IgE, an “allergic”/IgE-mediated disease pathogenesis was hypothesized. However, current models associate AD with T-cell activation, particularly Th2/Th22 polarization, and epidermal barrier defects. Objective To define if both variants share a common pathogenesis. Methods We stratified 51 severe AD patients as ADe (42) and ADi (9) (with similar mean disease activity/SCORAD), and analyzed the molecular and cellular skin pathology of lesional and non-lesional ADi and ADe using gene-expression (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Results A significant correlation between IgE levels and SCORAD (r=0.76, pextrinsic and intrinsic AD variants might be treated with T-cell targeted therapeutics or agents that modify keratinocyte responses. PMID:23777851

  10. DMPD: Are the IKKs and IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKK-epsilon similarly activated? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18353649 Are the IKKs and IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKK-epsilon similarly activa...e IKKs and IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKK-epsilon similarly activated? PubmedID... 18353649 Title Are the IKKs and IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKK-epsilon similarly activated? Authors Chau

  11. Effects of self-similar correlations on the spectral line shape in the neutral gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharintsev, S.S.; Salakhov, M.Kh.

    2001-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of the influence of self-similar correlations on the Doppler and pressure broadening within the non-equilibrium Boltzmann gas. The diffuse model for the thermal motion of the radiator and the self-similar mechanism of interference of scalar perturbations for phase shifts of an atomic oscillator are developed. It is shown that taking into account self-similar correlation in a description of the spectral line shape allows one to explain, on the one hand, the additional spectral line Dicke-narrowing in the Doppler regime, and, on the other hand, the asymmetry in wings of the spectral line in a high pressure region

  12. Withanolide D Exhibits Similar Cytostatic Effect in Drug-Resistant and Drug-Sensitive Multiple Myeloma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Issa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of recent therapeutic advances, multiple myeloma (MM remains a malignancy with very low curability. This has been partly attributed to the existence of a drug-resistant subpopulation known as cancer stem cells (CSCs. MM-CSCs are equipped with the necessary tools that render them highly resistant to virtually all conventional therapies. In this study, the growth inhibitory effects of withanolide D (WND, a steroidal lactone isolated from Withania somnifera, on drug-sensitive tumoral plasma cells and drug-resistant MM cells have been investigated. In MTT/XTT assays, WND exhibited similar cytostatic effects between drug-resistant and drug-sensitive cell lines in the nM range. WND also induced cell death and apoptosis in MM-CSCs and RPMI 8226 cells, as examined by the calcein/ethidium homodimer and annexin V/propidium iodide stainings, respectively. To determine whether P-glycoprotein (P-gp efflux affected the cytostatic activity of WND, P-gp was inhibited with verapamil and results indicated that the WND cytostatic effect in MM-CSCs was independent of P-gp efflux. Furthermore, WND did not increase the accumulation of the fluorescent P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 in MM-CSCs, suggesting that WND may not inhibit P-gp at the tested relevant doses. Therefore, the WND-induced cytostatic effect may be independent of P-gp efflux. These findings warrant further investigation of WND in MM-CSC animal models.

  13. Characterization of two geraniol synthases from Valeriana officinalis and Lippia dulcis: similar activity but difference in subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lemeng; Miettinen, Karel; Goedbloed, Miriam; Verstappen, Francel W A; Voster, Alessandra; Jongsma, Maarten A; Memelink, Johan; van der Krol, Sander; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2013-11-01

    Two geraniol synthases (GES), from Valeriana officinalis (VoGES) and Lippia dulcis (LdGES), were isolated and were shown to have geraniol biosynthetic activity with Km values of 32 µM and 51 µM for GPP, respectively, upon expression in Escherichia coli. The in planta enzymatic activity and sub-cellular localization of VoGES and LdGES were characterized in stable transformed tobacco and using transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Transgenic tobacco expressing VoGES or LdGES accumulate geraniol, oxidized geraniol compounds like geranial, geranic acid and hexose conjugates of these compounds to similar levels. Geraniol emission of leaves was lower than that of flowers, which could be related to higher levels of competing geraniol-conjugating activities in leaves. GFP-fusions of the two GES proteins show that VoGES resides (as expected) predominantly in the plastids, while LdGES import into to the plastid is clearly impaired compared to that of VoGES, resulting in both cytosolic and plastidic localization. Geraniol production by VoGES and LdGES in N. benthamiana was nonetheless very similar. Expression of a truncated version of VoGES or LdGES (cytosolic targeting) resulted in the accumulation of 30% less geraniol glycosides than with the plastid targeted VoGES and LdGES, suggesting that the substrate geranyl diphosphate is readily available, both in the plastids as well as in the cytosol. The potential role of GES in the engineering of the TIA pathway in heterologous hosts is discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Similar effects of bottom trawling and natural disturbance on composition and function of benthic communities across habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Denderen, Pieter Daniël; Bolam, S.G.; Hiddink, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    communities in similar ways. Both sources of disturbance caused declines in long-living, hard-bodied (exoskeleton) and suspension-feeding organisms. Given these similar impacts, there was no detectable trawling effect on communities exposed to high natural disturbance. Conversely, in 3 out of 5 areas with low...

  15. Location of the redox-active thiols of ribonucleotide reductase: sequences similarity between the Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus leichmannii enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.N.I.; Ashley, G.W.; Stubbe, J.

    1987-01-01

    The redox-active thiols of Escherichia coli ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase and of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase have been located by a procedure involving (1) prereduction of enzyme with dithiothreitol, (2) specific oxidation of the redox-active thiols by treatment with substrate in the absence of exogenous reductant, (3) alkylation of other thiols with iodoacetamide, and (4) reduction of the disulfides with dithiothreitol and alkylation with [1- 14 C]iodoacetamide. The dithiothreitol-reduce E. coli B1 subunit is able to convert 3 equiv of CDP to dCDP and is labeled with 5.4 equiv of 14 C. Sequencing of tryptic peptides shows that 2.8 equiv of 14 C is on cysteines-752 and -757 at the C-terminus of B1, while 1.0-1.5 equiv of 14 C is on cysteines-222 and -227. It thus appears that two sets of redox-active dithiols are involved in substrate reduction. The L. leichmannii reductase is able to convert 1.1 equiv of CTP to dCTP and is labeled with 2.1 equiv of 14 C. Sequencing of tryptic peptides shows that 1.4 equiv of 14 C is located on the two cysteines of C-E-G-G-A-C-P-I-K. This peptide shows remarkable and unexpected similarity to the thiol-containing region of the C-terminal peptide of E. coli B1, C-E-S-G-A-C-K-I

  16. Medical applications of in vivo neutron inelastic scattering and neutron activation analysis: Technical similarities to detection of explosives and contraband

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehayias, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nutritional status of patients can be evaluated by monitoring changes in elemental body composition. Fast neutron activation (for N and P) and neutron inelastic scattering (for C and O) are used in vivo to assess elements characteristic of specific body compartments. There are similarities between the body composition techniques and the detection of hidden explosives and narcotics. All samples have to be examined in depth and the ratio of elements provides a 'signature' of the chemical of interest. The N/H and C/O ratios measure protein and fat content in the body. Similarly, a high C/O ratio is characteristic of narcotics and a low C/O together with a strong presence of N is a signature of some explosives. The available time for medical applications is about 20 min - compared to a few seconds for the detection of explosives - but the permitted radiation exposure is limited. In vivo neutron analysis is used to measure H, O, C, N, P, Na, Cl, and Ca for the study of the mechanisms of lean tissue depletion with aging and wasting diseases, and to investigate methods of preserving function and quality of life in the elderly

  17. Pulmonary parenchyma segmentation in thin CT image sequences with spectral clustering and geodesic active contour model based on similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nana; Zhang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Juanjuan; Zhao, Huilan; Qiang, Yan

    2017-07-01

    While the popular thin layer scanning technology of spiral CT has helped to improve diagnoses of lung diseases, the large volumes of scanning images produced by the technology also dramatically increase the load of physicians in lesion detection. Computer-aided diagnosis techniques like lesions segmentation in thin CT sequences have been developed to address this issue, but it remains a challenge to achieve high segmentation efficiency and accuracy without much involvement of human manual intervention. In this paper, we present our research on automated segmentation of lung parenchyma with an improved geodesic active contour model that is geodesic active contour model based on similarity (GACBS). Combining spectral clustering algorithm based on Nystrom (SCN) with GACBS, this algorithm first extracts key image slices, then uses these slices to generate an initial contour of pulmonary parenchyma of un-segmented slices with an interpolation algorithm, and finally segments lung parenchyma of un-segmented slices. Experimental results show that the segmentation results generated by our method are close to what manual segmentation can produce, with an average volume overlap ratio of 91.48%.

  18. Intelligent method of plant dynamics behavior estimation by effectively applying similar cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofuku, Akio; Numoto, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    1994-01-01

    In order to accomplish efficient execution of a dynamic simulation of engineering systems, it is important to construct suitable mathematical models for the simulation. In the construction of the mathematical models, it is necessary to estimate the system's behavior to suppose the phenomena which are needed to be modeled. The case-based reasoning is considered to be a powerful tool to estimate the outline of system's behavior because we often estimate it from the similar cases which are stored as our experience or in literature. In this study, the technique based on similar cases is investigated to estimate the outline of time-responses of several important variables of pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants at a small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA). The registered cases in case base are gathered from various reports and the authors' numerical simulations related with SBLOCA of PWR plants. The functions to use in the case retrieval are formed from the characteristic features of SBLOCA of PWR plants. On the other hand, the rules to use in the case refinement are obtained from the qualitative and quantitative consideration of plants' behaviors of the cases in the case base. The applicability of the technique is discussed by two simple estimation trials of plant behavior. (author)

  19. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes: a six-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-02-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is the consequence of a threatened identity due to its relative size combined with too much similarity on a vital part of its identity, namely language. To test this hypothesis, 832 high-school students from six different ethnic/national entities (France, Germany, Austria, the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, the French- and Dutch-speaking parts of Belgium, and The Netherlands) completed a questionnaire on liking and similarity ratings. The results-to a large extent-showed that differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity with another nation, pose a threat to the identity of the smaller nation or ethnic group. Differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity, were associated with asymmetries in mutual liking on one hand and asymmetrical perceptions of similarity to the other country on the other hand. The conclusions of this study are consistent with findings of earlier research and stress the importance of language for a nation's identity. Moreover, the findings support social identity theory as a useful theory for understanding intergroup and international relations. Les nations voisines linguistiquement similaires qui diffèrent en taille sont souvent asymétriques dans leurs relations attitudinales l'une envers l'autre: les citoyens des nations plus petites tendent à voir les nations plus grandes comme moins sympathiques et moins semblables et vice-versa. Notre hypothèse était que la réaction des nations plus petites est la conséquence d'un sentiment de menace à l'identité dû à leur taille réduite combinée avec trop de similitudes concernant une partie vitale de leur identité: c'est-à-dire le langage. Pour

  20. Complex overlapping concepts: An effective auditing methodology for families of similarly structured BioPortal ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ling; Chen, Yan; Elhanan, Gai; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Ochs, Christopher

    2018-05-28

    In previous research, we have demonstrated for a number of ontologies that structurally complex concepts (for different definitions of "complex") in an ontology are more likely to exhibit errors than other concepts. Thus, such complex concepts often become fertile ground for quality assurance (QA) in ontologies. They should be audited first. One example of complex concepts is given by "overlapping concepts" (to be defined below.) Historically, a different auditing methodology had to be developed for every single ontology. For better scalability and efficiency, it is desirable to identify family-wide QA methodologies. Each such methodology would be applicable to a whole family of similar ontologies. In past research, we had divided the 685 ontologies of BioPortal into families of structurally similar ontologies. We showed for four ontologies of the same large family in BioPortal that "overlapping concepts" are indeed statistically significantly more likely to exhibit errors. In order to make an authoritative statement concerning the success of "overlapping concepts" as a methodology for a whole family of similar ontologies (or of large subhierarchies of ontologies), it is necessary to show that "overlapping concepts" have a higher likelihood of errors for six out of six ontologies of the family. In this paper, we are demonstrating for two more ontologies that "overlapping concepts" can successfully predict groups of concepts with a higher error rate than concepts from a control group. The fifth ontology is the Neoplasm subhierarchy of the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt). The sixth ontology is the Infectious Disease subhierarchy of SNOMED CT. We demonstrate quality assurance results for both of them. Furthermore, in this paper we observe two novel, important, and useful phenomena during quality assurance of "overlapping concepts." First, an erroneous "overlapping concept" can help with discovering other erroneous "non-overlapping concepts" in its vicinity

  1. Fire effects on rock images and similar cultural resources [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger E. Kelly; Daniel F. McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Throughout human global history, people have purposely altered natural rock surfaces by drilling, drawing, painting, incising, pecking, abrading and chiseling images into stone. Some rock types that present suitable media surfaces for these activities are fine-grained sandstones and granites, basalts, volcanic tuff, dolomites, and limestones. Commonly called rock...

  2. Structural similarity causes different category-effects depending on task characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2001-01-01

    difference was found on easy object decision tasks. In experiment 2 an advantage for natural objects was found during object decisions performed under degraded viewing conditions (lateralized stimulus presentation). It is argued that these findings can be accounted for by assuming that natural objects...... it is in difficult object decision tasks). However, when viewing conditions are degraded and performance tends to depend on global shape information (carried by low spatial frequency components), natural objects may fare better than artefacts because the global shape of natural objects reveals more of their identity......It has been suggested that category-specific impairments for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more globally visually similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage [Aphasiology 13 (1992) 169]. This account has been challenged...

  3. Similar healthy osteoclast and osteoblast activity on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and nanoparticles of tri-calcium phosphate compared to natural bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan AK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adam K MacMillan,1 Francis V Lamberti,1 Julia N Moulton,2 Benjamin M Geilich,2 Thomas J Webster2,3 1RTI Surgical, Alachua, FL, USA; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 3Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: While there have been numerous studies to determine osteoblast (bone forming cell functions on nanocrystalline compared to micron crystalline ceramics, there have been few studies which have examined osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB [RANK]. This is despite the fact that osteoclasts are an important part of maintaining healthy bone since they resorb bone during the bone remodeling process. Moreover, while it is now well documented that bone formation is enhanced on nanoceramics compared to micron ceramics, some have pondered whether osteoblast functions (such as osteoprotegerin and RANK ligand [RANKL] are normal (ie, non-diseased on such materials compared to natural bone. For these reasons, the objective of the present in vitro study was to determine various functions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts on nanocrystalline and micron crystalline hydroxyapatite as well as tri-calcium phosphate materials and compare such results to cortical and cancellous bone. Results showed for the first time similar osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and RANK and osteoblast activity (osteoprotegerin and RANKL on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite compared to natural bone, whereas osteoclast and osteoblast functions on micron crystalline versions of these ceramics were much different than natural bone. In this manner, this study provides additional evidence that nanocrystalline calcium phosphates can serve as suitable synthetic

  4. Reevaluating Key Evidence for the Development of Rehearsal: Phonological Similarity Effects in Children Are Subject to Proportional Scaling Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, Christopher; Citroen, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    The size of an individual's phonological similarity effect for visually presented material is assumed to reflect his or her ability to recode, and by implication rehearse, information in verbal short-term memory. Many studies have shown that under these conditions, the size of this effect interacts with age, tending to be nonsignificant in…

  5. Social contexts and personal relationships : The effect of meeting opportunities on similarity for relationships of different strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, Gerald; Völker, Beate; Flap, Henk

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of social contexts on similarity in personal relationships. We argue that the effect of social contexts is larger for weaker, and smaller for stronger relationships. Using data from The Survey of the Social Networks of the Dutch (collected in 1999/2000, n = 1007), we

  6. Development of pharmacophore similarity-based quantitative activity hypothesis and its applicability domain: applied on a diverse data-set of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sivakumar Prasanth; Jasrai, Yogesh T; Mehta, Vijay P; Pandya, Himanshu A

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative pharmacophore hypothesis combines the 3D spatial arrangement of pharmacophore features with biological activities of the ligand data-set and predicts the activities of geometrically and/or pharmacophoric similar ligands. Most pharmacophore discovery programs face difficulties in conformational flexibility, molecular alignment, pharmacophore features sampling, and feature selection to score models if the data-set constitutes diverse ligands. Towards this focus, we describe a ligand-based computational procedure to introduce flexibility in aligning the small molecules and generating a pharmacophore hypothesis without geometrical constraints to define pharmacophore space, enriched with chemical features necessary to elucidate common pharmacophore hypotheses (CPHs). Maximal common substructure (MCS)-based alignment method was adopted to guide the alignment of carbon molecules, deciphered the MCS atom connectivity to cluster molecules in bins and subsequently, calculated the pharmacophore similarity matrix with the bin-specific reference molecules. After alignment, the carbon molecules were enriched with original atoms in their respective positions and conventional pharmacophore features were perceived. Distance-based pharmacophoric descriptors were enumerated by computing the interdistance between perceived features and MCS-aligned 'centroid' position. The descriptor set and biological activities were used to develop support vector machine models to predict the activities of the external test set. Finally, fitness score was estimated based on pharmacophore similarity with its bin-specific reference molecules to recognize the best and poor alignments and, also with each reference molecule to predict outliers of the quantitative hypothesis model. We applied this procedure to a diverse data-set of 40 HIV-1 integrase inhibitors and discussed its effectiveness with the reported CPH model.

  7. Recombinant deamidated mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase have similar or increased activity compared to wild-type enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, David; Foote, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    The enzyme Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase (ErA) is an important biopharmaceutical product used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Like all proteins, certain asparagine (Asn) residues of ErA are susceptible to deamidation to aspartic acid (Asp), which may be a concern with respect to enzyme activity and potentially to pharmaceutical efficacy. Recombinant ErA mutants containing Asn to Asp changes were expressed, purified and characterised. Two mutants with single deamidation sites (N41D and N281D) were found to have approximately the same specific activity (1,062 and 924 U/mg, respectively) as the wild-type (908 U/mg). However, a double mutant (N41D N281D) had an increased specific activity (1261 U/mg). The N41D mutation conferred a slight increase in the catalytic constant (k cat 657 s(-1)) when compared to the WT (k cat 565 s(-1)), which was further increased in the double mutant, with a k cat of 798 s(-1). Structural analyses showed that the slight changes caused by point mutation of Asn41 to Asp may have reduced the number of hydrogen bonds in this α-helical part of the protein structure, resulting in subtle changes in enzyme turnover, both structurally and catalytically. The increased α-helical content observed with the N41D mutation by circular dichroism spectroscopy correlates with the difference in k cat, but not K m. The N281D mutation resulted in a lower glutaminase activity compared with WT and the N41D mutant, however the N281D mutation also imparted less stability to the enzyme at elevated temperatures. Taken as a whole, these data suggest that ErA deamidation at the Asn41 and Asn281 sites does not affect enzyme activity and should not be a concern during processing, storage or clinical use. The production of recombinant deamidated variants has proven an effective and powerful means of studying the effect of these changes and may be a useful strategy for other biopharmaceutical products.

  8. Dose-response regressions for algal growth and similar continuous endpoints: Calculation of effective concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik R.; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Nyholm, Niels

    2009-01-01

    We derive equations for the effective concentration giving 10% inhibition (EC10) with 95% confidence limits for probit (log-normal), Weibull, and logistic dose -responsemodels on the basis of experimentally derived median effective concentrations (EC50s) and the curve slope at the central point (50......% inhibition). For illustration, data from closed, freshwater algal assays are analyzed using the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata with growth rate as the response parameter. Dose-response regressions for four test chemicals (tetraethylammonium bromide, musculamine, benzonitrile, and 4...... regression program with variance weighting and proper inverse estimation. The Weibull model provides the best fit to the data for all four chemicals. Predicted EC10s (95% confidence limits) from our derived equations are quite accurate; for example, with 4-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy-phenol and the probit...

  9. Drainage effect in eutectic Al-Si foam using similar alporas process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, M.O.; Junior, A.C.S; Ferrandini, P.L.; Nakazato, A.Z.; Assis, W.L.S.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular materials have particular properties. This properties are very interesting in various type of industries, as construction, automobile and shipbuilding. Two reasons why metal foams are apply in more companies are difficult process control and high production costs. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the drainage effect in four samples produced with alloy Al-Si eutectic using CaCO 3 as foaming agent, since this is low cost than TiH 2 used normally in Alporas process and this foam have well pores uniform. For these samples has been used 700°C during all process, mixing time was 180 seconds, holding time was 150 seconds and 3,5 w.t% CaCO3. Therefore, these samples were cut transversally and analyzed what were the drainage effect on the apparent density, relative density and porosity. The free zone bubbles were noticed in all the samples. (author)

  10. The Effect of Ultrasound on the Crystallisation of Paracetamol in the Presence of Structurally Similar Impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai T. H. Nguyen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sono-crystallisation has been used to enhance crystalline product quality particularly in terms of purity, particle size and size distribution. In this work, the effect of impurities and ultrasound on crystallisation processes (nucleation temperature, yield and crystal properties (crystal size distribution determined by Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement (FBRM, crystal habit, filtration rate and impurity content in the crystal product by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS were investigated in bulk suspension crystallisation experiments with and without the use of ultrasound. The results demonstrate that ultrasonic intervention has a significant effect on both crystallisation and product crystal properties. It increases the nucleation rate resulting in smaller particles and a narrower Particle Size Distribution (PSD, the yield has been shown to be increase as has the product purity. The effect of ultrasound is to reduce the level acetanilide impurity incorporated during growth from a 2 mol% solution of the selected impurity from 0.85 mol% to 0.35 mol% and likewise ultrasound reduces the uptake of metacetamol from 1.88 mol% to 1.52 mol%.

  11. Minimally invasive versus open sacroiliac joint fusion: are they similarly safe and effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledonio, Charles G T; Polly, David W; Swiontkowski, Marc F

    2014-06-01

    The sacroiliac joint has been implicated as a source of chronic low back pain in 15% to 30% of patients. When nonsurgical approaches fail, sacroiliac joint fusion may be recommended. Advances in intraoperative image guidance have assisted minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques using ingrowth-coated fusion rods; however, how these techniques perform relative to open anterior fusion of the sacroiliac joint using plates and screws is not known. We compared estimated blood loss (EBL), surgical time, length of hospital stay (LOS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) between patients undergoing MIS and open sacroiliac joint fusion. We retrospectively studied 63 patients (open: 36; MIS: 27) who underwent sacroiliac joint fusion with minimum 1-year followup at our institution from 2006 to 2011. Of those, 10 in the open group had incomplete records. All patients had sacroiliac joint dysfunction confirmed by image-guided intraarticular anesthetic sacroiliac joint injection and had failed nonoperative treatment. Patients were matched via propensity score, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, history of spine fusion, and preoperative ODI scores, leaving 22 in each group. Nine patients were not matched. We reviewed patient medical records to obtain EBL, length of surgery, LOS, and pre- and postoperative ODI scores. Mean followup was 13 months (range, 11-33 months) in the open group and 15 months (range, 12-26 months) in the MIS group. Patients in the open group had a higher mean EBL (681 mL versus 41 mL, p sacroiliac fusion group. With the numbers available, ODI scores were similar between groups, though the study size was relatively small and it is possible that the study was underpowered on this end point. Because the implants used for these procedures make assessment of fusion challenging with available imaging techniques, we do not know how many patients' sacroiliac joints successfully fused, so longer followup and critical evaluation of outcomes scores over time are called

  12. Drainage effect in eutectic Al-Si foam using similar alporas process; Efeito de drenagem em espumas de liga de aluminio silicio eutetico utilizando processo similar ao alporas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, M.O.; Junior, A.C.S; Ferrandini, P.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Materiais e Tecnologia; Nakazato, A.Z.; Assis, W.L.S., E-mail: mauriciooliveirafilho@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de Volta Redonda

    2016-07-01

    Cellular materials have particular properties. This properties are very interesting in various type of industries, as construction, automobile and shipbuilding. Two reasons why metal foams are apply in more companies are difficult process control and high production costs. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the drainage effect in four samples produced with alloy Al-Si eutectic using CaCO{sub 3} as foaming agent, since this is low cost than TiH{sub 2} used normally in Alporas process and this foam have well pores uniform. For these samples has been used 700°C during all process, mixing time was 180 seconds, holding time was 150 seconds and 3,5 w.t% CaCO3. Therefore, these samples were cut transversally and analyzed what were the drainage effect on the apparent density, relative density and porosity. The free zone bubbles were noticed in all the samples. (author)

  13. Specific vulnerability of face perception to noise: a similar effect in schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; McBain, Ryan; Norton, Daniel

    2015-02-28

    Face perception plays a foundational role in the social world. This perceptual ability is deficient in schizophrenia. A noise-filtering mechanism is essential for perceptual processing. It remains unclear as to whether a specific noise-filtering mechanism is implicated in the face perception problem or a general noise-filtering mechanism is involved which also mediates non-face visual perception problems associated with this psychiatric disorder. This study examined and compared the effects of external noise on the performance of face discrimination and car discrimination in schizophrenia patients (n=25) and healthy controls (n=27). Superimposing the external visual noise on face or car stimuli elevated perceptual thresholds (i.e. degraded performance levels) for both face and car discrimination. However, the effect of noise was significantly larger on face than on car discrimination, both in patients and controls. This pattern of results suggests specific vulnerability of face processing to noise in healthy individuals and those with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross-cultural differences and similarities underlying other-race effects for facial identity and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoqian; Andrews, Timothy J; Jenkins, Rob; Young, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual advantages for own-race compared to other-race faces have been demonstrated for the recognition of facial identity and expression. However, these effects have not been investigated in the same study with measures that can determine the extent of cross-cultural agreement as well as differences. To address this issue, we used a photo sorting task in which Chinese and Caucasian participants were asked to sort photographs of Chinese or Caucasian faces by identity or by expression. This paradigm matched the task demands of identity and expression recognition and avoided constrained forced-choice or verbal labelling requirements. Other-race effects of comparable magnitude were found across the identity and expression tasks. Caucasian participants made more confusion errors for the identities and expressions of Chinese than Caucasian faces, while Chinese participants made more confusion errors for the identities and expressions of Caucasian than Chinese faces. However, analyses of the patterns of responses across groups of participants revealed a considerable amount of underlying cross-cultural agreement. These findings suggest that widely repeated claims that members of other cultures "all look the same" overstate the cultural differences.

  15. The similar neurotoxic effects of nanoparticulate and ionic silver in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Loeschner, Katrin; Mortensen, Alicja

    2012-01-01

    We compared the neurotoxic effects of 14nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and ionic silver, in the form of silver acetate (AgAc), in vivo and in vitro. In female rats, we found that AgNPs (4.5 and 9mg AgNP/kg bw/day) and ionic silver (9mg Ag/kg bw/day) increased the dopamine concentration...... in the brain following 28 days of oral administration. The concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain was increased only by AgNP at a dose of 9mg Ag/kg bw/day. Only AgAc (9mg Ag/kg bw/day) was found to increase noradrenaline concentration in the brain. In contrast to the results obtained from...... a 28-day exposure, the dopamine concentration in the brain was decreased by AgNPs (2.25 and 4.5mg/kg bw/day) following a 14-day exposure. These data suggest that there are differential effects of silver on dopamine depending on the length of exposure. In vitro, AgNPs, AgAc and a 12kDa filtered sub...

  16. The effects of gravity on human walking: a new test of the dynamic similarity hypothesis using a predictive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichlen, David A

    2008-09-01

    The dynamic similarity hypothesis (DSH) suggests that differences in animal locomotor biomechanics are due mostly to differences in size. According to the DSH, when the ratios of inertial to gravitational forces are equal between two animals that differ in size [e.g. at equal Froude numbers, where Froude = velocity2/(gravity x hip height)], their movements can be made similar by multiplying all time durations by one constant, all forces by a second constant and all linear distances by a third constant. The DSH has been generally supported by numerous comparative studies showing that as inertial forces differ (i.e. differences in the centripetal force acting on the animal due to variation in hip heights), animals walk with dynamic similarity. However, humans walking in simulated reduced gravity do not walk with dynamically similar kinematics. The simulated gravity experiments did not completely account for the effects of gravity on all body segments, and the importance of gravity in the DSH requires further examination. This study uses a kinematic model to predict the effects of gravity on human locomotion, taking into account both the effects of gravitational forces on the upper body and on the limbs. Results show that dynamic similarity is maintained in altered gravitational environments. Thus, the DSH does account for differences in the inertial forces governing locomotion (e.g. differences in hip height) as well as differences in the gravitational forces governing locomotion.

  17. Similarities and Differences between Parents and Children with Respect to Gender Prejudice: the Intertwinement between Family and Cultural Stereotype Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alfieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the similarities and differences in gender prejudice between parents and their offspring. This work is divided into two phases: our goal in Phase I was to investigate whether any similarity exists in the prejudice response profiles of parents and their young adult offspring. Phase II sought to uncover the levels of unique similarity between parents and child in gender prejudice (cultural stereotype effect. Participants were 293 Italian families (young adult child, mother and father, for a total of 879 people. Each participants completed the Ambivalent Sexism (Glick & Fiske, 1996 and Ambivalence toward Men (Glick & Fiske, 1999 scales. As our research included family data, specific analysis were used, such dyadic indexes (Kenny, Kashy & Cook, 2006. Results reveal that (1 the response profiles of parents and offspring are dissimilar, and (2 the slight shared variance between them is determined by the cultural stereotype effect.

  18. Effects of odanacatib on bone matrix mineralization in rhesus monkeys are similar to those of alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M. Misof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Odanacatib (ODN is a selective and reversible inhibitor of cathepsin K which is an important enzyme for the degradation of collagen I. Aim of the present work was the head-to-head comparison between the effects of ODN and alendronate (ALN on bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD, based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging in relation to changes in histomorphometric mineralizing surface per bone surface (MS/BS in 12–22 years old ovariectomized rhesus monkeys. Trabecular and cortical BMDD derived parameters from vertebrae and proximal tibiae were compared among vehicle (VEH, n = 8, odanacatib low dose (ODN-L, n = 8, odanacatib high dose (ODN-H, n = 8, and alendronate (ALN, n = 6 treated animals. Additionally, data from an intact, non-treated group of animals are shown (INT, n = 8. In trabecular bone from the vertebra and metaphyseal tibia, the BMDD of the ODN and ALN treatment groups was shifted toward higher mineralization densities (p < 0.001 consistent with the significant reduction of MS/BS (p < 0.05 in ODN-H and ALN compared to VEH. Vertebral trabecular CaMean (average degree of mineralization was significantly higher in ODN-L (+6.5%, ODN-H (+6.1%, and ALN (+6.7%, all p < 0.001. Tibial osteonal cortical bone revealed also significantly increased CaMean for ODN-L (+1.4%, p < 0.05, ODN-H (+2.2%, p < 0.05, and ALN (+3.4%, p < 0.001 versus VEH, while primary cortical bone (devoid of secondary osteons did not show any significant differences between the study groups. The percentage of primary bone area in the tibial cross-sections (on average 45 ± 12% was also not significantly different between the study groups (p = 0.232. No significant differences in any BMDD parameters of all studied skeletal sites between ODN and ALN treatment were found. Correlation analysis revealed that MS/BS was highly predictive for trabecular BMDD in vertebral bone. The higher MS/BS, the lower was CaMean. Our findings are

  19. Attraction between two similar particles in an electrolyte: effects of Stern layer absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Plouraboué

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available When Debye length is comparable or larger than the distance between two identical particles, the overlapping among the particles double-layers can play an important role in their interactions. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the interaction among two identical particles with overlapped double-layers. We particularly focus on the effect of a Stern electro static condition from linearization of the adsorption isotherm near the isoelectric (neutrality point in order to capture how polyvalent ion condensation affect sand reverses the surface charge. The stationary potential problem is solved within the framework of an asymptotic lubrication approach for a mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann model. Both spherical and cylindrical particles are analyzed. The results are finally discussed in the context of Debye-Hückel (D-H limit and beyond it.Quando o comprimento de Debye é comparável ou maior do que as distâncias entre duas partículas idênticas, a interseção entre as duplas camadas pode desempenhar papel importante na interação entre elas. Este artigo apresenta uma análise teórica da interação entre duas partículas idênticas as quais apresentam interseção entre as camadas duplas. Nós particularmente focamos a análise sobre o efeito da condição eletrostática de Stern a partir da linearização da isoterma de adsorção perto do ponto isoelétrico para capturar como a condensação do íon polivalente afeta e reverte a densidade de carga superficial. O problema que governa o potencial estacionário é resolvido no contexto de uma teoria assintótica de lubrificação para o modelo de Poisson-Boltzmann. O modelo é analisado para partículas cilíndricas e esféricas. Os resultados são finalmente discutidos no contexto do limite de Debye-Hückel e além dele.

  20. Similar effects of lysine deficiency in muscle biochemical characteristics of fatty and lean piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Granados, P; Haro, A; Seiquer, I; Lara, L; Aguilera, J F; Nieto, R

    2017-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the effects of feeding Lys-deficient diets on muscle biochemical characteristics, particularly intramuscular fat concentration and fatty acid profile, in a fatty (Iberian) and a conventional pig genotype (Landrace × Large White [LDW]) maintained in identical experimental conditions. Performance and plasma metabolite changes were also monitored. Twenty-eight barrows of 10 kg initial BW, 14 of Iberian and 14 of LDW breed, were randomly assigned to each of 2 experimental diets in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (2 breeds × 2 diets). Seven pigs were allocated to each treatment combination. Diets (isonitrogenous and isoenergetic; 200 g CP/kg DM and 14.7 MJ ME) based on barley, corn, corn gluten meal, and soybean meal, with identical composition, except for their Lys content (10.9 g/kg for the diet adequate in Lys and 5.2 g/kg for the diet deficient in Lys), were assayed. Pigs were housed in individual 2 m pens and fed at 85% of ad libitum intake of the Iberian genotype, of greater intake capacity. Daily feed allowance was based on BW individually measured each week. At 25 kg BW, pigs were slaughtered by exsanguination after electrical stunning. Blood samples were taken and longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles were rapidly dissected and stored frozen prior to analysis. Performance was reduced in both pig breeds when fed Lys-deficient diets, particularly in LDW pigs (breed × diet interaction, < 0.05). Intramuscular fat content increased in longissimus dorsi of Iberian ( < 0.05) and in biceps femoris of both pig genotypes ( < 0.01) when fed Lys-deficient diets. Oleic acid increased ( < 0.05) and PUFA acid decreased ( < 0.01) in longissiumus dorsi and biceps femoris of pigs of both genotypes fed Lys-deficient diets. The proportion of oxidative fibers ( < 0.001) and free carnitine content ( < 0.05) increased in longissimus dorsi of both pigs types fed Lys-deficient diets. Plasma creatinine was greater in LDW pigs

  1. Interactive Effects of Counselor-Client Similarity and Client Self-Esteem on Termination Type and Number of Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, G. William; Sipps, Gary J.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of client self-esteem as measured by Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and client-counselor similarity as determined by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) on number of sessions and type of termination (unilateral or mutual) for 55 clients and 9 counselors at university counseling center. Self-esteem interacted significantly with…

  2. The influence of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop effects in trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, W.J.B. van; Conklin, K.; Coderre, E.L.; Guo, T.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop interference and facilitation in three groups of trilinguals. Trilinguals were either proficient in three languages that use the same-script (alphabetic in German–English–Dutch trilinguals), two

  3. The effects of similarity in sexual excitation, inhibition, and mood on sexual arousal problems and sexual satisfaction in newlywed couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykins, Amy D; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah; Heiman, Julia R; Rafaeli, Eshkol

    2012-05-01

    Despite the importance of sexuality for romantic relationships, there has been little research attention to individual differences and dyadic variables, including couple similarity, and their association with sexual problems and satisfaction. The current study examined the effects of the propensity for sexual inhibition and sexual excitation scales (SIS/SES) and the effects of different mood states on sexuality (Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire [MSQ]), at both the individual and the dyad level, on sexual arousal problems and sexual satisfaction. Similarity in SIS/SES and MSQ was measured in a nonclinical sample of 35 newlywed couples and operationally defined as the within-couple, z-transformed correlations between the two partners' item responses. Sexual arousal problems were assessed using self-report measures (Demographic and Sexual History Questionnaire) and focused on the past 3 months. Sexual satisfaction was assessed using the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction. Regression analyses revealed that greater similarity in the effects of anxiety and stress on sexuality was associated with more reported sexual arousal problems of wives. In contrast, the husbands' sexual arousal problems were related only to their own higher SIS1 scores. Higher SES scores predicted lower sexual satisfaction for both husbands and wives. Wives who reported strong positive mood effects on their sexuality indicated greater sexual satisfaction, while husbands who were more similar to their wives in the effect of positive moods on sexuality indicated greater sexual satisfaction. The findings show that, above and beyond one's own sexual propensities, similarity in various aspects of sexuality predicts sexual problems (more so in women) and sexual satisfaction (in both men and women). © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Persuasive Effects of Point of View, Protagonist Competence, and Similarity in a Health Narrative About Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Bell, Robert A; Taylor, Laramie D

    2017-08-01

    We examined the persuasive effects of three narrative features in a message about type 2 diabetes: narrative point of view (first- vs. third-person perspective), protagonist competence (positive role model who prevents diabetes vs. negative role model who develops diabetes), and protagonist-reader similarity (demographically similar vs. dissimilar). We posited that a first-person point of view would elevate people's identification levels more than a third-person point of view, especially when the protagonist was depicted as a positive role model. We also expected a similar protagonist to foster greater levels of identification than a dissimilar one. In addition, the positive effect of a competent role model on identification was expected to be enhanced under the condition of reader-protagonist similarity. Finally, we hypothesized that the effects of identification on persuasion would be mediated by self-referencing. Participants 30 years of age or younger (N = 489) were randomly assigned to read a story about a person with a family history of type 2 diabetes that was altered with regard to the experimental factors. Thereafter they completed a questionnaire incorporating measures of study variables. Greater levels of identification were found to foster self-referencing, leading to persuasion. Identification was strongest with a first-person point of view and when the narrator was a positive role model. The effect of identification on persuasion was mediated by self-referencing. Contrary to expectations, protagonist-reader demographic similarity did not affect identification or self-referencing. There was no support for the two moderation hypotheses.

  5. The Actor, Partner, Similarity Effects of Personality, and Interactions with Gender and Relationship Duration among Chinese Emerging Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding personality effects and their role in influencing relationship quality, varied according to gender and relationship duration, could help us better understand close relationships. Participants were Chinese dating dyads and were asked to complete both the Big Five Inventory and Perceived Relationship Quality Component scales. Males and those who had a long-term relationship perceived better relationship quality; individuals who scored higher on agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and emotional stability enjoyed better relationship quality; gender and/or relationship duration moderated the actor effect of extraversion and the partner effects of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness on relationship quality. Regarding the profile similarity, those couples who were more dissimilar in their profile personality had better relationship quality, especially when they were in a relatively long-term relationship. Meanwhile, with an increase in profile similarity, the males' perceived relationship quality decreased.

  6. Similar activation of signal transduction pathways by the herpesvirus-encoded chemokine receptors US28 and ORF74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLean, Katherine A; Holst, Peter J; Martini, Lene

    2004-01-01

    The virally encoded chemokine receptors US28 from human cytomegalovirus and ORF74 from human herpesvirus 8 are both constitutively active. We show that both receptors constitutively activate the transcription factors nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and cAMP response element binding...

  7. Turbulence, dynamic similarity and scale effects in high-velocity free-surface flows above a stepped chute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Stefan; Chanson, Hubert

    2009-07-01

    In high-velocity free-surface flows, air entrainment is common through the interface, and intense interactions take place between turbulent structures and entrained bubbles. Two-phase flow properties were measured herein in high-velocity open channel flows above a stepped chute. Detailed turbulence measurements were conducted in a large-size facility, and a comparative analysis was applied to test the validity of the Froude and Reynolds similarities. The results showed consistently that the Froude similitude was not satisfied using a 2:1 geometric scaling ratio. Lesser number of entrained bubbles and comparatively greater bubble sizes were observed at the smaller Reynolds numbers, as well as lower turbulence levels and larger turbulent length and time scales. The results implied that small-size models did underestimate the rate of energy dissipation and the aeration efficiency of prototype stepped spillways for similar flow conditions. Similarly a Reynolds similitude was tested. The results showed also some significant scale effects. However a number of self-similar relationships remained invariant under changes of scale and confirmed the analysis of Chanson and Carosi (Exp Fluids 42:385-401, 2007). The finding is significant because self-similarity may provide a picture general enough to be used to characterise the air-water flow field in large prototype channels.

  8. Bench press and push-up at comparable levels of muscle activity results in similar strength gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C; Martin, Fernando; Tella, Victor; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) exercise evaluation is commonly used to measure the intensity of muscle contraction. Although researchers assume that biomechanically comparable resistance exercises with similar high EMG levels will produce similar strength gains over the long term, no studies have actually corroborated this hypothesis. This study evaluated EMG levels during 6 repetition maximum (6RM) bench press and push-up, and subsequently performed a 5-week training period where subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups (i.e., 6RM bench press group, 6RM elastic band push-up group, or control group) to evaluate muscle strength gains. Thirty university students with advanced resistance training experience participated in the 2-part study. During the training period, exercises were performed using the same loads and variables that were used during the EMG data collection. At baseline, EMG amplitude showed no significant difference between 6RM bench press and band push-up. Significant differences among the groups were found for percent change (Δ) between pretest and posttest for 6RM (p = 0.017) and for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) (p bench press group and 6RM elastic band push-up group improved their 1RM and 6RM (Δ ranging from 13.65 to 22.21) tests significantly with similar gains, whereas control group remains unchanged. Thus, when the EMG values are comparable and the same conditions are reproduced, the aforementioned exercises can provide similar muscle strength gains.

  9. Ethnic differences in the effects of media on body image: the effects of priming with ethnically different or similar models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Gina L; Carter, Michele M

    2015-04-01

    Media exposure has been positively correlated with body dissatisfaction. While body image concerns are common, being African American has been found to be a protective factor in the development of body dissatisfaction. Participants either viewed ten advertisements showing 1) ethnically-similar thin models; 2) ethnically-different thin models; 3) ethnically-similar plus-sized models; and 4) ethnically-diverse plus-sized models. Following exposure, body image was measured. African American women had less body dissatisfaction than Caucasian women. Ethnically-similar thin-model conditions did not elicit greater body dissatisfaction scores than ethnically-different thin or plus-sized models nor did the ethnicity of the model impact ratings of body dissatisfaction for women of either race. There were no differences among the African American women exposed to plus-sized versus thin models. Among Caucasian women exposure to plus-sized models resulted in greater body dissatisfaction than exposure to thin models. Results support existing literature that African American women experience less body dissatisfaction than Caucasian women even following exposure to an ethnically-similar thin model. Additionally, women exposed to plus-sized model conditions experienced greater body dissatisfaction than those shown thin models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cadmium and zinc activate adaptive mechanisms in Nicotiana tabacum similar to those observed in metal tolerant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Gómez-Méndez, María F; Amezcua-Romero, Julio C; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Rosas-Santiago, Paul; Pantoja, Omar

    2017-09-01

    Tobacco germinated and grew in the presence of high concentrations of cadmium and zinc without toxic symptoms. Evidence suggests that these ions are sequestered into the vacuole by heavy metal/H + exchanger mechanisms. Heavy metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance are traits shared by a small set of plants which show specialized physiological and molecular adaptations allowing them to accumulate and sequester toxic metal ions. Nicotiana tabacum was used to test its potential as a metal-accumulator in a glass house experiment. Seed germination was not affected in the presence of increasing concentrations of zinc and cadmium. Juvenile and adult plants could concentrate CdCl 2 and ZnSO 4 to levels exceeding those in the hydroponic growth medium and maintained or increased their leaf dry weight when treated with 0.5- or 1-mM CdCl 2 or 1-mM ZnSO 4 for 5 days. Accumulation of heavy metals did not affect the chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, while variable effects were observed in cell sap osmolarity. Heavy metal-dependent H + transport across the vacuole membrane was monitored using quinacrine fluorescence quenching. Cadmium- or zinc-dependent fluorescence recovery revealed that increasing concentrations of heavy metals stimulated the activities of the tonoplast Cd 2+ or Zn 2+ /H + exchangers. Immunodetection of the V-ATPase subunits showed that the increased proton transport by zinc was not due to changes in protein amount. MTP1 and MTP4 immunodetection and semiquantitative RT-PCR of NtMTP1, NtNRAMP1, and NtZIP1 helped to identify the genes that are likely involved in sequestration of cadmium and zinc in the leaf and root tissue. Finally, we demonstrated that cadmium and zinc treatments induced an accumulation of zinc in leaf tissues. This study shows that N. tabacum possesses a hyperaccumulation response, and thus could be used for phytoremediation purposes.

  11. Effects of Activating Schoolyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Andersen, Henriette Bondo

    schools. Two gender-segregated focus groups at each school, including in total 57 fourth to eight graders (28 girls), were conducted. The focus groups included go-along interviews in the schoolyard, and a post-it note activity. The data was collected between April and June 2016 (six months after...... as positive for their schoolyard as it provided more variation in play facilities and improved the appearance. However, at most schools the children experienced that the renewed schoolyards were dominated by the youngest children (under 10-year-old). To minimise crowding some schools had formally restricted...... access to the renovated areas for older children and allowed them to leave the school area during recess. Furthermore, most of the children felt that the renewed schoolyard areas were far from their classrooms. CONCLUSIONS: Renewing the schoolyard is not enough to stimulate physical activity. Schools...

  12. The effect of target and non-target similarity on neural classification performance: A boost from confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Amar R Marathe; Anthony J Ries; Vernon J Lawhern; Vernon J Lawhern; Brent J Lance; Jonathan eTouryan; Kaleb eMcDowell; Hubert eCecotti

    2015-01-01

    Brain computer interaction (BCI) technologies have proven effective in utilizing single-trial classification algorithms to detect target images in rapid serial visualization presentation tasks. While many factors contribute to the accuracy of these algorithms, a critical aspect that is often overlooked concerns the feature similarity between target and non-target images. In most real-world environments there are likely to be many shared features between targets and non-targets resulting in si...

  13. The effect of target and non-target similarity on neural classification performance: a boost from confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Marathe, Amar R.; Ries, Anthony J.; Lawhern, Vernon J.; Lance, Brent J.; Touryan, Jonathan; McDowell, Kaleb; Cecotti, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Brain computer interaction (BCI) technologies have proven effective in utilizing single-trial classification algorithms to detect target images in rapid serial visualization presentation tasks. While many factors contribute to the accuracy of these algorithms, a critical aspect that is often overlooked concerns the feature similarity between target and non-target images. In most real-world environments there are likely to be many shared features between targets and non-targets resulting in si...

  14. Characterization of two geraniol synthases from Valeriana officinalis and Lippia dulcis: similar activity but difference in subcellular localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, L.; Miettinen, K.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Voster, A.; Jongsma, M.A.; Memelink, J.; Krol, van der S.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Two geraniol synthases (GES), from Valeriana officinalis (VoGES) and Lippia dulcis (LdGES), were isolated and were shown to have geraniol biosynthetic activity with Km values of 32 µM and 51 µM for GPP, respectively, upon expression in Escherichia coli. The in planta enzymatic activity and

  15. Brain activity in adults who stutter: Similarities across speaking tasks and correlations with stuttering frequency and speaking rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Roger J.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bothe, Anne K.; Ingham, Janis C.

    2012-01-01

    Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n = 18) and matched fluent controls (CONT, n = 12) is reported that used both oral reading and monologue tasks. After correcting for speech rate differences between the groups the task-activation differences were surprisingly small. For both analyses only some regions previously considered stutter-related were more activated in the PWS group than in the CONT group, and these were also activated during eyes-closed rest (ECR). In the PWS group, stuttering frequency was correlated with cortico-striatal-thalamic circuit activity in both speaking tasks. The neuroimaging findings for the PWS group, relative to the CONT group, appear consistent with neuroanatomic abnormalities being increasingly reported among PWS. PMID:22564749

  16. Molecular similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  17. Sugar consumption produces effects similar to early life stress exposure on hippocampal markers of neurogenesis and stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi eManiam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse early life experience is a known risk factor for psychiatric disorders. It is also known that stress influences food preference. We were interested in exploring whether the choice of diet following early life stress exerts long-lasting molecular changes in the brain, particularly the hippocampus, a region critically involved in stress regulation and behavioural outcomes. Here, we examined the impact of early life stress induced by limited nesting material (LN and chronic sucrose availability post-weaning on an array of hippocampal genes related to plasticity, neurogenesis, stress and inflammatory responses and mitochondrial biogenesis. To examine mechanisms underlying the impact of LN and sugar intake on hippocampal gene expression, we investigated the role of DNA methylation. As females are more likely to experience adverse life events, we studied female Sprague-Dawley rats. After mating LN was imposed from days 2-9 postpartum. From 3-15 weeks of age, female Control and LN siblings had unlimited to access to either chow and water, or chow, water and 25% sucrose solution. LN markedly reduced glucocorticoid receptor (GR and neurogenic differentiation 1 (Neurod1 mRNA, markers involved in stress and hippocampal plasticity respectively, by more than 40%, with a similar effect of sugar intake in control rats. However, no further impact was observed in LN rats consuming sugar. Hippocampal Akt3 mRNA expression was similarly affected by LN and sucrose consumption. Interestingly, DNA methylation across 4 CpG sites of the GR and Neurod1 promoters was similar in LN and control rats. In summary, early life stress and post-weaning sugar intake produced long-term effects on hippocampal GR and Neurod1 expression. Moreover we found no evidence of altered promoter DNA methylation. We demonstrate for the first time that chronic sucrose consumption alone produces similar detrimental effects on the expression of hippocampal genes as LN exposure.

  18. Similar brain activation during false belief tasks in a large sample of adults with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Nicholas; Redcay, Elizabeth; Young, Liane; Mavros, Penelope L; Moran, Joseph M; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, John D E; Saxe, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Reading about another person's beliefs engages 'Theory of Mind' processes and elicits highly reliable brain activation across individuals and experimental paradigms. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined activation during a story task designed to elicit Theory of Mind processing in a very large sample of neurotypical (N = 462) individuals, and a group of high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (N = 31), using both region-of-interest and whole-brain analyses. This large sample allowed us to investigate group differences in brain activation to Theory of Mind tasks with unusually high sensitivity. There were no differences between neurotypical participants and those diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. These results imply that the social cognitive impairments typical of autism spectrum disorder can occur without measurable changes in the size, location or response magnitude of activity during explicit Theory of Mind tasks administered to adults.

  19. Similar brain activation during false belief tasks in a large sample of adults with and without autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Dufour

    Full Text Available Reading about another person's beliefs engages 'Theory of Mind' processes and elicits highly reliable brain activation across individuals and experimental paradigms. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined activation during a story task designed to elicit Theory of Mind processing in a very large sample of neurotypical (N = 462 individuals, and a group of high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (N = 31, using both region-of-interest and whole-brain analyses. This large sample allowed us to investigate group differences in brain activation to Theory of Mind tasks with unusually high sensitivity. There were no differences between neurotypical participants and those diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. These results imply that the social cognitive impairments typical of autism spectrum disorder can occur without measurable changes in the size, location or response magnitude of activity during explicit Theory of Mind tasks administered to adults.

  20. Development of a NIR-based blend uniformity method for a drug product containing multiple structurally similar actives by using the quality by design principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yiqing; Li, Weiyong; Xu, Jin; Boulas, Pierre

    2015-07-05

    The aim of this study is to develop an at-line near infrared (NIR) method for the rapid and simultaneous determination of four structurally similar active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in powder blends intended for the manufacturing of tablets. Two of the four APIs in the formula are present in relatively small amounts, one at 0.95% and the other at 0.57%. Such small amounts in addition to the similarity in structures add significant complexity to the blend uniformity analysis. The NIR method is developed using spectra from six laboratory-created calibration samples augmented by a small set of spectra from a large-scale blending sample. Applying the quality by design (QbD) principles, the calibration design included concentration variations of the four APIs and a main excipient, microcrystalline cellulose. A bench-top FT-NIR instrument was used to acquire the spectra. The obtained NIR spectra were analyzed by applying principal component analysis (PCA) before calibration model development. Score patterns from the PCA were analyzed to reveal relationship between latent variables and concentration variations of the APIs. In calibration model development, both PLS-1 and PLS-2 models were created and evaluated for their effectiveness in predicting API concentrations in the blending samples. The final NIR method shows satisfactory specificity and accuracy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise training induces similar elevations in the activity of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and peak oxygen uptake in the human quadriceps muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomstrand, Eva; Krustrup, Peter; Søndergaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    During exercise involving a small muscle mass, peak oxygen uptake is thought to be limited by peripheral factors, such as the degree of oxygen extraction from the blood and/or mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Previously, the maximal activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme oxoglutarate dehydrogenase has...

  2. Genetic programs expressed in resting and IL-4 alternatively activated mouse and human macrophages : similarities and differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, Fernando O.; Helming, Laura; Milde, Ronny; Varin, Audrey; Melgert, Barbro N.; Draijer, Christina; Thomas, Benjamin; Fabbri, Marco; Crawshaw, Anjali; Ho, Ling Pei; Ten Hacken, Nick H.; Jimenez, Viviana Cobos; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Hamann, Jorg; Greaves, David R.; Locati, Massimo; Mantovani, Alberto; Gordon, Siamon

    2013-01-01

    The molecular repertoire of macrophages in health and disease can provide novel biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Th2-IL-4-activated macrophages (M2) have been associated with important diseases in mice, yet no specific markers are available for their detection in human tissues.

  3. Genetic programs expressed in resting and IL-4 alternatively activated mouse and human macrophages: similarities and differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, Fernando O.; Helming, Laura; Milde, Ronny; Varin, Audrey; Melgert, Barbro N.; Draijer, Christina; Thomas, Benjamin; Fabbri, Marco; Crawshaw, Anjali; Ho, Ling Pei; ten Hacken, Nick H.; Cobos Jiménez, Viviana; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Hamann, Jörg; Greaves, David R.; Locati, Massimo; Mantovani, Alberto; Gordon, Siamon

    2013-01-01

    The molecular repertoire of macrophages in health and disease can provide novel biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Th2-IL-4-activated macrophages (M2) have been associated with important diseases in mice, yet no specific markers are available for their detection in human tissues.

  4. Similarities and differences in the nucleic acid chaperone activity of HIV-2 and HIV-1 nucleocapsid proteins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachulska-Wieczorek, Katarzyna; Stefaniak, Agnieszka K; Purzycka, Katarzyna J

    2014-07-03

    The nucleocapsid domain of Gag and mature nucleocapsid protein (NC) act as nucleic acid chaperones and facilitate folding of nucleic acids at critical steps of retroviral replication cycle. The basic N-terminus of HIV-1 NC protein was shown most important for the chaperone activity. The HIV-2 NC (NCp8) and HIV-1 NC (NCp7) proteins possess two highly conserved zinc fingers, flanked by basic residues. However, the NCp8 N-terminal domain is significantly shorter and contains less positively charged residues. This study characterizes previously unknown, nucleic acid chaperone activity of the HIV-2 NC protein. We have comparatively investigated the in vitro nucleic acid chaperone properties of the HIV-2 and HIV-1 NC proteins. Using substrates derived from the HIV-1 and HIV-2 genomes, we determined the ability of both proteins to chaperone nucleic acid aggregation, annealing and strand exchange in duplex structures. Both NC proteins displayed comparable, high annealing activity of HIV-1 TAR DNA and its complementary nucleic acid. Interesting differences between the two NC proteins were discovered when longer HIV substrates, particularly those derived from the HIV-2 genome, were used in chaperone assays. In contrast to NCp7, NCp8 weakly facilitates annealing of HIV-2 TAR RNA to its complementary TAR (-) DNA. NCp8 is also unable to efficiently stimulate tRNALys3 annealing to its respective HIV-2 PBS motif. Using truncated NCp8 peptide, we demonstrated that despite the fact that the N-terminus of NCp8 differs from that of NCp7, this domain is essential for NCp8 activity. Our data demonstrate that the HIV-2 NC protein displays reduced nucleic acid chaperone activity compared to that of HIV-1 NC. We found that NCp8 activity is limited by substrate length and stability to a greater degree than that of NCp7. This is especially interesting in light of the fact that the HIV-2 5'UTR is more structured than that of HIV-1. The reduced chaperone activity observed with NCp8 may

  5. [A multi-measure analysis of the similarity, attraction, and compromise effects in multi-attribute decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Takashi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Manabu

    2012-12-01

    In multi-attribute decision making, the similarity, attraction, and compromise effects warrant specific investigation as they cause violations of principles in rational choice. In order to investigate these three effects simultaneously, we assigned 145 undergraduates to three context effect conditions. We requested them to solve the same 20 hypothetical purchase problems, each of which had three alternatives described along two attributes. We measured their choices, confidence ratings, and response times. We found that manipulating the third alternative had significant context effects for choice proportions and confidence ratings in all three conditions. Furthermore, the attraction effect was the most prominent with regard to choice proportions. In the compromise effect condition, although the choice proportion of the third alternative was high, the confidence rating was low and the response time was long. These results indicate that the relationship between choice proportions and confidence ratings requires further theoretical investigation. They also suggest that a combination of experimental and modeling studies is imperative to reveal the mechanisms underlying the context effects in multi-attribute, multi-alternative decision making.

  6. From undefined red smear cheese consortia to minimal model communities both exhibiting similar anti-listerial activity on a cheese-like matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, M; Desmasures, N; Vernoux, J-P

    2010-12-01

    Starting from one undefined cheese smear consortium exhibiting anti-listerial activity (signal) at 15 °C, 50 yeasts and 39 bacteria were identified by partial rDNA sequencing. Construction of microbial communities was done either by addition or by erosion approach with the aim to obtain minimal communities having similar signal to that of the initial smear. The signal of these microbial communities was monitored in cheese microcosm for 14 days under ripening conditions. In the addition scheme, strains having significant signals were mixed step by step. Five-member communities, obtained by addition of a Gram negative bacterium to two yeasts and two Gram positive bacteria, enhanced the signal dramatically contrary to six-member communities including two Gram negative bacteria. In the erosion approach, a progressive reduction of 89 initial strains was performed. While intermediate communities (89, 44 and 22 members) exhibited a lower signal than initial smear consortium, eleven- and six-member communities gave a signal almost as efficient. It was noteworthy that the final minimal model communities obtained by erosion and addition approaches both had anti-listerial activity while consisting of different strains. In conclusion, some minimal model communities can have higher anti-listerial effectiveness than individual strains or the initial 89 micro-organisms from smear. Thus, microbial interactions are involved in the production and modulation of anti-listerial signals in cheese surface communities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Similar disturbances in B cell activity and regulatory T cell function in Henoch-Schonlein purpura and systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, M.G.; Nash, G.S.; Bertovich, M.J.; MacDermott, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The immunoglobulin synthesizing activities of peripheral mononuclear cells (MNC) from five patients with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) and eight patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were compared. Cumulative amounts of IgM, IgG, and IgA synthesized and secreted by unstimulated and PWM-stimulated patient cells over a 12-day period were determied in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. In unstimulated control cultures mean rates of IgM, IgG, and IgA synthesis were less than 250 ng/ml. The synthetic activities of patient MNC were markedly increased. In HSP cultures IgA was the major immunoglobulin class produced (2810 x/divide 1.33 ng/ml) followed by IgG (1754 x/divide 1.32 ng/ml) and IgM (404 x/divide 1.16 ng/ml). In SLE cultures IgA and IgG syntheses were equally elevated (4427 x/divide 1.20 and 4438 x/divide 1.49 ng/ml, respectively) whereas IgM synthesis averaged 967 x/divide 1.66 ng/ml. PWM stimulation of pateient MNC caused a sharp decline in the synthesis of all three immunoglobulin classes. After T cell depletion B cell-enriched fractions from HSP and SLE patients maintained high levels of IgA and IgG synthesis that were inhibited by PWM and by normal allogeneic but not autologous T cells. In PWM-stimulted co-cultures, patient T cells nonspecifically suppressed the synthetic activities of autologous and control B cells. in contrast patient B cells achieved normal levels of immunoglobulin synthesis when cultured with control T cells plus PWM. In longitudinal studies patient B and T cell disturbances persisted despite clinical improvement

  8. Effects of species' similarity and dominance on the functional and phylogenetic structure of a plant meta-community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmandrier, L; Münkemüller, T; Lavergne, S; Thuiller, W

    2015-01-01

    Different assembly processes drive the spatial structure of meta-communities (beta-diversity). Recently, functional and phylogenetic diversities have been suggested as indicators of these assembly processes. Assuming that diversity is a good proxy for niche overlap, high beta-diversity along environmental gradients should be the result of environmental filtering while low beta-diversity should stem from competitive interactions. So far, studies trying to disentangle the relative importance of these assembly processes have provided mixed results. One reason for this may be that these studies often rely on a single measure of diversity and thus implicitly make a choice on how they account for species relative abundances and how species similarities are captured by functional traits or phylogeny. Here, we tested the effect of gradually scaling the importance of dominance (the weight given to dominant vs. rare species) and species similarity (the weight given to small vs. large similarities) on resulting beta-diversity patterns of an alpine plant meta-community. To this end, we combined recent extensions of the Hill numbers framework with Pagel's phylogenetic tree transformation approach. We included functional (based on the leaf-height-seed spectrum) and phylogenetic facets of beta-diversity in our analysis and explicitly accounted for effects of environmental and spatial covariates. We found that functional beta-diversity, was high when the same weight was given to dominant vs. rare species and to large vs. small species' similarities. In contrast, phylogenetic beta-diversity was low when greater weight was given to dominant species and small species' similarities. Those results suggested that different environments along the gradients filtered different species according to their functional traits, while, the same competitive lineages dominated communities across the gradients. Our results highlight that functional vs. phylogenetic facets, presence-absence vs

  9. Differences and similarities on neuronal activities of people being happily and unhappily in love: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessel, Christina; Stiller, Juliane; Bleich, Stefan; Bönsch, Dominikus; Boensch, Dominikus; Doerfler, Arnd; Garcia, Meritxell; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Forster, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity was studied in grief following frustrated love compared to romantic love, and it was hypothesized that unhappy lovers compared to happy lovers would have decreased brain activity in regions specific to emotional and reward circuits, such as frontal brain areas, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral insula or posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Twelve volunteers intensely in love and 12 volunteers recently separated from their romantic partners were scanned performing 3 runs of functional magnetic resonance imaging acquisition. Subjects viewed partner pictures versus erotic pictures during the first run of the scanning process, autobiographical pictures versus neutral pictures during the second and autobiographical texts versus neutral texts during the third run. The Passionate Love Scale (PLS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were additionally recorded. Decreased brain activity in unhappy lovers compared to happy lovers occurred in frontal areas, ACC and PCC and bilateral insula. Unhappy lovers also revealed clinical depressive symptoms in the BDI. Unhappy lovers compared to happy lovers exhibited clinical depressive symptoms and reduced blood oxygen level dependency changes in a brain network which has been described as being involved in major depression. This might be a cue for the close relationship between grief and depression. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Telemedicine diabetes consultations are cost-effective, and effects on essential diabetes treatment parameters are similar to conventional treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Klaus; Madsen, Jette R; Petersen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    been offered expert diabetes care using teleconsultations. This article describes the impact of the telemedicine solution on essential diabetes treatment parameters, patient satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: Telemedicine consultations were conducted with the patient and nurse specialist...... in transportation time (7 h). Reductions in traveling costs and saved working days were the most important factors in making the telemedicine set-up economically efficient. CONCLUSION: Telemedicine consultation for remote outpatient diabetes control is feasible, and the interdisciplinary interventions achieved high...... treatment quality results in essential diabetes treatment parameters. In addition, the telemedicine set-up was associated with improved cost-effectiveness and patient satisfaction....

  11. PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta have both similar and distinct effects on myofiber switching toward an oxidative phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Frandsen, Lis; Schjerling, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha and -1beta (PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta) were overexpressed by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in cultures of primary rat skeletal muscle cells derived from neonatal myoblasts. Effects on muscle fiber type transition and metabolism...... an increase in the mRNA expression of TRB3, a negative regulator of insulin signaling. These results show that both PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta are involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle fiber transition and metabolism and that they have both overlapping and differing effects....... were studied from days 5 to 22 of culture. PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta overexpression caused a three- to fourfold increase in mRNA level, a doubling of enzymatic activity of citrate synthase, a slight increase in short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA, a doubling of the mRNA level, and a 30-50% increase...

  12. Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effect of Structurally Similar Flavonoids on Parental and Drug-Resistant Cells of a Human Cervical Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Durgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are phytochemicals characterized by a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant activity, the ability to modulate enzyme or cell receptor activity patterns, and to interfere with essential biochemical pathways. Using HeLa cells of a human cervical carcinoma, and their drug-resistant HeLa CK subline, the effects of three structurally related flavonoids (quercetin, fisetin and luteolin have been examined, in terms of their: (i cytotoxicity, (ii influence on intracellular glutathione (GSH level, (iii influence on glutathione S-transferase (GST activity, and (iv influence on the expression of apoptosis-related genes (PARP, Bcl-2, survivin. Fisetin was more toxic to resistant HeLa CK cell line than to parental cell line, causing decreased expression of survivin in the same cell line. Concentrations of 5 μM of the examined flavonoids caused PARP degradation in parental cell line, leading HeLa cell line into apoptotic cell death. The same event was not determined in the resistant cell line. Fisetin and luteolin induce glutathione and GST in the resistant cell line, pointing to complex cellular effects which could be responsible for higher sensitivity of the resistant cell line in comparison with the parental cell line. Prooxidative nature of the investigated flavonoids was not detected, so free radical formation is not responsible for the induction of GSH, GST and proapoptotic enzymes.

  13. Oxytocin and social pretreatment have similar effects on processing of negative emotional faces in healthy adult males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eKis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin has been shown to affect several aspects of human social cognition, including facial emotion processing. There is also evidence that social stimuli (such as eye-contact can effectively modulate endogenous oxytocin levels.In the present study we directly tested whether intranasal oxytocin administration and pre-treatment with social stimuli had similar effects on face processing at the behavioural level. Subjects (N=52 healthy adult males were presented with a set of faces with expressions of different valence (negative, neutral, positive following different types of pretreatment (oxytocin – OT or placebo – PL and social interaction – Soc or no social interaction – NSoc, N=13 in each and were asked to rate all faces for perceived emotion and trustworthiness. On the next day subjects’ recognition memory was tested on a set of neutral faces and additionally they had to again rate each face for trustworthiness and emotion.Subjects in both the OT and the Soc pretreatment group (as compared to the PL and to the NSoc groups gave higher emotion and trustworthiness scores for faces with negative emotional expression. Moreover, 24 h later, subjects in the OT and Soc groups (unlike in control groups gave lower trustworthiness scores for previously negative faces, than for faces previously seen as emotionally neutral or positive.In sum these results provide the first direct evidence of the similar effects of intranasal oxytocin administration and social stimulation on the perception of negative facial emotions as well as on the delayed recall of negative emotional information.

  14. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  15. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA

  16. Detection of Drug Effects on Brain Activity using EEG-P300 with Similar Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip, Arjon; Dwi Esti, K.; Faizal Amri, M.; Simbolon, Artha I.; Agung Suhendra, M.; IsKandar, Shelly; Wirakusumah, Firman F.

    2017-07-01

    Drug addiction poses a serious problem to our species. The worry that our significant family might be involved in drug use and are concerned to know how to detect drug use. Examinations of thirty taped EEG recordings were performed. The subjects consist of three group: addictive, methadone treatment (rehabilitation), and control (normal) which 10 subjects for each group. Statistical analysis was performed for the relative frequency of wave bands. The higher average amplitude is obtained from the addiction subjects. In the comparison with the signals source, channels P3 provide slightly higher average amplitude than other channels for all of subjects.

  17. Effect of target-masker similarity on across-ear interference in a dichotic cocktail-party listening task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungart, Douglas S; Simpson, Brian D

    2007-09-01

    Similarity between the target and masking voices is known to have a strong influence on performance in monaural and binaural selective attention tasks, but little is known about the role it might play in dichotic listening tasks with a target signal and one masking voice in the one ear and a second independent masking voice in the opposite ear. This experiment examined performance in a dichotic listening task with a target talker in one ear and same-talker, same-sex, or different-sex maskers in both the target and the unattended ears. The results indicate that listeners were most susceptible to across-ear interference with a different-sex within-ear masker and least susceptible with a same-talker within-ear masker, suggesting that the amount of across-ear interference cannot be predicted from the difficulty of selectively attending to the within-ear masking voice. The results also show that the amount of across-ear interference consistently increases when the across-ear masking voice is more similar to the target speech than the within-ear masking voice is, but that no corresponding decline in across-ear interference occurs when the across-ear voice is less similar to the target than the within-ear voice. These results are consistent with an "integrated strategy" model of speech perception where the listener chooses a segregation strategy based on the characteristics of the masker present in the target ear and the amount of across-ear interference is determined by the extent to which this strategy can also effectively be used to suppress the masker in the unattended ear.

  18. Working with a fixed operating room team on consecutive similar cases and the effect on case duration and turnover time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepaniak, Pieter S; Vrijland, Wietske W; de Quelerij, Marcel; de Vries, Guus; Heij, Christiaan

    2010-12-01

    If variation in procedure times could be controlled or better predicted, the cost of surgeries could be reduced through improved scheduling of surgical resources. This study on the impact of similar consecutive cases on the turnover, surgical, and procedure times tests the perception that repeating the same manual tasks reduces the duration of these tasks. We hypothesize that when a fixed team works on similar consecutive cases the result will be shorter turnover and procedure duration as well as less variation as compared with the situation without a fixed team. Case-control study. St Franciscus Hospital, a large general teaching hospital in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Two procedures, inguinal hernia repair and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were selected and divided across a control group and a study group. Patients were randomly assigned to the study or control group. Preparation time, surgical time, procedure time, and turnover time. For inguinal hernia repair, we found a significantly lower preparation time and 10 minutes less procedure time in the study group, as compared with the control group. Variation in the study group was lower, as compared with the control group. For laparoscopic cholecystectomy, preparation time was significantly lower in the study group, as compared with the control group. For both procedures, there was a significant decrease in turnover time. Scheduling similar consecutive cases and performing with a fixed team results in lower turnover times and preparation times. The procedure time of the inguinal hernia repair decreased significantly and has practical scheduling implications. For more complex surgery, like laparoscopic cholecystectomy, there is no effect on procedure time.

  19. Similar rates of protein adaptation in Drosophila miranda and D. melanogaster, two species with different current effective population sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachtrog Doris

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive protein evolution is common in several Drosophila species investigated. Some studies point to very weak selection operating on amino-acid mutations, with average selection intensities on the order of Nes ~ 5 in D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Species with lower effective population sizes should undergo less adaptation since they generate fewer mutations and selection is ineffective on a greater proportion of beneficial mutations. Results Here I study patterns of polymorphism and divergence at 91 X-linked loci in D. miranda, a species with a roughly 5-fold smaller effective population size than D. melanogaster. Surprisingly, I find a similar fraction of amino-acid mutations being driven to fixation by positive selection in D. miranda and D. melanogaster. Genes with higher rates of amino-acid evolution show lower levels of neutral diversity, a pattern predicted by recurrent adaptive protein evolution. I fit a hitchhiking model to patterns of polymorphism in D. miranda and D. melanogaster and estimate an order of magnitude higher selection coefficients for beneficial mutations in D. miranda. Conclusion This analysis suggests that effective population size may not be a major determinant in rates of protein adaptation. Instead, adaptation may not be mutation-limited, or the distribution of fitness effects for beneficial mutations might differ vastly between different species or populations. Alternative explanation such as biases in estimating the fraction of beneficial mutations or slightly deleterious mutation models are also discussed.

  20. The effect of chronic heart failure and type 2 diabetes on insulin-stimulated endothelial function is similar and additive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falskov, Britt; Hermann, Thomas Steffen; Rask-Madsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Chronic heart failure is associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. The aim of this investigation was to study insulin-stimulated endothelial function and glucose uptake in skeletal muscles in patients with heart failure in comparison to patients with type 2 diabetes. ME...... in similar vascular insulin resistance and reduced muscular insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The effects of systolic heart failure and type 2 diabetes appear to be additive.......AIM: Chronic heart failure is associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. The aim of this investigation was to study insulin-stimulated endothelial function and glucose uptake in skeletal muscles in patients with heart failure in comparison to patients with type 2 diabetes...

  1. Effect of Porosity and Concentration Polarization on Electrolyte Diffusive Transport Parameters through Ceramic Membranes with Similar Nanopore Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Romero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diffusive transport through nanoporous alumina membranes (NPAMs produced by the two-step anodization method, with similar pore size but different porosity, is studied by analyzing membrane potential measured with NaCl solutions at different concentrations. Donnan exclusion of co-ions at the solution/membrane interface seem to exert a certain control on the diffusive transport of ions through NPAMs with low porosity, which might be reduced by coating the membrane surface with appropriated materials, as it is the case of SiO2. Our results also show the effect of concentration polarization at the membrane surface on ionic transport numbers (or diffusion coefficients for low-porosity and high electrolyte affinity membranes, which could mask values of those characteristic electrochemical parameters.

  2. Effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup similar in palatability and on salt preference after consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees

    2010-11-01

    Sensory properties of food play an important role in satiation. Studies on the effect of taste intensity on satiation show conflicting results. This may be due to the notion that in these studies taste intensity and palatability were confounded. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of salt intensity of tomato soup on ad libitum intake (satiation), while controlling for palatability on an individual basis. Forty-eight subjects consumed both a low-salt (LS) and high-salt (HS) soup ad libitum from a self-refilling bowl. The results showed no difference between LS and HS soup in ad libitum intake, eating rate, changes in appetite ratings, and changes in hedonic ratings after intake. After intake of HS soup, LS soup was perceived as more bland than before intake of HS soup. After intake of LS soup, HS soup was perceived as more salt intense than before intake of LS soup. In conclusion, this study found no effect of salt intensity on satiation of tomato soups that were similar in palatability. During consumption, subjects adapted quickly to the exposed salt intensity as contrasting salt intensities were rated further from the ideal salt intensity and therefore perceived as less pleasant after consumption.

  3. Effects of initial conditions on self-similarity in a co-flowing axi-symmetric round jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M.; Pollard, A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of initial conditions of a spatially developing coflowing jet is investigated using an LES at Re D = 7,300. A co-flow velocity to initial jet centerline velocity ratio of 1:11 and a co-flow to initial jet diameter ratio of 35:1 are used to match the flow cases of Reference 11. The 35D x 135D simulation volume is divided into 1024 x 256 x 128 control volumes in the longitudinal, radial and azimuthal directions respectively. Time averaged results of the effect of initial conditions on mean flow, the decay of jet centreline velocity, growth of the jet and the distribution of Reynolds stresses in the near, and far field of the shear layer is presented. These quantities show good agreement with the measurements of Reference 11. Our results suggest that the first order moments, e.g., decay of centreline velocity excess, the radial mean velocity profiles, have little dependence on the initial conditions. As well, the Reynolds shear stress appears to have lesser sensitivity to the variation of initial velocity profiles. However, initial conditions have pronounced effect on the self-similarity of normal stresses. Additionally, the computations indicate little Reynolds number dependency, which is consistent with Townsend's school of thought. (author)

  4. Number and density discrimination rely on a common metric: Similar psychophysical effects of size, contrast, and divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S; Greenwood, John A; Dakin, Steven C

    2012-06-04

    While observers are adept at judging the density of elements (e.g., in a random-dot image), it has recently been proposed that they also have an independent visual sense of number. To test the independence of number and density discrimination, we examined the effects of manipulating stimulus structure (patch size, element size, contrast, and contrast-polarity) and available attentional resources on both judgments. Five observers made a series of two-alternative, forced-choice discriminations based on the relative numerosity/density of two simultaneously presented patches containing 16-1,024 Gaussian blobs. Mismatches of patch size and element size (across reference and test) led to bias and reduced sensitivity in both tasks, whereas manipulations of contrast and contrast-polarity had varied effects on observers, implying differing strategies. Nonetheless, the effects reported were consistent across density and number judgments, the only exception being when luminance cues were made available. Finally, density and number judgment were similarly impaired by attentional load in a dual-task experiment. These results are consistent with a common underlying metric to density and number judgments, with the caveat that additional cues may be exploited when they are available.

  5. Efectos del entrenamiento continuo e interválico de carga externa similar sobre la frecuencia cardiaca Effects of continuous and interval training similar external load on heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Tuimil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Los objetivos de este estudio fueron comparar la frecuencia cardíaca (FC media entre dos tipos de entrenamiento de carga externa equiparada basados en la carrera, la relación de la velocidad aeróbica máxima (VAM con la F.C. de reserva (FCR y los efectos de estos dos tipos de entrenamiento sobre la F.C. basal (FCB. El estudio se llevó a cabo con ocho estudiantes de educación física (23,25 años; VAM: 17,93 Km.h-1 que realizaron dos tipos de entrenamiento: CC =8 km al 70%VAM y CI= 4x(1000m al 90%VAM+1000m al 50% VAM. Se registró la FC durante el entrenamiento y la FCB antes y después del mismo. La diferencia de la FC media entre ambos métodos no fue estadísticamente significativa, sin embargo las medias del CC (FCCC (Z=2,240; p<0,05 y CI (FCCI (Z=2,380; p<0,05 fueron significativamente más elevadas que la calculada al 70% de FCR. La FCB se elevó de forma significativa (Z=2,319; p=0.020 solamente después del entrenamiento CI. En conclusión, dos métodos de entrenamiento distintos, pero de intensidad media similar, pueden dar lugar a una FC media también similar. La intensidad de carrera programada en función de la VAM es significativamente superior a la programada en función de la FCR. El entrenamiento interválico puede tener un mayor efecto sobre el incremento de la FCB.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Frecuencia cardíaca media, frecuencia cardíaca de reserva, frecuencia cardíaca basal, VAM, carrera continua, carrera interválica.

    The aims of this study were to compare the mean heart rate response in two training methods of equal average intensity based on running, the relationship of the maximal aerobic speed (VAM with the reserve heart rate (FCR and the effects of these modes of training on the basal heart rate (FCB. The study was carried out with eight physical activity students (23,25 years old; VAM: 17,93 Km.h-1

  6. The similar effects of verbal and non-verbal intervening tasks on word recall in an elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B R; Sullivan, S K; Morra, L F; Williams, J R; Donovick, P J

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerability to retroactive interference has been shown to increase with cognitive aging. Consistent with the findings of memory and aging literature, the authors of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) suggest that a non-verbal task be administered during the test's delay interval to minimize the effects of retroactive interference on delayed recall. The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which retroactive interference caused by non-verbal and verbal intervening tasks affects recall of verbal information in non-demented, older adults. The effects of retroactive interference on recall of words during Long-Delay recall on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) were evaluated. Participants included 85 adults age 60 and older. During a 20-minute delay interval on the CVLT-II, participants received either a verbal (WAIS-III Vocabulary or Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IIIB) or non-verbal (Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices or WAIS-III Block Design) intervening task. Similarly to previous research with young adults (Williams & Donovick, 2008), older adults recalled the same number of words across all groups, regardless of the type of intervening task. These findings suggest that the administration of verbal intervening tasks during the CVLT-II do not elicit more retroactive interference than non-verbal intervening tasks, and thus verbal tasks need not be avoided during the delay interval of the CVLT-II.

  7. The role of drug profiles as similarity metrics: applications to repurposing, adverse effects detection and drug-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Santiago; Hripcsak, George

    2017-07-01

    Explosion of the availability of big data sources along with the development in computational methods provides a useful framework to study drugs' actions, such as interactions with pharmacological targets and off-targets. Databases related to protein interactions, adverse effects and genomic profiles are available to be used for the construction of computational models. In this article, we focus on the description of biological profiles for drugs that can be used as a system to compare similarity and create methods to predict and analyze drugs' actions. We highlight profiles constructed with different biological data, such as target-protein interactions, gene expression measurements, adverse effects and disease profiles. We focus on the discovery of new targets or pathways for drugs already in the pharmaceutical market, also called drug repurposing, in the interaction with off-targets responsible for adverse reactions and in drug-drug interaction analysis. The current and future applications, strengths and challenges facing all these methods are also discussed. Biological profiles or signatures are an important source of data generation to deeply analyze biological actions with important implications in drug-related studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Demonstrating the effects of phonological similarity and frequency on item and order memory in Down syndrome using process dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth; Jarrold, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    It is important to distinguish between memory for item information and memory for order information when considering the nature of verbal short-term memory (vSTM) performance. Although other researchers have attempted to make this distinction between item and order memory in children, none has done so using process dissociation. This study shows that such an approach can be particularly useful and informative. Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to experience a vSTM deficit. These two experiments explored whether phonological similarity (Experiment 1) and item frequency (Experiment 2) affected vSTM for item and order information in a group of individuals with DS compared with typically developing (TD) vocabulary-matched children. Process dissociation was used to obtain measures of item and order memory via Nairne and Kelley's procedure (Journal of Memory and Language, 50 (2004) 113-133). Those with DS were poorer than the matched TD group for recall of both item and order information. However, in both populations, phonologically similar items reduced order memory but enhanced item memory, whereas high-frequency items resulted in improvements in both item and order memory-effects that are in line with previous research in the adult literature. These results indicate that, despite poorer vSTM performance in DS, individuals experience phonological coding of verbal input and a contribution of long-term memory knowledge to recall. These findings inform routes for interventions for those with DS, highlighting the need to enhance both item and order memory. Moreover, this work demonstrates that process dissociation is applicable and informative for studying special populations and children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Post 2000-swarm microearthquake activity in the principal focal zone of West Bohemia/Vogtland: space-time distribution and waveform similarity analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, Tomáš; Michálek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2008), s. 493-511 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/1780 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 105707 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : earthquake swarms * relative location * waveform similarity * seismic activity * West Bohemia/Vogtland Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.770, year: 2008

  10. Temporal-pattern similarity analysis reveals the beneficial and detrimental effects of context reinstatement on human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudigl, Tobias; Vollmar, Christian; Noachtar, Soheyl; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2015-04-01

    A powerful force in human memory is the context in which memories are encoded (Tulving and Thomson, 1973). Several studies suggest that the reinstatement of neural encoding patterns is beneficial for memory retrieval (Manning et al., 2011; Staresina et al., 2012; Jafarpour et al., 2014). However, reinstatement of the original encoding context is not always helpful, for instance, when retrieving a memory in a different contextual situation (Smith and Vela, 2001). It is an open question whether such context-dependent memory effects can be captured by the reinstatement of neural patterns. We investigated this question by applying temporal and spatial pattern similarity analysis in MEG and intracranial EEG in a context-match paradigm. Items (words) were tagged by individual dynamic context stimuli (movies). The results show that beta oscillatory phase in visual regions and the parahippocampal cortex tracks the incidental reinstatement of individual context trajectories on a single-trial level. Crucially, memory benefitted from reinstatement when the encoding and retrieval contexts matched but suffered from reinstatement when the contexts did not match. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355373-12$15.00/0.

  11. APPLICATION OF A SELF-SIMILAR PRESSURE PROFILE TO SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT DATA FROM GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroczkowski, Tony; Miller, Amber; Bonamente, Max; Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas L.; Greer, Christopher; Hennessy, Ryan; Leitch, Erik M.; Loh, Michael; Marrone, Daniel P.; Pryke, Clem; Sharp, Matthew; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James W.; Woody, David; Joy, Marshall; Maughan, Ben; Muchovej, Stephen; Nagai, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the utility of a new, self-similar pressure profile for fitting Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect observations of galaxy clusters. Current SZ imaging instruments-such as the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA)-are capable of probing clusters over a large range in a physical scale. A model is therefore required that can accurately describe a cluster's pressure profile over a broad range of radii from the core of the cluster out to a significant fraction of the virial radius. In the analysis presented here, we fit a radial pressure profile derived from simulations and detailed X-ray analysis of relaxed clusters to SZA observations of three clusters with exceptionally high-quality X-ray data: A1835, A1914, and CL J1226.9+3332. From the joint analysis of the SZ and X-ray data, we derive physical properties such as gas mass, total mass, gas fraction and the intrinsic, integrated Compton y-parameter. We find that parameters derived from the joint fit to the SZ and X-ray data agree well with a detailed, independent X-ray-only analysis of the same clusters. In particular, we find that, when combined with X-ray imaging data, this new pressure profile yields an independent electron radial temperature profile that is in good agreement with spectroscopic X-ray measurements.

  12. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  13. Effect of losartan on human platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Cuesta, J I; Montón, M; Rodríguez-Feo, J A; Jiménez, A M; González-Fernández, F; Rico, L A; García, R; Gómez, J; Farré, J; Casado, S; López-Farré, A

    1999-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that losartan can block the thromboxane A2 receptor on the vascular wall. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of losartan on human platelet activation. Platelets were obtained from 15 healthy men, aged 26-40 years. Platelet activation was measured by changes in the light transmission of platelet-rich plasma stimulated by the thromboxane A2 analog U46619 (5 x 10(-6) mol/l) or ADP (10(-5) mol/l). U46619-stimulated platelet aggregation was significantly inhibited by losartan in a dose-dependent manner. Only a high dose of EXP 3174 (5 x 10(-5) mol/l), the in vivo active metabolite of losartan, was able to attenuate U46619-induced platelet activation. Captopril, an angiotensin I converting inhibitor, failed to modify U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the binding of [3H]-U46619 to platelets was competitively inhibited by losartan, whereas only a high dose of EXP 3174 reduced the binding of [3H]-U46619. Captopril failed to modify the binding of [3H]-U46619 to platelets. Losartan also reduced the platelet activation induced by ADP (10(-5) mol/l), a platelet agonist partially dependent on thromboxane A2. In addition, when thromboxane A2 generation was blocked by aspirin, ADP-induced platelet aggregation was inhibited to a similar degree to the inhibition induced by losartan. Exogenous angiotensin II did not elicit any modification of either U46619- or ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation. Losartan decreased platelet aggregation by a thromboxane A2-dependent mechanism. EXP 3174 was less potent than losartan in reducing thromboxane A2-dependent platelet activation. Captopril and exogenous angiotensin II had no effect on human platelet activation. These results suggest that losartan reduced thromboxane A2-dependent platelet activation independently of its effect on angiotensin II.

  14. The nonenzymatic subunit of pseutarin C, a prothrombin activator from eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) venom, shows structural similarity to mammalian coagulation factor V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Veena S; Swarup, Sanjay; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2003-08-15

    Pseutarin C is a group C prothrombin activator from the venom of the eastern brown snake Pseudonaja textilis. It is a multi-subunit protein complex consisting of catalytic and nonenzymatic subunits similar to coagulation factor Xa and factor Va, respectively. Here we describe the complete sequence of the nonenzymatic subunit. Based on the partial amino acid sequence of the nonenzymatic subunit, degenerate primers were designed. Using a "walking" strategy based on sequentially designed primers, we determined the complete cDNA sequence of the nonenzymatic subunit. The cDNA encodes a protein of 1461 amino acid residues, which includes a 30-residue signal peptide, a mature protein of 1430 amino acid residues, and a stop codon. cDNA blot analysis showed a single transcript of approximately 4.6 kb. The deduced amino acid sequence shows approximately 50% identity to mammalian factor V and by homology has a similar domain structure consisting of domains A1-A2-B-A3-C1-C2. Interestingly, the B domain of pseutarin C is shorter than that of mammalian factor V (FV). Although most of the proteolytic activation sites are conserved, 2 of 3 proteolytic sites cleaved by activated protein C are mutated, and thus activated protein C is not able to inactivate this procoagulant toxin. The predicted posttranslational modifications, including disulfide bonds, N-glycosylation, phosphorylation, and sulfation, in pseutarin C are significantly different compared with bovine factor V. Thus, our data demonstrate that the nonenzymatic subunit of group C prothrombin activators is structurally similar to mammalian FV.

  15. Similarity between the effects of carbon-ion irradiation and X-irradiation on the development of rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inouye, Minoru; Hayasaka, Shizu; Murata, Yoshiharu; Takahashi, Sentaro; Kubota, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    The effects of carbon-ion irradiation and X-irradiation on the development of rat brain were compared. Twenty pregnant rats were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) at 9 pm on day 18 pregnancy and divided into five groups. Three hours after injection (day 19.0) one group was exposed to 290 MeV/u carbon-ion radiation by a single dose of 1.5 Gy. Other groups were exposed to X-radiation by 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5 Gy, or sham-treated, respectively. Fetuses were removed from one dam in each group 8 h after exposure and examined histologically. Extensive cell death was observed in the brain mantle from the irradiated groups. The cell death after 1.5 Gy carbon-ion irradiation was remarkably more extensive than that after 1.5 Gy X-irradiation, but comparable to that after 2.0 Gy or 2.5 Gy X-irradiation. The remaining rats were allowed to give birth and the offspring were sacrificed at 6 weeks of age. All of the irradiated offspring manifested microcephaly. The size of the brain mantle exposed to 1.5 Gy carbon-ion radiation was significantly smaller than that exposed to 1.5 Gy X-radiation and larger than that exposed to 2.5 Gy X-radiation. A histological examination of the cerebral cortex revealed that cortical layers II-IV were malformed. The defect by 1.5 Gy carbon-ion irradiation was more severe than that by the same dose of X-irradiation. Although the BrdU-incorporated neurons were greatly reduced in number in all irradiated groups, these cells reached the superficial area of the cortex. These findings indicated that the effects of both carbon-ion irradiation and X-irradiation on the development of rat brain are similar in character, and the effect of 1.5 Gy carbon-ion irradiation compares to that of 2.0-2.5 Gy X-irradiation. (author)

  16. Chimeric RXFP1 and RXFP2 receptors highlight the similar mechanism of activation utilizing their N-terminal low density lipoprotein class A modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoni eBruell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Relaxin family peptide (RXFP receptors 1 and 2 are unique G-protein coupled receptors in that they contain an N-terminal low density lipoprotein type A (LDLa module which is necessary for receptor activation. The current hypothesis suggests that upon ligand binding the LDLa module interacts with the transmembrane (TM domain of a homodimer partner receptor to induce the active receptor conformations. We recently demonstrated that three residues in the N-terminus of the RXFP1 LDLa module are potentially involved in hydrophobic interactions with the receptor to drive activation. RXFP2 shares two out of three of the residues implicated, suggesting that the two LDLa modules could be interchanged without adversely affecting activity. However, in 2007 it was shown that a chimera consisting of the RXFP1 receptor with its LDLa swapped for that of RXFP2 did not signal. We noticed this construct also contained the RXFP2 region linking the LDLa to the leucine-rich repeats. We therefore constructed chimeric RXFP1 and RXFP2 receptors with their LDLa modules swapped immediately C-terminally to the final cysteine residue of the module, retaining the native linker. In addition, we exchanged the TM domains of the chimeras to explore if matching the LDLa module with the TM domain of its native receptor altered activity. All of the chimeras were expressed at the surface of HEK293T cells with ligand binding profiles similar to the wild-type receptors. Importantly, as predicted, ligand binding was able to induce cAMP based signalling. Chimeras of RXFP1 with the LDLa of RXFP2 demonstrated reduced H2 relaxin potency with the pairing of the RXFP2 TM with the RXFP2 LDLa necessary for full ligand efficacy. In contrast the ligand mediated potencies and efficacies on the RXFP2 chimeras were similar suggesting the RXFP1 LDLa module has similar efficacy on the RXFP2 TM domain. Our studies demonstrate the LDLa modules of RXFP1 and RXFP2 modulate receptor activation via a

  17. Approach to analysis of inter-regional similarity of investment activity support measures in legislation of regions (on the example of Krasnoyarsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina F. Lapo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most part of stimulation methods in Russia are concentrated in legal documents of the regions of the Russian Federation. They directed on intensification of investment activity in regions. How similar are these investment stimulation conceptions? There is no mention in the literature of the methodical questions of quantitative analysis and inter-regional comparisons. In addition, there are no results of statistical research of inter-regional correlations of stimulation methods and analysis of dynamics of this process. There are no special measuring instruments. The presented work is aimed at completion of these blanks. The approach for the spatial correlation analysis of legislative norms is offered in research. Classification of investments’ stimulation methods is developed. The way of preparing and coding data for research is offered. The approach and system of coefficients for the analysis of inter-regional interrelations of legislative systems of investments’ stimulation is offered. A proximity coefficient of regional legislation, a factor of structure similarity and a dynamic coincidence index are proposed. The space-time base of investment stimulation methods on Russian Federation regions for 12 years is collected and statistically processed for research. There are only 758 documents. A source of texts is a site of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation.Research of documents has allowed revealing a number of laws in formation of regional investment stimulation systems. The regions that are the most similar in terms of structure of stimulation methods are identified. We have found the group of regions for which it is observed the increase in similarity of the legislation and the group with the reduction of similarity. Therefore, it is obvious that the general trend to reduction of similarity in the legislation takes place between Krasnoyarsk territory and the other regions of the Russian Federation. Calculations have

  18. Elevation of serum insulin concentration during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies leads to similar activation of insulin receptor kinase in skeletal muscle of subjects with and without NIDDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, H H; Vestergaard, H; Kotzke, G

    1995-01-01

    The role of skeletal muscle insulin receptor kinase in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was investigated. Muscle biopsies from 13 patients with NIDDM and 10 control subjects at fasting serum insulin concentrations and approximately 1,000 pmol/l steady-state serum...... insulin during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps were immediately frozen. The biopsies were then solubilized, and the receptors were immobilized to anti-insulin receptor antibody-coated microwells. Receptor kinase and binding activities were consecutively measured in these wells. The increase in serum...... and control groups, respectively). Moreover, by selecting only the receptors that bound to anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, we found similar hyperinsulinemia-induced increases of this receptor fraction and its kinase activity in both study groups. In vitro activation of the immobilized receptors with 2 mmol...

  19. Similar effects of feature-based attention on motion perception and pursuit eye movements at different levels of awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-05-30

    Feature-based attention enhances visual processing and improves perception, even for visual features that we are not aware of. Does feature-based attention also modulate motor behavior in response to visual information that does or does not reach awareness? Here we compare the effect of feature-based attention on motion perception and smooth-pursuit eye movements in response to moving dichoptic plaids--stimuli composed of two orthogonally drifting gratings, presented separately to each eye--in human observers. Monocular adaptation to one grating before the presentation of both gratings renders the adapted grating perceptually weaker than the unadapted grating and decreases the level of awareness. Feature-based attention was directed to either the adapted or the unadapted grating's motion direction or to both (neutral condition). We show that observers were better at detecting a speed change in the attended than the unattended motion direction, indicating that they had successfully attended to one grating. Speed change detection was also better when the change occurred in the unadapted than the adapted grating, indicating that the adapted grating was perceptually weaker. In neutral conditions, perception and pursuit in response to plaid motion were dissociated: While perception followed one grating's motion direction almost exclusively (component motion), the eyes tracked the average of both gratings (pattern motion). In attention conditions, perception and pursuit were shifted toward the attended component. These results suggest that attention affects perception and pursuit similarly even though only the former reflects awareness. The eyes can track an attended feature even if observers do not perceive it.

  20. Effects of soil, altitude, rainfall, and distance on the floristic similarity of Atlantic Forest fragments in the east-Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de Barros Prado Moura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a floristic survey conducted on an Atlantic Forest fragment in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Besides, the results of a similarity analysis between ten rainforest fragments from the Brazilian east-Northeast are presented. The floristic comparison was based on binary data with regard to the presence/ absence criterion for tree species identified in the ten fragments by means of Sørensen’s similarity index. A dendrogram was prepared using cluster analysis (Jaccard’s index and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA to test the abiotic factors, which can differently influence the similarity of fragments. The fragments showed low similarity indices. The variations were due to the fact that each fragment is a patch of what once was a continuous and heterogeneous region. However, the diversity loss, including the disappearance of more demanding species, can lead, in large-scale, to homogeneity and simplification of the northeastern Atlantic Forest.

  1. The semantic-similarity effect in children: influence of long-term knowledge on verbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Catherine; Bonthoux, Françoise

    2011-11-01

    The present research was designed to highlight the relation between children's categorical knowledge and their verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. To do this, we manipulated the categorical organization of the words composing lists to be memorized by 5- and 9-year-old children. Three types of word list were drawn up: semantically similar context-dependent (CD) lists, semantically similar context-independent (CI) lists, and semantically dissimilar lists. In line with the procedure used by Poirier and Saint-Aubin (1995), the dissimilar lists were produced using words from the semantically similar lists. Both 5- and 9-year-old children showed better recall for the semantically similar CD lists than they did for the unrelated lists. In the semantic similar CI condition, semantic similarity enhanced immediate serial recall only at age 9 but contributed to item information memory both at ages 5 and 9. These results, which indicate a semantic influence of long-term memory (LTM) on serial recall from age 5, are discussed in the light of current models of STM. Moreover, we suggest that differences between results at 5 and 9 years are compatible with pluralist models of development. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Comparison of Biochemical Recurrence-Free Survival after Radical Prostatectomy Triggered by Grade Reclassification during Active Surveillance and in Men Newly Diagnosed with Similar Grade Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Clarissa P; Landis, Patricia; Carter, H Ballentine; Epstein, Jonathan I; Mamawala, Mufaddal

    2017-09-01

    We compared biochemical recurrence between men on active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy triggered by grade reclassification and men diagnosed with similar grade disease treated with immediate radical prostatectomy. We retrospectively analyzed the records of men who underwent surgery from 1995 to 2015 at our institution. We identified 4 groups, including 94 and 56 men on active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy following reclassification to Gleason 7 (3 + 4) or greater (grade groups 2 or greater) and Gleason 7 (3 + 4) (grade group 2), and 3,504 and 1,979 in the immediate prostatectomy group diagnosed with grade group 2 or greater and 2, respectively. Biochemical recurrence was assessed by Kaplan-Meir analysis and a multivariable Cox model. Men on active surveillance had a lower incidence of biochemical recurrence than men in the immediate radical prostatectomy groups for biopsy grade groups 2 or greater and 2 (each p <0.05). One, 5 and 10-year biochemical recurrence-free survival for men in the active surveillance group vs the immediate radical prostatectomy group was 97.9% vs 85.5%, 76.6% vs 65.1% and 69.0% vs 54.2% in biopsy grade groups 2 or greater (p = 0.009) and 96.4% vs 91.2%, 89.6% vs 74.0% and 89.6% vs 63.9%, respectively, in biopsy grade group 2 (p = 0.071). For biopsy grade groups 2 or greater there was no significant difference in the risk of biochemical recurrence between the groups after adjusting for age, biopsy extent of cancer and prostate specific antigen density. Patients on active surveillance reclassified to grade groups 2 or greater are at no greater risk for treatment failure than men newly diagnosed with similar grades. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K.; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-01

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, Cdbnd O/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO-2/lipid, COO-/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development.

  4. Triadic Closure in Core Networks : Disentangling the Effects of Social Distance, National Origin Similarity and Shared Contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, Gerald|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835153; Van Duijn, Marijtje; Rydgren, Jens; Edling, Christofer

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging that the composition and structure of personal networks is affected by meeting opportunities, social distance, and national origin similarity, we aim to disentangle their association with triadic closure in the core of personal networks. We use data (collected 2009) on the core

  5. Triadic closure in core networks: Disentangling the effects of social distance, natoinal origin similarity and shared contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, Gerald; van Duijn, Maria; Rydgren, Jens; Edling, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging that the composition and structure of personal networks is affected by meeting opportunities, social distance, and national origin similarity, we aim to disentangle their association with triadic closure in the core of personal networks. We use data (collected 2009) on the core

  6. Similar effects of bottom trawling and natural disturbance on composition and function of benthic communities across habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denderen, van Daniel; Bolam, Stefan G.; Hiddink, Jan Geert; Jennings, Simon; Kenny, Andrew; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Kooten, Van Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Bottom trawl fishing has widespread impacts on benthic habitats and communities. The benthic response to trawling seems to be smaller or absent in areas exposed to high natural disturbance, leading to the hypothesis that natural and trawl disturbance affect benthic communities in a similar way.

  7. Why are some people's names easier to learn than others? The effects of face similarity on memory for face-name associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantelis, Peter C.; Van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Using synthetic faces that varied along four perceptual dimensions (Wilson, Loffler, & Wilkinson, 2002), we examined the effects of face similarity on memory for face-name associations. The nature of these stimuli allowed us to go beyond the categorical similarity manipulations used in previous

  8. Effect of the peptide Tat(49-57) on the bio-distribution and similar radiopharmaceuticals dosimetry of the bombesin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos C, C. L.

    2011-01-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-r) is over-expressed in prostate and breast cancer. 99m Tc-Bombesin ( 99m Tc-Bn) has been reported as a radiopharmaceutical with specific cell GRP-r binding. The HIV Tat(49-57)-derived peptide has been used to deliver a large variety of molecules to cell nuclei. New hybrid radiopharmaceuticals of type 99m Tc-N 2 S 2 -Tat(49-57)-Lys 3 -Bn ( 99m Tc-Tat-Bn) and 188 Re-N 2 S 2 -Tat(49-57)-Lys 3 -Bn ( 188 Re-Tat-Bn), would increase cell uptake and internalized in cancer cell nuclei could act as an effective system of targeted radiotherapy using Auger and internal conversion (I C) electron emissions near DNA. The aim of this research was to prepare and assess in vitro and in vivo uptake kinetics in cancer cells of 99m Tc/ 188 Re-Tat-Bn and the in vitro nucleus and cytoplasm internalization kinetics in GRP receptor-positive cancer cells as well as to evaluate the subcellular-level radiation absorbed dose associated with the observed effect on cancer cell DNA proliferation. Structures of N 2 S 2 -Tat-Bn and Tc/Re(O)N 2 S 2 -Tat-Bn were calculated by an Mm procedure. 99m Tc-Tat-Bn and 188 Re-Tat-Bn were synthesized and stability studies carried out by HPLC and I TLC-Sg analyses in serum and cysteine solutions. In vitro internalization was tested using human prostate cancer Pc 3 cells and breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-Mb 231 and MCF 7. Nuclei from cells were isolated using a nuclear extraction kit. Total disintegrations in each subcellular compartment were calculated by integration of experimental time activity kinetic curves. Nucleus internalization was corroborated by con focal microscopy images using immunofluorescent labelled Tat-Bn. Biodistribution was determined in Pc 3 tumor-bearing nude mice. The Penelope code was used to simulate and calculate the absorbed dose by contribution of β, Auger and I C electrons in the cytoplasm and nucleus using geometric models built from immunofluorescent cell images. A cell proliferation

  9. An effective framework for finding similar cases of dengue from audio and text data using domain thesaurus and case base reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Rajinder; Kaur, Jaspreet; Thapar, Vivek

    2018-02-01

    Dengue, also known as break-bone fever, is a tropical disease transmitted by mosquitoes. If the similarity between dengue infected users can be identified, it can help government's health agencies to manage the outbreak more effectively. To find similarity between cases affected by Dengue, user's personal and health information are the two fundamental requirements. Identification of similar symptoms, causes, effects, predictions and treatment procedures, is important. In this paper, an effective framework is proposed which finds similar patients suffering from dengue using keyword aware domain thesaurus and case base reasoning method. This paper focuses on the use of ontology dependent domain thesaurus technique to extract relevant keywords and then build cases with the help of case base reasoning method. Similar cases can be shared with users, nearby hospitals and health organizations to manage the problem more adequately. Two million case bases were generated to test the proposed similarity method. Experimental evaluations of proposed framework resulted in high accuracy and low error rate for finding similar cases of dengue as compared to UPCC and IPCC algorithms. The framework developed in this paper is for dengue but can easily be extended to other domains also.

  10. Standard restrictive sternal precautions and modified sternal precautions had similar effects in people after cardiac surgery via median sternotomy (‘SMART’ Trial: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ali Katijjahbe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Question: In people who have undergone cardiac surgery via median sternotomy, does modifying usual sternal precautions to make them less restrictive improve physical function, pain, kinesiophobia and health-related quality of life? Design: Two-centre, randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, blinded assessors and intention-to-treat analysis. Participants: Seventy-two adults who had undergone cardiac surgery via a median sternotomy were included. Intervention: Participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups at 4 (SD 1 days after surgery. The control group received the usual advice to restrict their upper limb use for 4 to 6 weeks (ie, restrictive sternal precautions. The experimental group received advice to use pain and discomfort as the safe limits for their upper limb use during daily activities (ie, less restrictive precautions for the same period. Both groups received postoperative individualised education in hospital and via weekly telephone calls for 6 weeks. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was physical function assessed by the Short Physical Performance Battery. Secondary outcomes included upper limb function, pain, kinesophobia, and health-related quality of life. Outcomes were measured before hospital discharge and at 4 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Adherence to sternal precautions was recorded. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in physical function between the groups at 4 weeks (MD 1.0, 95% CI –0.2 to 2.3 and 12 weeks (MD 0.4, 95% CI –0.9 to 1.6 postoperatively. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in secondary outcomes. Conclusion: Modified (ie, less restrictive sternal precautions for people following cardiac surgery had similar effects on physical recovery, pain and health-related quality of life as usual restrictive sternal precautions. Similar outcomes can be anticipated regardless of whether people following cardiac surgery are managed with

  11. Effects of a cognitive dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program are similar for Asian American, Hispanic, and White participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rosalía; Marchand, Erica; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

    2008-11-01

    This study explored the effects of participating in a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program on changes in thin ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and eating symptoms among White, Asian American, and Hispanic participants. Participants were (n = 394), 13 to 20-year-old adolescent girls and young women who reported being White (n = 311), Hispanic/Latina (n = 61), or Asian-American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 33). The current study used data drawn from the pre- and post assessments of an efficacy trial and an effectiveness trial of this eating disorder prevention program. The intervention reduced disordered eating behaviors and eating disorder risk factors for all three ethnic groups at post-intervention assessment; there was no evidence of significantly stronger effects in any particular ethnic group. Results suggest that a cognitive dissonance-based prevention program for eating disorders may be equally effective for Asian American, Hispanic, and White adolescent women.

  12. Similar potential ATP-P production and enzymatic activities in the microplankton community off Concepción (Chile) under oxic and suboxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rodrigo R.; Gutiérrez, Marcelo H.; Quiñones, Renato A.

    2007-11-01

    The effects of the oxygen minimum zone on the metabolism of the heterotrophic microplankton community (0.22-100 μm) in the Humboldt Current System, as well as the factors controlling its biomass production, remain unknown. Here we compare the effect of four sources of dissolved organic carbon (glucose, oxaloacetate, glycine, leucine) on microbial biomass production (such as ATP-P) and the potential enzymatic activities involved in catabolic pathways under oxic and suboxic conditions. Our results show significant differences ( p oxygen minimum zone has the same or greater potential growth than the community inhabiting more oxygenated strata of the water column and that malate dehydrogenase is the activity that best represents the metabolic potential of the community.

  13. Similar prefrontal cortical activities between general fluid intelligence and visuospatial working memory tasks in preschool children as revealed by optical topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwajima, Mariko; Sawaguchi, Toshiyuki

    2010-10-01

    General fluid intelligence (gF) is a major component of intellect in both adults and children. Whereas its neural substrates have been studied relatively thoroughly in adults, those are poorly understood in children, particularly preschoolers. Here, we hypothesized that gF and visuospatial working memory share a common neural system within the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) during the preschool years (4-6 years). At the behavioral level, we found that gF positively and significantly correlated with abilities (especially accuracy) in visuospatial working memory. Optical topography revealed that the LPFC of preschoolers was activated and deactivated during the visuospatial working memory task and the gF task. We found that the spatio-temporal features of neural activity in the LPFC were similar for both the visuospatial working memory task and the gF task. Further, 2 months of training for the visuospatial working memory task significantly increased gF in the preschoolers. These findings suggest that a common neural system in the LPFC is recruited to improve the visuospatial working memory and gF in preschoolers. Efficient recruitment of this neural system may be important for good performance in these functions in preschoolers, and behavioral training using this system would help to increase gF at these ages.

  14. The effects of similarity, parasocial identification, and source credibility in obesity public service announcements on diet and exercise self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Joe

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the effect of the audience's similarity to, and parasocial identification with, spokespersons in obesity public service announcements, on perceived source credibility, and diet and exercise self-efficacy. The results (N = 200) indicated that perceived similarity to the spokesperson was significantly associated with three dimensions of source credibility (competence, trustworthiness, and goodwill), each of which in turn influenced parasocial identification with the spokesperson. Parasocial identification also exerted a positive impact on the audiences' diet and exercise self-efficacy. Additionally, significant differences were found between overweight viewers and non-overweight viewers on perceived similarity, parasocial identification with the spokesperson, and source credibility. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Effects of sex steroids on bones and muscles: Similarities, parallels, and putative interactions in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, James A; Manolagas, Stavros C

    2015-11-01

    Estrogens and androgens influence the growth and maintenance of bones and muscles and are responsible for their sexual dimorphism. A decline in their circulating levels leads to loss of mass and functional integrity in both tissues. In the article, we highlight the similarities of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of sex steroids in the two tissues; the commonality of a critical role of mechanical forces on tissue mass and function; emerging evidence for an interplay between mechanical forces and hormonal and growth factor signals in both bones and muscles; as well as the current state of evidence for or against a cross-talk between muscles and bone. In addition, we review evidence for the parallels in the development of osteoporosis and sarcopenia with advancing age and the potential common mechanisms responsible for the age-dependent involution of these two tissues. Lastly, we discuss the striking difference in the availability of several drug therapies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, as compared to none for sarcopenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions". Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The Effects of Minimal Group Membership on Young Preschoolers’ Social Preferences, Estimates of Similarity, and Behavioral Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Richter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate young children’s sensitivity to minimal group membership. Previous research has suggested that children do not show sensitivity to minimal cues to group membership until the age of five to six, contributing to claims that this is an important transition in the development of intergroup cognition and behavior. In this study, we investigated whether even younger children are sensitive to minimal cues to group membership. Random assignment to one of either of two color groups created a temporary, visually salient minimal group membership in 3 and 4-year-old study participants. Using explicit measures, we tested whether children preferred minimal group members when making social judgments. We find that, in the absence of any knowledge regarding the two groups, children expressed greater liking for ingroup than outgroup targets. Moreover, children estimated that ingroup members would share their preferences. Our findings demonstrate that from early in development, humans assess unknown others on the basis of minimal cues to social similarity and that the perception of group boundaries potentially underlies social assortment in strangers.

  17. Effect of Salt Intensity on Ad Libitum Intake of Tomato Soup Similar in Palatability and on Salt Preference after Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory properties of food play an important role in satiation. Studies on the effect of taste intensity on satiation show conflicting results. This may be due to the notion that in these studies taste intensity and palatability were confounded. The objective of this study was to investigate the

  18. The Creative Proteus Effect : How Self-Similarity, Embodiment, and Priming of Creative Stereotypes with Avatars Influences Creative Ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Alwin

    2017-01-01

    Creative ideation can be enhanced in 3D virtual environments by manipulating the appearance of a user’s avatar so that it primes a creative stereotype. However, not much is known about the factors that influence the effectiveness of using avatars to enhance creativity. In this study we investigate

  19. Similar hypotensive effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise with 1 set versus 3 sets in women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibana, Ramires A; Nascimento, Dahan da C; de Sousa, Nuno M F; de Almeida, Jeeser A; Moraes, Milton R; Durigan, João Luiz Quagliotti; Collier, Scott R; Prestes, Jonato

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the response of systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) following combined training with 1 set or with 3 sets of resistance exercise (RE). Sixteen women with metabolic syndrome (MetS) were randomly assigned to perform two combined exercise protocols and a control session (CON): 1-set, 30 min of aerobic exercise (AE) at 65-70% of reserve heart rate and 1 set of 8-12 repetitions at 80% of 10-RM in six resistance exercises; 3-sets, same protocol but with 3 sets; and CON, 30 min of seated rest. The SBP, MBP and DBP were measured before and every 15 min during 90 min following the experimental sessions. The SBP displayed a decrease (P ≤ 0.05) during the 90 min following the RE session with 1-set and 3-set, while MBP was decreased (P ≤ 0.05) up to 75 min after 1-set and up to 30 min after the 3-set exercise session compared with pre-intervention values. There was a decrease in DBP only for the greatest individual decrease following 1-set (-6.1 mmHg) and 3-set (-4.9 mmHg) combined exercise sessions, without differences between them. The rate-pressure product and heart rate remained significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) 75 min and 90 min after the combined exercise session with 1- and 3-sets compared with the CON, respectively. In conclusion, a low-volume RE combined with AE resulted in similar decrease of SBP when compared with RE with 3-sets in women with MetS, which could be beneficial in situations of limited time. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Freeze-dried plasma enhances clot formation and inhibits fibrinolysis in the presence of tissue plasminogen activator similar to pooled liquid plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Benjamin R; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Hunter B; Sauaia, Angela; Stettler, Gregory; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Hansen, Kirk; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C

    2017-08-01

    Systemic hyperfibrinolysis is an integral part of trauma-induced coagulopathy associated with uncontrolled bleeding. Recent data suggest that plasma-first resuscitation attenuates hyperfibrinolysis; however, the availability, transport, storage, and administration of plasma in austere environments remain challenging and have limited its use. Freeze-dried plasma (FDP) is a potential alternative due to ease of storage, longer shelf life, and efficient reconstitution. FDP potentially enhances clot formation and resists breakdown better than normal saline (NS) and albumin and similar to liquid plasma. Healthy volunteers underwent citrated blood draw followed by 50% dilution with NS, albumin, pooled plasma (PP), or pooled freeze-dried plasma (pFDP). Citrated native and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)-challenge (75 ng/mL) thrombelastography were done. Proteins in PP, pFDP, and albumin were analyzed by mass spectroscopy. pFDP and PP had superior clot-formation rates (angle) and clot strength (maximum amplitude) compared with NS and albumin in t-PA-challenge thrombelastographies (angle: pFDP, 67.9 degrees; PP, 67.8 degrees; NS, 40.6 degrees; albumin, 35.8 degrees; maximum amplitude: pFDP, 62.4 mm; PP, 63.5 mm; NS, 44.8 mm; albumin, 41.1 mm). NS and albumin dilution increased susceptibility to t-PA-induced hyperfibrinolysis compared with pFDP and PP (NS, 62.4%; albumin, 62.6%; PP, 8.5%; pFDP, 6.7%). pFDP was similar to PP in the attenuation of t-PA-induced fibrinolysis. Most proteins (97%) were conserved during the freeze-dry process, with higher levels in 12% of pFDP proteins compared with PP. pFDP enhances clot formation and attenuates hyperfibrinolysis better than NS and albumin and is a potential alternative to plasma resuscitation in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock. © 2017 AABB.

  1. A chemically stable analogue, 9 beta-methyl carbacyclin, with similar effects to epoprostenol (prostacyclin, PGI2) in man.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Grady, J; Hedges, A; Whittle, B J; Al-Sinawi, L A; Mekki, Q A; Burke, C; Moody, S G; Moti, M J; Hassan, S

    1984-01-01

    The effects of 9 beta-methyl carbacyclin, a chemically stable analogue of epoprostenol (prostacyclin, PGI2) were studied, in comparison with epoprostenol, both in vitro and in vivo in man. In vitro 9 beta-methyl carbacyclin and epoprostenol inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, the endoperoxide analogue U46619 and arachidonic acid. The potency of 9 beta-methyl carbacyclin relative to epoprostenol was comparable in ADP and collagen-aggregated platelet rich plasma (PRP), 9 be...

  2. Similar effects of feature-based attention on motion perception and pursuit eye movements at different levels of awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Feature-based attention enhances visual processing and improves perception, even for visual features that we are not aware of. Does feature-based attention also modulate motor behavior in response to visual information that does or does not reach awareness? Here we compare the effect of feature-based attention on motion perception and smooth pursuit eye movements in response to moving dichoptic plaids–stimuli composed of two orthogonally-drifting gratings, presented separately to each eye–in ...

  3. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

  4. Is My Exercise Partner Similar Enough? Partner Characteristics as a Moderator of the Köhler Effect in Exergames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlenza, Samuel T; Kerr, Norbert L; Irwin, Brandon C; Feltz, Deborah L

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has shown the Köhler motivation gain effect (working at a task with a more capable partner where one's performance is indispensable to the group) leads to greater effort in partnered exercise videogame play. The purpose of this article was to examine potential moderators of the Köhler effect by exploring dissimilarities in one's partner's appearance, namely, having an older partner (compared with a same-age partner) and having a heavier-weight partner (compared with a same-weight partner). One hundred fifty-three male and female college students completed a series of plank exercises using the "EyeToy: Kinetic™" for the PlayStation(®) 2 (Sony, Tokyo, Japan). Participants first completed the exercises individually and, after a rest, completed the same exercises with a virtually present partner. Exercise persistence, subjective effort, self-efficacy beliefs, enjoyment, and intentions to exercise were recorded and analyzed. A significant Köhler motivation gain was observed in all partner conditions (compared with individual controls) such that participants with a partner held the plank exercises longer (P<0.001) and reported higher subjective effort (P<0.01). These results were unmoderated by partner's age and weight, with one exception: Males tended to persist longer when paired with an obese partner (P=0.08). These results suggest that differences in age and weight do not attenuate the Köhler effect in exergames and may even strengthen it.

  5. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Suk Kim

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

  6. Effectiveness of Nigerian Bamboo Activated with Different Activating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of Nigerian Bamboo activated with different activating agents on the adsorption of BTX was investigated. A series of activated carbons was prepared from Nigerian bamboo, carbonized at 400oC – 500oC and impregnated with different concentrations of four acids at 800oC in a muffle furnace for 2 hours.

  7. Candida tropicalis from veterinary and human sources shows similar in vitro hemolytic activity, antifungal biofilm susceptibility and pathogenesis against Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Oliveira, Jonathas Sales de; Evangelista, Antônio José de Jesus; Serpa, Rosana; Silva, Aline Lobão da; Aguiar, Felipe Rodrigues Magalhães de; Pereira, Vandbergue Santos; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro Aquino; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro hemolytic activity and biofilm antifungal susceptibility of veterinary and human Candida tropicalis strains, as well as their pathogenesis against Caenorhabditis elegans. Twenty veterinary isolates and 20 human clinical isolates of C. tropicalis were used. The strains were evaluated for their hemolytic activity and biofilm production. Biofilm susceptibility to itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin was assessed using broth microdilution assay. The in vivo evaluation of strain pathogenicity was investigated using the nematode C. elegans. Hemolytic factor was observed in 95% of the strains and 97.5% of the isolates showed ability to form biofilm. Caspofungin and amphotericin B showed better results than azole antifungals against mature biofilms. Paradoxical effect on mature biofilm metabolic activity was observed at elevated concentrations of caspofungin (8-64μg/mL). Azole antifungals were not able to inhibit mature C. tropicalis biofilms, even at the higher tested concentrations. High mortality rates of C. elegans were observed when the worms were exposed to with C. tropicalis strains, reaching up to 96%, 96h after exposure of the worms to C. tropicalis strains. These results reinforce the high pathogenicity of C. tropicalis from veterinary and human sources and show the effectiveness of caspofungin and amphotericin B against mature biofilms of this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pulse and integral optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Similarities and dissimilarities to thermoluminescence (TL) dose dependence and dose-rate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, R.; Leung, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (Tl) are two possible methods to monitor the absorbed radiation in solid samples, and therefore are utilized for dosimetry. For this application, two properties are desirable, namely, linear dose dependence of the measured quantity and dose-rate independence. For Tl, different kinds of super linear dose dependence have been reported in the literature in different materials, and in some cases, dose-rate dependence has also been found. These have been explained as being the result of competition. In OSL, some recent works reported on super linear dose dependence in annealed samples. In the present work, we explain the possible occurrence of these phenomena in OSL by solving numerically the relevant rate equations governing the process during irradiation, relaxation and read-out (heating or light stimulation). The results show that for short pulse OSL, quadratic dose dependence can be expected when only one trapping state and one kind of recombination center are involved and when the excitation starts with empty traps and centers. With the short pulse OSL, the calculation also reveals a possible dose-rate effect. Under the same circumstances, the area under the OSL curve depends linearly on the dose. The dependence of the whole area under the OSL curve on the dose is shown to be super linear when a disconnected trapping state or radiationless center take part in the process. Also, dose-rate effect can be expected in these cases, although no experimental effect of this sort has been reported so far. In pulse OSL, the analogy is made between the measured intensity and the initial rise range of non-first order Tl, whereas for the total area OSL, there is a nearly full analogy with the dose behavior of the Tl maximum. (Author)

  9. HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Itch Functions as a Novel Negative Regulator of Gli-Similar 3 (Glis3 Transcriptional Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary T ZeRuth

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Gli-similar 3 (Glis3 plays a critical role in the generation of pancreatic ß cells and the regulation insulin gene transcription and has been implicated in the development of several pathologies, including type 1 and 2 diabetes and polycystic kidney disease. However, little is known about the proteins and posttranslational modifications that regulate or mediate Glis3 transcriptional activity. In this study, we identify by mass-spectrometry and yeast 2-hybrid analyses several proteins that interact with the N-terminal region of Glis3. These include the WW-domain-containing HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases, Itch, Smurf2, and Nedd4. The interaction between Glis3 and the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases was verified by co-immunoprecipitation assays and mutation analysis. All three proteins interact through their WW-domains with a PPxY motif located in the Glis3 N-terminus. However, only Itch significantly contributed to Glis3 polyubiquitination and reduced Glis3 stability by enhancing its proteasomal degradation. Itch-mediated degradation of Glis3 required the PPxY motif-dependent interaction between Glis3 and the WW-domains of Itch as well as the presence of the Glis3 zinc finger domains. Transcription analyses demonstrated that Itch dramatically inhibited Glis3-mediated transactivation and endogenous Ins2 expression by increasing Glis3 protein turnover. Taken together, our study identifies Itch as a critical negative regulator of Glis3-mediated transcriptional activity. This regulation provides a novel mechanism to modulate Glis3-driven gene expression and suggests that it may play a role in a number of physiological processes controlled by Glis3, such as insulin transcription, as well as in Glis3-associated diseases.

  10. CLA isomer t10,c12 induce oxidation and apoptosis in 3t3 adipocyte cells in a similar effect as omega-3 linolenic acid and DHA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Meadus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commercial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA dietary supplements contain an equal mixture of the C18:2 isomers, cis-9trans-11 and trans-10cis-12. Predominantly, CLA-c9t11 occurs naturally in meat and dairy products at ~ 0.5% of total fat , whereas CLA-t10c12 occurs at >0.1%. Recent studies show that CLA-c9t11 generally promotes lipid accumulation but CLA-t10c12 may inhibit lipid accumulation and may also promote inflammation. The omega-3 fatty acids α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA have also been observed to inhibit lipid accumulation and effect inflammation; therefore we examined the effects of the two main isomersof CLA and omega -3 fatty acids C18:3n-3 and DHA at the molecular levelto determine if they are causing similar oxidative stresses.Methods:Purified CLA-c9t11 and CLA-t10c12 were added to 3T3 cells induced into mature adipocyte cultures at 100uM concentrations and compared with 100uM C18:3n-3(α-linolenic acid and 50uM docosahexaenoic acid (DHA to observe their effect on growth, gene transcription and general oxidation. The results of multiple separate trials were averaged and compared for significance at levels of P< 0.05, using one way ANOVA and Student’s t-test.Results:C18:3n-3, DHA and CLA-t10c12inhibited 3T3 adipose cell growth and caused a significant increase in lipid hydro peroxide activity. CLA-t10c12 and c9t11 increased AFABP, FAS and ACOX1 mRNA gene expression but DHA and C18:3n-3decreased the same mRNAs. CLA-c9t11 but not the t10c12 stimulated adipoQ expression even though; CLA-c9t11 had only a slightly greater affinity for PPARγ than CLA-t10c12, according to TR-FRET assays. The expression of the xenobiotic metabolism genes, aldo-keto reduct as 1c1 (akr1c1, superoxide dismutase (SODand inflammation chemokine secretions of eotaxin (CCL11, Rantes (CCL5, MIG (CCL9 and MCP-1 were increased by DHA, C18:3n-3and CLA-t10c12 but not CLA-c9t11. This correlated with an increase in apoptosis factors

  11. Rapid detection of hypoxia-inducible factor-1-active tumours: pretargeted imaging with a protein degrading in a mechanism similar to hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Masashi [Kyoto University, Radioisotopes Research Laboratory, Kyoto University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Kudo, Takashi; Konishi, Hiroaki; Miyano, Azusa; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Kuge, Yuji [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Hokkaido University, Central Institute of Isotope Science, Sapporo (Japan); Mukai, Takahiro [Kyushu University, Department of Biomolecular Recognition Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Kyoto University, Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays an important role in malignant tumour progression. For the imaging of HIF-1-active tumours, we previously developed a protein, POS, which is effectively delivered to and selectively stabilized in HIF-1-active cells, and a radioiodinated biotin derivative, (3-{sup 123}I-iodobenzoyl)norbiotinamide ({sup 123}I-IBB), which can bind to the streptavidin moiety of POS. In this study, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of the pretargeting method using POS and {sup 123}I-IBB for rapid imaging of HIF-1-active tumours. Tumour-implanted mice were pretargeted with POS. After 24 h, {sup 125}I-IBB was administered and subsequently, the biodistribution of radioactivity was investigated at several time points. In vivo planar imaging, comparison between {sup 125}I-IBB accumulation and HIF-1 transcriptional activity, and autoradiography were performed at 6 h after the administration of {sup 125}I-IBB. The same sections that were used in autoradiographic analysis were subjected to HIF-1{alpha} immunohistochemistry. {sup 125}I-IBB accumulation was observed in tumours of mice pretargeted with POS (1.6%ID/g at 6 h). This result is comparable to the data derived from {sup 125}I-IBB-conjugated POS-treated mice (1.4%ID/g at 24 h). In vivo planar imaging provided clear tumour images. The tumoral accumulation of {sup 125}I-IBB significantly correlated with HIF-1-dependent luciferase bioluminescence (R=0.84, p<0.01). The intratumoral distribution of {sup 125}I-IBB was heterogeneous and was significantly correlated with HIF-1{alpha}-positive regions (R=0.58, p<0.0001). POS pretargeting with {sup 123}I-IBB is a useful technique in the rapid imaging and detection of HIF-1-active regions in tumours. (orig.)

  12. Sensitive Biomarkers of Alcoholism's Effect on Brain Macrostructure: Similarities and Differences between France and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Pascale eLe Berre

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption patterns and recognition of health outcomes related to hazardous drinking vary widely internationally, raising the question whether these national differences are reflected in brain damage observed in alcoholism. This retrospective analysis assessed variability of alcoholism’s effects on brain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and white matter volumes between France and the United States (U.S.. MRI data from two French sites (Caen and Orsay and a U.S. laboratory (SRI/Stanford University were acquired on 1.5T imaging systems in 287 controls, 165 uncomplicated alcoholics (ALC, and 26 alcoholics with Korsakoff’s Syndrome (KS. All data were analyzed at the U.S. site using atlas-based parcellation. Results revealed graded CSF volume enlargement from ALC to KS and white matter volume deficits in KS only. In ALC from France but not the U.S., CSF and white matter volumes correlated with lifetime alcohol consumption, alcoholism duration, and length of sobriety. MRI highlighted CSF volume enlargement in both ALC and KS, serving as a basis for an ex vacuo process to explain correlated gray matter shrinkage. By contrast, MRI provided a sensitive in vivo biomarker of white matter volume shrinkage in KS only, suggesting a specific process sensitive to mechanisms contributing to Wernicke's encephalopathy, the precursor of KS. Identified structural brain abnormalities may provide biomarkers underlying alcoholism's heterogeneity in and among nations and suggest a substrate of gray matter tissue shrinkage. Proposed are hypotheses for national differences in interpreting whether the severity of sequelae observe a graded phenomenon or a continuum from uncomplicated alcoholism to alcoholism complicated by KS.

  13. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets....... Our results show that the proposed functions work better than other methods proposed in the literature....

  14. Phoneme Similarity and Confusability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T.M.; Hahn, U.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity between component speech sounds influences language processing in numerous ways. Explanation and detailed prediction of linguistic performance consequently requires an understanding of these basic similarities. The research reported in this paper contrasts two broad classes of approach to the issue of phoneme similarity-theoretically…

  15. The coupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism with brain activation is similar for simple and complex stimuli in human primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffeth, Valerie E M; Simon, Aaron B; Buxton, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) experiments to measure blood flow and oxygen metabolism coupling in the brain typically rely on simple repetitive stimuli. Here we compared such stimuli with a more naturalistic stimulus. Previous work on the primary visual cortex showed that direct attentional modulation evokes a blood flow (CBF) response with a relatively large oxygen metabolism (CMRO2) response in comparison to an unattended stimulus, which evokes a much smaller metabolic response relative to the flow response. We hypothesized that a similar effect would be associated with a more engaging stimulus, and tested this by measuring the primary human visual cortex response to two contrast levels of a radial flickering checkerboard in comparison to the response to free viewing of brief movie clips. We did not find a significant difference in the blood flow-metabolism coupling (n=%ΔCBF/%ΔCMRO2) between the movie stimulus and the flickering checkerboards employing two different analysis methods: a standard analysis using the Davis model and a new analysis using a heuristic model dependent only on measured quantities. This finding suggests that in the primary visual cortex a naturalistic stimulus (in comparison to a simple repetitive stimulus) is either not sufficient to provoke a change in flow-metabolism coupling by attentional modulation as hypothesized, that the experimental design disrupted the cognitive processes underlying the response to a more natural stimulus, or that the technique used is not sensitive enough to detect a small difference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Interaction Between the Effects of Bilingualism and Cross-linguistic Similarity in Balanced and Unbalanced Bilingual Adults' L2 Mandarin Word-Reading Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Ling

    2017-08-01

    We conducted three experiments investigating in more detail the interaction between the two effects of bilingualism and L1-L2 similarity in the speech performance of balanced and unbalanced bilinguals. In Experiment 1, L1 Mandarin monolinguals and two groups of Hakka and Minnan balanced bilinguals (Hakka: more similar to Mandarin) performed a non-contextual single-character reading task in Mandarin, which required more inhibitory control. The two bilingual groups outperformed the monolinguals, regardless of their L1 background. However, the bilingual advantage was not found in a contextual multi-word task (Experiment 2), but instead the effect of cross-linguistic similarity emerged. Furthermore, in Experiment 3, the Hakka unbalanced bilinguals showed an advantage in the non-contextual task, while their Minnan counterparts did not, and the impact of L1-L2 similarity emerged in both tasks. These results unveiled the way the two effects dynamically interplayed depending on the task contexts and the relative degrees of using L1 and L2.

  17. Activating wearables : the Butterfly Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    In this demo we show an active garment to support people in matters of emotion regulation and interactions with other people. This demonstrator shows the marriage of ‘hard’ technology and ‘soft’ textiles in a subtle moving wearable product.

  18. [Effect of Kaixinsan on monoamine oxidase activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi; Dong, Xian-Zhe; Tan, Xiao; Wang, Yu-Ning; Liu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    To observe the effect of antidepressant medicine prescription, Kaixinsan (KXS) on monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, and explore the mechanism of KXS in elevating the levels of monoamine neurotransmitter from the perspective of metabolism, in vitro enzyme reaction system and C6 neuroglial cells, the effect of KXS at different concentrations on MAO-A and MAO-B activity was observed. In animal studies, the effect of KXS at different concentrations on MAO-A and MAO-B activities of brain mitochondrialin normal rats and solitary chronic unpredictable moderate stress (CMS) model rats after intragastric administration for 1, 2, 3 weeks. Results showed that 10 g•L⁻¹ KXS could significantly reduce the activity of MAO-A and MAO-B in enzyme reaction system; and in C6 cells, KXS within 0.625-10 g•L⁻¹ concentration range had no significant effect on the activity of MAO-A, but had obvious inhibitory effect on the activity of MAO-B in a dose dependent manner. KXS had no significant effect on the activity of MAO-A and MAO-B in brains of normal rats after action for 1, 2, 3 weeks. After 2 and 3 weeks treatment with 338 mg•kg⁻¹ dose KXS, MAO-A activity in the brain of CMS rats was decreased as compared with the model group (PMAO-B activity after 1, 2, 3 weeks of treatment. The results indicated that KXS had certain effect on in vitro MAO-A and MAO-B activity, had no effect on brain MAO-A and MAO-B activity in vivo in normal rats, and had certain inhibitory effect on MAO-A activity in brains of CMS rats. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Effectiveness of worksite physical activity counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to describe the effectiveness of a particular worksite physical activity intervention involving individual counseling of workers. First, a summary of the existing literature is given as to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs. A strong evidence was

  20. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  1. Processes of Similarity Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Levi B.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity underlies fundamental cognitive capabilities such as memory, categorization, decision making, problem solving, and reasoning. Although recent approaches to similarity appreciate the structure of mental representations, they differ in the processes posited to operate over these representations. We present an experiment that…

  2. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  3. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  4. Do similarities or differences between CEO leadership and organizational culture have a more positive effect on firm performance? A test of competing predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnell, Chad A; Kinicki, Angelo J; Lambert, Lisa Schurer; Fugate, Mel; Doyle Corner, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the nature of the interaction between CEO leadership and organizational culture using 2 common metathemes (task and relationship) in leadership and culture research. Two perspectives, similarity and dissimilarity, offer competing predictions about the fit, or interaction, between leadership and culture and its predicted effect on firm performance. Predictions for the similarity perspective draw upon attribution theory and social identity theory of leadership, whereas predictions for the dissimilarity perspective are developed based upon insights from leadership contingency theories and the notion of substitutability. Hierarchical regression results from 114 CEOs and 324 top management team (TMT) members failed to support the similarity hypotheses but revealed broad support for the dissimilarity predictions. Findings suggest that culture can serve as a substitute for leadership when leadership behaviors are redundant with cultural values (i.e., they both share a task- or relationship-oriented focus). Findings also support leadership contingency theories indicating that CEO leadership is effective when it provides psychological and motivational resources lacking in the organization's culture. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and delineate directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Identifying similar and different factors effecting long-term cardiac exercise rehabilitation behavior modification between New Zealand and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Stephanie; Lark, Sally; Fallows, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) programs are the most cost-effective measure for reducing morbidity associated with Coronary Vascular Disease (CVD). To be more effective there is a need to understand what influences the maintenance of healthy behaviors. This study identifies similar and different influences in CR of the United Kingdom (UK) and New Zealand (NZ). A retrospective study. Participants had previously been discharged from CR for 6 to 12+ months within the UK (n = 22) and NZ (n = 21). Participant's attended a focus group. Discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed then thematically analyzed. The CR programs were observed over 2 months to enable comment on findings relating to 'theory in practice.' Similar positive patient experiences influencing behavior between groups and countries were; support, education, positive attitude, and motivation. Companionship and exercising alongside people with similar health problems was the major determinant for positive exercise behavior. Barriers to maintaining exercise included; physical disabilities, time constraints, and weather conditions. NZ participants were more affected by external factors (eg, opportunity, access, and time). Both CR programs were successful in facilitating the maintenance of healthy lifestyles. Exercising with other cardiac patients for support in a structured environment was the strongest influence in maintaining healthy lifestyles beyond CR programs.

  6. Leveraging 3D chemical similarity, target and phenotypic data in the identification of drug-protein and drug-adverse effect associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Santiago; Hripcsak, George

    2016-01-01

    Drug-target identification is crucial to discover novel applications for existing drugs and provide more insights about mechanisms of biological actions, such as adverse drug effects (ADEs). Computational methods along with the integration of current big data sources provide a useful framework for drug-target and drug-adverse effect discovery. In this article, we propose a method based on the integration of 3D chemical similarity, target and adverse effect data to generate a drug-target-adverse effect predictor along with a simple leveraging system to improve identification of drug-targets and drug-adverse effects. In the first step, we generated a system for multiple drug-target identification based on the application of 3D drug similarity into a large target dataset extracted from the ChEMBL. Next, we developed a target-adverse effect predictor combining targets from ChEMBL with phenotypic information provided by SIDER data source. Both modules were linked to generate a final predictor that establishes hypothesis about new drug-target-adverse effect candidates. Additionally, we showed that leveraging drug-target candidates with phenotypic data is very useful to improve the identification of drug-targets. The integration of phenotypic data into drug-target candidates yielded up to twofold precision improvement. In the opposite direction, leveraging drug-phenotype candidates with target data also yielded a significant enhancement in the performance. The modeling described in the current study is simple and efficient and has applications at large scale in drug repurposing and drug safety through the identification of mechanism of action of biological effects.

  7. Study on force mechanism for therapeutic effect of pushing manipulation with one-finger meditation base on similarity analysis of force and waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Fang, Min; Guo, Min-Min

    2016-12-27

    To reveal the force mechanism for therapeutic effect of pushing manipulation with one-finger meditation. A total of 15 participants were recruited in this study and assigned to an expert group, a skilled group and a novice group, with 5 participants in each group. Mechanical signals were collected from a biomechanical testing platform, and these data were further observed via similarity analysis and cluster analysis. Comparing the force waveforms of manipulation revealed that the manipulation forces were similar between the expert group and the skilled group (P>0.05). The mean value of vertical force was 9.8 N, and 95% CI rang from 6.37 to 14.70 N, but there were significant differences compared with the novice group (PPushing manipulation with one-finger meditation is a kind of light stimulation manipulation on the acupoint, and force characteristics of double waveforms continuously alternated during manual operation.

  8. Semantic relatedness and similarity of biomedical terms: examining the effects of recency, size, and section of biomedical publications on the performance of word2vec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun; Yan, Erjia; Wang, Fei

    2017-07-03

    Understanding semantic relatedness and similarity between biomedical terms has a great impact on a variety of applications such as biomedical information retrieval, information extraction, and recommender systems. The objective of this study is to examine word2vec's ability in deriving semantic relatedness and similarity between biomedical terms from large publication data. Specifically, we focus on the effects of recency, size, and section of biomedical publication data on the performance of word2vec. We download abstracts of 18,777,129 articles from PubMed and 766,326 full-text articles from PubMed Central (PMC). The datasets are preprocessed and grouped into subsets by recency, size, and section. Word2vec models are trained on these subtests. Cosine similarities between biomedical terms obtained from the word2vec models are compared against reference standards. Performance of models trained on different subsets are compared to examine recency, size, and section effects. Models trained on recent datasets did not boost the performance. Models trained on larger datasets identified more pairs of biomedical terms than models trained on smaller datasets in relatedness task (from 368 at the 10% level to 494 at the 100% level) and similarity task (from 374 at the 10% level to 491 at the 100% level). The model trained on abstracts produced results that have higher correlations with the reference standards than the one trained on article bodies (i.e., 0.65 vs. 0.62 in the similarity task and 0.66 vs. 0.59 in the relatedness task). However, the latter identified more pairs of biomedical terms than the former (i.e., 344 vs. 498 in the similarity task and 339 vs. 503 in the relatedness task). Increasing the size of dataset does not always enhance the performance. Increasing the size of datasets can result in the identification of more relations of biomedical terms even though it does not guarantee better precision. As summaries of research articles, compared with article

  9. Distinguishing the impacts of human activities and climate variability on runoff and sediment load change based on paired periods with similar weather conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Fei; Hessel, Rudi; Mu, Xingmin; Maroulis, Jerry; Zhao, Guangju; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen

    2015-01-01

    Runoff and sediment loads from river basin are largely affected by the interplay of climate variability and human activities within the basin. However, distinguishing the impacts of climate variability and human activities would vastly improve our knowledge of water resources, climate variability

  10. Cultured Mast Cells from Patients with Asthma and Controls Respond with Similar Sensitivity to Recombinant Der P2-Induced, IgE-Mediated Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, I K; Sverrild, A; Lund, G

    2013-01-01

    for mite allergen Der p2. The sensitivity of IgE-mediated activation of mast cells was investigated as FcεRI-mediated upregulation of CD63. Ten subjects were atopic, defined as a positive skin prick test (>3 mm) to at least one of ten common allergens. After activation with recombinant Der p2, the maximum...

  11. The small FOXP1 isoform predominantly expressed in activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and full-length FOXP1 exert similar oncogenic and transcriptional activity in human B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keimpema, Martine; Grüneberg, Leonie J; Schilder-Tol, Esther J M; Oud, Monique E C M; Beuling, Esther A; Hensbergen, Paul J; de Jong, Johann; Pals, Steven T; Spaargaren, Marcel

    2017-03-01

    The forkhead transcription factor FOXP1 is generally regarded as an oncogene in activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Previous studies have suggested that a small isoform of FOXP1 rather than full-length FOXP1, may possess this oncogenic activity. Corroborating those studies, we herein show that activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines and primary activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells predominantly express a small FOXP1 isoform, and that the 5'-end of the Foxp1 gene is a common insertion site in murine lymphomas in leukemia virus- and transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis screens. By combined mass spectrometry, (quantative) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction/sequencing, and small interfering ribonucleic acid-mediated gene silencing, we determined that the small FOXP1 isoform predominantly expressed in activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma lacks the N-terminal 100 amino acids of full-length FOXP1. Aberrant overexpression of this FOXP1 isoform (ΔN100) in primary human B cells revealed its oncogenic capacity; it repressed apoptosis and plasma cell differentiation. However, no difference in potency was found between this small FOXP1 isoform and full-length FOXP1. Furthermore, overexpression of full-length FOXP1 or this small FOXP1 isoform in primary B cells and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines resulted in similar gene regulation. Taken together, our data indicate that this small FOXP1 isoform and full-length FOXP1 have comparable oncogenic and transcriptional activity in human B cells, suggesting that aberrant expression or overexpression of FOXP1, irrespective of the specific isoform, contributes to lymphomagenesis. These novel insights further enhance the value of FOXP1 for the diagnostics, prognostics, and treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  12. Factors Affecting Choice in A Multi-Stage Model: The Influence of Saliency and Similarity on Retrieval Set and the Implication of Context Effect on Consideration Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Santosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available While it is considered a new paradigm in consumer research, the multi-stage model of consumer decision-making remains unclear as to whether brands are easily retrieved. Likewise, the process of consideration, after particular brands are successfully retrieved, is still in question. This study purports to investigate the effects of saliency and similarity on the ease of retrieval. In addition, referring to some studies of context effect, the effects of attraction, compromise, and assimilation are examined to observe whether they contribute to consideration. A within-subject design is employed in this study. Previously, three preliminary studies are arranged to determine the dominants, new entrants, attributes, and other criteria nominated in the experimental study. The results turn out to be supporting the hypotheses.

  13. Specific cesium activity in freshwater fish and the size effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, A.O.; Ryabov, I.N.; USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow

    1992-01-01

    The specific Cs-137 activity of muscle tissues of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from the cooling pond of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caught in 1987 and 1988 increased almost linearly with fish weight ('size effect') in contrast to liver tissue, whose specific activity remained independent of weight. A kinetic model for uptake and excretion was developed to describe the size effect in muscle tissue by introducing a weight-dependent Cs biological half-time to fish. Similar size effects of specific Cs-137 activity were also found for other species of fish from cooling pond, but were primarily attributed to changes in feeding habits with increasing weight of fish rather than to metabolic changes in feeding habits with both of muscle and liver tissue increased with fish weight for those species in contrast to silver carp. (author). 12 refs.; 12 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Effects of human activities on global climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, W W

    1977-01-01

    At present it is difficult to make any predictions for the natural course of climate in the next several decades. However by using climate models, predictions of the cause of climate changes as a result of anthropogenic influences can be made, other external factors remaining the same. Experiments with a number of different models have converged on approximately the same conclusions: the largest single effect of human activities on climate is due to an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration through fossil fuel combustion, i.e., air and thermal pollution, which contributes to a warming of the lower atmosphere; the best estimate of the warming of the mean surface temperature of the earth is about 1C by 2000 AD and 3C by 2050 AD with 3 to 5 times that increase in polar regions, and an uncertainty of roughly a factor of two. These conclusions assume a continued quasi exponential rate of release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Absorption of the added carbon dioxide is expected to take between 1000 and 1500 years. If all economically recoverable fossil fuel is burned in the next few centuries, the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide would increase by 5 to 8 times. An example of a natural warming on a similar scale to that expected in the middle of the next century occurred 4000 to 8000 years ago. Generally there was more rainfall especially over the present sub-tropical deserts, but some regions in middle and high latitudes were drier than now. The extent of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice would be influenced. The total volume of the major ice sheets would change, but a change in sea level cannot yet be predicted with any confidence.

  15. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field......-shaped relation exists between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in a longitudinal quantitative study of Danish municipalities....

  16. Towards Personalized Medicine: Leveraging Patient Similarity and Drug Similarity Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance. PMID:25717413

  17. Women with knee osteoarthritis have more pain and poorer function than men, but similar physical activity prior to total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonelli Shalome M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis of the knee is a major clinical problem affecting a greater proportion of women than men. Women generally report higher pain intensity at rest and greater perceived functional deficits than men. Women also perform worse than men on function measures such as the 6-minute walk and timed up and go tests. Differences in pain sensitivity, pain during function, psychosocial variables, and physical activity levels are unclear. Further the ability of various biopsychosocial variables to explain physical activity, function and pain is unknown. Methods This study examined differences in pain, pain sensitivity, function, psychosocial variables, and physical activity between women and men with knee osteoarthritis (N = 208 immediately prior to total knee arthroplasty. We assessed: (1 pain using self-report measures and a numerical rating scale at rest and during functional tasks, (2 pain sensitivity using quantitative sensory measures, (3 function with self-report measures and specific function tasks (timed walk, maximal active flexion and extension, (4 psychosocial measures (depression, anxiety, catastrophizing, and social support, and (5 physical activity using accelerometry. The ability of these mixed variables to explain physical activity, function and pain was assessed using regression analysis. Results Our findings showed significant differences on pain intensity, pain sensitivity, and function tasks, but not on psychosocial measures or physical activity. Women had significantly worse pain and more impaired function than men. Their levels of depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, social support, and physical activity, however, did not differ significantly. Factors explaining differences in (1 pain during movement (during gait speed test were pain at rest, knee extension, state anxiety, and pressure pain threshold; (2 function (gait speed test were sex, age, knee extension, knee flexion opioid medications, pain

  18. Comparing Harmonic Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Robine, M.; Hanna, P.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Wiering, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the most recent developments in polyphonic music retrieval and an experiment in which we compare two harmonic similarity measures. In contrast to earlier work, in this paper we specifically focus on the symbolic chord description as the primary musical representation and

  19. Overlapping trisomies for human chromosome 21 orthologs produce similar effects on skull and brain morphology of Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Dutka, Tara; Ratliff, Tabetha S; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2014-08-01

    Trisomy 21 results in gene-dosage imbalance during embryogenesis and throughout life, ultimately causing multiple anomalies that contribute to the clinical manifestations of Down syndrome. Down syndrome is associated with manifestations of variable severity (e.g., heart anomalies, reduced growth, dental anomalies, shortened life-span). Craniofacial dysmorphology and cognitive dysfunction are consistently observed in all people with Down syndrome. Mouse models are useful for studying the effects of gene-dosage imbalance on development. We investigated quantitative changes in the skull and brain of the Dp(16)1Yey Down syndrome mouse model and compared these mice to Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mouse models. Three-dimensional micro-computed tomography images of Dp(16)1Yey and euploid mouse crania were morphometrically evaluated. Cerebellar cross-sectional area, Purkinje cell linear density, and granule cell density were evaluated relative to euploid littermates. Skulls of Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice displayed similar changes in craniofacial morphology relative to their respective euploid littermates. Trisomy-based differences in brain morphology were also similar in Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice. These results validate examination of the genetic basis for craniofacial and brain phenotypes in Dp(16)1Yey mice and suggest that they, like Ts65Dn mice, are valuable tools for modeling the effects of trisomy 21 on development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Potency of full-length MGF to induce maximal activation of the IGF-I R Is similar to recombinant human IGF-I at high equimolar concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); L.J. Hofland (Leo); C.J. Strasburger; E.S.R.D. Van Dungen (Elisabeth S.R. Den); M. Thevis (Mario)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAims To compare full-length mechano growth factor (full-length MGF) with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and human recombinant insulin (HI) in their ability to activate the human IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), the human insulin receptor (IR-A) and the human insulin

  1. Effects of Napping During Shift Work on Sleepiness and Performance in Emergency Medical Services Personnel and Similar Shift Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gill, Christian; Barger, Laura K; Moore, Charity G; Higgins, J Stephen; Teasley, Ellen M; Weiss, Patricia M; Condle, Joseph P; Flickinger, Katharyn L; Coppler, Patrick J; Sequeira, Denisse J; Divecha, Ayushi A; Matthews, Margaret E; Lang, Eddy S; Patterson, P Daniel

    2018-02-15

    Scheduled napping during work shifts may be an effective way to mitigate fatigue-related risk. This study aimed to critically review and synthesize existing literature on the impact of scheduled naps on fatigue-related outcomes for EMS personnel and similar shift worker groups. A systematic literature review was performed of the impact of a scheduled nap during shift work on EMS personnel or similar shift workers. The primary (critical) outcome of interest was EMS personnel safety. Secondary (important) outcomes were patient safety; personnel performance; acute states of fatigue, alertness, and sleepiness; indicators of sleep duration and/or quality; employee retention/turnover; indicators of long-term health; and cost to the system. Meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of napping on a measure of personnel performance (the psychomotor vigilance test [PVT]) and measures of acute fatigue. Of 4,660 unique records identified, 13 experimental studies were determined relevant and summarized. The effect of napping on reaction time measured at the end of shift was small and non-significant (SMD 0.12, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.36; p = 0.34). Napping during work did not change reaction time from the beginning to the end of the shift (SMD -0.01, 95% CI -25.0 to 0.24; p = 0.96). Naps had a moderate, significant effect on sleepiness measured at the end of shift (SMD 0.40, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.72; p = 0.01). The difference in sleepiness from the start to the end of shift was moderate and statistically significant (SMD 0.41, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.72; p = 0.01). Reviewed literature indicated that scheduled naps at work improved performance and decreased fatigue in shift workers. Further research is required to identify the optimal timing and duration of scheduled naps to maximize the beneficial outcomes.

  2. Similar effects of intranasal oxytocin administration and acute alcohol consumption on socio-cognitions, emotions and behaviour: Implications for the mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ian J; Gillespie, Steven M; Abu-Akel, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Oxytocin (OT) plays a critical role in the formation of long lasting social attachments across a range of mammalian species. Raising intracerebral OT levels by intranasal administration of the neuropeptide (inOT) can also have pronounced effects on human sociocognitive functioning. inOT has been associated with increasing altruism, generosity, empathy and trust while decreasing fear, anxiety and stress reactions via neural mechanisms which are yet to be fully elucidated. The observation of the prosocial effects of OT has led to speculation about the role the peptide might play in some psychiatric conditions and debate as to its potential therapeutic uses. Here we note the great similarity in the sociocognitive effects that can be induced by inOT and the effects of acute consumption of modest does of alcohol. We further reflect on how both compounds may act on limbic and prefrontal cortical structures to increase GABAergic transmission, thereby facilitating the release of prepotent responses, that is, more automatic responses which are associated with earlier developmental stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of similarity theory for control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Evtushenko, V. F.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Makarov, G. V.

    2018-05-01

    The area of effective application of the traditional similarity theory and the need necessity of its development for systems are discussed. The main statements underlying the similarity theory of control systems are given. The conditions for the similarity of control systems and the need for similarity control control are formulated. Methods and algorithms for estimating and similarity control of control systems and the results of research of control systems based on their similarity are presented. The similarity control of systems includes the current evaluation of the degree of similarity of control systems and the development of actions controlling similarity, and the corresponding targeted change in the state of any element of control systems.

  4. DNA barcodes effectively identify the morphologically similar Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana) from areas of sympatry in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Fernando A; Arcangeli, Jésica; Hortelano-Moncada, Yolanda; Borisenko, Alex V

    2010-12-01

    Two morphologically similar species of opossum from the genus Didelphis-Didelphis virginiana and Didelphis marsupialis-cooccur sympatrically in Mexico. High intraspecific variation complicates their morphological discrimination, under both field and museum conditions. This study aims to evaluate the utility and reliability of using DNA barcodes (short standardized genome fragments used for DNA-based identification) to distinguish these two species. Sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (Cox1) mitochondrial gene were obtained from 12 D. marsupialis and 29 D. virginiana individuals and were compared using the neighbor-joining (NJ) algorithm with Kimura's two-parameter (K2P) model of nucleotide substitution. Average K2P distances were 1.56% within D. virginiana and 1.65% in D. marsupialis. Interspecific distances between D. virginiana and D. marsupialis varied from 7.8 to 9.3% and their barcode sequences formed distinct non-overlapping clusters on NJ trees. All sympatric specimens of both species were effectively discriminated, confirming the utility of Cox1 barcoding as a tool for taxonomic identification of these morphologically similar taxa.

  5. Evaluation of Biological and Enzymatic Activity of Soil in a Tropical Dry Forest: Desierto de la Tatacoa (Colombia) with Potential in Mars Terraforming and Other Similar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Moreno, A. N.

    2009-12-01

    Desierto de la Tatacoa has been determined to be a tropical dry forest bioma, which is located at 3° 13" N 75° 13" W. It has a hot thermal floor with 440 msnm of altitude; it has a daily average of 28° C, and a maximum of 40° C, Its annual rainfall total can be upwards of 1250 mm. Its solar sheen has a daily average of 5.8 hours and its relative humidity is between 60% and 65%. Therefore, the life forms presents are very scant, and in certain places, almost void. It was realized a completely random sampling of soil from its surface down to 6 inches deep, of zones without vegetation and with soils highly loaded by oxides of iron in order to determine the number of microorganisms per gram and its subsequent identification. It was measured the soil basal respiration. Besides, it was determined enzymatic activity (catalase, dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease). Starting with the obtained results, it is developes an alternative towards the study of soil genesis in Mars in particular, and recommendations for same process in other planets. Although the information found in the experiments already realized in Martian soil they demonstrate that doesnt exist any enzymatic activity, the knowledge of the same topic in the soil is proposed as an alternative to problems like carbonic fixing of the dense Martian atmosphere of CO2, the degradation of inorganic compounds amongst other in order to prepare the substratum for later colonization by some life form.

  6. Phylogenetic diversity and similarity of active sites of Shiga toxin (stx) in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates from humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, H; Makino, S; Kobori, H; Watarai, M; Shirahata, T; Ikeda, T; Takeshi, K

    2001-08-01

    Nucleotide sequences of Shiga toxin (Stx) genes in STEC from various origins were determined and characterized by phylogenetic analysis based on Shiga toxin (Stx) with those deposited in GenBank. The phylogenetic trees placed Stx1 and Stx2 into two and five groups respectively, and indicated that Stx1 in sheep-origin STEC were placed into a different group from those in other STEC, and that Stx2 of deer-origin STEC also belonged to the unique group and appeared to be distantly related to human-origin STEC. On the other hand, Stx of STEC isolated from cattle, seagulls and flies were closely related to those of human-origin STEC. Such a diversity of Stx suggested that STEC might be widely disseminated in many animal species, and be dependent on their host species or their habitat. In addition, the active sites in both toxins were compared; the active sites in both subunits of Stx in all the animal-origin STEC were identical to those in human-origin STEC, suggesting that all the toxin of STEC from animals might be also cytotoxic, and therefore, such animal-origin STEC might have potential pathogenicity for humans.

  7. Human antigen-presenting cells respond differently to gut-derived probiotic bacteria but mediate similar strain-dependent NK and T cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Zeuthen, Louise Hjerrild; Ferlazzo, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is essential for homeostasis of the local and systemic immune system, and particularly strains of lactic acid bacteria and Escherichia coli have been shown to have balancing effects on inflammatory conditions such as allergy and inflammatory bowel disease. However, in vi...

  8. El Niño and similar perturbation effects on the benthos of the Humboldt, California, and Benguela Current upwelling ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. Arntz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To a certain degree, Eastern Boundary Current (EBC ecosystems are similar: Cold bottom water from moderate depths, rich in nutrients, is transported to the euphotic zone by a combination of trade winds, Coriolis force and Ekman transport. The resultant high primary production fuels a rich secondary production in the upper pelagic and nearshore zones, but where O2 exchange is restricted, it creates oxygen minimum zones (OMZs at shelf and upper slope (Humboldt and Benguela Current or slope depths (California Current. These hypoxic zones host a specifically adapted, small macro- and meiofauna together with giant sulphur bacteria that use nitrate to oxydise H2S. In all EBC, small polychaetes, large nematodes and other opportunistic benthic species have adapted to the hypoxic conditions and co-exist with sulphur bacteria, which seem to be particularly dominant off Peru and Chile. However, a massive reduction of macrobenthos occurs in the core of the OMZ. In the Humboldt Current area the OMZ ranges between <100 and about 600 m, with decreasing thickness in a poleward direction. The OMZ merges into better oxygenated zones towards the deep sea, where large cold-water mega- and macrofauna occupy a dominant role as in the nearshore strip. The Benguela Current OMZ has a similar upper limit but remains shallower. It also hosts giant sulphur bacteria but little is known about the benthic fauna. However, sulphur eruptions and intense hypoxia might preclude the coexistence of significant mega- und macrobenthos. Conversely, off North America the upper limit of the OMZ is considerably deeper (e.g., 500–600 m off California and Oregon, and the lower boundary may exceed 1000m. The properties described are valid for very cold and cold (La Niña and "normal" ENSO conditions with effective upwelling of nutrient-rich bottom water. During warm (El Niño episodes, warm water masses of low oxygen concentration from oceanic and equatorial regions enter the upwelling

  9. Similar PDK1-AKT-mTOR pathway activation in balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons of type II focal cortical dysplasia with refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-xiang; Lin, Kun; Kang, De-zhi; Liu, Xin-xiu; Wang, Xing-fu; Zheng, Shu-fa; Yu, Liang-hong; Lin, Zhang-ya

    2015-05-01

    Dysmorphic neurons and balloon cells constitute the neuropathological hallmarks of type II focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) with refractory epilepsy. The genesis of these cells may be critical to the histological findings in type II FCD. Recent work has shown enhanced activation of the mTOR cascade in both balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons, suggesting a common pathogenesis for these two neuropathological hallmarks. A direct comparative analysis of balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons might identify a molecular link between balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons. Here, we addressed whether PDK1-AKT-mTOR activation differentiates balloon cells from dysmorphic neurons. We used immunohistochemistry with antibodies against phosphorylated (p)-PDK1 (Ser241), p-AKT (Thr308), p-AKT (Ser473), p-mTOR (Ser2448), p-P70S6K (Thr229), and p-p70S6 kinase (Thr389) in balloon cells compared with dysmorphic neurons. Strong or moderate staining for components of the PDK1-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway was observed in both balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons. However, only a few pyramidal neurons displayed weak staining in control group (perilesional neocortex and histologically normal neocortex). Additionally, p-PDK1 (Ser241) and p-AKT (Thr308) staining in balloon cells were stronger than in dysmorphic neurons, whereas p-P70S6K (Thr229) and p-p70S6 kinase (Thr389) staining in balloon cells was weaker than in dysmorphic neurons. In balloon cells, p-AKT (Ser473) and p-mTOR (Ser2448) staining was comparable with the staining in dysmorphic neurons. Our data support the previously suggested pathogenic relationship between balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons concerning activation of the PDK1-AKT-mTOR, which may play important roles in the pathogenesis of type II FCD. Differential expression of some components of the PDK1-AKT-mTOR pathway between balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons may result from cell-specific gene expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Attenuation of Diabetic Conditions by Sida rhombifolia in Moderately Diabetic Rats and Inability to Produce Similar Effects in Severely Diabetic in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Padmaja; Kwape, Tebogo Elvis

    2015-12-01

    This study was done out to evaluate the effects of Sida rhombifolia methanol extract (SRM) on diabetes in moderately diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) Sprague-Dawley rats. SRM was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% methanol and rota evaporating the methanol from the extract. Effective hypoglycemic doses were established by performing oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in normal rats. Hourly effects of SRM on glucose were observed in the MD and the SD rats. Rats were grouped, five rats to a group, into normal control 1 (NC1), MD control 1 (MDC1), MD experimental 1 (MDE1), SD control 1 (SDC1), and SD experimental 1 (SDE1) groups. All rats in the control groups were administered 1 mL of distilled water (DW). The rats in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups were administered SRM orally at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW), respectively, dissolved in 1 mL of DW. Blood was collected initially and at intervals of 1 hour for 6 hours to measure blood glucose. A similar experimental design was followed for the 30-day long-term trial. Finally, rats were sacrificed, and blood was collected to measure blood glucose, lipid profiles, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). OGTTs indicated that two doses (200 and 300 mg/kg BW) were effective hypoglycemic doses in normal rats. Both doses reduced glucose levels after 1 hour in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups. A long-term trial of SRM in the MD group showed a reduced glucose level, a normal lipid profile, and normal GSH and TBARS levels. In SD rats, SRM had no statistically significant effects on these parameters. Normal weight was achieved in the MD rats, but the SD rats showed reduced BW. The study demonstrates that SRM has potential to alleviate the conditions of moderate diabetic, but not severe diabetes.

  11. Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy has similar effects on pain and disability as ‘wait and see’ and other approaches in people with neck pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Takasaki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Questions: In people with neck pain, does Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT reduce pain and disability more than ‘wait and see’? Does MDT reduce pain and disability more than other interventions? Are any differences in effect clinically important? Design: Systematic review of randomised trials with meta-analysis. Participants: People with neck pain. Intervention: MDT. Outcome measures: Pain intensity and disability due to neck pain in the short (< 3 months, intermediate (< 1 year and long term (≥ 1 year. Results: Five trials were included. Most comparisons demonstrated mean differences in effect that favoured MDT over wait-and-see controls or other interventions, although most were statistically non-significant. For pain, all comparisons had a 95% confidence interval (CI with lower limits that were less than 20 on a scale of 0 to 100, which suggests that the difference may not be clinically important. For disability, even the upper limits of the 95% CI were below this threshold, confirming that the differences are not clinically important. In all of the trials, some or all of the treating therapists did not have the highest level of MDT training. Conclusion: The additional benefit of MDT compared with the wait-and-see approach or other therapeutic approaches may not be clinically important in terms of pain intensity and is not clinically important in terms of disability. However, these estimates of the effect of MDT may reflect suboptimal training of the treating therapists. Further research could improve the precision of the estimates and assess whether the extent of training in MDT influences its effect. [Takasaki H, May S (2014 Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy has similar effects on pain and disability as ‘wait and see’ and other approaches in people with neck pain: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 78–84].

  12. Consumption of Honey, Sucrose, and High-Fructose Corn Syrup Produces Similar Metabolic Effects in Glucose-Tolerant and -Intolerant Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Public health recommendations call for a reduction in added sugars; however, controversy exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. The objective was to compare the effects of the chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners [honey, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup containing 55% fructose (HFCS55)] on circulating glucose, insulin, lipids, and inflammatory markers; body weight; and blood pressure in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (GT) and those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In a crossover design, participants consumed daily, in random order, 50 g carbohydrate from assigned sweeteners for 2 wk with a 2- to 4-wk washout period between treatments. Participants included 28 GT and 27 IGT volunteers with a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.6 y and 52.1 ± 2.7 y, respectively, and a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26 ± 0.8 and 31.5 ± 1.0, respectively. Body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum inflammatory markers, lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, and oral-glucose-tolerance tests (OGTTs) were completed pre- and post-treatment. The OGTT incremental areas under the curve (iAUCs) for glucose and insulin were determined and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were calculated. Body weight and serum glucose, insulin, inflammatory markers, and total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the IGT group than in the GT group at baseline. Glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and the OGTT iAUC for glucose or insulin did not differ by treatment, but all responses were significantly higher in the IGT group compared with the GT group. Body weight was unchanged by treatment. Systolic BP was unchanged, whereas diastolic BP was significantly lower in response to sugar intake across all treatments. An increase in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was observed in the IGT group in response to all sugars. No treatment effect was observed for interleukin 6. HDL cholesterol did not

  13. Effect on Pro-inflammatory and Antioxidant Genes and Bioavailable Distribution of Whole Turmeric vs Curcumin: Similar Root but Different Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert CG; Aiyer, Harini S; Malik, Daniel; Li, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Curcuma longa is a perennial member of the Zingiberaceae family, and cultivated mainly in India, and Southeast Asia. The hypothesis for this study is that turmeric will have distinctive effects from curcumin due to the presence of other bioactive compounds. Thirty Eight-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into 3 oral feeding groups. Group 1, standard rat chow, Control diet - AIN 93M, group 2 Curcumin- 700 ppm or 0.7 g/kg diet, and group 3 - Turmeric -14,000 ppm or 14 g/kg diet for a total of 3 weeks. One group of rats were feed all three diets only and another group underwent esophagoduodenal anastomosis to evaluate the effects of bioavailability. Curcumin diet did not increase the transcription of mRNA of TNF-alpha, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2. The average fold change in the mRNAs level was not significant. Whereas turmeric diet increases the levels of IL-6 (1.9 fold, p=0.05) iNOS (4.39 fold, p=0.02), IL-8 (3.11 fold, p=0.04) and COX-2 (2.02 fold, p=0.05), suggesting that turmeric either was more bioavailabile or had more affect on pro-inflammatory genes compare to curcumin diet. We have demonstrated the molecular effects of curcumin and turmeric in the role as an anti-inflammatory therapy. However, significant bioavailable differences do occur and must be considered in further chemopreventative investigative trials the setting of reflux esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and other upper gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:22079310

  14. Similarly shaped letters evoke similar colors in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Rouw, Romke; Ramachandran, V S; Coulson, Seana

    2011-04-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological condition in which viewing numbers or letters (graphemes) results in the concurrent sensation of color. While the anatomical substrates underlying this experience are well understood, little research to date has investigated factors influencing the particular colors associated with particular graphemes or how synesthesia occurs developmentally. A recent suggestion of such an interaction has been proposed in the cascaded cross-tuning (CCT) model of synesthesia, which posits that in synesthetes connections between grapheme regions and color area V4 participate in a competitive activation process, with synesthetic colors arising during the component-stage of grapheme processing. This model more directly suggests that graphemes sharing similar component features (lines, curves, etc.) should accordingly activate more similar synesthetic colors. To test this proposal, we created and regressed synesthetic color-similarity matrices for each of 52 synesthetes against a letter-confusability matrix, an unbiased measure of visual similarity among graphemes. Results of synesthetes' grapheme-color correspondences indeed revealed that more similarly shaped graphemes corresponded with more similar synesthetic colors, with stronger effects observed in individuals with more intense synesthetic experiences (projector synesthetes). These results support the CCT model of synesthesia, implicate early perceptual mechanisms as driving factors in the elicitation of synesthetic hues, and further highlight the relationship between conceptual and perceptual factors in this phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of moisture content in cigar tobacco on nicotine extraction. Similarity between soxhlet and focused open-vessel microwave-assisted techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lay-Keow; Hupé, Michel

    2003-09-05

    The effects of tobacco moisture on nicotine yield were investigated in this study. Soxhlet and microwave-assisted techniques were used to extract nicotine from cigar fillers of varying moisture contents (5-20%), using a polar (methanol) and a non-polar (isooctane) solvent. The extracts were analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame-ionization detector. For both extraction techniques, higher nicotine yields were consistently obtained with methanol than with isooctane from the same samples. Solubility of nicotine salts in methanol but not in isooctane is the major cause of this observation. Moreover, pronounced effects of the tobacco moisture content on extraction efficiency were observed with isooctane but not with methanol. For microwave assisted extraction (MAE) with isooctane, nicotine yield increased from 3 to 70% as the moisture level in tobacco was raised from 3 to 13%, and leveled off thereafter. Similar observations were made with Soxhlet extraction. While MAE results were rationalized by the known cell-rupture process, a mechanism based on the interaction between the solvents and the structural components of the plant cells has been proposed to account for the observations made with Soxhlet extraction.

  16. Ozone, sulfur dioxide, and ultraviolet B have similar effects on mRNA accumulation of antioxidant genes in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willekens, H.; Van Camp, W.; Van Montagu, M.; Inze, D. [Laboratoire Associe de l`Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (France); Langebartels, C.; Sandermann, H. Jr. [Universiteit Gent (Belgium)]|[Institut fuer Biochemische Pflanzenpathologie, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1994-11-01

    We have studied the expression of antioxidant genes in response to near ambient conditions of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, and ultraviolet B (UV-B) in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia L. The genes analyzed encode four different superoxide dismutases (SODs), three catalases (Cat1, Cat2, and Cat3), the cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (cyt APx), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The experimental setup for each treatment was essentially the same and caused no visible damage, thus allowing direct comparison of the different stress responses. Our data showed that the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, and UV-B on the antioxidant genes are very similar, although the response to SO{sub 2} is generally less pronounced and delayed. The effects of the different stresses are characterized by a decline in Cat1, a moderate increase in Cat3, and a strong increase in Cat2 and GPx. Remarkably, SODs and cyt APx were not affected. Analysis of SOD and APx expression in the ozone-sensitive Nicotiana tabacum L. cv PBD6 revealed that induction of the cytosolic copper/zinc SOD and cyt APx occurs only with the onset of visible damage. It is proposed that alterations in mRNA levels of catalases and GPx, but not of SODs and cyt APx, form part of the initial antioxidant response to O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, and UV-B in Nicotiana. 57 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Effects of similar intakes of marine n-3 fatty acids from enriched food products and fish oil on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhus, Bente; Lamglait, Amandine; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Falch, Eva; Haider, Trond; Vik, Hogne; Hoem, Nils; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Basu, Samar; Olsen, Elisabeth; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Nyberg, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ulven, Stine M

    2012-05-01

    There is convincing evidence that consumption of fish and fish oil rich in long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA), EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) reduce the risk of CHD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether n-3 LCPUFA-enriched food products provide similar beneficial effects as fish oil with regard to incorporation into plasma lipids and effects on cardiovascular risk markers. A parallel 7-week intervention trial was performed where 159 healthy men and women were randomised to consume either 34 g fish pâté (n 44), 500 ml fruit juice (n 38) or three capsules of concentrated fish oil (n 40), all contributing to a daily intake of approximately 1 g EPA and DHA. A fourth group did not receive any supplementation or food product and served as controls (n 37). Plasma fatty acid composition, serum lipids, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Compared with the control group, plasma n-3 LCPUFA and EPA:arachidonic acid ratio increased equally in all intervention groups. However, no significant changes in blood lipids and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were observed. In conclusion, enriched fish pâté and fruit juice represent suitable delivery systems for n-3 LCPUFA. However, although the dose given is known to reduce the risk of CVD, no significant changes were observed on cardiovascular risk markers in this healthy population.

  18. Proliferative Activity and Neuroprotective Effect of Ligustrazene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proliferative Activity and Neuroprotective Effect of. Ligustrazene Derivative by Irritation of Vascular. Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Middle Cerebral. Artery Occlusion Rats. Zhang Huazheng1, Wang Penglong2, Ren Liwei1, Wang Xiaobo2, Li Guoliang2,. Wang Mina1, Chu Fuhao2, Gong Yan2, Xu Bing2, Bi Siling1, ...

  19. An electrophysiological signature of summed similarity in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Marieke K; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R; Kahana, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory experiments using electrocorticographic/depth electrode recordings and scalp electroencephalography. On each experimental trial, participants judged whether a test face had been among a small set of recently studied faces. Consistent with summed-similarity theory, participants' tendency to endorse a test item increased as a function of its summed similarity to the items on the just-studied list. To characterize this behavioral effect of summed similarity, we successfully fit a summed-similarity model to individual participant data from each experiment. Using the parameters determined from fitting the summed-similarity model to the behavioral data, we examined the relation between summed similarity and brain activity. We found that 4-9 Hz theta activity in the medial temporal lobe and 2-4 Hz delta activity recorded from frontal and parietal cortices increased with summed similarity. These findings demonstrate direct neural correlates of the similarity computations that form the foundation of several major cognitive theories of human recognition memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention at workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Malińska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A physical activity is a key factor contributing to the improvement and maintenance of one’s general health. Although this issue is by no means limited to the workplace, it is precisely the work environment that can provide the basis for keeping and reinforcing more health-conscious attitudes and lifestyles, including programs promoting a physical activity. The paper presents an analysis of the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity intervention at the workplace. Particular attention is paid to the impact of the physical activity programs on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, work ability, physical capacity and body weight of the participants. Given a marginal extent of programs of this kind in Poland, the authors’ intention was to show the benefits resulting from implementation of and participation in such initiatives. Med Pr 2017;68(2:277–301

  1. [Effectiveness of physical activity intervention at workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malińska, Marzena

    2017-03-24

    A physical activity is a key factor contributing to the improvement and maintenance of one's general health. Although this issue is by no means limited to the workplace, it is precisely the work environment that can provide the basis for keeping and reinforcing more health-conscious attitudes and lifestyles, including programs promoting a physical activity. The paper presents an analysis of the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity intervention at the workplace. Particular attention is paid to the impact of the physical activity programs on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, work ability, physical capacity and body weight of the participants. Given a marginal extent of programs of this kind in Poland, the authors' intention was to show the benefits resulting from implementation of and participation in such initiatives. Med Pr 2017;68(2):277-301. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Similar or different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornér, Solveig; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Peltonen, Jouni

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has identified researcher community and supervisory support as key determinants of the doctoral journey contributing to students’ persistence and robustness. However, we still know little about cross-cultural variation in the researcher community and supervisory support experien...... counter partners, whereas the Finnish students perceived lower levels of instrumental support than the Danish students. The findings imply that seemingly similar contexts hold valid differences in experienced social support and educational strategies at the PhD level....... experienced by PhD students within the same discipline. This study explores the support experiences of 381 PhD students within the humanities and social sciences from three research-intensive universities in Denmark (n=145) and Finland (n=236). The mixed methods design was utilized. The data were collected...... counter partners. The results also indicated that the only form of support in which the students expressed more matched support than mismatched support was informational support. Further investigation showed that the Danish students reported a high level of mismatch in emotional support than their Finnish...

  3. El Niño and similar perturbation effects on the benthos of the Humboldt, California, and Benguela Current upwelling ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntz, W. E.; Gallardo, V. A.; Gutiérrez, D.; Isla, E.; Levin, L. A.; Mendo, J.; Neira, C.; Rowe, G. T.; Tarazona, J.; Wolff, M.

    2006-03-01

    To a certain degree, Eastern Boundary Current (EBC) ecosystems are similar: Cold bottom water from moderate depths, rich in nutrients, is transported to the euphotic zone by a combination of trade winds, Coriolis force and Ekman transport. The resultant high primary production fuels a rich secondary production in the upper pelagic and nearshore zones, but where O2 exchange is restricted, it creates oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) at shelf and upper slope (Humboldt and Benguela Current) or slope depths (California Current). These hypoxic zones host a specifically adapted, small macro- and meiofauna together with giant sulphur bacteria that use nitrate to oxydise H2S. In all EBC, small polychaetes, large nematodes and other opportunistic benthic species have adapted to the hypoxic conditions and co-exist with sulphur bacteria, which seem to be particularly dominant off Peru and Chile. However, a massive reduction of macrobenthos occurs in the core of the OMZ. In the Humboldt Current area the OMZ ranges between immigrants. The autochthonous benthic fauna emigrates to deeper water or poleward, or suffers mortality. However, some local macrofaunal species experience important population proliferations, presumably due to improved oxygenation (in the southern hemisphere), higher temperature tolerance, reduced competition or the capability to use different food. Both these negative and positive effects of El Niño influence local artisanal fisheries and the livelihood of coastal populations. In the Humboldt Current system the hypoxic seafloor at outer shelf depths receives important flushing from the equatorial zone, causing havoc on the sulphur bacteria mats and immediate recolonisation of the sediments by mega- and macrofauna. Conversely, off California, the intruding equatorial water masses appear to have lower oxygen than ambient waters, and may cause oxygen deficiency at upper slope depths. Effects of this change have not been studied in detail, although shrimp and other

  4. More Similar Than Different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin

    2018-01-01

    What role do employee features play into the success of different personnel management practices for serving high performance? Using data from a randomized survey experiment among 5,982 individuals of all ages, this article examines how gender conditions the compliance effects of different incent...

  5. Repressive effects of resveratrol on androgen receptor transcriptional activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-feng Shi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemopreventive effects of resveratrol (RSV on prostate cancer have been well established; the androgen receptor (AR plays pivotal roles in prostatic tumorigenesis. However, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms about the effects of RSV on AR have not been fully elucidated. A model system is needed to determine whether and how RSV represses AR transcriptional activity.The AR cDNA was first cloned into the retroviral vector pOZ-N and then integrated into the genome of AR-negative HeLa cells to generate the AR(+ cells. The constitutively expressed AR was characterized by monitoring hormone-stimulated nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activation, with the AR(- cells serving as controls. AR(+ cells were treated with RSV, and both AR protein levels and AR transcriptional activity were measured simultaneously. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays were used to detect the effects of RSV on the recruitment of AR to its cognate element (ARE.AR in the AR (+ stable cell line functions in a manner similar to that of endogenously expressed AR. Using this model system we clearly demonstrated that RSV represses AR transcriptional activity independently of any effects on AR protein levels. However, neither the hormone-mediated nucleus translocation nor the AR/ARE interaction was affected by RSV treatment.We demonstrated unambiguously that RSV regulates AR target gene expression, at least in part, by repressing AR transcriptional activity. Repressive effects of RSV on AR activity result from mechanisms other than the affects of AR nuclear translocation or DNA binding.

  6. Erythrocyte membrane stabilization effect and antioxidant activity of methyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, B.

    2004-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMK) is a synthetic product with mild impact on human health that is not well studied on cellular basis. Here, human erythrocytes were used to investigate the effects MMK exerts on acid and heat-induced hemolysis. Biphasic effect of MMK was observed for acid-induced hemolysis; i.e., protection at low (0 - 0.05% v/v) and stimulation at higher (0.1- 0.4% v/v) concentrations. The maximal protective effect was produced at 0.03% (v/v). At this concentration MMK increased the temperatures of heat denaturation of erythrocyte membrane proteins, spectrin and integral proteins, by about 2 0 C and inhibited the heat-induced hemolysis by 20 %. This membrane stabilization effect of MMK is similar to that produced by some anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drugs. The increased acid resistance possibly indicated anti-oxidant properties of MMK. The nonenzymatic antioxidant activity test evidenced that MMK has no superoxide dismutase-like activity but demonstrates strong catalase-like activity (about 900 kU/mmol at 0.05-0.1 mmol/l concentration). The results indicate that at low concentration MMK exerts benign effect on cellular membrane that could find therapeutic usage. (author)

  7. Land use change analysis using spectral similarity and vegetation indices and its effect on runoff and sediment yield in tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christanto, N.; Sartohadi, J.; Setiawan, M. A.; Shrestha, D. B. P.; Jetten, V. G.

    2018-04-01

    Land use change influences the hydrological as well as landscape processes such as runoff and sediment yields. The main objectives of this study are to assess the land use change and its impact on the runoff and sediment yield of the upper Serayu Catchment. Land use changes of 1991 to 2014 have been analyzed. Spectral similarity and vegetation indices were used to classify the old image. Therefore, the present and the past images are comparable. The influence of the past and present land use on runoff and sediment yield has been compared with field measurement. The effect of land use changes shows the increased surface runoff which is the result of change in the curve number (CN) values. The study shows that it is possible to classify previously obtained image based on spectral characteristics and indices of major land cover types derived from recently obtained image. This avoids the necessity of having training samples which will be difficult to obtain. On the other hand, it also demonstrates that it is possible to link land cover changes with land degradation processes and finally to sedimentation in the reservoir. The only condition is the requirement for having the comparable dataset which should not be difficult to generate. Any variation inherent in the data which are other than surface reflectance has to be corrected.

  8. Colonic epithelial cell activation and the paradoxical effects of butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P R; Rosella, O; Wilson, A J; Mariadason, J M; Rickard, K; Byron, K; Barkla, D H

    1999-04-01

    Butyrate may have paradoxical effects on epithelial cells of similar origin. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that one mechanism that dictates a cell's response to butyrate is its state of activation. First, the responses to 24 h exposure to butyrate (1-2 mM) of normal and neoplastic human colonic epithelial cells activated by their isolation and primary culture, and of colon cancer cell lines, LIM1215 and Caco-2, were examined. In primary cultures of normal and cancer cells, butyrate had no effect on alkaline phosphatase activities but significantly suppressed urokinase receptor expression by a mean +/- SEM of 30 +/- 12% and 36 +/- 9%, respectively. Interleukin-8 secretion was suppressed by 44 +/- 7% in normal cells (P 50%, urokinase receptor expression >2-fold and interleukin-8 secretion >3-fold in response to butyrate. Secondly, the effect of butyrate on Caco-2 cells was examined with or without prior exposure to a specific activating stimulus [tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha)]. Interleukin-8 secretion increased by 145 +/- 23% and 132 +/- 17% on 24 h exposure to 2 mM butyrate or 0.1 microM TNF alpha alone, respectively. However, in cells pre-treated with TNF alpha, butyrate significantly inhibited secretion by 34 +/- 7% below unstimulated levels. The response to butyrate of urokinase receptor, whose expression was not stimulated by TNF alpha, was unchanged. These effects were mimicked by trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, suggesting that butyrate's paradoxical effects may have been operating by the same mechanism. In conclusion, some of the paradoxical effects of butyrate do not appear to represent inherent differences between normal and transformed cells. Rather, the response may be determined by the state of activation of the cells.

  9. Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in patients undergoing open inguinal hernia repair: 0.125% bupivacaine provides similar analgesic effect compared to 0.25% bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan Arı, Dilek; Yıldırım Ar, Arzu; Karadoğan, Firdevs; Özcabı, Yetkin; Koçoğlu, Ayşegül; Kılıç, Fatih; Akgün, Fatma Nur

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of 0.125% bupivacaine compared to 0.25% bupivacaine for ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in patients undergoing open inguinal hernia repair. Randomized, double-blind study. Educational and research hospital. Forty adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-III undergoing elective primary unilateral open inguinal hernia repair under spinal anesthesia. Patients in group I received 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine, whereas patients in group II received 20 mL of 0.125% bupivacaine for TAP block at the end of the surgery. Pain intensity was assessed at rest and during coughing using 10-cm visual analog scale score at 5, 15, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after TAP block. Morphine consumption and time to first morphine requirement were recorded. Visual analog scale scores at rest and during coughing were not significantly different between groups at all time points measured. Twenty-four hours of morphine consumption (7.72±7.33 mg in group I and 6.06±5.20 mg in group II; P=.437) and time to first morphine requirement (182.35±125.16 minutes in group I and 143.21±87.28 minutes in group II; P=.332) were not different between groups. 0.125% Bupivacaine provides similar analgesic effect compared to 0.25% bupivacaine for ultrasound-guided TAP block in patients undergoing open inguinal hernia repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Comparatively-Framed versus Similarity-Framed E-Cigarette and Snus Print Ads on Young Adults’ Ad and Product Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C.; Greene, Kathryn; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the effects of comparative-framing [C-F; ads highlighting differences between the advertised product and conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products] versus similarity-framing (S-F; ads highlighting congruence with conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products) in e-cigarette and snus ads on young adult smokers’ and non-smokers’ ad- and product-related perceptions. Methods One thousand fifty one (1,051) young adults (18–24 years; 76% women; 50% smokers) from existing consumer panels were recruited in a within-subjects quasi-experiment. Each participant viewed 4 online advertisements, varied by tobacco product type (e-cigarette or snus) and ad framing (C-F or S-F). The dependent measures for this study were ad-related (ad perceptions, ad credibility) and product-related perceptions (absolute and comparative risk perceptions, product appeal, and product use intentions). Results Former and current smokers rated C-F ads as more persuasive than S-F ads, as evidenced by favorable ad perceptions and high product use intentions. Former and current smokers also rated e-cigarette ads with more favorable ad perceptions, low absolute and comparative risk perceptions, high product appeal, and high product use intentions as compared to snus ads. However, the effect sizes of the significant differences are less than.2, indicating small magnitude of difference between the study variables. Conclusions Unless FDA regulates e-cig and snus advertising, there is a potential of decreasing risk perceptions and increasing use of e-cigs among young adults. Further research on implicit/explicit comparative claims in e-cigarettes and snus advertisements that encourage risk misperceptions is recommended. PMID:28042597

  11. The Effect of Comparatively-Framed versus Similarity-Framed E-Cigarette and Snus Print Ads on Young Adults' Ad and Product Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the effects of comparative-framing [C-F; ads highlighting differences between the advertised product and conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products] versus similarity-framing (S-F; ads highlighting congruence with conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products) in e-cigarette and snus ads on young adult smokers' and non-smokers' ad- and product-related perceptions. One thousand fifty one (1,051) young adults (18-24 years; 76% women; 50% smokers) from existing consumer panels were recruited in a within-subjects quasi-experiment. Each participant viewed 4 online advertisements, varied by tobacco product type (e-cigarette or snus) and ad framing (C-F or S-F). The dependent measures for this study were ad-related (ad perceptions, ad credibility) and product-related perceptions (absolute and comparative risk perceptions, product appeal, and product use intentions). Former and current smokers rated C-F ads as more persuasive than S-F ads, as evidenced by favorable ad perceptions and high product use intentions. Former and current smokers also rated e-cigarette ads with more favorable ad perceptions, low absolute and comparative risk perceptions, high product appeal, and high product use intentions as compared to snus ads. However, the effect sizes of the significant differences are less than.2, indicating small magnitude of difference between the study variables. Unless FDA regulates e-cig and snus advertising, there is a potential of decreasing risk perceptions and increasing use of e-cigs among young adults. Further research on implicit/explicit comparative claims in e-cigarettes and snus advertisements that encourage risk misperceptions is recommended.

  12. Pleurotomy with subxyphoid pleural drain affords similar effects to pleural integrity in pulmonary function after off-pump coronary artery bypass graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizilini, Solange; Bolzan, Douglas W; Faresin, Sonia M; Ferraz, Raquel F; Tavolaro, Kelly; Cancio, Andrea A; Gomes, Walter J

    2012-01-25

    Exacerbation of pulmonary dysfunction has been reported in patients receiving a pleural drain inserted through the intercostal space in comparison to patients with an intact pleura undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Evidence suggests that shifting the site of pleural drain insertion to the subxyphoid position minimizes chest wall trauma and preserves respiratory function in the early postoperative period. The aim of this study was to compare the pulmonary function parameters, clinical outcomes, and pain score between patients undergoing pleurotomy with pleural drain placed in the subxyphoid position and patients with intact pleural cavity after off-pump CABG (OPCAB) using left internal thoracic artery (LITA). Seventy-one patients were allocated into two groups: I (n = 38 open left pleural cavity and pleural drain inserted in the subxyphoid position); II (n = 33 intact pleural cavity). Pulmonary function tests and clinical parameters were recorded preoperatively and on postoperative days (POD) 1, 3 and 5. Arterial blood gas analysis and shunt fraction were evaluated preoperatively and in POD1. Pain score was assessed on POD1. To monitor pleural effusion and atelectasis chest radiography was performed routinely 1 day before operation and until POD5. In both groups a significant impairment was found in lung function parameters until on POD5. However, no significant difference in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were seen between groups. A significant decrease in partial pressure of arterial oxygen and an increase in shunt fraction values were observed on POD1 in both groups, but no statistical difference was found when the groups were compared. Pleural effusion and atelectasis until on POD5 were similar in both groups. There were no statistical differences in pain score, duration of mechanical ventilation and postoperative hospital stay between groups. Subxyphoid insertion of pleural drain provides similar effects to

  13. An effective approach for annotation of protein families with low sequence similarity and conserved motifs: identifying GDSL hydrolases across the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujaklija, Ivan; Bielen, Ana; Paradžik, Tina; Biđin, Siniša; Goldstein, Pavle; Vujaklija, Dušica

    2016-02-18

    the graphical user interface ( http://compbio.math.hr/ ). Our results show that scanning with a carefully parameterized motif-HMM is an effective approach for annotation of protein families with low sequence similarity and conserved motifs. The results of this study expand current knowledge and provide new insights into the evolution of the large GDSL-lipase family in land plants.

  14. Pleurotomy with subxyphoid pleural drain affords similar effects to pleural integrity in pulmonary function after off-pump coronary artery bypass graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guizilini Solange

    2012-01-01

    insertion of pleural drain provides similar effects to preserved pleural integrity in pulmonary function, clinical outcomes, and thoracic pain after OPCAB. Therefore, our results support the hypothesis that once pleural cavities are incidentally or purposely opened during LITA dissection, subxyphoid placement of the pleural drain is recommended.

  15. Effective diffusion of confined active Brownian swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Mario; Dagdug, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    We find theoretically the effect of confinement and thermal fluctuations, on the diffusivity of a spherical active swimmer moving inside a two-dimensional narrow cavity of general shape. The explicit formulas for the effective diffusion coefficient of a swimmer moving inside two particular cavities are presented. We also compare our analytical results with Brownian Dynamics simulations and we obtain excellent agreement. L.D. thanks Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACyT) Mexico, for partial support by Grant No. 176452. M. S. thanks CONACyT and Programa de Mejoramiento de Profesorado (PROMEP) for partially funding this work under Grant No. 103.5/13/6732.

  16. Regulatory Effects of Fisetin on Microglial Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Pei-Chun; Shen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Chingju; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Jia-Hong; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Wu, Ling-Hsuan; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Liu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS...

  17. Personality similarity and life satisfaction in couples

    OpenAIRE

    Furler Katrin; Gomez Veronica; Grob Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the association between personality similarity and life satisfaction in a large nationally representative sample of 1608 romantic couples. Similarity effects were computed for the Big Five personality traits as well as for personality profiles with global and differentiated indices of similarity. Results showed substantial actor and partner effects indicating that both partners' personality traits were related to both partners' life satisfaction. Personality similar...

  18. Effective dose to radon considering people's activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, M.; Seki, K.; Kikuchi, I.

    1992-01-01

    The tidal volume was estimated for evaluating the effective dose due to radon concentration in the atmosphere. In this study regional population was separated to vocation and non-vocation. The occupancy time and the breathing rate for both vocation and non-vocation groups were estimated, and the annual tidal volume for both groups were calculated. Human actions were separated to 18 activities in the process for estimating the breathing rate. It was clear that the breathing rate depended on human activity and that the human activity changed with its age, so the breathing rate varied with age. Finally the effective doses due to radon and radon progeny indoors and outdoors were evaluated. The maximum annual effective dose was estimated to be 1.2 mSv, minimum 0.2 mSv, and mean 0.51 mSv for vocation. For non-vocation, the male maximum value 0.43 mSv was obtained at the 16 age and the minimum 0.12 mSv at the 70 age, whereas female maximum 0.26 mSv was obtained at the 12 age and the minimum 0.11 mSv at the 70 age. In addition in this study objective areas are Aichi, Gifu, and Mie prefectures for vocation and only Aichi prefecture for non-vocation. (author)

  19. Physical activity effects on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E L; Gilligan, C

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporotic fractures rises exponentially with age and is increasing faster than the demographic increase in the aging population. Physical activity has great potential to reduce the risk for osteoporotic fractures. Three independent but interactive factors contribute to the risk of fractures: bone strength, the risk of falling, and the effectiveness of neuromuscular response that protects the skeleton from injury. Exercise can reduce fracture risk not only by preventing bone loss, but by decreasing the risk of falling and the force of impact by improving strength, flexibility, balance, and reaction time. Extreme inactivity causes rapid bone loss of up to 40%, while athletic activity results in bone hypertrophy of up to 40%. Exercise intervention programs have reduced bone loss or increased bone mass in both men and women of various ages and initial bone status. These benefits have been shown for arm bone mineral content, total body calcium, spine, calcium bone index, tibia, and calcaneus. In both middle-aged and elderly women, physical activity intervention reduced bone loss or increased bone mass. The mechanisms for maintenance of skeletal integrity rely on a cellular response to hormonal and mechanical load stimuli. Studies in animal models show that training affects cellular activity. In osteoporotics, cellular erosion is increased and mineral apposition rate (MAR) decreased compared with normal age-matched controls. In contrast to this, sows trained on a treadmill 20 min per day for 20 weeks had greater active periosteal surface, periosteal MAR, and osteonal MAR than untrained sows.

  20. The Success of Thread-embedding Therapy in Generating Hair Re-growth in Mice Points to Its Possibly Having a Similar Effect in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jong Shin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Recently, thread-embedding therapy (TET has been widely applied in Korean medicine for cosmetic purposes such as reducing skin wrinkles. An inserted thread was reported to have induced continuous stimulation, followed by support for connective tissue regeneration. However, the potential role of TET in hairgrowth has not yet been reported. Methods: We designed this study to evaluate whether TET has a hair-growth-promoting effect. C57 black 6 (C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: normal saline-treated, minoxidil-treated, and thread-embedded groups. Normal saline or 5% minoxidil was topically sprayed on the dorsal skin of the mice once a day for 16 days. Medical threads were embedded into the dorsal skin of the mice in a single application. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using dermoscopic and microscopic observations. Sections of the dorsal skin were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7, and fibroblast growth factor-5 (FGF-5 were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis was adopted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA expressions of FGF-7 and FGF-5. Results: TET enhanced anagen development in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. The expressions of BrdU and PCNA, both of which imply active cellular proliferation, were increased by using TET. Moreover, TET increased the expression of FGF-7, an anagen-inducing growth factor, while decreasing the expression of FGF-5, an anagen-cessation growth factor, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. Conclusion: TET enhanced hair re-growth in C57BL/6 mice. TET regulated the expressions of anagen-associated growth factors and activated the proliferation of hair follicular cells in depilated skin lesions. Considering its long-lasting effect, TET may be a good alternative therapeutic for the treatment of

  1. [The effects of 6 months' multimodal training on functional performance, strength, endurance, and body mass index of older individuals. Are the benefits of training similar among women and men?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudlaugsson, Janus; Aspelund, Thor; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Olafsdottir, Anna Sigridur; Jonsson, Palmi V; Arngrimsson, Sigurbjorn Arni; Johannsson, Erlingur

    2013-07-01

    Good functional performance in elderly people greatly improves their changes of independence and well-being. Conversely, bad functional performance can impair their capability of managing the activities of daily life.. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of a 6-months' multimodal training intervention on the physical performance of males and females, possible gender differences and the outcome 6 and 12 months after its completion. This study examined 71-90 year old healthy seniors (n=117) participating in the AGES Reykjavik Study. It was a randomized and controlled cross-over trial, conducted in three 6-months' phases (time-points). After enrollment and baseline assessments, the study group was divided in two. Group 1 received 6-months' training while group 2 served as a control. In the second 6 months' phase, group 1 received no formal training while group 2 did. In the third phase, neither group received training. The groups' physical conditions were assessed after each phase. After 6-months' training, 32% improvement was seen in physical activity among males (ptraining results. Both sexes retained long-term effects of the training on physical performance and dynamic balance for at least 12 months. Multimodal training intervention has positive effects on physical performance in older individuals, the sexes respond similarly to the training and retain achieved improvement for at least 12 months. The research indicates that moderate and systemic training for this age group could be a part of conventional health service for this age group.

  2. Communication: Memory effects and active Brownian diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pulak K. [Department of Chemistry, Presidency University, Kolkata 700073 (India); Li, Yunyun, E-mail: yunyunli@tongji.edu.cn [Center for Phononics and Thermal Energy Science, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Marchegiani, Giampiero [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Marchesoni, Fabio [Center for Phononics and Thermal Energy Science, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy)

    2015-12-07

    A self-propelled artificial microswimmer is often modeled as a ballistic Brownian particle moving with constant speed aligned along one of its axis, but changing direction due to random collisions with the environment. Similarly to thermal noise, its angular randomization is described as a memoryless stochastic process. Here, we speculate that finite-time correlations in the orientational dynamics can affect the swimmer’s diffusivity. To this purpose, we propose and solve two alternative models. In the first one, we simply assume that the environmental fluctuations governing the swimmer’s propulsion are exponentially correlated in time, whereas in the second one, we account for possible damped fluctuations of the propulsion velocity around the swimmer’s axis. The corresponding swimmer’s diffusion constants are predicted to get, respectively, enhanced or suppressed upon increasing the model memory time. Possible consequences of this effect on the interpretation of the experimental data are discussed.

  3. Effect of detonation nanodiamonds on phagocyte activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpukhin, Alexey V; Avkhacheva, Nadezhda V; Yakovlev, Ruslan Yu; Kulakova, Inna I; Yashin, Valeriy A; Lisichkin, Georgiy V; Safronova, Valentina G

    2011-07-01

    Detonation ND (nanodiamond) holds much promise for biological studies and medical applications. Properties like size of particles, inclination for modification of their surface and unambiguous biocompatibility are crucial. Of prime importance is interaction between ND and immune cells, which supervise foreign intrusion into an organism and eliminate it. Neutrophils are more reactive in inflammatory response implementing cytotoxical arsenal including ROS (reactive oxygen species). The aim of the work was to estimate the ability of two ND samples (produced by Diamond Center and PlasmaChem) to keep the vitality of neutrophils from the inflammatory site. The ability of cells to generate ROS in the presence of ND particles is considered as indicating their biocompatibility. IR spectra and size of particles in the samples were characterized. Acid modification of ND was carried out to get the luminescent form. In the biological aspect, ND demonstrated up or down action, depending on the concentration, time and conditions of activation of cells. Weak action of ND in whole blood was obtained possibly owing to the ND adsorbed plasma proteins, which mask active functional groups to interact with the cell membrane. ND did not influence the viability of isolated inflammatory neutrophils in low and moderate concentrations and suppressed it in high concentrations (≥1 g/l). Addition of ND to the cell suspension initiated concentration-dependent reaction to produce ROS similar to respiratory burst. ND up-regulated response to bacterial formylpeptide, but up- and down-modified (low or high concentrations, accordingly) response to such bacterial agents as OZ (opsonized zymosan), which neutrophils swallow up by oxygen-dependent phagocytosis. Localization of the particles on the cell surface as into the cells was identified by monitoring the intrinsic fluorescence of oxidized ND. The various mechanisms that could account for penetration of ND particles into the cell are discussed

  4. [Effect of physical activity on functional performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaus, T

    2001-02-01

    Epidemiological studies clearly show a connection between physical activity and the occurrence of disabilities in old age. Physical exercise is possible and useful at every age. Numerous intervention trials have shown that training of endurance, strength and coordination has positive effects on the cardiovascular system, the lung, the musculo-skeletal system, metabolism and the immune system in elderly people. Even very frail elderly people can increase their muscle strength and functional capabilities by strength training. Group sessions may improve social interactions and additionally increase the quality of life.

  5. Conceptual elaboration versus direct lexical access in WAIS-similarities: differential effects of white-matter lesions and gray matter volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellström, Åke

    2017-09-18

    Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) subscale Similarities have been classified as a test of either verbal comprehension or of inductive reasoning. The reason may be that items divide into two categories. We tested the hypothesis of heterogeneity of items in WAIS-Similarities. Consecutive patients at a memory clinic and healthy controls participated in the study. White-matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and normalized temporal lobe volumes were measured based on Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI), and tests of verbal memory and attention were used in addition to WAIS-Similarities to collect behavioural data. Factor analysis supported the hypothesis that two factors are involved in the performance of WAIS-similarities: (1) semiautomatic lexical access and (2) conceptual elaboration. These factors were highly correlated but provided discriminative diagnostic information: In logistic regression analyses, scores of the lexical access factor and of the conceptual elaboration factor discriminated patients with mild cognitive impairment from Alzheimer's disease patients and from healthy controls, respectively. High scores of WMH, indicating periventricular white-matter lesions, predicted factor scores of direct lexical access but not those of conceptual elaboration, which were predicted only by medial and lateral temporal lobe volumes.

  6. Physical activity and its effects on reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Leanne M

    2006-05-01

    The reproductive system is tightly coupled with energy balance, and thereby changes in the status of energy balance through changes in physical activity can impact on the reproductive system. In light of the new physical activity for health recommendations, it is therefore important to understand the inherent effects, both positive and negative, of physical activity on the reproductive system. At both extremes of the energy spectrum, disorders of chronic energy excess and energy deficiency are characterized by a wide range of reproductive disorders, including menstrual irregularity, anovulation, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and infertility in women, and erectile dysfunction and altered spermatogenesis in men. Although laboratory research indicates that individuals may be able to prevent or reverse reproductive disruptions, either by increasing energy expenditure in cases of energy excess or by dietary reform in cases of energy deficits, there is an acute need for applied research to confirm this idea and to identify mechanisms by which the availability of energy per se regulates reproductive function in humans.

  7. Regulatory effects of fisetin on microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Pei-Chun; Shen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Chingju; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Jia-Hong; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Wu, Ling-Hsuan; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Liu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2014-06-26

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS plus IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in microglial cells. Furthermore, fisetin also reduced expressions of iNOS and NO by stimulation of peptidoglycan, the major component of the Gram-positive bacterium cell wall. Fisetin also inhibited the enhancement of LPS/IFN-γ- or peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory mediator IL (interlukin)-1 β expression. Besides the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, our study also elucidates the manner in fisetin-induced an endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme HO (heme oxygenase)-1 expression. Moreover, the regulatory molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced HO-1 expression operates through the PI-3 kinase/AKT and p38 signaling pathways in microglia. Notably, fisetin also significantly attenuated inflammation-related microglial activation and coordination deficit in mice in vivo. These findings suggest that fisetin may be a candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Regulatory Effects of Fisetin on Microglial Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yuan Chuang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS plus IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in microglial cells. Furthermore, fisetin also reduced expressions of iNOS and NO by stimulation of peptidoglycan, the major component of the Gram-positive bacterium cell wall. Fisetin also inhibited the enhancement of LPS/IFN-γ- or peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory mediator IL (interlukin-1 β expression. Besides the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, our study also elucidates the manner in fisetin-induced an endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme HO (heme oxygenase-1 expression. Moreover, the regulatory molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced HO-1 expression operates through the PI-3 kinase/AKT and p38 signaling pathways in microglia. Notably, fisetin also significantly attenuated inflammation-related microglial activation and coordination deficit in mice in vivo. These findings suggest that fisetin may be a candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Self-similar gravitational clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Fall, S.M.; Hogan, C.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of gravitational clustering is considered and several new scaling relations are derived for the multiplicity function. These include generalizations of the Press-Schechter theory to different densities and cosmological parameters. The theory is then tested against multiplicity function and correlation function estimates for a series of 1000-body experiments. The results are consistent with the theory and show some dependence on initial conditions and cosmological density parameter. The statistical significance of the results, however, is fairly low because of several small number effects in the experiments. There is no evidence for a non-linear bootstrap effect or a dependence of the multiplicity function on the internal dynamics of condensed groups. Empirical estimates of the multiplicity function by Gott and Turner have a feature near the characteristic luminosity predicted by the theory. The scaling relations allow the inference from estimates of the galaxy luminosity function that galaxies must have suffered considerable dissipation if they originally formed from a self-similar hierarchy. A method is also developed for relating the multiplicity function to similar measures of clustering, such as those of Bhavsar, for the distribution of galaxies on the sky. These are shown to depend on the luminosity function in a complicated way. (author)

  10. The Effects of Active Videogame Feedback and Practicing Experience on Children's Physical Activity Intensity and Enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Sun, Haichun

    2017-08-01

    The study aims to explore the effects of receiving active videogame (AVG) feedback and playing experience on individuals' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and perceived enjoyment. This was a within-subject design study. The participants included 36 (n = 15 and 21 for boys and girls, respectively) fourth graders enrolled in a rural elementary school in southern Georgia area. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks with each week including three sessions. The participants were assigned in either front row (sensor feedback) or back row (no sensor feedback) during practice, which was alternated in different sessions. Two different dance games were played during the study with each game implemented for 3 weeks. The MVPA was measured with GT3X+ accelerometers. Physical activity (PA) enjoyment was assessed after the completion of the first two and last two sessions of each game. A repeated one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) was used to examine the effects of AVG feedback and game on MVPA. A repeated one-way MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) was conducted for each game to examine the effects of experience and AVG feedback on enjoyment and MVPA. No effects of AVG feedback were found for MVPA or enjoyment (P > 0.05). The effects of experience on MVPA were found for Just Dance Kids 2014 with experience decreased MVPA (P < 0.05). Students who practiced dance AVG without receiving feedback still demonstrated positive affection and accumulated similar MVPA than when practicing while receiving feedback. Experience for certain dance games tends to decrease PA intensity.

  11. Metal ion effects on enolase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.E.; Nowak, T.

    1986-01-01

    Most metal binding studies with yeast enolase suggest that two metals per monomer are required for catalytic activity. The functions of metal I and metal II have not been unequivocally defined. In a series of kinetic experiments where the concentration of MgII is kept constant at subsaturating levels (1mM), the addition of MnII or of ZnII gives a hyperbolic decrease in activity. The final velocity of these mixed metal systems is the same velocity obtained with either only MnII or ZnII respectively. The concentration of MnII (40 μM) or of Zn (2μM) which gives half maximal effect in the presence of (1mM) MgII is approximately the same as the Km' value for MnII (9μM) or ZnII (3μM) respectively. Direct binding of MnII to enolase in the absence and presence of MgII shows that MnII and MgII compete for the same metal site on enolase. In the presence of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGA) and MgII, only a single site is occupied by MnII. Results suggest MnII at site I and MgII at site II. PRR and high resolution 1 H and 31 P NMR studies of enzyme-ligand complexes containing MnII and MgII and MnII are consistent with this model. 31 P measurements allow a measure of the equilibrium constant (0.36) for enolase. Saturation transfer measurements yield net rate constants (k/sub f/ = 0.49s -1 ; k/sub r/ = 1.3s -1 ) for the overall reaction. These values are smaller than k/sub cat/ (38s -1 ) measured under analogous conditions. The cation at site I appears to determine catalytic activity

  12. Radiation effects on active pixel sensors (APS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; David, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Active pixel sensor (APS) is a new generation of image sensors which presents several advantages relatively to charge coupled devices (CCDs) particularly for space applications (APS requires only 1 voltage to operate which reduces considerably current consumption). Irradiation was performed using 60 Co gamma radiation at room temperature and at a dose rate of 150 Gy(Si)/h. 2 types of APS have been tested: photodiode-APS and photoMOS-APS. The results show that photoMOS-APS is more sensitive to radiation effects than photodiode-APS. Important parameters of image sensors like dark currents increase sharply with dose levels. Nevertheless photodiode-APS sensitivity is one hundred time lower than photoMOS-APS sensitivity

  13. Improved collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm of similarity measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baofu; Yuan, Baoping

    2017-05-01

    The Collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm is one of the most widely used recommendation algorithm in personalized recommender systems. The key is to find the nearest neighbor set of the active user by using similarity measure. However, the methods of traditional similarity measure mainly focus on the similarity of user common rating items, but ignore the relationship between the user common rating items and all items the user rates. And because rating matrix is very sparse, traditional collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm is not high efficiency. In order to obtain better accuracy, based on the consideration of common preference between users, the difference of rating scale and score of common items, this paper presents an improved similarity measure method, and based on this method, a collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm based on similarity improvement is proposed. Experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively improve the quality of recommendation, thus alleviate the impact of data sparseness.

  14. Effect of slip on existence, uniqueness, and behavior of similarity solutions for steady incompressible laminar flow in porous tubes and channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellam, Shankararaman; Liu, Mei

    2006-08-01

    The existence and multiplicity of similarity solutions for steady, fully developed, incompressible laminar flow in uniformly porous tubes and channels with one or two permeable walls is investigated from first principles. A fourth-order ordinary differential equation obtained by simplifying the Navier-Stokes equations by introducing Berman's stream function [A. S. Berman, J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1232 (1953)] and Terrill's transformation [R. M. Terrill, Aeronaut. Q. 15, 299 (1964)] is probed analytically. In this work that considers only symmetric flows for symmetric ducts; the no-slip boundary condition at porous walls is relaxed to account for momentum transfer within the porous walls. By employing the Saffman [P. G. Saffman, Stud. Appl. Math. 50, 93 (1971)] form of the slip boundary condition, the uniqueness of similarity solutions is investigated theoretically in terms of the signs of the guesses for the missing initial conditions. Solutions were obtained for all wall Reynolds numbers for channel flows whereas no solutions existed for intermediate values for tube flows. Introducing slip did not fundamentally change the number or the character of solutions corresponding to different sections. However, the range of wall Reynolds numbers for which similarity solutions are theoretically impossible in tube flows was found to be a weak function of the slip coefficient. Slip also weakly influenced the transition wall Reynolds number corresponding to flow in the direction of a favorable axial pressure gradient to one in the direction of an adverse pressure gradient. Momentum transfer from the longitudinal axis to the walls appears to occur more efficiently in porous channels compared to porous tubes even in the presence of slip.

  15. Concentrated Arabinoxylan but Not Concentrated Beta-Glucan in Wheat Bread Has Similar Effects on Postprandial Insulin as Whole-Grain Rye in Porto-arterial Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    wheat bread were fed to six pigs in a randomized crossover design. Blood profiles were collected for 4 h after feeding. Glucose absorption was reduced in pigs fed the AX bread at 60 min postprandial (3.1 mmol/min for AX compared to 9.4 mmol/min for WF, P = 0.02) and insulin secretion was lowered at 30...... min postprandial for AX and GR (74.4 and 129 pmol/min for AX and GR, respectively, compared to 738 pmol/min for WF, P insulin economy, suggesting that arabinoxylan from wheat and rye induces similar outcomes in the metabolic...

  16. Similarities and differences between the responses induced in human phagocytes through activation of the medium chain fatty acid receptor GPR84 and the short chain fatty acid receptor FFA2R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Martina; Christenson, Karin; Holdfeldt, André; Gabl, Michael; Mårtensson, Jonas; Björkman, Lena; Dieckmann, Regis; Dahlgren, Claes; Forsman, Huamei

    2018-05-01

    GPR84 is a recently de-orphanized member of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family recognizing medium chain fatty acids, and has been suggested to play important roles in inflammation. Due to the lack of potent and selective GPR84 ligands, the basic knowledge related to GPR84 functions is very limited. In this study, we have characterized the GPR84 activation profile and regulation mechanism in human phagocytes, using two recently developed small molecules that specifically target GPR84 agonistically (ZQ16) and antagonistically (GLPG1205), respectively. Compared to our earlier characterization of the short chain fatty acid receptor FFA2R which is functionally expressed in neutrophils but not in monocytes, GPR84 is expressed in both cell types and in monocyte-derived macrophages. In neutrophils, the GPR84 agonist had an activation profile very similar to that of FFA2R. The GPR84-mediated superoxide release was low in naïve cells, but the response could be significantly primed by TNFα and by the actin cytoskeleton disrupting agent Latrunculin A. Similar to that of FFA2R, a desensitization mechanism bypassing the actin cytoskeleton was utilized by GPR84. All ZQ16-mediated cellular responses were sensitive to GLPG1205, confirming the GPR84-dependency. Finally, our data of in vivo transmigrated tissue neutrophils indicate that both GPR84 and FFA2R are involved in neutrophil recruitment processes in vivo. In summary, we show functional similarities but also some important differences between GPR84 and FFA2R in human phagocytes, thus providing some mechanistic insights into GPR84 regulation in blood neutrophils and cells recruited to an aseptic inflammatory site in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Stigma's Effect on Social Interaction and Social Media Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudewyns, Vanessa; Himelboim, Itai; Hansen, Derek L; Southwell, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatized topics, such as HIV/STD, likely constrain related information sharing in ways that should be apparent in social interactions both on and off the Internet. Specifically, the authors predicted that the more people perceive an issue as stigmatized, the less likely they are to talk about the issue both privately (with sexual partners and peers) and publicly (on Twitter). Study 1 tested the effect of stigma on conversations at the individual level: The authors asked a group of participants (N = 138) about perceived STD-testing stigma, interactions with a sexual partner, and conversations with peers about STD testing. Study 2 assessed whether health conditions, in the aggregate, were less likely to generate social media activity as a function of current stigmatization. Using 259,758 archived Twitter posts mentioning 13 medical conditions, the authors tested whether level of stigma predicted the volume of relevant social media conversation, controlling for each condition's amount of advocacy and Google search popularity from a user's perspective. Findings supported our hypotheses. Individuals who reported perceiving a given health conditions in more stigmatic ways also reported interacting less with others about that topic; Twitter results showed a similar pattern. Results also suggest a more complex story of influence, as funding from the National Institutes of Health (i.e., each conditions amount of advocacy) associated with the examined health conditions also predicted Twitter activity. Overall, these results indicated that stigma had a similar, dampening effect on face-to-face and Twitter interactions. Findings hold theoretical and practical implications, which are discussed.

  18. The fibrinolytic mechanism of defibrotide: effect of defibrotide on plasmin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echart, Cinara L; Graziadio, Barbara; Somaini, Simona; Ferro, Laura I; Richardson, Paul G; Fareed, Jawed; Iacobelli, Massimo

    2009-12-01

    Fibrinolytic activity has been shown to be reduced in many vascular diseases, including hepatic veno-occlusive disease after stem cell transplantation, a microangiopathy characterized by sinusoidal endothelial cell injury. Defibrotide is a polydisperse oligonucleotide with antithrombotic, profibrinolytic, anti-ischemic, and antiadhesive properties. Numerous clinical studies have shown promising activity of defibrotide in the treatment and prevention of veno-occlusive disease, with minimal toxicity. In corollary laboratory studies, defibrotide has been shown to decrease plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, increase tissue plasminogen activator levels, and increase overall plasma fibrinolytic activity in patients. Plasmin, a potent and nonspecific serine protease, plays a pivotal role in fibrinolysis by virtue of its ability to effectively degrade fibrin clots. In this study, defibrotide increases the activity of plasmin in hydrolyzing its substrate in a dose-dependent and length-dependent manner. Similar concentration-dependent effects of defibrotide were observed when plasmin was generated by tissue plasminogen activator or urokinase activation of plasminogen. In contrast, defibrotide had no direct effect on the activation of plasminogen to plasmin. Defibrotide was also able to enhance the activity of plasmin in degrading fibrin clot formed from fibrinogen, plasminogen, and thrombin. This effect was also concentration-dependent and directly correlated with the enzymatic activity of plasmin. This study therefore demonstrates that defibrotide is capable of enhancing the activity of plasmin and so contributes to its fibrinolytic activity. Taken together, these results support the effect of defibrotide in restoring the fibrinolytic vascular phenotype, in microangiopathic conditions such as veno-occlusive disease.

  19. Molecular structural differences between low methoxy pectins induced by pectin methyl esterase II: effects on texture, release and perception of aroma in gels of similar modulus of elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang; Kim, Young-Suk; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2014-02-15

    Six low-methoxy pectins with different degrees of methylesterification and amidation, and molecular weights were used to prepare gels with similar moduli of elasticity by varying the concentrations of pectin and calcium phosphate. Five aroma compounds were added to the gels and their sensory textural properties, release and perception of aromas were investigated. Sensory firmness, springiness, adhesiveness, chewiness and cohesiveness differed according to the gel type, even though the moduli of elasticity were not significantly different (ppectin exhibited the lowest release and perception for all the aroma compounds, while pectin-methylesterase-treated pectin gels exhibited relatively higher aroma release and perception. These results showed that the structural properties of pectins and gelling factors that increase the non-polar character of the gel matrices could decrease the release and perception of aromas in pectin gel systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Average effect estimates remain similar as evidence evolves from single trials to high-quality bodies of evidence: a meta-epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartlehner, Gerald; Dobrescu, Andreea; Evans, Tammeka Swinson; Thaler, Kylie; Nussbaumer, Barbara; Sommer, Isolde; Lohr, Kathleen N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to use a diverse sample of medical interventions to assess empirically whether first trials rendered substantially different treatment effect estimates than reliable, high-quality bodies of evidence. We used a meta-epidemiologic study design using 100 randomly selected bodies of evidence from Cochrane reports that had been graded as high quality of evidence. To determine the concordance of effect estimates between first and subsequent trials, we applied both quantitative and qualitative approaches. For quantitative assessment, we used Lin's concordance correlation and calculated z-scores; to determine the magnitude of differences of treatment effects, we calculated standardized mean differences (SMDs) and ratios of relative risks. We determined qualitative concordance based on a two-tiered approach incorporating changes in statistical significance and magnitude of effect. First trials both overestimated and underestimated the true treatment effects in no discernible pattern. Nevertheless, depending on the definition of concordance, effect estimates of first trials were concordant with pooled subsequent studies in at least 33% but up to 50% of comparisons. The pooled magnitude of change as bodies of evidence advanced from single trials to high-quality bodies of evidence was 0.16 SMD [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12, 0.21]. In 80% of comparisons, the difference in effect estimates was smaller than 0.5 SMDs. In first trials with large treatment effects (>0.5 SMD), however, estimates of effect substantially changed as new evidence accrued (mean change 0.68 SMD; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.86). Results of first trials often change, but the magnitude of change, on average, is small. Exceptions are first trials that present large treatment effects, which often dissipate as new evidence accrues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Debate preparation/participation: an active, effective learning tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koklanaris, Nikki; MacKenzie, Andrew P; Fino, M Elizabeth; Arslan, Alan A; Seubert, David E

    2008-01-01

    Passive educational techniques (such as lectures) are thought to be less productive than active learning. We examined whether preparing for and participating in a debate would be an effective, active way to learn about a controversial topic. We compared quiz performance in residents who attended a lecture to residents who prepared for/participated in a debate. Twelve residents each participated in one lecture session and one debate session. Learning was evaluated via a quiz. Quizzes were given twice: before the debate/lecture and 1 week after the debate/lecture. Quiz scores were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance, with a p value of debating was given to all participants. There was a statistically significant difference in the pretest mean quiz score between the debate and lecture groups: 78.3% and 52.5%, respectively (p = .02). Similarly, on posttest quizzes, the average debater scored 85.8%, versus 61.7% for the lecture group (p = .003). Although no one in the debate group scored lower on a follow-up quiz, 3 residents in the lecture group did worse on follow-up. When learning about a controversial topic, residents who prepared for/participated in a debate achieved higher quiz scores and were better at retaining information than those who attended a lecture. When faced with teaching a controversial topic, organizing a debate may be more effective than giving a lecture.

  2. The phenomenon of the switching of estrogen effects and joker function of glucose: similarities and relation to age-associated pathology and approaches to correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, Lev M; Tsyrlina, Evgenia V; Vasilyev, Dmitry A; Poroshina, Tatjana E; Kovalenko, Rina G

    2005-12-01

    Estrogens and glucose are characterized by a myriad of functions that can be reduced to a small number of principal actions. In aging there is a simultaneous increase in the prevalence of diseases connected with estrogen deficiency as well as with estrogenic excess and associated with the phenomenon of the switching of estrogen effects (PSEE). Estrogens possess hormonal and genotoxic properties. An increase in genotoxic effect (isolated or combined with a decrease in hormonal effect) can influence the course of age-associated diseases that, contrary to the situation with adaptive hypersensitivity to estrogens, may become less favorable or more aggressive. Inductors of PSEE include smoking, irradiation, and aging. Yet with "glycemic load" and the endocrine effect of glucose (the stimulation of insulin secretion), reactive oxygen species are formed in multiple sites, including adipose tissue. The ratio between hormonal and genotoxic effects reflects a "joker" function of glucose and can be conditioned by endogenous (perhaps including genetic) and exogenous factors. The shift in this glucose-associated ratio may selectively encourage some chronic non-communicable diseases. Several groups of treatments can be distinguished including alleviators of PSEE and insulin resistance syndrome (biguanides, glitazones, statins, modifiers of adipocytokines secretion, etc.) as well as other compounds aimed to optimally orchestrate the balance between endocrine and DNA-damaging effects of estrogens and glucose.

  3. Baicalein, unlike 4-hydroxytamoxifen but similar to G15, suppresses 17β-estradiol-induced cell invasion, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and activation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Hong, Duan-Yang; Wang, Jing; Ling-Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Pan, Di; Xu, Yi-Ni; Tao, Ling; Luo, Hong; Shen, Xiang-Chun

    2017-08-01

    Estrogen performs an important role in the growth and development of breast cancer. There are at least three major receptors, including estrogen receptor (ER)α and β, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), which mediate the actions of estrogen through using transcriptional and rapid non-genomic signaling pathways. Flavonoids have been considered candidates for chemopreventive agents in breast cancer. Baicalein, the primary flavonoid derived from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been reported to exert an anti-estrogenic effect. In the present study, the effects of baicalein on 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced cell invasion, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression and activation were investigated. Furthermore, its effects were compared with that of the active form of the ER modulator tamoxifen 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) and the GPR30 antagonist G15 in ERα- and GPR30-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The results demonstrated that OHT failed to prevent E2-induced cell invasion, upregulation and proteolytic activity of MMP-9. However, baicalein was able to significantly suppress these E2-induced effects. Furthermore, E2-stimulated invasion, and MMP-9 expression and activation were significantly attenuated following G15 treatment. In addition, baicalein significantly inhibited G-1, a specific GPR30 agonist, induced invasion, and reduced G-1 promoted expression and activity of MMP-9, consistent with effects of G15. The results of the present study suggest that baicalein is a therapeutic candidate for GPR30-positive breast cancer treatment, and besides ERα targeting the GPR30 receptor it may achieve additional therapeutic benefits in breast cancer.

  4. Similar effect of revascularization on technetium-99 m sestamibi and 15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid uptake in myocardial infarction patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendel, S.; Kettunen, R.; Hartikainen, J.; Remes, J.; Vanninen, E.; Yang, J.; Kuikka, J.; Huikuri, H.

    1999-01-01

    To study its usefulness as a tracer for assessment of the perfusion and viability of myocardium, 15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) was compared with technetium-99m sestamibi (MIBI). Dual-tracer single-photon emission tomography rest imaging was performed no more than 2 months before and 3 months after coronary artery bypass grafting in 28 patients with previous anterior (n=13) or inferior (n=15) infarction. The size of MIBI and IPPA defects decreased from 14%±12% and 13%±9% to 10%±11% and 9%±7%, respectively (P<0.001 for both). The MIBI uptake increased in the infarct zones from 35%±11% to 43%±8% (P<0.001), and in the peri-infarct zones from 50%±11% to 55%±10% (P<0.05). The IPPA uptake increased in the infarct zones from 37%±11% to 44%±13% (P<0.001), and in the peri-infarct zones from 51%±11% to 57%±12% (P<0.05). In nine patients with improved regional echocardiographic wall motion score after bypass surgery, the pre-operative uptake values of both MIBI and IPPA in the infarct and peri-infarct zones were on average slightly but not significantly higher than in 19 patients with no observed improvement in regional wall motion score. In patients with improved regional wall motion, the MIBI scans and the IPPA scans showed (non-significant) decreases in defect size and increases in infarct and peri-infarct zone uptake after bypass surgery. Similar (in some cases significant) changes were observed in the patients without improvement in wall motion. Thus IPPA and MIBI provided similar information about perfusion and viability in pre- and postoperative evaluation of patients with clinically evident myocardial infarction and with normal global ejection fraction. Regardless of the tracer used, the resolution capability of the dual-tracer method with a rest imaging protocol was not sufficient to differentiate viable from non-viable infarction defects in unselected individual patients with a normal ejection fraction. (orig.)

  5. [Effect of physical activity on longevity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Mateusz M; Krupienicz, Andrzej

    2016-11-25

    Multiple population studies have reported a positive correlation between higher levels of physical activity (PA) and longer lifespan. It has been generally accepted that it occurs due to PA having a direct effect on longevity. However, this idea is negated by experiments on animal models and an observational study on a twin cohort published recently by Karvinen et al. This unique study includes a pairwise comparison of monozygotic twins discordant for PA, therefore eliminating any influence of genetic factors on both mortality and tendency to take up exercise. The intriguing lack of differences in lifespan in such pairs implies that PA is not an important life prolonging factor. This discovery casts doubt on the validity of PA recommendations found in numerous medical guidelines. Nevertheless, the mentioned results apply only to the plain PA - longevity relation. They do not consider health benefits of PA, for which solid evidence exists. In particular, PA clearly reduces the risk of obesity-related diseases. This may indirectly yet significantly affect the length and quality of life, even if the direct relationship between PA and lifespan will be proven false in further research. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  6. Accuracy in activation analysis: count rate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, R.M.; Fleming, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy inherent in activation analysis is ultimately limited by the uncertainty of counting statistics. When careful attention is paid to detail, several workers have shown that all systematic errors can be reduced to an insignificant fraction of the total uncertainty, even when the statistical limit is well below one percent. A matter of particular importance is the reduction of errors due to high counting rate. The loss of counts due to random coincidence (pulse pileup) in the amplifier and to digitization time in the ADC may be treated as a series combination of extending and non-extending dead times, respectively. The two effects are experimentally distinct. Live timer circuits in commercial multi-channel analyzers compensate properly for ADC dead time for long-lived sources, but not for pileup. Several satisfactory solutions are available, including pileup rejection and dead time correction circuits, loss-free ADCs, and computed corrections in a calibrated system. These methods are sufficiently reliable and well understood that a decaying source can be measured routinely with acceptably small errors at a dead time as high as 20 percent

  7. Hematopoiesis-activating effects of androgen (fluoxymesterone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakura, Takuo; Inoue, Tatsu; Maekawa, Tadashi.

    1978-01-01

    Hematopoiesis-activating effect of fluoxymesterone (FMT) (androgen preparation) on hematopoietic hematoblast was evaluated. The results were as follows. (1) To C 3 H/He strain male mice, 2 mg/day of FMT was injected into each femoral muscle alternatively. On the 5th day of the first injection, radioactive iron was injected intraperitoneally; after 48 hrs, blood was collected for examining the incorporation rate of 59 Fe. The results showed significant increase. (2) After 4 mg of FMT was injected once into the femoral muscle, spleen colony-forming cells (CFU-S) of the mouse femur were examined. Calculation of either of surface colonies and microscopic colonies showed absolute increase of the number of CFU-S in the femoral marrow. The microscopic colonies were classified into three colony types of erythrocytes, granulocytes, and megakaryocytes on the basis of histology of the cellular component; and changes were evaluated in each type of the colonies. This evaluation clarified that an increase in colonies which appeared 24 hrs after the injection of the hormon was due to an increase in the erythrocyte and megakaryocyte colonies and that which appeared 48 hrs after the injection was due to an increase in granulocyte colonies. (Ueda, J.)

  8. Compton effect thermally activated depolarization dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1978-01-01

    A dosimetry technique for high-energy gamma radiation or X-radiation employs the Compton effect in conjunction with radiation-induced thermally activated depolarization phenomena. A dielectric material is disposed between two electrodes which are electrically short circuited to produce a dosimeter which is then exposed to the gamma or X radiation. The gamma or X-radiation impinging on the dosimeter interacts with the dielectric material directly or with the metal composing the electrode to produce Compton electrons which are emitted preferentially in the direction in which the radiation was traveling. A portion of these electrons becomes trapped in the dielectric material, consequently inducing a stable electrical polarization in the dielectric material. Subsequent heating of the exposed dosimeter to the point of onset of ionic conductivity with the electrodes still shorted through an ammeter causes the dielectric material to depolarize, and the depolarization signal so emitted can be measured and is proportional to the dose of radiation received by the dosimeter.

  9. Colorectal cancer screening in patients with spinal cord injury yields similar results to the general population with an effective bowel preparation: a retrospective chart audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Brandon J; Song, Shawn H; Svircev, Jelena N; Dominitz, Jason A; Burns, Stephen P

    2018-03-01

    Retrospective chart audit. To compare adequacy of colonoscopy bowel preparation and diagnostic findings between persons with SCI receiving an extended inpatient bowel preparation and the general population. Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Healthcare System, Seattle, WA, USA. We reviewed an electronic database of all colonoscopies performed at a tertiary Veterans Affairs medical center between 7/12/13 and 15/10/15. Patients with SCI received a multi-day bowel preparation with magnesium citrate, and 8-10 liters of polyethylene glycol-3350 and electrolyte colonic lavage solution (PEG-ELS) over two and one half days. The control population received a standard bowel preparation consisting of magnesium citrate and 4 liters of PEG-ELS over 1 day. Two hundred and fifty-five patients were included in the study, including 85 patients with SCI. Average risk screening was a more common colonoscopy indication in patients with SCI vs. the control population (24 vs. 13% p = 0.03). There was no difference in adequacy of bowel preparation (87 vs. 85%, p = 0.73) or adenoma detection rate (55 vs. 51%, p = 0.59) when comparing patients with SCI with the control population. No difference in polyp histopathology was detected (p = 0.748). Our study demonstrated that an extended bowel preparation for patients with SCI produces similar bowel preparation results and diagnostic yield when compared to patients without SCI undergoing colonoscopy.

  10. Gefitinib provides similar effectiveness and improved safety than erlotinib for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxiong; Wei, Yiping; Yu, Dongliang; Xu, Jianjun; Peng, Jinhua

    2018-04-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib are effective for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This meta-analysis compared their effectiveness and safety. We searched systematically in PubMed, ScienceDirect, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for relevant clinical trials regarding gefitinib versus erlotinib for NSCLC. Antitumor effectiveness (overall survival [OS], progression-free survival [PFS], objective response rate [ORR] and disease control rate [DCR]) and adverse effects [AEs]) were assessed. Forty studies comprising 9376 participants were included. The results suggested that gefitinib and erlotinib are effective for advanced NSCLC with comparable PFS (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.98-1.11, P = .15), OS (95% CI: 0.93-1.19, P = .45), ORR (95% CI: 0.99-1.16, P = .07), and DCR (95% CI: 0.92-1.03, P = .35). For erlotinib, dose reduction was significantly more frequent (95% CI: 0.10-0.57, P = .001) as were grade 3 to 5 AEs (95% CI: 0.36-0.79, P = .002). In the subgroup analysis, the erlotinib group had a significant higher rate and severity of skin rash, nausea/vomiting, fatigue, and stomatitis. Gefitinib was proven to be the better choice for advanced NSCLC, with equal antitumor effectiveness and fewer AEs compared with erlotinib. Further large-scale, well-designed randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm our validation.

  11. A COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MODELS IN EVALUATING CONCEPT SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  12. Effects of Napping During Shift Work on Sleepiness and Performance in Emergency Medical Services Personnel and Similar Shift Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Background: Scheduled napping during work shifts may be an effective way to mitigate fatigue-related risk. This study aimed to critically review and synthesize existing literature on the impact of scheduled naps on fatigue-related outcomes for EMS pe...

  13. The Engaging Effect of Exemplars: How an Emotional Reaction to (Dis)Similar People in the News Media Affects Political Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersen, K.; Skovsgaard, M.; Albæk, E.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    Journalists use ordinary people as exemplars in their news stories to make their reports more interesting and understandable for the audience. This journalistic practice has often been discussed as a potential democratic problem because of its effects on perceptions of and attitudes toward political

  14. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  15. Click-Evoked Auditory Efferent Activity: Rate and Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothalingam, Sriram; Kurke, Julianne; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2018-05-07

    There currently are no standardized protocols to evaluate auditory efferent function in humans. Typical tests use broadband noise to activate the efferents, but only test the contralateral efferent pathway, risk activating the middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR), and are laborious for clinical use. In an attempt to develop a clinical test of bilateral auditory efferent function, we have designed a method that uses clicks to evoke efferent activity, obtain click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), and monitor MEMR. This allows for near-simultaneous estimation of cochlear and efferent function. In the present study, we manipulated click level (60, 70, and 80 dB peak-equivalent sound pressure level [peSPL]) and rate (40, 50, and 62.5 Hz) to identify an optimal rate-level combination that evokes measurable efferent modulation of CEOAEs. Our findings (n = 58) demonstrate that almost all click levels and rates used caused significant inhibition of CEOAEs, with a significant interaction between level and rate effects. Predictably, bilateral activation produced greater inhibition compared to stimulating the efferents only in the ipsilateral or contralateral ear. In examining the click rate-level effects during bilateral activation in greater detail, we observed a 1-dB inhibition of CEOAE level for each 10-dB increase in click level, with rate held constant at 62.5 Hz. Similarly, a 10-Hz increase in rate produced a 0.74-dB reduction in CEOAE level, with click level held constant at 80 dB peSPL. The effect size (Cohen's d) was small for either monaural condition and medium for bilateral, faster-rate, and higher-level conditions. We were also able to reliably extract CEOAEs from efferent eliciting clicks. We conclude that clicks can indeed be profitably employed to simultaneously evaluate cochlear health using CEOAEs as well as their efferent modulation. Furthermore, using bilateral clicks allows the evaluation of both the crossed and uncrossed elements of the auditory

  16. Representation of Semantic Similarity in the Left Intraparietal Sulcus: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Neyens

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to a recent study, semantic similarity between concrete entities correlates with the similarity of activity patterns in left middle IPS during category naming. We examined the replicability of this effect under passive viewing conditions, the potential role of visuoperceptual similarity, where the effect is situated compared to regions that have been previously implicated in visuospatial attention, and how it compares to effects of object identity and location. Forty-six subjects participated. Subjects passively viewed pictures from two categories, musical instruments and vehicles. Semantic similarity between entities was estimated based on a concept-feature matrix obtained in more than 1,000 subjects. Visuoperceptual similarity was modeled based on the HMAX model, the AlexNet deep convolutional learning model, and thirdly, based on subjective visuoperceptual similarity ratings. Among the IPS regions examined, only left middle IPS showed a semantic similarity effect. The effect was significant in hIP1, hIP2, and hIP3. Visuoperceptual similarity did not correlate with similarity of activity patterns in left middle IPS. The semantic similarity effect in left middle IPS was significantly stronger than in the right middle IPS and also stronger than in the left or right posterior IPS. The semantic similarity effect was similar to that seen in the angular gyrus. Object identity effects were much more widespread across nearly all parietal areas examined. Location effects were relatively specific for posterior IPS and area 7 bilaterally. To conclude, the current findings replicate the semantic similarity effect in left middle IPS under passive viewing conditions, and demonstrate its anatomical specificity within a cytoarchitectonic reference frame. We propose that the semantic similarity effect in left middle IPS reflects the transient uploading of semantic representations in working memory.

  17. Breast cancer surgery effect over professional activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Dias

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer is responsible for 25% of all cancers and is the most prevalent in the female population. Due to treatment advances and early diagnoses, survival rates have improved, however this condition impacts work absenteeism due to the productive age of these women. The main factors responsible for work absenteeism are physical complications due to surgical treatment. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of surgical breast cancer treatments on occupation, to characterize the degree of work absenteeism and to investigate the type of relation between surgical technique and absenteeism’s main causes. Method: Cross-sectional study with 74 women diagnosed with breast cancer. A semi-structured interview was used to collect information regarding surgical and clinical aspects, sociodemographic data, work behavior and physical therapy treatments. The data was organized on Microsoft Excel and analyzed by frequency and chi-squared test. The significance level considered was p ≤ 0.05. Results: Breast cancer was most common on the left side (51%, Madden modified radical mastectomy was the most common (50% and lymph node resection was present in 93.2% of cases. The most frequent post-surgery complications were pain, problems with scarring, sensitivity alterations, ROM limitation, lymphedema and seroma. Only 58% of women were treated with physical therapy and 60% withdrew from professional activities, 23% abandoned work, 26% changed their work role and 14% retired due to the disease. Conclusion: The present study suggests the existence of a direct relation between treatment and work absenteeism.

  18. Effects of circulating member B of the family with sequence similarity 3 on the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and its components: A 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoyu; Yu, Fadong; Zhang, Zhuo; Hou, Yuanyuan; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan; Lai, Yaxin

    2017-11-27

    Member B of the family with sequence similarity 3 (FAM3B), also known as pancreatic-derived factor, is mainly synthesized and secreted by islet β-cells, and plays a role in abnormal metabolism of glucose and lipids. However, the prospective association of FAM3B with metabolic disorders remains unclear. The present study aimed to reveal the predictive relationship between pancreas-specific cytokine and metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 210 adults (88 men and 122 women) without MetS, aged between 40 and 65 years, were recruited and received a comprehensive health examination. Baseline serum FAM3B levels were determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subsequently, all participants underwent a follow-up examination after 5 years. MetS was identified in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. During follow up, 35.7% participants developed MetS. In comparison with the non-MetS group, participants with MetS had an increased serum FAM3B at baseline (21.85 ng/mL [19.38, 24.17 ng/mL] vs 28.56 ng/mL [25.32, 38.10 ng/mL], P < 0.001). Moreover, serum FAM3B was significantly associated with variations in fasting plasma insulin (r = -0.306, P < 0.001), homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (r = -0.328, P < 0.001) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = -0.191, P = 0.006). Furthermore, a positive correlation between baseline FAM3B and the incidence of MetS was observed, even after multivariable adjustment (relative risk 1.23 [1.15, 1.31], P < 0.001). Furthermore, the optimal cut-off values of FAM3B was 23.98 ng/mL for predicting MetS based on the Youden Index. Elevated circulating FAM3B might be considered as a predictor of newly-onset MetS and its progression. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1991-01-01

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide

  20. On self-similarity of crack layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsis, J.; Kunin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The crack layer (CL) theory of Chudnovsky (1986), based on principles of thermodynamics of irreversible processes, employs a crucial hypothesis of self-similarity. The self-similarity hypothesis states that the value of the damage density at a point x of the active zone at a time t coincides with that at the corresponding point in the initial (t = 0) configuration of the active zone, the correspondence being given by a time-dependent affine transformation of the space variables. In this paper, the implications of the self-similarity hypothesis for qusi-static CL propagation is investigated using polystyrene as a model material and examining the evolution of damage distribution along the trailing edge which is approximated by a straight segment perpendicular to the crack path. The results support the self-similarity hypothesis adopted by the CL theory.

  1. Similar precipitated withdrawal effects on intracranial self-stimulation during chronic infusion of an e-cigarette liquid or nicotine alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A C; Muelken, P; Smethells, J R; Krueger, M; LeSage, M G

    2017-10-01

    The FDA recently extended their regulatory authority to electronic cigarettes (ECs). Because the abuse liability of ECs is a leading concern of the FDA, animal models are urgently needed to identify factors that influence the relative abuse liability of these products. The ability of tobacco products to induce nicotine dependence, defined by the emergence of anhedonia and other symptoms of nicotine withdrawal following cessation of their use, contributes to tobacco abuse liability. The present study compared the severity of precipitated withdrawal during chronic infusion of nicotine alone or nicotine-dose equivalent concentrations of three different EC refill liquids in rats, as indicated by elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior). Because these EC liquids contain constituents that may enhance their abuse liability (e.g., minor alkaloids), we hypothesized that they would be associated with greater withdrawal effects than nicotine alone. Results indicated that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine precipitated elevations in ICSS thresholds in rats receiving a chronic infusion of nicotine alone or EC liquids (3.2mg/kg/day, via osmotic pump). Magnitude of this effect did not differ between formulations. Our findings indicate that nicotine alone is the primary CNS determinant of the ability of ECs to engender dependence. Combined with our previous findings that nicotine alone and these EC liquids do not differ in other preclinical addiction models, these data suggest that product standards set by the FDA to reduce EC abuse liability should primarily target nicotine, other constituents with peripheral sensory effects (e.g. flavorants), and factors that influence product appeal (e.g., marketing). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Similarity increases altruistic punishment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Ockenfels, Axel

    2013-11-26

    Humans are attracted to similar others. As a consequence, social networks are homogeneous in sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and other characteristics--a principle called homophily. Despite abundant evidence showing the importance of interpersonal similarity and homophily for human relationships, their behavioral correlates and cognitive foundations are poorly understood. Here, we show that perceived similarity substantially increases altruistic punishment, a key mechanism underlying human cooperation. We induced (dis)similarity perception by manipulating basic cognitive mechanisms in an economic cooperation game that included a punishment phase. We found that similarity-focused participants were more willing to punish others' uncooperative behavior. This influence of similarity is not explained by group identity, which has the opposite effect on altruistic punishment. Our findings demonstrate that pure similarity promotes reciprocity in ways known to encourage cooperation. At the same time, the increased willingness to punish norm violations among similarity-focused participants provides a rationale for why similar people are more likely to build stable social relationships. Finally, our findings show that altruistic punishment is differentially involved in encouraging cooperation under pure similarity vs. in-group conditions.

  3. Inertial effects on the stress generation of active fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, S. C.; Brady, J. F.

    2017-09-01

    Suspensions of self-propelled bodies generate a unique mechanical stress owing to their motility that impacts their large-scale collective behavior. For microswimmers suspended in a fluid with negligible particle inertia, we have shown that the virial swim stress is a useful quantity to understand the rheology and nonequilibrium behaviors of active soft matter systems. For larger self-propelled organisms such as fish, it is unclear how particle inertia impacts their stress generation and collective movement. Here we analyze the effects of finite particle inertia on the mechanical pressure (or stress) generated by a suspension of self-propelled bodies. We find that swimmers of all scales generate a unique swim stress and Reynolds stress that impact their collective motion. We discover that particle inertia plays a similar role as confinement in overdamped active Brownian systems, where the reduced run length of the swimmers decreases the swim stress and affects the phase behavior. Although the swim and Reynolds stresses vary individually with the magnitude of particle inertia, the sum of the two contributions is independent of particle inertia. This points to an important concept when computing stresses in computer simulations of nonequilibrium systems: The Reynolds and the virial stresses must both be calculated to obtain the overall stress generated by a system.

  4. Effective, Active Learning Strategies for the Oceanography Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, J. E.; Marinov, I.

    2014-12-01

    A decline in enrollment in STEM fields at the university level has prompted extensive research on alternative ways of teaching and learning science. Inquiry-based learning as well as the related "flipped" or "active" lectures, and similar teaching methods and philosophies have been proposed as more effective ways to disseminate knowledge in science classes than the traditional lecture. We will provide a synopsis of our experiences in implementing some of these practices into our Introductory Oceanography, Global Climate Change, and Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics undergraduate courses at the University of Pennsylvania, with both smaller and larger enrollments. By implementing tools such as at-home modules; computer labs; incorporation of current research; pre- and post-lecture quizzes; reflective, qualitative writing assignments; peer review; and a variety of in-class learning strategies, we aim to increase the science literacy of the student population and help students gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the topic, enhance their critical thinking skills, and correct misconceptions. While implementing these teaching techniques with college students is not without complications, we argue that a blended class that flexibly and creatively accounts for class size and science level improves the learning experience and the acquired knowledge. We will present examples of student assignments and activities as well as describe the lessons we have learned, and propose ideas for moving forward to best utilize innovative teaching tools in order to increase science literacy in oceanography and other climate-related courses.

  5. Self-similar cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, W Z [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1981-07-01

    The kinematics and dynamics of self-similar cosmological models are discussed. The degrees of freedom of the solutions of Einstein's equations for different types of models are listed. The relation between kinematic quantities and the classifications of the self-similarity group is examined. All dust local rotational symmetry models have been found.

  6. Self-similar factor approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.; Sornette, D.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing functions from their asymptotic expansions in powers of a small variable is addressed by deriving an improved type of approximants. The derivation is based on the self-similar approximation theory, which presents the passage from one approximant to another as the motion realized by a dynamical system with the property of group self-similarity. The derived approximants, because of their form, are called self-similar factor approximants. These complement the obtained earlier self-similar exponential approximants and self-similar root approximants. The specific feature of self-similar factor approximants is that their control functions, providing convergence of the computational algorithm, are completely defined from the accuracy-through-order conditions. These approximants contain the Pade approximants as a particular case, and in some limit they can be reduced to the self-similar exponential approximants previously introduced by two of us. It is proved that the self-similar factor approximants are able to reproduce exactly a wide class of functions, which include a variety of nonalgebraic functions. For other functions, not pertaining to this exactly reproducible class, the factor approximants provide very accurate approximations, whose accuracy surpasses significantly that of the most accurate Pade approximants. This is illustrated by a number of examples showing the generality and accuracy of the factor approximants even when conventional techniques meet serious difficulties

  7. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  8. Toward a more sophisticated response representation in theories of medial frontal performance monitoring: The effects of motor similarity and motor asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Eldad Yitzhak; Orr, Joseph M; Gehring, William J

    2014-02-01

    Cognitive control in the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) is formulated in models that emphasize adaptive behavior driven by a computation evaluating the degree of difference between 2 conflicting responses. These functions are manifested by an event-related brain potential component coined the error-related negativity (ERN). We hypothesized that the ERN represents a regulative rather than evaluative pMFC process, exerted over the error motor representation, expediting the execution of a corrective response. We manipulated the motor representations of the error and the correct response to varying degrees. The ERN was greater when 1) the error response was more potent than when the correct response was more potent, 2) more errors were committed, 3) fewer and slower corrections were observed, and 4) the error response shared fewer motor features with the correct response. In their current forms, several prominent models of the pMFC cannot be reconciled with these findings. We suggest that a prepotent, unintended error is prone to reach the manual motor processor responsible for response execution before a nonpotent, intended correct response. In this case, the correct response is a correction and its execution must wait until the error is aborted. The ERN may reflect pMFC activity that aimed to suppress the error.

  9. Similar effects of two modified constraint-induced therapy protocols on motor impairment, motor function and quality of life in patients with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Costa Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modified constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT protocols show motor function and real-world arm use improvement. Meanwhile it usually requires constant supervision by physiotherapists and is therefore more expensive than customary care. This study compared the preliminary efficacy of two modified CIMT protocols. A two-group randomized controlled trial with pre and post treatment measures and six months follow-up was conducted. Nineteen patients with chronic stroke received 10 treatment sessions distributed three to four times a week over 22 days. CIMT3h_direct group received 3 hours of CIMT supervised by a therapist (n=10 while CIMT1.5h_direct group had 1.5 hours of supervised CIMT+1.5 hours home exercises supervised by a caregiver (n=9. Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the Motor Activity Log, and the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale. The modified CIMT protocols were feasible and well tolerated. Improvements in motor function, real-world arm use and quality of life did not differ significantly between treated groups receiving either 3 or 1.5 hours mCIMT supervised by a therapist.

  10. Permissive or Trophic Enteral Nutrition and Full Enteral Nutrition Had Similar Effects on Clinical Outcomes in Intensive Care: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camila F A; de Vasconcelos, Simone G; da Silva, Thales A; Silva, Flávia M

    2018-01-26

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of permissive underfeeding/trophic feeding on the clinical outcomes of critically ill patients. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials to evaluate the mortality, length of stay, and mechanical ventilation duration in patients randomized to either hypocaloric or full-energy enteral nutrition was performed. Data sources included PubMed and Scopus and the reference lists of the articles retrieved. Two independent reviewers participated in all phases of this systematic review as proposed by the Cochrane Handbook, and the review was reported according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A total of 7 randomized clinical trials that included a total of 1,717 patients were reviewed. Intensive care unit length of stay and mechanical ventilation duration were not statistically different between the intervention and control groups in all randomized clinical trials, and mortality rate was also not different between the groups. In conclusion, hypocaloric enteral nutrition had no significantly different effects on morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients when compared with full-energy nutrition. It is still necessary to determine the safety of this intervention in this group of patients, the optimal amount of energy provided, and the duration of this therapy. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  11. Surf similarity and solitary wave runup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of surf similarity in the runup of solitary waves is revisited. We show that the surf similarity parameter for solitary waves may be effectively reduced to the beach slope divided by the offshore wave height to depth ratio. This clarifies its physical interpretation relative to a previ...... functional dependence on their respective surf similarity parameters. Important equivalencies in the runup of sinusoidal and solitary waves are thus revealed.......The notion of surf similarity in the runup of solitary waves is revisited. We show that the surf similarity parameter for solitary waves may be effectively reduced to the beach slope divided by the offshore wave height to depth ratio. This clarifies its physical interpretation relative...... to a previous parameterization, which was not given in an explicit form. Good coherency with experimental (breaking) runup data is preserved with this simpler parameter. A recasting of analytical (nonbreaking) runup expressions for sinusoidal and solitary waves additionally shows that they contain identical...

  12. Personalized recommendation with corrected similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shimin

    2014-01-01

    Personalized recommendation has attracted a surge of interdisciplinary research. Especially, similarity-based methods in applications of real recommendation systems have achieved great success. However, the computations of similarities are overestimated or underestimated, in particular because of the defective strategy of unidirectional similarity estimation. In this paper, we solve this drawback by leveraging mutual correction of forward and backward similarity estimations, and propose a new personalized recommendation index, i.e., corrected similarity based inference (CSI). Through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, the results show a greater improvement of CSI in comparison with these mainstream baselines. And a detailed analysis is presented to unveil and understand the origin of such difference between CSI and mainstream indices. (paper)

  13. Effect of information sharing on research and teaching activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of Information sharing on research and teaching activities of Academic Scientists in Federal Universities in the North- East Nigeria. Investigation was done on the activities of information sharing and the effect of information sharing on teaching and research activities. Survey ...

  14. Similarities in the dynamical behavior across the classical peak effect and the second magnetization peak in single crystals of 2H-NbSe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, A.D.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Grover, A.K.; Chandrasekhar Rao, T.V.; Uji, S.; Terashima, T.; Higgins, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The classical peak effect (CPE) and the second magnetization peak (SMP) are two distinct anomalies in critical current of superconductors. A nascent pinned single crystal sample of 2HNbSe 2 (T c (0) ∼7.2 K) shows only the sharp CPE. In a moderately pinned sample (T c (0) ∼6 K), the sharp CPE broadens with the addition of characteristic structure (stepwise amorphization) between the onset and the peak positions of the CPE. Also, there emerges another anomalous peak akin to SMP prior to the CPE. We have looked at samples of 2H-NbSe 2 with intermediate levels of quenched random pinning (T c (0) ∼ 7.1 K) and successfully explored the two peaks down to 50 mK. (author)

  15. Behavioural effects of chemogenetic dopamine neuron activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoudt, L

    2016-01-01

    Various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depressive disorder, have been associated with altered dopamine signalling in the brain. However, it remains unclear which specific changes in dopamine activity are related to specific

  16. A comparative assessment of the fate and effects of similar Orimulsion and heavy fuel oil spills in the Milford Haven Estuary, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, D.L.; Rines, H.M.; Christensen, F.T.; Isajil, T.; French, D.; Edwards, N.

    1996-01-01

    A Spill Impact Assessment Program (SIMAP) was used to simulate spills of 1,000 metric tons each of No. 6 fuel oil and Orimulsion into the Milford Haven Estuary. The experiments were conducted because many oil burning power generating stations worldwide have considered the use of Orimulsion (a mixture of 70% bitumen, 30% water and a surfactant) in place of the conventional heavy fuel oil No. 6. An assessment of the potential effects of an accidental spill of Orimulsion was therefore conducted. A comparison of that spill to one of conventional fuel oil was part of the evaluation. The experiments were run for three weeks, each under identical environmental conditions and impacts on the local habitats and biota were calculated. The model predicted that a spill of No. 6 fuel (which floats because of its low density relative to sea water) would result in the loss of about 14% of the total bird population. Fish kills would be very small. A spill of Orimulsion (which readily disperses into the water column because of the presence of a surfactant) would result in the loss of about 0.4% of the adult fish and 3.7% of young fish, while birds losses would be negligible. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  17. Propranolol–induced Impairment of Contextual Fear Memory Reconsolidation in Rats: A similar Effect on Weak and Strong Recent and Remote Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherian, Fatemeh; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Vaezi, Gholam Hassan; Eskandarian, Sharaf; Kashef, Adel; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have demonstrated that the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol impairs fear memory reconsolidation in experimental animals. There are experimental parameters such as the age and the strength of memory that can interact with pharmacological manipulations of memory reconsolidation. In this study, we investigated the ability of the age and the strength of memory to influence the disrupting effects of propranolol on fear memory reconsolidation in rats. Methods The rats were trained in a contextual fear conditioning using two (weak training) or five (strong training) footshocks (1mA). Propranolol (10mg/kg) injection was immediately followed retrieval of either a one-day recent (weak or strong) or 36-day remote (weak or strong) contextual fear memories. Results We found that propranolol induced a long-lasting impairment of subsequent expression of recent and remote memories with either weak or strong strength. We also found no memory recovery after a weak reminder shock. Furthermore, no significant differences were found on the amount of memory deficit induced by propranolol among memories with different age and strength. Discussion Our data suggest that the efficacy of propranolol in impairing fear memory reconsolidation is not limited to the age or strength of the memory. PMID:25337385

  18. Similar effects of leucine rich and regular dairy products on muscle mass and functions of older polymyalgia rheumatica patients: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, M P; Pilvi, T K; Kekkonen, R A; Korpela, R; Tilvis, R S

    2011-06-01

    Leucine-rich milk and whey proteins have been suggested for prevention of age related loss of muscle mass and strength i.e. sarcopenia. The effects of milk protein supplementation and low intensity home based physical exercise on body composition and muscle functions were investigated. A randomized double blind crossover trial. Community dwelling members of Helsinki rheumatoid association. Older people (N=47, mean age 69.5 years) suffering from polymyalgia rheumatica. Patients performed as many stand ups as possible twice a day after which they ingested a regular (Control) or a whey protein enriched dairy product with high leucine content (Test). The 8-week intervention periods were separated by a 4-week wash-out. Body composition was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry and muscle functions by hand grip strength, force platform countermovement jump performance, chair stand test, and walking speed. The 16-week home-based post-exercise supplementation resulted in a 1.8% increase (p = 0.052) in lower limb muscle mass. Walking speed (+5.3%, p = 0.007) and chair stand test performance (-12.2 %, p products prevent or treat age-associated sarcopenia and whether they are superior to the present commercial milk products.

  19. Aberrant cell divisions in root meristeme of maize following exposure to X-rays low doses compared to similar effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchian T.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The response of maize to radiation exposure was investigated by two cytogenetic methods considering the importance of the geno-toxic effect for environmental and agricultural purposes. Uniform genophond seeds, freshly germinated, were exposed to relatively low radiation doses using a radiotherapy X-ray applicator from a hospital irradiation device and to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field with about 10 mT magnetic induction (generated within laboratory assembled electromagnetic coils. Radicular meristeme tissue aliquots were prevailed for cytogenetic investigation based on microscopic observations and cell counting. Microscope slides were prepared following a specific procedure (squash technique and Feulgen method based on modified Carr reactive coloration. Mitotic index as well as chromosomal aberration percentage were calculated for more than 30,000 cells taken into account. From a qualitative viewpoint, chromosomal aberrations such as interchromatidian bridges, lagging and expelled chromosomes and multipolar divisions were evidenced - no distinct situation for either ionizing radiation or electromagnetic field being identified. The main quantitative difference consisted in the increased mitotic index for electromagnetic exposure increased times compared with the diminished mitotic index in the case of low X-ray doses.

  20. Side-effects of domestication: cultivated legume seeds contain similar tocopherols and fatty acids but less carotenoids than their wild counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Milla, Rubén; Martín-Robles, Nieves; Arc, Erwann; Kranner, Ilse; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2014-12-20

    Lipophilic antioxidants play dual key roles in edible seeds (i) as preservatives of cell integrity and seed viability by preventing the oxidation of fats, and (ii) as essential nutrients for human and animal life stock. It has been well documented that plant domestication and post-domestication evolution frequently resulted in increased seed size and palatability, and reduced seed dormancy. Nevertheless, and surprisingly, it is poorly understood how agricultural selection and cultivation affected the physiological fitness and the nutritional quality of seeds. Fabaceae have the greatest number of crop species of all plant families, and most of them are cultivated for their highly nutritious edible seeds. Here, we evaluate whether evolution of plants under cultivation has altered the integrated system formed by membranes (fatty acids) and lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids and tocopherols), in the ten most economically important grain legumes and their closest wild relatives, i.e.: Arachis (peanut), Cicer (chickpea), Glycine (soybean), Lathyrus(vetch), Lens (lentil), Lupinus (lupin), Phaseolus (bean), Pisum (pea), Vicia (faba bean) and Vigna (cowpea). Unexpectedly, we found that following domestication, the contents of carotenoids, including lutein and zeaxanthin, decreased in all ten species (total carotenoid content decreased 48% in average). Furthermore, the composition of carotenoids changed, whereby some carotenoids were lost in most of the crops. An undirected change in the contents of tocopherols and fatty acids was found, with contents increasing in some species and decreasing in others, independently of the changes in carotenoids. In some species, polyunsaturated fatty acids (linolenic acid especially), α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol decreased following domestication. The changes in carotenoids, tocopherols and fatty acids are likely side-effects of the selection for other desired traits such as the loss of seed dormancy and dispersal mechanisms, and

  1. UGT2B17 gene deletion associated with an increase in bone mineral density similar to the effect of hormone replacement in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, S; Bussières, J; Bureau, A; Rousseau, F

    2012-03-01

    UGT2B17 is one of the most important enzymes for androgen metabolism. In addition, the UGT2B17 gene is one of the most commonly deleted regions of the human genome. The deletion was previously found associated with higher femoral bone density in men and women, and we replicated this association in a sample of postmenopausal who never used hormone therapy. Deletion of the UGT2B17 gene was previously shown to be associated with a higher hip bone mineral density (BMD). Using a PCR assay, we tried to replicate the association among a large group of 2,379 women. We examined the effect of the deletion on femoral neck BMD and lumbar spine BMD according to the menopausal status and hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We used a high-throughput PCR assay to identify the gene and the deletion in a population of well-characterized women. Two additional polymorphisms, UGT2B28 deletion and UGT2B15 rs1902023 G > T were also investigated. Only UGT2B17 deletion was associated with LS and FN BMD. Furthermore, the association was seen only among postmenopausal women who had never used hormone replacement as in the first reported association. We confirmed the association between UGT2B17 deletion and a higher LS and FN BMD. In addition, we show that the association is observed among postmenopausal women who never used HRT consistent with the enzymatic function of UGT2B17. The analysis shows that those having one or two UGT2B17 alleles benefit from HRT, which is not the case for null carriers.

  2. Modelling the Effects of Ageing Time of Starch on the Enzymatic Activity of Three Amylolytic Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Nelson P.; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    The effect of increasing ageing time (t) of starch on the activity of three amylolytic enzymes (Termamyl, San Super, and BAN) was investigated. Although all the enzymatic reactions follow michaelian kinetics, v max decreased significantly (P enzymes and the release of the reaction products to the medium. A similar effect was observed when the enzymatic reactions were carried out with unaged starches supplemented with different concentrations of gelatine [G]. The inhibition in the amylolytic activities was best mathematically described by using three modified forms of the Michaelis-Menten model, which included a term to consider, respectively, the linear, exponential, and hyperbolic inhibitory effects of t and [G]. PMID:22666116

  3. Effects of cadmium on osteoclast formation and activity in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.K.; Cerny, E.A.; Smith, B.D.; Wagh, A.

    1996-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium has been linked to bone loss, low bone mass, and increased incidence of fracture. To determine if Cd could directly increase the formation of cells responsible for bone resorption, we cultured normal canine bone marrow cells containing the progenitor cells for osteoclasts. Cultures were evaluated for the number of multinucleate osteoclast-like cells (MNOCs) formed. Exposure to Cd (10-100 nM) increased the number of MNOCs formed over control values when cultured in the presence but not in the absence of a bone wafer. The MNOCs formed were functional, evidenced by pits excavated on the bone wafers included in the cultures. By 12 days, MNOCs formed in the presence of 50 nM Cd excavated significantly more pits and a greater pit area than did untreated MNOCs. By 14 days, the control values were similar to those of the Cd-exposed MNOCs, but pit formation was enhanced by Cd in that the ratio of pit complexes to single pits was increased twofold over that for untreated cultures. Mature osteoclasts, isolated from the long bones of rat neonates and cultured for 1-3 days on bone slices, provided a direct method to assess the effect of Cd on osteoclast activity. Exposure of osteoclast cultures to 100 nm Cd increased the number of nM osteoclasts present over that for untreated osteoclasts by a factor of 1.7 ± 0.1, the number of pits excavated by 2.8 ± 0.6, the area excavated by 3.2 ± 0.8, and the area excavated per osteoclast by 1.8 ± 0.4 (mean SE; n = six experiments). These data suggest that Cd accelerates the differentiation of new osteoclasts from their progenitor cells and activates or increases the activity of mature osteoclasts. 48 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  4. The effect of short-time active listening training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Asami; Sumiyoshi, Kenichi; Kawaguchi, Hitomi; Sano, Yukiko

    2010-01-01

    We conducted mental health training incorporating active listening for managers at a site of a general chemical company with 1,400 employees. Our purpose was to clarify the effect of active listening training of 2.5h. All subjects were managers. The mental health training was given to 229 managers, 21 times from May 2007 until March 2008. Surveys were conducted from May 2007 to September 2008. The training sessions were conducted in a company meeting room, starting at 2:00 p.m. The importance and significance of listening as a mental health measure and methods of active listening were explained in the training. Afterward, role-playing and follow-up discussions were done twice each. In summaries, participants wrote down what they noticed about listening and gave group presentations. The instructor commented on the presentations, and ended the session by passing out and explaining a paper summarizing what is important in listening. The training was evaluated with a questionnaire distributed at the completion of training, and questionnaires on implementation of what was learned were distributed 1, 3, and 6 mo later. The Active Listening Attitude Scale (ALAS; composed of two scales for method of listening and listening attitude) developed by Mishima et al. was also used before and 1, 3, and 6 mo after the training. In questionnaires distributed on the same day after training, 60% of the 212 respondents said the training time was just right, and 30.1% felt it was too short. The difficulty level of the training was considered appropriate by 77.8%, and 79.7% intended to implement what they had learned. Overall satisfaction was high at 85.9%. In the questionnaire 6 mo after training, 81.4% of the 145 respondents remembered the content of the training and 49.7% said they were practicing what they had learned. They responded that their conversations with subordinates about non-work topics had increased, and communication and support at work had become smoother. ALAS was

  5. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  6. Inter- and Intrasubject Similarity of Muscle Synergies During Bench Press With Slow and Fast Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Afshin; Kristiansen, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effect of low and high bar velocity on inter- and intrasubject similarity of muscle synergies during bench press. A total of 13 trained male subjects underwent two exercise conditions: a slow- and a fast-velocity bench press. Surface electromyography was recorded from 13 muscles, and muscle synergies were extracted using a nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm. The intrasubject similarity across conditions and intersubject similarity within conditions were computed for muscle synergy vectors and activation coefficients. Two muscle synergies were sufficient to describe the dataset variability. For the second synergy activation coefficient, the intersubject similarity within the fast-velocity condition was greater than the intrasubject similarity of the activation coefficient across the conditions. An opposite pattern was observed for the first muscle synergy vector. We concluded that the activation coefficients are robust within conditions, indicating a robust temporal pattern of muscular activity across individuals, but the muscle synergy vector seemed to be individually assigned.

  7. Effective tension and fluctuations in active membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Bastien; Seifert, Udo; Lomholt, Michael Andersen

    2012-03-01

    We calculate the fluctuation spectrum of the shape of a lipid vesicle or cell exposed to a nonthermal source of noise. In particular, we take constraints on the membrane area and the volume of fluid that it encapsulates into account when obtaining expressions for the dependency of the membrane tension on the noise. We then investigate three possible origins of the nonthermal noise taken from the literature: A direct force, which models an external medium pushing on the membrane, a curvature force, which models a fluctuating spontaneous curvature, and a permeation force coming from an active transport of fluid through the membrane. For the direct force and curvature force cases, we compare our results to existing experiments on active membranes.

  8. Similarity indices I: what do they measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities

  9. Similarity indices I: what do they measure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities.

  10. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  11. A Similarity Search Using Molecular Topological Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Fukunishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular similarity measure has been developed using molecular topological graphs and atomic partial charges. Two kinds of topological graphs were used. One is the ordinary adjacency matrix and the other is a matrix which represents the minimum path length between two atoms of the molecule. The ordinary adjacency matrix is suitable to compare the local structures of molecules such as functional groups, and the other matrix is suitable to compare the global structures of molecules. The combination of these two matrices gave a similarity measure. This method was applied to in silico drug screening, and the results showed that it was effective as a similarity measure.

  12. [Study on influence between activated carbon property and immobilized biological activated carbon purification effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-zhi; Li, Wei-guang; He, Wen-jie; Han, Hong-da; Ding, Chi; Ma, Xiao-na; Qu, Yan-ming

    2006-10-01

    By means of immobilizing five kinds of activated carbon, we studied the influence between the chief activated carbon property items and immobilized bioactivated carbon (IBAC) purification effect with the correlation analysis. The result shows that the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.7 include molasses, abrasion number, hardness, tannin, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter; the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.5 include pH, iodine, butane and tetrachloride. In succession, the partial correlation analysis shows that activated carbon property items mostly influencing on IBAC purification effect include molasses, hardness, abrasion number, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter. The causation of these property items bringing influence on IBAC purification is that the activated carbon holes distribution (representative activated carbon property item is molasses) provides inhabitable location and adjust food for the dominance bacteria; the mechanical resist-crash property of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: abrasion number and hardness) have influence on the stability of biofilm; and the particle diameter size and distribution of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter) can directly affect the force of water in IBAC filter bed, which brings influence on the dominance bacteria immobilizing on activated carbon.

  13. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline

  14. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straker, L.M.; Fenner, A.A.; Howie, E.K.; Feltz, D.L.; Gray, C.M.; Lu, A.S.; Mueller, F.F.; Simons, M.; Barnett, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation and cysteamine (MEA) on activity of mouse spleen adenyl cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltysiak-Pawluczuk, D.; Bitny-Szlachto, S.

    1976-01-01

    In mice X-irradiated with doses of 200 R and 400 R, there was a substantial increase in spleen adenyl cyclase activity; there was similar activation by MEA. In mice given MEA before irradiation, an additive effect of radiation and the radioprotective drug was observed. On the other hand, a dose of 800 R given either alone or after pre-treatment with MEA failed to elicit any change in cyclase activity. The results indicate the importance of the adenyl cyclase system in the response of cells to irradiation and action of MEA. (author)

  16. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...... not perform well, even for data that satisfies all its assumptions....

  17. Fast business process similarity search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.; Dijkman, R.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, it is common for organizations to maintain collections of hundreds or even thousands of business processes. Techniques exist to search through such a collection, for business process models that are similar to a given query model. However, those techniques compare the query model to each

  18. Glove boxes and similar containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    According to the present invention a glove box or similar containment is provided with an exhaust system including a vortex amplifier venting into the system, the vortex amplifier also having its main inlet in fluid flow connection with the containment and a control inlet in fluid flow connection with the atmosphere outside the containment. (U.S.)

  19. Investigating Correlation between Protein Sequence Similarity and Semantic Similarity Using Gene Ontology Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Najmul; Qadir, Muhammad Abdul; Afzal, Muhammad Tanvir

    2018-01-01

    Sequence similarity is a commonly used measure to compare proteins. With the increasing use of ontologies, semantic (function) similarity is getting importance. The correlation between these measures has been applied in the evaluation of new semantic similarity methods, and in protein function prediction. In this research, we investigate the relationship between the two similarity methods. The results suggest absence of a strong correlation between sequence and semantic similarities. There is a large number of proteins with low sequence similarity and high semantic similarity. We observe that Pearson's correlation coefficient is not sufficient to explain the nature of this relationship. Interestingly, the term semantic similarity values above 0 and below 1 do not seem to play a role in improving the correlation. That is, the correlation coefficient depends only on the number of common GO terms in proteins under comparison, and the semantic similarity measurement method does not influence it. Semantic similarity and sequence similarity have a distinct behavior. These findings are of significant effect for future works on protein comparison, and will help understand the semantic similarity between proteins in a better way.

  20. Fatigue effects on tracking performance and muscle activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.A.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; van der Beek, A.J.; de Looze, M.P.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that fatigue affects proprioception and consequently movement accuracy, the effects of which may be counteracted by increased muscle activity. To determine the effects of fatigue on tracking performance and muscle activity in the M. extensor carpi radialis (ECR), 11 female

  1. The effect of the decay data on activation cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the decay data on evaluation of activation cross section is investigated. Present work shows that these effects must be considered carefully when activation cross section is evaluated. Sometime they are main reason for causing the discrepancies among the experimental data

  2. Exploring similarities among many species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmerman, Scott; Wang, Jingyuan; Osborne, James; Shook, Kimberly; Huang, Jian; Godsoe, William; Simons, Theodore R.

    2012-01-01

    Collecting species presence data and then building models to predict species distribution has been long practiced in the field of ecology for the purpose of improving our understanding of species relationships with each other and with the environment. Due to limitations of computing power as well as limited means of using modeling software on HPC facilities, past species distribution studies have been unable to fully explore diverse data sets. We build a system that can, for the first time to our knowledge, leverage HPC to support effective exploration of species similarities in distribution as well as their dependencies on common environmental conditions. Our system can also compute and reveal uncertainties in the modeling results enabling domain experts to make informed judgments about the data. Our work was motivated by and centered around data collection efforts within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park that date back to the 1940s. Our findings present new research opportunities in ecology and produce actionable field-work items for biodiversity management personnel to include in their planning of daily management activities.

  3. Welfare effects of deterrence-motivated activation policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin

    We investigate whether activation policy is part of optimal policy of a benevolent government, when the motivation for introducing activation is to deter some people from collecting benefits. The government offers a pure benefit programme and an activation programme, and individuals self-select i......We investigate whether activation policy is part of optimal policy of a benevolent government, when the motivation for introducing activation is to deter some people from collecting benefits. The government offers a pure benefit programme and an activation programme, and individuals self......-select into programmes. Individuals differ with respect to disutility and wage. Activation programmes are relatively costly and favour individuals who are relatively well off. Hence, for activation policy to used, labour supply effects have to be relatively small. We discuss how labour supply effects depend...

  4. Anthropogenic effect on avalanche and debris flow activity

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Sokratov; Yu. G. Seliverstov; A. L. Shnyparkov; K. P. Koltermann

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents examples of the change in snow avalanches and debris flows activity due to the anthropogenic pressure on vegetation and relief. The changes in dynamical characteristics of selected snow avalanches and debris flows due to the anthropogenic activity are quantified. The conclusion is made that the anthropogenic effects on the snow avalanches and debris flows activity are more pronounced than the possible effects of the climate change. The necessity is expressed on the unavoida...

  5. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  6. Magnetic activity effect on equatorial spread-F under high and low solar activity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbarao, K S.V.; Somayajulu, V V; Krishna Murthy, B V

    1986-08-01

    The effect of magnetic activity on spread-F at two equatorial stations, Trivandrum and Huancayo, separated in longitude by about 150 deg, under high and low solar activity conditions has been investigated. Magnetic activity produces strong inhibition effect on spread-F at Huancayo compared to that at Trivandrum especially during high solar activity period. This results in a decrease of spread-F with solar activity at Huancayo in contrast to Trivandrum. These findings are explained in terms of F-region electrodynamics and Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism for spread-F.

  7. Beer elicits vasculoprotective effects through Akt/eNOS activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilahur, Gemma; Casani, Laura; Mendieta, Guiomar; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon; Badimon, Lina

    2014-12-01

    There is controversy regarding the effect of alcohol beverage intake in vascular vasodilatory function in peripheral arteries. The effects of beer intake in coronary vasodilation remain unknown. We investigated whether regular beer intake (alcohol and alcohol-free) protects against hypercholesterolaemia-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction and the mechanisms behind this effect. Pigs were fed 10 days: (i) a Western-type hypercholesterolaemic diet (WD); (ii) WD+low-dose beer (12·5 g alcohol/day); (iii) WD+moderate-dose beer (25 g alcohol/day); or (iv) WD+moderate-dose alcohol-free-beer (0·0 g alcohol/day). Coronary responses to endothelium-dependent vasoactive drugs (acetylcholine: receptor mediated; calcium ionophore-A23189: nonreceptor mediated), endothelium-independent vasoactive drug (SNP) and L-NMMA (NOS-antagonist) were evaluated in the LAD coronary artery by flow Doppler. Coronary Akt/eNOS activation, MCP-1 expression, oxidative DNA damage and superoxide production were assessed. Lipid profile, lipoproteins resistance to oxidation and urinary isoxanthohumol concentration were evaluated. Alcoholic and nonalcoholic beer intake prevented WD-induced impairment of receptor- and non-receptor-operated endothelial-dependent coronary vasodilation. All animals displayed a similar vasodilatory response to SNP and L-NMMA blunted all endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation responses. Haemodynamic parameters remained unchanged. Coronary arteries showed lower DNA damage and increased Akt/eNOS axis activation in beer-fed animals. Animals taking beer showed HDL with higher antioxidant capacity, higher LDL resistance to oxidation and increased isoxanthohumol levels. Weight, lipids levels, liver enzymes and MCP-1 expression were not affected by beer intake. Non-alcoholic-related beer components protect against hyperlipemia-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction by counteracting vascular oxidative damage and preserving the Akt/eNOS pathway. Light-to-moderate beer

  8. An Alfven eigenmode similarity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W W; Fredrickson, E; Gorelenkov, N N; Hyatt, A W; Kramer, G; Luo, Y

    2003-01-01

    The major radius dependence of Alfven mode stability is studied by creating plasmas with similar minor radius, shape, magnetic field (0.5 T), density (n e ≅3x10 19 m -3 ), electron temperature (1.0 keV) and beam ion population (near-tangential 80 keV deuterium injection) on both NSTX and DIII-D. The major radius of NSTX is half the major radius of DIII-D. The super-Alfvenic beam ions that drive the modes have overlapping values of v f /v A in the two devices. Observed beam-driven instabilities include toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE). The stability threshold for the TAE is similar in the two devices. As expected theoretically, the most unstable toroidal mode number n is larger in DIII-D

  9. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980–2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  10. Compressional Alfven Eigenmode Similarity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Rhodes, T. L.

    2004-11-01

    NSTX and DIII-D are nearly ideal for Alfven eigenmode (AE) similarity experiments, having similar neutral beams, fast-ion to Alfven speed v_f/v_A, fast-ion pressure, and shape of the plasma, but with a factor of 2 difference in the major radius. Toroidicity-induced AE with ˜100 kHz frequencies were compared in an earlier study [1]; this paper focuses on higher frequency AE with f ˜ 1 MHz. Compressional AE (CAE) on NSTX have a polarization, dependence on the fast-ion distribution function, frequency scaling, and low-frequency limit that are qualitatively consistent with CAE theory [2]. Global AE (GAE) are also observed. On DIII-D, coherent modes in this frequency range are observed during low-field (0.6 T) similarity experiments. Experiments will compare the CAE stability limits on DIII-D with the NSTX stability limits, with the aim of determining if CAE will be excited by alphas in a reactor. Predicted differences in the frequency splitting Δ f between excited modes will also be used. \\vspace0.25em [1] W.W. Heidbrink, et al., Plasmas Phys. Control. Fusion 45, 983 (2003). [2] E.D. Fredrickson, et al., Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report PPPL-3955 (2004).

  11. Are calanco landforms similar to river basins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo-Arias, N A; Ferro, V

    2017-12-15

    In the past badlands have been often considered as ideal field laboratories for studying landscape evolution because of their geometrical similarity to larger fluvial systems. For a given hydrological process, no scientific proof exists that badlands can be considered a model of river basin prototypes. In this paper the measurements carried out on 45 Sicilian calanchi, a type of badlands that appears as a small-scale hydrographic unit, are used to establish their morphological similarity with river systems whose data are available in the literature. At first the geomorphological similarity is studied by identifying the dimensionless groups, which can assume the same value or a scaled one in a fixed ratio, representing drainage basin shape, stream network and relief properties. Then, for each property, the dimensionless groups are calculated for the investigated calanchi and the river basins and their corresponding scale ratio is evaluated. The applicability of Hack's, Horton's and Melton's laws for establishing similarity criteria is also tested. The developed analysis allows to conclude that a quantitative morphological similarity between calanco landforms and river basins can be established using commonly applied dimensionless groups. In particular, the analysis showed that i) calanchi and river basins have a geometrically similar shape respect to the parameters Rf and Re with a scale factor close to 1, ii) calanchi and river basins are similar respect to the bifurcation and length ratios (λ=1), iii) for the investigated calanchi the Melton number assumes values less than that (0.694) corresponding to the river case and a scale ratio ranging from 0.52 and 0.78 can be used, iv) calanchi and river basins have similar mean relief ratio values (λ=1.13) and v) calanchi present active geomorphic processes and therefore fall in a more juvenile stage with respect to river basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Aharonov-Bohm effect in optical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C Z

    2010-01-01

    Optically active media have the helical and dissymmetric crystal structure, which constrains the motions of the electrons to a helical path under the influence of the incident electric field. The charge flow along the helices induces a magnetic field in the direction of the axis of helices. The helical structure hence acts as natural micro-solenoids for the electromagnetic waves passing through them. Optical rotation is related to the difference in the accumulative Aharonov-Bohm (AB) phase between the right- and the left-circularly polarized waves. The AB phase is proportional to the angular momentum of an electron moving around the micro-solenoid. Originally the AB phase is shown to be a continuous function of the magnetic flux. However, quantization of the geometrical angular momentum leads to the quantized AB phase. The rotatory power and the Verdet constant are proportional to the refractive index of the medium. The quantized current in the micro-solenoid is proportional to the Bohr magneton and inversely proportional to the area of the helices.

  13. Nanosilver – Harmful effects of biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilver, also identified as colloidal silver, has been known and used for ages to combat diseases or prolong food freshness. It usually occurs in the form of a suspension consisting of particles of size < 100 nm. Due to its specific properties, silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies to produce medical devices, textiles, conductive materials or photovoltaic cells. The growing popularity of nanosilver applications increases the number of people occupationally exposed to this substance. Potential exposure routes for silver nanoparticles are through dermal, oral and inhalation pathways. Silver nanoparticles may be absorbed through the lungs, intestine, and through the skin into circulation and thus may reach such organs as the liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart and testes. Nanosilver may cause mild eyes and skin irritations. It can also act as a mild skin allergen. Inhalation of silver nanoparticles mainly affects the lungs and liver. It has been demonstrated that silver nanoparticles may be genotoxic to mammalian cells. There are some alarming reports on the adverse effects of silver nanoparticles on reproduction of experimental animals. Exposure to silver nanoparticles may exert a neurotoxic effect and affect cognitive functions, causing the impairment of short-term and working memory. Maximum admissible concentration (MAC for the inhalable fraction of silver of 0.05 mg/m3 is currently binding in Poland. In light of toxicological studies of silver nanoparticles it seems reasonable to update the hygiene standards for silver with nanoparticles as a separate fraction. Med Pr 2014;65(6:831–845

  14. Chaperone-like activity of β-casein and its effect on residual in vitro activity of horseradish peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria; Olsen, Karsten; Sørensen, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    , as similar experiment with bovine serum albumin resulted in residual activity of horseradish peroxidase that was significantly lower than without any addition. The effect of β-casein on HRP disappears when pH is below the isoelectric point of β-casein. It was also proven by light scattering studies that β...... proteins. Incubating HRP (0.1 mg mL-1) for 10 min at 72 °C resulted in residual activity of 59 ± 5%, while addition of 1 mg mL-1 β-casein resulted in increase in residual activity up to 85 ± 1%. Increased residual activity is not merely attributed to an effect of higher total protein concentration......-casein interacts with horseradish peroxidase when the temperature was increased from 25 to 70 °C whereas interactions seem to cease when temperature was lowered back to 25 °C. This study highlights how specific proteins can influence enzyme activity, which is of potential importance for various industries...

  15. Phonological similarity in working memory span tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Michael; Macnamara, Brooke N; Conway, Andrew R A

    2016-08-01

    In a series of four experiments, we explored what conditions are sufficient to produce a phonological similarity facilitation effect in working memory span tasks. By using the same set of memoranda, but differing the secondary-task requirements across experiments, we showed that a phonological similarity facilitation effect is dependent upon the semantic relationship between the memoranda and the secondary-task stimuli, and is robust to changes in the representation, ordering, and pool size of the secondary-task stimuli. These findings are consistent with interference accounts of memory (Brown, Neath, & Chater, Psychological Review, 114, 539-576, 2007; Oberauer, Lewandowsky, Farrell, Jarrold, & Greaves, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 779-819, 2012), whereby rhyming stimuli provide a form of categorical similarity that allows distractors to be excluded from retrieval at recall.

  16. Effect of steroids on the activation status of platelets in patients with Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoria, Preeti; Sharma, Saniya; Varma, Neelam; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Subhash; Luthra-Guptasarma, Manni

    2015-01-01

    The activation status of platelets in Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients--which is still somewhat controversial--is of potential interest, because activated platelets tend to aggregate (leading to excessive clotting or thromboembolic events) but cannot do so when platelet numbers are low, as in ITP. Although corticosteroids are the first line of therapy in ITP, the effect of steroids on activation of platelets has not been evaluated so far. We examined the status of platelet activation (with and without stimulation with ADP) in ITP patients, at the start of therapy (pre-steroid treatment, naive) and post-steroid treatment (classified on the basis of steroid responsiveness). We used flow cytometry to evaluate the levels of expression of P-selectin, and PAC-1 binding to platelets of 55 ITP patients and a similar number of healthy controls, treated with and without ADP. We found that platelets in ITP patients exist in an activated state. In patients who are responsive to steroids, the treatment reverses this situation. Also, the fold activation of platelets upon treatment with ADP is more in healthy controls than in ITP patients; treatment with steroids causes platelets in steroid-responsive patients to become more responsive to ADP-activation, similar to healthy controls. Thus steroids may cause changes in the ability of platelets to get activated with an agonist like ADP. Our results provide new insights into how, and why, steroid therapy helps in the treatment of ITP.

  17. Similarity analysis between quantum images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Liu, XingAo; Zhu, Changming; Wei, Lai; Zhang, Xiafen; Ian, Hou

    2018-06-01

    Similarity analyses between quantum images are so essential in quantum image processing that it provides fundamental research for the other fields, such as quantum image matching, quantum pattern recognition. In this paper, a quantum scheme based on a novel quantum image representation and quantum amplitude amplification algorithm is proposed. At the end of the paper, three examples and simulation experiments show that the measurement result must be 0 when two images are same, and the measurement result has high probability of being 1 when two images are different.

  18. Similarity flows in relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Ollitrault, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, one expects in particular to observe a deconfinement transition leading to a formation of quark gluon plasma. In the framework of the hydrodynamic model, experimental signatures of such a plasma may be looked for as observable consequences of a first order transition on the evolution of the system. In most of the possible scenario, the phase transition is accompanied with discontinuities in the hydrodynamic flow, such as shock waves. The method presented in this paper has been developed to treat without too much numerical effort such discontinuous flow. It relies heavily on the use of similarity solutions of the hydrodynamic equations

  19. Effect of irradiation on lysosomal enzyme activation in cultured macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, C.; Wills, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of γrays on lysosomal enzyme activity of normal and immune macrophages of DBA/2 mice cultured in vitro has been studied. A dose of 500 rad did not significantly affect lysosomal enzyme activity 3 hours after irradiation but caused the activity to increase to 1.4 times the control value 22.5 hours after irradiation. 22.5 hours after a dose of 3000 rad the enzyme activity increased to 2.5 times the control. Lysosomal enzyme activity of the macrophages was also markedly increased by immunization of the mice with D lymphoma cells, before culture in vitro, but irradiation of these cells with a dose of 500 rad caused a further increase in lysosomal enzyme activity. The results indicate that immunization and irradiation both cause stimulation of lysosomal enzyme activity in macrophages but that the mechanisms of activation are unlikely to be identical. (author)

  20. Effect of temperature on antibacterial activity of lidocaine to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Y; Seki, K; Ikigai, H; Nishihara, S; Ueno, H; Murota, K; Masuda, S

    1988-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the antibacterial activity of lidocaine to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated in vitro. At 10 C at which S. aureus organisms do not grow and might be metabolically inactive, the antibacterial activity of lidocaine to S. aureus was not observed in a concentration of 1%, which was quite antibacterial to S. aureus at 37 C. On the other hand, at 40 C a conspicuously increased antibacterial activity to S. aureus of lidocaine was observed in a concentration of 0.25% which was not antibacterial to S. aureus organisms at 37 C. Similar results were obtained when P. aeruginosa organisms were examined in place of S. aureus, although P. aeruginosa was found to be less susceptible to lidocaine than S. aureus. The clinical significance of the thermal effect on the antibacterial activity of lidocaine was discussed in brief.

  1. Effect of vanadium compounds on acid phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescina, C M; Sálice, V C; Cortizo, A M; Etcheverry, S B

    1996-01-01

    The direct effect of different vanadium compounds on acid phosphatase (ACP) activity was investigated. Vanadate and vanadyl but not pervanadate inhibited the wheat germ ACP activity. These vanadium derivatives did not alter the fibroblast Swiss 3T3 soluble fraction ACP activity. Using inhibitors of tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), the wheat germ ACP was partially characterized as a PTPase. This study suggests that the inhibitory ability of different vanadium derivatives to modulate ACP activity seems to depend on the geometry around the vanadium atom more than on the oxidation state. Our results indicate a correlation between the PTPase activity and the sensitivity to vanadate and vanadyl cation.

  2. Efficient Similarity Retrieval in Music Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Audio music is increasingly becoming available in digital form, and the digital music collections of individuals continue to grow. Addressing the need for effective means of retrieving music from such collections, this paper proposes new techniques for content-based similarity search. Each music...

  3. Identifying mechanistic similarities in drug responses

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, C.

    2012-05-15

    Motivation: In early drug development, it would be beneficial to be able to identify those dynamic patterns of gene response that indicate that drugs targeting a particular gene will be likely or not to elicit the desired response. One approach would be to quantitate the degree of similarity between the responses that cells show when exposed to drugs, so that consistencies in the regulation of cellular response processes that produce success or failure can be more readily identified.Results: We track drug response using fluorescent proteins as transcription activity reporters. Our basic assumption is that drugs inducing very similar alteration in transcriptional regulation will produce similar temporal trajectories on many of the reporter proteins and hence be identified as having similarities in their mechanisms of action (MOA). The main body of this work is devoted to characterizing similarity in temporal trajectories/signals. To do so, we must first identify the key points that determine mechanistic similarity between two drug responses. Directly comparing points on the two signals is unrealistic, as it cannot handle delays and speed variations on the time axis. Hence, to capture the similarities between reporter responses, we develop an alignment algorithm that is robust to noise, time delays and is able to find all the contiguous parts of signals centered about a core alignment (reflecting a core mechanism in drug response). Applying the proposed algorithm to a range of real drug experiments shows that the result agrees well with the prior drug MOA knowledge. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  4. toxicological effect of carbamate (methavin) on some biochemical activities in white rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.M.B.

    2001-01-01

    this work aims to study the toxic effect, which resulted from the direct or indirect exposure to the applied insecticide (methomyl), which was formerly known as lannate, that belongs to carbamate group. this study includes the determination of the effect of the methomyl on some biochemical activities in white rats as well as the changes in some hormonal levels. since the mentioned insecticide used in egypt from many years ago, which necessitated numerous studies on its effect to various organs of the human body by treating some animals which are closely similar to human construction

  5. Seniority bosons from similarity transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, H.B.

    1986-01-01

    The requirement of associating in the boson space seniority with twice the number of non-s bosons defines a similarity transformation which re-expresses the Dyson pair boson images in terms of seniority bosons. In particular the fermion S-pair creation operator is mapped onto an operator which, unlike the pair boson image, does not change the number of non-s bosons. The original results of Otsuka, Arima and Iachello are recovered by this procedure while at the same time they are generalized to include g-bosons or even bosons with J>4 as well as any higher order boson terms. Furthermore the seniority boson images are valid for an arbitrary number of d- or g-bosons - a result which is not readily obtainable within the framework of the usual Marumori- or OAI-method

  6. Effect of Ionic Strength on Settling of Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    M Ahmadi Moghadam, M Soheili, MM Esfahani

    2005-01-01

    Structural properties of activated sludge flocs were found to be sensitive to small changes in ionic strength. This study investigates the effect of ionic strength on settling of activated sludge. Samples were taken from activated sludge process of Ghazvin Sasan soft drink wastewater treatment plant, then treated with different ionic strengths of KCl and CaCl2 solution, after that the turbidity of supernatant was measured. The results indicated that low ionic strength resulted in a steeper sl...

  7. Effect of vanadium compounds on acid phosphatase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Vescina, Cecilia M.; Sálice, Viviana C.; Cortizo, Ana María; Etcheverry, Susana B.

    1996-01-01

    The direct effect of different vanadium compounds on acid phosphatase (ACP) activity was investigated. Vanadate and vanadyl but not pervanadate inhibited the wheat germ ACP activity. These vanadium derivatives did not alter the fibroblast Swiss 3T3 soluble fraction ACP activity. Using inhibitors of tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), the wheat germ ACP was partially characterized as a PTPase. This study suggests that the inhibitory ability of different vanadium derivatives to modulate ACP activi...

  8. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Ivanišová; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Petrová; Radka Staňková; Lucia Godočíková; Tomáš Krajčovič; Štefan Dráb

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diff...

  9. How similar are recognition memory and inductive reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan

    2013-07-01

    Conventionally, memory and reasoning are seen as different types of cognitive activities driven by different processes. In two experiments, we challenged this view by examining the relationship between recognition memory and inductive reasoning involving multiple forms of similarity. A common study set (members of a conjunctive category) was followed by a test set containing old and new category members, as well as items that matched the study set on only one dimension. The study and test sets were presented under recognition or induction instructions. In Experiments 1 and 2, the inductive property being generalized was varied in order to direct attention to different dimensions of similarity. When there was no time pressure on decisions, patterns of positive responding were strongly affected by property type, indicating that different types of similarity were driving recognition and induction. By comparison, speeded judgments showed weaker property effects and could be explained by generalization based on overall similarity. An exemplar model, GEN-EX (GENeralization from EXamples), could account for both the induction and recognition data. These findings show that induction and recognition share core component processes, even when the tasks involve flexible forms of similarity.

  10. Effect of acaricidal activity of Solanum nigrum on Tetranychus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of acaricidal activity of Solanum nigrum on Tetranychus urticae Koch under laboratory conditions. Stephanie Johana Numa Vergel, Lorena Rodríguez Coy, Daniel Rodríguez Caicedo, Ericsson Coy-Barrera ...

  11. Effectiveness of marketing in management marketing activity agricultural companies

    OpenAIRE

    KUCHER O.

    2012-01-01

    Modern approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of marketing activity are investigated. The influence of marketing expenses on actualization volume of output is analyzed. A methodical approach of defining economic efficiency in marketing sales in management business is offered.

  12. Effects of Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Mathematics Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David S.; Hannon, James C.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between a single, vigorous (70-85%) bout of physical activity completed during physical education on standardized mathematics test performance among 72, eighth grade students…

  13. Differential effects of active and passive coping on secretory immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, JA; de Geus, E.J.C.; Kelder, A.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Hoogstraten, J.; van Nieuw Amerongen, A.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the acute immunological effects of two laboratory stressors, expected to evoke distinct patterns of cardiac autonomic activity; namely an "active coping" time-paced memory test, and a "passive coping" stressful video showing surgical operations. We measured salivary S-IgA,

  14. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity

  15. Acute effects of active isolated stretching on vertical jump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the acute effects of active isolated stretching on muscular peak power production. Sixty healthy, physically active volunteers (aged 18-28) participated as subjects in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups; the control group and the experimental group. Subjects ...

  16. The effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle activation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The effect of whole body vibration exercise (WBV) on muscle activation has recently been a topic for discussion amongst some researchers. ... Participants then performed two different exercises: standing calf raises and prone bridging, without and with WBV.

  17. Effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge (WAS) solubilization and enzyme activity was investigated in this study. Experimental results showed that the increase of ultrasonic specific energy in the range of 0 - 90000 kJ/kg dried sludge (DS) benefited WAS particle size reduction and the solubilization ...

  18. The effects of curiosity-evoking events on activity enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikman, Elif; MacInnis, Deborah J; Ülkümen, Gülden; Cavanaugh, Lisa A

    2016-09-01

    Whereas prior literature has studied the positive effects of curiosity-evoking events that are integral to focal activities, we explore whether and how a curiosity-evoking event that is incidental to a focal activity induces negative outcomes for enjoyment. Four experiments and 1 field study demonstrate that curiosity about an event that is incidental to an activity in which individuals are engaged, significantly affects enjoyment of a concurrent activity. The reason why is that curiosity diverts attention away from the concurrent activity and focuses attention on the curiosity-evoking event. Thus, curiosity regarding an incidental event decreases enjoyment of a positive focal activity but increases enjoyment of a negative focal activity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-02-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human-computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity.

  20. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Ashley A.; Howie, Erin K.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Gray, Cindy M.; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian “Floyd”; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human–computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity. PMID:26181680

  1. Gender-specific effects of physical activity on children's academic performance: The Active Smarter Kids cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resaland, G K; Moe, V F; Bartholomew, J B; Andersen, L B; McKay, H A; Anderssen, S A; Aadland, E

    2018-01-01

    Active learning combines academic content with physical activity (PA) to increase child PA and academic performance, but the impact of active learning is mixed. It may be that this is a moderated relationship in which active learning is beneficial for only some children. This paper examine the impact of baseline academic performance and gender as moderators for the effects of active learning on children's academic performance. In the ASK-study, 1129 fifth-graders from 57 Norwegian elementary schools were randomized by school to intervention or control in a physical activity intervention between November 2014 and June 2015. Academic performance in numeracy, reading, and English was measured and a composite score was calculated. Children were split into low, middle and high academic performing tertiles. 3-way-interactions for group (intervention, control)∗gender (boys, girls)∗academic performance (tertiles) were investigated using mixed model regression. There was a significant, 3-way-interaction (p=0.044). Both boys (ES=0.11) and girls (ES=0.18) in the low performing tertile had a similar beneficial trend. In contrast, middle (ES=0.03) and high performing boys (ES=0.09) responded with small beneficial trends, while middle (ES=-0.11) and high performing girls (ES=-0.06) responded with negative trends. ASK was associated with a significant increase in academic performance for low performing children. It is likely that active learning benefited children most in need of adapted education but it may have a null or negative effect for those girls who are already performing well in the sedentary classroom. Differences in gendered responses are discussed as a possible explanation for these results. Clinicaltrials.gov registry, trial registration number: NCT02132494. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Active Lessons on Physical Activity, Academic, and Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie; Murtagh, Elaine M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of classroom-based physical activity interventions that integrate academic content and assess the effectiveness of the interventions on physical activity, learning, facilitators of learning, and health outcomes. Method: Six electronic databases (ERIC, PubMed, Google Scholar,…

  3. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  4. The effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Koning, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Bosscher, R.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To critically review the literature with respect to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health. Data Sources: A search for relevant English-written papers published between 1980 and 2000 was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE,

  5. Raw drone milk of honeybees elicits uterotrophic effect in rats: evidence for estrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seres, Adrienn B; Ducza, Eszter; Báthori, Mária; Hunyadi, Attila; Béni, Zoltán; Dékány, Miklós; Gáspár, Róbert

    2013-05-01

    Numerous honeybee products are used in medicine, but the literature furnishes no information concerning the effects of the drone milk (DM), although drone brood, which is similar to DM, was reported to elicit a hormone-like strengthening effect. In certain countries, DM is traditionally used to treat infertility and to promote vitality in both men and women. The aim of this study was to determine the putative estrogen hormone-like effect of raw DM in rats and to identify the effective compounds. Uterotrophic assays revealed that DM increased the relative weight of the immature rat uterus. This effect was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain-reaction and Western blot methods, in which the mRNA and protein expression of the estrogen-dependent peptide complement component C3 was determined. Column chromatography and uterotrophic assays were used to fractionate and check bioactivity, respectively. The active compound after the last fractionation was identified by the nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry techniques as E-dec-2-enedioic acid, which is very similar to the fatty acids with estrogenic activity that were previously isolated from royal jelly. These results lead us to suppose that E-dec-2-enedioic acid is responsible for the estrogen-like effect of DM. This appears to be the first report on the pharmacological effects of DM and E-dec-2-enedioic acid in mammals.

  6. Anthropogenic effect on avalanche and debris flow activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sokratov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents examples of the change in snow avalanches and debris flows activity due to the anthropogenic pressure on vegetation and relief. The changes in dynamical characteristics of selected snow avalanches and debris flows due to the anthropogenic activity are quantified. The conclusion is made that the anthropogenic effects on the snow avalanches and debris flows activity are more pronounced than the possible effects of the climate change. The necessity is expressed on the unavoidable changes of the natural environment as the result of a construction and of use of the constructed infrastructure to be account for in corresponding planning of the protection measures.

  7. Active machine learning-driven experimentation to determine compound effects on protein patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Armaghan W; Kangas, Joshua D; Sullivan, Devin P; Murphy, Robert F

    2016-02-03

    High throughput screening determines the effects of many conditions on a given biological target. Currently, to estimate the effects of those conditions on other targets requires either strong modeling assumptions (e.g. similarities among targets) or separate screens. Ideally, data-driven experimentation could be used to learn accurate models for many conditions and targets without doing all possible experiments. We have previously described an active machine learning algorithm that can iteratively choose small sets of experiments to learn models of multiple effects. We now show that, with no prior knowledge and with liquid handling robotics and automated microscopy under its control, this learner accurately learned the effects of 48 chemical compounds on the subcellular localization of 48 proteins while performing only 29% of all possible experiments. The results represent the first practical demonstration of the utility of active learning-driven biological experimentation in which the set of possible phenotypes is unknown in advance.

  8. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a superior analgesic effect of favorite music over other passive or active distractive tasks. However, it is unclear what mediates this effect. In this study we investigated to which extent distraction, emotional valence and cognitive styles may explain part...... questionnaires concerning cognitive styles (Baron – Cohen and self-report). Active distraction with PASAT led to significantly less pain intensity and unpleasantness as compared to music and sound. In turn, both music and sound relieved pain significantly more than noise. When music and sound had the same level...... of valence they relieved pain to a similar degree. The emotional ratings of the conditions were correlated with the amount of pain relief and cognitive styles seemed to influence the analgesia effect. These findings suggest that the pain relieving effect previously seen in relation to music may be at least...

  9. Effect of radiation on activity of sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaev, N.M.; Smorodin, A.E.; Gusejnov, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of γ-radiation on activity of sulphate reducing bacteria has been studied. Concentration of biogenic hydrogen, generated in the medium, is the main criterion, characterizing corrosion activity of the bacteria studied. The developed method of suppression of active development of sulfate reducing bacteria considerably reduces, and at lethal doses of γ-radiation eliminates altogether the bacteria activity and formation of the main corrosion agent-hydrogen sulphide-in the medium and that, in its turn, liquidates hydrogen sulphide corrosion

  10. Noise-induced effects on multicellular biopacemaker spontaneous activity: Differences between weak and strong pacemaker cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghighi, Alireza; Comtois, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Self-organization of spontaneous activity of a network of active elements is important to the general theory of reaction-diffusion systems as well as for pacemaking activity to initiate beating of the heart. Monolayer cultures of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, consisting of resting and pacemaker cells, exhibit spontaneous activation of their electrical activity. Similarly, one proposed approach to the development of biopacemakers as an alternative to electronic pacemakers for cardiac therapy is based on heterogeneous cardiac cells with resting and spontaneously beating phenotypes. However, the combined effect of pacemaker characteristics, density, and spatial distribution of the pacemaker cells on spontaneous activity is unknown. Using a simple stochastic pattern formation algorithm, we previously showed a clear nonlinear dependency of spontaneous activity (occurrence and amplitude of spontaneous period) on the spatial patterns of pacemaker cells. In this study, we show that this behavior is dependent on the pacemaker cell characteristics, with weaker pacemaker cells requiring higher density and larger clusters to sustain multicellular activity. These multicellular structures also demonstrated an increased sensitivity to voltage noise that favored spontaneous activity at lower density while increasing temporal variation in the period of activity. This information will help researchers overcome the current limitations of biopacemakers.

  11. Evaluating gender similarities and differences using metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Ethan; Krizan, Zlatan; Teeter, Sabrina R

    2015-01-01

    Despite the common lay assumption that males and females are profoundly different, Hyde (2005) used data from 46 meta-analyses to demonstrate that males and females are highly similar. Nonetheless, the gender similarities hypothesis has remained controversial. Since Hyde's provocative report, there has been an explosion of meta-analytic interest in psychological gender differences. We utilized this enormous collection of 106 meta-analyses and 386 individual meta-analytic effects to reevaluate the gender similarities hypothesis. Furthermore, we employed a novel data-analytic approach called metasynthesis (Zell & Krizan, 2014) to estimate the average difference between males and females and to explore moderators of gender differences. The average, absolute difference between males and females across domains was relatively small (d = 0.21, SD = 0.14), with the majority of effects being either small (46%) or very small (39%). Magnitude of differences fluctuated somewhat as a function of the psychological domain (e.g., cognitive variables, social and personality variables, well-being), but remained largely constant across age, culture, and generations. These findings provide compelling support for the gender similarities hypothesis, but also underscore conditions under which gender differences are most pronounced. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Cumulative effects of forest management activities: how might they occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice; R. B. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Concerns are often voiced about possible environmental damage as the result of the cumulative sedimentation effects of logging and forest road construction. In response to these concerns, National Forests are developing procedures to reduce the possibility that their activities may lead to unacceptable cumulative effects

  13. The effect of glyphosate application on soil microbial activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, glyphosate effects as N, P and C nutrient sources on microbial population and the effect of different concentration of it on dehydrogenease activity and soil respiration were investigated. The results show that in a soil with a long historical use of glyphosate (soil 1), the hetrotrophic bacterial population was ...

  14. The inhibitory effect of Curcuma longa extract on telomerase activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... curcumin, could have important effect on treatment of lung cancer. Curcumin ... study inhibitory effect of C. longa total extract on telomerase in A549 lung cancer cell line as in vitro model of ..... If A > 2× (OD of negative control), then, telomerase activity ... radiation, chemotherapy, laser therapy, photodynamic.

  15. Experimental Evidence on the Effects of Early Meetings and Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Maibom; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    and case workers increase employment rates over the next two years by 10%. For men, we find evidence of a threat effect of having to participate in early activation programmes. In general, we find large differences between men and women, especially in the dynamics of the effects. A cost-benefit analysis...

  16. Effects of Breast Cancer and Mastectomy on Fibrinolytic Activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is good to know if this is also the case in Africans with breast cancer. Africans are known to possess enhanced fibrinolysis. This study was designed to assess the effect of breast cancer on fibrinolytic activity and the effect of mastectomy on fibrinolysis in African women. Sixty histo-patholically proven breast cancer patients ...

  17. Effects of heat-activated persulfate oxidation on soil microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsitonaki, Aikaterini; Smets, Barth F.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2008-01-01

    /L). The results emphasize the necessity of using multiple toxicity assays and indigenous cultures in order to realistically assess the potential effects of in situ chemical oxidation on soil microorganisms. A comparison to other studies suggests that the effects of activated persulfate on soil microorganisms...

  18. Effects of de-icing salt on soil enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guentner, M; Wilke, B M

    1983-01-01

    Effects of de-icing salt on dehydrogenase, urease, alkalinephosphatase and arylsulfatase activity of O/sub L/- and A/sub h/-horizons of a moder and a mull soil were investigated using a field experiment. Additions of 2.5 kg m/sup -2/ and 5.0 kg m/sup -2/ of de-icing salt reduced activities of most enzymes within four weeks. Eleven months after salt addition there was nearly no reduction of enzyme activity to be measured on salt treated soils. The percentage of reduced enzyme activity was generally higher in the moder soil. It was concluded that reductions of enzyme activity were due to decreases of microbial activity and not to inactivation of enzymes.

  19. Hydrodynamic effects on phase transition in active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidituri, Harinadha; Akella, V. S.; Panchagnula, Mahesh; Vedantam, Srikanth; Multiphase flow physics lab Team

    2017-11-01

    Organized motion of active (self-propelled) objects are ubiquitous in nature. The objective of this study to investigate the effect of hydrodynamics on the coherent structures in active and passive particle mixtures. We use a mesoscopic method Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD). The system shows three different states viz. meso-turbulent (disordered state), polar flock and vortical (ordered state) for different values of activity and volume fraction of active particles. From our numerical simulations we construct a phase diagram between activity co-efficient, volume fraction and viscosity of the passive fluid. Transition from vortical to polar is triggered by increasing the viscosity of passive fluid which causes strong short-range hydrodynamic interactions. However, as the viscosity of the fluid decreases, both vortical and meso-turbulent states transition to polar flock phase. We also calculated the diffusion co-efficients via mean square displacement (MSD) for passive and active particles. We observe ballistic and diffusive regimes in the present system.

  20. Depigmenting Effect of Resveratrol Is Dependent on FOXO3a Activation without SIRT1 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Hyo; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Kang, Youn-A; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2017-06-07

    Resveratrol exhibits not only anti-melanogenic property by inhibiting microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), but also anti-aging property by activating sirtuin-1 (SIRT1). In this study, the relationship between depigmenting effect of resveratrol and SIRT1/forkhead box O (FOXO) 3a activation and was investigated. Resveratrol suppressed melanogenesis by the downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase via ERK pathway. Results showed that the expression of both SIRT1 and FOXO3a were increased. It is reported that SIRT1 is critical regulator of FOXO-mediated transcription in response to oxidative stress. However in our study, FOXO3a activation appeared earlier than that of SIRT1. Furthermore, the effect of resveratrol on the levels of MITF and tyrosinase was suppressed when melanocytes were pre-treated with SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). However, pre-treatment with SIRT1 inhibitor (EX527, or sirtinol) did not affect the levels of MITF and tyrosinase. Therefore, resveratrol inhibits melanogenesis through the activation of FOXO3a but not by the activation of SIRT1. Although SIRT1 activation by resveratrol is a well-known mechanism of resveratrol-induced antiaging effects, our study showed that not SIRT1 but FOXO3a activation is involved in depigmenting effects of resveratrol.

  1. Long-term predictive assessments of solar and geomagnetic activities made on the basis of the close similarity between the solar inertial motions in the intervals 1840–1905 and 1980–2045

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Charvátová, Ivanka

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2009), s. 25-30 ISSN 1384-1076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : solar inertial motion * solar activity * geomagnetic activity * long-term predictive assessments Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.675, year: 2009

  2. Protein from meat or vegetable sources in meals matched for fiber content has similar effects on subjective appetite sensations and energy intake - A randomized acute cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Kristensen, Marlene D; Klingenberg, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy......-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations....... intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19...

  3. Inhibitory effect of vanillin on cellulase activity in hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Qi, Benkun; Wan, Yinhua

    2014-09-01

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic material produces a wide variety of inhibitory compounds, which strongly inhibit the following enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. Vanillin is a kind of phenolics derived from degradation of lignin. The effect of vanillin on cellulase activity for the hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated in detail. The results clearly showed that vanillin can reversibly and non-competitively inhibit the cellulase activity at appropriate concentrations and the value of IC50 was estimated to be 30 g/L. The inhibition kinetics of cellulase by vanillin was studied using HCH-1 model and inhibition constants were determined. Moreover, investigation of three compounds with similar structure of vanillin on cellulase activity demonstrated that aldehyde group and phenolic hydroxyl groups of vanillin had inhibitory effect on cellulase. These results provide valuable and detailed information for understanding the inhibition of lignin derived phenolics on cellulase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inter- and intrasubject similarity of muscle synergies during bench press with slow and fast velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Kristiansen, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effect of low and high bar velocity on inter- and intra-subject similarity of muscle synergies during bench press. Thirteen trained male subjects underwent two exercise conditions, i.e. a slow and a fast velocity bench press. Surface electromyography was recorded from thirteen...... to describe the dataset variability. For the second activation coefficient, the inter-subject similarity within the fast velocity condition was greater than the intra-subject similarity of the activation coefficient across the conditions. An opposite pattern was observed for the first muscle synergy vector...

  5. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging ® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the "face-to-face" and "combined" versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF) (n=35) and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face) (n=15), and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical-practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural - artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were observed in physical activity, frequency of social relationships, and subjective health. Findings show that the Vital Aging program in face-to-face and combined versions encourages active aging in Mexican older persons. These results are in general similar to those found in editions performed in Spain, revealing its consistency

  6. Effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activators on tumor necrosis factor expression in mice during endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M R; Clarke, S; Rodgers, K; Thornhill, B; Peters, J M; Gonzalez, F J; Gimble, J M

    1999-07-01

    Inflammatory mediators orchestrate the host immune and metabolic response to acute bacterial infections and mediate the events leading to septic shock. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has long been identified as one of the proximal mediators of endotoxin action. Recent studies have implicated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) as a potential target to modulate regulation of the immune response. Since PPARalpha activators, which are hypolipidemic drugs, are being prescribed for a significant population of older patients, it is important to determine the impact of these drugs on the host response to acute inflammation. Therefore, we examined the role of PPARalpha activators on the regulation of TNF expression in a mouse model of endotoxemia. CD-1 mice treated with dietary fenofibrate or Wy-14,643 had fivefold-higher lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF plasma levels than LPS-treated control-fed animals. Higher LPS-induced TNF levels in drug-fed animals were reflected physiologically in significantly lower glucose levels in plasma and a significantly lower 50% lethal dose than those in LPS-treated control-fed animals. Utilizing PPARalpha wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice, we showed that the effect of fenofibrate on LPS-induced TNF expression was indeed mediated by PPARalpha. PPARalpha WT mice fed fenofibrate also had a fivefold increase in LPS-induced TNF levels in plasma compared to control-fed animals. However, LPS-induced TNF levels were significantly decreased and glucose levels in plasma were significantly increased in PPARalpha KO mice fed fenofibrate compared to those in control-fed animals. Data from peritoneal macrophage studies indicate that Wy-14,643 modestly decreased TNF expression in vitro. Similarly, overexpression of PPARalpha in 293T cells decreased activity of a human TNF promoter-luciferase construct. The results from these studies suggest that any anti-inflammatory activity of PPARalpha in vivo can be masked by other

  7. The effect of activity history and current activity on static and dynamic postural balance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbulian, R; Hargan, M L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of former athleticism and current activity status on static and dynamic postural balance in older adults. Fifty-six subjects participated in four study groups including former athletes, currently active (AA; n = 15; 69.1+/-4.4 years.; 77.8+/-9.8 kg), former athletes, currently inactive (AI; n = 12; 66.7 years.; 87.2+/-15.1 kg), controls currently active (CA; n = 14; 68.6 +/- 4.5 years.; 73.9+/-15 kg), and controls currently inactive (CI; n = 15; 72.8+/-4.8 years; 81.1+/-14.8). All subjects were tested for height, weight, flexibility, thigh circumference, and static (sharpened Romberg/unipedal stance), and dynamic (step length and width) balance tests. The sharpened Romberg (eyes open) test showed that AA (60.0+/-0 s) and CA (59.4+/- 0.5 s) balanced significantly longer than AI (41.5+/-7.2 s), and CI (41.8+/-6.1 s) (punipedal (eyes open) test balance scores for AA, CA, AI, and CI were respectively 40.0+/-4.5, 55.1+/- 3.4, 33.0+/-7.1, and 27.5+/-6.1 s, with CA significantly better than CI (ptest results for relative group comparisons were similar. Overall, two-way analysis of variance showed a significant activity main effect for all dependent variables measured (p<0.05). The results indicated that current activity status plays a key role on balance performance in older adults. Furthermore, former athletic activity history provides no protection for the age related onset of postural imbalance.

  8. Histograms Constructed from the Data of 239-Pu Alpha-Activity Manifest a Tendency for Change in the Similar Way as at the Moments when the Sun, the Moon, Venus, Mars and Mercury Intersect the Celestial Equator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharakoz D. P.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Earlier, the shape of histograms of the results of measurements obtained in processes of different physical nature had been shown to be determined by cosmophysical factors. Appearance of histograms of a similar shape is repeated periodically: these are the near-a-day, near-27-days and annual periods of increased probability of the similar shapes. There are two distinctly distinguished near-a-day periods: the sidereal-day (1,436 minutes and solar-day (1,440 minutes ones. The annual periods are represented by three sub-periods: the "calendar" (365 average solar days, "tropical" (365 days 5 hours and 48 minutes and "sidereal" (365 days 6 hours and 9 minutes ones. The tropical year period indicates that fact that histogram shape depends on the time elapsed since the spring equinox.The latter dependence is studied in more details in this work. We demonstrate that the appearance of similar histograms is highly probable at the same time count off from the moments of equinoxes, independent from the geographic location where the measurements had been performed: in Pushchino, Moscow Region (54 deg NL, 37 deg EL, and in Novolazarevskaya, Antarctic (70 deg SL, 11 deg EL. The sequence of the changed histogram shapes observed at the spring equinoxes was found to be opposite to that observed at the autumnal equinoxes. As the moments of equinoxes are defined by the cross of the celestial equator by Sun, we also studied that weather is not the same as observed at the moments when the celestial equator was crossed by other celestial bodies - the Moon, Venus, Mars and Mercury. Let us, for simplicity, refer to these moments as a similar term "planetary equinoxes". The regularities observed at these "planetary equinoxes" had been found to be the same as in the case of true solar equinoxes. In this article, we confine ourselves to considering the phenomenological observations only; their theoretical interpretation is supposed to be subject of further studies.

  9. EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON CARDIAC STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: A TWIN STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urho M.Kujala

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that athletic training or other physical activity causes structural and functional adaptations in the heart, but less is known how long-term physical activity affects heart when genetic liability and childhood environment are taken into account. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term physical activity vs. inactivity on cardiac structure and function in twin pairs discordant for physical activity for 32 years. Twelve same-sex twin pairs (five monozygotic and seven dizygotic, 50-67 years were studied as a part of the TWINACTIVE study. Discordance in physical activity was initially determined in 1975 and it remained significant throughout the follow-up. At the end of the follow-up in 2007, resting echocardiographic and electrocardiographic measurements were performed. During the follow-up period, the active co-twins were on average 8.2 (SD 4.0 MET hours/day more active than their inactive co-twins (p < 0.001. At the end of the follow-up, resting heart rate was lower in the active than inactive co-twins [59 (SD 5 vs. 68 (SD 10 bpm, p=0.03]. The heart rate-corrected QT interval was similar between the co-twins. Also, there was a tendency for left ventricular mass per body weight to be greater and T wave amplitude in lead II to be higher in the active co-twins (18% and 15%, respectively, p=0.08 for both. Similar trends were found for both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. In conclusion, the main adaptation to long- term physical activity is lowered resting heart rate, even after partially or fully controlling for genetic liability and childhood environment

  10. Similarity solutions for phase-change problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canright, D.; Davis, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    A modification of Ivantsov's (1947) similarity solutions is proposed which can describe phase-change processes which are limited by diffusion. The method has application to systems that have n-components and possess cross-diffusion and Soret and Dufour effects, along with convection driven by density discontinuities at the two-phase interface. Local thermal equilibrium is assumed at the interface. It is shown that analytic solutions are possible when the material properties are constant.

  11. Effects of dexamethasone on palate mesenchymal cell phospholipase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulleit, R.F.; Zimmerman, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    Corticosteroids will induce cleft palate in mice. One suggested mechanism for this effect is through inhibition of phospholipase activity. This hypothesis was tested by measuring the effects of dexamethasone, a synthetic corticosteroid, on phospholipase activity in cultures of palate mesenchymal cells. Palate mesenchymal cells were prelabeled with [3H]arachidonic acid. The cells were subsequently treated with various concentrations of dexamethasone. Concurrently, cultures of M-MSV-transformed 3T3 cells were prepared identically. After treatment, phospholipase activity was stimulated by the addition of serum or epidermal growth factor (EGF), and radioactivity released into the medium was taken as a measure of phospholipase activity. Dexamethasone (1 X 10(-5) or 1 X 10(-4) M) could inhibit serum-stimulated phospholipase activity in transformed 3T3 cells after 1 to 24 hr of treatment. However, no inhibition of activity was measured in palate mesenchymal cells following this period of treatment. Not until 120 hr of treatment with dexamethasone (1 X 10(-4) M) was any significant inhibition of serum-stimulated phospholipase activity observed in palate mesenchymal cells. When EGF was used to stimulate phospholipase activity, dexamethasone (1 X 10(-5) M) caused an increase in phospholipase activity in palate mesenchymal cells. These observations suggested that phospholipase in transformed 3T3 cells was sensitive to inhibition by dexamethasone. However, palate mesenchymal cell phospholipase is only minimally sensitive to dexamethasone, and in certain instances can be enhanced. These results cannot support the hypothesis that corticosteroids mediate their teratogenic effect via inhibition of phospholipase activity

  12. Effective interactions between inclusions in an active bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaeifi Yamchi, Mahdi; Naji, Ali

    2017-11-01

    We study effective two- and three-body interactions between non-active colloidal inclusions in an active bath of chiral or non-chiral particles, using Brownian dynamics simulations within a standard, two-dimensional model of disk-shaped inclusions and active particles. In a non-chiral active bath, we first corroborate previous findings on effective two-body repulsion mediated between the inclusions by elucidating the detailed non-monotonic features of the two-body force profiles, including a primary maximum and a secondary hump at larger separations that was not previously reported. We then show that these features arise directly from the formation, and sequential overlaps, of circular layers (or "rings") of active particles around the inclusions, as the latter are brought to small surface separations. These rings extend to radial distances of a few active-particle radii from the surface of inclusions, giving the hard-core inclusions relatively thick, soft, repulsive "shoulders," whose multiple overlaps then enable significant (non-pairwise) three-body forces in both non-chiral and chiral active baths. The resulting three-body forces can even exceed the two-body forces in magnitude and display distinct repulsive and attractive regimes at intermediate to large self-propulsion strengths. In a chiral active bath, we show that, while active particles still tend to accumulate at the immediate vicinity of the inclusions, they exhibit strong depletion from the intervening region between the inclusions and partial depletion from relatively thick, circular zones further away from the inclusions. In this case, the effective, predominantly repulsive interactions between the inclusions turn to active, chirality-induced, depletion-type attractions, acting over an extended range of separations.

  13. Predicting the performance of fingerprint similarity searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Fingerprints are bit string representations of molecular structure that typically encode structural fragments, topological features, or pharmacophore patterns. Various fingerprint designs are utilized in virtual screening and their search performance essentially depends on three parameters: the nature of the fingerprint, the active compounds serving as reference molecules, and the composition of the screening database. It is of considerable interest and practical relevance to predict the performance of fingerprint similarity searching. A quantitative assessment of the potential that a fingerprint search might successfully retrieve active compounds, if available in the screening database, would substantially help to select the type of fingerprint most suitable for a given search problem. The method presented herein utilizes concepts from information theory to relate the fingerprint feature distributions of reference compounds to screening libraries. If these feature distributions do not sufficiently differ, active database compounds that are similar to reference molecules cannot be retrieved because they disappear in the "background." By quantifying the difference in feature distribution using the Kullback-Leibler divergence and relating the divergence to compound recovery rates obtained for different benchmark classes, fingerprint search performance can be quantitatively predicted.

  14. Study on the mechanism of the bronchodilatory effects of Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) and identification of the active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Maulik R; Bhalodia, Yagnik S; Pathak, Nimish L; Patel, Maulik S; Suthar, Kunal; Patel, Nilesh; Golwala, Dharmesh K; Jivani, Nurudin P

    2013-12-12

    In the traditional medicine, Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) is used in asthma, but scientific studies to provide evidence for medicinal uses are sparse. Thus this study was undertaken to provide evidence for medicinal use in asthma as a bronchodilator, and to identify active ingredient(s). In vivo, acetylcholine (Ach)-induced bronchospasm was conducted in guinea pig while isolated rat tracheal strip was suspended in organ bath to measure the concentration response curve using multichannel data acquisition system. The chloroform extract of Cynodon dactylon (CECD) protected against Ach-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs, similar to atropine. In the in vitro studies, CECD relaxed carbachol (CCh) and high K+-induced contraction of rat tracheal strip, similar to atropine and verapamil respectively, suggesting antimuscarinic and calcium channel blocking (CCB) activities, which were confirmed by right ward shifting of CCh and Ca(+2) concentration response curve (CRC). The phosphodiestrase (PDE) inhibitory activity was confirmed by potentiation of isoprenaline-induced inhibitory response, similar to papaverine. Densitometry analyses led to the identification of scopoletin as an active ingredient. Effectively, it significantly inhibited high K+, and Ca(+2) induced contractile response, similar to verapamil. The phosphodiestrase (PDE) inhibitory activity was confirmed by direct evidence of potentiation of isoprenaline-induced inhibitory response, similar to papaverine. These results suggest that the bronchodilator activity of CECD is partly due to presence of scopoletin, and mediated possibly through CCB and PDE inhibition.

  15. Active Video Games in Schools and Effects on Physical Activity and Health: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Emma; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    To assess the quality of evidence for the effects of school active video game (AVG) use on physical activity and health outcomes. Online databases (ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science) and gray literature were searched. Inclusion criteria were the use of AVGs in school settings as an intervention; assessment of at least 1 health or physical activity outcome; and comparison of outcomes with either a control group or comparison phase. Studies featuring AVGs within complex interventions were excluded. Study quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. Twenty-two reports were identified: 11 assessed physical activity outcomes only, 5 assessed motor skill outcomes only, and 6 assessed both physical activity and health outcomes. Nine out of 14 studies found greater physical activity in AVG sessions compared with controls; mostly assessed by objective measures in school time only. Motor skills were found to improve with AVGs vs controls in all studies but not compared with other motor skill interventions. Effects of AVGs on body composition were mixed. Study quality was low in 16 studies and moderate in the remaining 6, with insufficient detail given on blinding, participation rates, and confounding variables. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend AVGs as efficacious health interventions within schools. Higher quality AVG research utilizing randomized controlled trial designs, larger sample sizes, and validated activity measurements beyond the school day is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Motivation Effect of Active Labor Market Policy on Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johannes; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Tranæs, Torben

    This paper analyzes the motivation effect of activation programs on wages and employment. We utilize a reform of the Danish UI system in 1998 that reduced the period of unconditional benefits and thereby created exogenous variation in the probability of people entering a mandatory activation...... program. Wages are measured by their position in the overall wage distribution, and we estimate how this position reacts to an increased probability of an individual being enrolled in activation. The wage effect is estimated using a competing risk duration model with exit states to employment at a higher...... wage or a lower wage. Overall, we find an increased hazard of exit to employment and of exit to higher-paying jobs as the probability of activation increases, and no change in the exit rate to lower-paying jobs. These results do not hold for individuals with higher education, for whom we find...

  17. THE EFFECTS OF PANTOTHENIC ACID ON RESPIRATORY ACTIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, E F; Williams, R J

    1939-05-20

    Experiments using the Warburg-Barcroft apparatus led to the following results and conclusions: (1) Two yeasts in three different media were strikingly stimulated in their respiration by minute amounts of pantothenic acid. (2) Nine other compounds (vitamins and other biologically important substances) were tested and found in all cases to have on the deficient G.M. yeast, lesser and in some cases no appreciable stimulative effect. Thiamin was the most effective of these compounds. Its action was shown to be different and in some ways antagonistic to that of pantothenic acid. (3) Liver extract (Lilly's Number 343) contains substances capable of speeding up respiration (and growth) to a much higher level than seems possible with known compounds. (4) Pantothenic acid was found to have a definite stimulative effect on fermentation by dialyzed maceration juice from yeast. (5) It likewise stimulated respiration of apple and potato tissue and indications of a similar effect on certain animal tissues were obtained.

  18. Effects of intensity of facial expressions on amygdalar activation independently of valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Lin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For several stimulus categories (e.g., pictures, odors and words, the arousal of both negative and positive stimuli has been shown to modulate amygdalar activation. In contrast, previous studies did not observe similar amygdalar effects in response to negative and positive facial expressions with varying intensity of facial expressions. Reasons for this discrepancy may be related to analytical strategies, experimental design and stimuli. Therefore, the present study aimed at re-investigating whether the intensity of facial expressions modulates amygdalar activation by circumventing limitations of previous research. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to assess brain activation while participants observed a static neutral expression and positive (happy and negative (angry expressions of either high or low intensity from an ecologically valid, novel stimulus set. The ratings of arousal and intensity were highly correlated. We found that amygdalar activation followed a u-shaped activation pattern with highest activation to high intense facial expressions as compared to low intensity facial expressions and to the neutral expression irrespective of valence, suggesting a critical role of the amygdala in valence-independent arousal processing of facial expressions. Additionally, consistent with previous studies, intensity effects were also found in visual areas and generally increased activation to angry vs. happy faces were found in visual cortex and insula, indicating enhanced visual representations of high arousing facial expressions and increased visual and somatosensory representations of threat.

  19. A Study on the Maintenance Effectiveness Assessment for Active Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Woo Sang; Oh, Seung Jong

    2006-01-01

    One of the key tasks in the periodic safety review (PSR) of nuclear power plant is to assess the aging management of structures, systems and components (SSC). The evaluation can be categorized by two parts, passive and active components. Unlike the passive components, active components are periodically maintained and replaced with new components, so the evaluation of aging mechanism of the passive components such as erosion, corrosion is not applicable to the evaluation of active components of nuclear power plant. For active components, they will maintain capability to fulfill its design function if preventive maintenance effectiveness is proper. In this paper, the assessment based on the reliability and availability of the active components of the domestic nuclear power plants is examined

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on antioxidant activity of Amoora rohitaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Gaikwad, K.N.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of a medium dose of gamma radiation on antioxidant activity of Amoora rohitaka was studied. Radiation doses were 0, 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Antioxidant activity was screened by using different assay. With increasing dose the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contributes to the increase in the antioxidant activity. MRPs are formed as a result of Maillard reaction. In ABTS [2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid di-ammonium salt] assay, ethanol extract showed increase in scavenging activity. It also showed a marked increase in polyphenolic contents. The present study reveals that gamma irradiation can be an efficient process to increase antioxidant activity of Amoora rohitaka. (author)

  1. Effects of diet composition on mutagenic activity in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Tsugio

    2004-01-01

    The effects of dietary habits on mutagenic activity in urine were investigated using the umu test based on the use of the genetically engineered bacteria Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535 pSK1002. Genotoxic effects in sample urine were detected by measuring the activation of the SOS response in the bacteria and recording the beta- galactosidase activity. Human subjects consisted of smokers and non-smokers. Urine from subjects who consumed fish showed the highest mutagenic activity, followed by the urine samples from subjects who ate pork or beef. Chicken induced a low level of mutagenic activity. When the subjects ate fried or roasted animal foods, the urine samples gave higher mutagenicity than the urine samples from the subject who consumed non-fried or non-roasted animal foods. When the subject ate vegetables along with a diet rich in animal foods, the activity in urine decreased. Herbs and spices gave the same tendency toward decline as vegetables. Non-smoker urine shower mutagenic activity than samples from smokers.

  2. Indirect wrist MR arthrography: the effects of passive motion versus active exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.E.; Natale, P.; Winalski, C.S.; Culp, R. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. In the wrist, to determine whether passive motion or active exercise yields a better indirect MR arthrographic effect following intravenous gadolinium administration.Design and patients. Twenty-six consecutive patients were studied by indirect wrist MR arthrography. In half active exercise and in half passive motion was performed. Four regions of interest were studied including the distal radioulnar joint, the radiocarpal joint, the midcarpal joint, and the triangular fibrocartilage. Ranges and means of signal intensity were calculated. Surgical follow-up was performed in 22 patients.Results. The joint fluid intensity was greatest in the distal radioulnar joint. Fluid signal intensity was greater and more consistent in the passive motion group although the results did not achieve statistical significance. Imaging accuracy appeared similar in the two groups and was excellent for the triangular fibrocartilage (100%) and scapholunate ligaments (96%).Conclusion. Active exercise and passive motion yield similar degrees of wrist arthrographic effect, but the effect of passive motion is somewhat more consistent. Preliminary data show good accuracy for internal derangements. (orig.)

  3. Social values as arguments: similar is convincing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Gregory R.; Hahn, Ulrike; Frost, John-Mark; Kuppens, Toon; Rehman, Nadia; Kamble, Shanmukh

    2014-01-01

    Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., “equality leads to freedom”). Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness. PMID:25147529

  4. Social Values as Arguments: Similar is Convincing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R Maio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., equality leads to freedom. Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness.

  5. Effect of balanced low pressure drying of curcuma longa leaf on skin immune activation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wooseok; Lim, Hye Won; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2014-01-01

    The effect of balanced low pressure drying pretreatment associated with ultrasonication extraction (BU) on the enhancement of skin immune modulatory activities of Curcuma longa leaf was studied by comparing with conventional hot air drying (HE), freeze drying (FE) and balanced low pressure drying (BE) pretreatment processes. In considering skin immune activation activities such as the inhibition of hyaluronidase activity, the BU extract showed ca. 10% higher than those of HE, and even higher than that of the FE extract. Nitric oxide production from macrophage of the BU extract in adding 1.0 mg/mL was increased up to 16.5 μM. When measuring inhibition of IL-6 and TNF-a production from the human T lymphocytes (T cell), the BU extract also showed 53% and 78% of inhibition effect, respectively. It is found that the BU extract could effectively suppress the expression levels of skin inflammation related genes such as Cox-2 and iNOS, down to 80% and 85% compared to the control, respectively. Balanced low pressure drying process was especially active on dehydration of the leaves with minimizing the destruction and making easier elution of the bioactive substances, which resulted in higher extraction yield and better biological activities.

  6. "I am active": effects of a program to promote active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Arias-Merino, Elva Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Active aging involves a general lifestyle strategy that allows preservation of both physical and mental health during the aging process. "I am Active" is a program designed to promote active aging by increased physical activity, healthy nutritional habits, and cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this program. Sixty-four healthy adults aged 60 years or older were recruited from senior centers and randomly allocated to an experimental group (n=31) or a control group (n=33). Baseline, post-test, and 6-month follow-up assessments were performed after the theoretical-practical intervention. Effect sizes were calculated. At the conclusion of the program, the experimental group showed significant improvement compared with the control group in the following domains: physical activity (falls risk, balance, flexibility, self-efficacy), nutrition (self-efficacy and nutritional status), cognitive performance (processing speed and self-efficacy), and quality of life (general, health and functionality, social and economic status). Although some declines were reported, improvements at follow-up remained in self-efficacy for physical activity, self-efficacy for nutrition, and processing speed, and participants had better nutritional status and quality of life overall. Our findings show that this program promotes improvements in domains of active aging, mainly in self-efficacy beliefs as well as in quality of life in healthy elders.

  7. Similarity, trust in institutions, affect, and populism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Finucane, Melissa L.

    -based evaluations are fundamental to human information processing, they can contribute significantly to other judgments (such as the risk, cost-effectiveness, trustworthiness) of the same stimulus object. Although deliberation and analysis are certainly important in some decision-making circumstances, reliance...... on affect is a quicker, easier, and a more efficient way of navigating in a complex and uncertain world. Hence, many theorists give affect a direct and primary role in motivating behavior. Taken together, the results provide uncannily strong support for the value-similarity hypothesis, strengthening...... types of information about gene technology. The materials were attributed to different institutions. The results indicated that participants' trust in an institution was a function of the similarity between the position advocated in the materials and participants' own attitudes towards gene technology...

  8. The Effect of "Rogue" Active Regions on the Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Melinda; Lemerle, Alexandre; Labonville, François; Petrovay, Kristóf; Charbonneau, Paul

    2017-11-01

    The origin of cycle-to-cycle variations in solar activity is currently the focus of much interest. It has recently been pointed out that large individual active regions with atypical properties can have a significant impact on the long-term behavior of solar activity. We investigate this possibility in more detail using a recently developed 2×2D dynamo model of the solar magnetic cycle. We find that even a single "rogue" bipolar magnetic region (BMR) in the simulations can have a major effect on the further development of solar activity cycles, boosting or suppressing the amplitude of subsequent cycles. In extreme cases, an individual BMR can completely halt the dynamo, triggering a grand minimum. Rogue BMRs also have the potential to induce significant hemispheric asymmetries in the solar cycle. To study the effect of rogue BMRs in a more systematic manner, a series of dynamo simulations were conducted, in which a large test BMR was manually introduced in the model at various phases of cycles of different amplitudes. BMRs emerging in the rising phase of a cycle can modify the amplitude of the ongoing cycle, while BMRs emerging in later phases will only affect subsequent cycles. In this model, the strongest effect on the subsequent cycle occurs when the rogue BMR emerges around cycle maximum at low latitudes, but the BMR does not need to be strictly cross-equatorial. Active regions emerging as far as 20° from the equator can still have a significant effect. We demonstrate that the combined effect of the magnetic flux, tilt angle, and polarity separation of the BMR on the dynamo is via their contribution to the dipole moment, δ D_{BMR}. Our results indicate that prediction of the amplitude, starting epoch, and duration of a cycle requires an accurate accounting of a broad range of active regions emerging in the previous cycle.

  9. Current evidence demonstrates similar effects of kilohertz-frequency and low-frequency current on quadriceps evoked torque and discomfort in healthy individuals: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vinicius Zacarias Maldaner; Durigan, João Luiz Quaglioti; Arena, Ross; de Noronha, Marcos; Gurney, Burke; Cipriano, Gerson

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is widely utilized to enhance muscle performance. However, the optimal NMES waveform with respect to treatment effect has not been established. To investigate the effects of kilohertz-frequency alternating current (KFAC) and low-frequency pulsed current (PC) on quadriceps evoked torque and self-reported discomfort. PubMed, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), SinoMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and CINAHL were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized controlled trials (QRCTs). Two reviewers independently selected potential studies according to the inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality. Studies were eligible if they compared KFAC versus PC interventions. Studies that included outcome measures for percentage of maximal isometric voluntary contraction (%MIVC) torque and self-reported discomfort level were eligible for evaluation. Seven studies involving 127 individuals were included. The methodological quality of eligible trials was moderate, with a mean of 5 on the 10-point PEDro scale. Overall, PC was no better than KFAC in terms of evoked torque and there was no difference in self-reported discomfort level. KFAC and PC have similar effects on quadriceps evoked torque and self-reported discomfort level in healthy individuals. The small number and overall methodological quality of currently available studies included in this meta-analysis indicate that new RCTs are needed to better determine optimal NMES treatment parameters.

  10. Acellular dermal matrix loading with bFGF achieves similar acceleration of bone regeneration to BMP-2 via differential effects on recruitment, proliferation and sustained osteodifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Mi; Zhu, Ting; Duan, Xiaoqi; Ge, Shaohua; Li, Ning; Sun, Qinfeng; Yang, Pishan

    2017-01-01

    New generation of barrier membranes has been developed, which not only act as barriers but also as delivery devices to release specific growth factors. This study observed biological behaviors of bone morrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) pretreated by bFGF or BMP-2 in vitro and evaluated differential bone regeneration process induced by bFGF and BMP-2 loaded acellular dermal matrix (ADM) membrane using critical-size rat calvarial defect model in vivo. The results showed that the proliferation capability of BMMSCs pretreated by bFGF was stronger than that by BMP-2, while there was temporally differential effect of bFGF and BMP-2 pretreatment on MSC osteogenic differentiation potentials. During healing process of rat calvarial defects, 2-fold more CD34 −/CD90 + MSCs in group of bFGF-ADM was observed than in any other treatment group at 2 weeks. However, there were similar amount of new bone formation and expression of osteopotin in newly-formed bone tissue in groups of bFGF- and BMP-2-ADM at 8 weeks, which were more than those in ADM alone and blank control. Taken together, bFGF-ADM guided similar bone regeneration to BMP-2 through more efficient recruitment of MSCs, and moreover, BMMSCs pretreated by bFGF showed stronger proliferation at 1–5 days and osteogenic differentiation potentials at 14 days compared with BMP-2 pretreatment. - Highlights: • An improved barrier membrane used in the field of bone tissue engineering was proposed, which is acellular dermal matrix (ADM) loaded with growth factors. • It is generally agreed that BMP-2 and -7 provide the greatest bone regeneration potentials, however, we found that ADM loading with bFGF could guide similar bone regeneration to BMP-2. • Compared with BMP-2, bFGF could more effectively recruit MSCs and moreover, BMMSCs pretreated by bFGF showed out stronger proliferation at 1-5 days and osteogenic differentiation potentials at 14 days.

  11. Effect of electromagnetic fields on the bacteria bioluminescent activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzhanskaya, L.Yu.; Berzhanskij, V.N.; Beloplotova, O.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of electromagnetic field with frequency from 36.2 to 55.9 GHz on bioluminescence activity of bacterium were investigated. Electromagnetic field results in decrease of bioluminescence, which depends from frequency. The electromagnetic field adaptation time is higher of intrinsic time parameters of bioluminescence system. The effect has nonthermal nature. It is suggested that electromagnetic field influence connects with structure rearrangements near cell emitter. 8 refs.; 3 figs

  12. Sensitivity and Specificity of Hypnosis Effects on Gastric Myoelectrical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enck, Paul; Weimer, Katja; Muth, Eric R.; Zipfel, Stephan; Martens, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The effects of hypnosis on physiological (gastrointestinal) functions are incompletely understood, and it is unknown whether they are hypnosis-specific and gut-specific, or simply unspecific effects of relaxation. Design Sixty-two healthy female volunteers were randomly assigned to either a single session of hypnotic suggestion of ingesting an appetizing meal and an unappetizing meal, or to relax and concentrate on having an appetizing or unappetizing meal, while the electrogastrogram (EGG) was recorded. At the end of the session, participants drank water until they felt full, in order to detect EGG-signal changes after ingestion of a true gastric load. During both conditions participants reported their subjective well-being, hunger and disgust at several time points. Results Imagining eating food induced subjective feelings of hunger and disgust as well as changes in the EGG similar to, but more pronounced than those seen with a real gastric water load during both hypnosis and relaxation conditions. These effects were more pronounced when imagining an appetizing meal than with an unappetizing meal. There was no significant difference between the hypnosis and relaxation conditions. Conclusion Imagination with and without hypnosis exhibits similar changes in subjective and objective measures in response to imagining an appetizing and an unappetizing food, indicating high sensitivity but low specificity. PMID:24358287

  13. Effect of activated sludge culture conditions on Waxberry wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang; He, Lingfeng; Zhang, Yongli

    2018-03-01

    Treated activated sludge is suitable for the treatment of wastewater. Biochemical method is used to treat the wastewater, and the influence of time on the COD index is investigated. The results showed that time had a significant effect on COD, and then affected the performance of activated sludge. Under different time, according to the order of time from short to long, COD decreases in turn. Under the action of activated sludge, the degradation of myrica rubra wastewater samples, after 25 h aeration for 96 h, the effect is better. Under this condition, the COD value was reduced at 72 mg/L, and the COD removal efficiency of myrica rubra wastewater was up to 93.39 %, and reached the two level discharge standard of municipal wastewater treatment.

  14. Yoga Effects on Physical Activity and Sexual Satisfaction among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and disabling disease resulting in disabilities in young and middle-aged persons. In this study, researchers explored the effect of yoga techniques on physical activities and sexual function among some Iranian women with MS. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 Iranian ...

  15. The Interactive Effect of Outdoor Activities and School Location on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Interactive Effect of Outdoor Activities and School Location on Senior Secondary Students' Environmental Problem Solving Skills in Biology. ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  16. Antiproliferation effects and antioxidant activity of two new Lactobacillus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Shokryazdan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The microorganisms most commonly used as probiotics are lactic acid bacteria, especially those of the genus Lactobacillus. In the present study, two Lactobacillus strains, L. pentosus ITA23 and L. acidipiscis ITA44, previously isolated from mulberry silage, were characterized for their antiproliferative and antioxidant activities. The antiproliferative effects of the strains were investigated using the MTT assay with breast cancer (MDA-MB-231, liver cancer (HepG2 and normal liver (Chang cell lines. The strains were tested for their antioxidant activity using the FRAP and ABTS methods. The results showed that the two Lactobacillus strains had good antiproliferative effects against both cancer cell lines tested, while their effects on the normal cells were weak. Based on the results of the antioxidant tests, the intact cells and cell-free extracts of the two Lactobacillus strains showed more than 135 and less than 50 µg trolox/ml of antioxidant activity, respectively. Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and L. acidipiscis ITA44 can be considered as potential probiotic candidates for humans because of their antioxidant activity and antiproliferation effects against cancer cells.

  17. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  18. Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves effective against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves effective against two leukemias and a hepatocarcinoma. Mutasim M. Khalafalla, Eltayb Abdellatef, Hussain Mohammed Dafalla, Amr A. Nassrallah, Khalid M. Aboul-Enein, David A. Lightfoot, Fadl E. El-Deeb, Hany A. El-Shemy ...

  19. Unintended effects were investigated in antioxidant activity between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other than the targeted approach on compositional analysis, non-targeted approaches on genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are developing to search for unintended effects with respect to genetically modified (GM) food safety assessments. Antioxidant activity system was closely related with plant growth and ...

  20. Ileal brake activation: Macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of