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Sample records for activity recorded simultaneously

  1. Procedure for recording the simultaneous activity of single neurons distributed across cortical areas during sensory discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Adrián; Nácher, Verónica; Luna, Rogelio; Alvarez, Manuel; Zainos, Antonio; Cordero, Silvia; Camarillo, Liliana; Vázquez, Yuriria; Lemus, Luis; Romo, Ranulfo

    2008-01-01

    We report a procedure for recording the simultaneous activity of single neurons distributed across five cortical areas in behaving monkeys. The procedure consists of a commercially available microdrive adapted to a commercially available neural data collection system. The critical advantage of this procedure is that, in each cortical area, a configuration of seven microelectrodes spaced 250–500 μm can be inserted transdurally and each can be moved independently in the z axis. For each microelectrode, the data collection system can record the activity of up to five neurons together with the local field potential (LFP). With this procedure, we normally monitor the simultaneous activity of 70–100 neurons while trained monkeys discriminate the difference in frequency between two vibrotactile stimuli. Approximately 20–60 of these neurons have response properties previously reported in this task. The neuronal recordings show good signal-to-noise ratio, are remarkably stable along a 1-day session, and allow testing several protocols. Microelectrodes are removed from the brain after a 1-day recording session, but are reinserted again the next day by using the same or different x-y microelectrode array configurations. The fact that microelectrodes can be moved in the z axis during the recording session and that the x-y configuration can be changed from day to day maximizes the probability of studying simultaneous interactions, both local and across distant cortical areas, between neurons associated with the different components of this task. PMID:18946031

  2. Simultaneous multi-patch-clamp and extracellular-array recordings: Single neuron reflects network activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Roni; Goldental, Amir; Sardi, Shira; Sheinin, Anton; Kanter, Ido

    2016-11-01

    The increasing number of recording electrodes enhances the capability of capturing the network’s cooperative activity, however, using too many monitors might alter the properties of the measured neural network and induce noise. Using a technique that merges simultaneous multi-patch-clamp and multi-electrode array recordings of neural networks in-vitro, we show that the membrane potential of a single neuron is a reliable and super-sensitive probe for monitoring such cooperative activities and their detailed rhythms. Specifically, the membrane potential and the spiking activity of a single neuron are either highly correlated or highly anti-correlated with the time-dependent macroscopic activity of the entire network. This surprising observation also sheds light on the cooperative origin of neuronal burst in cultured networks. Our findings present an alternative flexible approach to the technique based on a massive tiling of networks by large-scale arrays of electrodes to monitor their activity.

  3. Simultaneous EMG-Functional MRI Recordings Can Directly Relate Hyperkinetic Movements to Brain Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Maurits, Natasha M.; Renken, Remco; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Hoogduin, Johannes M.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To apply and validate the use of electromyogram (EMG) recorded during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with movement disorders, to directly relate involuntary movements to brain activity. Methods: Eight "familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy" (FCMTE) pat

  4. Brain activity underlying auditory perceptual learning during short period training: simultaneous fMRI and EEG recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Ana Cláudia Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an accumulating body of evidence indicating that neuronal functional specificity to basic sensory stimulation is mutable and subject to experience. Although fMRI experiments have investigated changes in brain activity after relative to before perceptual learning, brain activity during perceptual learning has not been explored. This work investigated brain activity related to auditory frequency discrimination learning using a variational Bayesian approach for source localization, during simultaneous EEG and fMRI recording. We investigated whether the practice effects are determined solely by activity in stimulus-driven mechanisms or whether high-level attentional mechanisms, which are linked to the perceptual task, control the learning process. Results The results of fMRI analyses revealed significant attention and learning related activity in left and right superior temporal gyrus STG as well as the left inferior frontal gyrus IFG. Current source localization of simultaneously recorded EEG data was estimated using a variational Bayesian method. Analysis of current localized to the left inferior frontal gyrus and the right superior temporal gyrus revealed gamma band activity correlated with behavioral performance. Conclusions Rapid improvement in task performance is accompanied by plastic changes in the sensory cortex as well as superior areas gated by selective attention. Together the fMRI and EEG results suggest that gamma band activity in the right STG and left IFG plays an important role during perceptual learning.

  5. Relationship between regional hemodynamic activity and simultaneously recorded EEG-theta associated with mental arithmetic-induced workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammer, Gebhard; Blecker, Carlo; Gebhardt, Helge; Bischoff, Matthias; Stark, Rudolf; Morgen, Katrin; Vaitl, Dieter

    2007-08-01

    Theta increases with workload and is associated with numerous processes including working memory, problem solving, encoding, or self monitoring. These processes, in turn, involve numerous structures of the brain. However, the relationship between regional brain activity and the occurrence of theta remains unclear. In the present study, simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings were used to investigate the functional topography of theta. EEG-theta was enhanced by mental arithmetic-induced workload. For the EEG-constrained fMRI analysis, theta-reference time-series were extracted from the EEG, reflecting the strength of theta occurrence during the time course of the experiment. Theta occurrence was mainly associated with activation of the insular cortex, hippocampus, superior temporal areas, cingulate cortex, superior parietal, and frontal areas. Though observation of temporal and insular activation is in accord with the theory that theta specifically reflects encoding processes, the involvement of several other brain regions implies that surface-recorded theta represents comprehensive functional brain states rather than specific processes in the brain. The results provide further evidence for the concept that emergent theta band oscillations represent dynamic functional binding of widely distributed cortical assemblies, essential for cognitive processing. This binding process may form the source of surface-recorded EEG theta. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Flight and seizure motor patterns in Drosophila mutants: simultaneous acoustic and electrophysiological recordings of wing beats and flight muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Atulya; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tethered flies allow studies of biomechanics and electrophysiology of flight control. We performed microelectrode recordings of spikes in an indirect flight muscle (the dorsal longitudinal muscle, DLMa) coupled with acoustic analysis of wing beat frequency (WBF) via microphone signals. Simultaneous electrophysiological recording of direct and indirect flight muscles has been technically challenging; however, the WBF is thought to reflect in a one-to-one relationship with spiking activity in a subset of direct flight muscles, including muscle m1b. Therefore, our approach enables systematic mutational analysis for changes in temporal features of electrical activity of motor neurons innervating subsets of direct and indirect flight muscles. Here, we report the consequences of specific ion channel disruptions on the spiking activity of myogenic DLMs (firing at ∼5 Hz) and the corresponding WBF (∼200 Hz). We examined mutants of the genes enconding: 1) voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (cacophony, cac), 2) Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (slowpoke, slo), and 3) voltage-gated K(+) channels (Shaker, Sh) and their auxiliary subunits (Hyperkinetic, Hk and quiver, qvr). We found flight initiation in response to an air puff was severely disrupted in both cac and slo mutants. However, once initiated, slo flight was largely unaltered, whereas cac displayed disrupted DLM firing rates and WBF. Sh, Hk, and qvr mutants were able to maintain normal DLM firing rates, despite increased WBF. Notably, defects in the auxiliary subunits encoded by Hk and qvr could lead to distinct consequences, that is, disrupted DLM firing rhythmicity, not observed in Sh. Our mutant analysis of direct and indirect flight muscle activities indicates that the two motor activity patterns may be independently modified by specific ion channel mutations, and that this approach can be extended to other dipteran species and additional motor programs, such as electroconvulsive stimulation-induced seizures.

  7. The measurement of tremor using a velocity transducer: comparison to simultaneous recordings using transducers of displacement, acceleration and muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, K E; Edwards, R; Beuter, A

    1999-10-15

    Precise kinematic measurements of tremor have historically been obtained using accelerometers. However, current technology permits precise measurements in velocity and displacement. The primary advantage of velocity recording is that only one step of integration or differentiation is required for either displacement or acceleration. A method is presented of measuring finger tremor using a laser system that transduces velocity precisely. Measurements of postural finger tremor thus obtained were compared to those simultaneously obtained from a laser system that transduces displacement, from an accelerometer and from surface electromyography (EMG) of the extensor digitorum communis. A range of amplitude and frequency content was obtained by testing control subjects and subjects with Parkinson's disease. The velocity transducer showed excellent correspondence of amplitude and frequency measurement with the displacement transducer. Measures of absolute and relative amplitude correlated well (r > or = 0.96 in amplitude measures in displacement, velocity and acceleration), and high coherence was found throughout the frequency range of interest. Measurements by the accelerometer generally showed poorer correspondence with those of the other instruments. EMG measurements showed good correspondence in some trials but poorer correspondence in others, attributed to the low level of muscle activity required in the task. Precise kinematic measurements appear to be highly sensitive to neuromotor impairment.

  8. Simultaneous recording of ECoG and intracortical neuronal activity using a flexible multichannel electrode-mesh in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Haruo; Suzuki, Takafumi; Sawahata, Hirohito; Majima, Kei; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Hasegawa, Isao

    2011-01-01

    Electrocorticogram (ECoG) is a well-balanced methodology for stably mapping brain surface local field potentials (LFPs) over a wide cortical region with high signal fidelity and minimal invasiveness to the brain tissue. To directly compare surface ECoG signals with intracortical neuronal activity immediately underneath, we fabricated a flexible multichannel electrode array with mesh-form structure using micro-electro-mechanical systems. A Parylene-C-based "electrode-mesh" for rats contained a 6×6 gold electrode array with 1-mm interval. Specifically, the probe had 800×800 μm(2) fenestrae in interelectrode spaces, through which simultaneous penetration of microelectrode was capable. This electrode-mesh was placed acutely or chronically on the dural/pial surface of the visual cortex of Long-Evans rats for up to 2 weeks. We obtained reliable trial-wise profiles of visually evoked ECoG signals through individual eye stimulation. Visually evoked ECoG signals from the electrode-mesh exhibited as well or larger signal amplitudes as intracortical LFPs and less across-trial variability than conventional silver-ball ECoG. Ocular selectivity of ECoG responses was correlated with that of intracortical spike/LFP activities. Moreover, single-trial ECoG signals carried sufficient information for predicting the stimulated eye with a correct performance approaching 90%, and the decoding was significantly generalized across sessions over 6 hours. Electrode impedance or signal quality did not obviously deteriorate for 2 weeks following implantation. These findings open up a methodology to directly explore ECoG signals with reference to intracortical neuronal sources and would provide a key to developing minimally invasive next-generation brain-machine interfaces.

  9. Neural Activity Elicited by a Cognitive Task can be Detected in Single-Trials with Simultaneous Intracerebral EEG-fMRI Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saignavongs, Mani; Ciumas, Carolina; Petton, Mathilde; Bouet, Romain; Boulogne, Sébastien; Rheims, Sylvain; Carmichael, David W; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that it is feasible to record simultaneously intracerebral EEG (icEEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with epilepsy. While it has mainly been used to explore the hemodynamic changes associated with epileptic spikes, this approach could also provide new insight into human cognition. However, the first step is to ensure that cognitive EEG components, that have lower amplitudes than epileptic spikes, can be appropriately detected under fMRI. We compared the high frequency activities (HFA, 50-150[Formula: see text]Hz) elicited by a reading task in icEEG-only and subsequent icEEG-fMRI in the same patients ([Formula: see text]), implanted with depth electrodes. Comparable responses were obtained, with 71% of the recording sites that responded during the icEEG-only session also responding during the icEEG-fMRI session. For all the remaining sites, nearby clusters (distant of 7[Formula: see text]mm or less) also demonstrated significant HFA increase during the icEEG-fMRI session. Significant HFA increases were also observable at the single-trial level in icEEG-fMRI recordings. Our results show that low-amplitude icEEG signal components such as cognitive-induced HFAs can be reliably recorded with simultaneous fMRI. This paves the way for the use of icEEG-fMRI to address various fundamental and clinical issues, notably the identification of the neural correlates of the BOLD signal.

  10. Brain activity underlying auditory perceptual learning during short period training: simultaneous fMRI and EEG recording

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There is an accumulating body of evidence indicating that neuronal functional specificity to basic sensory stimulation is mutable and subject to experience. Although fMRI experiments have investigated changes in brain activity after relative to before perceptual learning, brain activity during perceptual learning has not been explored. This work investigated brain activity related to auditory frequency discrimination learning using a variational Bayesian approach for sourc...

  11. Searching for learning-dependent changes in the antennal lobe: simultaneous recording of neural activity and aversive olfactory learning in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Roussel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity in the honeybee brain has been studied using the appetitive olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex, in which a bee learns the association between an odor and a sucrose reward. In this framework, coupling behavioral measurements of proboscis extension and invasive recordings of neural activity has been difficult because proboscis movements usually introduce brain movements that affect physiological preparations. Here we took advantage of a new conditioning protocol, the aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, which does not generate this problem. We achieved the first simultaneous recordings of conditioned sting extension responses and calcium imaging of antennal lobe activity, thus revealing on-line processing of olfactory information during conditioning trials. Based on behavioral output we distinguished learners and non-learners and analyzed possible learning-dependent changes in antennal lobe activity. We did not find differences between glomerular responses to the CS+ and the CS- in learners. Unexpectedly, we found that during conditioning trials non-learners exhibited a progressive decrease in physiological responses to odors, irrespective of their valence. This effect could neither be attributed to a fitness problem nor to abnormal dye bleaching. We discuss the absence of learning-induced changes in the antennal lobe of learners and the decrease in calcium responses found in non-learners. Further studies will have to extend the search for functional plasticity related to aversive learning to other brain areas and to look on a broader range of temporal scales

  12. Simultaneous electrophysiological recording and calcium imaging of suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Robert P; Allen, Charles N

    2013-12-08

    Simultaneous electrophysiological and fluorescent imaging recording methods were used to study the role of changes of membrane potential or current in regulating the intracellular calcium concentration. Changing environmental conditions, such as the light-dark cycle, can modify neuronal and neural network activity and the expression of a family of circadian clock genes within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the location of the master circadian clock in the mammalian brain. Excitatory synaptic transmission leads to an increase in the postsynaptic Ca(2+) concentration that is believed to activate the signaling pathways that shifts the rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes. Hypothalamic slices containing the SCN were patch clamped using microelectrodes filled with an internal solution containing the calcium indicator bis-fura-2. After a seal was formed between the microelectrode and the SCN neuronal membrane, the membrane was ruptured using gentle suction and the calcium probe diffused into the neuron filling both the soma and dendrites. Quantitative ratiometric measurements of the intracellular calcium concentration were recorded simultaneously with membrane potential or current. Using these methods it is possible to study the role of changes of the intracellular calcium concentration produced by synaptic activity and action potential firing of individual neurons. In this presentation we demonstrate the methods to simultaneously record electrophysiological activity along with intracellular calcium from individual SCN neurons maintained in brain slices.

  13. Simultaneous optical recording in multiple cells by digital holographic microscopy of chloride current associated to activation of the ligand-gated chloride channel GABA(A) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Pascal; Boss, Daniel; Rappaz, Benjamin; Moratal, Corinne; Hernandez, Maria-Clemencia; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre Julius; Marquet, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a group of targets for major clinical indications. However, molecular screening for chloride channel modulators has proven to be difficult and time-consuming as approaches essentially rely on the use of fluorescent dyes or invasive patch-clamp techniques which do not lend themselves to the screening of large sets of compounds. To address this problem, we have developed a non-invasive optical method, based on digital holographic microcopy (DHM), allowing monitoring of ion channel activity without using any electrode or fluorescent dye. To illustrate this approach, GABA(A) mediated chloride currents have been monitored with DHM. Practically, we show that DHM can non-invasively provide the quantitative determination of transmembrane chloride fluxes mediated by the activation of chloride channels associated with GABA(A) receptors. Indeed through an original algorithm, chloride currents elicited by application of appropriate agonists of the GABA(A) receptor can be derived from the quantitative phase signal recorded with DHM. Finally, chloride currents can be determined and pharmacologically characterized non-invasively simultaneously on a large cellular sampling by DHM.

  14. Simultaneous optical recording in multiple cells by digital holographic microscopy of chloride current associated to activation of the ligand-gated chloride channel GABA(A receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Jourdain

    Full Text Available Chloride channels represent a group of targets for major clinical indications. However, molecular screening for chloride channel modulators has proven to be difficult and time-consuming as approaches essentially rely on the use of fluorescent dyes or invasive patch-clamp techniques which do not lend themselves to the screening of large sets of compounds. To address this problem, we have developed a non-invasive optical method, based on digital holographic microcopy (DHM, allowing monitoring of ion channel activity without using any electrode or fluorescent dye. To illustrate this approach, GABA(A mediated chloride currents have been monitored with DHM. Practically, we show that DHM can non-invasively provide the quantitative determination of transmembrane chloride fluxes mediated by the activation of chloride channels associated with GABA(A receptors. Indeed through an original algorithm, chloride currents elicited by application of appropriate agonists of the GABA(A receptor can be derived from the quantitative phase signal recorded with DHM. Finally, chloride currents can be determined and pharmacologically characterized non-invasively simultaneously on a large cellular sampling by DHM.

  15. Vessel Activity Record

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Activity Record is a bi-weekly spreadsheet that shows the status of fishing vessels. It records whether fishing vessels are fishing without an observer...

  16. Chronic neural probe for simultaneous recording of single-unit, multi-unit, and local field potential activity from multiple brain sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothof, F.; Bonini, L.; Lanzilotto, M.; Livi, A.; Fogassi, L.; Orban, G. A.; Paul, O.; Ruther, P.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Drug resistant focal epilepsy can be treated by resecting the epileptic focus requiring a precise focus localisation using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) probes. As commercial SEEG probes offer only a limited spatial resolution, probes of higher channel count and design freedom enabling the incorporation of macro and microelectrodes would help increasing spatial resolution and thus open new perspectives for investigating mechanisms underlying focal epilepsy and its treatment. This work describes a new fabrication process for SEEG probes with materials and dimensions similar to clinical probes enabling recording single neuron activity at high spatial resolution. Approach. Polyimide is used as a biocompatible flexible substrate into which platinum electrodes and leads are integrated with a minimal feature size of 5 μm. The polyimide foils are rolled into the cylindrical probe shape at a diameter of 0.8 mm. The resulting probe features match those of clinically approved devices. Tests in saline solution confirmed the probe stability and functionality. Probes were implanted into the brain of one monkey (Macaca mulatta), trained to perform different motor tasks. Suitable configurations including up to 128 electrode sites allow the recording of task-related neuronal signals. Main results. Probes with 32 and 64 electrode sites were implanted in the posterior parietal cortex. Local field potentials and multi-unit activity were recorded as early as one hour after implantation. Stable single-unit activity was achieved for up to 26 days after implantation of a 64-channel probe. All recorded signals showed modulation during task execution. Significance. With the novel probes it is possible to record stable biologically relevant data over a time span exceeding the usual time needed for epileptic focus localisation in human patients. This is the first time that single units are recorded along cylindrical polyimide probes chronically implanted 22 mm deep into the

  17. Diagnostic Role of ECG Recording Simultaneously With EEG Testing.

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    Kendirli, Mustafa Tansel; Aparci, Mustafa; Kendirli, Nurten; Tekeli, Hakan; Karaoglan, Mustafa; Senol, Mehmet Guney; Togrol, Erdem

    2015-07-01

    Arrhythmia is not uncommon in the etiology of syncope which mimics epilepsy. Data about the epilepsy induced vagal tonus abnormalities have being increasingly reported. So we aimed to evaluate what a neurologist may gain by a simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) recording in the patients who underwent EEG testing due to prediagnosis of epilepsy. We retrospectively evaluated and detected ECG abnormalities in 68 (18%) of 376 patients who underwent EEG testing. A minimum of 20 of minutes artifact-free recording were required for each patient. Standard 1-channel ECG was simultaneously recorded in conjunction with the EEG. In all, 28% of females and 14% of males had ECG abnormalities. Females (mean age 49 years, range 18-88 years) were older compared with the male group (mean age 28 years, range 16-83 years). Atrial fibrillation was more frequent in female group whereas bradycardia and respiratory sinus arrhythmia was higher in male group. One case had been detected a critical asystole indicating sick sinus syndrome in the female group and treated with a pacemaker implantation in the following period. Simultaneous ECG recording in conjunction with EEG testing is a clinical prerequisite to detect and to clarify the coexisting ECG and EEG abnormalities and their clinical relevance. Potentially rare lethal causes of syncope that mimic seizure or those that could cause resistance to antiepileptic therapy could effectively be distinguished by detecting ECG abnormalities coinciding with the signs and abnormalities during EEG recording.

  18. SIMULTANEOUS RECORDING OF FRINGE PATTERNS WITH ONE CAMERA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Fei; DAI Fulong; CHIAN Kerm Sin; YI Sung

    2004-01-01

    A novel method to separate and simultaneously record the Moiré interferometry fringe patterns of three deformation fields with only one CCD camera is developed; details of its operation principle, key points and error analysis are presented. With this technique, the deformation in U, V and W fields can be measured simultaneously, so dynamic test with comprehensive information can be performed. The advantage of this technique over other similar techniques lies in its simplicity, easy implementation and low cost. An application of this technique is given to show its feasibility. Technical problems that may be caused with this technique are also analyzed.

  19. Recent advances in recording electrophysiological data simultaneously with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufs, H. [Univ Frankfurt, Zentrum Neurol and Neurochirurg, Neurol Klin, D-60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Laufs, H. [Univ Frankfurt, Dept Neurol, D-60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Laufs, H. [Univ Frankfurt, Brain Imaging Ctr, D-60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Laufs, H.; Carmichael, D.W. [UCL, Inst Neurol, Dept Clin and Expt Epilepsy, London (United Kingdom); Daunizeau, J. [Wellcome Trust Ctr Neuroimaging, London (United Kingdom); Kleinschmidt, A. [INSERM, Unite 562, F-91191 Gif SurYvette (France); Kleinschmidt, A. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, NeuroSpin, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Kleinschmidt, A. [Univ Paris 11, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    2008-07-01

    Simultaneous recording of brain activity by different neuro-physiological modalities can yield insights that reach beyond those obtained by each technique individually, even when compared to those from the post-hoc integration of results from each technique recorded sequentially. Success in the endeavour of real-time multimodal experiments requires special hardware and software as well as purpose-tailored experimental design and analysis strategies. Here,we review the key methodological issues in recording electrophysiological data in humans simultaneously with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), focusing on recent technical and analytical advances in the field. Examples are derived from simultaneous electro-encephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) during functional MRI in cognitive and systems neuroscience as well as in clinical neurology, in particular in epilepsy and movement disorders. We conclude with an outlook on current and future efforts to achieve true integration of electrical and haemodynamic measures of neuronal activity using data fusion models. (authors)

  20. Simultaneous tracking and activity recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina Elena; Fleet, David J.; Hamilton, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    Many tracking problems involve several distinct objects interacting with each other. We develop a framework that takes into account interactions between objects allowing the recognition of complex activities. In contrast to classic approaches that consider distinct phases of tracking and activity...

  1. Technical solutions for simultaneous MEG and SEEG recordings: towards routine clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badier, J M; Dubarry, A S; Gavaret, M; Chen, S; Trébuchon, A S; Marquis, P; Régis, J; Bartolomei, F; Bénar, C G; Carron, R

    2017-09-21

    The simultaneous recording of intracerebral EEG (stereotaxic EEG, SEEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a promising strategy that provides both local and global views on brain pathological activity. Yet, acquiring simultaneous signals poses difficult technical issues that hamper their use in clinical routine. Our objective was thus to develop a set of solutions for recording a high number of SEEG channels while preserving signal quality. We recorded data in a patient with drug resistant epilepsy during presurgical evaluation. We used dedicated insertion screws and optically insulated amplifiers. We recorded 137 SEEG contacts on 10 depth electrodes (5-15 contacts each) and 248 MEG channels (magnetometers). Signal quality was assessed by comparing the distribution of RMS values in different frequency bands to a reference set of MEG acquisitions. The quality of signals was excellent for both MEG and SEEG; for MEG, it was comparable to that of MEG signals without concurrent SEEG. Discharges involving several structures on SEEG were visible on MEG, whereas discharges limited in space were not seen at the surface. SEEG can now be recorded simultaneously with whole-head MEG in routine. This opens new avenues, both methodologically for understanding signals and improving signal processing methods, and clinically for future combined analyses.

  2. Activity correlations between on-like and off-like cells of the rostral ventromedial medulla and simultaneously recorded wide-dynamic-range neurons of the spinal dorsal horn in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Rafael; Ramirez, Karla; Vanegas, Horacio; Vazquez, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    Considerable evidence supports the notion that on- and off-cells of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) facilitate and depress, respectively, spinal nociceptive transmission. This notion stems from a covariation of on- or off-cell activities and spinal nocifensive reflexes. Such covariation could theoretically be due to their independently responding to a common source, or to an RVM-derived modulation of ventral horn neurons. Here, we tested whether on- and off-cells indeed modulate spinal nociceptive neurons. In deeply anesthetized rats, unitary recordings were simultaneously made from an RVM on-like or off-like cell and a spinal nociceptive neuron that shared a receptive field (RF) at a hind paw. Action potential firing in RVM/spinal neuron pairs was highly correlated, positively for on-like cells and negatively for off-like cells, both during ongoing activity and during application of calibrated noxious pressure to the RF. Microinjection of morphine into RVM induced a correlated decrease in on-like cell/spinal neuron ongoing activity and response to noxious stimulation. RVM morphine induced changes in off-like cell activity that were not correlated with spinal neuronal activity. These results suggest that on-cells exert a positive modulation upon spinal nociceptive neurons, upstream to ventral horn circuits and plausibly at the origin of nociceptive information that eventually reaches the cerebral cortex. On-cells may in this manner contribute to inflammation- and neuropathy-induced increases in withdrawal reflexes. Most significantly, on-cell modulation of nociceptive neurons may be a key factor in clinical pain conditions such as hyperalgesia and allodynia.

  3. Simultaneous SEEG-MEG-EEG recordings Overcome the SEEG limited spatial sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaret, Martine; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Carron, Romain; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Trébuchon, Agnès; Bénar, Christian-George

    2016-12-01

    During presurgical evaluation of pharmacoresistant partial epilepsies, stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) records interictal and ictal activities directly but is inherently limited in spatial sampling. In contrast, scalp-EEG and MEG are less sensitive but provide a global view on brain activity. Therefore, recording simultaneously these three modalities should provide a better understanding of the underlying brain sources by taking advantage of the different sensitivities of the three recording techniques. We performed trimodal EEG-MEG-SEEG recordings in a 19-year-old woman with pharmacoresistant cryptogenic posterior cortex epilepsy. Sub-continuous and highly focal spikes that were not visible at the surface were marked on SEEG by an epileptologist. Surface signals, MEG and scalp-EEG, were then averaged locked on SEEG spikes. MEG sources were reconstructed based on a moving dipole approach (Brainstorm software). This analysis revealed source within the left occipital pole, located posteriorly to the SEEG leads presenting the maximal number of spikes, in a region not explored by SEEG. In summary, simultaneous recordings provide a new framework for obtaining a view on brain signals that is both local and global, thereby overcoming the inherent SEEG limited spatial sampling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of neural spike recordings and multi-photon calcium imaging in neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhwan; Jung, Unsang; Baek, Juyeong; Kang, Shinwon; Kim, Jeehyun

    2012-11-08

    This paper proposes the design and implementation of a micro-electrode array (MEA) for neuroblastoma cell culturing. It also explains the implementation of a multi-photon microscope (MPM) customized for neuroblastoma cell excitation and imaging under ambient light. Electrical signal and fluorescence images were simultaneously acquired from the neuroblastoma cells on the MEA. MPM calcium images of the cultured neuroblastoma cell on the MEA are presented and also the neural activity was acquired through the MEA recording. A calcium green-1 (CG-1) dextran conjugate of 10,000 D molecular weight was used in this experiment for calcium imaging. This study also evaluated the calcium oscillations and neural spike recording of neuroblastoma cells in an epileptic condition. Based on our observation of neural spikes in neuroblastoma cells with our proposed imaging modality, we report that neuroblastoma cells can be an important model for epileptic activity studies.

  5. The Value of Simultaneous Electrocardiography Recording in the EEG Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Mottamedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the current study was to assess the value of simultaneous EKG with EEG to diagnose cardiac disorders in patients with seizure- like attacks and to investigate the extent of misdiagnosis of epilepsy. Materials and Methods: 210 patients presenting with transient loss of consciousness (TLoC and paroxysmal events suspicious to seizure were studied. All patients had undergone EEG simultaneous with an EKG. Besides reporting the EEG, a cardiologist analyzed the EKG in an attempt to recognize abnormal EKG as a potential cause of TLoC. Moreover, in all patients it was ascertained if any cardiac disorders in patients and their first degree relatives had been diagnosed. Results: Sixteen out of two hundred ten (7.6% patients had abnormal EKG which was significantly potential cause of symptom of whom 6 patients were found to have bradycardia and 10 patients had dysrhythmias. Moreover, in patients with previous cardiovascular disorder, 30.4% had abnormal EKG where as in patients without cardiac disease only 4.8% had EKG abnormalities. Besides in patients with positive family history for cardiac disease 20.3% had abnormal EKG while in patients without family history of cardiac disease, abnormal EKG was revealed in only 2.05% patients. Conclusion: Simultaneous EKG with EEG is valuable in declining rate of misdiagnosis of epilepsy. Besides, EKG abnormalities in these patients have a significant association with any previous cardiovascular disorders in the patients and in their first degree relatives.

  6. Measurements of simultaneously recorded spike and local field potentials suggest that spatial selection emerges in the frontal eye field

    OpenAIRE

    Monosov, Ilya E.; Trageser, Jason C.; Thompson, Kirk G.

    2008-01-01

    The frontal eye field (FEF) participates in selecting the location of behaviorally relevant stimuli for guiding attention and eye movements. We simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and spiking activity in the FEF of monkeys performing memory-guided saccade and covert visual search tasks. We compared visual latencies and the time course of spatially selective responses in LFPs and spiking activity. Consistent with the view that LFPs represent synaptic input, visual responses a...

  7. Electrical Recording of Mechanoreceptor Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammer, Ann E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment designed to give beginning physiology students a successful experience with neurophysiological Techniques and to demonstrate some properties of sensory neurons. Pin electrodes are used to record extracellularly from mechanoreceptors in a cockroach leg. (Author/MA)

  8. Simultaneous recording of fluorescence and electrical signals by photometric patch electrode in deep brain regions in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Yasuharu; Nishino, Eri

    2015-01-01

    Despite its widespread use, high-resolution imaging with multiphoton microscopy to record neuronal signals in vivo is limited to the surface of brain tissue because of limited light penetration. Moreover, most imaging studies do not simultaneously record electrical neural activity, which is, however, crucial to understanding brain function. Accordingly, we developed a photometric patch electrode (PME) to overcome the depth limitation of optical measurements and also enable the simultaneous recording of neural electrical responses in deep brain regions. The PME recoding system uses a patch electrode to excite a fluorescent dye and to measure the fluorescence signal as a light guide, to record electrical signal, and to apply chemicals to the recorded cells locally. The optical signal was analyzed by either a spectrometer of high light sensitivity or a photomultiplier tube depending on the kinetics of the responses. We used the PME in Oregon Green BAPTA-1 AM-loaded avian auditory nuclei in vivo to monitor calcium signals and electrical responses. We demonstrated distinct response patterns in three different nuclei of the ascending auditory pathway. On acoustic stimulation, a robust calcium fluorescence response occurred in auditory cortex (field L) neurons that outlasted the electrical response. In the auditory midbrain (inferior colliculus), both responses were transient. In the brain-stem cochlear nucleus magnocellularis, calcium response seemed to be effectively suppressed by the activity of metabotropic glutamate receptors. In conclusion, the PME provides a powerful tool to study brain function in vivo at a tissue depth inaccessible to conventional imaging devices. PMID:25761950

  9. Methods to study pre-school teachers' voice at work: simultaneous recordings with a voice accumulator and a DAT recorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Annika; Hammarberg, Britta; Granqvist, Svante; Södersten, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Long-term recordings with reliable methods are desirable for objective documentation of voice use during natural conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a voice accumulator (VAC) with a digital audiotape (DAT) recorder as a reference. The VAC is based on a microprocessor that accumulates information about fundamental frequency (F0) and phonation time. A contact microphone attached to the front of the neck registers vocal fold vibrations. The DAT recorder was connected to two microphones for airborne signals placed at equal distance from the mouth close to the subject's ears. The computer program Aura was used to separate the subject's voice from the background noise. The Soundswell program was used for F0 and phonation time analysis. Two tests were performed: 1) One female speech-language pathologist was recorded with the two devices simultaneously in a sound-proof booth. She read a standard text with different voice qualities and sustained vowels with increasing F0 and intensity separately. The results showed good agreement between the two methods with respect to F0 and phonation time. However, the VAC failed to register high frequencies above around 440 Hz as well as low intensities. 2) Three female pre-school teachers were recorded with the two devices simultaneously during a working day. Results showed high correlations between the two methods in terms of long-term measurements of F0 and phonation time for two subjects For one subject with subcutaneous soft tissue on the neck, the registration with the contact microphone was not reliable. It was concluded that the VAC has potential for assessment of occupational voice disorders if certain limitations of the method are considered.

  10. Simultaneous imaging of neural activity in three dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean eQuirin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a scanless optical method to image neuronal activity in three dimensions simultaneously. Using a spatial light modulator and a custom-designed phase mask, we illuminate and collect light simultaneously from different focal planes and perform calcium imaging of neuronal activity in vitro and in vivo. This method, combining structured illumination with volume projection imaging, could be used as a technological platform for brain activity mapping.

  11. Expanding neurochemical investigations with multi-modal recording: simultaneous fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, iontophoresis, and patch clamp measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, D C; McKinney, C J; Manis, P B; Wightman, R M

    2016-08-02

    Multi-modal recording describes the simultaneous collection of information across distinct domains. Compared to isolated measurements, such studies can more easily determine relationships between varieties of phenomena. This is useful for neurochemical investigations which examine cellular activity in response to changes in the local chemical environment. In this study, we demonstrate a method to perform simultaneous patch clamp measurements with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) using optically isolated instrumentation. A model circuit simulating concurrent measurements was used to predict the electrical interference between instruments. No significant impact was anticipated between methods, and predictions were largely confirmed experimentally. One exception was due to capacitive coupling of the FSCV potential waveform into the patch clamp amplifier. However, capacitive transients measured in whole-cell current clamp recordings were well below the level of biological signals, which allowed the activity of cells to be easily determined. Next, the activity of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) was examined in the presence of an FSCV electrode to determine how the exogenous potential impacted nearby cells. The activities of both resting and active MSNs were unaffected by the FSCV waveform. Additionally, application of an iontophoretic current, used to locally deliver drugs and other neurochemicals, did not affect neighboring cells. Finally, MSN activity was monitored during iontophoretic delivery of glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter. Membrane depolarization and cell firing were observed concurrently with chemical changes around the cell resulting from delivery. In all, we show how combined electrophysiological and electrochemical measurements can relate information between domains and increase the power of neurochemical investigations.

  12. Towards an optimal paradigm for simultaneously recording cortical and brainstem auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2015-02-15

    Simultaneous recording of brainstem and cortical event-related brain potentials (ERPs) may offer a valuable tool for understanding the early neural transcription of behaviorally relevant sounds and the hierarchy of signal processing operating at multiple levels of the auditory system. To date, dual recordings have been challenged by technological and physiological limitations including different optimal parameters necessary to elicit each class of ERP (e.g., differential adaptation/habitation effects and number of trials to obtain adequate response signal-to-noise ratio). We investigated a new stimulus paradigm for concurrent recording of the auditory brainstem frequency-following response (FFR) and cortical ERPs. The paradigm is "optimal" in that it uses a clustered stimulus presentation and variable interstimulus interval (ISI) to (i) achieve the most ideal acquisition parameters for eliciting subcortical and cortical responses, (ii) obtain an adequate number of trials to detect each class of response, and (iii) minimize neural adaptation/habituation effects. Comparison between clustered and traditional (fixed, slow ISI) stimulus paradigms revealed minimal change in amplitude or latencies of either the brainstem FFR or cortical ERP. The clustered paradigm offered over a 3× increase in recording efficiency compared to conventional (fixed ISI presentation) and thus, a more rapid protocol for obtaining dual brainstem-cortical recordings in individual listeners. We infer that faster recording of subcortical and cortical potentials might allow more complete and sensitive testing of neurophysiological function and aid in the differential assessment of auditory function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous resting-state functional MRI and electroencephalography recordings of functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirino, Eiji; Tanaka, Shoji; Fukuta, Mayuko; Inami, Rie; Arai, Heii; Inoue, Reiichi; Aoki, Shigeki

    2017-04-01

    It remains unclear how functional connectivity (FC) may be related to specific cognitive domains in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we used simultaneous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) recording in patients with schizophrenia, to evaluate FC within and outside the default mode network (DMN). Our study population included 14 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy control participants. From all participants, we acquired rsfMRI data, and simultaneously recorded EEG data using an MR-compatible amplifier. We analyzed the rsfMRI-EEG data, and used the CONN toolbox to calculate the FC between regions of interest. We also performed between-group comparisons of standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography-based intracortical lagged coherence for each EEG frequency band. FC within the DMN, as measured by rsfMRI and EEG, did not significantly differ between groups. Analysis of rsfMRI data showed that FC between the right posterior inferior temporal gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex was stronger among patients with schizophrenia compared to control participants. Analysis of FC within the DMN using rsfMRI and EEG data revealed no significant differences between patients with schizophrenia and control participants. However, rsfMRI data revealed over-modulated FC between the medial prefrontal cortex and right posterior inferior temporal gyrus in patients with schizophrenia compared to control participants, suggesting that the patients had altered FC, with higher correlations across nodes within and outside of the DMN. Further studies using simultaneous rsfMRI and EEG are required to determine whether altered FC within the DMN is associated with schizophrenia. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  14. Peripheral neural activity recording and stimulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, D; Carboni, C; Angius, G; Angotzi, G N; Barbaro, M; Raffo, L; Raspopovic, S; Navarro, X

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a portable, embedded, microcontroller-based system for bidirectional communication (recording and stimulation) between an electrode, implanted in the peripheral nervous system, and a host computer. The device is able to record and digitize spontaneous and/or evoked neural activities and store them in data files on a PC. In addition, the system has the capability of providing electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, injecting biphasic current pulses with programmable duration, intensity, and frequency. The recording system provides a highly selective band-pass filter from 800 Hz to 3 kHz, with a gain of 56 dB. The amplification range can be further extended to 96 dB with a variable gain amplifier. The proposed acquisition/stimulation circuitry has been successfully tested through in vivo measurements, implanting a tf-LIFE electrode in the sciatic nerve of a rat. Once implanted, the device showed an input referred noise of 0.83 μVrms, was capable of recording signals below 10 μ V, and generated muscle responses to injected stimuli. The results demonstrate the capability of processing and transmitting neural signals with very low distortion and with a power consumption lower than 1 W. A graphic, user-friendly interface has been developed to facilitate the configuration of the entire system, providing the possibility to activate stimulation and monitor recordings in real time.

  15. The added value of simultaneous EEG and amplitude-integrated EEG recordings in three newborn infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Nathalie K. S.; ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2007-01-01

    Amplitude-integrated electroencephalograms (aEEGs) recorded by cerebral function monitors (CFMs) are used increasingly to monitor the cerebral activity of newborn infants with encephalopathy. Recently, new CFM devices became available which also reveal the original EEG signals from the same leads.

  16. Scale-Free Brain-Wave Music from Simultaneously EEG and fMRI Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Luo, Cheng; Li, Chaoyi; Yao, Dezhong

    2012-01-01

    In the past years, a few methods have been developed to translate human EEG to music. In 2009, PloS One 4 e5915, we developed a method to generate scale-free brainwave music where the amplitude of EEG was translated to music pitch according to the power law followed by both of them, the period of an EEG waveform is translated directly to the duration of a note, and the logarithm of the average power change of EEG is translated to music intensity according to the Fechner's law. In this work, we proposed to adopt simultaneously-recorded fMRI signal to control the intensity of the EEG music, thus an EEG-fMRI music is generated by combining two different and simultaneous brain signals. And most importantly, this approach further realized power law for music intensity as fMRI signal follows it. Thus the EEG-fMRI music makes a step ahead in reflecting the physiological process of the scale-free brain. PMID:23166768

  17. Scale-free brain-wave music from simultaneously EEG and fMRI recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Luo, Cheng; Li, Chaoyi; Yao, Dezhong

    2012-01-01

    In the past years, a few methods have been developed to translate human EEG to music. In 2009, PloS One 4 e5915, we developed a method to generate scale-free brainwave music where the amplitude of EEG was translated to music pitch according to the power law followed by both of them, the period of an EEG waveform is translated directly to the duration of a note, and the logarithm of the average power change of EEG is translated to music intensity according to the Fechner's law. In this work, we proposed to adopt simultaneously-recorded fMRI signal to control the intensity of the EEG music, thus an EEG-fMRI music is generated by combining two different and simultaneous brain signals. And most importantly, this approach further realized power law for music intensity as fMRI signal follows it. Thus the EEG-fMRI music makes a step ahead in reflecting the physiological process of the scale-free brain.

  18. Facing Challenges in Differential Classical Conditioning Research: Benefits of a Hybrid Design for Simultaneous Electrodermal and Electroencephalographic Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M Carmen; Rehbein, Maimu Alissa; Junghöfer, Markus; Poy, Rosario; López, Raul; Moltó, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Several challenges make it difficult to simultaneously investigate central and autonomous nervous system correlates of conditioned stimulus (CS) processing in classical conditioning paradigms. Such challenges include, for example, the discrepant requirements of electroencephalography (EEG) and electrodermal activity (EDA) recordings with regard to multiple repetitions of conditions and sufficient trial duration. Here, we propose a MultiCS conditioning set-up, in which we increased the number of CSs, decreased the number of learning trials, and used trials of short and long durations for meeting requirements of simultaneous EEG-EDA recording in a differential aversive conditioning task. Forty-eight participants underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which four neutral faces (CS+) were paired four times each with aversive electric stimulation (unconditioned stimulus) during acquisition, while four different neutral faces (CS-) remained unpaired. When comparing after relative to before learning measurements, EEG revealed an enhanced centro-posterior positivity to CS+ vs. CS- during 368-600 ms, and subjective ratings indicated CS+ to be less pleasant and more arousing than CS-. Furthermore, changes in CS valence and arousal were strong enough to bias subjective ratings when faces of CS+/CS- identity were displayed with different emotional expression (happy, angry) in a post-experimental behavioral task. In contrast to a persistent neural and evaluative CS+/CS- differentiation that sustained multiple unreinforced CS presentations, electrodermal differentiation was rapidly extinguished. Current results suggest that MultiCS conditioning provides a promising paradigm for investigating pre-post-learning changes under minimal influences of extinction and overlearning of simple stimulus features. Our data also revealed methodological pitfalls, such as the possibility of occurring artifacts when combining different acquisition systems for central and peripheral

  19. An optogenetics- and imaging-assisted simultaneous multiple patch-clamp recording system for decoding complex neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangfu; Wyskiel, Daniel R; Yang, Weiguo; Wang, Yiqing; Milbern, Lana C; Lalanne, Txomin; Jiang, Xiaolong; Shen, Ying; Sun, Qian-Quan; Zhu, J Julius

    2015-03-01

    Deciphering neuronal circuitry is central to understanding brain function and dysfunction, yet it remains a daunting task. To facilitate the dissection of neuronal circuits, a process requiring functional analysis of synaptic connections and morphological identification of interconnected neurons, we present here a method for stable simultaneous octuple patch-clamp recordings. This method allows physiological analysis of synaptic interconnections among 4-8 simultaneously recorded neurons and/or 10-30 sequentially recorded neurons, and it allows anatomical identification of >85% of recorded interneurons and >99% of recorded principal neurons. We describe how to apply the method to rodent tissue slices; however, it can be used on other model organisms. We also describe the latest refinements and optimizations of mechanics, electronics, optics and software programs that are central to the realization of a combined single- and two-photon microscopy-based, optogenetics- and imaging-assisted, stable, simultaneous quadruple-viguple patch-clamp recording system. Setting up the system, from the beginning of instrument assembly and software installation to full operation, can be completed in 3-4 d.

  20. Correlation between single-trial visual evoked potentials and the blood oxygenation level dependent response in simultaneously recorded electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglø, Dan; Pedersen, Henrik; Rostrup, Egill

    2012-01-01

    To compare different electroencephalography (EEG)-based regressors and their ability to predict the simultaneously recorded blood oxygenation level dependent response during blocked visual stimulation, simultaneous EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging in 10 healthy volunteers was performed...

  1. Current source density analysis: methods and application to simultaneously recorded field potentials of the rabbit's visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappelsberger, P; Pockberger, H; Petsche, H

    1981-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of current source density (CSD) analysis to simultaneously recorded intracortical field potentials of the rabbit's visual cortex. Recordings were made with multielectrodes with either 8 contacts at distances of 300 microns, or 16 contacts at distances of 150 microns on one carrier needle. For synchronized activities, a spatial resolution of 150 microns turned out to be sufficient to record all depth-varying details of the field potentials; for seizure potentials even a spacing of 300 microns was adequate in most cases. For practical application, an appropriate spacing of the measuring points has to be chosen for a satisfactory estimation of the first and second derivatives of the field potentials. For this reason an interpolation procedure is applied to reduce the spacing from 300 microns or 150 microns electrode contact distances, respectively, and to obtain intermediate values at 75 microns distances. With this spacing satisfactory estimations of the second derivative are obtained. Theoretically, CSD analysis has to be made three-dimensionally, but under certain conditions which are discussed, a one-dimensional analysis can be applied. An unknown quantity is sigma z, the vertical conductivity. It turned out that average values obtained from different experiments are not representative and that the vertical conductivity has to be measured in every experiment. This is caused by the great individual differences of the cortices even if the same stereotactic coordinates are chosen. Therefore, in every experiment relative conductivity measurements are performed. The influence of different conductivity values within the various layers and the influence of a conductivity gradient is discussed and demonstrated by examples.

  2. Geyser's Eruptive Activity in Broadband Seismic Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugaenko, Yulia; Saltykov, Vadim

    2010-05-01

    A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by a vapor phase (steam). The formation of geysers is due to particular hydrogeological conditions, which exist in only a few places on Earth, so they are a fairly rare phenomenon. The reasons of geyser periodicity and specifics of the activity for every particular geyser are not completely clear yet. So almost for all known geysers it is necessary to develop the personal model. In given study we first use seismic method for detection of possible hidden feature of geyser's eruptive activity in Kamchatkan Valley of the Geysers. Broadband seismic records of geyser generated signals were obtained in hydrothermal field. The Valley of the Geysers belongs to Kronotskiy State Natural Biosphere Reserve and the UNESCO World Natural Heritage Site "Volcanoes of Kamchatka". Neither seismological nor geophysical investigations were carried out here earlier. In September, 2009 seismic observation was organized in geyser's field by 24-bit digital output broadband seismometers (GURALP CMG-6TD flat velocity response 0.033-50 Hz). Four geysers were surveyed: the fountain type Big and Giant geysers; the cone type Pearl geyser and the short-period Gap geyser. Seismometers were set as possible close to the geyser's surface vent (usually at the distance near 3-5 m). Main parameters of the eruptions for the investigated geysers: - The Giant geyser is the most powerful among the regular active geysers in Kamchatkan Valley of the Geysers. The height of the fountain reaches 30 meters, the mass of water erupted is about 40-60 tons. The main cycle of activity varies significantly: in 1945 the intervals between eruptions was near 3 hours, nowadays it is 5-6 hours. As a geyser of fountain type, the Giant geyser erupts from the 2*3 m2 pool of water. - The Big geyser was flooded by the lake after the natural catastrophe (giant mud-stone avalanche, formed by landslide, bed into Geiyzernaya

  3. Applying Time-sharing technique in a multimodal compact low-power CMOS neurochip for simultaneous neurochemical and action potential recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poustinchi, Mohammad; Stacey, R Greg; Musallam, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Brain is an electrochemical system and recent studies suggest simultaneous measurement of interrelated brain's electrical and neurochemical activity may lead to better understanding of brain function in addition to developing optimal neural prosthetics. By exploiting opamp Time-sharing technique to minimized power dissipation and silicon area, we have fabricated a power efficient implantable CMOS microsystem for simultaneous measurement of Action Potential (AP) and neurotransmitter concentration. Both AP-recording and neurotransmitter sensing subsystems share a single 653 nW amplifier which senses picoscale to microscale current that corresponds to micromolar neurotransmitter concentration and microscale AP voltage. This microsystem is fabricated in CMOS 0.18 μm technology and tested using recorded signals from dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) area of a macaque monkey in our lab.

  4. Simultaneous High-Speed Recording of Sonoluminescence and Bubble Dynamics in Multibubble Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairós, Carlos; Mettin, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) is the emission of light from imploding cavitation bubbles in dense ensembles or clouds. We demonstrate a technique of high-speed recording that allows imaging of bubble oscillations and motion together with emitted light flashes in a nonstationary multibubble environment. Hereby a definite experimental identification of light emitting individual bubbles, as well as details of their collapse dynamics can be obtained. For the extremely bright MBSL of acoustic cavitation in xenon saturated phosphoric acid, we are able to explore effects of bubble translation, deformation, and interaction on MBSL activity. The recordings with up to 0.5 million frames per second show that few and only the largest bubbles in the fields are flashing brightly, and that emission often occurs repetitively. Bubble collisions can lead to coalescence and the start or intensification of the emission, but also to its termination via instabilities and splitting. Bubbles that develop a liquid jet during collapse can flash intensely, but stronger jetting gradually reduces the emissions. Estimates of MBSL collapse temperature peaks are possible by numerical fits of transient bubble dynamics, in one case yielding 38 000 K.

  5. Feasibility of simultaneous recording of cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials via galvanic vestibular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Ming; Young, Yi-Ho; Cheng, Po-Wen

    2013-12-01

    Simultaneous galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS)-cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) and GVS-ocular (oVEMP) tests yielded similar information to that obtained in individual tests. This study compared the characteristic parameters of cVEMPs and oVEMPs via GVS between individual and simultaneous recording patterns in healthy and elderly subjects. Consequently, the effectiveness of simultaneous GVS-cVEMP and GVS-oVEMP tests was assessed. A total of 24 healthy and 16 elderly subjects were enrolled in this study. All participants underwent individual cVEMP, individual oVEMP, and simultaneous cVEMP and oVEMP testing via GVS mode in a random order. The response rates and characteristic parameters of cVEMPs and oVEMPs between individual and simultaneous tests, including latencies, intervals, and amplitudes, were measured. The VEMP parameters, including latencies, intervals, and amplitudes, all demonstrated no significant differences between individual and simultaneous tests (p > 0.05, paired t test), either in healthy or elderly subjects. Pearson's correlation analyses also revealed significant positive correlations in all parameters between these two tests (p < 0.05).

  6. Gradient Artefact Correction and Evaluation of the EEG Recorded Simultaneously with fMRI Data Using Optimised Moving-Average

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, coregistered EEG-fMRI has emerged as a powerful tool for neurocognitive research and correlated studies, mainly because of the possibility of integrating the high temporal resolution of the EEG with the high spatial resolution of fMRI. However, additional work remains to be done in order to improve the quality of the EEG signal recorded simultaneously with fMRI data, in particular regarding the occurrence of the gradient artefact. We devised and presented in this paper a novel approach for gradient artefact correction based upon optimised moving-average filtering (OMA. OMA makes use of the iterative application of a moving-average filter, which allows estimation and cancellation of the gradient artefact by integration. Additionally, OMA is capable of performing the attenuation of the periodic artefact activity without accurate information about MRI triggers. By using our proposed approach, it is possible to achieve a better balance than the slice-average subtraction as performed by the established AAS method, regarding EEG signal preservation together with effective suppression of the gradient artefact. Since the stochastic nature of the EEG signal complicates the assessment of EEG preservation after application of the gradient artefact correction, we also propose a simple and effective method to account for it.

  7. Gradient Artefact Correction and Evaluation of the EEG Recorded Simultaneously with fMRI Data Using Optimised Moving-Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Besseling, René M. H.; Lamerichs, Rolf; Aarts, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years, coregistered EEG-fMRI has emerged as a powerful tool for neurocognitive research and correlated studies, mainly because of the possibility of integrating the high temporal resolution of the EEG with the high spatial resolution of fMRI. However, additional work remains to be done in order to improve the quality of the EEG signal recorded simultaneously with fMRI data, in particular regarding the occurrence of the gradient artefact. We devised and presented in this paper a novel approach for gradient artefact correction based upon optimised moving-average filtering (OMA). OMA makes use of the iterative application of a moving-average filter, which allows estimation and cancellation of the gradient artefact by integration. Additionally, OMA is capable of performing the attenuation of the periodic artefact activity without accurate information about MRI triggers. By using our proposed approach, it is possible to achieve a better balance than the slice-average subtraction as performed by the established AAS method, regarding EEG signal preservation together with effective suppression of the gradient artefact. Since the stochastic nature of the EEG signal complicates the assessment of EEG preservation after application of the gradient artefact correction, we also propose a simple and effective method to account for it. PMID:27446943

  8. Assessing physical activity during youth sport: the Observational System for Recording Activity in Children: Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alysia; McDonald, Samantha; McIver, Kerry; Pate, Russell; Trost, Stewart

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and interrater reliability of the Observational System for Recording Activity in Children: Youth Sports (OSRAC:YS). Children (N = 29) participating in a parks and recreation soccer program were observed during regularly scheduled practices. Physical activity (PA) intensity and contextual factors were recorded by momentary time-sampling procedures (10-second observe, 20-second record). Two observers simultaneously observed and recorded children's PA intensity, practice context, social context, coach behavior, and coach proximity. Interrater reliability was based on agreement (Kappa) between the observer's coding for each category, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for percent of time spent in MVPA. Validity was assessed by calculating the correlation between OSRAC:YS estimated and objectively measured MVPA. Kappa statistics for each category demonstrated substantial to almost perfect interobserver agreement (Kappa = 0.67-0.93). The ICC for percent time in MVPA was 0.76 (95% C.I. = 0.49-0.90). A significant correlation (r = .73) was observed for MVPA recorded by observation and MVPA measured via accelerometry. The results indicate the OSRAC:YS is a reliable and valid tool for measuring children's PA and contextual factors during a youth soccer practice.

  9. Atrial fibrillation detected by external loop recording for seven days or two-day simultaneous Holter recording: A comparison in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejr, Michala Herskind; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Damgaard, Dorte; Sandal, Birgitte Forsom; May, Ole

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac cause of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (IS/TIA). To compare the diagnostic value of seven-day external loop recording (ELR) and two-day Holter recording for detecting AF after IS/TIA. 191 IS/TIA patients without AF history. Endpoint was AF >30s. We started two-day Holter recording and seven-day ELR simultaneously. Seven-day ELR and two-day Holter recording detected the same three AF patients. ELR detected another six patients with AF adjudicated by cardiologists, four detections after Holter (3 vs. 7, p=0.125) and two false-positive detections during Holter. Seven-day ELR automatically classified 50/191 patients (26%) with AF, but only 7/50 (14%) were confirmed as AF by cardiologists. Seven-day ELR did not detect significantly more patients with AF than two-day Holter recording. 86% of patients with ELR-classified AF were false positives, indicating a poor performance of the automatic AF detection algorithm used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous Single Neuron Recording of O2 Consumption, [Ca2+]i and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Glutamate Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleichmann, Marc; Collis, Leon P.; Smith, Peter J.S.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    To order the cellular processes in glutamate toxicity, we simultaneously recorded O2 consumption, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and mitochondrial membrane potential (mΔψ) in single cortical neurons. O2 consumption was measured using an amperometric self-referencing platinum electrode adjacent to neurons in which [Ca2+]i and mΔψ were monitored with Fluo-4 and TMRE+, respectively using a spinning disk laser confocal microscope. Excitotoxic doses of glutamate caused an elevation of [Ca2+]i followed seconds afterwards by an increase in O2 consumption which reached a maximum level within 1 to 5 min. A modest increase in mΔψ occurred during this time period, and then, shortly before maximal O2 consumption was reached, the mΔψ, as indicated by TMRE+ fluorescence, dissipated. Maximal O2 consumption lasted up to 5 min and then declined together with mΔψ and ATP levels, while [Ca2+]i further increased. mΔψ and [Ca2+]i returned to baseline levels when neurons were treated with an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist shortly after the [Ca2+]i increased. Our unprecedented spatial and time resolution revealed that this sequence of events is identical in all neurons, albeit with considerable variability in magnitude and kinetics of changes in O2 consumption, [Ca2+]i and mΔψ. The data obtained using this new method are consistent with a model where Ca2+ influx causes ATP depletion, despite maximal mitochondrial respiration, minutes after glutamate receptor activation. PMID:19226367

  11. HermesD: A High-Rate Long-Range Wireless Transmission System for Simultaneous Multichannel Neural Recording Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Henrique; Gilja, Vikash; Chestek, Cindy A; Shenoy, Krishna V; Meng, Teresa H

    2010-06-01

    HermesD is a high-rate, low-power wireless transmission system to aid research in neural prosthetic systems for motor disabilities and basic motor neuroscience. It is the third generation of our "Hermes systems" aimed at recording and transmitting neural activity from brain-implanted electrode arrays. This system supports the simultaneous transmission of 32 channels of broadband data sampled at 30 ks/s, 12 b/sample, using frequency-shift keying modulation on a carrier frequency adjustable from 3.7 to 4.1 GHz, with a link range extending over 20 m. The channel rate is 24 Mb/s and the bit stream includes synchronization and error detection mechanisms. The power consumption, approximately 142 mW, is low enough to allow the system to operate continuously for 33 h, using two 3.6-V/1200-mAh Li-SOCl2 batteries. The transmitter was designed using off-the-shelf components and is assembled in a stack of three 28 mm ? 28-mm boards that fit in a 38 mm ? 38 mm ? 51-mm aluminum enclosure, a significant size reduction over the initial version of HermesD. A 7-dBi circularly polarized patch antenna is used as the transmitter antenna, while on the receiver side, a 13-dBi circular horn antenna is employed. The advantages of using circularly polarized waves are analyzed and confirmed by indoor measurements. The receiver is a stand-alone device composed of several submodules and is interfaced to a computer for data acquisition and processing. It is based on the superheterodyne architecture and includes automatic frequency control that keeps it optimally tuned to the transmitter frequency. The HermesD communications performance is shown through bit-error rate measurements and eye-diagram plots. The sensitivity of the receiver is -83 dBm for a bit-error probability of 10(-9). Experimental recordings from a rhesus monkey conducting multiple tasks show a signal quality comparable to commercial acquisition systems, both in the low-frequency (local field potentials) and upper-frequency bands

  12. Continuous blood pressure recordings simultaneously with functional brain imaging: studies of the glymphatic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zienkiewicz, Aleksandra; Huotari, Niko; Raitamaa, Lauri; Raatikainen, Ville; Ferdinando, Hany; Vihriälä, Erkki; Korhonen, Vesa; Myllylä, Teemu; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2017-03-01

    The lymph system is responsible for cleaning the tissues of metabolic waste products, soluble proteins and other harmful fluids etc. Lymph flow in the body is driven by body movements and muscle contractions. Moreover, it is indirectly dependent on the cardiovascular system, where the heart beat and blood pressure maintain force of pressure in lymphatic channels. Over the last few years, studies revealed that the brain contains the so-called glymphatic system, which is the counterpart of the systemic lymphatic system in the brain. Similarly, the flow in the glymphatic system is assumed to be mostly driven by physiological pulsations such as cardiovascular pulses. Thus, continuous measurement of blood pressure and heart function simultaneously with functional brain imaging is of great interest, particularly in studies of the glymphatic system. We present our MRI compatible optics based sensing system for continuous blood pressure measurement and show our current results on the effects of blood pressure variations on cerebral brain dynamics, with a focus on the glymphatic system. Blood pressure was measured simultaneously with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with an ultrafast functional brain imaging (fMRI) sequence magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG, 3D brain 10 Hz sampling rate).

  13. Neuro-fuzzy decoding of sensory information from ensembles of simultaneously recorded dorsal root ganglion neurons for functional electrical stimulation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigosa, J.; Weber, D. J.; Prochazka, A.; Stein, R. B.; Micera, S.

    2011-08-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is used to improve motor function after injury to the central nervous system. Some FES systems use artificial sensors to switch between finite control states. To optimize FES control of the complex behavior of the musculo-skeletal system in activities of daily life, it is highly desirable to implement feedback control. In theory, sensory neural signals could provide the required control signals. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of deriving limb-state estimates from the firing rates of primary afferent neurons recorded in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). These studies used multiple linear regression (MLR) methods to generate estimates of limb position and velocity based on a weighted sum of firing rates in an ensemble of simultaneously recorded DRG neurons. The aim of this study was to test whether the use of a neuro-fuzzy (NF) algorithm (the generalized dynamic fuzzy neural networks (GD-FNN)) could improve the performance, robustness and ability to generalize from training to test sets compared to the MLR technique. NF and MLR decoding methods were applied to ensemble DRG recordings obtained during passive and active limb movements in anesthetized and freely moving cats. The GD-FNN model provided more accurate estimates of limb state and generalized better to novel movement patterns. Future efforts will focus on implementing these neural recording and decoding methods in real time to provide closed-loop control of FES using the information extracted from sensory neurons.

  14. Trunk muscle activity during the simultaneous performance of two motor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, B G; Koshland, G F

    2000-12-01

    A unique feature of trunk muscles is that they can be activated to meet functional requirements for combined behaviors, including those related to posture and breathing. Trunk muscles therefore may have developed mechanisms for dealing with simultaneous inputs for different task requirements. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a linear addition in trunk muscle activities would occur when an isometric trunk task and a pulsed expiration task was performed simultaneously. Surface electromyograms (EMG) were recorded from four trunk regions (medial and lateral back, upper and lower lateral abdomen) in sitting during the performance of the individual isometric trunk task, the individual pressure task, and the combined task (isometric trunk and pressure task). The direction of static holding for the isometric trunk task was varied between flexion and extension positions. For the pressure task subjects produced two consecutive pressure pulses (2/s) to a target oral pressure. For each muscle recording, a linear prediction was calculated from the mathematical addition of the EMG recorded from the individual trunk and pressure tasks. This linear prediction was compared to the actual muscle activity recorded during the combined task. Typically the EMG from two muscles showed linear addition, such that the relative contribution of muscle activity did not change for the combined task. This suggests that the motor commands for each task reached these motor neuron pools essentially unmodified. The other two muscles showed nonlinear combination of two EMG patterns. That is, qualitatively both EMG patterns, specific to each command, were evident in the measured EMG traces for the combined task, but quantitatively the muscle did not meet all criteria for linear addition. Linear addition may provide a simple mechanism for combining breathing-related behaviors (expiratory efforts) with other trunk behaviors (holding against gravity). This suggests that some muscles can

  15. Analysis of lightning-ionosphere interaction using simultaneous records of source current and 380 km distant electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadifar, Mohammad; Li, Dongshuai; Rachidi, Farhad; Rubinstein, Marcos; Diendorfer, Gerhard; Schulz, Wolfgang; Pichler, Hannes; Rakov, Vladimir A.; Paolone, Mario; Pavanello, Davide

    2017-06-01

    We present simultaneous current and wideband electric field waveforms at 380 km associated with upward lightning flashes initiated from the Säntis Tower, Switzerland. To the best of our knowledge, the dataset presented in this study includes the first simultaneous records of lightning currents and associated fields featuring ionospheric reflections for natural upward flashes, and the longest distance at which natural upward lightning fields have been measured simultaneously with their causative currents. The intervals between the groundwave and skywave arrival times are used to estimate ionospheric reflection heights during day and night times using the so-called zero-to-zero and peak-to-peak methods. During daytime, the mean ionospheric reflection heights, obtained using the two different delay estimation approaches, are about 78 and 76 km, corresponding to the D layer. The mean reflection height at nighttime is about 90 and 89 km, corresponding to the E layer. We present a full-wave, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis of the electric field propagation including the effect of the ionospheric reflections. The FDTD simulation results are compared with the measured fields associated with upward flashes initiated from the Säntis Tower. It is found that the model reproduces reasonably well the measured waveforms and the times of arrival of the one-hop and two-hop skywaves relative to the groundwave.

  16. Multi-modal causality analysis of eyes-open and eyes-closed data from simultaneously recorded EEG and MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Abdul Rauf; Mideska, Kidist Gebremariam; Hellriegel, Helge; Hoogenboom, Nienke; Krause, Holger; Schnitzler, Alfons; Deuschl, Günther; Raethjen, Jan; Heute, Ulrich; Muthuraman, Muthuraman

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the recent advances in multi-modal data analysis, the aim of the present study was to analyze the functional network of the brain which remained the same during the eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) resting task. The simultaneously recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) were used for this study, recorded from five distinct cortical regions of the brain. We focused on the 'alpha' functional network, corresponding to the individual peak frequency in the alpha band. The total data set of 120 seconds was divided into three segments of 18 seconds each, taken from start, middle, and end of the recording. This segmentation allowed us to analyze the evolution of the underlying functional network. The method of time-resolved partial directed coherence (tPDC) was used to assess the causality. This method allowed us to focus on the individual peak frequency in the 'alpha' band (7-13 Hz). Because of the significantly higher power in the recorded EEG in comparison to MEG, at the individual peak frequency of the alpha band, results rely only on EEG. The MEG was used only for comparison. Our results show that different regions of the brain start to `disconnect' from one another over the course of time. The driving signals, along with the feedback signals between different cortical regions start to recede over time. This shows that, with the course of rest, brain regions reduce communication with each another.

  17. Simultaneous recordings of ocular microtremor and microsaccades with a piezoelectric sensor and a video-oculography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamy, Michael B; Collins, Niamh; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Al-Kalbani, Mohammed; Macknik, Stephen L; Coakley, Davis; Troncoso, Xoana G; Boyle, Gerard; Narayanan, Vinodh; Wolf, Thomas R; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Our eyes are in continuous motion. Even when we attempt to fix our gaze, we produce so called "fixational eye movements", which include microsaccades, drift, and ocular microtremor (OMT). Microsaccades, the largest and fastest type of fixational eye movement, shift the retinal image from several dozen to several hundred photoreceptors and have equivalent physical characteristics to saccades, only on a smaller scale (Martinez-Conde, Otero-Millan & Macknik, 2013). OMT occurs simultaneously with drift and is the smallest of the fixational eye movements (∼1 photoreceptor width, >0.5 arcmin), with dominant frequencies ranging from 70 Hz to 103 Hz (Martinez-Conde, Macknik & Hubel, 2004). Due to OMT's small amplitude and high frequency, the most accurate and stringent way to record it is the piezoelectric transduction method. Thus, OMT studies are far rarer than those focusing on microsaccades or drift. Here we conducted simultaneous recordings of OMT and microsaccades with a piezoelectric device and a commercial infrared video tracking system. We set out to determine whether OMT could help to restore perceptually faded targets during attempted fixation, and we also wondered whether the piezoelectric sensor could affect the characteristics of microsaccades. Our results showed that microsaccades, but not OMT, counteracted perceptual fading. We moreover found that the piezoelectric sensor affected microsaccades in a complex way, and that the oculomotor system adjusted to the stress brought on by the sensor by adjusting the magnitudes of microsaccades.

  18. Simultaneous recordings of ocular microtremor and microsaccades with a piezoelectric sensor and a video-oculography system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. McCamy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Our eyes are in continuous motion. Even when we attempt to fix our gaze, we produce so called “fixational eye movements”, which include microsaccades, drift, and ocular microtremor (OMT. Microsaccades, the largest and fastest type of fixational eye movement, shift the retinal image from several dozen to several hundred photoreceptors and have equivalent physical characteristics to saccades, only on a smaller scale (Martinez-Conde, Otero-Millan & Macknik, 2013. OMT occurs simultaneously with drift and is the smallest of the fixational eye movements (∼1 photoreceptor width, >0.5 arcmin, with dominant frequencies ranging from 70 Hz to 103 Hz (Martinez-Conde, Macknik & Hubel, 2004. Due to OMT’s small amplitude and high frequency, the most accurate and stringent way to record it is the piezoelectric transduction method. Thus, OMT studies are far rarer than those focusing on microsaccades or drift. Here we conducted simultaneous recordings of OMT and microsaccades with a piezoelectric device and a commercial infrared video tracking system. We set out to determine whether OMT could help to restore perceptually faded targets during attempted fixation, and we also wondered whether the piezoelectric sensor could affect the characteristics of microsaccades. Our results showed that microsaccades, but not OMT, counteracted perceptual fading. We moreover found that the piezoelectric sensor affected microsaccades in a complex way, and that the oculomotor system adjusted to the stress brought on by the sensor by adjusting the magnitudes of microsaccades.

  19. Algorithms for the analysis of ensemble neural spiking activity using simultaneous-event multivariate point-process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Demba; Temereanca, Simona; Brown, Emery N

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how ensembles of neurons represent and transmit information in the patterns of their joint spiking activity is a fundamental question in computational neuroscience. At present, analyses of spiking activity from neuronal ensembles are limited because multivariate point process (MPP) models cannot represent simultaneous occurrences of spike events at an arbitrarily small time resolution. Solo recently reported a simultaneous-event multivariate point process (SEMPP) model to correct this key limitation. In this paper, we show how Solo's discrete-time formulation of the SEMPP model can be efficiently fit to ensemble neural spiking activity using a multinomial generalized linear model (mGLM). Unlike existing approximate procedures for fitting the discrete-time SEMPP model, the mGLM is an exact algorithm. The MPP time-rescaling theorem can be used to assess model goodness-of-fit. We also derive a new marked point-process (MkPP) representation of the SEMPP model that leads to new thinning and time-rescaling algorithms for simulating an SEMPP stochastic process. These algorithms are much simpler than multivariate extensions of algorithms for simulating a univariate point process, and could not be arrived at without the MkPP representation. We illustrate the versatility of the SEMPP model by analyzing neural spiking activity from pairs of simultaneously-recorded rat thalamic neurons stimulated by periodic whisker deflections, and by simulating SEMPP data. In the data analysis example, the SEMPP model demonstrates that whisker motion significantly modulates simultaneous spiking activity at the 1 ms time scale and that the stimulus effect is more than one order of magnitude greater for simultaneous activity compared with non-simultaneous activity. Together, the mGLM, the MPP time-rescaling theorem and the MkPP representation of the SEMPP model offer a theoretically sound, practical tool for measuring joint spiking propensity in a neuronal ensemble.

  20. A 32-channel fully implantable wireless neurosensor for simultaneous recording from two cortical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceros, Juan; Yin, Ming; Borton, David A; Patterson, William R; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2011-01-01

    We present a fully implantable, wireless, neurosensor for multiple-location neural interface applications. The device integrates two independent 16-channel intracortical microelectrode arrays and can simultaneously acquire 32 channels of broadband neural data from two separate cortical areas. The system-on-chip implantable sensor is built on a flexible Kapton polymer substrate and incorporates three very low power subunits: two cortical subunits connected to a common subcutaneous subunit. Each cortical subunit has an ultra-low power 16-channel preamplifier and multiplexer integrated onto a cortical microelectrode array. The subcutaneous epicranial unit has an inductively coupled power supply, two analog-to-digital converters, a low power digital controller chip, and microlaser-based infrared telemetry. The entire system is soft encapsulated with biocompatible flexible materials for in vivo applications. Broadband neural data is conditioned, amplified, and analog multiplexed by each of the cortical subunits and passed to the subcutaneous component, where it is digitized and combined with synchronization data and wirelessly transmitted transcutaneously using high speed infrared telemetry.

  1. High-density surface EMG decomposition allows for recording of motor unit discharge from proximal and distal flexion synergy muscles simultaneously in individuals with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura C; Thompson, Christopher K; Negro, Francesco; Heckman, C J; Farina, Dario; Dewald, Julius P A

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of motor unit discharge can provide insight into the neural control of movement in healthy and pathological states, but it is typically completed in one muscle at a time. For some research investigations, it would be advantageous to study motor unit discharge from multiple muscles simultaneously. One such example is investigation of the flexion synergy, an abnormal muscle co-activation pattern in post-stroke individuals in which activation of shoulder abductors is involuntarily coupled with that of elbow and finger flexors. However, limitations in available technology have hindered the ability to efficiently extract motor unit discharge from multiple muscles simultaneously. In this study, we propose the use of high-density surface EMG decomposition from proximal and distal flexion synergy muscles (deltoid, biceps, wrist/finger flexors) in combination with an isometric joint torque recording device in individuals with chronic stroke. This innovative approach provides the ability to efficiently analyze both motor units and joint torques that have been simultaneously recorded from the shoulder, elbow, and fingers. In preliminary experiments, 3 stroke and 5 control participants generated shoulder abduction, elbow flexion, and finger flexion torques at 10, 20, 30 and 40% of maximum torque. Motor unit spike trains could be extracted from all muscles at each torque level. Mean motor unit firing rates were significantly lower in the stroke group than in the control group for all three muscles. Within the stroke group, wrist/finger flexor motor units had the lowest coefficient of variation. Additionally, modulation of mean firing rates across torque levels was significantly impaired in all three paretic muscles. The implications of these findings and overall impact of this approach are discussed.

  2. Battery powered neuromuscular stimulator circuit for use during simultaneous recording of myoelectric signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Rune; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2009-10-01

    Surface Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) requires high stimulation voltages. A step-up transformer in the output stage of the stimulation circuit is often used. In the present technical paper a voltage controlled current source (VCCS) is presented as an alternative to the transformer coupling. Two (master-slave) coupled transconductance amplifiers (TAs)--in series with pre-charged capacitors--are used to drive the output current. After each stimulation pulse the capacitors are recharged to a high voltage by a switch mode power supply (SMPS). A multiplexer in the output stage is used to provide biphasic output. Output rise-time (10-90%) was less than 2 micros at 100 mA output. Biphasic charge balanced stimulation current can be produced with a net current to ground of less than 20 nA, thus virtually separated from ground. The circuit permits recording of the volitional myoelectric signal from the stimulated muscle. It is part of a portable myoelectrically controlled FES system powered by 2 AA batteries and currently used in clinical trials.

  3. Simultaneous auroral observations described in the historical records of China, Japan and Korea from ancient times to AD 1700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    Full Text Available Early auroral observations recorded in various oriental histories are examined in order to search for examples of strictly simultaneous and indisputably independent observations of the aurora borealis from spatially separated sites in East Asia. In the period up to ad 1700, only five examples have been found of two or more oriental auroral observations from separate sites on the same night. These occurred during the nights of ad 1101 January 31, ad 1138 October 6, ad 1363 July 30, ad 1582 March 8 and ad 1653 March 2. The independent historical evidence describing observations of mid-latitude auroral displays at more than one site in East Asia on the same night provides virtually incontrovertible proof that auroral displays actually occurred on these five special occasions. This conclusion is corroborated by the good level of agreement between the detailed auroral descriptions recorded in the different oriental histories, which furnish essentially compatible information on both the colour (or colours of each auroral display and its approximate position in the sky. In addition, the occurrence of auroral displays in Europe within two days of auroral displays in East Asia, on two (possibly three out of these five special occasions, suggests that a substantial number of the mid-latitude auroral displays recorded in the oriental histories are associated with intense geomagnetic storms.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; storms and substorms

  4. Transcranial alternating current stimulation with sawtooth waves: simultaneous stimulation and EEG recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eDowsett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS has until now mostly been administered as an alternating sinusoidal wave. Despite modern tACS stimulators being able to deliver alternating current with any arbitrary shape there has been no systematic exploration into the relative benefits of different waveforms. As tACS is a relatively new technique there is a huge parameter space of unexplored possibilities which may prove superior or complimentary to the traditional sinusoidal waveform. Here we begin to address this with an investigation into the effects of sawtooth wave tACS on individual alpha power. Evidence from animal models suggests that the gradient and direction of an electric current should be important factors for the subsequent neural firing rate; we compared positive and negative ramp sawtooth waves to test this. An additional advantage of sawtooth waves is that the resulting artefact in the electroencephalogram (EEG recording is significantly simpler to remove than a sine wave; accordingly we were able to observe alpha oscillations both during and after stimulation.We found that positive ramp sawtooth, but not negative ramp sawtooth, significantly enhanced alpha power during stimulation relative to sham (p<0.01. In addition we tested for an after-effect of both sawtooth and sinusoidal stimulation on alpha power but in this case did not find any significant effect. This preliminary study paves the way for further investigations into the effect of the gradient and direction of the current in tACS which could significantly improve the usefulness of this technique.

  5. Spatiotemporal Accuracy of Gradient Magnetic-Field Topography (GMFT) Confirmed by Simultaneous Magnetoencephalography and Intracranial Electroencephalography Recordings in Patients with Intractable Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirozu, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Akira; Masuda, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Masafumi; Ito, Yosuke; Nakayama, Yoko; Higashijima, Takefumi; Kameyama, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Gradient magnetic-field topography (GMFT) is one method for analyzing magnetoencephalography (MEG) and representing the spatiotemporal dynamics of activity on the brain surface. In contrast to spatial filters, GMFT does not include a process reconstructing sources by mixing sensor signals with adequate weighting. Consequently, noisy sensors have localized and limited effects on the results, and GMFT can handle MEG recordings with low signal-to-noise ratio. This property is derived from the principle of the planar-type gradiometer, which obtains maximum gradient magnetic-field signals just above the electrical current source. We assumed that this characteristic allows GMFT to represent even faint changes in brain activities that cannot be achieved with conventional equivalent current dipole analysis or spatial filters. GMFT is thus hypothesized to represent brain surface activities from onset to propagation of epileptic discharges. This study aimed to validate the spatiotemporal accuracy of GMFT by analyzing epileptic activities using simultaneous MEG and intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recordings. Participants in this study comprised 12 patients with intractable epilepsy. Epileptic spikes simultaneously detected on both MEG and iEEG were analyzed by GMFT and voltage topography (VT), respectively. Discrepancies in spatial distribution between GMFT and VT were evaluated for each epileptic spike. On the lateral cortices, areas of GMFT activity onset were almost concordant with VT activities arising at the gyral unit level (concordance rate, 66.7–100%). Median time lag between GMFT and VT at onset in each patient was 11.0–42.0 ms. On the temporal base, VT represented basal activities, whereas GMFT failed but instead represented propagated activities of the lateral temporal cortices. Activities limited to within the basal temporal or deep brain region were not reflected on GMFT. In conclusion, GMFT appears to accurately represent brain activities of the

  6. Non-chemosensitive parafacial neurons simultaneously regulate active expiration and airway patency under hypercapnia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Britto, Alan A; Moraes, Davi J A

    2017-03-15

    Hypercapnia or parafacial respiratory group (pFRG) disinhibition at normocapnia evokes active expiration in rats by recruitment of pFRG late-expiratory (late-E) neurons. We show that hypercapnia simultaneously evoked active expiration and exaggerated glottal dilatation by late-E synaptic excitation of abdominal, hypoglossal and laryngeal motoneurons. Simultaneous rhythmic expiratory activity in previously silent pFRG late-E neurons, which did not express the marker of ventral medullary CO2 -sensitive neurons (transcription factor Phox2b), was also evoked by hypercapnia. Hypercapnia-evoked active expiration, neural and neuronal late-E activities were eliminated by pFRG inhibition, but not after blockade of synaptic excitation. Hypercapnia produces disinhibition of non-chemosensitive pFRG late-E neurons to evoke active expiration and concomitant cranial motor respiratory responses controlling the oropharyngeal and upper airway patency. Hypercapnia produces active expiration in rats and the recruitment of late-expiratory (late-E) neurons located in the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG) of the ventral medullary brainstem. We tested the hypothesis that hypercapnia produces active expiration and concomitant cranial respiratory motor responses controlling the oropharyngeal and upper airway patency by disinhibition of pFRG late-E neurons, but not via synaptic excitation. Phrenic nerve, abdominal nerve (AbN), cranial respiratory motor nerves, subglottal pressure, and medullary and spinal neurons/motoneurons were recorded in in situ preparations of juvenile rats. Hypercapnia evoked AbN active expiration, exaggerated late-E discharges in cranial respiratory motor outflows, and glottal dilatation via late-E synaptic excitation of abdominal, hypoglossal and laryngeal motoneurons. Simultaneous rhythmic late-E activity in previously silent pFRG neurons, which did not express the marker of ventral medullary CO2 -sensitive neurons (transcription factor Phox2b), was also evoked by

  7. Mu rhythm suppression reflects mother-child face-to-face interactions: a pilot study with simultaneous MEG recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki; Ikeda, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Furutani, Naoki; Hayashi, Norio; Minabe, Yoshio; Hirata, Masayuki; Asada, Minoru; Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous face-to-face interactions between mothers and their children play crucial roles in the development of social minds; however, these inter-brain dynamics are still unclear. In this pilot study, we measured MEG mu suppression during face-to-face spontaneous non-linguistic interactions between mothers and their children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using the MEG hyperscanning system (i.e., simultaneous recording). The results demonstrated significant correlations between the index of mu suppression (IMS) in the right precentral area and the traits (or severity) of ASD in 13 mothers and 8 children (MEG data from 5 of the children could not be obtained due to motion noise). In addition, higher IMS values (i.e., strong mu suppression) in mothers were associated with higher IMS values in their children. To evaluate the behavioral contingency between mothers and their children, we calculated cross correlations between the magnitude of the mother and child head-motion during MEG recordings. As a result, in mothers whose head motions tended to follow her child’s head motion, the magnitudes of mu suppression in the mother’s precentral area were large. Further studies with larger sample sizes, including typically developing children, are necessary to generalize this result to typical interactions between mothers and their children. PMID:27721481

  8. [A validation of the data obtained with the simultaneous recording of blood pressure and the 24-hour electrocardiogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanò, G; Caparra, A; Valentino, S; Coia, F; Federico, L; Santucci, A

    1993-06-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the blood pressure (BP) measurement reliability of a light weight ambulatory BP and ECG recorder. Micro AM is a new 300 g portable apparatus that combines in one device both the ambulatory BP and solid state ECG recording. The dimensions of the Micro AM are 75 x 140 x 29 mm. The monitor measures BP using Korotkoff phase 1 for systolic and phase 5 for diastolic BP, and concurrently measures oscillometric BP, one method validating the other. In addition, the manual and programmed BP measurement modes can be supplemented by an "intelligent" mode in which the ECG triggers an ambulatory BP reading during an abnormal ST segment change. A standard mercury manometer was connected with the cuff of the Micro AM with a Y-shaped part, and 12 BP measurements were simultaneously taken at 5 min intervals by the automatic device in auscultatory mode and by a trained technician in 86 normotensive volunteers (aged from 18 to 44 years, 37 males and 49 females). The algebraic differences, the frequency distribution and the difference distribution of systolic and diastolic data between the 2 methods were calculated. The results show that the automatic method gives values for systolic BP that are lower than conventional ones (average differences -0.643 mmHg), whereas for diastolic BP, the values are higher (average differences +0.229 mmHg). Then, Student's paired t-test was used to evaluate statistically significant differences. The test relative to systolic BP was significant to the critical level of 0.1%, but the differences being 3 times smaller than the instrumental tolerance. On the contrary, diastolic BP differences were non significant. In conclusion, we found a good agreement between BP recorded automatically and by sphygmomanometer.

  9. Simultaneous modeling of individuals' duration and expenditure decisions in out-of-home leisure activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dane, Gamze; Arentze, Theo A.; Timmermans, Harry J P; Ettema, Dick

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an activity model under time and budget constraints to simultaneously predict the allocation of time and money to out-of-home leisure activities. The proposed framework considers the activity episode level, given that the activity is scheduled. Thus, the model considers the

  10. Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression Exposure to many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals can cause adverse outcomes. These adverse outcomes, such as cancer, have been linked to mol...

  11. Simultaneous activation of gamma and theta network oscillations in rat hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Yacov; Wittner, Lucia; Freund, Tamas F; Gähwiler, Beat H

    2002-03-15

    Hippocampal activity in vivo is characterized by concurrent oscillations at theta (4-15 Hz) and gamma (20-80 Hz) frequencies. Here we show that cholinergic receptor activation (methacholine 10-20 nm) in hippocampal slice cultures induces an oscillatory mode of activity, in which the intrinsic network oscillator (located in the CA3 area) expresses simultaneous theta and gamma network oscillations. Pyramidal cells display synaptic theta oscillations, characterized by cycles consisting of population EPSP-IPSP sequences that are dominated by population IPSPs. These rhythmic IPSPs most probably result from theta-modulated spiking activity of several interneurons. At the same time, the majority of interneurons consistently display synaptic gamma oscillations. These oscillatory cycles consist of fast depolarizing rhythmic events that are likely to reflect excitatory input from CA3 pyramidal cells. Interneurons comprising this functional group were identified morphologically. They include four known types of interneurons (basket, O-LM, bistratified and str. lucidum-specific cells) and one new type of CA3 interneuron (multi-subfield cell). The oscillatory activity of these interneurons is only weakly correlated between neighbouring cells, and in about half of these (44 %) is modulated by depolarizing theta rhythmicity. The overall characteristics of acetylcholine-induced oscillations in slice cultures closely resemble the rhythmicity observed in hippocampal field and single cell recordings in vivo. Both rhythmicities depend on intrinsic synaptic interactions, and are expressed by different cell types. The fact that these oscillations persist in a network lacking extra-hippocampal connections emphasizes the importance of intrinsic mechanisms in determining this form of hippocampal activity.

  12. Data driven modeling of the simultaneous activities in ambient environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resident of a smart home, who may be an old person or an Alzheimer patient needing permanent assistance, actuates the world by realizing activities, which are...

  13. Multichannel Simultaneous Determination of Activities of Lactate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Lianjia [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-09-12

    It is very important to find the best conditions for some enzymes to do the best catalysis in current pharmaceutical industries. Based on the results above, we could say that this set-up could be widely used in finding the optimal condition for best enzyme activity of a certain enzyme. Instead of looking for the best condition for enzyme activity by doing many similar reactions repeatedly, we can complete this assignment with just one run if we could apply enough conditions.

  14. Sedimentary Records of the Paleohurricane Activity in the Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, E. J.; Donnelly, J. P.; Wiman, C.; Cashman, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hurricanes pose a threat to human lives and can cause significant destruction of coastal areas. This threat has become more pronounced with recent rises in sea level and coastal populations. Currently, there is a large degree of uncertainty surrounding future changes in tropical cyclone activity. This is due to the limitations of climate models as well as the scarcity and unreliability of the current observational record. With so much uncertainty surrounding the current projections of hurricane activity, it is crucial to establish a longer and more accurate historical record. This study uses sediment cores extracted from blueholes in the Bahamas to develop a record of intense hurricane landfalls in the region dating back more than a millennia. The collected cores were sectioned, split, and scanned on an X-ray fluorescence scanner to obtain a high resolution core profile of the sediments' elemental composition and to identify potential sedimentary structures. Age control of the samples was determined using radiocarbon dating, coarse fraction was measured every centimeter, and hurricane event bed frequency was established for each core. We assess the statistical significance of the patterns observed in the sedimentary record using a coupled ocean-atmosphere hurricane model to simulate storms representative of modern climatology. Cores extracted from two blue holes near South Andros Island provide approximately a 1600 year and a 600 year record respectively, with sedimentation rates exceeding 1 cm/year. Both records contain coarse grained event deposits that correlate with known historical intense hurricane strikes in the Bahamas within age uncertainties. The 1600 year record confirms previous hurricane reconstructions from the Caribbean indicating higher tropical cyclone activity from 500 to 1400 CE. In addition, these new high-resolution records indicate elevated intense hurricane activity in the 17th and 18th centuries CE, when activity is also elevated in lower

  15. Simultaneous longitudinal and transverse oscillation in an active filament

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, V; Yuan, D; Banerjee, D; Srivastava, A K; Shen, Y

    2016-01-01

    We report on the co-existence of longitudinal and transverse oscillations in an active filament. On March 15$^{th}$ 2013, a M1.1 class flare was observed in the active region AR 11692. A CME was found to be associated with the flare. {The CME generated a shock wave that triggered the oscillations in a nearby filament}, situated at the south-west of the active region as observed from National Solar Observatory (NSO)\\textit{Global Oscillation Network Group}(GONG) H$\\alpha$ images. In this work we report the longitudinal oscillations in the two ends of the filament, co-existing with the transverse oscillations. We propose a scenario in which {an} incoming shock wave hits the filament obliquely and triggers both longitudinal and transverse oscillations. Using the observed parameters, we estimate the lower limit of the magnetic field strength. We use simple pendulum model with gravity as the restoring force to estimate the radius of curvature. We also calculate the mass accretion rate which causes the filament mot...

  16. Simultaneous recordings of human microsaccades and drifts with a contemporary video eye tracker and the search coil technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B McCamy

    Full Text Available Human eyes move continuously, even during visual fixation. These "fixational eye movements" (FEMs include microsaccades, intersaccadic drift and oculomotor tremor. Research in human FEMs has grown considerably in the last decade, facilitated by the manufacture of noninvasive, high-resolution/speed video-oculography eye trackers. Due to the small magnitude of FEMs, obtaining reliable data can be challenging, however, and depends critically on the sensitivity and precision of the eye tracking system. Yet, no study has conducted an in-depth comparison of human FEM recordings obtained with the search coil (considered the gold standard for measuring microsaccades and drift and with contemporary, state-of-the art video trackers. Here we measured human microsaccades and drift simultaneously with the search coil and a popular state-of-the-art video tracker. We found that 95% of microsaccades detected with the search coil were also detected with the video tracker, and 95% of microsaccades detected with video tracking were also detected with the search coil, indicating substantial agreement between the two systems. Peak/mean velocities and main sequence slopes of microsaccades detected with video tracking were significantly higher than those of the same microsaccades detected with the search coil, however. Ocular drift was significantly correlated between the two systems, but drift speeds were higher with video tracking than with the search coil. Overall, our combined results suggest that contemporary video tracking now approaches the search coil for measuring FEMs.

  17. Simultaneous recordings of human microsaccades and drifts with a contemporary video eye tracker and the search coil technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamy, Michael B; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Leigh, R John; King, Susan A; Schneider, Rosalyn M; Macknik, Stephen L; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Human eyes move continuously, even during visual fixation. These "fixational eye movements" (FEMs) include microsaccades, intersaccadic drift and oculomotor tremor. Research in human FEMs has grown considerably in the last decade, facilitated by the manufacture of noninvasive, high-resolution/speed video-oculography eye trackers. Due to the small magnitude of FEMs, obtaining reliable data can be challenging, however, and depends critically on the sensitivity and precision of the eye tracking system. Yet, no study has conducted an in-depth comparison of human FEM recordings obtained with the search coil (considered the gold standard for measuring microsaccades and drift) and with contemporary, state-of-the art video trackers. Here we measured human microsaccades and drift simultaneously with the search coil and a popular state-of-the-art video tracker. We found that 95% of microsaccades detected with the search coil were also detected with the video tracker, and 95% of microsaccades detected with video tracking were also detected with the search coil, indicating substantial agreement between the two systems. Peak/mean velocities and main sequence slopes of microsaccades detected with video tracking were significantly higher than those of the same microsaccades detected with the search coil, however. Ocular drift was significantly correlated between the two systems, but drift speeds were higher with video tracking than with the search coil. Overall, our combined results suggest that contemporary video tracking now approaches the search coil for measuring FEMs.

  18. Participant observation of time allocation, direct patient contact and simultaneous activities in hospital physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupanc Andrea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital physicians' time is a critical resource in medical care. Two aspects are of interest. First, the time spent in direct patient contact – a key principle of effective medical care. Second, simultaneous task performance ('multitasking' which may contribute to medical error, impaired safety behaviour, and stress. There is a call for instruments to assess these aspects. A preliminary study to gain insight into activity patterns, time allocation and simultaneous activities of hospital physicians was carried out. Therefore an observation instrument for time-motion-studies in hospital settings was developed and tested. Methods 35 participant observations of internists and surgeons of a German municipal 300-bed hospital were conducted. Complete day shifts of hospital physicians on wards, emergency ward, intensive care unit, and operating room were continuously observed. Assessed variables of interest were time allocation, share of direct patient contact, and simultaneous activities. Inter-rater agreement of Kappa = .71 points to good reliability of the instrument. Results Hospital physicians spent 25.5% of their time at work in direct contact with patients. Most time was allocated to documentation and conversation with colleagues and nursing staff. Physicians performed parallel simultaneous activities for 17–20% of their work time. Communication with patients, documentation, and conversation with colleagues and nursing staff were the most frequently observed simultaneous activities. Applying logit-linear analyses, specific primary activities increase the probability of particular simultaneous activities. Conclusion Patient-related working time in hospitals is limited. The potential detrimental effects of frequently observed simultaneous activities on performance outcomes need further consideration.

  19. Recording event-related activity under hostile magnetic resonance environment: Is multimodal EEG/ERP-MRI recording possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaş, H M; Karakaş, S; Ozkan Ceylan, A; Tali, E T

    2009-08-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) have high temporal resolution, but insufficient spatial resolution; the converse is true for the functional imaging techniques. The purpose of the study was to test the utility of a multimodal EEG/ERP-MRI technique which combines electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for a simultaneously high temporal and spatial resolution. The sample consisted of 32 healthy young adults of both sexes. Auditory stimuli were delivered according to the active and passive oddball paradigms in the MRI environment (MRI-e) and in the standard conditions of the electrophysiology laboratory environment (Lab-e). Tasks were presented in a fixed order. Participants were exposed to the recording environments in a counterbalanced order. EEG data were preprocessed for MRI-related artifacts. Source localization was made using a current density reconstruction technique. The ERP waveforms for the MRI-e were morphologically similar to those for the Lab-e. The effect of the recording environment, experimental paradigm and electrode location were analyzed using a 2x2x3 analysis of variance for repeated measures. The ERP components in the two environments showed parametric variations and characteristic topographical distributions. The calculated sources were in line with the related literature. The findings indicated effortful cognitive processing in MRI-e. The study provided preliminary data on the feasibility of the multimodal EEG/ERP-MRI technique. It also indicated lines of research that are to be pursued for a decisive testing of this technique and its implementation to clinical practice.

  20. Simultaneous Manipulation of Electric and Thermal Fields via Combination of Passive and Active Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Lan, Chuwen; Zhou, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Increasing attention has been focused on the invisibility cloak due to its novel concept for manipulation of physical field. However, it is usually realized by single scheme (namely passive or active scheme) and limited in a single field. Here, we proposed a general method to achieve simultaneous manipulation of multi-physics field via combination of passive and active schemes. Experimentally, this method was demonstrated by simultaneous manipulation of electric field and thermal field. Firstly, a device was designed to simultaneously behave as electric and thermal invisibility cloak. Secondly, another device was demonstrated to simultaneously behave as electric invisibility cloak and thermal concentrator. The experimental results agree well with the simulated ones, thus confirming the feasibility of our method. Our method can also be extended to the other multi-physics fields, which would create much more freedom to design of new system and might enable new potential application in broad areas.

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Arsenic, Manganese, and Selenium in Biological Materials by Neutron-Activation Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else

    1973-01-01

    A new method was developed for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, manganese, and selenium in biological material by thermal-neutron activation analysis. The use of 81 mSe as indicator for selenium permitted a reduction of activation time to 1 hr for a 1 g sample, and the possibility of loss...

  2. A multichannel integrated circuit for electrical recording of neural activity, with independent channel programmability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora Lopez, Carolina; Prodanov, Dimiter; Braeken, Dries; Gligorijevic, Ivan; Eberle, Wolfgang; Bartic, Carmen; Puers, Robert; Gielen, Georges

    2012-04-01

    Since a few decades, micro-fabricated neural probes are being used, together with microelectronic interfaces, to get more insight in the activity of neuronal networks. The need for higher temporal and spatial recording resolutions imposes new challenges on the design of integrated neural interfaces with respect to power consumption, data handling and versatility. In this paper, we present an integrated acquisition system for in vitro and in vivo recording of neural activity. The ASIC consists of 16 low-noise, fully-differential input channels with independent programmability of its amplification (from 100 to 6000 V/V) and filtering (1-6000 Hz range) capabilities. Each channel is AC-coupled and implements a fourth-order band-pass filter in order to steeply attenuate out-of-band noise and DC input offsets. The system achieves an input-referred noise density of 37 nV/√Hz, a NEF of 5.1, a CMRR > 60 dB, a THD < 1% and a sampling rate of 30 kS/s per channel, while consuming a maximum of 70 μA per channel from a single 3.3 V. The ASIC was implemented in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology and has a total area of 5.6 × 4.5 mm². The recording system was successfully validated in in vitro and in vivo experiments, achieving simultaneous multichannel recordings of cell activity with satisfactory signal-to-noise ratios.

  3. Low-cost automatic activity data recording system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes M.F.D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a low-cost, high quality device capable of monitoring indirect activity by detecting touch-release events on a conducting surface, i.e., the animal's cage cover. In addition to the detecting sensor itself, the system includes an IBM PC interface for prompt data storage. The hardware/software design, while serving for other purposes, is used to record the circadian activity rhythm pattern of rats with time in an automated computerized fashion using minimal cost computer equipment (IBM PC XT. Once the sensor detects a touch-release action of the rat in the upper portion of the cage, the interface sends a command to the PC which records the time (hours-minutes-seconds when the activity occurred. As a result, the computer builds up several files (one per detector/sensor containing a time list of all recorded events. Data can be visualized in terms of actograms, indicating the number of detections per hour, and analyzed by mathematical tools such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT or cosinor. In order to demonstrate method validation, an experiment was conducted on 8 Wistar rats under 12/12-h light/dark cycle conditions (lights on at 7:00 a.m.. Results show a biological validation of the method since it detected the presence of circadian activity rhythm patterns in the behavior of the rats

  4. Active C4 Electrodes for Local Field Potential Recording Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular neural recording, with multi-electrode arrays (MEAs, is a powerful method used to study neural function at the network level. However, in a high density array, it can be costly and time consuming to integrate the active circuit with the expensive electrodes. In this paper, we present a 4 mm × 4 mm neural recording integrated circuit (IC chip, utilizing IBM C4 bumps as recording electrodes, which enable a seamless active chip and electrode integration. The IC chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process for both in vitro and in vivo applications. It has an input-referred noise of 4.6 μV rms for the bandwidth of 10 Hz to 10 kHz and a power dissipation of 11.25 mW at 2.5 V, or 43.9 μW per input channel. This prototype is scalable for implementing larger number and higher density electrode arrays. To validate the functionality of the chip, electrical testing results and acute in vivo recordings from a rat barrel cortex are presented.

  5. Active C4 Electrodes for Local Field Potential Recording Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Freedman, David; Sahin, Mesut; Ünlü, M. Selim; Knepper, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular neural recording, with multi-electrode arrays (MEAs), is a powerful method used to study neural function at the network level. However, in a high density array, it can be costly and time consuming to integrate the active circuit with the expensive electrodes. In this paper, we present a 4 mm × 4 mm neural recording integrated circuit (IC) chip, utilizing IBM C4 bumps as recording electrodes, which enable a seamless active chip and electrode integration. The IC chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process for both in vitro and in vivo applications. It has an input-referred noise of 4.6 μVrms for the bandwidth of 10 Hz to 10 kHz and a power dissipation of 11.25 mW at 2.5 V, or 43.9 μW per input channel. This prototype is scalable for implementing larger number and higher density electrode arrays. To validate the functionality of the chip, electrical testing results and acute in vivo recordings from a rat barrel cortex are presented. PMID:26861324

  6. A Radio-Telemetry System for Navigation and Recording Neuronal Activity in Free-Roaming Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian Zhang; Yanling Dong; Megan Li; Houjun Wang

    2012-01-01

    A radio-telemetry recording system is presented which is applied to stimulate specific brain areas and record neuronal activity in a free-roaming rat.The system consists of two major parts:stationary section and mobile section.The stationary section contains a laptop,a Micro Control Unit (MCU),an FM transmitter and a receiver.The mobile section is composed of the headstage and the backpack (which includes the mainboard,FM transmitter,and receiver),which can generate biphasic microcurrent pulses and simultaneously acquire neuronal activity.Prior to performing experiments,electrodes are implanted in the Ventral Posterolateral (VPL) thalamic nucleus,primary motor area (M 1) and Medial Forebrain Bundle (MFB) of the rat.The stationary section modulates commands from the laptop for stimulation and demodulates signals for neuronal activity recording.The backpack is strapped on the back of the rat and executes commands from the stationary section,acquires neuronal activity,and transmits the neuronal activity singles of the waking rat to the stationary section.All components in the proposed system are commercially available and are fabricated from Surface Mount Devices (SMD) in order to reduce the size (25 mm × 15 mm × 2 mm) and weight (10 g with battery).During actual experiments,the backpack,which is powered by a rechargeable Lithium battery (4 g),can generate biphasic microcurrent pulse stimuli and can also record neuronal activity via the FM link with a maximum transmission rate of 1 kbps for more than one hour within a 200 m range in an open field or in a neighboring chamber.The test results show that the system is able to remotely navigate and control the rat without any prior training,and acquire neuronal activity with desirable features such as small size,low power consumption and high precision when compared with a commercial 4-channel bio-signal acquisition and processing system.

  7. Correlation between single-trial visual evoked potentials and the blood oxygenation level dependent response in simultaneously recorded electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglø, Dan; Pedersen, Henrik; Rostrup, Egill;

    2012-01-01

    To compare different electroencephalography (EEG)-based regressors and their ability to predict the simultaneously recorded blood oxygenation level dependent response during blocked visual stimulation, simultaneous EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging in 10 healthy volunteers was performed...... in different occipital and extraoccipital cortical areas not explained by the boxcar regressor. The results suggest that the P1-N2 regressor is the best EEG-based regressor to model the visual paradigm, but when looking for additional effects like habituation or attention modulation that cannot be modeled...

  8. Simultaneous fNIRS and thermal infrared imaging during cognitive task reveal autonomic correlates of prefrontal cortex activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinti, Paola; Cardone, Daniela; Merla, Arcangelo

    2015-12-01

    Functional Near Infrared-Spectroscopy (fNIRS) represents a powerful tool to non-invasively study task-evoked brain activity. fNIRS assessment of cortical activity may suffer for contamination by physiological noises of different origin (e.g. heart beat, respiration, blood pressure, skin blood flow), both task-evoked and spontaneous. Spontaneous changes occur at different time scales and, even if they are not directly elicited by tasks, their amplitude may result task-modulated. In this study, concentration changes of hemoglobin were recorded over the prefrontal cortex while simultaneously recording the facial temperature variations of the participants through functional infrared thermal (fIR) imaging. fIR imaging provides touch-less estimation of the thermal expression of peripheral autonomic. Wavelet analysis revealed task-modulation of the very low frequency (VLF) components of both fNIRS and fIR signals and strong coherence between them. Our results indicate that subjective cognitive and autonomic activities are intimately linked and that the VLF component of the fNIRS signal is affected by the autonomic activity elicited by the cognitive task. Moreover, we showed that task-modulated changes in vascular tone occur both at a superficial and at larger depth in the brain. Combined use of fNIRS and fIR imaging can effectively quantify the impact of VLF autonomic activity on the fNIRS signals.

  9. Simultaneous biological removal of sulfide and nitrate by autotrophic denitrification in an activated sludge system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manconi, I.; Carucci, A.; Lens, P.N.L.; Rossetti, S.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of an autotrophic denitrification process in an activated sludge reactor, using sulphide as the electron donor, was tested for simultaneous denitrification and sulphide removal. The reactor was operated at nitrate (N) to sulphide (S) ratios between 0.5 and 0.9 to evaluate their effec

  10. Simultaneous recording of EEG and fNIRS during visuo-spatial and facial expression processing in a dual task paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Martin J; Neueder, Dorothea; Troeller, Anna K; Schulz, Stefan M

    2016-11-01

    Emotional processing is probably the most crucial tool for orienting oneself in our everyday social life and has been considered to be highly automatic for a long time. Dual task (DT) research shows that information competing for working memory resources impairs the identification of emotional facial expressions. Effects of cognitive load in DT paradigms have been confirmed in numerous neuroimaging studies. However, interference occurring during a DT comprised of decoding emotional facial expressions and a visuo-spatial working memory task has yet to be visualized. To investigate the DT interference effect on brain areas associated not only with working memory, but also emotional and visuo-spatial processing, we recorded brain activation within the prefrontal cortex and parietal-occipital sensory areas using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) simultaneously. Our study consisted of N = 36 participants (27 female) performing the following tasks: a) Corsi blocks, b) identification of emotional facial expressions or c) DT comprising of tasks a) and b). We predicted higher activation of the prefrontal cortex during DT and corresponding reduced P100 and P300 amplitudes. As expected, fNIRS measurements revealed significantly higher neuronal activation within the prefrontal cortex in the DT condition. When comparing DT to the single tasks, the P100 amplitude was reduced, but the P300 amplitude did not show the expected reduction. Our findings underline that at least some aspects of emotional processing are not entirely automatic, but depend on prefrontal control and are therefore affected by cognitive load, in particular visuo-spatial working memory resources.

  11. A Simultaneous Model to measure Academic and Financial Performances of Scientific Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Handoko, L T

    2005-01-01

    I propose a new model to measure simultaneously academic and financial performances of scientific activities quantitatively. The tool is very simple and can be applied to any branches of science, while it is also adjustable to varying macroeconomic indicators. I argue that implementing the model could realize a fair and objective decisionmaking and also reward and punishment system in order to improve the individual and institutional performances in scientific activities.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of neuronal activity and cortical hemodynamics by unshielded magnetoencephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yusuke; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Kandori, Akihiko; Maki, Atsushi; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2012-10-01

    The correlation between neuronal activity and cortical hemodynamics, namely, neurovascular coupling (NVC), is important to shed light on the mechanism of a variety of brain functions or neuronal diseases. NVC can be studied by simultaneously measuring neuronal activity and cortical hemodynamics. Consequently, noninvasive measurements of the NVC have been widely studied using both electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, electromagnetic interference between EEG and fMRI is still a major problem. On the other hand, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is another promising tool for detecting cortical hemodynamics because it can be combined with EEG or magnetoencephalography (MEG) without any electromagnetic interference. Accordingly, in the present study, a simultaneous measurement system-combining an unshielded MEG using a two-dimensional gradiometer based on a low-T superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and an NIRS using nonmagnetic thin probes-was developed. This combined system was used to simultaneously measure both an auditory-evoked magnetic field and blood flow change in the auditory cortex. It was experimentally demonstrated that the combined unshielded MEG/NIRS system can simultaneously measure neuronal activity and cortical hemodynamics.

  13. Simultaneous stimulation of GABA and beta adrenergic receptors stabilizes isotypes of activated adenylyl cyclase heterocomplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robichon Alain

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated how the synthesis of cAMP, stimulated by isoproterenol acting through β-adrenoreceptors and Gs, is strongly amplified by simultaneous incubation with baclofen. Baclofen is an agonist of δ-aminobutyric acid type B receptors [GABAB], known to inhibit adenylyl cyclase via Gi. Because these agents have opposite effects on cAMP levels, the unexpected increase in cAMP synthesis when they are applied simultaneously has been intensively investigated. From previous reports, it appears that cyclase type II contributes most significantly to this phenomenon. Results We found that simultaneous application of isoproterenol and baclofen specifically influences the association/dissociation of molecules involved in the induction and termination of cyclase activity. Beta/gamma from [GABA]B receptor-coupled Gi has a higher affinity for adenylyl cyclase isoform(s when these isoforms are co-associated with Gs. Our data also suggest that, when beta/gamma and Gαs are associated with adenylyl cyclase isoform(s, beta/gamma from [GABA]B receptor-coupled Gi retards the GTPase activity of Gαs from adrenergic receptor. These reciprocal regulations of subunits of the adenylyl cyclase complex might be responsible for the drastic increase of cAMP synthesis in response to the simultaneous signals. Conclusions Simultaneous signals arriving at a particular synapse converge on molecular detectors of coincidence and trigger specific biochemical events. We hypothesize that this phenomenon comes from the complex molecular architectures involved, including scaffolding proteins that make reciprocal interactions between associated molecules possible. The biochemistry of simultaneous signaling is addressed as a key to synaptic function.

  14. Studying modulation on simultaneously activated SSVEP neural networks by a cognitive task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenghua

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP), it has been used in many fields. Numerous studies suggest that there exist three SSVEP neural networks in different frequency bands. An obvious phenomenon has been observed, that the amplitude and phase of SSVEP can be modulated by a cognitive task. Previous works have studied this modulation on separately activated SSVEP neural networks by a cognitive task. If two or more SSVEP neural networks are activated simultaneously in the process of a cognitive task, is the modulation on different SSVEP neural networks the same? In this study, two different SSVEP neural networks were activated simultaneously by two different frequency flickers, with a working memory task irrelevant to the flickers being conducted at the same time. The modulated SSVEP waves were compared with each other and to those only under one flicker in previous studies. The comparison results show that the cognitive task can modulate different SSVEP neural networks with a similar style.

  15. Post-injection transmission scans in a PET camera operating without septa with simultaneous measurement of emission activity contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.J.; Karp, J.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-08-01

    The authors report here on methods developed to reliably perform attenuation correction by post-injection transmission in a volume imaging PET scanner. The method directly measures the emission contamination during the transmission study, using a virtual transmission source position offset by 20{degree} from the actual {sup 68}Ge transmission source. Events are recorded only if they meet a co-linearity requirement with either the real or virtual source position. The simultaneous measurements of the emission contamination and transmission data remove the need for complex corrections to the emission data and are not subject to activity redistributions between emission and transmission scans performed sequentially. Correction is necessary, however, for the extra deadtime that varies with the amount of emission activity in the FOV. The extra deadtime is determined from a lookup table of deadtime as a function of detector countrates, which are recorded during the study. The lookup table is based upon phantom measurements. Using patient and phantom data, with both pre- and post-injection transmission measurements, this method is shown to be reliable for attenuation correction in the body. In addition, it enables the calculation of Standardized Uptake Values for analyzing tumor activity.

  16. Respiratory Muscle Activity During Simultaneous Stationary Cycling and Inspiratory Muscle Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellyer, Nathan J; Folsom, Ian A; Gaz, Dan V; Kakuk, Alynn C; Mack, Jessica L; Ver Mulm, Jacyln A

    2015-12-01

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) strengthens the muscles of respiration, improves breathing efficiency, and increases fitness. The IMT is generally performed independently of aerobic exercise; however, it is not clear whether there is added benefit of performing the IMT while simultaneously performing aerobic exercise in terms of activating and strengthening inspiratory muscles. The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of IMT on respiratory muscle electromyography (EMG) activity during stationary cycling in the upright and drops postures as compared with that when the IMT was performed alone. Diaphragm and sternocleidomastoid EMG activity was measured under different resting and cycling postures, with and without the use of the IMT at 40% maximal inspiratory pressure (n = 10; mean age 37). Cycling in an upright posture while simultaneously performing the IMT resulted in a significantly greater diaphragm EMG activity than while performing the IMT at rest in upright or drops postures (p ≤ 0.05). Cycling in drops postures while performing the IMT had a significantly greater diaphragm EMG activity than when performing the IMT at rest in either upright or drops postures (p ≤ 0.05). Sternocleidomastoid muscle activity increased with both cycling and IMT, although posture had little effect. These results support our hypothesis in that the IMT while cycling increases respiratory EMG activity to a significantly greater extent than when performing the IMT solely at rest, suggesting that the combination of IMT and cycling may provide an additive training effect.

  17. Simultaneous measurement of pelvic floor muscle activity and vaginal blood flow: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen

    2007-05-01

    Dyspareunia, defined as persistent or recurrent genital pain associated with sexual intercourse, is hypothesized to be related to pelvic floor hyperactivity and to diminished sexual arousal. Empirical research to support these hypotheses is scarce and concentrates mostly on the role of either pelvic floor activity or genital arousal in female dyspareunia. Currently, however, there is no measurement device to assess pelvic floor activity and genital response simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of a new device that enables simultaneous measurement of pelvic floor activity and genital response in women. Genital arousal measured as vaginal pulse amplitude, and vaginal surface electromyogram (EMG). Thirty sexually functional women participated. To investigate the accuracy of genital response measurement with the adapted photoplethysmograph, and the sensitivity of the device for involuntary changes in pelvic floor activity, vaginal pulse amplitude and vaginal surface EMG were monitored during exposure to emotional, including erotic, films. In addition, vaginal surface EMG was monitored during instructed pelvic floor contractions. The genital data obtained during emotional films proved accurate measurement of genital response. EMG values during the emotional films indicated limited sensitivity of the device for small, involuntary changes in pelvic floor activity due to emotional state. The EMG measurements during the instructed pelvic floor contractions proved sensitivity of the new probe to voluntary pelvic floor activity. It is concluded that following improvement of the sensitivity of the EMG measurement for small, involuntary changes in pelvic floor activity, the device will be a valuable tool in research on superficial dyspareunia.

  18. Ictal propagation of high frequency activity is recapitulated in interictal recordings: effective connectivity of epileptogenic networks recorded with intracranial EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska, A; Cervenka, M C; Jouny, C C; Perilla, J R; Harezlak, J; Bergey, G K; Franaszczuk, P J; Crone, N E

    2014-11-01

    Seizures are increasingly understood to arise from epileptogenic networks across which ictal activity is propagated and sustained. In patients undergoing invasive monitoring for epilepsy surgery, high frequency oscillations have been observed within the seizure onset zone during both ictal and interictal intervals. We hypothesized that the patterns by which high frequency activity is propagated would help elucidate epileptogenic networks and thereby identify network nodes relevant for surgical planning. Intracranial EEG recordings were analyzed with a multivariate autoregressive modeling technique (short-time direct directed transfer function--SdDTF), based on the concept of Granger causality, to estimate the directionality and intensity of propagation of high frequency activity (70-175 Hz) during ictal and interictal recordings. These analyses revealed prominent divergence and convergence of high frequency activity propagation at sites identified by epileptologists as part of the ictal onset zone. In contrast, relatively little propagation of this activity was observed among the other analyzed sites. This pattern was observed in both subdural and depth electrode recordings of patients with focal ictal onset, but not in patients with a widely distributed ictal onset. In patients with focal ictal onsets, the patterns of propagation recorded during pre-ictal (up to 5 min immediately preceding ictal onset) and interictal (more than 24h before and after seizures) intervals were very similar to those recorded during seizures. The ability to characterize epileptogenic networks from interictal recordings could have important clinical implications for epilepsy surgery planning by reducing the need for prolonged invasive monitoring to record spontaneous seizures.

  19. Simultaneous recording of the action potential and its whole-cell associated ion current on NG108-15 cells cultured over a MWCNT electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Reyes, I.; Seseña-Rubfiaro, A.; Acosta-García, M. C.; Batina, N.; Godínez-Fernández, R.

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that, in excitable cells, the dynamics of the ion currents (I i) is extremely important to determine both the magnitude and time course of an action potential (A p). To observe these two processes simultaneously, we cultured NG108-15 cells over a multi-walled carbon nanotubes electrode (MWCNTe) surface and arranged a two independent Patch Clamp system configuration (Bi-Patch Clamp). The first system was used in the voltage or current clamp mode, using a glass micropipette as an electrode. The second system was modified to connect the MWCNTe to virtual ground. While the A p was recorded through the micropipette electrode, the MWCNTe was used to measure the underlying whole-cell current. This configuration allowed us to record both the membrane voltage (V m) and the current changes simultaneously. Images acquired by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicate that cultured cells developed a complex network of neurites, which served to establish the necessary close contact and strong adhesion to the MWCNTe surface. These features were a key factor to obtain the recording of the whole-cell I i with a high signal to noise ratio (SNR). The experimental results were satisfactorily reproduced by a theoretical model developed to simulate the proposed system. Besides the contribution to a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms involved in cell communication, the developed method could be useful in cell physiology studies, pharmacology and diseases diagnosis.

  20. Simultaneous whole-animal 3D-imaging of neuronal activity using light field microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Prevedel, R; Hoffmann, M; Pak, N; Wetzstein, G; Kato, S; Schrödel, T; Raskar, R; Zimmer, M; Boyden, E S; Vaziri, A

    2014-01-01

    3D functional imaging of neuronal activity in entire organisms at single cell level and physiologically relevant time scales faces major obstacles due to trade-offs between the size of the imaged volumes, and spatial and temporal resolution. Here, using light-field microscopy in combination with 3D deconvolution, we demonstrate intrinsically simultaneous volumetric functional imaging of neuronal population activity at single neuron resolution for an entire organism, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The simplicity of our technique and possibility of the integration into epi-fluoresence microscopes makes it an attractive tool for high-speed volumetric calcium imaging.

  1. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, A. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Planeta, C.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  2. Urethral pressure reflectometry, a novel technique for simultaneous recording of pressure and cross-sectional area in the prostatic urethra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Mikael; Klarskov, Niels; Sønksen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urethral pressure reflectometry (UPR) was introduced in 2005, for simultaneous measurement of pressure and cross-sectional area in the female urethra. It has shown to be more reproducible than conventional pressure measurement. Recently, it has been tested in the anal canal...... and the prostatic urethra. The primary aim of this study was to describe UPR in men without bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study investigated 18 men, median age 59 (range 50-77) with UPR and pressure-flow analyses (PQ), the International Prostate Symptom Score and the Danish...... version of Prostate Symptom Score, flow rate, residual urine measurements, transrectal ultrasound, urethral pressure profilometry and visual analogue scale (Discomfort). UPR parameters measured were opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance and hysteresis, from the bladder neck...

  3. The double task of institutional strengthening and executing project activities simultaneously with local partners

    OpenAIRE

    Stallings, J. (ed.); García, Magali

    2001-01-01

    Metadata only record Critical elements of integrated conservation and development (ICD) projects include protecting the environmental integrity of a geographic area over the long term, improving the economic security of local people, and assuring the sustainability of project activities (Ack 1991). Our project has recognized sustainability as a multi-faceted concept that includes four distinct realms: the technical, economic, institutional, and social.

  4. Biodegradable core-shell carriers for simultaneous encapsulation of synergistic actives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windbergs, Maike; Zhao, Yuanjin; Heyman, John; Weitz, David A

    2013-05-29

    Simultaneous encapsulation of multiple active substances in a single carrier is essential for therapeutic applications of synergistic combinations of drugs. However, traditional carrier systems often lack efficient encapsulation and release of incorporated substances, particularly when combinations of drugs must be released in concentrations of a prescribed ratio. We present a novel biodegradable core-shell carrier system fabricated in a one-step, solvent-free process on a microfluidic chip; a hydrophilic active (doxorubicin hydrochloride) is encapsulated in the aqueous core, while a hydrophobic active (paclitaxel) is encapsulated in the solid shell. Particle size and composition can be precisely controlled, and core and shell can be individually loaded with very high efficiency. Drug-loaded particles can be dried and stored as a powder. We demonstrate the efficacy of this system through the simultaneous encapsulation and controlled release of two synergistic anticancer drugs using two cancer-derived cell lines. This solvent-free platform technology is also of high potential value for encapsulation of other active ingredients and chemical reagents.

  5. Simultaneous quantification and splenocyte-proliferating activities of nucleosides and bases in Cervi cornu Pantotrichum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum has been a well known traditional Chinese medicine, which is young horn of Cervus Nippon Temminck (Hualurong: HLR. At present, the methods used for the quality control of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum show low specificity. Objective: To describe a holistic method based on chemical characteristics and splenocyte-proliferating activities to evaluate the quality of HLR. Materials and Methods: The nucleosides and bases from HLR were identified by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS, and six of them were chosen to be used for simultaneous HPLC quantification according to the results of proliferation of mouse splenocytes in vitro. Results: In this study, eight nucleosides and bases have been identified. In addition, uracil, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, guanosine, and adenosine were chosen to be used for simultaneous HPLC quantification. Simultaneous quantification of these six substances was performed on ten groups of HLR under the condition of a TIANHE Kromasil C 18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 250 mm i.d. and a gradient elution of water and acetonitrile. Of the ten groups, HLR displayed the highest total nucleoside contents (TNC, sum of adenosine and uracil, 0.412 mg/g with the strongest splenocyte-proliferating activities. Conclusion: These results suggest that TNC (such as particularly highly contained adenosine and uracil in HLR has a certain correlation with the activity of splenocyte-proliferating, and it may be used as a quality control for HLR. This comprehensive method could be applied to other traditional Chinese medicines to ameliorate their quality control.

  6. Simultaneous quantification and splenocyte-proliferating activities of nucleosides and bases in Cervi cornu Pantotrichum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Ying; Wang, Yu; Li, Hang; Li, Na; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Jiaming; Niu, Xiaohui; Gao, Xiaochen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum has been a well known traditional Chinese medicine, which is young horn of Cervus Nippon Temminck (Hualurong: HLR). At present, the methods used for the quality control of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum show low specificity. Objective: To describe a holistic method based on chemical characteristics and splenocyte-proliferating activities to evaluate the quality of HLR. Materials and Methods: The nucleosides and bases from HLR were identified by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS), and six of them were chosen to be used for simultaneous HPLC quantification according to the results of proliferation of mouse splenocytes in vitro. Results: In this study, eight nucleosides and bases have been identified. In addition, uracil, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, guanosine, and adenosine were chosen to be used for simultaneous HPLC quantification. Simultaneous quantification of these six substances was performed on ten groups of HLR under the condition of a TIANHE Kromasil C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 250 mm i.d.) and a gradient elution of water and acetonitrile. Of the ten groups, HLR displayed the highest total nucleoside contents (TNC, sum of adenosine and uracil, 0.412 mg/g) with the strongest splenocyte-proliferating activities. Conclusion: These results suggest that TNC (such as particularly highly contained adenosine and uracil) in HLR has a certain correlation with the activity of splenocyte-proliferating, and it may be used as a quality control for HLR. This comprehensive method could be applied to other traditional Chinese medicines to ameliorate their quality control. PMID:25422536

  7. Nanoreactors for simultaneous remote thermal activation and optical monitoring of chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Vázquez, Carmen; Vaz, Belén; Giannini, Vincenzo; Pérez-Lorenzo, Moisés; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A; Correa-Duarte, Miguel A

    2013-09-18

    We report herein the design of plasmonic hollow nanoreactors capable of concentrating light at the nanometer scale for the simultaneous performance and optical monitoring of thermally activated reactions. These reactors feature the encapsulation of plasmonic nanoparticles on the inner walls of a mesoporous silica capsule. A Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction was carried out in the inner cavities of these nanoreactors to evidence their efficacy. Thus, it is demonstrated that reactions can be accomplished in a confined volume without alteration of the temperature of the bulk solvent while allowing real-time monitoring of the reaction progress.

  8. Active set truncated-Newton algorithm for simultaneous optimization of distillation column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xi-ming

    2005-01-01

    An active set truncated-Newton algorithm (ASTNA) is proposed to solve the large-scale bound constrained sub-problems. The global convergence of the algorithm is obtained and two groups of numerical experiments are made for the various large-scale problems of varying size. The comparison results between ASTNA and the subspace limited memory quasi-Newton algorithm and between the modified augmented Lagrange multiplier methods combined with ASTNA and the modified barrier function method show the stability and effectiveness of ASTNA for simultaneous optimization of distillation column.

  9. Using Spread Spectrum Transform for Fast and Robust Simultaneous Measurement in Active Sensors with Multiple Emitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    We present a signal processing algorithm for making robust and simultaneous measurements in an active sensor, which has one or more emitters and a receiver, and which employs some sort of signal processing hardware. Robustness means low sensitivity to time and frequency localized disturbances...... on previously transmitted signals. This also means that only few calculations are needed. Furthermore, the suggested spread spectrum transform has a low complexity, a high numerical stability, and is easily implemented in simple signal processing hardware. The presented method is therefore suitable for low-cost...

  10. Scientific and Financial Performance Measure A Simultaneous Model to Evaluate Scientific Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Handoko, L T

    2005-01-01

    An alternative model to measure simultaneously scientific and financial performances of scientific activities is proposed. This mathematical model focuses only on the final scientific outcomes in each fiscal year to gurantee the objectivity. The model is suited for the purpose of immediate and quantitative evaluation needed by policy makers to make decision in the subsequent fiscal year. The model can be applied to any branches of science, while it is also adjustable to varying macro-economic indicators. This enables the policy makers to evaluate equally scientific activities in various fields of science. It is argued that implementing the model could realize a fair, transparent and objective reward and punishment system in any scientific activities in order to improve both individual and institutional performances.

  11. A computerized system for the simultaneous monitoring of place conditioning and locomotor activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockwell, N T; Ferguson, D S; Beninger, R J

    1996-02-01

    Place conditioning is one of the most popular behavioral methods for assessing the rewarding properties of various substances. Many substances that are rewarding also influence motor activity. This report describes a computerized system designed to simultaneously monitor both place conditioning and locomotor activity. The system consists of 4 independent conditioning boxes, each equipped with 6 pairs of photosensors connected to an Experiment Controller, an electronic board containing a microprocessor, a programable timer, and 16 K of RAM used to store both instructions and data. The effects of the stimulant (+)-amphetamine were assessed using this system and found to produce a place preference comparable to that obtained from a previously utilized mechanical timer system. The computerized system also demonstrated that amphetamine increased unconditioned activity. There are a number of advantages and broader applications of the new methodology.

  12. Microcutting of living brain slices by a pulsed ultrafine water jet which allows simultaneous electrophysiological recordings (micromingotome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckmann, E J; Köhling, R; Lücke, A; Straub, H; Wittkowski, W; Elger, C E; Wiemann, M; Bingmann, D

    1998-07-01

    Up to now microsurgical dissections in living nervous tissue (e.g. in slices or cell cultures) are performed either by micro-scalpels or by laser beams. As an alternative technique, a device for cutting with an ultrafine pulsed water jet was developed to allow precise, visually controled dissections in neuronal circuits even during electrophysiological recordings. Water is ejected by pressure (20-30 bar) from patch pipettes with tip diameters of 10-12 microm. By means of a piezo-element the pipette and the water jet are forced to oscillate vertically with a frequency of 200-400 Hz with an adjustable amplitude. These oscillations facilitate the transsection of neuronal connections even in thick slice preparations. Best results were obtained when the tip of the pipette was about 500 microm above the surface of the submerged slice tissue. This micromingotome offers the following advantages: (i) histological studies show that the water jet cleans the cutting surface, thus avoiding debris and its uncontrolable effects on cells underneath; (ii) the arrangement enables ongoing electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal slices during the cutting procedure and thus facilitates studies of the functions of neuronal connections; (iii) the device allows even disconnection in cultured nervous tissue overgrowing polyamid grids with 50 microm wide meshes.

  13. 76 FR 56503 - Agency Information Collection Activity (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activity (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records, VA Form 10- 0400. OMB Control Number: 2900... recorded in VHA electronic health records system. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not...

  14. Manipulation of orthogonal neural systems together in electrophysiological recordings: the MONSTER approach to simultaneous assessment of multiple neurocognitive dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappenman, Emily S; Luck, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are a powerful tool in understanding and evaluating cognitive, affective, motor, and sensory processing in both healthy and pathological samples. A typical ERP recording session takes considerable time but is designed to isolate only 1-2 components. Although this is appropriate for most basic science purposes, it is an inefficient approach for measuring the broad set of neurocognitive functions that may be disrupted in a neurological or psychiatric disease. The present study provides a framework for more efficiently evaluating multiple neural processes in a single experimental paradigm through the manipulation of functionally orthogonal dimensions. We describe the general MONSTER (Manipulation of Orthogonal Neural Systems Together in Electrophysiological Recordings) approach and explain how it can be adapted to investigate a variety of neurocognitive domains, ERP components, and neural processes of interest. We also demonstrate how this approach can be used to assess group differences by providing data from an implementation of the MONSTER approach in younger (18-30 y of age) and older (65-85 y of age) adult samples. This specific implementation of the MONSTER framework assesses 4 separate neural processes in the visual domain: (1) early sensory processing, using the C1 wave; (2) shifts of covert attention, with the N2pc component; (3) categorization, with the P3 component; and (4) self-monitoring, with the error-related negativity. Although the MONSTER approach is primarily described in the context of ERP experiments, it could also be adapted easily for use with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  15. Ictal propagation of high frequency activity is recapitulated in interictal recordings: effective connectivity of epileptogenic networks recorded with intracranial EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska, A.; Cervenka, M.C.; Jouny, C.C.; Perilla, J.R.; Harezlak, J.; Bergey, G.K.; Franaszczuk, P.J.; Crone, N.E.

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are increasingly understood to arise from epileptogenic networks across which ictal activity is propagated and sustained. In patients undergoing invasive monitoring for epilepsy surgery, high frequency oscillations have been observed within the seizure onset zone during both ictal and interictal intervals. We hypothesized that the patterns by which high frequency activity is propagated would help elucidate epileptogenic networks and thereby identify network nodes relevant for surgical planning. Intracranial EEG recordings were analyzed with a multivariate autoregressive modeling technique (short-time direct directed transfer function - SdDTF), based on the concept of Granger causality, to estimate the directionality and intensity of propagation of high frequency activity (70–175 Hz) during ictal and interictal recordings. These analyses revealed prominent divergence and convergence of high frequency activity propagation at sites identified by epileptologists as part of the ictal onset zone. In contrast, relatively little propagation of this activity was observed among the other analyzed sites. This pattern was observed in both subdural and depth electrode recordings of patients with focal ictal onset, but not in patients with a widely distributed ictal onset. In patients with focal ictal onsets, the patterns of propagation recorded during pre-ictal (up to 5 minutes immediately preceding ictal onset) and interictal (more than 24 hours before and after seizures) intervals were very similar to those recorded during seizures. The ability to characterize epileptogenic networks from interictal recordings could have important clinical implications for epilepsy surgery planning by reducing the need for prolonged invasive monitoring to record spontaneous seizures. PMID:25003814

  16. Simultaneous quantification and peroxynitrite-scavenging activities of flavonoids in Polygonum aviculare L. herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung; Kim, Eon Ji; Choi, Jae Sue; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2014-02-01

    The plant Polygonum aviculare L. (Polygonaceae) is an annual herbaceous plant which is known to be beneficial for treating gastroduodenal ulcer, hypertension, diarrhea, hemorrhage, and hemorrhoids. Ten phenolic compounds, including nine flavonoids (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, myricitrin, desmanthin-1, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, avicularin, juglanin), and gallic acid were used for simultaneous HPLC quantification and peroxynitrite-scavenging assay. Simultaneous quantification of these substances were performed on five extracts (EtOH-, MeOH-, 70% MeOH-, 30% MeOH-, and H2O extracts) as well as on the three fractions (Et2O-, EtOAc-, and BuOH fractions), under the condition of a Capcell Pak C18 column (5μm, 250mm×4.6mm i.d.) and a gradient elution of 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and MeOHCH3CN (60:40). Of the three fractions, the EtOAc fraction displayed the highest content of flavonoids (sum, 208.9mg/g) with the strongest peroxynitrite-scavenging activity (IC50, 2.68μg/mL). The activities of the eight compounds (myricitrin, isoquercitrin, avicularin, quercitrin, myricetin, desmanthin-1, quercetin, and kaempferol) were comparable to that of the positive control (l-penicillamine; IC50: 1.03μg/mL). These results suggest that folkloric medicinal uses of P. aviculare are mainly attributed to flavonoids, such as particularly highly contained myricetin, myricitrin, and desmanthin-1.

  17. Innovative two-pipe active chilled beam system for simultaneous heating and cooling of office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian;

    2014-01-01

    energy between zones with one hydronic circuit, operating with a water temperature between 20°C and 23°C. To calculate the energy performance of the system, simulation-based research was developed. The two-pipe system was modelled by using EnergyPlus, a whole building energy simulation program. Hourly......The aim of this paper was to investigate the energy savings potential of an innovative two-pipe system in an active chilled beam application for heating and cooling of office buildings. The characteristic of the system is its ability to provide simultaneous heating and cooling by transferring...... heating, cooling and ventilation loads were calculated by the program and an annual energy consumption evaluation of the system was made. Simulation results showed that the innovative two-pipe active chilled beam system used approximately 5% less energy than a conventional four-pipe system....

  18. Simultaneous immobilization of heparin and gentamicin on polypropylene textiles: a dual therapeutic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degoutin, Stéphanie; Jimenez, Maude; Chai, Feng; Pinalie, Thibaut; Bellayer, Severine; Vandenbossche, Marianne; Neut, Christel; Blanchemain, Nicolas; Martel, Bernard

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare a nonwoven polypropylene (PP) textile functionalized with bioactive molecules in order to improve simultaneously anticoagulation and antibacterial properties. The immobilization of either heparin (anticoagulation agent) or gentamicin (aminoglycoside class antibiotic) alone has already been proven to be effective on PP nonwoven textiles. In this work, we managed to go further, by immobilizing both heparin and gentamicin at the same time on one unique textile. A successive immersion in different heparin and gentamicin bathes successfully led to a dual drug coated textile, as confirmed by several characterization techniques (Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy). The immobilization times were varied in order to determine the best compromise between cytocompatibility, anticoagulant effect, and antimicrobial activity. Short immersion times in gentamicin solutions confer very good antimicrobial activity to the textile and avoid cytotoxicity, whereas long immersion times in heparin solution were necessary to observe a significant anticoagulant effect.

  19. Composite block copolymer stabilized nanoparticles: simultaneous encapsulation of organic actives and inorganic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindy, Marian E; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    We describe the preparation and characterization of hybrid block copolymer nanoparticles (NPs) for use as multimodal carriers for drugs and imaging agents. Stable, water-soluble, biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) NPs simultaneously co-encapsulating hydrophobic organic actives (beta-carotene) and inorganic imaging nanostructures (Au) are prepared using the flash nanoprecipitation process in a multi-inlet vortex mixer. These composite nanoparticles (CNPs) are produced with tunable sizes between 75 nm and 275 nm, narrow particle size distributions, high encapsulation efficiencies, specified component compositions, and long-term stability. The process is tunable and flexible because it relies on the control of mixing and aggregation timescales. It is anticipated that the technique can be applied to a variety of hydrophobic active compounds, fluorescent dyes, and inorganic nanostructures, yielding CNPs for combined therapy and multimodal imaging applications.

  20. Enhanced activity of Rhizomucor miehei lipase by directed evolution with simultaneous evolution of the propeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Wang, Dan; Wang, Bo; Mei, Zhuo-Hang; Liu, Ji; Yu, Hong-Wei

    2012-10-01

    Propeptides are short sequences that facilitate the folding of their associated proteins. The present study found that the propeptide of Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML) was not proteolytically removed in Escherichia coli. Moreover, RML was not expressed if the propeptide was removed artificially during the cloning process in E. coli. This behavior in E. coli permitted the application of directed evolution to full-length RML, which included both propeptide and catalytic domain, to explore the role played by the propeptide in governing enzyme activity. The catalytic rate constant, k (cat), of the most active mutant RML protein (Q5) was increased from 10.63 ± 0.80 to 71.44 ± 3.20 min(-1) after four rounds of screening. Sequence analysis of the mutant displayed three mutations in the propeptide (L57V, S65A, and V67A) and two mutations in the functional region (I111T and S168P). This result showed that improved activity was obtained with essential involvement by mutations in the propeptide, meaning that the majority of mutants with enhanced activity had simultaneous mutations in propeptide and catalytic domains. This observation leads to the hypothesis that directed evolution has simultaneous and synergistic effects on both functional and propeptide domains that arise from the role played by the propeptide in the folding and maturation of the enzyme. We suggest that directed evolution of full-length proteins including their propeptides is a strategy with general validity for extending the range of conformations available to proteins, leading to the enhancement of the catalytic rates of the enzymes.

  1. Simultaneous recording of ATP-sensitive K+ current and intracellular Ca2+ in anoxic rat ventricular myocytes. Effects of glibenclamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, U; Englert, H; Schölkens, B A; Gögelein, H

    1996-05-01

    We investigated the temporal relationship between the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K current (KATP current), hypoxic shortening and Ca accumulation in cardiomyocytes exposed to anoxia or metabolic inhibition. Whole-cell, patch-clamp experiments were performed with nonstimulated isolated rat heart ventricular muscle cells loaded with the Ca-sensitive fluorescent dye 1-[2-(5-carboxyoxazol-2-yl)-6-aminobenzofuran-5-oxy]-2-(2'- amino-5'-methylphenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (fura-2) via the patch pipette. After approximately 8 min anoxia, the KATP current started to rise and reached a maximum of 21.3 +/- 3.7 nA (n = 5, recorded at 0 mV clamp potential) within 1-3 min. At that time hypoxic contracture also occurred. Resting cytoplasmic free calcium (Cai) did not change significantly before hypoxic shortening. After hypoxic contracture, the KATP current decreased and Cai started to rise, reaching about 1 micromol/l. The presence of glibenclamide (10 micromol/l) in the bath reduced the anoxia-induced KATP current by more than 50%, but did not significantly influence the time dependence of current, hypoxic shortening and Cai, or the magnitude of Cai. Metabolic inhibition with 1.5 mmol/l CN resulted in KATP current increase and hypoxic shortening, occurring somewhat earlier than under anoxia, but all other parameters were comparable. In non-patch-clamped cells loaded with fura-2 AM ester and field-stimulated with 1 Hz, 1 micronol/l glibenclamide had no significant effect on the magnitude of the Cai increase caused by exposure of the cells to 1.5 mmol/l CN-. After CN- wash-out in non-patch-clamped cells, Cai declined, oscillated and finally returned to control values. It can be concluded that glibenclamide inhibits anoxia-induced KATP currents only partially and has no significant effect on anoxia-induced rise in resting Cai.

  2. Simultaneous scalp electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), and whole-body segmental inertial recording for multi-modal neural decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulea, Thomas C; Kilicarslan, Atilla; Ozdemir, Recep; Paloski, William H; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2013-07-26

    Recent studies support the involvement of supraspinal networks in control of bipedal human walking. Part of this evidence encompasses studies, including our previous work, demonstrating that gait kinematics and limb coordination during treadmill walking can be inferred from the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) with reasonably high decoding accuracies. These results provide impetus for development of non-invasive brain-machine-interface (BMI) systems for use in restoration and/or augmentation of gait- a primary goal of rehabilitation research. To date, studies examining EEG decoding of activity during gait have been limited to treadmill walking in a controlled environment. However, to be practically viable a BMI system must be applicable for use in everyday locomotor tasks such as over ground walking and turning. Here, we present a novel protocol for non-invasive collection of brain activity (EEG), muscle activity (electromyography (EMG)), and whole-body kinematic data (head, torso, and limb trajectories) during both treadmill and over ground walking tasks. By collecting these data in the uncontrolled environment insight can be gained regarding the feasibility of decoding unconstrained gait and surface EMG from scalp EEG.

  3. Naturalistic observation of health-relevant social processes: the electronically activated recorder methodology in psychosomatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Matthias R; Robbins, Megan L; Deters, Fenne Große

    2012-05-01

    This article introduces a novel observational ambulatory monitoring method called the electronically activated recorder (EAR). The EAR is a digital audio recorder that runs on a handheld computer and periodically and unobtrusively records snippets of ambient sounds from participants' momentary environments. In tracking moment-to-moment ambient sounds, it yields acoustic logs of people's days as they naturally unfold. In sampling only a fraction of the time, it protects participants' privacy and makes large observational studies feasible. As a naturalistic observation method, it provides an observer's account of daily life and is optimized for the objective assessment of audible aspects of social environments, behaviors, and interactions (e.g., habitual preferences for social settings, idiosyncratic interaction styles, subtle emotional expressions). This article discusses the EAR method conceptually and methodologically, reviews prior research with it, and identifies three concrete ways in which it can enrich psychosomatic research. Specifically, it can (a) calibrate psychosocial effects on health against frequencies of real-world behavior; (b) provide ecological observational measures of health-related social processes that are independent of self-report; and (c) help with the assessment of subtle and habitual social behaviors that evade self-report but have important health implications. An important avenue for future research lies in merging traditional self-report-based ambulatory monitoring methods with observational approaches such as the EAR to allow for the simultaneous yet methodologically independent assessment of inner, experiential aspects (e.g., loneliness) and outer, observable aspects (e.g., social isolation) of real-world social processes to reveal their unique effects on health.

  4. Electrochemical preparation of activated graphene oxide for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Murugan; Karikalan, Natarajan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Cheng, Yi-Hui; Karuppiah, Chelladurai

    2017-03-31

    This paper describes the electrochemical preparation of highly electrochemically active and conductive activated graphene oxide (aGO). Afterwards, the electrochemical properties of aGO was studied towards the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC). This aGO is prepared by the electrochemical activation of GO by various potential treatments. The resultant aGOs are examined by various physical and electrochemical characterizations. The high potential activation (1.4 to -1.5) process results a highly active GO (aGO1), which manifest a good electrochemical behavior towards the determination of HQ and CC. This aGO1 modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was furnished the sensitive detection of HQ and CC with linear concentration range from 1 to 312μM and 1 to 350μM. The aGO1 modified SPCE shows the lowest detection limit of 0.27μM and 0.182μM for the HQ and CC, respectively. The aGO1 modified SPCE reveals an excellent selectivity towards the determination of HQ and CC in the presence of 100 fold of potential interferents. Moreover, the fabricated disposable aGO1/SPCE sensor was demonstrated the determination of HQ and CC in tap water and industrial waste water.

  5. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P 28-37 and adult (P60-67 rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  6. Simultaneous abrogation of NOS-2 and COX-2 activities is lethal in partially hepatectomised mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeini, Miriam; Hortelano, Sonsoles; Través, Paqui G; Martín-Sanz, Paloma; Boscá, Lisardo

    2004-06-01

    We have investigated the role of the nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs), respectively, synthesized by nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS-2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in the outcome of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH). Liver mass recovery and molecular parameters related to cell proliferation and apoptotic death have been determined. NOS-2 and COX-2 are normally both expressed in the remnant liver after PH, and inhibition of either one delays regeneration. We found, however, that simultaneous suppression of the activities of NOS-2 (by gene knockout) and COX-2 (by pharmacological inhibition) resulted in animal death between 24 and 72 h after PH. Analysis of liver mass recovery and molecular parameters related to cell proliferation and apoptotic death revealed increased liver-cell apoptosis and an insufficient proliferative response. Broad-specificity caspase inhibitors, such as z-Val-Ala-Asp.fmk (z-VAD), or administration of NO-donors, rescued animals from death, revealing a critical apoptotic bias at this stage of proliferation. These findings demonstrate that simultaneous signaling by NO and prostaglandins plays an important role in the mechanism of liver regeneration after PH by protecting the remnant tissue from apoptotic death.

  7. Effect of simultaneous use of highly active antiretroviral therapy on survival of HIV patients with tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Maria; Castilla, Virgilio; Sanz, José; Gaspar, Gabriel; Condes, Emilia; Barros, Carlos; Cervero, Miguel; Torres, Rafael; Guijarro, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    The optimal timing for initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) is an unresolved question. To assess the effect of HAART on the survival of patients with TB, we designed this study. We selected all HIV patients included in the COMESEM cohort with TB diagnosis after 1996. Clinical and epidemiological data were registered. We compared patients who started HAART at the diagnosis of TB [simultaneous therapy (ST)] or not. Survival was assessed by Cox analysis. Among the 6934 HIV patients included in the cohort, 1217 patients had TB, 322 of them (26.5%) after 1996. At the time of TB diagnosis, 45% of them started HAART (ST). There were no differences between groups regarding basal characteristics, except for a lower viral load in ST patients. ST therapy was associated with improved survival (hazard ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.72, P = 0.003). By univariate analysis, survival was also associated with no endovenous drug use and a later year of TB diagnosis. After adjusting for other prognostic variables, by Cox multivariate analysis, ST remained robustly associated with improved survival (hazard ratio 0.37; 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.66, P = 0.001). Simultaneous HAART and TB treatment in HIV patients with TB is associated with improved survival.

  8. Preparation of biochar by simultaneous carbonization, magnetization and activation for norfloxacin removal in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Jiang, Yan-Song; Li, Fa-Yun; Yang, Deng-Yue

    2017-06-01

    Activated magnetic biochar (AMB) was prepared with corn stalks, reed stalks, and willow branches by simultaneous carbonization, magnetization, and activation, and used for norfloxacin removal in water. The exploration results showed that the zeta potential was positively charged at pH 2-10. These prepared activated magnetic biochars have a large specific surface area (>700m(2)·g(-1)) and pore volume (>0.3cm(3)·g(-1)). The quasi-second-order kinetic adsorption equation could better describe the adsorption of NOR on AMB. The Langmuir isotherm showed the better fitting results on AMB. The AMB showed the strong adsorption of NOR, and the saturated adsorption capacity of corn activated magnetic biochar was the highest, 7.6249mg·g(-1). The adsorption of NOR on AMB was a spontaneous endothermic process. The effect of pH on the adsorption behaviors of NOR on AMB was not obvious, and AMB had a good adsorption effect on NOR in a wide pH range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of emerging contaminants by simultaneous application of membrane ultrafiltration, activated carbon adsorption, and ultrasound irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondes, Mona Freda N; Naddeo, Vincenzo; Belgiorno, Vincenzo; Ballesteros, Florencio

    2014-01-15

    Advanced wastewater treatment is necessary to effectively remove emerging contaminants (ECs) with chronic toxicity, endocrine disrupting effects, and the capability to induce the proliferation of highly resistant microbial strains in the environment from before wastewater disposal or reuse. This paper investigates the efficiency of a novel hybrid process that applies membrane ultrafiltration, activated carbon adsorption, and ultrasound irradiation simultaneously to remove ECs. Diclofenac, carbamazepine, and amoxicillin are chosen for this investigation because of their assessed significant environmental risks. Removal mechanisms and enhancement effects are analysed in single and combined processes. The influence of adsorbent dose and ultrasonic frequency to EC removal are also investigated. Results suggest that adsorption is probably the main removal mechanism and is affected by the nature of ECs and the presence of other components in the mixture. Almost complete removals are achieved in the hybrid process for all ECs.

  10. Simultaneous monitoring of electrical and secretory activity in peptidergic neurosecretory terminals of the crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuenkel, E L

    1985-02-01

    Intracellularly recorded responses of peptidergic neurosecretory terminals and somata were correlated with their secretory responsiveness to elevation of the external K concentration ([K+]o). The experiments were performed on in vitro X-organ sinus gland neurosecretory systems from the eyestalk of the crab Cardisoma carnifex. Elevated-K-evoked release was followed in preparations exposed to a pulse-chase radiolabelling regime. The release of [3H]leucine incorporated into neurosecretory peptides could be followed by collecting the separate perfusates of the somata and terminal regions. Elevation of the [K+]o evoked terminal depolarization, an increase in impulse firing frequency and a decrease (50%) in terminal input resistance. Impulse firing ceased (in ca. 2 min) as depolarization reached a sustained maximum level (-17.6 +/- 3.57 mV, n = 9, absolute potential). The terminal depolarization and decreased input resistance were maintained throughout the period of elevated-K treatment. Release from the terminal region of incorporated 3H label paralleled the simultaneously monitored terminal depolarization. Maintained exposure to elevated-K saline was accompanied by sustained high levels of 3H release continuing beyond the loss of regenerative membrane responses. Release declined with a half-time of 47.1 +/- 13.5 min (n = 7). In contrast, terminal release of red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) was transitory, reaching peak values and declining to base line within a 10 min period. Removal of external Ca or addition of the Ca antagonists, Cd or Mn, blocked the stimulated 3H release. Addition of Cd or Mn, prior to or during an elevated-K-evoked 3H release produced a reversible suppression of the secretory response. Stimulation in the absence of external Na, under normal Ca conditions, resulted in a normal secretory response. The amplitude and duration of the elevated-K-evoked terminal depolarization was unaffected by nominally Ca- or Na-free saline or addition of Cd

  11. Simultaneous activation of mitophagy and autophagy by staurosporine protects against dopaminergic neuronal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ji-Young; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Seo-Eun; Son, Jin H

    2014-02-21

    Abnormal autophagy is frequently observed during dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is not yet firmly established whether active autophagy is beneficial or pathogenic with respect to dopaminergic cell loss. Staurosporine, a common inducer of apoptosis, is often used in mechanistic studies of dopaminergic cell death. Here we report that staurosporine activates both autophagy and mitophagy simultaneously during dopaminergic neuronal cell death, and evaluate the physiological significance of these processes during cell death. First, staurosporine treatment resulted in induction of autophagy in more than 75% of apoptotic cells. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased significantly cell viability. In addition, staurosporine treatment resulted in activation of the PINK1-Parkin mitophagy pathway, of which deficit underlies some familial cases of PD, in the dopaminergic neuronal cell line, SN4741. The genetic blockade of this pathway by PINK1 null mutation also dramatically increased staurosporine-induced cell death. Taken together, our data suggest that staurosporine induces both mitophagy and autophagy, and that these pathways exert a significant neuroprotective effect, rather than a contribution to autophagic cell death. This model system may therefore be useful for elucidating the mechanisms underlying crosstalk between autophagy, mitophagy, and cell death in dopaminergic neurons.

  12. Active audition for humanoid robots that can listen to three simultaneous talkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Hiroshi G.; Nakadai, Kazuhiro

    2003-04-01

    The direction-pass filter (DPF) separates sounds originating from a particular direction by using a pair of microphones embedded in each ear of humanoid robot. DPF first extracts harmonic structures from each channel, finds a corresponding pair on right and left channels, and then calculates their interaural phase difference (IPD) and interaural intensity difference (IID). These IPD and IID are matched with reference data obtained by HRTF or by the geometrical relation to determine the sound source direction. The direction obtained by face detection may be used as a candidate for the direction. Finally, all subbands from the direction are collected to synthesize a wave form by inverse FFT. The allowance of collection depends on the direction; narrow (10 deg) at center, while wide (30 deg) at the periphery. This property is called ``auditory fovea'' and is exploited by DPF actively to improve performance of sound source separation. In addition, a humanoid actively turns its head toward the speaker to listen better. Real-time DPF is implemented by distributed processing with five PCs. Preliminary experiments of active audition in speech recognition of three simultaneous utterances of digits in a normal room is also reported. [Work supported by JSPS.

  13. Co-localization between the BOLD response and epileptiform discharges recorded by simultaneous intracranial EEG-fMRI at 3 T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Aghakhani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: iEEG-fMRI is a feasible and low-risk method for assessment of hemodynamic changes of very focal IEDs that may not be recorded by scalp EEG. A high concordance rate between the location of the BOLD response and IEDs was seen for mesial temporal (6/7 IEDs. Significant BOLD activation was also seen in areas distant from the active electrode and these sites exhibited maximal BOLD activation in the majority of cases. This implies that iEEG-fMRI may further describe the areas involved in the generation of IEDs beyond the vicinity of the electrode(s.

  14. Positive effects of electronic patient records on three clinical activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    in mental workload. The physician in charge also experienced increased clarity about the importance of and responsibilities for work tasks, and reduced mental workload during ward rounds. During nursing handovers the nurses experienced fewer missing pieces of information and fewer messages to pass on after...... Purpose: To investigate the effects of a fully functional electronic patient record (EPR) system on clinicians' work during team conferences, ward rounds, and nursing handovers. Method: In collaboration with clinicians an EPR system was configured for a stroke unit and in trial use for five days...... are not to be expected to be in operational use in Denmark until at least two years from now. The EPR system was evaluated with respect to its effects on clinicians' mental workload, overview, and need for exchanging information. Effects were measured by comparing the use of electronic records with the use of paper...

  15. 76 FR 40454 - Proposed Information Collection (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Activity; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Activity; Comment... attorney by veterans who have medical information recorded in VHA electronic health records system... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health...

  16. Rapid recovery from spontaneous and simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture in an active, healthy individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaheer, Rajinder Singh; Hawkins, Amanda

    2010-07-13

    Bilateral spontaneous quadriceps rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and is frequently misdiagnosed. It is rarely seen in healthy, active individuals. This article presents a case of bilateral simultaneous and spontaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a healthy, athletic, active and highly motivated patient with rapid recovery from injury and return to full sport activity within a relatively short period of time. A 65-year-old healthy man felt both knees give way while walking down stairs at home and collapsed, unable to bear weight. He was fit and well, not on any medications and basic laboratory screening was within normal limits. He was an active sportsman, horse rider, swimmer, and long-distance cyclist, and had completed a half marathon 1 month before his injury. He was diagnosed with bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures. An ultrasound of both knees confirmed the diagnosis of full-thickness rupture. Surgical repair of both quadriceps tendons was performed 3 days after the injury. Bilateral locking brace in 10 degrees of flexion was used to immobilize both knees and protect the repair for 6 weeks. The patient remained nonweight bearing for 2 weeks, then gradual weight bearing was commenced, with full weight bearing at 6 weeks. Intensive isometric quadriceps exercises were started on the second postoperative day. Immobilization of both knees was maintained for 6 weeks, after which full active range of motion (ROM) was initiated. At 16 weeks after the injury he had bilateral ROM from 0 degrees to 120 degrees flexion, with no extension lag. He was horse riding, playing golf, swimming, and walking distances up to 2 miles at that time.

  17. Gas expulsions and biological activity recorded offshore Molene Island, Brittany (France): video supervised recording of OBS data and analogue modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Géli, L.; Dellong, D.; Evangelia, B.; Tary, J. B.; Bayrakci, G.; Lantéri, N.; Lin, J. Y.; Chen, Y. F.; Chang, E. T. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) commonly record signals from Short Duration Events (SDEs), having characteristics that are very different from those produced by tectonic earthquakes, e.g.: durations trains, with no identified P- nor S-wave arrivals. SDES were first reported by Burkisk et al (1981) who proposed biological activity as a possible cause. Since then, SDEs have been disregarded or discarded as noise by scientists interested in earthquake studies. Interest in SDEs came back recently, when it was realized that SDEs are commonly found and could be due to gas expulsions from the seafloor. To discriminate between the 2 hypotheses (biological activity vs gas emissions), different tests have been made, including seismic recordings combined with video surveillance and analogue experiments. In May 2016, two OBS (4.5 Hz) were deployed offshore Molene Island, Brittany within the field of view of the EMSO-Molene underwater observatory, at a water depth of 12 m. The camera images and the recordings reveal the presence of crabs, octopus and several species of fish. Other acoustic signals can be related to the presence of moving algae or the influence from bad weather. Tides produce characteristic curves in the noise recorded on the geophones. SDEs have been recorded on both instruments, that may well have been caused by gas expulsions from the seabed into the water. In order to verify this hypothesis, an aquarium was filled with water overlying an even grain-sized quartz sand layer. A constant air supply through a narrow tube produced gas bubbles in a regular manner and an immersed ocean bottom geophone recorded the resulting acoustic signals. The bubbles tend to have a uniform size and to produce a waveform very close to those found on the OBSs. By comparing the number of SDEs and the volume of escaped air, estimates can be made regarding the volume of gas escaping the seafloor in different environments.

  18. Simultaneous modelling of multi-purpose/multi-stop activity patterns and quantities consumed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, John R.; Smith, Nariida C.; Xu, Blake

    Whereas for commuting travel there is a one-to-one correspondence between commuters and jobs, and for commodity flows a one-to-one correspondence between the size of orders and the shipping cost of the commodities, the situation is much more complex for retail/service travel. A typical shopper may make a single trip or multi-stop tour to buy/consume a quite diverse set of commodities/services at different locations in quite variable quantities. At the same time, the general pattern of the tour is clearly dependent on the activities and goods available at potential stops. These interdependencies have been alluded to in the literature, especially by spatial economists. However, until some preliminary work by the first author, there has been no attempt to formally include these interdependencies in a general model. This paper presents a framework for achieving this goal by developing an evolutionary set of models starting from the simplest forms available. From the above, it is clear that such interdependency models will inevitably have high dimensionality and combinatorial complexity. This rules out a simultaneous treatment of all the events using an individual choice approach. If an individual choice approach is to be applied in a tractable manner, the set of interdependent events needs to be segmented into several subsets, with simultaneity recognised within each subset, but a mere sequential progression occurring between subsets. In this paper, full event interdependencies are retained at the expense of modelling market segments of consumers rather than a sample of representative individuals. We couple the travel and consumption events in the only feasible way, by modelling the tours as discrete entities, in conjunction with the amount of each commodity consumed per stop on each such tour in terms of the continuous quantities of microeconomics. This is performed both under a budget/income constraint from microeconomics and a time budget constraint from time

  19. SIMULTANEOUS OPTIMIZATION OF STANDBY AND ACTIVE ENERGY FOR SUB-THRESHOLD CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Taha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased downscaling of CMOS circuits with respect to feature size and threshold voltage has a result ofdramatically increasing in leakage current. So, leakage power reduction is an important design issue foractive and standby modes as long as the technology scaling increased. In this paper, a simultaneous activeand standby energy optimization methodology is proposed for 22 nm sub-threshold CMOS circuits. In thefirst phase, we investigate the dual threshold voltage design for active energy per cycleminimization. Aslack based genetic algorithm is proposed to find the optimal reverse body bias assignment to set of noncriticalpaths gates to ensure low active energy per cycle with the maximum allowable frequency at theoptimal supply voltage. The second phase, determine the optimal reverse body bias that can be applied toall gates for standby power optimization at the optimal supply voltage determined from the first phase.Therefore, there exist two sets of gates and two reverse body bias values for each set. The reverse body biasis switched between these two values in response to the mode of operation. Experimental results areobtained for some ISCAS-85 benchmark circuits such as 74L85, 74283, ALU74181, and 16 bit RCA. Theoptimized circuits show significant energy saving ranged (from 14.5% to 42.28% and standby power saving ranged (from 62.8% to 67%.

  20. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of solar active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Very Large Array observations at 20 cm wavelength can detect the hot coronal plasma previously observed at soft x ray wavelengths. Thermal cyclotron line emission was detected at the apex of coronal loops where the magnetic field strength is relatively constant. Detailed comparison of simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Satellite and VLA data indicate that physical parameters such as electron temperature, electron density, and magnetic field strength can be obtained, but that some coronal loops remain invisible in either spectral domain. The unprecedent spatial resolution of the VLA at 20 cm wavelength showed that the precursor, impulsive, and post-flare components of solar bursts originate in nearby, but separate loops or systems of loops.. In some cases preburst heating and magnetic changes are observed from loops tens of minutes prior to the impulsive phase. Comparisons with soft x ray images and spectra and with hard x ray data specify the magnetic field strength and emission mechanism of flaring coronal loops. At the longer 91 cm wavelength, the VLA detected extensive emission interpreted as a hot 10(exp 5) K interface between cool, dense H alpha filaments and the surrounding hotter, rarefield corona. Observations at 91 cm also provide evidence for time-correlated bursts in active regions on opposite sides of the solar equator; they are attributed to flare triggering by relativistic particles that move along large-scale, otherwise-invisible, magnetic conduits that link active regions in opposite hemispheres of the Sun.

  1. Experimental study on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification based on highly active absorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO from flue gas by the highly active absorbent prepared from fly ash, lime and a few oxidizing manganese compound additive was studied using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) under different experimental conditions. The effects influencing the removal effiencies were discussed. The optimal flue gas temperature, flue gas humidity, gas velocity of CFB and Ca/(S+N) molar ratio with this process were approximately 110℃, 6%, 1.8 m/s and 1.05, respectively. Removal efficiencies of 92.3% for SO2 and 60.88% for NO were obtained under the optimal experimental conditions. While the spent absorbent appeared in the form of dry powder, the mechanism of removal for SO2 and NO based on the highly active absorbent was investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a X-ray energy spectrometer and the chemical analysis methods. The valuable references can be provided for industrial application by the process. The foreground of application will be vast in China and in the world.

  2. Dual-channel telemetry system for recording vocalization-correlated neuronal activity in freely moving squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohrock, P; Häusler, U; Jürgens, U

    1997-09-05

    A miniature telemetric system is described which allows simultaneous measurements of neural activity and vocalization in freely moving monkeys within their social group. Single and multi-unit activities were detected with medium impedance electrodes that were fixed to self-made microdrives allowing accurate vertical positioning over a range of 8 mm. Vocalizations were registered by means of a piezo-ceramic device sensing the vocalization-induced skull vibrations. This allowed identification of the vocalizing animal in a larger group and eliminated environmental noise. Neuronal activity and vocalization were transmitted via separate channels of a FM transmitter using different carrier frequencies. The signals were decoded in two conventional FM receivers equipped with an automatic frequency control. The signals were stored for off-line analysis on a HiFi videotape recorder.

  3. Simultaneous Chandra, CSO and VLA Observations of Sgr A*: The Nature of Flaring Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Heinke, C; Dowell, C D; Roberts, D; Baganoff, F K; Bower, G C

    2007-01-01

    Sgr A*, the massive black hole at the center of the Galaxy, varies in radio through X-ray emission on hourly time scales. The flare activity is thought to arise from the innermost region of an accretion flow onto Sgr A*. We present simultaneous light curves of Sgr A* in radio, sub-mm and X-rays that show a possible time delay of 110$\\pm17$ minutes between X-ray and 850 $\\mu$m suggesting that the sub-mm flare emission is optically thick. At radio wavelengths, we detect time lags of of $20.4\\pm6.8, 30\\pm12$ and 20$\\pm6$ minutes between the flare peaks observed at 13 and 7 mm in three different epochs using the VLA. Linear polarization of 1$\\pm0.2$% and 0.7$\\pm0.1$% is detected at 7 and 13 mm, respectively, when averaged over the entire observation on 2006 July 17. A simple picture of an expanding bubble of synchrotron emitting hot plasma can explain the time delay between various wavelengths, the asymmetric shape of the light curves, and the observed polarization of the flare emission at 43 and 22 GHz. The deri...

  4. Simultaneous analysis of skin penetration of surfactant and active drug from fluorosurfactant-based microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrhauser, Denise; Hoppel, Magdalena; Schöll, Judith; Binder, Lisa; Kählig, Hanspeter; Valenta, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the penetrated amount of the incorporated model drug diclofenac-sodium and of a fluorosurfactant as specific vehicle constituent of topically applied microemulsions at the same time. To this end, the penetration depth of each compound was elucidated through tape stripping studies by the simultaneous quantification of diclofenac-sodium and the fluorosurfactant from the same sample. A new approach was made by using the very sensitive and specific (19)F NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) for quantification of the fluorinated vehicle component. The tape stripping experiments with the microemulsions showed an almost similar penetration velocity of diclofenac-sodium and fluorosurfactant, suggesting that the surfactant within the microemulsion-structure intensified the stratum corneum uptake of the incorporated active constituent. Moreover, ATR-FTIR studies on porcine ear skin revealed significant shifts of the CH₂ stretching absorbances, which are associated with an enhanced disorder of the SC lipids resulting in a decreased skin barrier function, after application of the microemulsions. However, the application of pure fluorosurfactant did not cause any shifts in the CH₂ stretching absorbances. It can be thereby concluded that the prepared microemulsions exerted specific effects on skin integrity resulting in a "push" of diclofenac-sodium penetration.

  5. Active Noise Control Using a Functional Link Artificial Neural Network with the Simultaneous Perturbation Learning Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-li Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical active noise control (ANC systems, the primary path and the secondary path may be nonlinear and time-varying. It has been reported that the linear techniques used to control such ANC systems exhibit degradation in performance. In addition, the actuators of an ANC system very often have nonminimum-phase response. A linear controller under such situations yields poor performance. A novel functional link artificial neural network (FLANN-based simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA algorithm, which functions as a nonlinear mode-free (MF controller, is proposed in this paper. Computer simulations have been carried out to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the standard filtered-x least mean square (FXLMS algorithm, and performs better than the recently proposed filtered-s least mean square (FSLMS algorithm when the secondary path is time-varying. This observation implies that the SPSA-based MF controller can eliminate the need of the modeling of the secondary path for the ANC system.

  6. Removal of emerging contaminants by simultaneous application of membrane ultrafiltration, activated carbon adsorption, and ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secondes, Mona Freda N. [Environmental Engineering Graduate Program, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Philippines – Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Naddeo, Vincenzo, E-mail: vnaddeo@unisa.it [Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Division (SEED), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Fisciano 84084 (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Belgiorno, Vincenzo [Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Division (SEED), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Fisciano 84084 (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Ballesteros, Florencio [Environmental Engineering Graduate Program, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Philippines – Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Above 99% of the emerging contaminants were removed in the USAMe process. • Influence of PAC dose and US frequency on removal is studied. • Improved performance is due to PAC adsorption enhancement and sonolytic degradation. • US irradiation improved efficiency and delayed declines in the removal of contaminants. • Performance of the hybrid process is better under lower frequency ultrasound irradiation. -- Abstract: Advanced wastewater treatment is necessary to effectively remove emerging contaminants (ECs) with chronic toxicity, endocrine disrupting effects, and the capability to induce the proliferation of highly resistant microbial strains in the environment from before wastewater disposal or reuse. This paper investigates the efficiency of a novel hybrid process that applies membrane ultrafiltration, activated carbon adsorption, and ultrasound irradiation simultaneously to remove ECs. Diclofenac, carbamazepine, and amoxicillin are chosen for this investigation because of their assessed significant environmental risks. Removal mechanisms and enhancement effects are analysed in single and combined processes. The influence of adsorbent dose and ultrasonic frequency to EC removal are also investigated. Results suggest that adsorption is probably the main removal mechanism and is affected by the nature of ECs and the presence of other components in the mixture. Almost complete removals are achieved in the hybrid process for all ECs.

  7. Simultaneous two-photon activation of type-I photodynamic therapy agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W G; Partridge, W P; Dees, C; Wachter, E A

    1997-08-01

    The excitation and emission properties of several psoralen derivatives are compared using conventional single-photon excitation and simultaneous two-photon excitation (TPE). Two-photon excitation is effected using the output of a mode-locked titanium: sapphire laser, the near infrared output of which is used to promote nonresonant TPE directly. Specifically, the excitation spectra and excited-state properties of 8-methoxypsoralen and 4'-aminomethyl-4,5,8-trimethylpsoralen are shown to be equivalent using both modes of excitation. Further, in vitro feasibility of two-photon photodynamic therapy (PDT) is demonstrated using Salmonella typhimurium. Two-photon excitation may be beneficial in the practice of PDT because it would allow replacement of visible or UV excitation light with highly penetrating, nondamaging near infrared light and could provide a means for improving localization of therapy. Comparison of possible laser excitation sources for PDT reveals the titanium: sapphire laser to be exceptionally well suited for nonlinear excitation of PDT agents in biological systems due to its extremely short pulse width and high repetition rate that together provide efficient PDT activation and greatly reduced potential for biological damage.

  8. The importance of recording physical and chemical variables simultaneously with remote radiological surveillance of aquatic systems: a perspective for environmental modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, J M; El-Mrabet, R; Barros, H

    2004-01-01

    Modern nuclear metrological tools allow the remote surveillance of the radiological status of the aquatic systems, providing an important advance in the protection of the environment. Nevertheless, the significance of the radiological data could be highly improved through simultaneous recording of physical and chemical variables that govern the behaviour and bioavailability of radionuclides in these aquatic systems. This work reviews some of these variables from the point of view of the environmental modelling. The amount, nature and dynamics of the suspended loads and bottom sediments strongly influence the behaviour of particle-reactive radionuclides. The kinetics of this process has a very fast component, as it is shown from our recent studies with 241Am, 239Pu and 133Ba in several aquatic systems from southern Spain. Changes in pH, temperature and in the electrical conductivity are influencing the uptake kinetics and the final partitioning of the radioactivity. Water currents govern the radionuclide transport and dispersion. These points are illustrated with modelling exercises in the scenarios of the Suez Canal (Egypt) and the Härsvatten Lake (Sweden).

  9. Using mobile phone data records to determine criminal activity space

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available finer detail on specific movements than what the CDR can provide. They will use the results of the CDR analysis to guide active tracking exercises. It is strongly recommended that the above should be used for the prosecution purposes, but only...

  10. Photographic recording of natural activity in hibernating bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge

    1970-01-01

    In the past decade there has been an increasing awareness that spontaneous activity in hibernating mammals is not a mere accidental imperfection in the mechanism of hibernation but, on the contrary, a regular and important feature of it. Several recent investigations (e.g. Kristofferson & Soivio, 19

  11. Microfluidic DNA microarrays in PMMA chips: streamlined fabrication via simultaneous DNA immobilization and bonding activation by brief UV exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Petersen, J; Snakenborg, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    This report presents and describes a simple and scalable method for producing functional DNA microarrays within enclosed polymeric, PMMA, microfluidic devices. Brief (30 s) exposure to UV simultaneously immobilized poly(T)poly(C)-tagged DNA probes to the surface of unmodified PMMA and activated t...

  12. Teaching Core Content Embedded in a Functional Activity to Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability Using a Simultaneous Prompting Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Jennifer; Collins, Belva C.; Hager, Karen D.; Ault, Melinda Jones

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a simultaneous prompting procedure in teaching four secondary students with moderate intellectual disability to acquire and generalize core content embedded in a functional activity. Data gathered within the context of a multiple probe design revealed that all participants learned the…

  13. Microfluidic DNA microarrays in PMMA chips: streamlined fabrication via simultaneous DNA immobilization and bonding activation by brief UV exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Petersen, J; Snakenborg, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    This report presents and describes a simple and scalable method for producing functional DNA microarrays within enclosed polymeric, PMMA, microfluidic devices. Brief (30 s) exposure to UV simultaneously immobilized poly(T)poly(C)-tagged DNA probes to the surface of unmodified PMMA and activated t...

  14. An Analog Front End for Recording Neuronal Activity in Freely Behaving Small Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min; ZHANG Xiao; ZHANG Chun-feng; CAO Mao-yong; LI Cai-fang; KONG Hui-min; QIN Feng-ju; YAN Yu-qin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract.Extracting characteristic brain signals and simultaneous recording animals behaving could help us to understand the complex behavior of neuronal ensembles. Here,a system was established to record local field potentials (LFP) and extracellular signal or multiple-unit discharge and behavior synchronously by utilizing electrophysiology and integrated circuit technique. It comprised microelectrodes and micro-driver assembly, analog front end ( AFE), while a computer ( Pentium Ⅲ ) was used as the platform for the graphic user interface, which was developed using the LabVIEW programming language. It was designed as a part of ongoing research to develop a portable wireless neural signal recording system. We believe that this information will be useful for the research of brain-computer interface.

  15. A Active Micromachined Scalp Electrode Array for Eeg Signal Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Taheri, Babak

    This thesis describes the design, microfabrication, and testing of an active scalp EEG (electroencephalograph) electrode that has several distinct advantages over existing technologies. These advantages are: (1) no electrolyte used, (2) no skin preparation, (3) significantly reduced sensor size, and (4) compatibility with EEG monitoring systems. The active electrode array is an integrated system made of an array of capacitive sensors with local integrated circuitry housed in a package with batteries to power the circuitry. This level of integration was required to achieve the functional performance obtained by the electrode. The electrode consists of a silicon sensor substrate fabricated at UCD and a custom circuit substrate fabricated at Orbit Semiconductors, using a 2 μm analog CMOS technology. The circuitry was designed for low 1/f noise. One side of the sensor substrate holds four capacitive sensors with rm Si_3N _4 as the dielectric material. The opposite side holds aluminum pads for bonding to the circuit substrate. A via hole technology was developed to make electrical contact to both sides of the sensor substrate. The via holes are 200 μm square openings etched through the silicon by a reactive ion etching (RIE) process using an rm SF_6/O_2 gas mixture, oxidized, and then filled with sputtered aluminum for contacts through the substrate. The via holes have an aspect ratio of 2:1 (length of opening to depth of hole). Silicon RIE etch rates of up to 18 mu/hr were obtained under optimum conditions, using a 0.8 μm aluminum mask. The circuit and sensor substrates were bonded with silver adhesive, and wire bonding was used to make electrical contacts between the substrates. The two substrates were then integrated in a custom package for testing. The electrode was tested on an electrical test bench and on human subjects in four modalities of EEG activity, namely: (1) spontaneous EEG, (2) sensory event-related potentials, (3) brain stem potentials, and (4

  16. Photovoltaic Reliability Group activities in USA and Brazil (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Cruz, Leila R. O.

    2015-09-01

    Recently prices of photovoltaic (PV) systems have been reduced considerably and may continue to be reduced making them attractive. If these systems provide electricity over the stipulated warranty period, it would be possible attain socket parity within the next few years. Current photovoltaic module qualifications tests help in minimizing infant mortality but do not guarantee useful lifetime over the warranty period. The PV Module Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) is trying to formulate accelerated tests that will be useful towards achieving the ultimate goal of assuring useful lifetime over the warranty period as well as to assure manufacturing quality. Unfortunately, assuring the manufacturing quality may require 24/7 presence. Alternatively, collecting data on the performance of fielded systems would assist in assuring manufacturing quality. Here PV systems installed by home-owners and small businesses can constitute as an important untapped source of data. The volunteer group, PV - Reliable, Safe and Sustainable Quality! (PVRessQ!) is providing valuable service to small PV system owners. Photovoltaic Reliability Group (PVRG) is initiating activities in USA and Brazil to assist home owners and small businesses in monitoring photovoltaic (PV) module performance and enforcing warranty. It will work in collaboration with small PV system owners, consumer protection agencies. Brazil is endowed with excellent solar irradiance making it attractive for installation of PV systems. Participating owners of small PV systems would instruct inverter manufacturers to copy the daily e-mails to PVRG and as necessary, will authorize the PVRG to carry out review of PV systems. The presentation will consist of overall activities of PVRG in USA and Brazil.

  17. Movement-related cortical activation with voluntary pinch task: simultaneous monitoring of near-infrared spectroscopy signals and movement-related cortical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yosuke; Fukuda, Masafumi; Oishi, Makoto; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2012-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate hemodynamic and electrophysiological motor cortex responses to voluntary finger pinching in humans, with simultaneous recording of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals and movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP). Six healthy, right-handed subjects performed 100 trials of voluntary right-thumb index-finger pinching with about a 10-second interval at their own pace. Throughout the session, 48 regions over the bilateral motor cortex were assessed by NIRS, while MRCP and electromyogram (EMG) were simultaneously monitored. MRCP started 1536+/-58 ms before EMG onset and peaked 127+/-24 ms after EMG onset. NIRS data showed bilateral prefrontal cortex at 0.5+/-0.1 s before EMG onset and bilateral dorsal premotor cortex activations at 0.6+/-0.1 s before EMG onset. The hand area of the sensorimotor cortex was activated left-dominantly, seen obviously peaked at 3.7+/-0.2 s after EMG onset. The comparison between MRCP and NIRS results raised the possibility that the vascular response to neural activity occurs within 4 s with a voluntary pinch task. These results indicate that our technique allows detailed study of the motor control. Our method is a promising strategy for event-related motor control and neurovascular coupling studies.

  18. Record-breaking Storm Activity on Uranus in 2014

    CERN Document Server

    de Pater, Imke; Fry, P M; Hammel, Heidi B; Baranec, Christoph; Sayanagi, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    In spite of an expected decline in convective activity following the 2007 equinox of Uranus, eight sizable storms were detected on the planet with the near-infrared camera NIRC2, coupled to the adaptive optics system, on the 10-m W. M. Keck telescope on UT 5 and 6 August 2014. All storms were on Uranus's northern hemisphere, including the brightest storm ever seen in this planet at 2.2 $\\mu$m, reflecting 30% as much light as the rest of the planet at this wavelength. The storm was at a planetocentric latitude of $\\sim$15$^{\\circ}$N and reached altitudes of $\\sim$330 mbar, well above the regular uppermost cloud layer (methane-ice) in the atmosphere. A cloud feature at a latitude of 32$^{\\circ}$N, that was deeper in the atmosphere (near $\\sim$2 bar), was later seen by amateur astronomers. We also present images returned from our HST ToO program, that shows both of these cloud features. We further report the first detection of a long-awaited haze over the north polar region.

  19. 76 FR 31682 - Agency Information Collection (Time Record (Work-Study Program)) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Time Record (Work-Study Program)) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: Time Record (Work-Study Program), VA Form 22-8690. OMB Control Number: 2900-0379. Type of... 22-8690 to report the number of work-study hours a claimant has completed. When a claimant elects...

  20. 78 FR 6850 - Agency Information Collection (Monthly Record of Training and Wages) Activities Under OMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... OMB Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Monthly Record of Training and Wages) Activities Under OMB AGENCY... Record of Training and Wages, VA Form 28-1905c. OMB Control Number: 2900-0176. Type of Review:...

  1. Interaction of brain areas of visual and vestibular simultaneous activity with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Justina, Hellen M; Gamba, Humberto R; Lukasova, Katerina; Nucci-da-Silva, Mariana P; Winkler, Anderson M; Amaro, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Static body equilibrium is an essential requisite for human daily life. It is known that visual and vestibular systems must work together to support equilibrium. However, the relationship between these two systems is not fully understood. In this work, we present the results of a study which identify the interaction of brain areas that are involved with concurrent visual and vestibular inputs. The visual and the vestibular systems were individually and simultaneously stimulated, using flickering checkerboard (without movement stimulus) and galvanic current, during experiments of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-four right-handed and non-symptomatic subjects participated in this study. Single visual stimulation shows positive blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses (PBR) in the primary and associative visual cortices. Single vestibular stimulation shows PBR in the parieto-insular vestibular cortex, inferior parietal lobe, superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus and lobules V and VI of the cerebellar hemisphere. Simultaneous stimulation shows PBR in the middle and inferior frontal gyri and in the precentral gyrus. Vestibular- and somatosensory-related areas show negative BOLD responses (NBR) during simultaneous stimulation. NBR areas were also observed in the calcarine gyrus, lingual gyrus, cuneus and precuneus during simultaneous and single visual stimulations. For static visual and galvanic vestibular simultaneous stimulation, the reciprocal inhibitory visual-vestibular interaction pattern is observed in our results. The experimental results revealed interactions in frontal areas during concurrent visual-vestibular stimuli, which are affected by intermodal association areas in occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes.

  2. STS-34 MS Chang-Diaz records onboard activity with 16mm camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 Mission Specialist (MS) Franklin R. Chang-Diaz records forward flight deck activity with ARRIFLEX 16mm camera onboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. In the background, MS Shannon W. Lucid works at aft flight deck payload station.

  3. Simultaneous measurement of two enzyme activities using infrared spectroscopy: A comparative evaluation of PARAFAC, TUCKER and N-PLS modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Hansen, Per Waaben; Meyer, Anne S.;

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes are used in many processes to release fermentable sugars for green production of biofuel, or the refinery of biomass for extraction of functional food ingredients such as pectin or prebiotic oligosaccharides. The complex biomasses may, however, require a multitude of specific enzymes which...... are active on specific substrates generating a multitude of products. In this paper we use the plant polymer, pectin, to present a method to quantify enzyme activity of two pectolytic enzymes by monitoring their superimposed spectral evolutions simultaneously. The data is analyzed by three chemometric...... multiway methods, namely PARAFAC, TUCKER3 and N-PLS, to establish simultaneous enzyme activity assays for pectin lyase and pectin methyl esterase. Correlation coefficients Rpred2 for prediction test sets are 0.48, 0.96 and 0.96 for pectin lyase and 0.70, 0.89 and 0.89 for pectin methyl esterase...

  4. An active region filament studied simultaneously in the chromosphere and photosphere: I - Magnetic structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kuckein, C; Pillet, V Martinez

    2011-01-01

    A thorough multiwavelength, multiheight study of the vector magnetic field in a compact active region (AR) filament (NOAA10781) is presented. We suggest an evolutionary scenario for this filament. Full Stokes vectors were acquired with TIP-II in a spectral range which comprises the chromospheric He I 10830 A multiplet and the photospheric Si I 10827 A line. An AR filament (that was formed before our observing run) was detected in the He I absorption images on 2005 July 3rd. The chromospheric vector magnetic field in this portion of the filament was strongly sheared whereas the photospheric field lines underneath had an inverse polarity configuration. From July 3rd to July 5th, an opening and closing of the polarities at either side of the polarity inversion line (PIL) was recorded, resembling the recently discovered process of the sliding door effect seen by Hinode. During this time, a newly created region that contained pores and orphan penumbrae at the PIL was observed.On July 5th, a normal polarity configu...

  5. Comparing one-year recall and daily household records of livelihood activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Yonika

    2014-01-01

    activities. In this study we examine discrepancies between activities and associated incomes (cash and subsistence) reported by sample households through interviews conducted at the end of a one-year recall period and based on daily records of livelihood activities made by the same households throughout...

  6. Self-regulation of human brain activity using simultaneous real-time fMRI and EEG neurofeedback

    CERN Document Server

    Zotev, Vadim; Yuan, Han; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback is a promising approach for non-invasive modulation of human brain activity with applications for treatment of mental disorders and enhancement of brain performance. Neurofeedback techniques are commonly based on either electroencephalography (EEG) or real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI). Advances in simultaneous EEG-fMRI have made it possible to combine the two approaches. Here we report the first implementation of simultaneous multimodal rtfMRI and EEG neurofeedback (rtfMRI-EEG-nf). It is based on a novel system for real-time integration of simultaneous rtfMRI and EEG data streams. We applied the rtfMRI-EEG-nf to training of emotional self-regulation in healthy subjects performing a positive emotion induction task based on retrieval of happy autobiographical memories. The participants were able to simultaneously regulate their BOLD fMRI activation of the left amygdala and frontal EEG power asymmetry in the high-beta band using the rtfMRI-EEG-nf. Our proof-of-concept results...

  7. Conformal metasurface-coated dielectric waveguides for highly confined broadband optical activity with simultaneous low-visibility and reduced crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Kang, Lei; Werner, Douglas H

    2017-08-25

    The ability to achieve simultaneous control over the various electromagnetic properties of dielectric waveguides, including mode confinement, polarization, scattering signature, and crosstalk, which are critical to system miniaturization, diversity in functionality, and non-invasive integration, has been a highly sought after yet elusive goal. Currently existing methods, which rely on three-dimensional artificial cores or claddings and/or structural chirality, provide efficient paths for obtaining either highly confined modes, optical activity, or a low-scattering signature, but at the expense of increased propagation loss, form factor and weight. Here, by tailoring the unique anisotropy and exploiting the inter-cell coupling of metasurface coatings, we report a unified approach for simultaneously controlling the diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides. The experimentally demonstrated highly confined sub-wavelength dielectric waveguide with a low-visibility and broadband optical activity represents a transformative wave manipulation capability with far reaching implications, offering new pathways for future miniaturization of dielectric waveguide-based systems with simultaneous polarization and scattering control.Controlling all the optical properties of dielectric waveguides is a challenging task and often requires complicated core- and cladding designs. Here, Jiang et al. demonstrate that a thin metasurface coating can control several optical properties simultaneously over a broad frequency range.

  8. Regional environmental change and human activity over the past hundred years recorded in the sedimentary record of Lake Qinghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, ZhanJiang; Wang, Qiugui; Wang, Jinlong; Du, Jinzhou; Hu, Jufang; Ma, Yujun; Kong, Fancui; Wang, Zhuan

    2017-04-01

    Environmental change and human activity can be recorded in sediment cores in aquatic systems such as lakes. Information from such records may be useful for environmental governance in the future. Six sediment cores were collected from Lake Qinghai, China and its sublakes during 2012 and 2013. Measurements of sediment grain-size fractions indicate that sedimentation in the north and southwest of Lake Qinghai is dominated by river input, whereas that in Lake Gahai and Lake Erhai is dominated by dunes. The sedimentation rates in Lake Qinghai were calculated to be 0.101-0.159 cm/y, similar to the rates in other lakes on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Using these data and sedimentation rates from the literature, we compiled the spatial distribution of sedimentation rates. Higher values were obtained in the three main areas of Lake Qinghai: two in river estuaries and one close to sand dunes. Lower values were measured in the center and south of the lake. Measurements of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus concentrations, and TOC/TN ratios in three cores (QH01, QH02, and Z04) revealed four horizons corresponding to times of increased human activity. These anthropogenic events were (1) the development of large areas of cropland in the Lake Qinghai watershed in 1960, (2) the beginning of nationwide fertilizer use and increases in cropland area in the lake watershed after 1970, (3) the implementation of the national program "Grain to Green," and (4) the rapid increase in the tourism industry from 2000. Profiles of Rb, Sr concentrations, the Rb/Sr ratio, and grain-size fraction in core Z04 indicate that the climate has become drier over the past 100 years. Therefore, we suggest that lake sediments such as those in Lake Qinghai are useful media for high-resolution studies of regional environmental change and human activity.

  9. Simultaneous collection of body temperature and activity data in burrowing mammals : a new technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Ryan A.; Hut, Roelof A.; Barnes, Brian M.

    Integrating physiological and behavioral observations into ecological field studies of animals can provide novel insights into relationships among animal behavior, physiology, and ecology. We describe and evaluate a new technique for simultaneously collecting body temperature (T-b) and burrow use

  10. Simultaneous collection of body temperature and activity data in burrowing mammals : a new technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Ryan A.; Hut, Roelof A.; Barnes, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrating physiological and behavioral observations into ecological field studies of animals can provide novel insights into relationships among animal behavior, physiology, and ecology. We describe and evaluate a new technique for simultaneously collecting body temperature (T-b) and burrow use da

  11. An active region filament studied simultaneously in the chromosphere and photosphere. I. Magnetic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckein, C.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Centeno, R.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: A thorough multiwavelength, multiheight study of the vector magnetic field in a compact active region filament (NOAA 10781) on 2005 July 3 and 5 is presented. We suggest an evolutionary scenario for this filament. Methods: Two different inversion codes were used to analyze the full Stokes vectors acquired with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP-II) in a spectral range that comprises the chromospheric He i 10 830 Å multiplet and the photospheric Si i 10 827 Å line. In addition, we used SOHO/MDI magnetograms, as well as BBSO and TRACE images, to study the evolution of the filament and its active region (AR). High-resolution images of the Dutch Open Telescope were also used. Results: An active region filament (formed before our observing run) was detected in the chromospheric helium absorption images on July 3. The chromospheric vector magnetic field in this portion of the filament was strongly sheared (parallel to the filament axis), whereas the photospheric field lines underneath had an inverse polarity configuration. From July 3 to July 5, an opening and closing of the polarities on either side of the polarity inversion line (PIL) was recorded, resembling the recently discovered process of the sliding door effect seen by Hinode. This is confirmed with both TIP-II and SOHO/MDI data. During this time, a newly created region that contained pores and orphan penumbrae at the PIL was observed. On July 5, a normal polarity configuration was inferred from the chromospheric spectra, while strongly sheared field lines aligned with the PIL were found in the photosphere. In this same data set, the spine of the filament is also observed in a different portion of the field of view and is clearly mapped by the silicon line core. Conclusions: The inferred vector magnetic fields of the filament suggest a flux rope topology. Furthermore, the observations indicate that the filament is divided in two parts, one which lies in the chromosphere and another one that stays

  12. A new device for simultaneous measurement of pelvic floor muscle activity and vaginal blood flow: a test in a nonclinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Stephanie; van Lunsen, Rik; Weijenborg, Philomeen; Laan, Ellen

    2012-11-01

    Dyspareunia in women, defined as persistent or recurrent genital pain associated with sexual intercourse, is hypothesized to be related to (fear associated) pelvic floor hyperactivity and to diminished sexual arousal. Psychophysiological research to support these hypotheses is scarce and concentrates mostly on the role of either pelvic floor activity or sexual arousal. To investigate both factors, a measurement device that enables simultaneous assessment of pelvic floor muscle activity and genital sexual arousal would be most optimal. The aim of this study was to test a new vaginal device0-a vaginal photoplethysmograph with build-in surface electromyography (EMG)--that allows simultaneous assessment of pelvic floor muscle activity and vaginal blood flow. Genital arousal measured as vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) and vaginal surface EMG. Thirty-six sexually functional women participated. To investigate the sensitivity of the device for changes in genital blood flow and involuntary changes in pelvic floor activity, VPA and vaginal surface EMG were monitored during exposure to sexual and anxiety-evoking film clips. In addition, vaginal surface EMG was monitored during voluntary flick and hold contractions. VPA increased in response to the sexual film, and EMG values were significantly higher in response to the anxiety-evoking film. Higher EMG values in response to the anxiety film were associated with lower VPA. EMG during the instructed 3-second hold pelvic floor contractions showed, as expected, higher values during pelvic floor contractions with support of surrounding muscle groups, compared with pelvic floor muscles alone. The device is sensitive to changes in vaginal blood flow in response to sexual stimuli, and it is able to pick up small, involuntary changes in pelvic floor activity associated with anxiety. Also, the device is able to record changes in pelvic floor activity during voluntary pelvic floor contractions. This new device will be a valuable tool in

  13. Simultaneous observation of the poleward expansion of substorm electrojet activity and the tailward expansion of current sheet disruption in the near-earth magnetotail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, R.E. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Koskinen, H.E.J.; Pulkkinen, T.I. (Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Boesinger, T. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland)); McEntire, R.W.; Potemra, T.A. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States))

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports on observations of a magnetospheric substorm on June 7, 1985. This event was observed simultaneously by a number of different systems. Particle and magnetic field data were collected by AMPTE/CCE, located near the neutral sheet; magnetic field data was monitored by the EISCAT magnetometer cross; STARE radar data was also collected; and Pi 1 data from Sodankyla. The ground based systems observed the poleward and westward expansion of electrojet activity at the start of the storm. The satellite was able to see the storms onset, and record perturbations in the current sheet at the onset of the substorm, in addition to later perturbations, which the authors argue originates tailward of the satellite. Satellite measurements are shown to occur in conjunction with ground events.

  14. Quantifying activation of perfluorocarbon-based phase-change contrast agents using simultaneous acoustic and optical observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sinan; Lin, Shengtao; Cheng, Yi; Matsunaga, Terry O; Eckersley, Robert J; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-05-01

    Phase-change contrast agents in the form of nanoscale droplets can be activated into microbubbles by ultrasound, extending the contrast beyond the vasculature. This article describes simultaneous optical and acoustical measurements for quantifying the ultrasound activation of phase-change contrast agents over a range of concentrations. In experiments, decafluorobutane-based nanodroplets of different dilutions were sonicated with a high-pressure activation pulse and two low-pressure interrogation pulses immediately before and after the activation pulse. The differences between the pre- and post-interrogation signals were calculated to quantify the acoustic power scattered by the microbubbles activated over a range of droplet concentrations. Optical observation occurred simultaneously with the acoustic measurement, and the pre- and post-microscopy images were processed to generate an independent quantitative indicator of the activated microbubble concentration. Both optical and acoustic measurements revealed linear relationships to the droplet concentration at a low concentration range <10(8)/mL when measured at body temperature. Further increases in droplet concentration resulted in saturation of the acoustic interrogation signal. Compared with body temperature, room temperature was found to produce much fewer and larger bubbles after ultrasound droplet activation.

  15. Simultaneous reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution from TOF data, acquired with external transmission source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, V Y; Aykac, M; Casey, M E

    2013-06-07

    The simultaneous PET data reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution is presented, where the attenuation image is constrained by exploiting an external transmission source. Data are acquired in time-of-flight (TOF) mode, allowing in principle for separation of emission and transmission data. Nevertheless, here all data are reconstructed at once, eliminating the need to trace the position of the transmission source in sinogram space. Contamination of emission data by the transmission source and vice versa is naturally modeled. Attenuated emission activity data also provide additional information about object attenuation coefficient values. The algorithm alternates between attenuation and emission activity image updates. We also proposed a method of estimation of spatial scatter distribution from the transmission source by incorporating knowledge about the expected range of attenuation map values. The reconstruction of experimental data from the Siemens mCT scanner suggests that simultaneous reconstruction improves attenuation map image quality, as compared to when data are separated. In the presented example, the attenuation map image noise was reduced and non-uniformity artifacts that occurred due to scatter estimation were suppressed. On the other hand, the use of transmission data stabilizes attenuation coefficient distribution reconstruction from TOF emission data alone. The example of improving emission images by refining a CT-based patient attenuation map is presented, revealing potential benefits of simultaneous CT and PET data reconstruction.

  16. Terrestrial sensitivity to abrupt cooling recorded by aeolian activity in northwest Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M.C.; Fisher, T.G.; Goble, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence dated sand dunes and Pleistocene beach ridges in northwest Ohio are used to reconstruct landscape modification more than 5000. yr after deglaciation. Four of the OSL ages (13.3-11.1. ka) cluster around the Younger Dryas cold event, five ages (10.8-8.2. ka) cluster around the Preboreal, one young age (0.9-0.7. ka) records more recent aeolian activity, and one age of 15.1-13.1. ka dates a barrier spit in Lake Warren. In northwest Ohio, both landscape instability recorded by aeolian activity and a vegetation response recorded by pollen are coeval with the Younger Dryas. However, the climate conditions during the Preboreal resulting in aeolian activity are not recorded in the available pollen records. From this, we conclude that aeolian dunes and surfaces susceptible to deflation are sensitive to cooler, drier episodes of climate and can complement pollen data. Younger Dryas and Preboreal aged aeolian activity in northwestern Ohio coincides with aeolian records elsewhere in the Great Lakes region east of the prairie-forest ecotone. ?? 2011 University of Washington.

  17. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar systems with certain geographical...

  18. Long-term recording of external urethral sphincter EMG activity in unanesthetized, unrestrained rats

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The external urethral sphincter muscle (EUS) plays an important role in urinary function and often contributes to urinary dysfunction. EUS study would benefit from methodology for longitudinal recording of electromyographic activity (EMG) in unanesthetized animals, but this muscle is a poor substrate for chronic intramuscular electrodes, and thus the required methodology has not been available. We describe a method for long-term recording of EUS EMG by implantation of fine wires adjacent to t...

  19. Simultaneous determination of five active hydrolysis ingredients from Panax quinquefolium L. by HPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangrong; Ma, Xiaoning; Si, Bingkun; Zhao, Yuqing

    2011-06-01

    An effective method for simultaneous determination of five hydrolysis products of 20 (R)-dammarane-3β,6α,12β,20,25-pentol, 24(R)-ocotillol, 20(R)-protopanaxatriol, 20(S)-panaxatriol and 20(R)-dammarane-3β,12β,20,25-tetrol was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD). The hydrolysis products from Panax quinquefolium L. in the stems and leaves, berries, flower buds and roots components were successfully separated on a Kromasil C(18) column using methanol and water (83:17, v/v) as mobile phase in 18 min. The parameter for the ELSD was set to a probe temperature of 40°C and the nebulizer for nitrogen gas was adjusted to 3 L/min. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r > 0.9975) within test ranges. The validation of the method included recovery, linearity, accuracy and precision (intra- and inter-day variation). The accuracy and precision were satisfactory, with the overall intra- and inter-day variation being less than 3.11%, and recoveries of this method were greater than 95.0%. This study developed an effective and rapid method for simultaneous determination of multiple hydrolysis components from Panax quinquefolium L.

  20. Simultaneous HPLC quantitative analysis of active compounds in leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2014-08-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. A simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was developed and validated for the determination of the contents of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, the primary antioxidative compounds, in M. oleifera leaves. HPLC analysis was successfully conducted by using a Hypersil BDS C18 column, eluted with a gradient of methanol-1% acetic acid with a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and detected at 334 nm. Parameters for the validation included linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation. The developed HPLC method was precise, with relative standard deviation oleifera leaf extracts were 98.50, 98.47 and 98.59%, respectively. The average contents of these compounds in the dried ethanolic extracts of the leaves of M. oleifera collected from different regions of Thailand were 0.081, 0.120 and 0.153% (w/w), respectively. The developed HPLC method was appropriate and practical for the simultaneous analysis of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in the leaf extract of M. oleifera. This work is valuable as guidance for the standardization of the leaf extracts and pharmaceutical products of M. oleifera. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Simultaneous removal of NO x and SO2 by low-temperature selective catalytic reduction over modified activated carbon catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Ning, Ping; Li, Kai; Tang, Lihong; Hao, Jiming; Song, Xin; Zhang, Guijian; Wang, Chi

    2017-03-01

    A series of modified porous activated carbon (AC) catalysts prepared by impregnation were investigated for the low-temperature (≤250°C) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO x with NH3 with simultaneous removal of SO2. The effects of various preparation conditions and reaction conditions on NO and SO2 conversions were observed, such as support type, active components, copper loading, calcination temperature and presence of H2O and O2. The modified AC catalysts were characterized by BET, XRD, TG and TPX methods. The activity test results showed that the optimal catalyst is 15% Cu/WCSAC which can provide 52% NO conversion and 68% SO2 conversion simultaneously at 175°C with a space velocity of 30000 h‒1, and the optimal calcination temperature was 500°C. The presence of H2O could inhibit NO conversion and promote the SO2 conversion. The effect of O2 (0-5%) was evaluated, and the NO and SO2 conversions were best when the concentration of O2 was 3%. Research demonstrated that Cu/WCSAC catalyst was a kind of potential catalysts due to the amorphous phase, high specific areas and high active ability.

  2. MicroRNA-155 attenuates activation of hepatic stellate cell by simultaneously preventing EMT process and ERK1 signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Weiping; Zhao, Juan; Tang, Nan; Zeng, Xin; Wu, Kaiming; Ye, Changhong; Shi, Jian; Lu, Cuihua; Ning, Beifang; Zhang, Junping; Lin, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) signalling pathway play pivotal roles in hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, which is associated with the altered expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs). miR-155 is considered a typical multifunctional miRNA to regulate many biological processes. However, little attention has been given to the contributions of miR-155 to simultaneous regulation of EMT process and ERK1 pathway during HSC activation. Differential expression of miR-155 was assessed in activated HSC, sera and liver tissues from cirrhotic patients. Whether miR-155 could directly interact with 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of T cell factor 4 (TCF4) and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1) respectively was detected by luciferase reporter assay. The effects of enhanced miR-155 on EMT process and ERK1 pathway, cell apoptosis in HSC activation were also evaluated. A significant decrease in miR-155 expression was observed in activated HSC, sera or liver tissues of cirrhotic patients. MiR-155 was found to simultaneously interact with 3'-UTR of TCF4 and AGTR1 mRNAs, which are known as important regulators associated with EMT and ERK1 pathway repectively. Inhibiting miR-155 expression could stimulate the EMT state and ERK1 pathway activity, thus contributing to HSC activation. Forced miR-155 expression markedly decreased the mesenchymal markers and phosphorylated ERK1 level, and enhanced E-cadherin expression, leading to the synchronous inhibitory effect on EMT and ERK1 pathway and inducing HSC apoptosis. Our results implicate that miR-155 plays an important role in regulating the pathological network involving EMT process and ERK1 pathway during HSC activation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Simultaneous immunoblotting analysis with activity gel electrophoresis and 2-D gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Der-Yen; Chang, Geen-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion blotting method can couple immunoblotting analysis with another biochemical technique in a single polyacrylamide gel, however, with lower transfer efficiency as compared to the conventional electroblotting method. Thus, with diffusion blotting, protein blots can be obtained from an SDS polyacrylamide gel for zymography assay, from a native polyacrylamide gel for electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) or from a 2-D polyacrylamide gel for large-scale screening and identification of a protein marker. Thereafter, a particular signal in zymography, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and 2-dimensional gel can be confirmed or identified by simultaneous immunoblotting analysis with a corresponding antiserum. These advantages make diffusion blotting desirable when partial loss of transfer efficiency can be tolerated or be compensated by a more sensitive immunodetection reaction using enhanced chemiluminescence detection.

  4. Spontaneous Slow Fluctuation of EEG Alpha Rhythm Reflects Activity in Deep-Brain Structures: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Omata

    Full Text Available The emergence of the occipital alpha rhythm on brain electroencephalogram (EEG is associated with brain activity in the cerebral neocortex and deep brain structures. To further understand the mechanisms of alpha rhythm power fluctuation, we performed simultaneous EEGs and functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings in human subjects during a resting state and explored the dynamic relationship between alpha power fluctuation and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signals of the brain. Based on the frequency characteristics of the alpha power time series (APTS during 20-minute EEG recordings, we divided the APTS into two components: fast fluctuation (0.04-0.167 Hz and slow fluctuation (0-0.04 Hz. Analysis of the correlation between the MRI signal and each component revealed that the slow fluctuation component of alpha power was positively correlated with BOLD signal changes in the brain stem and the medial part of the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, while the fast fluctuation component was correlated with the lateral part of the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex, but not the brain stem. In summary, these data suggest that different subcortical structures contribute to slow and fast modulations of alpha spectra on brain EEG.

  5. Simultaneous determination of cytochrome P450 1A, 2A and 3A activities in porcine liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Monika; Tomankova, Jana; Li, Shengjie; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a robust method for the simultaneous determination of the activities of three porcine CYP450 enzymes in hepatic microsomes. A cocktail consisting of three selective CYP450 probe substrates, 7-ethoxyresorufin (CYP1A), coumarin (CYP2A) and 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC; CYP3A), was incubated with porcine liver microsomes. The presence of 7-ethoxyresorufin appears to significantly influence the kinetics of coumarin hydroxylation and BFC O-debenzylation. These results indicate that the use of 7-ethoxyresorufin in substrate cocktails together with coumarin and BFC should be avoided.

  6. Buck-boost converter for simultaneous semi-active vibration control and energy harvesting for electromagnetic regenerative shock absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Chongxiao; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Liangyao; Zuo, Lei

    2014-04-01

    Regenerative semi-active suspensions can capture the previously dissipated vibration energy and convert it to usable electrical energy for powering on-board electronic devices, while achieve both the better ride comfort and improved road handling performance at the same time when certain control is applied. To achieve this objective, the power electronics interface circuit connecting the energy harvester and the electrical loads, which can perform simultaneous vibration control and energy harvesting function is in need. This paper utilized a buck-boost converter for simultaneous semi-active vibration control and energy harvesting with electromagnetic regenerative shock absorber, which utilizes a rotational generator to converter the vibration energy to electricity. It has been found that when the circuit works in discontinuous current mode (DCM), the ratio between the input voltage and current is only related to the duty cycle of the switch pulse width modulation signal. Using this property, the buck-boost converter can be used to perform semi-active vibration control by controlling the load connected between the terminals of the generator in the electromagnetic shock absorber. While performing the vibration control, the circuit always draw current from the shock absorber and the suspension remain dissipative, and the shock absorber takes no additional energy to perform the vibration control. The working principle and dynamics of the circuit has been analyzed and simulations were performed to validate the concept.

  7. Simultaneous determination of ranitidine and metronidazole in pharmaceutical formulations at poly(chromotrope 2B modified activated glassy carbon electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive electrochemical method for the simultaneous and quantitative detection of ranitidine (RT and metronidazole (MT was developed, based on a poly(chromotrope 2B modified activated glassy carbon electrode (PCHAGCE. The PCHAGCE showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of both RT and MT in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0. The peak-to-peak separations for the simultaneous detection of RT and MT between the two reduction waves in cyclic voltammetry were increased significantly from ∼0.1 V at activated GCE, to ∼0.55 V at PCHAGCE. By differential pulse voltammetry techniques, the reduction peak currents of RT and MT were both linear over the range of 1.0 × 10−5–4.0×10−4 mol/L. The detection limits (S/N = 3 were 5.4 × 10−7 mol/L and 3.3 × 10−7 mol/L for RT and MT, respectively. The modified electrode was successfully applied to the determination of RT and MT in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum as real samples with stable and reliable recovery data.

  8. A novel system of electrodes transparent to ultrasound for simultaneous detection of myoelectric activity and B-mode ultrasound images of skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botter, A; Vieira, T M M; Loram, I D; Merletti, R; Hodson-Tole, E F

    2013-10-15

    Application of two-dimensional surface electrode arrays can provide a means of mapping motor unit action potentials on the skin surface above a muscle. The resulting muscle tissue displacement can be quantified, in a single plane, using ultrasound (US) imaging. Currently, however, it is not possible to simultaneously map spatio-temporal propagation of activation and resulting tissue strain. In this paper, we developed and tested a material that will enable concurrent measurement of two-dimensional surface electromyograms (EMGs) with US images. Specific protocols were designed to test the compatibility of this new electrode material, both with EMG recording and with US analysis. Key results indicate that, for this new electrode material, 1) the electrode-skin impedance is similar to that of arrays of electrodes reported in literature; 2) the reflection of US at the electrode-skin interface is negligible; 3) the likelihood of observing missing contacts, short-circuits, and artifacts in EMGs is not affected by the US probe; 4) movement of tissues sampled by US can be tracked accurately. We, therefore, conclude this approach will facilitate multimodal imaging of muscle to provide new spatio-temporal information regarding electromechanical function of muscle. This is relevant to basic physiology-biomechanics of active and passive force transmission through and between muscles, of motor unit spatio-temporal activity patterns, of their variation with architecture and task-related function, and of their adaptation with aging, training-exercise-disuse, neurological disease, and injury.

  9. Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    Order Code RL33424 Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities Updated January 25, 2007 Elizabeth B. Bazan ...if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 25 JAN 2007 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND

  10. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim M. Salman; Divya Sarma Kandukuri; Joanne Lesley Harrison; Cara Margaret Hildreth; Jacqueline Kathleen Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK) rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male...

  11. A Wearable Contactless Sensor Suitable for Continuous Simultaneous Monitoring of Respiration and Cardiac Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano D. Gargiulo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable system that can simultaneously and accurately monitor respiration and cardiac output would have great utility in healthcare applications. In this paper we present a novel approach to creating such a system. This noninvasive, low power, low cost, contactless sensor is suitable for continuous monitoring of respiration (tidal volume and cardiac stroke volume. Furthermore, it is capable of delivering this data in true volume (i.e., mL. The current embodiment, specifically designed for sleep monitoring applications, requires only 100 mW when powered by a 4.8 V battery pack and is based on the use of a single electroresistive band embedded in a T-shirt. Here, we describe the implementation of the device, explaining the rational and design choices for the electronic circuit and the physical garment together with the preliminary tests performed using one volunteer subject. Comparison of the device with a commercially available spirometer demonstrates that tidal volume can be monitored over extended periods with a precision of ±10%. We further demonstrate the utility of the device to measure cardiac output and respiration effort.

  12. Simultaneous adsorption of Cd²⁺ and BPA on amphoteric surfactant activated montmorillonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chongmin; Wu, Pingxiao; Zhu, Yajie; Tran, Lytuong

    2016-02-01

    The study mainly investigated the simultaneous adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and Cd(2+) from aqueous solution on octadecane-betaine modified montmorillonite (BS-Mt). The characteristics of the obtained materials were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), Specific surface area (BET) and Scanning electron microscopy/Energy disperse spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), confirming that BS-18 was successfully introduced into Mt. Also, factors including initial solution pH, initial Cd(2+)/BPA concentration, contact time and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption processes were shown to be crucial for Cd(2+) adsorption, whereas had negligible effects on BPA adsorption. In this study, we found that pseudo-second-order model fitted well with the adsorption kinetic studies for both Cd(2+) and BPA with an equilibrium time of 24 h. The Cd(2+) and BPA adsorption isotherm could be well described by Freundlich model and Langmuir model, respectively. On the basis of kinetic models, the maximum adsorption capacity of Cd(2+) in aqueous solution was slightly enhanced after modification, indicating that Cd(2+) adsorption on BS-Mt was mainly attributed to direct electrostatic attraction and the chelate reaction, while the dramatic enhancement of maximum adsorption capacity for BPA was due to the hydrophobic interaction.

  13. Simultaneous Description of Activity Coefficients and Solubility with eCPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaikjer, Anders; Thomsen, Kaj; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    with salt specific parameters. The focus is on accurate description of the salt solubility, and low deviation correlations are obtained for all salts investigated. The inclusion of the solubility data in the parametrization has, compared to parameters only parametrized to osmotic coefficients and activity...... coefficients, not significantly affected the deviations of the osmotic coefficients and activity coefficients. The average deviations of the activity coefficient does increase slightly and it was found that the increase in deviations was almost entirely due to reduced accuracy at high temperature and high...... molality. The model is, furthermore, compared to the activity coefficient model, Extended UNIQUAC. It is shown that the eCPA provides more accurate solubility description at higher temperatures than Extended UNIQUAC but also that Extended UNIQUAC is slightly better at describing the activity coefficients...

  14. Bispecific single-chain diabody-immunoliposomes targeting endoglin (CD105) and fibroblast activation protein (FAP) simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenhold, Markus; Steiniger, Frank; Fahr, Alfred; Kontermann, Roland E; Rüger, Ronny

    2015-03-10

    Liposomes are well-established drug delivery systems with cancer chemotherapy as main focus. To increase the cellular drug delivery, liposomes can be endowed with ligands, e.g. recombinant antibody fragments, which ensure specific cell interaction. Multispecific immunoliposomes can be prepared to improve the liposome to cell interaction by targeting multiple different targets at the same time, for instance by coupling two or more different ligands to the liposomal surface, resulting in a synergistic or additive increase in binding. An alternative approach is the use of bispecific ligands to address at least two different targets. For this purpose we cloned a single-chain diabody fragment (scDb`), a bispecific molecule targeting two antigens, endoglin (CD105) and fibroblast activation protein (FAP), expressed on cells of the tumor microenvironment. As model cell system, a human fibrosarcoma cell line was used expressing endoglin and FAP simultaneously. Monospecific immunoliposomes directed either against endoglin or FAP were compared in vitro for cell binding and cytotoxic activity with bispecific dual-targeted scFv`-IL (bispecific scFv`FAP/CD105-IL) and bispecific single-chain diabody`-IL (scDb`CD105/FAP-IL) targeting endoglin and FAP simultaneously. In the underlying study, bispecific scFv`FAP/CD105-IL interacted stronger with cells expressing FAP and endoglin (both targets simultaneously) compared to the monospecific immunoliposomes. Furthermore, bispecific scDb`-immunoliposomes increased the cell interaction massively and showed enhanced cytotoxicity against target cells using doxorubicin-loaded immunoliposomes. The use of recombinant bispecific ligands as scDb`-molecules facilitates the generation of bispecific immunoliposomes by using the established post-insertion technique, enabling an extension of the ligand specificity spectrum via genetic modification.

  15. Muscle activation patterns during walking from transtibial amputees recorded within the residual limb-prosthetic interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Stephanie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powered lower limb prostheses could be more functional if they had access to feedforward control signals from the user’s nervous system. Myoelectric signals are one potential control source. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle activation signals could be recorded from residual lower limb muscles within the prosthetic socket-limb interface during walking. Methods We recorded surface electromyography from three lower leg muscles (tibilias anterior, gastrocnemius medial head, gastrocnemius lateral head and four upper leg muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus medius of 12 unilateral transtibial amputee subjects and 12 non-amputee subjects during treadmill walking at 0.7, 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 m/s. Muscle signals were recorded from the amputated leg of amputee subjects and the right leg of control subjects. For amputee subjects, lower leg muscle signals were recorded from within the limb-socket interface and from muscles above the knee. We quantified differences in the muscle activation profile between amputee and control groups during treadmill walking using cross-correlation analyses. We also assessed the step-to-step inter-subject variability of these profiles by calculating variance-to-signal ratios. Results We found that amputee subjects demonstrated reliable muscle recruitment signals from residual lower leg muscles recorded within the prosthetic socket during walking, which were locked to particular phases of the gait cycle. However, muscle activation profile variability was higher for amputee subjects than for control subjects. Conclusion Robotic lower limb prostheses could use myoelectric signals recorded from surface electrodes within the socket-limb interface to derive feedforward commands from the amputee’s nervous system.

  16. MR constrained simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation maps in brain TOF-PET/MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-29

    The maximum likelihood estimation of attenuation and activity (MLAA) algorithm has been proposed to jointly estimate activity and attenuation from emission data only. Salomon et al employed the MLAA to estimate activity and attenuation from time-of-flight PET data with spatial MR prior information on attenuation. Recently, we proposed a novel algorithm to impose both spatial and statistical constraints on attenuation estimation within the MLAA algorithm using Dixon MR images and a constrained Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In this study, we compare the proposed algorithm with MLAA and MLAA-Salomon in brain TOF-PET/MR imaging.

  17. Cu(II)-disulfide complexes display simultaneous superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, Margarita E; Andrade-Acuña, Daniela; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristián; Speisky, Hernán

    2013-12-01

    Superoxide is a potentially toxic by-product of cellular metabolism. We have addressed here the in vitro ability of complexes formed between copper(II) ions and various biologically-occurring disulfides (RSSR: oxidized glutathione, cystine, homocystine and α-lipoic acid) to react with superoxide. The studied complexes were found to react with superoxide (generated by a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system) at rate constants (kCu(II)-RSSR) close to 10(6)M(-1)s(-1), which are three orders of magnitude lower than that reported for superoxide dismutase (SOD) but comparable to that of several other copper-containing complexes reported as SOD mimetics. The interaction between the tested Cu(II)-RSSR and superoxide, led to the generation and recovery of concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and oxygen that were, respectively, below and above those theoretically-expected from a sole SOD mimetic action. Interestingly, oxygen was generated when the Cu(II)-RSSR complexes were directly incubated with hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results reveal that the Cu(II)-RSSR complexes not only have the capacity to dismutate superoxide but also to simultaneously act like catalase mimetic molecules. When added to superoxide-overproducing mitochondria (condition attained by its exposure to diclofenac), three of the tested complexes were able (2-4μM), not only to totally restore, but also to lower below the basal level the mitochondrial production of superoxide. The present study is first in reporting on the potential of Cu(II)-disulfide complexes to act as SOD and catalase like molecules, suggesting a potential for these types of molecules to act as such under physiological and/or oxidative-stress conditions.

  18. The strategic use of lecture recordings to facilitate an active and self-directed learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topale, Luminica

    2016-08-12

    New learning technologies have the capacity to dramatically impact how students go about learning and to facilitate an active, self-directed learning approach. In U. S. medical education, students encounter a large volume of content, which must be mastered at an accelerated pace. The added pressure to excel on the USMLE Step 1 licensing exam and competition for residency placements, require that students adopt an informed approach to the use of learning technologies so as to enhance rather than to detract from the learning process. The primary aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of how students were using recorded lectures in their learning and how their study habits have been influenced by the technology. Survey research was undertaken using a convenience sample. Students were asked to voluntarily participate in an electronic survey comprised of 27 closed ended, multiple choice questions, and one open ended item. The survey was designed to explore students' perceptions of how recorded lectures affected their choices regarding class participation and impacted their learning and to gain an understanding of how recorded lectures facilitated a strategic, active learning process. Findings revealed that recorded lectures had little influence on students' choices to participate, and that the perceived benefits of integrating recorded lectures into study practices were related to their facilitation of and impact on efficient, active, and self-directed learning. This study was a useful investigation into how the availability of lecture capture technology influenced medical students' study behaviors and how students were making valuable use of the technology as an active learning tool.

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Five Active Components in the Chinese Patent Medicine Niuhuang Jiangya Pill by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shan; Lei, Shanshan

    2016-12-16

    Niuhuang Jiangya (NHJY) pill is one of the well-known Chinese patent medicines in China used in the treatment of high blood pressure. The primary purpose of this study was to establish and validate a method using HPLC with tandem MS for the quality evaluation of NHJY pill through simultaneous determination of the following five active components: baicalin, paeoniflorin, astragaloside IV, ferulic acid, and emodin. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypersil GOLD HPLC C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase and gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The method established in this study was selective, linear, precise, and accurate and was successfully applied to evaluate five active components in NHJY pill collected from different production batches, which could be considered a good approach to control the quality of NHJY pill and other related botanical drugs.

  20. Shape perception simultaneously up- and downregulates neural activity in the primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P

    2014-07-07

    An essential part of visual perception is the grouping of local elements (such as edges and lines) into coherent shapes. Previous studies have shown that this grouping process modulates neural activity in the primary visual cortex (V1) that is signaling the local elements [1-4]. However, the nature of this modulation is controversial. Some studies find that shape perception reduces neural activity in V1 [2, 5, 6], while others report increased V1 activity during shape perception [1, 3, 4, 7-10]. Neurocomputational theories that cast perception as a generative process [11-13] propose that feedback connections carry predictions (i.e., the generative model), while feedforward connections signal the mismatch between top-down predictions and bottom-up inputs. Within this framework, the effect of feedback on early visual cortex may be either enhancing or suppressive, depending on whether the feedback signal is met by congruent bottom-up input. Here, we tested this hypothesis by quantifying the spatial profile of neural activity in V1 during the perception of illusory shapes using population receptive field mapping. We find that shape perception concurrently increases neural activity in regions of V1 that have a receptive field on the shape but do not receive bottom-up input and suppresses activity in regions of V1 that receive bottom-up input that is predicted by the shape. These effects were not modulated by task requirements. Together, these findings suggest that shape perception changes lower-order sensory representations in a highly specific and automatic manner, in line with theories that cast perception in terms of hierarchical generative models.

  1. Long-term recording of external urethral sphincter EMG activity in unanesthetized, unrestrained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPallo, Brandon K; Wolpaw, Jonathan R; Chen, Xiang Yang; Carp, Jonathan S

    2014-08-15

    The external urethral sphincter muscle (EUS) plays an important role in urinary function and often contributes to urinary dysfunction. EUS study would benefit from methodology for longitudinal recording of electromyographic activity (EMG) in unanesthetized animals, but this muscle is a poor substrate for chronic intramuscular electrodes, and thus the required methodology has not been available. We describe a method for long-term recording of EUS EMG by implantation of fine wires adjacent to the EUS that are secured to the pubic bone. Wires pass subcutaneously to a skull-mounted plug and connect to the recording apparatus by a flexible cable attached to a commutator. A force transducer-mounted cup under a metabolic cage collected urine, allowing recording of EUS EMG and voided urine weight without anesthesia or restraint. Implant durability permitted EUS EMG recording during repeated (up to 3 times weekly) 24-h sessions for more than 8 wk. EMG and voiding properties were stable over weeks 2-8. The degree of EUS phasic activity (bursting) during voiding was highly variable, with an average of 25% of voids not exhibiting bursting. Electrode implantation adjacent to the EUS yielded stable EMG recordings over extended periods and eliminated the confounding effects of anesthesia, physical restraint, and the potential for dislodgment of the chronically implanted intramuscular electrodes. These results show that micturition in unanesthetized, unrestrained rats is usually, but not always, associated with EUS bursting. This methodology is applicable to studying EUS behavior during progression of gradually evolving disease and injury models and in response to therapeutic interventions.

  2. Simultaneous reconstruction of attenuation and activity in ToF PET/MRI with additional transmission data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Hoe, Ester [MEDISIP Medical Imaging and Signal Processing Group, Ghent University, IBBT-IBiTech, iMinds Medical IT, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Mollet, Pieter; Mikhaylova, Ekaterina [MEDISIP Medical Imaging and Signal Processing Group, Ghent University, IBBT-IBiTech, iMinds Medical IT, Ghent (Belgium); Defrise, Michel [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Vandenberghe, Stefaan [MEDISIP Medical Imaging and Signal Processing Group, Ghent University, IBBT-IBiTech, iMinds Medical IT, Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-05-18

    In Time-of-Flight PET/MRI systems accurate attenuation correction, based on the MRI image, is not straight forward. An alternative is attenuation correction based on emission data only. This is for instance done by simultaneous reconstruction of attenuation and activity with the MLAA algorithm, but the method as originally proposed has certain limits. The attenuation can only be determined up to a constant and in regions of low tracer uptake, the method results in less accurate attenuation values. An adapted MLAA algorithm has been proposed to overcome this issues and was successfully applied on simulation studies. The so called MLAA+ algorithm uses regular PET emission data as well as transmission data. This transmission data is acquired after insertion of an annulus shaped transmission source into the scanner bore. The Time-of-Flight information allows to separate transmission and emission data in a simultaneous acquisition. With the transmission data, an MLTR-based reference attenuation image is reconstructed. Afterwards, this attenuation image is used in the MLAA+ simultaneous reconstruction of attenuation and emission as a reference. We here propose the results of the reconstruction of patient data, based on the MLAA+ algorithm. In total, seven patients were scanned in a sequential PET/MRI scanner and afterwards in a CT scanner. The CT scan is used as an attenuation map to reconstruct the PET emission data with the well established MLEM algorithm. This reconstruction can be seen as the gold standard to which we can compare the MLAA and MLAA+ reconstructions. A preliminary study on one patient indicates that the MLAA+ algorithm results in better reconstructed emission and attenuation images as compared to the MLAA algorithm. If we compare the MLAA+ method to the gold standard, there is still room for improvement.

  3. A wireless recording system that utilizes Bluetooth technology to transmit neural activity in freely moving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Robert E; Collins, Vernell; Deadwyler, Sam A

    2009-09-15

    A new wireless transceiver is described for recording individual neuron firing from behaving rats utilizing Bluetooth transmission technology and a processor onboard for discrimination of neuronal waveforms and associated time stamps. This universal brain activity transmitter (UBAT) is attached to rodents via a backpack and amplifier headstage and can transmit 16 channels of captured neuronal firing data via a Bluetooth transceiver chip over very large and unconstrained distances. The onboard microprocessor of the UBAT allows flexible online control over waveform isolation criteria via transceiver instruction and the two-way communication capacity allows for closed-loop applications between neural events and behavioral or physiological processes which can be modified by transceiver instructions. A detailed description of the multiplexer processing of channel data as well as examples of neuronal recordings in different behavioral testing contexts is provided to demonstrate the capacity for robust transmission within almost any laboratory environment. A major advantage of the UBAT is the long transmission range and lack of object-based line of sight interference afforded by Bluetooth technology, allowing flexible recording capabilities within multiple experimental paradigms without interruption. Continuous recordings over very large distance separations from the monitor station are demonstrated providing experimenters with recording advantages not previously available with other telemetry devices.

  4. Mediator-assisted Simultaneous probing of Cytosolic and Mitochondrial Redox activity in living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Arto; Spegel, Christer; Kostesha, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This work describes an electron transfer mediator-assisted amperometric flow injection method for assessing redox enzyme activity in different subcellular compartments of the phosphoglucose isomerase deletion mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, EBY44. The method is demonstrated using the f...

  5. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ibrahim M; Sarma Kandukuri, Divya; Harrison, Joanne L; Hildreth, Cara M; Phillips, Jacqueline K

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK) rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male LPK and Lewis control animals (total n = 16) were instrumented for telemetric recording of RSNA and MAP. At 12-13 weeks-of-age, resting RSNA and MAP, sympathetic and haemodynamic responses to both peripheral (hypoxia: 10% O2) and central chemoreflex (hypercapnia: 7% CO2) activation and acute stress (open-field exposure), were measured. As indicators of renal function, urinary protein (UPro) and creatinine (UCr) levels were assessed. LPK rats had higher resting RSNA (1.2 ± 0.1 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1 μV, p dual conscious telemetry recording of RSNA and MAP in a genetic rodent model of CKD. Elevated RSNA is likely a key contributor to the marked hypertension in this model, while attenuated RSNA and MAP responses to central chemoreflex activation and acute stress in the LPK indicate possible deficits in the neural processing of autonomic outflows evoked by these sympathoexcitatory pathways.

  6. Holocene carbonate record of Lake Kivu reflects the history of hydrothermal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votava, Jillian E.; Johnson, Thomas C.; Hecky, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    The sediment record of Lake Kivu reveals a complex volcanogenic and climatic Holocene history. Investigation of the inorganic carbonate record dates the onset of carbonate deposition in the mid-Holocene in Kivu’s deep northern and eastern basins and identifies conditions enabling deposition. The magnitude and timing of carbonate-rich sedimentation is not so much controlled by climate but, instead, linked strongly to hydrothermal activity in the basin. Sublacustrine springs supply the vast majority of the calcium and carbonate ions required for supersaturation with respect to aragonite. This major hydrothermal activity that permanently stratifies Lake Kivu today was initiated ˜3,100 y before present (3.1 ka), when carbonate-rich sediments first appeared in the Holocene record. Aragonite is the dominant CaCO3 mineral present in the lake deposits. Both δ13C and δ18O of the aragonite are enriched above the expected kinetic fractionation of meteoric waters, suggesting a volcanogenic influence on the formation waters. Repeated major fluctuations in the carbonate record after 3.1 ka therefore most likely reflect the historical variation in hydrothermal inputs.

  7. Simultaneous Activation of Multiple Memory Systems during Learning: Insights from Electrophysiology and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    following OFC damage. In addiction , OFC activation is seen in response to drug stimuli that elicit craving , perhaps consistent with its hypothesized role in...34 and has been extensively studied in the context of drug addiction and more recently in behavioral studies investigating its role in goal-directed...encoding expected reward. For reviews on the role of the OFC in addiction , see Everitt et al. (2007). For reviews regarding the OFC in normal

  8. A novel anticancer therapy that simultaneously targets aberrant p53 and Notch activities in tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Yao

    Full Text Available Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in tumorigenesis by maintaining the activity of self-renewal of cancer stem cells, and therefore, it is hypothesized that interference of Notch signaling may inhibit tumor formation and progression. H101 is a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus that is cytolytic in cells lacking intact p53, but it is unable to eradicate caner stem cells. In this study, we tested a new strategy of tumor gene therapy by combining a Notch1-siRNA with H101 oncolytic adenovirus. In HeLa-S3 tumor cells, the combined therapy blocked the Notch pathway and induced apoptosis in tumors that are p53-inactive. In nude mice bearing xenograft tumors derived from HeLa-S3 cells, the combination of H101/Notch1-siRNA therapies inhibited tumor growth. Moreover, Notch1-siRNA increased Hexon gene expression at both the transcriptional and the translational levels, and promoted H101 replication in tumors, thereby enhancing the oncolytic activity of H101. These data demonstrate the feasibility to combine H101 p53-targted oncolysis and anti-Notch siRNA activities as a novel anti-cancer therapy.

  9. Tea waste biomass activated carbon electrode for simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and fluoride by capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Mahendra S; Balomajumder, Chandrajit

    2017-10-01

    Capacitive deionization is promising less energy based desalination technique to achieve pure water. In the present study microporous activated carbon was prepared from tea waste biomass by chemical and thermal modification. Further TWBAC was used for preparation of the electrode. The TWBAC electrode was applied in the self-made CDI set up for simultaneous removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and fluoride (F) form mixed feed solution of Cr(VI) and F. The performance of TWBAC electrode was found effective for simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and F from mixed feed solution. The maximum electrosorption capacity of Cr(VI) and F were found 0.77 and 0.74 mg g(-1) for 10 mg L(-1) and 2.83 and 2.49 mg g(-1) for 100 mg L(-1) mixed feed solution respectively. The higher removal of Cr(VI) was found due to the electrosorption selectivity of the divalent CrO4(2-) is higher than that of the monovalent F(-). Multicomponent isotherm modeling and kinetic study were carried out in this study. TWBAC CDI electrode could be useful for treatment of a low concentrated Cr(VI) and F containing wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mrk 421 active state in 2008: the MAGIC view, simultaneous multi-wavelength observations and SSC model constrained

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksic, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Asensio, M; Backes, M; Barrio, J A; Bastieri, D; Gonzalez, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berdyugin, A; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Canellas, A; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; del Pozo, E De Cea; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Ortega, A Diago; Doert, M; Dominguez1, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Elsaesser, D; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; Lopez, R J Garcia; Garczarczyk, M; Garrido, D; Giavitto, G; Godinovic, N; Hadasch, D; Häfner, D; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Höhne-Mönch, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Huber, B; Jogler, T; Kellermann, H; Klepser, S; Krahenbuh, T; Krause, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Lopez, A; Lopez, M; Lorenz, E; Makariev, M; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martinez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Miyamoto, H; Moldon, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Orito, R; Oya, I; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Pardo, S; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Pasanen, M; Pauss, F; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Pilia, M; Pochon, J; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribo, M; Rico, J; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shore, S N; Sillanpaa, A; Sitarek, J; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Strah, N; Suric, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzic, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vankov, H; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R

    2011-01-01

    Context. The HBL-type blazar Markarian 421 is one of the brightest TeV gamma-ray sources of the northern sky. From December 2007 until June 2008 it was intensively observed in the VHE (E > 100 GeV) band by the single dish Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov telescope (MAGIC-I). Aims. We aimed to sample the evolution of the source emission at VHE and in other bands, and to model the broad band spectral energy distribution (SED) of selected states, reconstructed by means of sets of multi-wavelength (MWL) data observed simultaneously. Methods. We performed a dense monitoring of the source in VHE with MAGIC-I, collecting also complementary data in soft X-rays and optical-UV bands; then, we modeled the SEDs derived from simultaneous MWL data within the Synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) framework. Results. The source showed intense and prolonged gamma-ray activity during the whole period, with integral fluxes (E > 200 GeV) sel- dom below the level of Crab Nebula, and up to 3.6 times this value. Eight dataset...

  11. Granular activated carbon for simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation of toxic oil sands process-affected water organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) released into oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) during bitumen processing in Northern Alberta are problematic for oil sands industries due to their toxicity in the environment and resistance to degradation during conventional wastewater treatment processes. Granular activated carbon (GAC) has shown to be an effective media in removing biopersistent organics from wastewater using a combination of adsorption and biodegradation removal mechanisms. A simultaneous GAC (0.4 g GAC/L) adsorption and biodegradation (combined treatment) study was used for the treatment of raw and ozonated OSPW. After 28 days of batch treatment, classical and oxidized NAs removals for raw OSPW were 93.3% and 73.7%, and for ozonated OSPW were 96.2% and 77.1%, respectively. Synergetic effects of the combined treatment process were observed in removals of COD, the acid extractable fraction, and oxidized NAs, which indicated enhanced biodegradation and bioregeneration in GAC biofilms. A bacteria copy number >10(8) copies/g GAC on GAC surfaces was found using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction after treatment for both raw and ozonated OSPW. A Microtox(®) acute toxicity test (Vibrio fischeri) showed effective toxicity removal (>95.3%) for the combined treatments. Therefore, the simultaneous GAC adsorption and biodegradation treatment process is a promising technology for the elimination of toxic OSPW NAs.

  12. A 300-Year Typhoon Record in Taiwan and the Relationship with Solar Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-wen Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have identified possible linkages between solar activity and tropical cyclone activity in the United States and Caribbean. This study used historical typhoon records dating back to the early 1700s, the Central Weather Bureau records (since 1897, and the JTWC (Joint Typhoon Warning Center (since 1945 to investigate the relationship between solar activity and the number of typhoons in Taiwan. The results show that a negative relationship exists between solar activity and typhoon frequency in Taiwan at decadal time scales. Fewer typhoons occurred during the periods 1770 to 1790 and 1930 to 1960, with a higher number of typhoons occurring during 1810 to 1830 and 1870 to 1930. A likely mechanism for the relationship is that more intense solar activity can warm the lower stratosphere and the upper troposphere through absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric ozone. This would decrease the convective available potential energy and reduce the frequency of typhoon occurrence. As a consequence, fewer typhoons form over the western North Pacific with fewer affecting Taiwan. The negative correlation between solar activity and the number of typhoons affecting Taiwan is important to understand changes in the frequency and behavior of typhoons resulting from climate change.

  13. Motivation and intention to integrate physical activity into daily school life: the JAM World Record event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazou, Spyridoula; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2014-11-01

    Research on the motivation of stakeholders to integrate physical activity into daily school life is limited. The purpose was to examine the motivation of stakeholders to participate in a world record physical activity event and whether motivation was associated with future intention to use activity breaks during the daily school life and future participation in a similar event. After the 2012 JAM (Just-a-Minute) World Record event, 686 adults (591 women; 76.1% participated for children motivational regulations and future intention to (a) use the activity breaks and (b) participate in the event. High intrinsic motivation and low extrinsic motivation and amotivation for participation in the next event were reported. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, and occupation, showed that intrinsic forms of motivation positively predicted, whereas amotivation negatively predicted, future intention to participate in the event and use the activity breaks. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that school-related participants were more intrinsically motivated and intended to use the activity breaks and repeat the event more than those who were not affiliated with a school. Nonschool participants reported higher extrinsic motivation and amotivation than school-related participants. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  14. Simultaneous Activation of Iron- and Thiol-Based Sensor-Regulator Systems by Redox-Active Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Lok; Yoo, Ji-Sun; Oh, Gyeong-Seok; Singh, Atul K.; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria in natural habitats are exposed to myriad redox-active compounds (RACs), which include producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive electrophile species (RES) that alkylate or oxidize thiols. RACs can induce oxidative stress in cells and activate response pathways by modulating the activity of sensitive regulators. However, the effect of a certain compound on the cell has been investigated primarily with respect to a specific regulatory pathway. Since a single compound can exert multiple chemical effects in the cell, its effect can be better understood by time-course monitoring of multiple sensitive regulatory pathways that the compound induces. We investigated the effect of representative RACs by monitoring the activity of three sensor-regulators in the model actinobacterium Streptomyces coelicolor; SoxR that senses reactive compounds directly through oxidation of its [2Fe–2S] cluster, CatR/PerR that senses peroxides through bound iron, and an anti-sigma factor RsrA that senses RES via disulfide formation. The time course and magnitude of induction of their target transcripts were monitored to predict the chemical activities of each compound in S. coelicolor. Phenazine methosulfate (PMS) was found to be an effective RAC that directly activated SoxR and an effective ROS-producer that induced CatR/PerR with little thiol-perturbing activity. p-Benzoquinone was an effective RAC that directly activated SoxR, with slower ROS-producing activity, and an effective RES that induced the RsrA-SigR system. Plumbagin was an effective RAC that activated SoxR, an effective ROS-producer, and a less agile but effective RES. Diamide was an RES that effectively formed disulfides and a weak RAC that activated SoxR. Monobromobimane was a moderately effective RES and a slow producer of ROS. Interestingly, benzoquinone induced the SigR system by forming adducts on cysteine thiols in RsrA, revealing a new pathway to modulate RsrA activity. Overall, this study showed

  15. Simultaneous SMM flat crystal spectrometer and Very Large Array observations of solar active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth R.; Willson, Robert F.; Smith, Kermit L.; Strong, Keith T.

    1987-01-01

    High-resolution images of the quiescent emission from two solar active regions at 20 cm (VLA) and soft X-ray (SMM FCS) wavelengths are compared. There are regions where the X-ray coronal loops have been completely imaged at 20 cm wavelength. In other regions, the X-ray radiation was detected without detectable 20 cm radiation, and vice versa. The X-ray data were used to infer average electron temperatures of about 3-million K and average electron densities of about 2.5 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm for the X-ray emitting plasma in the two active regions. The thermal bremsstrahlung of the X-ray emitting plasma is optically thin at 20 cm wavelength. The 20 cm brightness temperatures were always less than T(e), which is consistent with optically thin bremsstrahlung. The low T(B) can be explained if a higher, cooler plasma covers the hotter X-ray emitting plasma. Thermal gyroresonance radiation must account for the intense 20 cm radiation near and above sunspots where no X-ray radiation is detected.

  16. Simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation in time-of-flight PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Ahmadreza; Defrise, Michel; Bal, Girish; Michel, Christian; Conti, Maurizio; Watson, Charles; Nuyts, Johan

    2012-12-01

    In positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT), attenuation correction is necessary for quantitative reconstruction of the tracer distribution. Previously, several attempts have been made to estimate the attenuation coefficients from emission data only. These attempts had limited success, because the problem does not have a unique solution, and severe and persistent "cross-talk" between the estimated activity and attenuation distributions was observed. In this paper, we show that the availability of time-of-flight (TOF) information eliminates the cross-talk problem by destroying symmetries in the associated Fisher information matrix. We propose a maximum-a-posteriori reconstruction algorithm for jointly estimating the attenuation and activity distributions from TOF PET data. The performance of the algorithm is studied with 2-D simulations, and further illustrated with phantom experiments and with a patient scan. The estimated attenuation image is robust to noise, and does not suffer from the cross-talk that was observed in non-TOF PET. However, some constraining is still mandatory, because the TOF data determine the attenuation sinogram only up to a constant offset.

  17. cVEMP morphology changes with recording electrode position, but single motor unit activity remains constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Sally M; Colebatch, James G; Borire, Adeniyi; Straumann, Dominik; Weber, Konrad P

    2016-04-15

    Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) recorded over the lower quarter of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle in normal subjects may have opposite polarity to those recorded over the midpoint. It has thus been suggested that vestibular projections to the lower part of SCM might be excitatory rather than inhibitory. We tested the hypothesis that the SCM muscle receives both inhibitory and excitatory vestibular inputs. We recorded cVEMPs in 10 normal subjects with surface electrodes placed at multiple sites along the anterior (sternal) component of the SCM muscle. We compared several reference sites: sternum, ipsilateral and contralateral earlobes, and contralateral wrist. In five subjects, single motor unit responses were recorded at the upper, middle, and lower parts of the SCM muscle using concentric needle electrodes. The surface cVEMP had the typical positive-negative polarity at the midpoint of the SCM muscle. In all subjects, as the recording electrode was moved toward each insertion point, p13 amplitude became smaller and p13 latency increased, then the polarity inverted to a negative-positive waveform (n1-p1). Changing the reference site did not affect reflex polarity. There was a significant short-latency change in activity in 61/63 single motor units, and in each case this was a decrease or gap in firing, indicating an inhibitory reflex. Single motor unit recordings showed that the reflex was inhibitory along the entire SCM muscle. The cVEMP surface waveform inversion near the mastoid and sternal insertion points likely reflects volume conduction of the potential occurring with increasing distance from the motor point.

  18. COP9-Signalosome deneddylase activity is enhanced by simultaneous neddylation: insights into the regulation of an enzymatic protein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Gil; Grossman, Chagai

    2015-01-01

    Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) are regulated by neddylation, which is a post translation modification of the Cullin family proteins. Neddylation of Cul1 activates the ligase through some means of biochemical mechanisms. The rate of neddylation and its extent are regulated by 2 opposing enzymatic processes: neddylation by an enzymatic cascade, and deneddylation by COP9-Signalosome (CSN) complex protein. The mechanism by which COP9-Signalosome catalytic activity is regulated is not well understood. We set an in vitro neddylation and deneddylation reaction using as a source for specific COP9/Signalosome deneddylase activity either Hela cells extract or purified Signalosome. Neddylation reaction of either endogenic Cul1 from Hela cells extract or recombinant Cul1 was catalyzed by recombinant neddylation enzymes. Deneddylation rate was tested either simultaneous to neddylation or after termination of neddylation by using an ATP depleting reaction or by directly inhibiting the neddylation activation enzyme named APP-BP1/UBA3 by its specific inhibitor MLN-4924. We demonstrated that neddylation and deneddylation are catalytically engaged and that inhibition of Cul1 neddylation significantly causes a decline in the rate of COP9-Signalosome deneddylase activity. Since neddylation is an ATP consuming reaction we managed to isolate the 2 opposing processes which surprisingly caused a decline in COP9 activity. Using MLN-4924 we demonstrated that direct inhibition of neddylation negatively influences the rate of deneddylation. The hypothesis that phosphorylation controls deneddylation was ruled out by the fact that no change in the rate of deneddylation was exemplified while converting the use of ATP with AMP-PNP. We demonstrated that deneddylation of Cul1 is positively regulated through direct simultaneous neddylation and is not dependent upon autophosphorylation. Defining the mechanism that regulates neddylation and deneddylation of Cullin proteins is important due to

  19. High-resolution recordings of the magnetic activity of the His-bundle in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erne, S.N.; Hahlbohm, H.D.; Lehmann, H.P. (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. Berlin); Fenici, R.R. (Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Medica 2); Trontelj, Z. (Ljubljana Univ. (Yugoslavia). VTO Oddelek za Fiziko)

    The activity of the His-Purkinje system (HPS) in man has been measured in a magnetically shielded room (BMSR) by using band pass filtering (band width 0.5 Hz to 300 Hz) and averaging. The BMSR reduces the background noise level to less than 4 fT/..sqrt..Hz in the region of white noise. Within the PR interval a ramp pattern was observed, changing its slope when crossing the median line of the heart. In addition, definite signals were recorded approximately 40 ms before the onset of ventricular activation.

  20. Simultaneous chromizing-aluminizing coating of low alloy steels by a halide-activated pack cementation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geib, F.D.; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1992-11-01

    The simultaneous chromizing-aluminizing of low-alloy steels has achieved Kanthal-like surface compositions of 16--2lCr and 5--8 wt%Al by the use of cementation packs with a Cr-Al masteralloy and an NH{sub 4}Cl activator salt. An initial preferential deposition of Al into the alloy induces the phase transformation from austenite to ferrite at the 1150{degrees}C process temperature. The low solubility of carbon in ferrite results in the rejection of solute C into the core of the austenitic substrate, thereby preventing the formation of an external Cr-carbide layer, which would otherwise block aluminizing and chromizing. The deposition and rapid diffusion of Cr and Al into the external bcc ferrite layer follows. Parabolic cyclic oxidation kinetics for alumina growth in air were observed over a wide range of relatively low temperatures (637--923{degrees}C).

  1. Simultaneous chromizing-aluminizing coating of low alloy steels by a halide-activated pack cementation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geib, F.D.; Rapp, R.A. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1992-11-01

    The simultaneous chromizing-aluminizing of low-alloy steels has achieved Kanthal-like surface compositions of 16--2lCr and 5--8 wt%Al by the use of cementation packs with a Cr-Al masteralloy and an NH[sub 4]Cl activator salt. An initial preferential deposition of Al into the alloy induces the phase transformation from austenite to ferrite at the 1150[degrees]C process temperature. The low solubility of carbon in ferrite results in the rejection of solute C into the core of the austenitic substrate, thereby preventing the formation of an external Cr-carbide layer, which would otherwise block aluminizing and chromizing. The deposition and rapid diffusion of Cr and Al into the external bcc ferrite layer follows. Parabolic cyclic oxidation kinetics for alumina growth in air were observed over a wide range of relatively low temperatures (637--923[degrees]C).

  2. Application of central composite design for simultaneous removal of methylene blue and Pb2+ ions by walnut wood activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M.; Mazaheri, H.; Khodadoust, S.; Hajati, S.; Purkait, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from walnut wood which was locally available, non-toxic, abundant and cheap. This new adsorbent was characterized using BET, FTIR and SEM. Point of zero charge (pHpzc) and oxygen containing functional groups were also determined. The prepared adsorbent was applied for simultaneous removal of Pb2+ ions and methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution. The prominent effect and interaction of variables such as amount of adsorbent, contact time, concentration of MB and Pb2+ ions were optimized by central composite design. The equilibrium data obtained at optimum condition were fitted to conventional isotherm models and found that Langmuir model was the best fitted isotherm. Kinetic data were fitted using various models. It was revealed that the adsorption rate follows pseudo-second order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion model.

  3. Simultaneous active and passive control for eigenstructure assignment in lightly damped systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richiedei, Dario; Trevisani, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    The assignment of the eigenstructure (i.e. eigenvalues and eigenvectors) in vibrating systems is an effective way to improve their dynamic performances. System controllability ensures that the poles of the controlled system are exactly assigned but it does not allow to assign arbitrary desired eigenvectors. To this purpose, this paper proposes a novel method for vibration control in lightly damped systems through the concurrent synthesis of passive structural modifications and active state (or state derivative) feedback control gains. Indeed, the suitable modification of the inertial and elastic parameters allows to enlarge the range of assignable eigenvectors. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem, where constraints are introduced to assure the feasibility of the physical system modifications while avoiding spillover phenomena. The experimental application to the eigenstructure assignment on a manipulator proves the method effectiveness.

  4. Mrk 421 active state in 2008: the MAGIC view, simultaneous multi-wavelength observations and SSC model constrained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jogler, T.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, A.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2012-06-01

    Context. The blazar Markarian 421 is one of the brightest TeV gamma-ray sources of the northern sky. From December 2007 until June 2008 it was intensively observed in the very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) band by the single-dish Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov telescope (MAGIC-I). Aims: We aimed to measure the physical parameters of the emitting region of the blazar jet during active states. Methods: We performed a dense monitoring of the source in VHE with MAGIC-I, and also collected complementary data in soft X-rays and optical-UV bands; then, we modeled the spectral energy distributions (SED) derived from simultaneous multi-wavelength data within the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) framework. Results: The source showed intense and prolonged γ-ray activity during the whole period, with integral fluxes (E > 200 GeV) seldom below the level of the Crab Nebula, and up to 3.6 times this value. Eight datasets of simultaneous optical-UV (KVA, Swift/UVOT), soft X-ray (Swift/XRT) and MAGIC-I VHE data were obtained during different outburst phases. The data constrain the physical parameters of the jet, once the spectral energy distributions obtained are interpreted within the framework of a single-zone SSC leptonic model. Conclusions: The main outcome of the study is that within the homogeneous model high Doppler factors (40 ≤ δ ≤ 80) are needed to reproduce the observed SED; but this model cannot explain the observed short time-scale variability, while it can be argued that inhomogeneous models could allow for less extreme Doppler factors, more intense magnetic fields and shorter electron cooling times compatible with hour or sub-hour scale variability.

  5. Crustal activities recorded in coral reefs in the northwestern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Wenhuan; YAO Yantao; ZHANG Zhiqiang; SUN Zongxun; ZHAN Meizhen; SUN Longtao; LIU Zaifeng

    2006-01-01

    Coral reefs in the northwest of South China Sea have recorded the information from not only the environmental variation but also the crustal activities there during their development. The main crustal activities correlated with the coral reef development include fault, seismic, and volcano activities,etc. The high-resolution spark seismic profiles in the northwestern South China Sea show that the fault activities in the coral reef region have been clearly recorded, and appear as neonatal faults incising reefs. Earthquakes in the coral reef region are rather intense, especially the two occurring on December,31, 1994, and January, 10, 1995, around the southwest of Leizhou Peninsula, with the magnitude of 6.1and 6.2, respectively. They have great influence on the growth of the local coral reefs. Quaternary volcanos are active in the northwestern South China Sea, especially around the southwest of Leizhou Peninsula, and they have obvious control of the coral reef development. Some submarine volcanoes form the substrates of coral reef, while a few emerge above the sea surface and form coral islands.

  6. Noninvasive imaging of internal muscle activities from multi-channel surface EMG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingchun

    2013-01-01

    Surface Electromyogram (sEMG) technology provides a non-invasive way for rapid monitoring muscle activities, but its poor spatial resolution and specificity limit its application in clinic. To overcome these limitations, a noninvasive muscle activity imaging (MAI) approach has been developed and used to reconstruct internal muscle activities from multi-channel sEMG recordings. A realistic geometric hand model is developed from high-resolution MR images and a distributed bioelectric dipole source model is employed to describe the internal muscle activity space of the muscles. The finite element method and weighted minimum norm method are utilized solve the forward and inverse problems respectively involved in the proposed MAI technique. A series of computer simulations was conducted to test the performance of the proposed MAI approach. Results show that reconstruction results achieved by the MAI technique indeed provide us more detailed and dynamic information of internal muscle activities, which enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the surface EMG recordings.

  7. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M Salman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male LPK and Lewis control animals (total n=16 were instrumented for telemetric recording of RSNA and MAP. At 12–13 weeks-of-age, resting RSNA and MAP, sympathetic and haemodynamic responses to both peripheral (hypoxia: 10% O2 and central chemoreflex (hypercapnia: 7% CO2 activation and acute stress (open-field exposure, were measured. As indicators of renal function, urinary protein (UPro and creatinine (Ucr levels were assessed. LPK rats had higher resting RSNA (1.2±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 µV, p<0.05 and MAP (151±8 vs. 97±2 mmHg, p<0.05 compared to Lewis. MAP was negatively correlated with Ucr (r=-0.80, p=0.002 and positively correlated with RSNA (r=0.66, p=0.014, with multiple linear regression modeling indicating the strongest correlation was with Ucr. RSNA and MAP responses to activation of the central chemoreflex and open-field stress were reduced in the LPK relative to the Lewis (all p<0.05. This is the first description of dual conscious telemetry recording of RSNA and MAP in a genetic rodent model of CKD. Elevated RSNA is likely a key contributor to the marked hypertension in this model, while attenuated RSNA and MAP responses to central chemoreflex activation and acute stress in the LPK indicate possible deficits in the neural processing of autonomic outflows evoked by these sympathoexcitatory pathways.

  8. Simultaneous activated carbon adsorption within a membrane bioreactor for an enhanced micropollutant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueqing; Hai, Faisal I; Nghiem, Long D

    2011-05-01

    Significant adsorption of sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine to powdered activated carbon (PAC) was confirmed by a series of adsorption tests. In contrast, adsorption of these micropollutants to the sludge was negligible. The removal of these compounds in membrane bioreactor (MBR) was dependent on their hydrophobicity and loading as well as the PAC dosage. Sulfamethoxazole exhibited better removal rate during operation under no or low (0.1g/L) PAC dosage. When the PAC concentration in MBR was raised to 1.0 g/L, a sustainable and significantly improved performance in the removal of both compounds was observed - the removal efficiencies of sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine increased to 82 ± 11% and 92 ± 15% from the levels of 64 ± 7%, and negligible removal, respectively. The higher removal efficiency of carbamazepine at high (1.0 g/L) PAC dosage could be attributed to the fact that carbamazepine is relatively more hydrophobic than sulfamethoxazole, which subsequently resulted in its higher adsorption affinity toward PAC.

  9. Mediator-assisted simultaneous probing of cytosolic and mitochondrial redox activity in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Arto; Spégel, Christer; Kostesha, Natalie; Lindahl, Sofia; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Emnéus, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    This work describes an electron transfer mediator-assisted amperometric flow injection method for assessing redox enzyme activity in different subcellular compartments of the phosphoglucose isomerase deletion mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, EBY44. The method is demonstrated using the ferricyanide-menadione double mediator system to study the effect of dicoumarol, an inhibitor of cytosolic and mitochondrial oxidoreductases and an uncoupler of the electron transport chain. Evaluation of the role of NAD(P)H-producing pathways in mediating biological effects is facilitated by introducing either fructose or glucose as the carbon source, yielding either NADH or NADPH through the glycolytic or pentose phosphate pathway, respectively. Respiratory noncompetent cells show greater inhibition of cytosolic menadione-reducing enzymes when NADH rather than NADPH is produced. Spectrophotometric in vitro assays show no difference between the cofactors. Respiratory competent cells show cytosolic inhibition only when NADPH is produced, whereas production of NADH reveals uncoupling at low dicoumarol concentrations and inhibition of complexes III and IV at higher concentrations. Spectrophotometric assays only indicate the presence of cytosolic inhibition regardless of the reduced cofactor used. This article shows the applicability of the amperometric method and emphasizes the significance of determining biological effects of chemicals in living cells.

  10. Simultaneous reconstruction of attenuation and activity for non–TOF PET/MR using MR prior information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heußer, Thorsten; Rank, Christopher M [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Beyer, Thomas [Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Kachelrieß, Marc [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    Accurate quantification of the activity distribution in positron emission tomography (PET) mandates attenuation correction (AC). Unlike in PET/CT, AC in PET/MR is, however, challenging, since information about the attenuation properties of the patient tissue distribution is not available directly. Standard MR-based AC (MRAC) does not account for the presence of bone and, thus, yields an underestimation of the activity distribution. We propose an algorithm to simultaneously reconstruct the activity and attenuation distribution using MR images as anatomical prior information for non time-of-flight PET/MR. The proposed algorithm is an extension of the existing maximum-likelihood reconstruction of attenuation and activity (MLAA). The MR images are used to obtain an initial attenuation map and to derive voxel-dependent expectations on the attenuation coefficients. These expectations are modeled using pre-defined attenuation values and Gaussian-like probability functions. An iterative reconstruction scheme incorporating the prior information on the attenuation coefficients is used to update attenuation and activity distribution in an alternating manner. The algorithm, called MR-MLAA, is evaluated for simulated 2D PET data for two patients with artificial lesions in the head region. The proposed algorithm helps recover bone attenuation information. However, for both patients, some misclassifications of air (considered as bone) and bone (considered as air or soft tissue) were observed. Nevertheless, PET quantification in lesions located close to bone tissue is greatly improved when using MR-MLAA. Errors in activity estimation are reduced to ranges of -9% to +1% whereas MRAC yields errors of -22% to -10%. In conclusion, MR-MLAA has the potential to improve quantification in hybrid PET/MR, especially in regions adjacent to dense bone tissue.

  11. Simultaneous activation/sulfurization method for production of sulfurized activated carbons: characterization and Hg(II) adsorption capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsijazeyi, Hadi; Kaghazchi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    As an inexpensive method for modification of activated carbons (ACs), sulfurization has attracted significant attention. However, the resulting sulfurized activated carbons (SACs) often are less porous than the original ACs. In this work, we propose a new method for concurrent sulfurization/activation that can lead to preparation of SACs with more porosity than the corresponding non-sulfurized ACs. By using scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and iodine number experiments, the porous structure of the SACs has been compared with that of non-sulfurized ACs. The specific surface areas of SACs are higher than the corresponding ACs, regardless of the type of activation agents used. For instance, the specific surface area of SAC and AC activated with phosphoric acid is 1,637 and 1,338 m(2)/g, respectively. Additionally, sulfur contents and surface charges (pHpzc) of the SACs and non-sulfurized ACs are compared. In fact, the SACs have higher sulfur contents and more acidic surfaces. Furthermore, the Hg(II) adsorption capacity of SACs has been compared with the corresponding non-sulfurized ACs. The Hg(II) adsorption isotherms on a selected SAC is measured at different pH values and temperatures. Hg(II) adsorptions as high as 293 mg/g are observed by using SACs prepared by the method proposed in this study.

  12. Continuous recording of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity using fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Erland J.F.; Nystrøm, Birthe T.

    2001-01-01

    acyl-Coenzyme A, synthetase, activity assay, fluorescence recording, fatty acid probe, serum albumin, hydroxycoumarin, detergent, micelles, Pseudomonas fragi, rat liver microsomes......acyl-Coenzyme A, synthetase, activity assay, fluorescence recording, fatty acid probe, serum albumin, hydroxycoumarin, detergent, micelles, Pseudomonas fragi, rat liver microsomes...

  13. A combined long-term recording system for single-unit activity and neurotransmitter efflux of a brain slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Y. H.; Young, M. S.

    1998-04-01

    A combined long-term measurement and recording system for neurotransmission research of brain slices is presented in this study. This system, based on the IBM PC or compatible computer, is capable of simultaneously measuring and recording both single-unit neural electropotential signals and the electrochemical signals of neurotransmitter efflux from the same neuron in a brain slice for long periods of time (time limited largely by hard disk capacity, 100 h or more not being unreasonable with contemporary hardware) using a single carbon microelectrode for both measurements. The combined long-term recording system uses a simple switching circuit to switch periodically the single microelectrode between two data acquisition subsystems, one for electrochemical data and one for electrophysiological data. The simple switching circuit separates the electrophysiological signals and electrochemical signals, overcoming the traditional interference problem caused by the two different measuring techniques. Software designed for the proposed system allows easy reconstruction of the full time course of the compressed measured data and easy, simultaneous display of both types of signals on the same time scale. On-line and recorded displays are available. Test results of a practical implementation of the proposed system verify that the combined long-term recording system meets actual requirements for electrophysiological and neurochemical research.

  14. Simultaneous wastewater treatment and biogas production using integrated anaerobic baffled reactor granular activated carbon from baker's yeast wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Mohamadi, Samira; Rahmatabadi, Sama; Hossini, Hooshyar; Motteran, Fabrício

    2017-08-30

    In this study, simultaneous degradation of organic matter and color removal from food processing industries wastewater using an integrated anaerobic baffled reactor granular activated carbon (IABRGAC) was investigated. Theretofore, effective parameters such as hydraulic retention time (HRT) and granular activated carbon (GAC) filling ratio were studied. The bioreactor was operated at 3, 4 and 5 d of HRT and GAC filling ratio of 20%, 35% and 50%. To analyze and optimize the independent operating variables, response surface methodology was applied. Operating condition was optimized for HRT (4 d) and GAC filling ratio (50%). Better COD (94.6%) and BOD (93.7%) removal efficiency occurred with loading COD of 15,000 mg/L, with diminished wastewater color around 54% and turbidity to 54 NTU. In addition, methane production, methane yielding rate (Ym) and specific methanogenic activity (SMA) test in an integrated system were investigated. The system IABRGAC was able to generate a volumetric rate about 0.31 and 0.44 L/g CODremoved d at the experimental condition. The Ym was between 0.31 and 0.44 L/g CODremoved.d and SMA was between 0.13 and 0.38 g COD/g volatile suspended solid. Based on results it can be concluded that the IABRGAC to be a successful pretreatment for highstrength wastewater before discharging the final effluent to sewerage and aerobic treating processes.

  15. Simultaneous analysis and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of galloylated flavonoid glycosides and ellagic acid in Euphorbia supina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung; Rhim, Tae-Jin; Choi, Moo-Young; Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Min-Sun; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2014-07-01

    The herbs of Euphorbia supina (Euphorbiaceae) have been used to treat hemorrhage, chronic bronchitis, hepatitis, jaundice, diarrhea, gastritis, and hemorrhoids as a medicinal herb. This work is aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the polyphenols with peroxynitrite-scavenging activities. The eight compounds: gallic acid, methyl gallate, avicularin, astragalin, juglanin, isoquercitrin 6″-gallate, astragalin 6″-gallate, and ellagic acid, were isolated from E. supina and used for HPLC analysis and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-scavenging assay. Simultaneous analysis of the eight compounds was performed on MeOH extract and its fractions. The contents in MeOH extract and peroxynitrite-scavenging activities of the dimer of gallic acid, ellagic acid (15.64 mg/g; IC50 0.89 μM), and two galloylated flavonoid glycosides, astragalin 6″-gallate (13.72 mg/g; IC50 1.43 μM) and isoquercitrin 6″-gallate (16.99 mg/g; IC50 1.75 μM), were high, compared to other compounds. The legendary uses of E. supina could be attributed to the high content of polyphenols, particularly ellagic acid, isoquercitrin 6″-gallate, and astragalin 6″-gallate as active principles.

  16. Simultaneous Quantification of Ten Active Components in Traditional Chinese Formula Sijunzi Decoction Using a UPLC-PDA Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kang; Jin-Rui, Guo; Zhen, Zhang; Xiao-Long, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Sijunzi decoction (SJZT), a traditional Chinese formula (TCMF) consisting of four herbs, has been widely used for the treatment of various gastrointestinal symptoms. However, its modernization process is hindered by the lack of a powerful quality control method that covers the major active components in the formula. The aim of this study was to establish a UPLC method for the quantitative determination of ten active components in Sijunzi decoction including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide II, atractylenolide III, and pachymic acid. Separation was achieved using an ACQUITY UPLC BEHC18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7  μ m) with a gradient elution program consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid solution. The detection wavelengths were set at 203, 254, 222, and 267 nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneous quantification of ten active compounds from several finished batches of SJZT. This validated that UPLC method is expected to provide a new basis for the quality control of SJZT.

  17. Simultaneous spatiotemporal mapping of in situ pH and bacterial activity within an intact 3D microcolony structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Sun, Victor; Aviles-Reyes, Alejandro; Kajfasz, Jessica K.; Lemos, Jose A.; Koo, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are comprised of bacterial-clusters (microcolonies) enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Streptococcus mutans can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS)-matrix and assemble microcolonies with acidic microenvironments that can cause tooth-decay despite the surrounding neutral-pH found in oral cavity. How the matrix influences the pH and bacterial activity locally remains unclear. Here, we simultaneously analyzed in situ pH and gene expression within intact biofilms and measured the impact of damage to the surrounding EPS-matrix. The spatiotemporal changes of these properties were characterized at a single-microcolony level following incubation in neutral-pH buffer. The middle and bottom-regions as well as inner-section within the microcolony 3D structure were resistant to neutralization (vs. upper and peripheral-region), forming an acidic core. Concomitantly, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter to monitor expression of the pH-responsive atpB (PatpB::gfp) by S. mutans within microcolonies. The atpB expression was induced in the acidic core, but sharply decreased at peripheral/upper microcolony regions, congruent with local pH microenvironment. Enzymatic digestion of the surrounding matrix resulted in nearly complete neutralization of microcolony interior and down-regulation of atpB. Altogether, our data reveal that biofilm matrix facilitates formation of an acidic core within microcolonies which in turn activates S. mutans acid-stress response, mediating both the local environment and bacterial activity in situ. PMID:27604325

  18. Simultaneous spatiotemporal mapping of in situ pH and bacterial activity within an intact 3D microcolony structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Sun, Victor; Aviles-Reyes, Alejandro; Kajfasz, Jessica K.; Lemos, Jose A.; Koo, Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Biofilms are comprised of bacterial-clusters (microcolonies) enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Streptococcus mutans can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS)-matrix and assemble microcolonies with acidic microenvironments that can cause tooth-decay despite the surrounding neutral-pH found in oral cavity. How the matrix influences the pH and bacterial activity locally remains unclear. Here, we simultaneously analyzed in situ pH and gene expression within intact biofilms and measured the impact of damage to the surrounding EPS-matrix. The spatiotemporal changes of these properties were characterized at a single-microcolony level following incubation in neutral-pH buffer. The middle and bottom-regions as well as inner-section within the microcolony 3D structure were resistant to neutralization (vs. upper and peripheral-region), forming an acidic core. Concomitantly, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter to monitor expression of the pH-responsive atpB (PatpB::gfp) by S. mutans within microcolonies. The atpB expression was induced in the acidic core, but sharply decreased at peripheral/upper microcolony regions, congruent with local pH microenvironment. Enzymatic digestion of the surrounding matrix resulted in nearly complete neutralization of microcolony interior and down-regulation of atpB. Altogether, our data reveal that biofilm matrix facilitates formation of an acidic core within microcolonies which in turn activates S. mutans acid-stress response, mediating both the local environment and bacterial activity in situ.

  19. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of 12 methoxyflavones with melanogenesis inhibitory activity from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Matsumoto, Taku; Chaipech, Saowanee; Miyake, Sohachiro; Katsuyama, Yushi; Tsuboyama, Akihiro; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Hayakawa, Takao; Muraoka, Osamu; Morikawa, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    A methanol extract from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker (Zingiberaceae) has shown inhibitory effects against melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated murine B16 melanoma 4A5 cells (IC50 = 9.6 μg/mL). Among 25 flavonoids and three acetophenones isolated previously (1-28), several constituents including 5-hydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (6, IC50 = 8.8 μM), 5,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (7, 8.6 μM), 5,3'-dihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (12, 2.9 μM), and 5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (13, 3.5 μM) showed inhibitory effects without notable cytotoxicity at the effective concentrations. Compounds 6, 7, 12, and 13 inhibited the expression of tyrosinase, tyrosine-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2 mRNA, which could be the mechanism of their melanogenesis inhibitory activity. In addition, a quantitative analytical method for 12 methoxyflavones (1, 2, 4-11, 13, and 14) in the extract was developed using HPLC. The optimal condition for separation and detection of these constituents were achieved on an ODS column (3 μm particle size, 2.1 mm i.d. × 100 mm) with MeOH-0.1 % aqueous acetic acid solvent systems as the mobile phase, and the detection and quantitation limits of the method were estimated to be 0.08-0.66 ng and 0.22-2.00ng, respectively. The relative standard deviation values of intra- and interday precision were lower than 0.95 and 1.08 %, respectively, overall mean recoveries of all flavonoids were 97.9-102.9 %, and the correlation coefficients of all the calibration curves showed good linearity within the test ranges. For validation of the protocol, extracts of three kinds of the plant's rhizomes collected from different regions in Thailand (Leoi, Phetchabun, and Chiang Mai provinces) were evaluated. The results indicated that the assay was reproducible, precise, and could be readily utilized for the quality evaluation of the plant materials.

  20. Middle Miocene near trench volcanism in northern Colombia: A record of slab tearing due to the simultaneous subduction of the Caribbean Plate under South and Central America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M.; Cardona, A.; Monsalve, G.; Yarce, J.; Montes, C.; Valencia, V.; Weber, M.; De La Parra, F.; Espitia, D.; López-Martínez, M.

    2013-08-01

    Field, geochemical, geochronological, biostratigraphical and sedimentary provenance results of basaltic and associated sediments northern Colombia reveal the existence of Middle Miocene (13-14 Ma) mafic volcanism within a continental margin setting usually considered as amagmatic. This basaltic volcanism is characterized by relatively high Al2O3 and Na2O values (>15%), a High-K calc-alkaline affinity, large ion lithophile enrichment and associated Nb, Ta and Ti negative anomalies which resemble High Al basalts formed by low degree of asthenospheric melting at shallow depths mixed with some additional slab input. The presence of pre-Cretaceous detrital zircons, tourmaline and rutile as well as biostratigraphic results suggest that the host sedimentary rocks were deposited in a platform setting within the South American margin. New results of P-wave residuals from northern Colombia reinforce the view of a Caribbean slab subducting under the South American margin. The absence of a mantle wedge, the upper plate setting, and proximity of this magmatism to the trench, together with geodynamic constraints suggest that the subducted Caribbean oceanic plate was fractured and a slab tear was formed within the oceanic plate. Oceanic plate fracturing is related to the splitting of the subducting Caribbean Plate due to simultaneous subduction under the Panama-Choco block and northwestern South America, and the fast overthrusting of the later onto the Caribbean oceanic plate.

  1. Simultaneous parasympathetic and sympathetic activation reveals altered autonomic control of heart rate, vascular tension and epinephrine release in anaesthetized hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torill eBerg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic hyperactivity and parasympathetic insufficiency characterize blood pressure control in genetic hypertension, but is difficult to demonstrate experimentally in anesthetized rats. Here we present a pharmacological approach to activate sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves simultaneously, and identify their contribution. Anaesthetized normotensive (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR were injected i.v. with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, a voltage-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor. Blood pressure was recorded through a femoral artery catheter, cardiac output and heart rate (HR through an ascending aorta flow probe. Total peripheral vascular resistance (TPVR was calculated. 4-AP induced an immediate, atropine- and hexamethonium-sensitive bradycardia in WKY, and in strains, a subsequent, sustained tachycardia, and norepinephrine but not epinephrine release. The tachycardia was eliminated by reserpine, nadolol or right vagal nerve stimulation, but not adrenalectomy, scopolamine or hexamethonium. 4-AP-induced, atropine-sensitive bradycardia was observed in reserpinized or nadolol-treated SHR, where atropine also increased the late HR-response. 4-AP increased TPVR, transiently in WKY but sustained in SHR. Yohimbine but not phentolamine prevented TPVR down-regulation in WKY. Reserpine, phentolamine and prazosin eliminated the late vasoconstriction in SHR. Plasma epinephrine overflow increased in nadolol-treated SHR. Conclusions: 4-AP activated parasympathetic ganglion transmission and peripheral, sympathetic nerve norepinephrine release. The sympathetic component dominated the HR-response to 4-AP in SHR. α2-adrenceptor-dependent vasodilatation opposed norepinephrine-induced α1-adrenergic vasoconstriction in WKY, but not in SHR. A βAR-activated, probably vagal afferent mechanism, hampered adrenal epinephrine secretion in SHR. Thus, 4-AP exposed mechanisms, which contribute to hypertension, and may allow identification of the factors

  2. The roar of Yasur: Handheld audio recorder monitoring of Vanuatu volcanic vent activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Howell, Robert; Radebaugh, Jani; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.

    2016-08-01

    We describe how near-field audio recording using a pocket digital sound recorder can usefully document volcanic activity, demonstrating the approach at Yasur, Vanuatu in May 2014. Prominent emissions peak at 263 Hz, interpreted as an organ-pipe mode. High-pass filtering was found to usefully discriminate volcano vent noise from wind noise, and autocorrelation of the high pass acoustic power reveals a prominent peak in exhalation intervals of 2.5, 4 and 8 s, with a number of larger explosive events at 200 s intervals. We suggest that this compact and inexpensive audio instrumentation can usefully supplement other field monitoring such as seismic or infrasound. A simple estimate of acoustic power interpreted with a dipole jet noise model yielded vent velocities too low to be compatible with pyroclast emission, suggesting difficulties with this approach at audio frequencies (perhaps due to acoustic absorption by volcanic gases).

  3. Automatic prediction of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity from the electronic medical records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to mine the data in the Electronic Medical Record to automatically discover patients' Rheumatoid Arthritis disease activity at discrete rheumatology clinic visits. We cast the problem as a document classification task where the feature space includes concepts from the clinical narrative and lab values as stored in the Electronic Medical Record. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Training Set consisted of 2792 clinical notes and associated lab values. Test Set 1 included 1749 clinical notes and associated lab values. Test Set 2 included 344 clinical notes for which there were no associated lab values. The Apache clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System was used to analyze the text and transform it into informative features to be combined with relevant lab values. RESULTS: Experiments over a range of machine learning algorithms and features were conducted. The best performing combination was linear kernel Support Vector Machines with Unified Medical Language System Concept Unique Identifier features with feature selection and lab values. The Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC is 0.831 (σ = 0.0317, statistically significant as compared to two baselines (AUC = 0.758, σ = 0.0291. Algorithms demonstrated superior performance on cases clinically defined as extreme categories of disease activity (Remission and High compared to those defined as intermediate categories (Moderate and Low and included laboratory data on inflammatory markers. CONCLUSION: Automatic Rheumatoid Arthritis disease activity discovery from Electronic Medical Record data is a learnable task approximating human performance. As a result, this approach might have several research applications, such as the identification of patients for genome-wide pharmacogenetic studies that require large sample sizes with precise definitions of disease activity and response to therapies.

  4. Camera trap records of animal activity prior to a M=7 earthquake in Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, R.; Raulin, J.; Freund, F.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake (EQ) preparation is associated with geophysical changes occurring over many scales. Some pre-earthquake (pre-EQ) processes affect the ionosphere, others leave their mark on biota. We report (i) on ionospheric anomalies recorded prior to the M=7 Contamana EQ [1] in North-Eastern Peru, 134 km deep, associated with the subduction of the Nazca plate underneath the Northern Andes, (ii) on changes in animal activity recorded in the Yanachaga National Park, about 320 km from the EQ epicentre, over a 30 day period leading up to the M=7 seismic event. Night-time Very Low Frequency (VLF) phase data were analyzed for the period 01 June to 31 Oct. 2011 using propagation paths passing close to the Yanachaga Park from the NAA emitter (USA) to receivers PIU in Piura and PLO in Lima (Peru). Ionospheric phase perturbations were observed starting 2 weeks before the EQ with periodicities from few tens of secs to few minutes. Animal activity data were obtained by evaluating the images of a cluster of 10 motion-triggered cameras of the Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network www.teamnetwork.org. We analyzed 1359 photographic records for the pre-EQ period and 1491 photographic records for a control period with low seismicity. Animal activity started to noticeably decline 3 weeks before the EQ. Different animal species were found to react differently. The number of rodents declined to zero about one week before the EQ and so did the number of tapirs. Armadillos, a burrowing animal, were recorded in larger numbers. Though the armadillos were presumably also flushed out of their holes, they apparently did not hide like the rodents. We discuss the results in the context of recent advances in solid state physics, which provide plausible mechanisms for pre-EQ ionospheric anomalies and for changes in animal behavior. [1] Tavera, H. (2012), Report on the 24 Aug. 2011 M 7.0 Contamana, Peru, Intermediate Depth Earthquake Seismological Research Letters, 83, 1007-1013, doi: 10.1785/0220120005

  5. Extraction and characterization of essential discharge patterns from multisite recordings of spiking ongoing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Storchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural activation patterns proceed often by schemes or motifs distributed across the involved cortical networks. As neurons are correlated, the estimate of all possible dependencies quickly goes out of control. The complex nesting of different oscillation frequencies and their high non-stationariety further hamper any quantitative evaluation of spiking network activities. The problem is exacerbated by the intrinsic variability of neural patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our technique introduces two important novelties and enables to insulate essential patterns on larger sets of spiking neurons and brain activity regimes. First, the sampling procedure over N units is based on a fixed spike number k in order to detect N-dimensional arrays (k-sequences, whose sum over all dimension is k. Then k-sequences variability is greatly reduced by a hierarchical separative clustering, that assigns large amounts of distinct k-sequences to few classes. Iterative separations are stopped when the dimension of each cluster comes to be smaller than a certain threshold. As threshold tuning critically impacts on the number of classes extracted, we developed an effective cost criterion to select the shortest possible description of our dataset. Finally we described three indexes (C,S,R to evaluate the average pattern complexity, the structure of essential classes and their stability in time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We validated this algorithm with four kinds of surrogated activity, ranging from random to very regular patterned. Then we characterized a selection of ongoing activity recordings. By the S index we identified unstable, moderatly and strongly stable patterns while by the C and the R indices we evidenced their non-random structure. Our algorithm seems able to extract interesting and non-trivial spatial dynamics from multisource neuronal recordings of ongoing and potentially stimulated activity. Combined with time-frequency analysis of

  6. Enabling the Discovery and Virtual Screening of Potent and Safe Antimicrobial Peptides. Simultaneous Prediction of Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleandrova, Valeria V; Ruso, Juan M; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Dias Soeiro Cordeiro, M Natália

    2016-08-08

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent promising alternatives to fight against bacterial pathogens. However, cellular toxicity remains one of the main concerns in the early development of peptide-based drugs. This work introduces the first multitasking (mtk) computational model focused on performing simultaneous predictions of antibacterial activities, and cytotoxicities of peptides. The model was created from a data set containing 3592 cases, and it displayed accuracy higher than 96% for classifying/predicting peptides in both training and prediction (test) sets. The technique known as alanine scanning was computationally applied to illustrate the calculation of the quantitative contributions of the amino acids (in their respective positions of the sequence) to the biological effects of a defined peptide. A small library formed by 10 peptides was generated, where peptides were designed by considering the interpretations of the different descriptors in the mtk-computational model. All the peptides were predicted to exhibit high antibacterial activities against multiple bacterial strains, and low cytotoxicity against various cell types. The present mtk-computational model can be considered a very useful tool to support high throughput research for the discovery of potent and safe AMPs.

  7. Novel assay for simultaneous measurement of pyridine mononucleotides synthesizing activities allows dissection of the NAD(+) biosynthetic machinery in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamporlini, Federica; Ruggieri, Silverio; Mazzola, Francesca; Amici, Adolfo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Raffaelli, Nadia

    2014-11-01

    The redox coenzyme NAD(+) is also a rate-limiting co-substrate for several enzymes that consume the molecule, thus rendering its continuous re-synthesis indispensable. NAD(+) biosynthesis has emerged as a therapeutic target due to the relevance of NAD(+) -consuming reactions in complex intracellular signaling networks whose alteration leads to many neurologic and metabolic disorders. Distinct metabolic routes, starting from various precursors, are known to support NAD(+) biosynthesis with tissue/cell-specific efficiencies, probably reflecting differential expression of the corresponding rate-limiting enzymes, i.e. nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase, nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase and nicotinamide riboside kinase. Understanding the contribution of these enzymes to NAD(+) levels depending on the tissue/cell type and metabolic status is necessary for the rational design of therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating NAD(+) availability. Here we report a simple, fast and sensitive coupled fluorometric assay that enables simultaneous determination of the four activities in whole-cell extracts and biological fluids. Its application to extracts from various mouse tissues, human cell lines and plasma yielded for the first time an overall picture of the tissue/cell-specific distribution of the activities of the various enzymes. The screening enabled us to gather novel findings, including (a) the presence of quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase and nicotinamide riboside kinase in all examined tissues/cell lines, indicating that quinolinate and nicotinamide riboside are relevant NAD(+) precursors, and (b) the unexpected occurrence of nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase in human plasma.

  8. Simultaneous gene editing by injection of mRNAs encoding transcription activator-like effector nucleases into mouse zygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunliang; Qi, Rong; Singleterry, Rebecca; Hyle, Judith; Balch, Amanda; Li, Xiuling; Sublett, Jack; Berns, Hartmut; Valentine, Marcus; Valentine, Virginia; Sherr, Charles J

    2014-05-01

    Injection of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) mRNAs into mouse zygotes transferred into foster mothers efficiently generated founder mice with heritable mutations in targeted genes. Immunofluorescence visualization of phosphorylated histone 2A (γH2AX) combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that TALEN pairs targeting the Agouti locus induced site-directed DNA breaks in zygotes within 6 h of injection, an activity that continued at reduced efficiency in two-cell embryos. TALEN-Agouti mRNAs injected into zygotes of brown FvB × C57BL/6 hybrid mice generated completely black pups, confirming that mutations were induced prior to, and/or early after, cell division. Founder mice, many of which were mosaic, transmitted altered Agouti alleles to F1 pups to yield an allelic series of mutant strains. Although mutations were targeted to "spacer" sequences flanked by TALEN binding sites, larger deletions that extended beyond the TALEN-binding sequences were also detected and were similarly inherited through the germ line. Zygotic coinjection of TALEN mRNAs directed to the Agouti, miR-205, and the Arf tumor suppressor loci yielded pups containing frequent and heritable mutations of two or three genes. Simultaneous gene editing in zygotes affords an efficient approach for producing mice with compound mutant phenotypes, bypassing constraints of conventional mouse knockout technology in embryonic stem cells.

  9. Simultaneous determination of 76As, 122Sb and 153Sm in Chinese medicinal herbs by epithermal neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yi

    2009-01-01

    Optimal conditions for the simultaneous determination of As, Sb and Sm in Chinese medicinal herbs using epithermal neutron activation analysis were investigated. The minimum detectable concentrations of 76As, 122Sb and 153Sm in lichen and medicinal herbs depended on the weight of the irradiated sample, and irradiation and decay durations. Optimal conditions were obtained by wrapping the irradiated target with 3.2 mm borated polyethylene neutron filters, which were adopted to screen the original reactor fission neutrons and to reduce the background activities of 38Cl, 24Na and 42K. Twelve medicinal herbs, commonly consumed by Taiwanese children as a diuretic treatment, were analysed since trace elements, such as As and Sb, in these herbs may be toxic when consumed in sufficiently large quantities over a long period. Various amounts of medicinal herbs, standardised powder, lichen and tomato leaves were weighed, packed into polyethylene bags, irradiated and counted under different conditions. The results indicated that about 350 mg of lichen irradiated for 24 h and counted for 20 min following a 30-60 h decay period was optimal for irradiation in a 10(11)n/cm s epithermal neutron flux. The implications of the content of the studied elements in Chinese medicinal herbs are discussed.

  10. Human and climate impacts on Holocene fire activity recorded in polar and mountain ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrwald, Natalie; Zennaro, Piero; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Li, Quanlian; Wang, Ninglian; Power, Mitchell; Zangrando, Roberta; Gabrielli, Paolo; Thompson, Lonnie; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Fire is one of the major influences of biogeochemical change on local to hemispheric scales through emitting greenhouse gases, altering atmospheric chemistry, and changing primary productivity. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) is a specific molecular that can only be produced by cellulose burning at temperatures > 300°C, comprises a major component of smoke plumes, and can be transported across > 1000 km distances. Levoglucosan is deposited on and archived in glaciers over glacial interglacial cycles resulting in pyrochemical evidence for exploring interactions between fire, climate and human activity. Ice core records provide records of past biomass burning from regions of the world with limited paleofire data including polar and low-latitude, high-altitude regions. Here, we present Holocene fire activity records from the NEEM, Greenland (77° 27'N; 51° 3'W; 2454 masl), EPICA Dome C, Antarctica (75° 06'S; 123° 21'E; 3233 masl), Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (3° 05'S, 21.2° E, 5893 masl) and the Muztagh, China (87.17° E; 36.35° N; 5780 masl ice cores. The NEEM ice core reflects boreal fire activity from both North American and Eurasian sources. Temperature is the dominant control of NEEM levoglucosan flux over decadal to millennial time scales, while droughts influence fire activity over sub-decadal timescales. Our results demonstrate the prominence of Siberian fire sources during intense multiannual droughts. Unlike the NEEM core, which incorporates the largest land masses in the world as potential fire sources, EPICA Dome C is located far from any possible fire source. However, EPICA Dome C levoglucosan concentrations are consistently above detection limits and demonstrate a substantial 1000-fold increase in fire activity beginning approximately 800 years ago. This significant and sustained increase coincides with Maori arrival and dispersal in New Zealand augmented by later European arrival in Australia. The EPICA Dome C levoglucosan profile is

  11. Simultaneous Multiwavelength Observations of Magnetic Activity in Ultracool Dwarfs. IV. The Active, Young Binary NLTT 33370 AB (=2MASS J13142039+1320011)

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, P K G; Irwin, J; Berta-Thompson, Z K; Charbonneau, D

    2014-01-01

    We present multi-epoch simultaneous radio, optical, H{\\alpha}, UV, and X-ray observations of the active, young, low-mass binary NLTT 33370 AB (blended spectral type M7e). This system is remarkable for its extreme levels of magnetic activity: it is the most radio-luminous ultracool dwarf (UCD) known, and here we show that it is also one of the most X-ray luminous UCDs known. We detect the system in all bands and find a complex phenomenology of both flaring and periodic variability. Analysis of the optical light curve reveals the simultaneous presence of two periodicities, 3.7859 $\\pm$ 0.0001 and 3.7130 $\\pm$ 0.0002 hr. While these differ by only ~2%, studies of differential rotation in the UCD regime suggest that it cannot be responsible for the two signals. The system's radio emission consists of at least three components: rapid 100% polarized flares, bright emission modulating periodically in phase with the optical emission, and an additional periodic component that appears only in the 2013 observational cam...

  12. Quantitative analysis and simultaneous activity measurements of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase in red blood cells by HPLC-ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo Ordoñez, Y; Montes-Bayón, M; Blanco-González, E; Sanz-Medel, A

    2010-03-15

    The interest on accurate and precise determination of metalloproteins such as Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD) involved in the redox balance of living cells is increasing. For this purpose, analytical strategies that provide absolute protein concentration measurements have to be developed. The determination of Cu, Zn-SOD through the measurement of the Cu associated to the protein, which provides its enzymatic activity, by liquid chromatography with online inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) detection is described here. Postcolumn isotope dilution analysis (IDA) of Cu has been applied for quantification after evaluation of the column recovery for the total Cu and also Cu-SOD that turned out to be quantitative. When the concentration results obtained via IDA using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICPMS are plotted versus the activity measurements (using the spectrophotometric pyrogallol autoxidation method) a good correlation curve is obtained. Such results permit us, from ICPMS measurements, to obtain simultaneously the Cu, Zn-SOD absolute concentration as well as its enzymatic activity by interpolation in the previously obtained curve. This possibility was explored in real samples (red blood cells of control individuals and patients with metallic total hip arthroplasty) obtaining a good match between direct enzymatic activity measurements and those obtained by interpolation in the correlation curve. The actual protein identification in the red blood cell extract was conducted by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and two matrixes were compared in order to preserve as much as possible the protein-metal interactions during the MALDI process. Interestingly, using a solution containing trihydroxyacetophenone in citrate buffer permitted us to observe some metal-protein interactions in the MS spectrum of the intact Cu, Zn-SOD from red blood cells.

  13. Decreased adrenergic tone in acromegaly: evidence from direct recording of muscle sympathetic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seravalle, G; Carzaniga, C; Attanasio, R; Grassi, G; Lonati, L; Facchini, C; Cozzi, R; Fatti, L M; Montini, M; Vitale, G; Sciortino, G; Damanti, S; Brambilla, G; Cavagnini, F; Mancia, G; Scacchi, M

    2012-08-01

    Sympathovagal imbalance has been shown in acromegaly by indirect measurements of adrenergic tone. Data regarding direct measurement of sympathetic activity are lacking as yet. Aim of this study was to assess the adrenergic tone through direct recording of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in acromegalic patients. Fifteen patients (age 26-66 years, eight women) with newly diagnosed active acromegaly without hyperprolactinaemia, pituitary hormone deficiencies, obstructive sleep apnoea and cardiac hypertrophy, and 15 healthy subjects matched for age, sex and body mass index were recruited. After evaluating anthropometric and echocardiographic parameters, anterior pituitary function, glucose and lipid metabolism, and measuring plasma leptin, direct recording of sympathetic outflow via the microneurographic technique was performed. For similar anthropometric and metabolic parameters in patients and controls, HOMA index was significantly increased in the former (4·2 ± 2·39 vs 1·6 ± 0·19, P < 0·001). Surprisingly, this finding of insulin resistance was accompanied by a marked sympathetic inhibition (MSNA 18·3 ± 8·10 vs 37·3 ± 6·48 bursts/min, P < 0·0001, respectively in patients and controls). A reduction in plasma leptin (1·6 ± 1·04 vs 6·5 ± 2·01 μg/l, P < 0·0001) was also recorded in the patients. MSNA was positively correlated with leptin (P < 0·0001). Newly diagnosed acromegalic patients without cardiac hypertrophy display a decreased sympathetic outflow in spite of insulin resistance. This finding might be related to hypoleptinaemia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. An in vitro method for recording single unit afferent activity from mesenteric nerves innervating isolated segments of rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, K A; Cervero, F

    1986-04-01

    A technique has been developed for recording single unit afferent activity from mesenteric nerves in isolated segments of rat distal ileum in vitro. The preparation consists of a 3-cm segment of ileum, containing a single neurovascular bundle, held horizontally in an organ bath. One end of the segment is attached to a tension transducer to record changes in longitudinal tension of the gut muscle and the other is connected to a pressure transducer to record changes in intra-luminal pressure. Electromyographic activity of the smooth muscle is recorded using glass-insulated tungsten microelectrodes inserted in the wall of the gut. Afferent nerve activity is recorded with a monopolar platinum wire electrode from filaments of the mesenteric nerves that run between the artery and vein supplying the segment. This preparation permits the detailed analysis of the electrical activity of intestinal afferent nerve fibres correlated with mechanical and chemical events occurring naturally in the gut or imposed experimentally on it.

  15. The AVHRR component of a long-term global active fire data record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszar, I. A.; Giglio, L.; Schroeder, W.; Justice, C. O.

    2010-12-01

    The increased thermal signal in the 3.7 µm channel, together with radiometric measurements in the longwave and shortwave channels, enable the detection of thermal anomalies from AVHRR for a wide range of environmental and observing conditions. The AVHRR has been used worldwide for operational fire monitoring and for research purposes since at least the early 1990s. The long data record of AVHRR makes it an essential part of a long-term, multisensor record of fire activity. Fire Disturbance is an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). Within the Fire Disturbance ECV, active fire occurrence is one of the supplementary variables. General requirements for long-term satellite-based data records for ECVs are articulated in the GCOS Climate Monitoring Principles for satellite measurements, which specify requirements both for observing systems and for product generation and distribution. In this paper we provide an overview of the history of fire monitoring from AVHRR, and the potential and limitations for establishing a long-term data record in the context of the GCOS Climate Monitoring Principles. Major sensor-related challenges include the relatively low saturation level of the 3.7 µm channel, the orbital drift of the early NOAA satellites and pixel geolocation inaccuracies. Additionally, fire detection requires full resolution observations and therefore the globally and systematically available Global Area Coverage (GAC) data are inadequate for global active fire monitoring. The need for the compilation and reprocessing of full resolution measurements from on-board Local Area Coverage (LAC) data and direct-readout High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) receiving stations is articulated by the Fire Mapping and Monitoring Implementation Team of the Global Observation of Forest and Landcover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) program, in collaboration with the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites. As fire detection

  16. Performance of an activated carbon made from waste palm shell in simultaneous adsorption of SO_x and NO_x of flue gas at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.; SUMATHI; S.; BHATIA; K.T.; LEE; A.; R.; MOHAMED

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the individual and simultaneous adsorption of SOx (SO2) and NOx (NO-NO2) on activated carbon prepared from waste palm shell. The adsorption process was examined in a fixed bed reactor at low temperatures (100―300℃). For individual adsorption without any catalytic activation, SOx showed good adsorption whereas NOx was very much poor. In the simultaneous adsorption of SOx and NOx, SOx showed greater adsorption affinity than NOx. For palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) impregnated with metal catalyst (Ni and Ce) the concentration adsorbed profile showed that the amount of SOx adsorbed decreased regularly, while the amount of the adsorbed NOx increased irregularly. The properties of the pure and impregnated PSAC were analyzed by BET, SEM and EDX. These investiga-tions indicated that PSAC impregnated with metal catalyst is the determining factor in the adsorption of SOx and NOx simultaneously.

  17. Performance of an activated carbon made from waste palm shell in simultaneous adsorption of SOx and NOx of flue gas at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.SUMATHI; S.BHATIA; K.T.LEE; A.R.MOHAMED

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the individual and simultaneous adsorption of SOx (SO2) and NOx (NO-NO2) on activated carbon prepared from waste palm shell. The adsorption process was examined in a fixed bed reactor at low temperatures (100-300℃). For individual adsorption without any catalytic activation, SOx showed good adsorption whereas NOx was very much poor. In the simultaneous adsorption of SOx and NOx, SOx showed greater adsorption affinity than NOx. For palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) im-pregnated with metal catalyst (Ni and Ce) the concentration adsorbed profile showed that the amount of SOx adsorbed decreased regularly, while the amount of the adsorbed NOx increased irregularly. The properties of the pure and impregnated PSAC were analyzed by BET, SEM and EDX. These investiga-tions indicated that PSAC impregnated with metal catalyst is the determining factor in the adsorption of SOxand NOx simultaneously.

  18. Visual activation and audiovisual interactions in the auditory cortex during speech perception: intracranial recordings in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besle, Julien; Fischer, Catherine; Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie; Lecaignard, Francoise; Bertrand, Olivier; Giard, Marie-Hélène

    2008-12-24

    Hemodynamic studies have shown that the auditory cortex can be activated by visual lip movements and is a site of interactions between auditory and visual speech processing. However, they provide no information about the chronology and mechanisms of these cross-modal processes. We recorded intracranial event-related potentials to auditory, visual, and bimodal speech syllables from depth electrodes implanted in the temporal lobe of 10 epileptic patients (altogether 932 contacts). We found that lip movements activate secondary auditory areas, very shortly (approximately equal to 10 ms) after the activation of the visual motion area MT/V5. After this putatively feedforward visual activation of the auditory cortex, audiovisual interactions took place in the secondary auditory cortex, from 30 ms after sound onset and before any activity in the polymodal areas. Audiovisual interactions in the auditory cortex, as estimated in a linear model, consisted both of a total suppression of the visual response to lipreading and a decrease of the auditory responses to the speech sound in the bimodal condition compared with unimodal conditions. These findings demonstrate that audiovisual speech integration does not respect the classical hierarchy from sensory-specific to associative cortical areas, but rather engages multiple cross-modal mechanisms at the first stages of nonprimary auditory cortex activation.

  19. Holocene glacier activity on Kerguelen Island: preliminary results from a novel proglacial lake sediment record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støren, Eivind; Bakke, Jostein; Arnaud, Fabien; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Malet, Emmanuel; Sabatier, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Polar-regions are changing rapidly as greenhouse warming is continuing with huge impact on e.g. sea ice extent and snow cover. This change triggers teleconnections to low latitude areas challenging societies and human activity. We have, however, very little quantitative information of past climate in the Polar-regions that can be used to evaluate the potential responses and the response patterns to forcing changes and changes in boundary conditions. Whatever anthropogenic changes may occur in the future, they will be superimposed on, and interact with, natural climate variations due to all the forcing we are aware of. This means we need to better document past climate/environmental variability of the Polar-regions. Especially in the Southern Ocean there are few time series recording past climate due to few suitable land areas and the few Sub-Antarctic Islands is remote and has cumbersome logistics. Continuous terrestrial records from this region are therefore urgently needed for constraining future scenarios from earth system models. Glaciers and ice caps are still ubiquitous in the Polar-regions, although they are rapidly shrinking due to the on-going warming. The continuous sedimentary records produced by glaciers, which are stored in downstream lakes, represent supreme archives of past variability wherefrom quantitative information of key climate system components can be extracted. Kerguelen Island is located within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Southern Westerly wind belt and contains several glaciers and smaller ice caps. Terrestrial archives recording past history of the glaciers at Kerguelen thus have a unique potential to record past changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns from southern mid-latitudes. Here we present preliminary results from the first distal glacier-fed lake that is sampled from Kerguelen Island. A 2.8 m long sediment core was obtained from Lac Guynemer (121masl.) located at the Peninsule Loranchet at the

  20. Advances in recording scattered light changes in crustacean nerve with electrical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, K. M. (Kathleen M.); Rector, D. M. (David M.); Martinez, A. T. (Anne T.); Guerra, F. M. (Francisco M.); George, J. S. (John S.)

    2002-01-01

    We investigated optical changes associated with crustacean nerve stimulation using birefringent and large angle scattered light. Improved detection schemes disclosed high temporal structure of the optical signals and allowed further investigations of biophysical mechanisms responsible for such changes. Most studies of physiological activity in neuronal tissue use techniques that measure the electrical behavior or ionic permeability of the nerve, such as voltage or ion sensitive dyes injected into cells, or invasive electric recording apparatus. While these techniques provide high resolution, they are detrimental to tissue and do not easily lend themselves to clinical applications in humans. Electrical and chemical components of neural excitation evoke physical responses observed through changes in scattered and absorbed light. This method is suited for in-vivo applications. Intrinsic optical changes have shown themselves to be multifaceted in nature and point to several different physiological processes that occur with different time courses during neural excitation. Fast changes occur concomitantly with electrical events, and slow changes parallel metabolic events including changes in blood flow and oxygenation. Previous experiments with isolated crustacean nerves have been used to study the biophysical mechanisms of fast optical changes. However, they have been confounded by multiple superimposed action potentials which make it difficult to discriminate the temporal signatures of individual optical responses. Often many averages were needed to adequately resolve the signal. More recently, optical signals have been observed in single trials. Initially large angle scattering measurements were used to record these events with much of the signal coming from cellular swelling associated with water influx during activation. By exploiting the birefringent properties derived from the molecular stiucture of nerve membranes, signals appear larger with a greater contrast

  1. Simultaneous quantification and validation of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids in Hemistepta lyrata and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung; Lim, Sang-Cheol; Byeon, Jeong Su; Choi, Jae Sue; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2013-03-25

    Traditionally, Hemistepta lyrata is consumed as a mountainous vegetable or a medicinal herb to treat inflammation, fever, hemorrhage, and hemorrhoids. In order to provide the scientific evidence of traditional uses of this plant, we identified and quantified thirteen active substances (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid as caffeoylquinic acids; apigenin, isorhoifolin, acacetin, linarin, diosmetin, diosmin, pectolinarigenin, and pectolinarin as flavones or their glycosides; kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and rutin as flavonol glycosides) from H. lyrata and evaluated their peroxynitrite-scavenging activity. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Capcell Pak C18 column (5μm, 250mm×4.6mm i.d.) with a gradient elution of 0.05% TFA (trifluoroacetic acid) and 0.05% TFA in MeOH-CH(3)CN (60:40). Validation of HPLC methods on the linearity, LOD, LOQ, intra-day and inter-day variabilities, recovery, and repeatability proved that this method is selective, sensitive, precise, accurate, and reproducible. In peroxynitrite-scavenging assay, caffeic acid derivatives (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid) exhibited relatively lower IC(50) values than other substances tested. And HPLC simultaneous quantification showed that the 70% MeOH extract and the BuOH fraction contain a higher quantity of caffeic acid derivatives (17.82 and 30.09mg/g, consecutively). Therefore, caffeic acid derivatives could be the main contributors to the peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of H. lyrata than other phenolic substances.

  2. Simultaneous non-thermal saccharification of cassava pulp by multi-enzyme activity and ethanol fermentation by Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanachomsri, Ukrit; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Champreda, Verawat

    2009-05-01

    Cassava pulp, a solid by-product from starch processing, is a promising and underused biomass that can be converted to biofuels and other value-added bio-products. In this study, an alternative cassava pulp saccharification process, which utilizes the multi-activity enzyme from Aspergillus niger BCC17849 and obviates the need for a pre-gelatinization step, was developed. The crude multi-enzyme composed of non-starch polysaccharide hydrolyzing enzyme activities, including cellulase, pectinase and hemicellulase act cooperatively to release the trapped starch granules from the fibrous cell wall structure for subsequent saccharification by raw starch degrading activity. A high yield of fermentable sugars, equivalent to 716 mg glucose and 67 mg xylose/g of cassava pulp, was obtained after 48 h incubation at 40 degrees C and pH 5 using the multi-enzyme, which was greater than the yield obtained from the optimized combinations of the corresponding commercial enzymes. The multi-enzyme saccharification reaction can be performed simultaneously with the ethanol fermentation process using a thermotolerant yeast Candida tropicalis BCC7755. The combined process produced 14.3 g/l ethanol from 4% (w/v) cassava pulp after 30 h of fermentation. The productivity rate of 0.48 g/l/h is equivalent to 93.7% of the theoretical yield based on total starch and cellulose, or 85.4% based on total fermentable sugars. The non-thermal enzymatic saccharification process described is more energy efficient and yields more fermentable sugar than the conventional enzymatic process. Furthermore, the process is applicable for production of various bio-products of economic importance.

  3. Activity and social factors affect cohesion among individuals in female Japanese macaques: A simultaneous focal-follow study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Mari; Suzuki, Mariko; Sprague, David S

    2014-07-01

    Understanding cohesion among individuals within a group is necessary to reveal the social system of group-living primates. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are female-philopatric primates that reside in social groups. We investigated whether individual activity and social factors can affect spatio-temporal cohesion in wild female Japanese macaques. We conducted behavioral observation on a group, which contained 38 individuals and ranged over ca. 60 ha during the study period. Two observers carried out simultaneous focal-animal sampling of adult female pairs during full-day follows using global positioning system which enabled us to quantify interindividual distances (IIDs), group members within visual range (i.e., visual unit), and separation duration beyond visual range as indicators of cohesion among individuals. We found considerable variation in spatio-temporal group cohesion. The overall mean IID was 99.9 m (range = 0-618.2 m). The percentage of IIDs within visual range was 23.1%, within auditory range was 59.8%, and beyond auditory range was 17.1%. IIDs varied with activity; they were shorter during grooming and resting, and longer during foraging and traveling. Low-ranking females showed less cohesion than high-ranking ones. Kin females stayed nearly always within audible range. The macaques were weakly cohesive with small mean visual unit size (3.15 counting only adults, 5.99 counting all individuals). Both-sex units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were grooming/resting. Conversely, female units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were foraging. The overall mean visual separation duration was 25.7 min (range = 3-513 min). Separation duration was associated with dominance rank. These results suggest that Japanese macaques regulate cohesion among individuals depending on their activity and on social relationships; they were separated to adapt food distribution and aggregated to maintain social

  4. Simultaneous addition of zero-valent iron and activated carbon on enhanced mesophilic anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongyu; Qin, Yujie; Cao, Yan; Han, Bin; Ren, Junyi

    2017-08-11

    The performance of biogas generation and sludge degradation was studied under different zero-valent iron/activated carbon (ZVI/AC) ratios in detail in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sludge. A good enhancement of methane production was obtained at the 10:1 ZVI/AC ratio, and the cumulative methane production was 132.1 mL/g VS, 37.6% higher than the blank. The methane content at the 10:1 ZVI/AC ratio reached 68.8%, which was higher than the blank (55.2%) and the sludge-added AC alone (59.6%). For sludge degradation, the removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), proteins, and polysaccharides were all the highest at the 10:1 ZVI/AC ratio. The concentration of available phosphorus (AP) decreased after anaerobic digestion process. On the other hand, the concentrations of available nitrogen (AN) and available potassium (AK) increased after the anaerobic digestion process and showed a gradually decreasing trend with increasing ZVI/AC ratio. The concentrations of AN and AK were 2303.1-4200.3 and 274.7-388.3 mg/kg, showing a potential for land utilization.

  5. Ionospheric Disturbances Recorded by DEMETER Satellite over Active Volcanoes: From August 2004 to December 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Zlotnicki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes electromagnetic data and plasma characteristics in the ionosphere recorded by DEMETER microsatellite over erupting volcanoes during the life of the mission: from August 2004 to December 2010. The time window in which anomalous changes are searched brackets the onset of the eruptive activity from 60 days before to 15 days after the period during which most pre- and posteruptive phenomena are amplified. 73 volcanoes have entered into eruption. For 58 of them, 269 anomalies were found in relation to 89 eruptions. They are distributed in 5 types, similarly to the ones observed above impeding earthquakes. The two main types are electrostatic turbulence (type 1, 23.4% and electromagnetic emissions (type 2, 69.5%. The maximum number of types 1 and 2 anomalies is recorded between 30 and 15 days before the surface activity, corresponding to the period of accelerating phenomena. The amount of anomalies seems related to the powerfulness of the eruptions. The appearance seems dependant on the likelihood to release bursts of gases during the preparatory eruptive phase. For the huge centenary October 26, 2010, Merapi (Indonesia eruption, 9 ionospheric type 2 anomalies appeared before the eruption. They mainly emerge during the mechanical fatigue stage during which microfracturing occurs.

  6. Nitrogen removal from wastewater and external waste activated sludge reutilization/reduction by simultaneous sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox (SFDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Peng, Yongzhen; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Mengyue; Wang, Shuying

    2016-08-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous nitrogen removal and external waste activated sludge (WAS) reutilization/reduction by using the synergy of sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox processes in up-flow reactors (SFDA). Pre-treated domestic wastewater and synthetic wastewater (containing nitrite ∼20mg/L, ammonium ∼10mg/L in both) were fed to 1# and 2# SFDA, respectively. Long-term operation of 1# SFDA was investigated with achieving the peak ammonium removal rate of 0.021 and nitrite removal rate of 0.081kgN/(m(3)d) as nitrogen loading rate elevated from 0.075 to 0.106kgN/(m(3)d). Negative effect of dissolved oxygen on anammox or fermentation in the 2# SFDA was demonstrated negligible due to rapid depletion by microorganisms. Furthermore, a "net" sludge reduction of 38.8% was obtained due to sludge decay and organics consumption by denitrification. The SFDA process was expected to potentially be used for nitrogen removal and WAS reutilization/reduction in full-scale application.

  7. Fast-light Enhanced Brillouin Laser Based Active Fiber Optics Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Rotation and Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Minchuan; Fouda, Mohamed; Condon, Nicholas; Scheuer, Jacob; Shahriar, Selim M

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a conceptual design for an Active Fast Light Fiber Optic Sensor (AFLIFOS) that can perform simultaneously or separately as a gyroscope (differential mode effect) and a sensor for acceleration, strain, and other common mode effects. Two Brillouin lasers in opposite directions and separated in frequency by several free spectral ranges are used for this sensor. By coupling two auxiliary resonators to the primary fiber resonator, we produce superluminal effects for two laser modes. We develop a detailed theoretical model for optimizing the design of the AFLIFOS, and show that the enhancement factor of the sensitivity is $\\sim{187}$ and $\\sim{-187}$, respectively for the two Brillouin lasers under the optimized condition, when the effective change in perimeter of the primary fiber resonator is 0.1nm, corresponding to a rotation rate of 0.4 deg/sec for a ring resonator with radius 1m. It may be possible to get much higher enhancement by adjusting the parameters such as the perimeters and the coupl...

  8. Simultaneous determination of four active components in Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz. by HPLC–DAD using a single reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Wen Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and practical high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detector (HPLC–DAD was developed to evaluate the quality of Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz. through a simultaneous determination of four major active triterpenes using a single standard to determine the multi-components (SSDMCs. Alisol B 23-acetate was selected as the reference compound for calculating the relative response factors. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R2>0.9998 within test ranges. RSDs for intra- and inter-day of four analytes were less than 3.6% and 2.3%; the overall recovery was 92.1–110.2% (SSDMC. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify the four components in 20 samples from different localities in China. Moreover, significant variations were demonstrated in the content of these compounds. In addition, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and principal components analysis (PCA were performed to differentiate and classify the samples based on the contents of Alisol C 23-acetate, Alisol A, Alisol A 24-acetate and Alisol B 23-acetate. This simple, rapid, low-cost and reliable HPLC–DAD method using SSDMC is suitable for routine quantitative analysis and quality control of A. orientale (Sam. Juz.

  9. Historical record of nuclear activities from (129)I in corals from the northern hemisphere (Philippines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Angel T; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Siringan, Fernando P

    2016-11-01

    Iodine-129 is a long-lived fission product that is majorly released in human nuclear activities (HNA) such as nuclear bomb testing, nuclear fuel reprocessing, and nuclear accidents. It is a good environmental tracer and former measurements of (129)I in corals from the southern hemisphere show the increasing trend of (129)I concentrations in the marine environment caused by HNA. Here we show time series of (129)I/(127(stable))I isotopic ratios in two coral cores from the northern hemisphere (Philippines) and how these record (129)I released from HNA in even greater, unprecedented detail. Corals were taken from the Pacific Ocean (Baler) and South China Sea (Parola) sides of the Philippines. We observed nearly identical peaks ((129)I/(127)I ∼ 31.5 × 10(-12)) in both the Baler and Parola records, each attributed to the year 1962 - the year with the highest recorded amount of (129)I release from nuclear bomb testing. This 1962 (129)I bomb signal offers a new time marker that can be used to establish or confirm age models of corals, comparable to or possibly better than the well-known coral (14)C bomb peak. We also observed nuclear fuel reprocessing and Chernobyl accident (129)I signals in years 1977, 1980, and 1986, concurrently in Parola and with 9 to 11-year lags in Baler. This discrepancy in timing suggests that (129)I was transported to the South China Sea and Pacific Ocean sides of the Philippines directly from the atmosphere and through prevailing ocean currents, respectively. Lastly, we observed surprisingly high (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios (i.e., 22.8 to 38.9 × 10(-12)) in the Parola record after the year 1996, which is in contrast to the decreasing trend observed in the Baler record and in published (129)I releases of different HNA. These results possibly indicate the presence of unknown sources of (129)I in the South China Sea region.

  10. The effect of postural correction on muscle activation amplitudes recorded from the cervicobrachial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Linda

    2005-12-01

    In clinical practice, postural correction is a common treatment approach for individuals with neck and shoulder pain. As chronic static muscle use is thought to be associated with the onset of some neck and shoulder pain syndromes, it is important to understand the impact a postural correction program might have on muscle activation amplitudes in the neck and shoulder regions. Normalized surface electromyographic data were recorded from the levator scapulae, upper trapezius, supraspinatus, posterior deltoid, masseter, rhomboid major, cervical erector spinae, and sternocleidomastoid muscles of the dominant side of each of eighteen healthy subjects. Subjects performed five repetitions of each of four seated typing postures (habitual, corrected, head-forward and slouched) and four standing postures (habitual, corrected, and head-forward and slouched). Repeated-measures analysis of variance models (alpha=0.05) revealed that in sitting postural correction tended to decreased the level of muscle activation required in all muscles studied during seated computer work, however this finding was not statistically significant. Corrected posture in sitting did, however produce a statistically significant reduction in muscle activity compared to forward head posture. Corrected posture in standing required more muscle activity than habitual or forward head posture in the majority of cervicobrachial and jaw muscles, suggesting that a graduated approach to postural correction exercises might be required in order to train the muscles to appropriately withstand the requirements of the task. A surprising finding was that muscle activity levels and postural changes had the largest impact on the masseter muscle, which demonstrated activation levels in the order of 20% maximum voluntary electrical activation.

  11. Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui

    2014-09-01

    Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs.

  12. Classifier of intestinal contractile activity degree based on internal electroenterogram recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimera-Tomas, J; Ye-Lin, Y; Garcia-Casado, J; Prats-Boluda, G

    2010-01-01

    The study of the intestinal interdigestive motor migratory complex (IMMC) is relevant in gastroenterology because most of the gastrointestinal pathologies are reflected in anomalies of the IMMC. The aim of this work is to develop an automatic classifier to discriminate among the different intestinal contractile activity degrees (quiescence, irregular, and maximum contractile activity) that compound the IMMC from the internal recordings of electroenterogram. Spectral and statistical parameters estimated from the internal electroenterogram have been used as features to the classifiers based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and linear Support Vector Machines (SVM). The accuracy obtained by the SVM classifier is slightly higher than that of the LDA classifier. An accuracy of around 91% was obtained for the binary SVM classifier (quiescence vs maximum activity) and around 74% for the multiclass one. The use of additional features, and non-linear SVM classifiers could yield better classification accuracy values. Nevertheless, preliminary results suggest that SVM classifiers could be a very helpful tool for automatic classification of intestinal contractile activity degrees and for the identification of the IMMC which could be used for diagnosing anomalies in the intestinal motor function.

  13. Thermal surveillance of active volcanoes. [infrared scanner recordings of thermal anomalies of Mt. Baker volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. By the end of 1973, aerial infrared scanner traverses for thermal anomaly recordings of all Cascade Range volcanoes were essentially completed. Amplitude level slices of the Mount Baker anomalies were completed and compiled at a scale of 1:24,000, thus producing, for the first time, an accurate map of the distribution and intensity of thermal activity on Mount Baker. The major thermal activity is concentrated within the crater south of the main summit and although it is characterized by intensive solfataric activity and warm ground, it is largely subglacial, causing the development of sizable glacier perforation features. The outgoing radiative flux from the east breach anomalies is sufficient to account for the volume of ice melted to form the glacier perforations. DCP station 6251 has been monitoring a thermally anomalous area on the north slope of Mount Baker. The present thermal activity of Mount Baker accounts for continuing hydrothermal alteration in the crater south of the main summit and recurrent debris avalanches from Sherman Peak on its south rim. The infrared anomalies mapped as part of the experiment SR 251 are considered the basic evidence of the subglacial heating which was the probable triggering mechanism of an avalanche down Boulder Glacier on August 20-21, 1973.

  14. Simultaneously-evoked auditory potentials (SEAP): A new method for concurrent measurement of cortical and subcortical auditory-evoked activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slugocki, Christopher; Bosnyak, Daniel; Trainor, Laurel J

    2017-03-01

    Recent electrophysiological work has evinced a capacity for plasticity in subcortical auditory nuclei in human listeners. Similar plastic effects have been measured in cortically-generated auditory potentials but it is unclear how the two interact. Here we present Simultaneously-Evoked Auditory Potentials (SEAP), a method designed to concurrently elicit electrophysiological brain potentials from inferior colliculus, thalamus, and primary and secondary auditory cortices. Twenty-six normal-hearing adult subjects (mean 19.26 years, 9 male) were exposed to 2400 monaural (right-ear) presentations of a specially-designed stimulus which consisted of a pure-tone carrier (500 or 600 Hz) that had been amplitude-modulated at the sum of 37 and 81 Hz (depth 100%). Presentation followed an oddball paradigm wherein the pure-tone carrier was set to 500 Hz for 85% of presentations and pseudo-randomly changed to 600 Hz for the remaining 15% of presentations. Single-channel electroencephalographic data were recorded from each subject using a vertical montage referenced to the right earlobe. We show that SEAP elicits a 500 Hz frequency-following response (FFR; generated in inferior colliculus), 80 (subcortical) and 40 (primary auditory cortex) Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs), mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a (when there is an occasional change in carrier frequency; secondary auditory cortex) in addition to the obligatory N1-P2 complex (secondary auditory cortex). Analyses showed that subcortical and cortical processes are linked as (i) the latency of the FFR predicts the phase delay of the 40 Hz steady-state response, (ii) the phase delays of the 40 and 80 Hz steady-state responses are correlated, and (iii) the fidelity of the FFR predicts the latency of the N1 component. The SEAP method offers a new approach for measuring the dynamic encoding of acoustic features at multiple levels of the auditory pathway. As such, SEAP is a promising tool with which to study how

  15. Ion pairing with linoleic acid simultaneously enhances encapsulation efficiency and antibacterial activity of vancomycin in solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhapure, Rahul S; Mocktar, Chunderika; Sikwal, Dhiraj R; Sonawane, Sandeep J; Kathiravan, Muthu K; Skelton, Adam; Govender, Thirumala

    2014-05-01

    Ion pairing of a fatty acid with an antibiotic may be an effective strategy for formulation optimization of a nanoantibiotic system. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the potential of linoleic acid (LA) as an ion pairing agent to simultaneously enhance encapsulation efficiency and antibacterial activity of triethylamine neutralized vancomycin (VCM) in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). The prepared VCM-LA2 conjugate was characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, logP and binding energy calculations. The shifts in the FT-IR frequencies of COOH, NH2 and CO functionalities, an increase in logP value (1.37) and a lower interaction energy between LA and VCM (-125.54 kcal/mol) confirmed the formation of the conjugate. SLNs were prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method, and characterized for size, polydispersity index (PI), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (%EE), surface morphology and physical stability. In vitro antibacterial activity studies against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were conducted. Size, PI and ZP for VCM-LA2_SLNs were 102.7±1.01, 0.225±0.02 and -38.8±2.1 (mV) respectively. SLNs were also stable at 4 °C for 3 months. %EE for VCM-HCl_SLNs and VCM-LA2_SLNs were 16.81±3.64 and 70.73±5.96 respectively, indicating a significant improvement in encapsulation of the drug through ion pairing with LA. Transmission electron microscopy images showed spherical nanoparticles with sizes in the range of 95-100 nm. After 36 h, VCM-HCl showed no activity against MRSA. However, the minimum inhibitory concentration for VCM-HCl_SLNs and VCM-LA2_SLNs were 250 and 31.25 μg/ml respectively against S. aureus, while against MRSA it was 500 and 15.62 μg/ml respectively. This confirms the enhanced antibacterial activity of VCM-LA2_SLNs over VCM-HCl_SLNs. These findings therefore suggest that VCM-LA2_SLNs is a promising nanoantibiotic system for effective treatment against both

  16. New Evaluation of the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR: Obtrusiveness, Compliance, and Participant Self-selection Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Manson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR is a method for collecting periodic brief audio snippets of participants’ daily lives using a portable recording device. The EAR can potentially intrude into people’s privacy, alter their natural behavior, and introduce self-selection biases greater than in other types of social science methods. Previous research (Mehl and Holleran, 2007, hereafter M&H has shown that participant non-compliance with, and perceived obtrusiveness of, an EAR protocol are both low. However, these questions have not been addressed in jurisdictions that require the consent of all parties to recording conversations. This EAR study required participants to wear a button bearing a microphone icon and the words “This conversation may be recorded” to comply with California’s all-party consent law. Results revealed self-reported obtrusiveness and non-compliance were actually lower in the present study than in the M&H study. Behaviorally assessed non-compliance did not differ between the two studies. Participants in the present study talked more about being in the study than participants in the M&H study, but such talk still comprised <2% of sampled conversations. Another potential problem with the EAR, participant self-selection bias, was addressed by comparing the EAR volunteers’ HEXACO personality dimensions to a non-volunteer sample drawn from the same student population. EAR volunteers were significantly and moderately higher in Conscientiousness, and lower in Emotionality, than non-volunteers. In conclusion, the EAR method can be successfully implemented in at least one all-party consent state (California. Interested researchers are encouraged to review this procedure with their own legal counsel.

  17. Correlations between histology and neuronal activity recorded by microelectrodes implanted chronically in the cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Douglas; Cogan, Stuart; Kane, Sheryl; Pikov, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Objective. To quantify relations between the neuronal activity recorded with chronically-implanted intracortical microelectrodes and the histology of the surrounding tissue, using radial distance from the tip sites and time after array implantation as parameters. Approach. ‘Utah’-type intracortical microelectrode arrays were implanted into cats’ sensorimotor cortex for 275-364 days. The brain tissue around the implants was immuno-stained for the neuronal marker NeuN and for the astrocyte marker GFAP. Pearson’s product-moment correlations were used to quantify the relations between these markers and the amplitudes of the recorded neuronal action potentials (APs) and their signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). Main results. S/N was more stable over post-implant time than was AP amplitude, but its increased correlation with neuronal density after many months indicates ongoing loss of neurons around the microelectrodes. S/N was correlated with neuron density out to at least 140 μm from the microelectrodes, while AP amplitude was correlated with neuron density and GFAP density within ˜80 μm. Correlations between AP amplitude and histology markers (GFAP and NeuN density) were strongest immediately after implantation, while correlation between the neuron density and S/N was strongest near the time the animals were sacrificed. Unlike AP amplitude, there was no significant correlation between S/N and density of GFAP around the tip sites. Significance. Our findings indicate an evolving interaction between changes in the tissue surrounding the microelectrodes and the microelectrode’s electrical properties. Ongoing loss of neurons around recording microelectrodes, and the interactions between their delayed electrical deterioration and early tissue scarring around the tips appear to pose the greatest threats to the microelectrodes’ long-term functionality.

  18. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1855 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1855 Section 60.1855 Protection of Environment... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of five items:...

  20. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of...

  1. Simultaneity, relativity and conventionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, Allen I.

    2008-01-01

    The view of simultaneity presented by Max Jammer is almost breathtaking, encompassing, as the book's subtitle suggests, the period from antiquity to the 21st century. Many interesting things are to be found along the way. For example, what Jammer (p. 49) says "may well be regarded as probably the earliest recorded example of an operational definition of distant simultaneity" is due to St. Augustine (in his Confessions, written in 397 A.D.; for a modern translation, see Augustine, 2006). He was arguing against astrology by presenting the story of two women, one rich and one poor, who gave birth simultaneously. Although the two children thus had precisely the same horoscopes, their lives followed quite different courses. And how was it determined that the births were simultaneous? A messenger went from each birth site to the other, leaving the instant the child was born (and, presumably, traveling with equal speeds). Since the messengers met at the midpoint between the locations of the two births, the births must have been simultaneous. This is, of course, quite analogous to Albert Einstein's definition of simultaneity (given more than 1500 years later), which will be discussed in Section 2.1.

  2. Simultaneous POMC gene transfer to hypothalamus and brainstem increases physical activity, lipolysis and reduces adult-onset obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Rodrigues, Enda; Li, Gang; Gao, Yongxin; King, Michael; Carter, Christy S; Tumer, Nihal; Cheng, Kit-Yan; Scarpace, Philip J

    2011-04-01

    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are identified in two brain sites, the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in brainstem. Earlier pharmacological and POMC gene transfer studies demonstrate that melanocortin activation in either site alone improves insulin sensitivity and reduces obesity. The present study, for the first time, investigated the long-term efficacy of POMC gene transfer concurrently into both sites in the regulation of energy metabolism in aged F344xBN rats bearing adult-onset obesity. Pair feeding was included to reveal food-independent POMC impact on energy expenditure. We introduced adeno-associated virus encoding either POMC or green fluorescence protein to the two brain areas in 22-month-old rats, then recorded food intake and body weight, assessed oxygen consumption, serum leptin, insulin and glucose, tested voluntary wheel running, analysed POMC expression, and examined fat metabolism in brown and white adipose tissues. POMC mRNA was significantly increased in both the hypothalamus and NTS region at termination. Relative to pair feeding, POMC caused sustained weight reduction and additional fat loss, lowered fasting insulin and glucose, and augmented white fat hormone-sensitive lipase activity and brown fat uncoupling protein 1 level. By wheel running assessment, the POMC animals ran twice the distance as the Control or pair-fed rats. Thus, the dual-site POMC treatment ameliorated adult-onset obesity effectively, involving a moderate hypophagia lasting ∼60 days, enhanced lipolysis and thermogenesis, and increased physical activity in the form of voluntary wheel running. The latter finding provides a clue for countering age-related decline in physical activity. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  3. Estimating rates of denitrification enzyme activity in wetland soils and direct simultaneous quantification of nitrogen and nitrous oxide by membrane inlet mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) was measured in short-term (4 h) anaerobic assays using Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (MIMS) and electron capture gas chromatography (GC-ECD). Using MIMS, modifications of the instrument and sample handling allowed for the simultaneous me...

  4. Estimating rates of denitrification enzyme activity in wetland soils and direct simultaneous quantification of nitrogen and nitrous oxide by membrane inlet mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) was measured in short-term (4 h) anaerobic assays using Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (MIMS) and electron capture gas chromatography (GC-ECD). Using MIMS, modifications of the instrument and sample handling allowed for the simultaneous me...

  5. Simultaneous Activation of Nrf2 and Elevation of Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidant Chemicals for Cancer Prevention in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kedar N

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive studies in cancer prevention, the incidence of cancer is increasing. We review studies that have identified several biochemical and genetic defects as well as potential carcinogens in the diet, environmental factors, and lifestyle-related habits. Two of the biochemical abnormalities increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, and chronic exposure to carcinogens and mutagens play a significant role in the initiation of multistage carcinogenesis. Therefore, attenuation of these biochemical defects may be useful in reducing the incidence of cancer. Activation of the transcriptional factor called nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), which enhances the levels of antioxidant enzymes and phase-2-detoxifying enzymes by complex mechanisms, may be one of the ways to reduce oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Antioxidant enzymes destroy free radicals by catalysis, whereas phase-2-detoxifying enzymes remove potential carcinogens by converting them to harmless compounds for elimination from the body. However, increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes by activating Nrf2 may not be sufficient to decrease oxidative stress and chronic inflammation optimally, because antioxidant chemicals, which are decreased in a high oxidative environment, must also be elevated. This review discusses the regulation of activation of Nrf2 and proposes a hypothesis that an elevation of the levels of antioxidant enzymes and dietary and endogenous antioxidant chemicals simultaneously may reduce the incidence of cancer by decreasing oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. The levels of antioxidant chemicals can be increased by supplementation, but increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes requires activation of Nrf2 by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent and-independent mechanisms. Several phytochemicals and antioxidant chemicals that activate Nrf2 have been identified. This review also describes clinical studies on antioxidants in cancer

  6. High-Tc superconducting quantum interference device recordings of spontaneous brain activity: Towards high-Tc magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öisjöen, F.; Schneiderman, J. F.; Figueras, G. A.; Chukharkin, M. L.; Kalabukhov, A.; Hedström, A.; Elam, M.; Winkler, D.

    2012-03-01

    We have performed single- and two-channel high transition temperature (high-Tc) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of spontaneous brain activity in two healthy human subjects. We demonstrate modulation of two well-known brain rhythms: the occipital alpha rhythm and the mu rhythm found in the motor cortex. We further show that despite higher noise-levels compared to their low-Tc counterparts, high-Tc SQUIDs can be used to detect and record physiologically relevant brain rhythms with comparable signal-to-noise ratios. These results indicate the utility of high-Tc technology in MEG recordings of a broader range of brain activity.

  7. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, R A; Soriano, E P; Carvalho, M V D; Caldas-Junior, A F; Souza, E H A; Coelho-Junior, L G T M; Campello, R I C; Almeida, A C; Farias, R C A P; Vasconcellos, A

    2016-07-25

    The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855) (on two skeletons), and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  8. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Queiroz

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855 (on two skeletons, and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  9. (129)I record of nuclear activities in marine sediment core from Jiaozhou Bay in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yukun; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Guangshan

    2016-04-01

    Iodine-129 has been used as a powerful tool for environmental tracing of human nuclear activities. In this work, a sediment core collected from Jiaozhou Bay, the east coast of China, in 2002 was analyzed for (129)I to investigate the influence of human nuclear activities in this region. Significantly enhanced (129)I level was observed in upper 70 cm of the sediment core, with peak values in the layer corresponding to 1957, 1964, 1974, 1986, and after 1990. The sources of (129)I and corresponding transport processes in this region are discussed, including nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds, global fallout from a large numbers of nuclear weapon tests in 1963, the climax of Chinese nuclear weapons testing in the early 1970s, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and long-distance dispersion of European reprocessing derived (129)I. The very well (129)I records of different human nuclear activities in the sediment core illustrate the potential application of (129)I in constraining ages and sedimentation rates of the recent sediment. The releases of (129)I from the European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) were found to dominate the inventory of (129)I in the Chinese sediments after 1990, not only the directly atmospheric releases of these reprocessing plants, but also re-emission of marine discharged (129)I of these reprocessing plants in the highly contaminated European seas.

  10. Lake sediment records on climate change and human activities in the Xingyun Lake catchment, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxiang; Ming, Qingzhong; Shi, Zhengtao; Chen, Guangjie; Niu, Jie; Lei, Guoliang; Chang, Fengqin; Zhang, Hucai

    2014-01-01

    Sediments from Xinyun Lake in central Yunnan, southwest China, provide a record of environmental history since the Holocene. With the application of multi-proxy indicators (total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), δ13C and δ15N isotopes, C/N ratio, grain size, magnetic susceptibility (MS) and CaCO3 content), as well as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C datings, four major climatic stages during the Holocene have been identified in Xingyun's catchment. A marked increase in lacustrine palaeoproductivity occurred from 11.06 to 9.98 cal. ka BP, which likely resulted from an enhanced Asian southwest monsoon and warm-humid climate. Between 9.98 and 5.93 cal. ka BP, a gradually increased lake level might have reached the optimum water depth, causing a marked decline in coverage by aquatic plants and lake productivity of the lake. This was caused by strong Asian southwest monsoon, and coincided with the global Holocene Optimum. During the period of 5.60-1.35 cal. ka BP, it resulted in a warm and dry climate at this stage, which is comparable to the aridification of India during the mid- and late Holocene. The intensifying human activity and land-use in the lake catchment since the early Tang Dynasty (∼1.35 cal. ka BP) were associated with the ancient Dian culture within Xingyun's catchment. The extensive deforestation and development of agriculture in the lake catchment caused heavy soil loss. Our study clearly shows that long-term human activities and land-use change have strongly impacted the evolution of the lake environment and therefore modulated the sediment records of the regional climate in central Yunnan for more than one thousand years.

  11. Lake sediment records on climate change and human activities in the Xingyun Lake catchment, SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Sediments from Xinyun Lake in central Yunnan, southwest China, provide a record of environmental history since the Holocene. With the application of multi-proxy indicators (total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (TN, δ13C and δ15N isotopes, C/N ratio, grain size, magnetic susceptibility (MS and CaCO3 content, as well as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C datings, four major climatic stages during the Holocene have been identified in Xingyun's catchment. A marked increase in lacustrine palaeoproductivity occurred from 11.06 to 9.98 cal. ka BP, which likely resulted from an enhanced Asian southwest monsoon and warm-humid climate. Between 9.98 and 5.93 cal. ka BP, a gradually increased lake level might have reached the optimum water depth, causing a marked decline in coverage by aquatic plants and lake productivity of the lake. This was caused by strong Asian southwest monsoon, and coincided with the global Holocene Optimum. During the period of 5.60-1.35 cal. ka BP, it resulted in a warm and dry climate at this stage, which is comparable to the aridification of India during the mid- and late Holocene. The intensifying human activity and land-use in the lake catchment since the early Tang Dynasty (∼1.35 cal. ka BP were associated with the ancient Dian culture within Xingyun's catchment. The extensive deforestation and development of agriculture in the lake catchment caused heavy soil loss. Our study clearly shows that long-term human activities and land-use change have strongly impacted the evolution of the lake environment and therefore modulated the sediment records of the regional climate in central Yunnan for more than one thousand years.

  12. Simultaneous Removal of Hg(II and Phenol Using Functionalized Activated Carbon Derived from Areca Nut Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalhmunsiama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut waste was utilized to obtain high surface area activated carbon (AC, and it was further functionalized with succinic anhydride under microwave irradiation. The surface morphology and surface functional groups of the materials were discussed with the help of scanning electron microscope(SEM images and fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR analysis. The specific surface area of the AC and functionalized-AC was obtained by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method, and found to be 367.303 and 308.032 m2/g, respectively. Batch experiments showed that higher pH favoured the removal of Hg(II, whereas the phenol removal was slightly affected by the changes in the solution pH. The kinetic data followed pseudo-first order kinetic model, and intra-particle diffusion played a significant role in the removal of both pollutants. The maximum sorption capacity of Hg(II and phenol were evaluated using Langmuir adsorption isotherms, and found to be 11.23 and 5.37 mg/g, respectively. The removal of Hg(II was significantly suppressed in the presence of chloride ions due to the formation of a HgCl2 species. The phenol was specifically adsorbed, forming the donor–acceptor complexes or π–π electron interactions at the surface of the solid. Further, a fixed-bed column study was conducted for both Hg(II and phenol. The loading capacity of the column was estimated using the nonlinear Thomas equation, and found to be 2.49 and 2.70 mg/g, respectively. Therefore, the study showed that functionalized AC obtained from areca nut waste could be employed as a sustainable adsorbent for the simultaneous removal of Hg(II and phenol from polluted water.

  13. 77 FR 55221 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Report of Medical Examination and Vaccination Record...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Medical Examination and Vaccination Record, Form I-693; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION...: Report of Medical Examination and Vaccination Record. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the...

  14. Melatonin ineffective in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis patients with fragmented or normal motor activity rhythms recorded by wrist actigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hätönen, T; Kirveskari, E; Heiskala, H; Sainio, K; Laakso, M L; Santavuori, P

    1999-04-01

    Melatonin was tested as a sleeping pill in five patients with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. The single-blind, placebo-controlled study consisted of motor activity recordings, sleep logs, and administration of placebo or melatonin (2.5 or 5 mg). Daily motor activity rhythms were measured by wrist actigraphy during four 7-day periods (baseline, placebo, melatonin 2.5 mg, and melatonin 5 mg). The placebo or melatonin was administered in the evenings for 3 weeks, and the recordings were made during the last week of the 3-week treatment. Sleep logs were kept by the caregivers during the recordings. Based on period analyses, the activity recordings were evaluated to display a normal (24-h) or fragmented rhythm. Three patients had normal motor activity patterns during the baseline recordings, and administration of placebo or melatonin did not affect their rest/activity rhythms. Two patients had abnormally fragmented activity rhythms during the baseline periods, and administration of placebo or melatonin did not induce synchronization. According to the actigraphic data, there were no changes in activity rhythms resulting from administration of melatonin. However, based on the observations, three families reported that melatonin slightly improved the sleep quality of the patients. These controversial findings show the difficulties involved in specifying the role of melatonin in modulating sleep. Thus, we conclude that more evidence is required before the significance of melatonin as a sleeping pill is defined.

  15. Multiple unit activity recorded longitudinally in rats from pubescence to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmo, H P; Malmo, R B

    1982-01-01

    Longitudinal multiple unit activity (MUA) recordings of excellent quality over time periods as long as 26 months are described. The validity of the method was demonstrated by showing persistence of specific and idiosyncratic MUA responses to controlled sensory stimulation over these long time periods. This longitudinal MUA method was used to study level of localization neuronal activity as a function of aging. In agreement with deoxyglucose data from Sokoloff's laboratory, we found significant age-related declines in inferior and superior colliculi. In addition, our results showed the advantage of a longitudinal method over a cross-sectional one in following progressive changes into old age. The further declines in midbrain MUA level (though not in forebrain level) from middle age to old age that we observed were highly significant. The deoxyglucose method, on the other hand, had failed to show this kind of progression in those midbrain sites, probably because of a survival effect, a common sampling artifact in cross-sectional studies of aging.

  16. First record of Stegomyia albopicta in Turkey determined by active ovitrap surveillance and DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oter, Kerem; Gunay, Filiz; Tuzer, Erkut; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Bellini, Romeo; Alten, Bulent

    2013-10-01

    Despite its confirmed establishment in neighboring Greece and Bulgaria, the presence of the Oriental invasive species Stegomyia albopicta (Skuse) (=Aedes albopictus) has never been confirmed in Turkey. Active surveillance for this container-breeding species was carried out using oviposition traps at 15 discrete sites in the towns of Ipsala (n=8 sites), Kesan (n=5) (Edirne District), and Malkara (n=2) (Tekirdag District) in the Thrace region of northwestern Turkey, from May 23 through November 10, 2011. Eggs collected were reared to the fourth larval instar and adult stages where possible to facilitate integrated morphological and molecular species identification. DNA barcodes (658 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I [COI] gene) were compared with all four potentially invasive Stegomyia species: St. aegypti, St. albopicta, St. cretina, and St. japonica. Sequences generated for samples collected in Thrace Region were herein confirmed as St. albopicta, the first record of this vector species in Turkey. Eggs of St. albopicta were detected in two discrete localities: (1) In the grounds of a restaurant in Kesan (in week 36), and (2) in the customs area of the Turkish-Greek border at Ipsala (in weeks 32 and 38). Multiple detection of St. albopicta eggs indicates the possible establishment of the species in northwestern Turkey. Finding this important disease vector has implications for public health and requires the implementation of active vector monitoring programs and targeted vector suppression strategies to limit the spread of this invasive vector species in Turkey.

  17. Intermittent contact-scanning electrochemical microscopy (IC-SECM): a new approach for tip positioning and simultaneous imaging of interfacial topography and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Kim; Edwards, Martin A; Unwin, Patrick R

    2010-08-01

    A new scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) tip positioning method that allows surface topography and activity to be resolved simultaneously and independently is presented. The tip, controlled by a piezoelectric positioner operated in closed loop, is oscillated normal to the substrate surface. Changes in the oscillation amplitude, caused by the intermittent contact (IC) of the tip with the substrate surface, are used as a feedback signal to control the tip height. The method is illustrated with amperometric feedback approach curve measurements to inert (insulating) and active (conducting) substrates using 12.5 and 1 microm radii Pt disk electrodes. Imaging of gold bands on a glass substrate demonstrates the capabilities for simultaneous topography and activity mapping. The prospect for using IC methodology more widely with other types of tips is highlighted briefly.

  18. Development of the Self-Powered Extravehicular Mobility Unit Extravehicular Activity Data Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Craig; Hill, Terry R.; Murray, Sean; Wichowski, Robert; Rosenbush, David

    2012-01-01

    The Self-Powered Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Data Recorder (SPEEDR) is a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based device designed to collect high-rate EMU Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) data for download at a later time. During EVA, the existing EMU PLSS data downlink capability is one data packet every 2 minutes and is subject to bad packets or loss of signal. Higher-rate PLSS data is generated by the Enhanced Caution and Warning System but is not normally captured or distributed. Access to higher-rate data will increase the capability of EMU anomaly resolution team to pinpoint issues remotely, saving crew time by reducing required call-down Q&A and on-orbit diagnostic activities. With no Space Shuttle flights post Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11), and potentially limited down-mass capability, the ISS crew and ground support personnel will have to be capable of on-orbit operations to maintain, diagnose, repair, and return to service EMU hardware, possibly through 2028. Collecting high-rate EMU PLSS data during both intravehicular activity (IVA) and EVA operations will provide trending analysis for life extension and/or predictive performance. The SPEEDR concept has generated interest as a tool/technology that could be used for other International Space Station subsystems or future exploration-class space suits where hardware reliability/availability is critical and low/variable bandwidth may require store then forward methodology. Preliminary work in FY11 produced a functional prototype consisting of an FPGA evaluation board, custom memory/interface circuit board, and custom software. The SPEEDR concept includes a stand-alone battery that is recharged by a computer Universal Serial Bus (USB) port while data are being downloaded.

  19. Simultaneous human papilloma virus type 16 E7 and cdk inhibitor p21 expression induces apoptosis and cathepsin B activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaznelson, Dorte Wissing; Bruun, Silas; Monrad, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    and induction of cell death. We have used the osteosarcoma cell line U2OS cells provided with E7 and the cdk2 inhibitor p21 (cip1/waf1) under inducible control, as a model system for the analysis of E7-mediated apoptosis. Our data shows that simultaneous expression of E7 and p21 proteins induces cell death...

  20. Associations of adult physical activity with perceived safety and police-recorded crime: the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evenson Kelly R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the inconsistent findings of prior studies, we explored the association of perceived safety and police-recorded crime measures with physical activity. Methods The study included 818 Chicago participants of the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis 45 to 84 years of age. Questionnaire-assessed physical activity included a transport walking; b leisure walking; and c non-walking leisure activities. Perceived safety was assessed through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Police-recorded crime was assessed through 2-year counts of selected crimes (total and outdoor incivilities, criminal offenses, homicides per 1000 population. Associations were examined using generalized estimating equation logistic regression models. Results Perceiving a safer neighborhood was positively associated with transport walking and perceiving lower violence was associated with leisure walking. Those in the lowest tertile of total or outdoor incivilities were more likely to report transport walking. Models with both perceived safety and police-recorded measures of crime as independent variables had superior fit for both transport walking and leisure walking outcomes. Neither perceived safety nor police-recorded measures of crime were associated with non-walking leisure activity. Conclusions Perceived and police-recorded measures had independent associations with walking and both should be considered in assessing the impact of neighborhood crime on physical activity.

  1. A tutorial on activity-based costing of electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federowicz, Marie H; Grossman, Mila N; Hayes, Bryant J; Riggs, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    As the American Recovery and Restoration Act of 2009 allocates $19 billion to health information technology, it will be useful for health care managers to project the true cost of implementing an electronic health record (EHR). This study presents a step-by-step guide for using activity-based costing (ABC) to estimate the cost of an EHR. ABC is a cost accounting method with a "top-down" approach for estimating the cost of a project or service within an organization. The total cost to implement an EHR includes obvious costs, such as licensing fees, and hidden costs, such as impact on productivity. Unlike other methods, ABC includes all of the organization's expenditures and is less likely to miss hidden costs. Although ABC is used considerably in manufacturing and other industries, it is a relatively new phenomenon in health care. ABC is a comprehensive approach that the health care field can use to analyze the cost-effectiveness of implementing EHRs. In this article, ABC is applied to a health clinic that recently implemented an EHR, and the clinic is found to be more productive after EHR implementation. This methodology can help health care administrators assess the impact of a stimulus investment on organizational performance.

  2. Simultaneous quantitation of 14 active components in Yinchenhao decoction with an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector: Method development and ingredient analysis of different commonly prepared samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, YaXiong; Zhang, Yong; Ding, Yue; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Yuan; Xu, XiaoJun; Zhang, YuXin

    2016-11-01

    J. Sep. Sci. 2016, 39, 4147-4157 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201600284 Yinchenhao decoction (YCHD) is a famous Chinese herbal formula recorded in the Shang Han Lun which was prescribed by Zhongjing Zhang during 150-219 AD. A novel quantitative analysis method was developed, based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector for the simultaneous determination of 14 main active components in Yinchenhao decoction. Furthermore, the method has been applied for compositional difference analysis of the 14 components in eight normal extraction samples of Yinchenhao decoction, with the aid of hierarchical clustering analysis and similarity analysis. The present research could help hospital, factory and lab choose the best way to make Yinchenhao decoction with better efficacy.

  3. A 10,000 year record of dune activity, dust storms, and severe drought in the central Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiaodong; Mason, Joseph A.; Swinehart, James B.; Loope, David B.; Hanson, Paul R.; Goble, Ronald J.; Liu, Xiaodong

    2007-02-01

    Dune fields and loess deposits of the Great Plains of North America contain stratigraphic records of eolian activity that can be used to extend the short observational record of drought. We present a 10,000 yr reconstruction of dune activity and dust production in the central Great Plains region, based on 95 optically stimulated luminescence ages. The integration of data from both eolian sand and loess is an important new aspect of this record. Clusters of ages define episodes of extensive eolian activity, which we interpret as a response to frequent severe drought, at 1.0 0.7 ka and 2.3 4.5 ka (with peaks centered on 2.5 and 3.8 ka); sustained eolian activity occurred from 9.6 to 6.5 ka. Parts of this record may be consistent with hypotheses linking Holocene drought to sea surface temperature anomalies in the Pacific or Atlantic oceans, or to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon, but the record as a whole is difficult to reconcile with any of these hypotheses.

  4. An electronic system (PDA to record dietary and physical activity in obese adolescents: data about efficiency and feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Oliver

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, the prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing significantly. Dietary and physical activity registers are frequently referred to as the "cornerstone" of behavioral weight control programs. Mobile devices such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs are showing their usefulness to facilitate these self-registers. Objective: This study is aimed to analyze and compare the efficiency and feasibility of a PDA and Paper and Pencil (P&P registers to record dietary and physical activity in a sample of Spanish adolescents with overweight. Methods: Sample was composed by 30 overweight participants aged 9-15 years seeking for obesity treatment. This is a counterbalance study, all participants completing both experimental conditions: PDA and P&P registers. Results: For dietary records, participants filled out more records using P&P than PDA when "total" number of self-registers was considered, but when "complete" records were taken into account, these differences disappeared, and when percentages of "complete" records were analyzed, PDA produced more accurate registers than P&P. For physical activity, PDA produced more records than P&P. PDA was the preferred system. According to participants, the PDA s strengths are the comfort, easiness to use and to transport. Conclusions: Results showed that P&P produced more incomplete dietary records than PDA. PDA is a reliable system that allows the clinician to be confident in the data recorded. Recently, several applications for mobile devices have been developed, but there are few studies supporting evidence of their efficacy and feasibility in assessment and treatment of childhood obesity. This study tries to provide some evidence in this field.

  5. Smart applications to track and record physical activity: implications for obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong SS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Siew Sun Wong,1 Yu Meng,1 Paul D Loprinzi,2 Nobuko Hongu3 1School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; 2Department of Exercise Science, Donna and Allan Lansing School of Nursing and Health Sciences, Bellarmine University, Louisville, KY, USA; 3Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: The primary purpose of this review is to answer three research questions: 1 What are the most popular features of physical activity (PA tracking and recording mobile applications (apps; 2 what features drive the app cost, peak rank, or gross sales; and 3 to what extent are evidence-based weight loss recommendations used in PA apps? Two hundred top grossing iOS health care and fitness apps were screened using a systematic review method. Fifty-five apps met the criteria as PA tracking and recording apps. Nearly half of these iOS PA apps are also available in Android. Two separate reviewers evaluated each PA app using 48 features. The top three most popular features are the use of behavioral strategies, use of the FITT Principles (frequency, intensity, time, type, and the use of the Principles for Physical Fitness. Free apps contain a mean of nine of the ten most popular features in paid apps, making them good bargains in PA promotion. Better peak rank is associated with the use of Fitness Principles, weight loss goal setting, or training videos. Ten PA apps met at least four of eight of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM recommendations for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. The least popular features were PA safety and workouts for special need populations. Implications for obesity treatment are discussed in relationship to individual end-users, health care providers, and app developers. Because current PA apps still lack validity and compliance to standards for PA safety and data security, medical consultation for weight loss is

  6. Electures-Wiki--Toward Engaging Students to Actively Work with Lecture Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Christoph; Ottmann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the integration of a Wiki with lecture recordings using a tool called "aofconvert", enabling the students to visually reference lecture recordings in the Wiki at a precise moment in time of the lecture. This tight integration between a Wiki and lecture materials allows the students to elaborate on the topics…

  7. 75 FR 3275 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Part 249, Preservation of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... underlying financial and statistical reports to DOT, funds reports, consumer records, sales reports, auditors... retention of records such as: general and subsidiary ledgers, journals and journal vouchers, voucher... reports, the underlying support documentation must be retained for a reasonable period of time. Absent the...

  8. 78 FR 17221 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Interagency Record of Request A, G, or NATO Dependent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Record of Request A, G, or NATO Dependent Employment Authorization or Change/ Adjustment To/From A, G, or NATO Status, Form I-566; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection; Extension ACTION: 30-day notice.../Collection: Interagency Record of Request A, G, or NATO Dependent Employment Authorization or...

  9. 77 FR 74861 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Interagency Record of Request A, G, or NATO Dependent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Record of Request A, G, or NATO Dependent Employment Authorization or Change/ Adjustment To/From A, G, or NATO Status, Form I-566; Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day... Currently Approved Collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Interagency Record of Request A, G, or...

  10. Enhanced simultaneous PEC eradication of bacteria and antibiotics by facilely fabricated high-activity {001} facets TiO2 mounted onto TiO2 nanotubular photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Nie, Xin; Chen, Jiangyao; Wong, Po Keung; An, Taicheng; Yamashita, Hiromi; Zhao, Huijun

    2016-09-15

    Biohazards and coexisted antibiotics are two groups of emerging contaminants presented in various aquatic environments. They can pose serious threat to the ecosystem and human health. As a result, inactivation of biohazards, degradation of antibiotics, and simultaneous removal of them are highly desired. In this work, a novel photoanode with a hierarchical structured {001} facets exposed nano-size single crystals (NSC) TiO2 top layer and a perpendicularly aligned TiO2 nanotube array (NTA) bottom layer (NSC/NTA) was successfully fabricated. The morphology and facets of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles covered on the top of NTA layer could be controlled by adjusting precalcination temperature and heating rate as the pure NTA was clamped with glasses. Appropriate recalcination can timely remove surface F from {001} facets, and the photocatalytic activity of the resultant photoanode was subsequently activated. NSC/NTA photoanode fabricated under 500 °C precalcination with 20 °C min(-1) followed by 550 °C recalcination possessed highest photoelectrocatalytic efficiency to simultaneously remove bacteria and antibiotics. Results suggest that two-step calcination is necessary for fabrication of high photocatalytic activity NSC/NTA photoanode. The capability of simultaneous eradication of bacteria and antibiotics shows great potential for development of a versatile approach to effectively purify various wastewaters contaminated with complex pollutants.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Four Active Ingredients in Sargentodoxa cuneata by HPLC Coupled with Evaporative Light Scattering Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Di-Hua Li; Yuan-Shan Lv; Jun-Hong Liu; Lei Yang; Yan Wang; Shu-Kun Zhang; Yu-Zhen Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    A HPLC coupled with evaporative light scattering detection method had been developed for the simultaneous determination of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl alcohol glycoside, salidroside, chlorogenic acid, and liriodendrin in the stem of Sargentodoxa cuneata. With a C18 column, the analysis was performed using acetonitrile and 0.2% formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase in gradient program at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The optimum drift tube temperature of evaporative light scattering detection...

  12. The time course of auditory-visual processing of speech and body actions: evidence for the simultaneous activation of an extended neural network for semantic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Georg F; Harrison, Neil R; Wuerger, Sophie M

    2013-08-01

    An extensive network of cortical areas is involved in multisensory object and action recognition. This network draws on inferior frontal, posterior temporal, and parietal areas; activity is modulated by familiarity and the semantic congruency of auditory and visual component signals even if semantic incongruences are created by combining visual and auditory signals representing very different signal categories, such as speech and whole body actions. Here we present results from a high-density ERP study designed to examine the time-course and source location of responses to semantically congruent and incongruent audiovisual speech and body actions to explore whether the network involved in action recognition consists of a hierarchy of sequentially activated processing modules or a network of simultaneously active processing sites. We report two main results:1) There are no significant early differences in the processing of congruent and incongruent audiovisual action sequences. The earliest difference between congruent and incongruent audiovisual stimuli occurs between 240 and 280 ms after stimulus onset in the left temporal region. Between 340 and 420 ms, semantic congruence modulates responses in central and right frontal areas. Late differences (after 460 ms) occur bilaterally in frontal areas.2) Source localisation (dipole modelling and LORETA) reveals that an extended network encompassing inferior frontal, temporal, parasaggital, and superior parietal sites are simultaneously active between 180 and 420 ms to process auditory–visual action sequences. Early activation (before 120 ms) can be explained by activity in mainly sensory cortices. . The simultaneous activation of an extended network between 180 and 420 ms is consistent with models that posit parallel processing of complex action sequences in frontal, temporal and parietal areas rather than models that postulate hierarchical processing in a sequence of brain regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Activity dependence of action potential duration in rat supraoptic neurosecretory neurones recorded in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, C W; Renaud, L P

    1985-06-01

    Action potential durations, measured at one-third peak amplitude, were examined during intracellular recordings in 134 supraoptic nucleus neurones maintained in vitro in perfused hypothalamic explants. Spike durations ranged between 1.2 and 3.9 ms and were dependent on firing frequency. Shortest measurements (1.74 +/- 0.03 ms; mean +/- S.E. of mean) were obtained during relative quiescence, i.e. less than or equal to 0.5 Hz. A gradual increase in firing frequency through continuous injection of depolarizing current prolonged spike duration, with maximum levels (2.68 +/- 0.05 ms) achieved at 20 Hz. When interspike interval variability was eliminated and firing was more precisely regulated by brief 15-20 ms intracellular current pulses given at pre-determined frequencies, a proportional relationship between increasing spike duration and firing frequency was retained but the change in spike duration at frequencies between 2 and 10 Hz was less pronounced. Once action potentials had achieved the long duration configuration, their return to the shorter duration took place gradually during any succeeding silent interval with a time constant of 4.9 s. Action potential broadening occurred progressively and was most pronounced at the onset of spontaneous or current-induced bursts. In thirty-six phasically active neurones, spike broadening at the onset of a burst was concurrent with the presence of 5-10 consecutive short (less than or equal to 100 ms) interspike intervals; thereafter, despite a greater than 50% reduction in firing frequency, action potential durations remained prolonged throughout the burst. In all of nineteen cells tested, frequency-dependent changes in spike duration were reversibly decreased or blocked by Cd2+, Co2+ and Mn2+, or when CaCl2 was exchanged for equimolar amounts of EGTA in the perfusion medium. These observations indicate that a Ca2+ conductance contributes to frequency- and firing-pattern-dependent changes in spike duration in rat supraoptic

  14. Applying active learning to high-throughput phenotyping algorithms for electronic health records data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yukun; Carroll, Robert J; Hinz, Eugenia R McPeek; Shah, Anushi; Eyler, Anne E; Denny, Joshua C; Xu, Hua

    2013-12-01

    Generalizable, high-throughput phenotyping methods based on supervised machine learning (ML) algorithms could significantly accelerate the use of electronic health records data for clinical and translational research. However, they often require large numbers of annotated samples, which are costly and time-consuming to review. We investigated the use of active learning (AL) in ML-based phenotyping algorithms. We integrated an uncertainty sampling AL approach with support vector machines-based phenotyping algorithms and evaluated its performance using three annotated disease cohorts including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), colorectal cancer (CRC), and venous thromboembolism (VTE). We investigated performance using two types of feature sets: unrefined features, which contained at least all clinical concepts extracted from notes and billing codes; and a smaller set of refined features selected by domain experts. The performance of the AL was compared with a passive learning (PL) approach based on random sampling. Our evaluation showed that AL outperformed PL on three phenotyping tasks. When unrefined features were used in the RA and CRC tasks, AL reduced the number of annotated samples required to achieve an area under the curve (AUC) score of 0.95 by 68% and 23%, respectively. AL also achieved a reduction of 68% for VTE with an optimal AUC of 0.70 using refined features. As expected, refined features improved the performance of phenotyping classifiers and required fewer annotated samples. This study demonstrated that AL can be useful in ML-based phenotyping methods. Moreover, AL and feature engineering based on domain knowledge could be combined to develop efficient and generalizable phenotyping methods.

  15. Gemvid, an open source, modular, automated activity recording system for rats using digital video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leprince Pierre

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measurement of locomotor activity is a valuable tool for analysing factors influencing behaviour and for investigating brain function. Several methods have been described in the literature for measuring the amount of animal movement but most are flawed or expensive. Here, we describe an open source, modular, low-cost, user-friendly, highly sensitive, non-invasive system that records all the movements of a rat in its cage. Methods Our activity monitoring system quantifies overall free movements of rodents without any markers, using a commercially available CCTV and a newly designed motion detection software developed on a GNU/Linux-operating computer. The operating principle is that the amount of overall movement of an object can be expressed by the difference in total area occupied by the object in two consecutive picture frames. The application is based on software modules that allow the system to be used in a high-throughput workflow. Documentation, example files, source code and binary files can be freely downloaded from the project website at http://bioinformatics.org/gemvid/. Results In a series of experiments with objects of pre-defined oscillation frequencies and movements, we documented the sensitivity, reproducibility and stability of our system. We also compared data obtained with our system and data obtained with an Actiwatch device. Finally, to validate the system, results obtained from the automated observation of 6 rats during 7 days in a regular light cycle are presented and are accompanied by a stability test. The validity of this system is further demonstrated through the observation of 2 rats in constant dark conditions that displayed the expected free running of their circadian rhythm. Conclusion The present study describes a system that relies on video frame differences to automatically quantify overall free movements of a rodent without any markers. It allows the monitoring of rats in their own

  16. 77 FR 59249 - Agency Information Collection (Access to Financial Records) Activities Under OMB Review

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    2012-09-26

    ... or email denise.mclamb@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0739.'' SUPPLEMENTARY... the Secretary. Denise McLamb, Program Analyst, Enterprise Records Service. BILLING CODE 8320-01-P...

  17. Use of a Web-based physical activity record system to analyze behavior in a large population: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Hideyuki; Yamada, Yosuke; Ishida, Mika; Takase, Hideto; Kimura, Misaka

    2015-03-19

    standing while working was the highest contributor to MVPA, regardless of sex. We were able to compile a detailed comparison of physical activity because our Web-based physical activity record system allowed for the simultaneous evaluation of physical activity from 2046 Japanese people. We found that rural residents had greater total physical activity than urban residents and that working and transportation behaviors differed depending on region type. Multiple regression analysis showed that the behaviors affected MVPA. People are less physically active while working, and sports and active transportation might be effective ways of increasing physical activity levels.

  18. Comparison of two dedicated 'in beam' PET systems via simultaneous imaging of (12)C-induced beta(+)-activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, F; Belcari, N; Del Guerra, A; Enghardt, W; Moehrs, S; Parodi, K; Rosso, V; Vecchio, S

    2009-01-21

    The selective energy deposition of hadrontherapy has led to a growing interest in quality assurance techniques such as 'in-beam' PET. Due to the current lack of commercial solutions, dedicated detectors need to be developed. In this paper, we compare the performances of two different 'in-beam' PET systems which were simultaneously operated during and after low energy carbon ion irradiation of PMMA phantoms at GSI Darmstadt. The results highlight advantages and drawbacks of a novel in-beam PET prototype against a long-term clinically operated tomograph for ion therapy monitoring.

  19. NOTE: Comparison of two dedicated 'in beam' PET systems via simultaneous imaging of 12C-induced β+-activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, F.; Belcari, N.; DelGuerra, A.; Enghardt, W.; Moehrs, S.; Parodi, K.; Rosso, V.; Vecchio, S.

    2009-01-01

    The selective energy deposition of hadrontherapy has led to a growing interest in quality assurance techniques such as 'in-beam' PET. Due to the current lack of commercial solutions, dedicated detectors need to be developed. In this paper, we compare the performances of two different 'in-beam' PET systems which were simultaneously operated during and after low energy carbon ion irradiation of PMMA phantoms at GSI Darmstadt. The results highlight advantages and drawbacks of a novel in-beam PET prototype against a long-term clinically operated tomograph for ion therapy monitoring.

  20. 75 FR 76997 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and...

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    2010-12-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and Electronic System for Travel Authorization AGENCY: U.S. Customs and...; Extension of an existing information collection: 1651-0111. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection...

  1. Influence of psychological symptoms on home-recorded sleep-time masticatory muscle activity in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Fabbri, A.; Peretta, R.; Guarda-Nardini, L.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation attempts to describe the correlation between sleep-time masticatory muscle activity (MMA) and psychological symptoms by the use of a four-channel electromyography (EMG) home-recording device in a group of 15 healthy volunteers completing a battery of psychometric questionna

  2. Testing the Feasibility of a Passive and Active Case Ascertainment System for Multiple Rare Conditions Simultaneously: The Experience in Three US States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Suzanne; Ruttenber, Margaret; Mann, Joshua; Smith, Michael G; Royer, Julie; Valdez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Background Owing to their low prevalence, single rare conditions are difficult to monitor through current state passive and active case ascertainment systems. However, such monitoring is important because, as a group, rare conditions have great impact on the health of affected individuals and the well-being of their caregivers. A viable approach could be to conduct passive and active case ascertainment of several rare conditions simultaneously. This is a report about the feasibility of such an approach. Objective To test the feasibility of a case ascertainment system with passive and active components aimed at monitoring 3 rare conditions simultaneously in 3 states of the United States (Colorado, Kansas, and South Carolina). The 3 conditions are spina bifida, muscular dystrophy, and fragile X syndrome. Methods Teams from each state evaluated the possibility of using current or modified versions of their local passive and active case ascertainment systems and datasets to monitor the 3 conditions. Together, these teams established the case definitions and selected the variables and the abstraction tools for the active case ascertainment approach. After testing the ability of their local passive and active case ascertainment system to capture all 3 conditions, the next steps were to report the number of cases detected actively and passively for each condition, to list the local barriers against the combined passive and active case ascertainment system, and to describe the experiences in trying to overcome these barriers. Results During the test period, the team from South Carolina was able to collect data on all 3 conditions simultaneously for all ages. The Colorado team was also able to collect data on all 3 conditions but, because of age restrictions in its passive and active case ascertainment system, it was able to report few cases of fragile X syndrome. The team from Kansas was able to collect data only on spina bifida. For all states, the implementation of an

  3. A functional model and simulation of spinal motor pools and intrafascicular recordings of motoneuron activity in peripheral nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Abdelghani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Decoding motor intent from recorded neural signals is essential for the development of effective neural-controlled prostheses. To facilitate the development of online decoding algorithms we have developed a software platform to simulate neural motor signals recorded with peripheral nerve electrodes, such as longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (LIFEs. The simulator uses stored motor intent signals to drive a pool of simulated motoneurons with various spike shapes, recruitment characteristics, and firing frequencies. Each electrode records a weighted sum of a subset of simulated motoneuron activity patterns. As designed, the simulator facilitates development of a suite of test scenarios that would not be possible with actual data sets because, unlike with actual recordings, in the simulator the individual contributions to the simulated composite recordings are known and can be methodically varied across a set of simulation runs. In this manner, the simulation tool is suitable for iterative development of real-time decoding algorithms prior to definitive evaluation in amputee subjects with implanted electrodes. The simulation tool was used to produce data sets that demonstrate its ability to capture some features of neural recordings that pose challenges for decoding algorithms.

  4. A varved lake sediment record of the 10Be solar activity proxy for the Lateglacial-Holocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czymzik, Markus; Adolphi, Florian; Muscheler, Raimund; Mekhaldi, Florian; Martin-Puertas, Celia; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Brauer, Achim

    2016-12-01

    Solar modulated variations in cosmogenic radionuclide production provide both information on past changes in the activity of the Sun and a global synchronization tool. However, to date the use of cosmogenic radionuclides for these applications is almost exclusively based on 10Be records from ice cores and 14C time-series from tree rings, all including archive-specific limitations. We present the first 10Be record from annually laminated (varved) lake sediments for the Lateglacial-Holocene transition from Meerfelder Maar. We quantify environmental influences on the catchment and, consequently, 10Be deposition using a new approach based on regression analyses between our 10Be record and environmental proxy time-series from the same archive. Our analyses suggest that environmental influences contribute to up to 37% of the variability in our 10Be record, but cannot be the main explanation for major 10Be excursions. Corrected for these environmental influences, our 10Be record is interpreted to dominantly reflect changes in solar modulated cosmogenic radionuclide production. The preservation of a solar production signal in 10Be from varved lake sediments highlights the largely unexplored potential of these archives for solar activity reconstruction, as global synchronization tool and, thus, for more robust paleoclimate studies.

  5. Facile one-pot synthesis and application of nitrogen and sulfur-doped activated graphene in simultaneous electrochemical determination of hydroquinone and catechol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lili; Yin, Jiao; Li, Yingchun; Yuan, Qunhui; Shen, Hangjia; Hu, Guangzhi; Gan, Wei

    2016-10-07

    Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) co-doped activated graphene (N,S-AGR) was prepared by the one-pot pyrolysis of a mixture of graphene oxide (GO), thiourea, and potassium hydroxide (KOH), where thiourea acts as the source of N and S dopants and KOH is the activator for porosity. N,S-AGR with a dopant abundance of 2.8 at% N and 2.3 at% S was then used as a high-activity electrocatalyst in the fabrication of an electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of dihydroxybenzene isomers, hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC), in aqueous solution. Compared with the bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE), the electrodes modified with N,S-AGR showed enhanced electrochemical performance toward HQ and CC in both cyclic voltammetric (CV) and differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) measurements because of their enlarged surface area, enhanced electron-transfer rate and increased active sites. Compared with some recently reported electrochemical sensors based on graphene composites, the N,S-AGR modified electrode exhibits higher sensitivity, a much lower detection limit and a comparable linear range for the simultaneous determination of HQ and CC. Moreover, the proposed sensor is promising in practical application for the satisfactory recoveries obtained in real water sample analyses.

  6. University students' perspectives on a physical activity record-keeping log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patricia; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2007-04-01

    This qualitative study explored characteristics of a record-keeping log that students would find appealing and be receptive to using. A heterogeneous sample of undergraduate university students aged 18 to 25 years participated. An experienced moderator, using a semistructured interview guide, conducted 13 focus groups (N = 65). All focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive content analysis was conducted independently by two qualitative researchers. Measures were incorporated throughout the study to ensure data trustworthiness. Four themes illustrated students' suggestions for the log: layout, convenience, maximum distribution, and concerns. In particular, students discussed the use of a computer-based versus a paper-based log, hesitancies in using a log, and the need for: additional health information, multivenue distribution, and low to no cost. Students confirmed that a record-keeping log tailored to their needs and preferences would be attractive and appealing to students.

  7. Visualization of Whole-Night Sleep EEG From 2-Channel Mobile Recording Device Reveals Distinct Deep Sleep Stages with Differential Electrodermal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onton, Julie A; Kang, Dae Y; Coleman, Todd P

    2016-01-01

    Brain activity during sleep is a powerful marker of overall health, but sleep lab testing is prohibitively expensive and only indicated for major sleep disorders. This report demonstrates that mobile 2-channel in-home electroencephalogram (EEG) recording devices provided sufficient information to detect and visualize sleep EEG. Displaying whole-night sleep EEG in a spectral display allowed for quick assessment of general sleep stability, cycle lengths, stage lengths, dominant frequencies and other indices of sleep quality. By visualizing spectral data down to 0.1 Hz, a differentiation emerged between slow-wave sleep with dominant frequency between 0.1-1 Hz or 1-3 Hz, but rarely both. Thus, we present here the new designations, Hi and Lo Deep sleep, according to the frequency range with dominant power. Simultaneously recorded electrodermal activity (EDA) was primarily associated with Lo Deep and very rarely with Hi Deep or any other stage. Therefore, Hi and Lo Deep sleep appear to be physiologically distinct states that may serve unique functions during sleep. We developed an algorithm to classify five stages (Awake, Light, Hi Deep, Lo Deep and rapid eye movement (REM)) using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), model fitting with the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, and estimation of the most likely sleep state sequence by the Viterbi algorithm. The resulting automatically generated sleep hypnogram can help clinicians interpret the spectral display and help researchers computationally quantify sleep stages across participants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the feasibility of in-home sleep EEG collection, a rapid and informative sleep report format, and novel deep sleep designations accounting for spectral and physiological differences.

  8. Visualization of Whole-Night Sleep EEG From 2-Channel Mobile Recording Device Reveals Distinct Deep Sleep Stages With Differential Electrodermal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Onton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain activity during sleep is powerful marker of overall health, but sleep lab testing is prohibitively expensive and only indicated for major sleep disorders. This report demonstrates that mobile 2-channel in-home electroencephalogram (EEG recording devices provided sufficient information to detect and visualize sleep EEG. Displaying whole-night sleep EEG in a spectral display allowed for quick assessment of general sleep stability, cycle lengths, stage lengths, dominant frequencies, and other indices of sleep quality. By visualizing spectral data down to 0.1 Hz, a differentiation emerged between slow-wave sleep with dominant frequency between 0.1─1 Hz or 1─3 Hz, but rarely both. Thus, we present here the new designations, Hi and Lo Deep sleep, according to the frequency range with dominant power. Simultaneously recorded electrodermal activity (EDA was primarily associated with Lo Deep and very rarely with Hi Deep or any other stage. Therefore, Hi and Lo Deep sleep appear to be physiologically distinct states that may serve unique functions during sleep. We developed an algorithm to classify 5 stages (Awake, Light, Hi Deep, Lo Deep, and REM using a Hidden Markov Model, model fitting with the expectation-maximization algorithm, and estimation of the most likely sleep state sequence by the Viterbi algorithm. The resulting automatically generated sleep hypnogram can help clinicians interpret the spectral display and help researchers computationally quantify sleep stages across participants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the feasibility of in-home sleep EEG collection, a rapid and informative sleep report format, and novel deep sleep designations accounting for spectral and physiological differences.

  9. Local domains of motor cortical activity revealed by fiber-optic calcium recordings in behaving nonhuman primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelsberger, Helmuth; Zainos, Antonio; Alvarez, Manuel; Romo, Ranulfo; Konnerth, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Brain mapping experiments involving electrical microstimulation indicate that the primary motor cortex (M1) directly regulates muscle contraction and thereby controls specific movements. Possibly, M1 contains a small circuit “map” of the body that is formed by discrete local networks that code for specific movements. Alternatively, movements may be controlled by distributed, larger-scale overlapping circuits. Because of technical limitations, it remained unclear how movement-determining circuits are organized in M1. Here we introduce a method that allows the functional mapping of small local neuronal circuits in awake behaving nonhuman primates. For this purpose, we combined optic-fiber–based calcium recordings of neuronal activity and cortical microstimulation. The method requires targeted bulk loading of synthetic calcium indicators (e.g., OGB-1 AM) for the staining of neuronal microdomains. The tip of a thin (200 µm) optical fiber can detect the coherent activity of a small cluster of neurons, but is insensitive to the asynchronous activity of individual cells. By combining such optical recordings with microstimulation at two well-separated sites of M1, we demonstrate that local cortical activity was tightly associated with distinct and stereotypical simple movements. Increasing stimulation intensity increased both the amplitude of the movements and the level of neuronal activity. Importantly, the activity remained local, without invading the recording domain of the second optical fiber. Furthermore, there was clear response specificity at the two recording sites in a trained behavioral task. Thus, the results provide support for movement control in M1 by local neuronal clusters that are organized in discrete cortical domains. PMID:24344287

  10. 76 FR 3151 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Record of Vessel Foreign Repair or Equipment Purchase

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    2011-01-19

    ... requirement concerning the Record of Vessel Foreign Repair or Equipment Purchase (CBP Form 226). This request... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information should be directed to Tracey Denning, U.S..., or materials purchased for the vessel in a foreign country. This information enables CBP to assess...

  11. 76 FR 8399 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

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  12. 78 FR 36633 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements, Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

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  13. 75 FR 19453 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

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  17. 76 FR 76218 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

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    2011-12-06

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  18. Simultaneous introduction of various palladium active sites into MOF via one-pot synthesis: Pd@[Cu3-xPdx(BTC)2]n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Chen, Zhihao; Al-Naji, Majd; Guo, Penghu; Cwik, Stefan; Halbherr, Olesia; Wang, Yuemin; Muhler, Martin; Wilde, Nicole; Gläser, Roger; Fischer, Roland A

    2016-10-14

    Simultaneous incorporation of palladium within Pd-Pd and/or Pd-Cu paddlewheels as framework-nodes and Pd nanoparticle (NP) dispersion into MOF have been achieved for the first time via one-pot synthesis. In particular, the framework substitution of Cu(2+) by Pd(2+) as well as the pore loading with PdNPs have been confirmed and characterized by XPS. The obtained solids featuring such multiple Pd-sites show enhanced catalytic activity in the aqueous-phase hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) with NaBH4 to p-aminophenol (PAP).

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Four Active Ingredients in Sargentodoxa cuneata by HPLC Coupled with Evaporative Light Scattering Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di-Hua Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A HPLC coupled with evaporative light scattering detection method had been developed for the simultaneous determination of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl alcohol glycoside, salidroside, chlorogenic acid, and liriodendrin in the stem of Sargentodoxa cuneata. With a C18 column, the analysis was performed using acetonitrile and 0.2% formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase in gradient program at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The optimum drift tube temperature of evaporative light scattering detection was at 105°C with the air flow rate of 2.5 L/min. The calibration curves showed good linearity during the test ranges. This method was validated for limits of detection and quantification, precision, and reproducibility. The recoveries were within the range of 96.39%–104.64%. The relative standard deviations of intraday and interday precision were less than 2.90% and 3.30%, respectively. The developed method can be successfully used to quantify the four analytes in the stem of Sargentodoxa cuneata from various regions in China.

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Four Active Ingredients in Sargentodoxa cuneata by HPLC Coupled with Evaporative Light Scattering Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di-Hua; Lv, Yuan-Shan; Liu, Jun-Hong; Yang, Lei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Shu-Kun; Zhuo, Yu-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    A HPLC coupled with evaporative light scattering detection method had been developed for the simultaneous determination of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl alcohol glycoside, salidroside, chlorogenic acid, and liriodendrin in the stem of Sargentodoxa cuneata. With a C18 column, the analysis was performed using acetonitrile and 0.2% formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase in gradient program at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The optimum drift tube temperature of evaporative light scattering detection was at 105°C with the air flow rate of 2.5 L/min. The calibration curves showed good linearity during the test ranges. This method was validated for limits of detection and quantification, precision, and reproducibility. The recoveries were within the range of 96.39%-104.64%. The relative standard deviations of intraday and interday precision were less than 2.90% and 3.30%, respectively. The developed method can be successfully used to quantify the four analytes in the stem of Sargentodoxa cuneata from various regions in China.

  1. Simultaneous quantitation of atorvastatin and its two active metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography/(-) electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj Partani; S. Manaswita Verma; Sanjay Gurule; Arshad Khuroo; Tausif Monif

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive, accurate and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of atorvastatin (AT) and its equipotent hydroxyl metabolites, 2-hydroxy atorvastatin (2-AT) and 4-hydroxy atorvastatin (4-AT), in human plasma. Electrospray ionization (ESI) interface in negative ion mode was selected to improve the selectivity and the sensitivity required for this application. Additionally, a solid phase extraction (SPE) step was performed to reduce any ion-suppression and/or enhancement effects. The separation of all compounds was achieved in less than 6 min using a C18 reverse-phase fused-cores column and a mobile phase, composed of a mixture of 0.005%formic acid in water:acetonitrile:methanol (35:25:40, v/v/v), in isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The method has lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.050 ng/mL for all analytes. The method has shown tremendous reproducibility, with intra-and inter-day precision less than 6.6%, and intra- and inter-day accuracy within 74.3% of nominal values, for all analytes, and has proved to be highly reliable for the analysis of clinical samples.

  2. New record and enzyme activity of four species in Penicillium section Citrina from marine environments in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung Soo; Eom, Ji Eun; Fong, Jonathan J; Lim, Young Woon

    2015-04-01

    Several strains of Penicillium section Citrina were isolated during a survey of fungi from marine environments along the southern coast of Korea. Based on multigene phylogenetic analyses (β-tubulin and calmodulin) and morphological characteristics, the 11 strains were identified as P. citrinum, P. hetheringtonii, P. paxilli, P. sumatrense, P. terrigenum, and P. westlingii. To understand the ecological role of these species, we tested all strains for extracellular enzyme activity; six strains representing four species showed β-glucosidase activity. Four of the identified species - P. hetheringtonii, P. paxilli, P. terrigenum, and P. westlingii - are new records for Korea. For these new species records, we describe morphological characteristics of the strains and compare results to published data of type strains.

  3. A 70 year Record of Contamination from Industrial Activity Along the Garonne River and its Tributaries (SW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grousset, F. E.; Jouanneau, J. M.; Castaing, P.; Lavaux, G.; Latouche, C.

    1999-03-01

    In this work, we document the historical record (≈70 yr) of contamination from industrial activity along the Garonne River and its tributaries (SW France), through the geochemical study of a sediment core recovered from the inner section of a flood-tidal dock, located in the city of Bordeaux, along the Garonne River. The chronology of the core was estimated by extrapolation from and interpolation between a few geochemical datums provided by a high resolution 137Cs record, the atmospheric initiation of radioactive fallout (˜1952); the maximum of atmospheric radioactive fallout (˜1963) and the Chernobyl accident (1986). Concentrations of Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, U, Pb and the Pb isotope composition were analyzed by ICP-MS, in the ' exchangeable ' fraction. The pollution impact of a few heavy metals (mostly Pb, Cd, Zn, Sn) was particularly enhanced from 1950 to about 1980, due to the activity of a mining and foundry company located on the Lot, a tributary of the Garonne River. A five-step historical evolution of the foundry's activity is faithfully recorded in the sedimentary record. Despite the fact that the mining activity stopped 20 years ago, and that the contamination seems to be very limited at present, enrichments are still observed in the estuary waters and sediments. These may be due to the release of both particulate and dissolved metals from previously released tailings in the dowstream from the Decazeville mining/foundry site. Over the last 20 years, another kind of pollution by Cr and V is identified, and is related to a different industrial origin, tanneries and electrolysis factories, located along other tributaries of the Garonne River (Dordogne and Tarn). Contamination from local sources (Bordeaux) is negligible compared to the dominant influence of the remote pollution sources.

  4. Simultaneous quantitative determination of six active components in traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Cerebralcare Granule® by RP-HPLC coupled with diode array detection for quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-yang; Ma, Xiao-hui; Li, Wei; Chu, Yang; Guo, Jia-hua; Zhou, Shui-ping; Zhu, Yong-hong

    2014-09-01

    A simple, accurate and reliable method for the simultaneous separation and determination of six active components (protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid and rosmarinic acid) in traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Cerebralcare Granule(®) (CG) was developed using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector detection. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Hypersil GOLD C18 column with aqueous formic acid (0.1%, v/v) and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 ml/min at 30 °C. Because of the different UV characteristics of these components, change detection wavelength method was used for quantitative analysis. All of the analytes showed good linearity (r > 0.9992). The established method showed good precision and relative standard deviations (%) for intra-day and inter-day variations of 0.15-1.81 and 0.11-1.98%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneously determination of six active components in CG from different batches.

  5. A large N400 but no BOLD effect--comparing source activations of semantic priming in simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Geukes

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported neurophysiological effects of semantic priming in electroencephalography (EEG and in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Because of differing methodological constraints, the comparability of the observed effects remains unclear. To directly compare EEG and fMRI effects and neural sources of semantic priming, we conducted a semantic word-picture priming experiment while measuring EEG and fMRI simultaneously. The visually presented primes were pseudowords, words unrelated to the target, semantically related words and the identical names of the target. Distributed source analysis of the event-related potentials (ERPs successfully revealed a large effect of semantic prime-target relatedness (the N400 effect, which was driven by activations in a left-temporal source region. However, no significantly differing activations between priming conditions were found in the fMRI data. Our results support the notion that, for joint interpretations of existing EEG and fMRI studies of semantic priming, we need to fully appreciate the respective methodological limitations. Second, they show that simultaneous EEG-fMRI, including ERP source localization, is a feasible and promising methodological advancement for the investigation of higher-cognitive processes. Third, they substantiate the finding that, compared to fMRI, ERPs are often more sensitive to subtle cognitive effects.

  6. Simultaneous Gene Editing by Injection of mRNAs Encoding Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases into Mouse Zygotes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chunliang; Qi, Rong; Singleterry, Rebecca; Hyle, Judith; Balch, Amanda; Li, Xiuling; Sublett, Jack; Berns, Hartmut; Valentine, Marcus; Valentine, Virginia; Sherr, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Injection of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) mRNAs into mouse zygotes transferred into foster mothers efficiently generated founder mice with heritable mutations in targeted genes. Immunofluorescence visualization of phosphorylated histone 2A (γH2AX) combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that TALEN pairs targeting the Agouti locus induced site-directed DNA breaks in zygotes within 6 h of injection, an activity that continued at reduced efficiency in...

  7. Simultaneous Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Karolina; Buschmann, Volker; Hille, Carsten

    2015-09-22

    In living cells, there are always a plethora of processes taking place at the same time. Their precise regulation is the basis of cellular functions, since small failures can lead to severe dysfunctions. For a comprehensive understanding of intracellular homeostasis, simultaneous multiparameter detection is a versatile tool for revealing the spatial and temporal interactions of intracellular parameters. Here, a recently developed time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) board was evaluated for simultaneous fluorescence and phosphorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM/PLIM). Therefore, the metabolic activity in insect salivary glands was investigated by recording ns-decaying intrinsic cellular fluorescence, mainly related to oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and the μs-decaying phosphorescence of the oxygen-sensitive ruthenium-complex Kr341. Due to dopamine stimulation, the metabolic activity of salivary glands increased, causing a higher pericellular oxygen consumption and a resulting increase in Kr341 phosphorescence decay time. Furthermore, FAD fluorescence decay time decreased, presumably due to protein binding, thus inducing a quenching of FAD fluorescence decay time. Through application of the metabolic drugs antimycin and FCCP, the recorded signals could be assigned to a mitochondrial origin. The dopamine-induced changes could be observed in sequential FLIM and PLIM recordings, as well as in simultaneous FLIM/PLIM recordings using an intermediate TCSPC timing resolution.

  8. Enhancing nitrogen removal efficiency and reducing nitrate liquor recirculation ratio by improving simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    An integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) process (G1) and an activated sludge anoxic-oxic process (G2) were operated at nitrate liquor recirculation ratio (R) of 100, 200 and 300% to investigate the feasibility of enhancing nitrogen removal efficiency (RTN) and reducing R by improving simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) in the IFAS process. The results showed that the effluent NH4(+)-N and total nitrogen (TN) of G1 at R of 200% were less than 1.5 and 14.5 mg/L, satisfying the Chinese discharge standard (NH4(+)-N removal efficiency ranged 15-19%, which was the main reason that the RTN was improved in the IFAS process. Therefore, the IFAS process was an effective method for improving RTN and reducing R. In practical application, this advantage of the IFAS process can decrease the electricity consumption for nitrate liquor recirculation flow, thereby saving operational costs.

  9. Hot and Dry Cleaning of Biomass-Gasified Gas Using Activated Carbons with Simultaneous Removal of Tar, Particles, and Sulfur Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinya Sakanishi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a gas-cleaning process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur compounds, tar, and particles from biomass-gasified gas using Fe-supported activated carbon and a water-gas shift reaction. On a laboratory scale, the simultaneous removal of H2S and COS was performed under a mixture of gases (H2/CO/CO2/CH4/C2H4/N2/H2S/COS/steam. The reactions such as COS + H2 → H2S + CO and COS + H2O → H2S + CO2 and the water-gas shift reaction were promoted on the Fe-supported activated carbon. The adsorption capacity with steam was higher than that without steam. On a bench scale, the removal of impurities from a gas derived from biomass gasification was investigated using two activated filters packed with Fe-supported activated carbon. H2S and COS, three- and four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and particles were removed and a water-gas shift reaction was promoted through the first filter at 320–350 °C. The concentrations of H2S and COS decreased to less than 0.1 ppmv. Particles and the one- and two-ring PAHs, except for benzene, were then removed through the second filter at 60–170 °C. The concentration of tar and particles decreased from 2428 to 102 mg Nm−3 and from 2244 to 181 mg Nm−3, respectively.

  10. An implantable two axis micromanipulator made with a 3D printer for recording neural activity in free-swimming fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Loranzie S; Van Wert, Jacey C; Mensinger, Allen F

    2017-08-15

    Chronically implanted electrodes allow monitoring neural activity from free moving animals. While a wide variety of implanted headstages, microdrives and electrodes exist for terrestrial animals, few have been developed for use with aquatic animals. A two axis micromanipulator was fabricated with a Formlabs 3D printer for implanting electrodes into free-swimming oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau). The five piece manipulator consisted of a base, body, electrode holder, manual screw drive and locking nut. The manipulator measured approximately 25×20×30mm (l×w×h) and weighed 5.28g after hand assembly. Microwire electrodes were inserted successfully with the manipulator to record high fidelity signals from the anterior lateral line nerve of the toadfish. The micromanipulator allowed the chronically implanted electrodes to be repositioned numerous times to record from multiple sites and extended successful recording time in the toadfish by several days. Three dimensional printing allowed an inexpensive (<$US 5 material), two axis micromanipulator to be printed relatively rapidly (<2h) to successfully record from multiple sites in the anterior lateral line nerve of free-swimming toadfish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [The estimation of daily physical activity with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates continuously recorded].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tono-oka, T; Kaneko, I

    1993-05-01

    The daily level of physical activity was estimated using the heart rate monitor, PE3000 (Polar Electro, Finland). The level was expressed with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates recorded from waking time to dinner time. In the course of a day of intense physical activity, CV was confirmed to rise significantly. Then the CV was estimated and compared among 3 age classes, young (10-18 years), middle-aged (30-47 years), and elderly (62-76 years). The CVs of young people were significantly higher than those of middle-aged (P < 0.001) and elderly (P < 0.01), regardless of sex. However there was no significant sex difference in all age classes. These results suggest that the CV is an accurate index of daily physical activity. Thus clinicians can use the CV of heart rates to estimate the level of physical activity of individuals which closely relates to QOL.

  12. Teaching Children with Autism to Play a Video Game Using Activity Schedules and Game-Embedded Simultaneous Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum-Dimaya, Alyssa; Reeve, Sharon A.; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Hoch, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism have severe and pervasive impairments in social interactions and communication that impact most areas of daily living and often limit independent engagement in leisure activities. We taught four children with autism to engage in an age-appropriate leisure skill, playing the video game Guitar Hero II[TM], through the use of (a)…

  13. Silencing AML1-ETO gene expression leads to simultaneous activation of both pro-apoptotic and proliferation signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, P V; Lebedev, T D; Orlova, N N; Gornostaeva, A S; Prokofjeva, M M; Nikitenko, N A; Dmitriev, S E; Buzdin, A A; Borisov, N M; Aliper, A M; Garazha, A V; Rubtsov, P M; Stocking, C; Prassolov, V S

    2014-11-01

    The t(8;21)(q22;q22) rearrangement represents the most common chromosomal translocation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It results in a transcript encoding for the fusion protein AML1-ETO (AE) with transcription factor activity. AE is considered to be an attractive target for treating t(8;21) leukemia. However, AE expression alone is insufficient to cause transformation, and thus the potential of such therapy remains unclear. Several genes are deregulated in AML cells, including KIT that encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor. Here, we show that AML cells transduced with short hairpin RNA vector targeting AE mRNAs have a dramatic decrease in growth rate that is caused by induction of apoptosis and deregulation of the cell cycle. A reduction in KIT mRNA levels was also observed in AE-silenced cells, but silencing KIT expression reduced cell growth but did not induce apoptosis. Transcription profiling of cells that escape cell death revealed activation of a number of signaling pathways involved in cell survival and proliferation. In particular, we find that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2; also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1)) protein could mediate activation of 23 out of 29 (79%) of these upregulated pathways and thus may be regarded as the key player in establishing the t(8;21)-positive leukemic cells resistant to AE suppression.

  14. Assessing a 1500-year record of Atlantic hurricane activity from South Andros Island, the Bahamas, using modeled hurricane climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, E. J.; Donnelly, J. P.; Emanuel, K.; Wiman, C.; van Hengstum, P. J.; Sullivan, R.; Winkler, T. S.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical cyclones can cause substantial loss of life and economic resources in coastal areas. In the current changing climate, it is of critical importance for society to understand any links between hurricane activity and climactic conditions. Unfortunately, historical tropical cyclone records are too short and incomplete to constrain how climate controls cyclone activity or to accurately quantify the risk of such storms to local human populations. Hurricane-induced deposits preserved in sediment cores can offer records of past hurricane activity stretching over thousands of years. Here we present a 1500 year annually resolved record of the frequency of intense hurricane events in a blue hole (AM4) on South Andros Island on the Great Bahama Bank. This carbonate island in the western North Atlantic Ocean is positioned along the trackway of many storms originating in the Caribbean and Atlantic basins. The record is corroborated by cores collected from three other blue holes near AM4. Over the past 1500 years, there have been periods of elevated hurricane activity from 750 to 950 CE, 1150 to 1300 CE and 1550 to 1850 CE. The statistical significance of this sedimentary record is assessed utilizing a set of synthetic storms generated from a previously published statistical deterministic hurricane model. The model simulates climatological conditions from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset, and the CMIP5 MPI model for the 20th century calibration (1850-2005 CE), and the millennial simulation (850-1849 CE). The average reoccurrence rates of hurricanes passing within 100 km of AM4 under each simulation are 1.06, 0.62, and 0.61 storms per year respectively. Using each climatology, thousands of hurricane induced deposits for the site are generated based on a random draw of these storms, a wind speed threshold for deposit, and a temporal resolution given the sedimentation rate of approximately 1 cm/yr at the site. Overall, the results of this study offer information on changes

  15. Accumulation in coastal West Antarctic ice core records and the role of cyclone activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, J. Scott; Fogt, Ryan; Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Moosavi, Vahid; Phillips, Tony; Coggins, Jack; Reusch, David

    2017-09-01

    Cyclones are an important component of Antarctic climate variability, yet quantifying their impact on the polar environment is challenging. We assess how cyclones which pass through the Bellingshausen Sea affect accumulation over Ellsworth Land, West Antarctica, where we have two ice core records. We use self-organizing maps (SOMs), an unsupervised machine learning technique, to group cyclones into nine SOM nodes differing by their trajectories (1980-2015). The annual frequency of cyclones associated with the first SOM node (SOM1, which generally originate from lower latitudes over the South Pacific Ocean) is significantly (p 0.001) correlated with annual accumulation, with the highest seasonal correlations (p 0.001) found during autumn. While significant (p cyclones, we find no indication that this has led to an increase in moisture advection into, nor accumulation over, Ellsworth Land over this short time period.

  16. Electroretinography recordings using a light emitting diode active corneal electrode in healthy beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yoshiki; Maehara, Seiya; Itoh, Norihiko; Yamashita, Kazuto; Izumisawa, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    Electroretinography (ERG) is a well-established diagnostic procedure for objectively evaluating retinal function. In this study, ERG in beagle dogs, which are a popular experimental animal, was performed to determine the normal range of ERG variables and assess differences between the left and right eyes. ERG findings including rod, combined rod-cone, single-flash cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses were recorded with an LED-electrode in 43 sedated beagle dogs. The subjects were divided into young (beagle dogs differed by age due to age-related retinal changes. Thus, we propose that normal ERG ranges should be determined according to age in each clinic and laboratory using its own equipment because each institution usually has different systems or protocols for ERG testing.

  17. Data Acquisition and Digital Filtering for Infrasonic Records on Active Volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Chilo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a digital data acquisition system for volcanic infrasound records. The system includes four electret condenser element microphones, a QF4A512 programmable signal converter from Quickfilter Technologies and a MSP430 microcontroller from Texas Instruments. The signal output of every microphone is converted to digital via a 16-bit Analog to Digital Converter (ADC. To prevent errors in the conversion process, Anti-Aliasing Filters are employed prior to the ADC. Digital filtering is performed after the ADC using a Digital Signal Processor, which is implemented on the QF4A512. The four digital signals are summed to get only one signal. Data storing and digital wireless data transmission will be described in a future paper.

  18. 78 FR 25352 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Preservation of Air carrier Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... commissions received by, paid to, or deducted by travel agents, and all statements, invoices, bills and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB...

  19. Interesting differences between CH4 and d18Oatm records of bipolar see-saw activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinghaus, Jeffrey; Baggenstos, Daniel; Rhodes, Rachael; Brook, Edward

    2014-05-01

    Abrupt changes in atmospheric methane concentration have long been used to infer changes in low-latitude hydrology. A lesser-used tracer is the oxygen-18 content of atmospheric dioxygen (d18Oatm), which is produced by photosynthesis and records the O-18 content of chloroplast water among other variables. Observations from ice core trapped air records suggest that strong Asian monsoons produce dioxygen with a relatively negative d18Oatm, whereas periods of weak Asian monsoon rainfall and strong southern hemisphere monsoons are characterized by relatively positive d18Oatm (Severinghaus et al., 2009, Science). Generally, CH4 and d18Oatm are anticorrelated, with high CH4 and negative d18Oatm during times of northern hemisphere warmth, strong Asian monsoons, and the bipolar seesaw in its "warm north" mode. However, interesting exceptions to this pattern occur during Heinrich Stadials and during the initial phases of the last deglaciation. Here, ice core data suggest episodes in which CH4 rise is not associated with negative d18Oatm, but instead positive d18Oatm. It is suggested that these intervals can be explained as being times of strong southern hemisphere low-latitude rainfall, which creates the positive values in d18Oatm. We hypothesize that dioxygen produced in southern hemisphere locales generally has higher O-18 content, due to the higher O-18 content of chloroplast water and the prevailing precipitation O-18 in those regions. In summary, we hypothesize that d18O of photosynthetic O2 is a more monotonic function of latitude, compared with methane production, which can be bimodally produced in the low latitudes of both hemispheres.

  20. Methods of recording theatre activity across publicly funded hospitals in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, J

    2013-10-13

    A review of theatre activity in all Health Service Executive (HSE) hospitals in Cork and Kerry in 2008 required a manual extraction of theatre activity data from largely paper-based logbooks. A key data management recommendation suggested that "a standardised computerised theatre logbook system be developed in all hospitals in the region". HSE (2010) Reconfiguration of health services for Cork and Kerry-theatre utilisation review. ISBN 978-1-906218-54-6.

  1. When the brain simulates stopping: Neural activity recorded during real and imagined stop-signal tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villar, Alberto J; Bonilla, F Mauricio; Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T

    2016-10-01

    It has been suggested that mental rehearsal activates brain areas similar to those activated by real performance. Although inhibition is a key function of human behavior, there are no previous reports of brain activity during imagined response cancellation. We analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) and time-frequency data associated with motor execution and inhibition during real and imagined performance of a stop-signal task. The ERPs characteristic of stop trials-that is, the stop-N2 and stop-P3-were also observed during covert performance of the task. Imagined stop (IS) trials yielded smaller stop-N2 amplitudes than did successful stop (SS) and unsuccessful stop (US) trials, but midfrontal theta power similar to that in SS trials. The stop-P3 amplitude for IS was intermediate between those observed for SS and US. The results may be explained by the absence of error-processing and correction processes during imagined performance. For go trials, real execution was associated with higher mu and beta desynchronization over motor areas, which confirms previous reports of lower motor activation during imagined execution and also with larger P3b amplitudes, probably indicating increased top-down attention to the real task. The similar patterns of activity observed for imagined and real performance suggest that imagination tasks may be useful for training inhibitory processes. Nevertheless, brain activation was generally weaker during mental rehearsal, probably as a result of the reduced engagement of top-down mechanisms and limited error processing.

  2. Evaluation of Prompted Annotation of Activity Data Recorded from a Smart Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Cleland

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the design and evaluation of a mobile based tool to collect activity data on a large scale. The current approach, based on an existing activity recognition module, recognizes class transitions from a set of specific activities (for example walking and running to the standing still activity. Once this transition is detected the system prompts the user to provide a label for their previous activity. This label, along with the raw sensor data, is then stored locally prior to being uploaded to cloud storage. The system was evaluated by ten users. Three evaluation protocols were used, including a structured, semi-structured and free living protocol. Results indicate that the mobile application could be used to allow the user to provide accurate ground truth labels for their activity data. Similarities of up to 100% where observed when comparing the user prompted labels and those from an observer during structured lab based experiments. Further work will examine data segmentation and personalization issues in order to refine the system.

  3. Simultaneous Multi-Wavelength Observations of Magnetic Activity in Ultracool Dwarfs. II. Mixed Trends in VB10 and LSR1835+32 and the Possible Role of Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, E; Gizis, J E; Giampapa, M S; Rutledge, R E; Liebert, J; Martin, E; Fleming, T A; Johns-Krull, C M; Phan-Bao, N; Sherry, W H

    2007-01-01

    [Abridged] As part of our on-going investigation of magnetic activity in ultracool dwarfs we present simultaneous radio, X-ray, UV, and optical observations of LSR1835+32 (M8.5), and simultaneous X-ray and UV observations of VB10 (M8), both with a duration of about 9 hours. LSR1835+32 exhibits persistent radio emission and H-alpha variability on timescales of ~0.5-2 hr. The detected UV flux is consistent with photospheric emission, and no X-ray emission is detected to a deep limit of L_X/L_bol2x10^4. Similarly, L_Halpha/L_X>10 is at least 30 times larger than in early M dwarfs, and eliminates coronal emission as the source of chromospheric heating. The lack of radio variability during four rotations of LSR1835+32 requires a uniform stellar-scale field of ~10 G, and indicates that the H-alpha variability is dominated by much smaller scales, 25 km/s.

  4. SnO2 nanoparticle-loaded activated carbon for simultaneous removal of Acid Yellow 41 and Sunset Yellow; derivative spectrophotometric, artificial neural network and optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajati, S; Ghaedi, M; Mahmoudi, Z; Sahraei, R

    2015-11-05

    The simultaneous adsorption of Acid Yellow 41 (AY41) and Sunset Yellow (SY) onto SnO2 nanoparticle-loaded activated carbon (SnO2-NP-AC with very high BET surface area of 1278.71 m(2) g(-1)) was investigated. To overcome the severe dyes spectral overlapping, derivative spectrophotometric method and principal component analysis-artificial neural network (PCA-ANN) were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of AY41 and SY in their binary solutions. By using central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology, the effects of variables such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH, AY41 concentration and SY concentration on responses such as binary dyes removal percentages were examined. Optimal values were found to be 17.9 min, 0.024 g, 3.1, and 15.9 mg L(-1) and 18.7 mg L(-1), respectively. In binary solutions, the best fit to modified-extended Langmuir isotherm was obtained for the whole concentration range. In binary solutions, a synergism was observed for the AY41 and SY dyes adsorption onto SnO2-NP-AC. The adsorption rates at various times were analyzed. It indicated a pseudo-second-order kinetic model for the adsorption of both dyes.

  5. [Simultaneous determination of erdosteine and its active metabolite in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with pre-column derivatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Ma, Zhi-Yu; Zhong, Da-Fang

    2013-03-01

    A sensitive, rapid and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method with pre-column derivatization was developed for the simultaneous determination of erdosteine and its thiol-containing active metabolite in human plasma. Paracetamol and captopril were chosen as the internal standard of erdosteine and its active metabolite, respectively. Aliquots of 100 microL plasma sample were derivatized by 2-bromine-3'-methoxy acetophenone, then separated on an Agilent XDB-C18 (50 mm x 4.6 mm ID, 1.8 microm) column using 0.1% formic acid methanol--0.1% formic acid 5 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate as mobile phase, in a gradient mode. Detection of erdosteine and its active metabolite were achieved by ESI MS/MS in the positive ion mode. The linear calibration curves for erdosteine and its active metabolite were obtained in the concentration ranges of 5-3 000 ng x mL(-1) and 5-10 000 ng x mL(-1), respectively. The lower limit of quantification of erdosteine and its active metabolite were both 5.00 ng x mL(-1). The pharmacokinetic results of erdosteine and its thiol-containing active metabolite showed that the area under curve (AUC) of the thiol-containing active metabolite was 6.2 times of that of erdosteine after a single oral dose of 600 mg erdosteine tables in 32 healthy volunteers, The mean residence time (MRT) of the thiol-containing active metabolite was (7.51 +/- 0.788) h, which provided a pharmacokinetic basis for the rational dosage regimen.

  6. Strain localization in ultramylonitic marbles by simultaneous activation of dislocation motion and grain boundary sliding (Syros, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowitz, A.; White, J. C.; Grasemann, B.

    2016-03-01

    Extreme strain localization occurred in the centre of the cross-cutting element of a flanking structure in almost pure calcite marbles from Syros, Greece. At the maximum displacement of 120 cm along the cross-cutting element, evidence of grain size sensitive deformation mechanisms can be found in the ultramylonitic marbles, which are characterized by (1) an extremely small grain size ( ˜ 3 µm), (2) grain boundary triple junctions with nearly 120° angles, (3) a weak crystallographic preferred orientation with very low texture index (J = 1.4), (4) a random misorientation angle distribution curve and (5) the presence of small cavities. Using transmission electron microscopy, a deformation sequence is observed comprising recrystallization dominantly by bulging, resulting in the development of the fine-grained ultramylonite followed by the development of a high dislocation density ( ˜ 1013 m-2) with ongoing deformation of the fine-grained ultramylonite. The arrangement of dislocations in the extremely fine-grain-sized calcite differs from microstructures created by classical dislocation creep mediated by combined glide and thermally activated climb. Instead, it exhibits extensive glide and dislocation networks characteristic of recovery accommodated by cross-slip and network-assisted dislocation movement without formation of idealized subgrain walls. The enabling of grain boundary sliding to dislocation activity is deemed central to initiating and sustaining strain softening and is argued to be an important strain localization process in calcite rocks, even at a high strain rate ( ˜ 10-9 s-1) and low temperature (300 °C).

  7. Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extracts from Different Hibiscus sabdariffa Accessions and Simultaneous Determination Five Major Antioxidant Compounds by LC-Q-TOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus sabdariffa has gained attention for its antioxidant activity. There are many accessions of H. sabdariffa in the world. However, information on the quantification of antioxidant compounds in different accessions is rather limited. In this paper, a liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS method for simultaneous determination of five antioxidant compounds (neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, and isoquercitrin in H. sabdariffa leaves was developed. The method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The validated method has been successfully applied for determination of the five analytes in eight accessions of H. sabdariffa. The eight accessions of H. sabdariffa were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The investigated accessions of H. sabdariffa were rich in rutin and exhibited strong antioxidant activity. The two accessions showing the highest antioxidant activities were from Cuba (No. 2 and Taiwan (No. 5. The results indicated that H. sabdariffa leaves could be considered as a potential antioxidant source for the food industry. The developed LC-Q-TOF-MS method is helpful for quality control of H. sabdariffa.

  8. A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of gross alpha and beta activities in water samples using a low background liquid scintillation counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Pujol, Ll. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    1995-05-01

    The radiological examination of water requires a rapid screening technique that permits the determination of the gross alpha and beta activities of each sample in order to decide if further radiological analyses are necessary. In this work, the use of a low background liquid scintillation system (Quantulus 1220) is proposed to simultaneously determine the gross activities in water samples. Liquid scintillation is compared to more conventional techniques used in most monitoring laboratories. In order to determine the best counting configuration of the system, pulse shape discrimination was optimized for 6 scintillant/vial combinations. It was concluded that the best counting configuration was obtained with the scintillation cocktail Optiphase Hisafe 3 in Zinsser low diffusion vials. The detection limits achieved were 0.012 Bq L{sup -1} and 0.14 Bq L{sup {minus}1} for gross alpha and beta activity respectively, after a 1:10 concentration process by simple evaporation and for a counting time of only 360 min. The proposed technique is rapid, gives spectral information, and is adequate to determine gross activities according to the World Health Organization (WMO) guideline values.

  9. Improved recording of atrial activity by modified bipolar leads derived from the 12-lead electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Alan; Finlay, Dewar D; Guldenring, Daniel; Bond, Raymond R; McEneaney, David J; Peace, Aaron; McLaughlin, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the use of multivariate linear regression to estimate three bipolar ECG leads from the 12-lead ECG in order to improve P-wave signal strength. The study population consisted of body surface potential maps recorded from 229 healthy subjects. P-waves were then isolated and population based transformation weights developed. A derived P-lead (measured between the right sternoclavicular joint and midway along the costal margin in line with the seventh intercostal space) demonstrated significant improvement in median P-wave root mean square (RMS) signal strength when compared to lead II (94μV vs. 76μV, p<0.001). A derived ES lead (from the EASI lead system) also showed small but significant improvement in median P-wave RMS (79μV vs. 76μV, p=0.0054). Finally, a derived modified Lewis lead did not improve median P-wave RMS when compared to lead II. However, this derived lead improved atrioventricular RMS ratio. P-wave leads derived from the 12-lead ECG can improve signal-to-noise ratio of the P-wave; this may improve the performance of detection algorithms that rely on P-wave analysis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Silicon-substrate microelectrode arrays for parallel recording of neural activity in peripheral and cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, G T; Storment, C W; Halks-Miller, M; Belczynski, C R; Della Santina, C C; Lewis, E R; Maluf, N I

    1994-06-01

    A new process for the fabrication of regeneration microelectrode arrays for peripheral and cranial nerve applications is presented. This type of array is implanted between the severed ends of nerves, the axons of which regenerate through via holes in the silicon and are thereafter held fixed with respect to the microelectrodes. The process described is designed for compatibility with industry-standard CMOS or BiCMOS processes (it does not involve high-temperature process steps nor heavily-doped etch-stop layers), and provides a thin membrane for the via holes, surrounded by a thick silicon supporting rim. Many basic questions remain regarding the optimum via hole and microelectrode geometries in terms of both biological and electrical performance of the implants, and therefore passive versions were fabricated as tools for addressing these issues in on-going work. Versions of the devices were implanted in the rat peroneal nerve and in the frog auditory nerve. In both cases, regeneration was verified histologically and it was observed that the regenerated nerves had reorganized into microfascicles containing both myelinated and unmyelinated axons and corresponding to the grid pattern of the via holes. These microelectrode arrays were shown to allow the recording of action potential signals in both the peripheral and cranial nerve setting, from several microelectrodes in parallel.

  11. Localization of brain activity during auditory verbal short-term memory derived from magnetic recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, A; Kristeva, R; Cheyne, D; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L

    1991-09-06

    We have studied magnetic and electrical fields of the brain in normal subjects during the performance of an auditory verbal short-term memory task. On each trial 3 digits, selected from the numbers 'one' through 'nine', were presented for memorization followed by a probe number which could or could not be a member of the preceding memory set. The subject pressed an appropriate response button and accuracy and reaction time were measured. Magnetic fields recorded from up to 63 sites over both hemispheres revealed a transient field at 110 ms to both the memory item and the probe consistent with a dipole source in Heschl's gyrus; a sustained magnetic field between 300 and 800 ms to just the memory items localized to the temporal lobe slightly deeper and posterior to Heschl's gyri; and a sustained magnetic field between 300 and 800 ms to just the probes localized bilaterally to the medio-basal temporal lobes. These results are related to clinical disorders of short-term memory in man.

  12. Elemental geochemical records of seafloor hydrothermal activities in the sediments from the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Shikui; YU Zenghui; DU Tongjun

    2007-01-01

    The major and minor element contents in the sediment core H9 from the hydrothermal fields of the Okinawa Trough show a sharp change at the depth of 80 cm. The elements enriched in the upper 80 cm core are those enriched in the hydrothermal deposits and in the surface sediments recovered from the hydrothermal fields in the trough, which indicates the input of hydrothermal materials. Comparing with other hydrothermal sediments from Mid-ocean Ridges or the Lau Basin, the degree of the enrichment of elements iron, copper, cobalt, and nickel is relatively low. However, the enrichment of elements manganese, lead, arsenic, antimony and mercury is remarkable. The average contents of these elements in the upper 80 cm core sediments are three to six times those in the lower section, and 3 ~ 12 times those in the surface sediments which are not influenced by hydrothermal activities. Hydrothermal activities have contributed significant manganese, lead, arsenic, antimony and mercury to the sediments, and these elements are distinct indicators for the hydrothermal activity in the Okinawa Trough. The significant enrichment of these elements in Core H9 upward from the depth 80 cm indicates the start or the significant enhancing of the hydrothermal activity in this area at about 5 740 aB. P. The average accumulation rate of manganese during this period is about 40 461 μg/( cm2 · ka), which is similar to the hydrothermal sediments in the Lau Basin or the East Pacific Rise.

  13. Analyses of cosmic ray induced-neutron based on spectrometers operated simultaneously at mid-latitude and Antarctica high-altitude stations during quiet solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, G.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper are described a new neutron spectrometer which operate in the Concordia station (Antarctica, Dome C) since December 2015. This instrument complements a network including neutron spectrometers operating in the Pic-du-Midi and the Pico dos Dias. Thus, this work present an analysis of cosmic ray induced-neutron based on spectrometers operated simultaneously in the Pic-du-Midi and the Concordia stations during a quiet solar activity. The both high station platforms allow for investigating the long period dynamics to analyze the spectral variation and effects of local and seasonal changes, but also the short term dynamics during solar flare events. A first part is devoted to analyze the count rates, the spectrum and the neutron fluxes, implying cross-comparisons between data obtained in the both stations. In a second part, measurements analyses were reinforced by modeling based on simulations of atmospheric cascades according to primary spectra which only depend on the solar modulation potential.

  14. Simultaneous multi-element determination in different seed samples of Dodonaea viscosa hopseed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sweify, Fatma H.; El-Amir, Mahmoud A.; Mostafa, Mohamed; Ramadan, Hala E.; Rashad, Ghada M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Lab. Center

    2016-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied for nondestructive multi-element analysis of seed samples of the plant Dodonaea viscosa hopseed. This plant is distributed all over Egypt, because of its suitable properties. The samples were collected from some bushes grown at different sites in some governorates, in July of each year during the period from 2004 to 2011. The determined elements are: Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn, under the chosen irradiation and cooling times. The content of some elements has been compared with data obtained from previous work on analysis of various kinds of seeds. The influence of some parameters on the determined elemental content is discussed. Standard reference materials IAEA-155 and IAEA-V-10 were used to assure quality control, accuracy and precision of the technique.

  15. Strain localization in ultramylonitic marbles by simultaneous activation of dislocation motion and grain boundary sliding (Syros, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rogowitz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme strain localization occurred in the center of the cross-cutting element of a flanking structure in almost pure calcite marbles from Syros, Greece. At the maximum displacement of 120 cm along the cross-cutting element evidence of grain size sensitive deformation mechanisms can be found in the ultramylonitic marbles, which are characterized by (1 an extremely small grain size (∼3 μm, (2 grain boundary triple junctions with nearly 120° angles, (3 a weak crystallographic preferred orientation with very low texture index (J=1.4, (4 a random misorientation angle distribution curve and (5 the presence of small cavities. Using transmission electron microscopy a deformation sequence is observed comprising, first recrystallization by bulging resulting in the development of the fine-grained ultramylonite followed by the evolution of a high dislocation density (∼1013 m−2 with ongoing deformation of the fine-grained ultramylonite. The arrangement of dislocations in the extremely fine grain sized calcite differs from microstructures created by classical dislocation creep mediated by combined glide and thermally activated climb. Instead, it exhibits extensive glide and dislocation networks characteristic of recovery accommodated by cross-slip and network-assisted dislocation movement without formation of idealized subgrain walls. The enabling of grain boundary sliding to dislocation activity is deemed central to initiating and sustaining strain softening and is argued to be an important strain localization process in calcite rocks, even at high strain rate (10−9 s−1 and low temperature (300 °C.

  16. Simultaneous measurements from the Millstone Hill radar and the Active satellite during the SAID/SAR arc event of the March 1990 CEDAR storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Förster

    Full Text Available During a nearby passage of the Active satellite above the Millstone Hill radar on 21 March 1990 at local sunset, the satellite and the radar performed simultaneous measurements of upper ionospheric parameters in nearly the same spatial volume. For this purpose the radar carried out a special azimuth-elevation scan to track the satellite. Direct comparisons of radar data and in situ satellite measurements have been carried out quite rarely. In this case, the coincidence of co-ordinated measurements and active ionospheric-magnetospheric processes during an extended storm recovery phase presents a unique occasion resulting in a very valuable data set. The measurements show generally good agreement both during quiet prestorm and storm conditions and the combination of radar and satellite observations gives a more comprehensive picture of the physical processes involved. We find a close relationship between the rapid westward ion drift peak at subauroral latitudes (SAID event and the occurrence of a stable auroral red (SAR arc observed after sunset by an all-sky imager and reported in an earlier study of this event. The SAID electric field is caused by the penetration of energetic ions with energies between about 1 keV and 100 keV into the outer plasmasphere to a latitude equatorward of the extent of the plasmasheet electrons. Charge separation results in the observed polarisation field and the SAID. Unusually high molecular ion densities measured by the satellite at altitudes of 700-870 km at subauroral and auroral latitudes point on strong upward-directed ion acceleration processes and an intense neutral gas upwelling. These structures are collocated with a narrow trough in electron density and an electron temperature peak as observed simultaneously by the radar and the satellite probes.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; plasma temperature and density; Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere.

  17. Gastroprotection and effect of the simultaneous administration of Cuachalalate (Amphipterygium adstringens) on the pharmacokinetics and anti-inflammatory activity of diclofenac in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Andrés; Oliva, Iván; Sánchez-Mendoza, María Elena; Arrieta, Jesús; Cruz-Antonio, Leticia; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto

    2005-12-01

    This work aimed to study the effect of Cuachalalate methanol extract (CME) on the anti-inflammatory activity and pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium, a frequently prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The gastroprotective effect of CME on the gastric injury induced by diclofenac was studied in rats. CME showed a gastroprotective effect of 15.7% at 1 mg kg(-1) and 72.5% at dose of 300 mg kg(-1). Omeprazole, used as anti-ulcer reference drug, showed gastroprotective effects of 50-89.7% at doses tested (1-30 mg kg(-1)). The value of the 50% effective dose for the anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac sodium (ED50 = 1.14 +/- 0.23 mg kg(-1)) using carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model, was not modified by the concomitant administration of 30 or 100 mg kg(-1) of CME. The effect of CME (30, 100 and 300 mg kg(-1), p.o.) on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium was studied. It was observed that the simultaneous administration of diclofenac sodium and 300 mg kg(-1) of CME decreased significantly the values of Cmax (7.08 +/- 1.42 microg mL(-1)) and AUC (12.67 +/- 2.97 microg h mL(-1)), but not the value of tmax (0.13 (0.1-0.25)h) obtained with the administration of diclofenac alone. The simultaneous administration of 30 or 100 mg kg(-1) of CME did not modify the pharmacokinetic parameters of diclofenac. The experimental findings in rats suggest that CME at doses lower than 100 mg kg(-1) protects the gastric mucosa from the damage induced by diclofenac sodium without altering either the anti-inflammatory activity or the pharmacokinetics of this NSAID.

  18. Detecting the Elusive P-Wave: A New ECG Lead to Improve the Recording of Atrial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Alan; Finlay, Dewar D; Guldenring, Daniel; Bond, Raymond R; McLaughlin, James

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we report on a lead selection method that was developed to detect the optimal bipolar electrode placement for recording of the P-wave. The study population consisted of 117 lead body surface potential maps recorded from 229 healthy subjects. The optimal bipolar lead was developed using the training set (172 subjects) then extracted from the testing dataset (57 subjects) and compared to other lead systems previously reported for improved recording of atrial activity. All leads were assessed in terms of P-wave, QRS, and STT root mean square (RMS). The P/QRST RMS ratio was also investigated to determine the atrioventricular RMS ratio. Finally, the effect of minor electrode misplacements on the P-lead was investigated. The P-lead discovered in this study outperformed all other investigated leads in terms of P-wave RMS. The P-lead showed a significant improvement in median P-wave RMS (93 versus 72 μV, p STT RMS was also observed from the P-lead in comparison to lead II (668 versus 573 μV, p STT RMS making it an appropriate choice for atrial arrhythmia monitoring. Given the improvement in signal-to-noise ratio, an improvement in algorithms that rely on P-wave analysis may be achieved.

  19. Circular polarization intrinsic optical signal recording of stimulus-evoked neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong-Wen; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Yao, Xin-Cheng

    2011-05-15

    Linear polarization intrinsic optical signal (LP-IOS) measurement can provide sensitive detection of neural activities in stimulus-activated neural tissues. However, the LP-IOS magnitude and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are highly correlated with the nerve orientation relative to the polarization plane of the incident light. Because of the complexity of orientation dependency, LP-IOS optimization and outcome interpretation are time consuming and complicated. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of circular polarization intrinsic optical signal (CP-IOS) measurement. Our theoretical modeling and experimental investigation indicate that CP-IOS magnitude and SNR are independent from the nerve orientation. Therefore, CP-IOS promises a practical method for polarization IOS imaging of complex neural systems.

  20. Micromorphological aspects of various human activities recorded in the Scafati pedocomplex (Napoli, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellini, Ivano; Vogel, Sebastian; Märker, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The stratigraphic sequence of Scafati, about 3 km east of ancient Pompeii, is presented consisting of a multilayered sequence of repeated volcanic deposition and pedogenesis that was caused by several phases of volcanic activity and volcanic quiescence of Somma-Vesuvius, at least, the last 20,000 years. Micromorphological analysis were carried out at the soil material and selected volcanic deposits to establish a chronological succession of different phases of volcanic deposition, pedogenetic transformation but also to highlight the anthropogenic influence. The micromorphological analysis testified furrow irrigation and soil cultivation in the medieval stratigraphy and allowed the identification of very significant antropogenic features in the Bronze Age/Iron Age paleosol, i.e. complex depositional crusts and dusty clay coatings and hypocoatings, which are often used as an indicator for tillage activity. In contrast to the clear macroscopic and chemical evidence of ancient soil cultivation, the Roman paleosol did not exhibit distinct micromorphological signs of soil cultivation.

  1. Paleoclimatic impact on vertebrate activities: a speleothem record from Power Mill Creek Cave, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Schubert, B. W.; Wang, X.; Rowe, H. D.; Buckles, J.; Kaufmann, J. E.

    2007-12-01

    Two speleothem samples were collected from Power Mill Creek Cave (PMCC), Missouri, for uranium-series dating at the University of Minnesota and stable isotopic analyses at the University of Kentucky. The speleothem samples found in the cave were attached to the bones of an extinct ground sloth (Megalonyx jeffersonii). A femur was propped up on one stalagmite (PMCC1) and cemented to it by subsequent layers of flowstone. The other stalagmite (PMCC2) formed on top of a scapula. The ages of the speleothem samples range between 52,900 and 660 years old. Very few absolute dates on M. jefferesonii are known from the south-central United States and none of these are associated with paleoclimate data. With high-precision U-Th dates and the unique sample, PMCC1, we can narrow the age range of this M. jeffersonii to be between 42,100 ± 400 and 38,500 ± 500 years ago. In addition, we obtained carbon and oxygen isotope data on sample PMCC1 for a time period between 53 to 35 ka and reconstructed the regional climatic and vegetation changes. In general, climatic oscillations and vegetation changes in this region are consistent with the earlier study from speleothem samples of Crevice Cave, Missouri (Dorale et al., 1998). The midcontinental climate cooled and forest replaced grassland between 55 and 41 ka. Then, the temperature suddenly increased at 37 ka. Preliminary analysis of oxygen isotope oscillation shows that this warming around 37 ka was even more dramatic than that reported in the previous investigation at Crevice Cave. Based on these data, the sloth was living in a forested environment associated with a transitional climate. It is likely that these sudden cooling and subsequent warming changes between 42 and 37 ka had an impact on vertebrate communities in this region. Determining the degree of these impacts requires additional comparisons between well dated vertebrates and climatic records.

  2. Monitoring of 1-min personal particulate matter exposures in relation to voice-recorded time-activity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, P J; Valenzia, J R; Delfino, R J; Liu, L J

    2001-12-01

    Recent studies on the association between exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) and disease have identified short-term peaks in PM exposures as posing especial health threats. Lightweight personal instruments are needed to characterize short-term exposures to PM and to identify the most important sources of high PM excursions. In this study, we measured exposure to fine PM using a small personal nephelometer (pDR; MIE, Inc) to investigate the utility of this instrument in identifying activities and microenvironments most associated with high PM exposures and the magnitude and duration of peaks in PM exposures. Ten adult volunteers wore a pDR recording PM concentrations at 1-min time intervals for 1 week each. PM concentrations were measured by the pDR in units of microg/m(3) based on light scatter. The use of a time-stamped voice recorder enabled activity and location to be continuously documented in real time. In addition, a small, inexpensive light intensity logger was affixed to the pDR to evaluate the potential of this instrument to assist in verifying wearer- recorded data. For each person, patterns of PM exposure were remarkably consistent over daily activities and showed large excursions associated with specific indoor and outdoor microenvironments and activities, such as cooking. When the magnitude and duration of excursions in PM were analyzed, we found that high PM levels occurred in relatively few of the minutes measured but comprised a substantial fraction of the total exposure to PM. Fifteen-minute averaged PM levels were found to be as much as 10 times the daily average. When the data were analyzed with a generalized estimating equation model to account for effects of autocorrelation and clustering, PM exposure was significantly higher during subject-reported events including barbeque, yard work, being near pets or construction activities, cooking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure, as compared with periods with no pollution events

  3. Simultaneous analysis of mitochondrial activity and DNA content in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by dual parameter flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmerle, T; Löffler, M

    1989-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were permeabilized using low concentrations of digitonin, 8 micrograms/10(6) cells. Permeabilization was monitored by the assay of lactate dehydrogenase released into the incubation medium and of hexokinase partially bound to mitochondria. Integrity of the cellular organelles was unaffected as determined by assay of the mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase. Cells were stained with rhodamine 123 as a mitochondrial specific dye and propidium iodide/mithramycin as DNA specific dyes. The green fluorescence of bound rhodamine 123 versus red fluorescence of DNA in individual cells was analysed by dual parameter flow cytometry. Incubation of cells with inhibitors of mitochondrial energy metabolism, such as, potassium cyanide and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone abolished binding of rhodamine 123. Flow cytometric data allowed a correlation between cell position in the mitotic cycle with total mitochondrial activity. In addition, comparison of the characteristics of propidium iodide and ethidium bromide staining further elucidated the molecular basis of the staining with the positively-charged fluorescent dye rhodamine 123.

  4. Simultaneous removal of five triazole fungicides from synthetic solutions on activated carbons and cyclodextrin-based adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégorio Crini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an adsorption-oriented process for the removal of fungicides from polycontaminated aqueous solutions was applied. To remove triazole fungicides from aqueous mixtures of propiconazole (PROPI, tebuconazole (TEBU, epoxiconazole (EPOXI, bromuconazole (BROMU and difenoconazole (DIFENO, several materials used as adsorbents were compared using batch experiments, namely two conventional activated carbons (ACs and five nonconventional cross-linked cyclodextrin (CD-based materials (α-CDP, β-CDP, γ-CDP, αβγ-CDP mixture, and hydroxypropyl-β-CDP. This article presents the abatements obtained. As expected, ACs exhibited the highest levels of triazole fungicide removal: the treatment lowered the five azoles by more than 99%, and adsorption was non-selective. Concerning CD-based materials employed for the first time for the removal of fungicides from polycontaminated aqueous solutions, results were interesting in particular for hydroxypropyl-β-CDP: 1 g of adsorbent placed in 1 L of solution containing 1 mg of each of five triazoles (5 mg in total was able to remove over half of the fungicide amount (2.97 mg. The order obtained was the following: BROMU << PROPI ≅ EPOXI < TEBU << DIFENO. This indicates that, in the mixture studied, strong competition prevailed among fungicides for the binding sites.

  5. Synthesis of granular activated carbon/zero valent iron composites for simultaneous adsorption/dechlorination of trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hui-Hsin; Su, Jhih-Gang; Liang, Chenju

    2011-08-30

    The coupling adsorption and degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) through dechlorination using synthetic granular activated carbon and zerovalent iron (GAC-ZVI) composites was studied. The GAC-ZVI composites were prepared from aqueous Fe(2+) solutions by impregnation with and without the use of a PEG dispersant and then heated at 105°C or 700°C under a stream of N(2). Pseudo-first-order rate constant data on the removal of TCE demonstrates that the adsorption kinetics of GAC is similar to those of GAC-ZVI composites. However, the usage of GAC-ZVI composites liberated a greater amount of Cl than when ZVI was used alone. The highest degree of reductive dechlorination of TCE was achieved using a GAC-ZVI700P composite (synthesized using PEG under 700°C). A modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate law was employed to depict the behavior of Cl liberation. As a result, a zero-order Cl liberation reaction was observed and the desorption limited TCE degradation rate constant decreased as the composite dosage was increased. The GAC-ZVI composites can be employed as a reactive GAC that is not subject to the limitations of using GAC and ZVI separately.

  6. Requirement of Simultaneous Assessment of Crystal- and Supernatant-Related Entomotoxic Activities of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains for Biocontrol-Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Costa Argôlo-Filho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioinsecticides with lower concentrations of endospores/crystals and without loss of efficiency are economically advantageous for pest biocontrol. In addition to Cry proteins, other Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins in culture supernatants (SN have biocontrol potential (e.g., Vip3A, Cry1I, Sip1, whereas others are unwanted (β-exotoxins, as they display widespread toxicity across taxa. A strain simultaneously providing distinct toxin activities in crystals and SN would be desirable for bioinsecticides development; however, strains secreting β-exotoxins should be discarded, independently of other useful entomotoxins. Entomotoxicity of crystals and SN from a Brazilian Bt tolworthi strain (Btt01 was tested against Spodoptera frugiperda to assess the potential for biocontrol-product development based on more than one type of toxin/activity. Tests showed that 107 endospores mL−1 caused >80% of larvae mortality, suggesting Btt01 may be used in similar concentrations as those of other Bt-based biopesticides. When it was applied to cornfields, a significant 60% reduction of larvae infestation was observed. However, bioassays with Btt01 SN revealed a thermostable toxic activity. Physicochemical characterization strongly suggests the presence of unwanted β-exotoxins, with isolate-specific temporal variation in its secretion. Knowledge of the temporal pattern of secretion/activity in culture for all forms of toxins produced by a single strain is required to both detect useful activities and avoid the potential lack of identification of undesirable toxins. These findings are discussed in the contexts of commercial Bt product development, advantages of multiple-activity strains, and care and handling recommended for large-scale fermentation systems.

  7. Requirement of simultaneous assessment of crystal- and supernatant-related entomotoxic activities of Bacillus thuringiensis strains for biocontrol-product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argôlo-Filho, Ronaldo Costa; Costa, Robson Luz; Pinheiro, Daniele Heloisa; Corrêa, Fábio Mathias; Valicente, Fernando Hercos; Pomella, Alan William Vilela; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

    2014-05-20

    Bioinsecticides with lower concentrations of endospores/crystals and without loss of efficiency are economically advantageous for pest biocontrol. In addition to Cry proteins, other Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in culture supernatants (SN) have biocontrol potential (e.g., Vip3A, Cry1I, Sip1), whereas others are unwanted (β-exotoxins), as they display widespread toxicity across taxa. A strain simultaneously providing distinct toxin activities in crystals and SN would be desirable for bioinsecticides development; however, strains secreting β-exotoxins should be discarded, independently of other useful entomotoxins. Entomotoxicity of crystals and SN from a Brazilian Bt tolworthi strain (Btt01) was tested against Spodoptera frugiperda to assess the potential for biocontrol-product development based on more than one type of toxin/activity. Tests showed that 10(7) endospores mL(-1) caused >80% of larvae mortality, suggesting Btt01 may be used in similar concentrations as those of other Bt-based biopesticides. When it was applied to cornfields, a significant 60% reduction of larvae infestation was observed. However, bioassays with Btt01 SN revealed a thermostable toxic activity. Physicochemical characterization strongly suggests the presence of unwanted β-exotoxins, with isolate-specific temporal variation in its secretion. Knowledge of the temporal pattern of secretion/activity in culture for all forms of toxins produced by a single strain is required to both detect useful activities and avoid the potential lack of identification of undesirable toxins. These findings are discussed in the contexts of commercial Bt product development, advantages of multiple-activity strains, and care and handling recommended for large-scale fermentation systems.

  8. Requirement of Simultaneous Assessment of Crystal- and Supernatant-Related Entomotoxic Activities of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains for Biocontrol-Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argôlo-Filho, Ronaldo Costa; Costa, Robson Luz; Pinheiro, Daniele Heloisa; Corrêa, Fábio Mathias; Valicente, Fernando Hercos; Pomella, Alan William Vilela; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Bioinsecticides with lower concentrations of endospores/crystals and without loss of efficiency are economically advantageous for pest biocontrol. In addition to Cry proteins, other Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in culture supernatants (SN) have biocontrol potential (e.g., Vip3A, Cry1I, Sip1), whereas others are unwanted (β-exotoxins), as they display widespread toxicity across taxa. A strain simultaneously providing distinct toxin activities in crystals and SN would be desirable for bioinsecticides development; however, strains secreting β-exotoxins should be discarded, independently of other useful entomotoxins. Entomotoxicity of crystals and SN from a Brazilian Bt tolworthi strain (Btt01) was tested against Spodoptera frugiperda to assess the potential for biocontrol-product development based on more than one type of toxin/activity. Tests showed that 107 endospores mL−1 caused >80% of larvae mortality, suggesting Btt01 may be used in similar concentrations as those of other Bt-based biopesticides. When it was applied to cornfields, a significant 60% reduction of larvae infestation was observed. However, bioassays with Btt01 SN revealed a thermostable toxic activity. Physicochemical characterization strongly suggests the presence of unwanted β-exotoxins, with isolate-specific temporal variation in its secretion. Knowledge of the temporal pattern of secretion/activity in culture for all forms of toxins produced by a single strain is required to both detect useful activities and avoid the potential lack of identification of undesirable toxins. These findings are discussed in the contexts of commercial Bt product development, advantages of multiple-activity strains, and care and handling recommended for large-scale fermentation systems. PMID:24854738

  9. FUSION OF ACTIVE AND PASSIVE MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS TO CREATE AN ESSENTIAL CLIMATE VARIABLE DATA RECORD ON SOIL MOISTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wagner

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture was recently included in the list of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs that are deemed essential for IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change needs and considered feasible for global observation. ECVs data records should be as long, complete and consistent as possible, and in the case of soil moisture this means that the data record shall be based on multiple data sources, including but not limited to active (scatterometer and passive (radiometer microwave observations acquired preferably in the low-frequency microwave range. Among the list of sensors that can be used for this task are the C-band scatterometers on board of the ERS and METOP satellites and the multi-frequency radiometers SMMR, SSM/I, TMI, AMSR-E, and Windsat. Together, these sensors already cover a time period of more than 30 years and the question is how can observations acquired by these sensors be merged to create one consistent data record? This paper discusses on a high-level possible approaches for fusing the individual satellite data. It is argued that the best possible approach for the fusion of the different satellite data sets is to merge Level 2 soil moisture data derived from the individual satellite data records. This approach has already been demonstrated within the WACMOS project (http://wacmos.itc.nl/ funded by European Space Agency (ESA and will be further improved within the Climate Change Initiative (CCI programme of ESA (http://www.esa-cci.org/.

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Two Types of Active Components with Different Physicochemical Properties in Kushen by HPLC-UV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A simple, reliable and accurate high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) coupled with a UV detector at varied wavelength was developed for the quantitation of two types of anti-carcinogenic compounds, namely, Kushen alkaloids(KS-As) and Kushen flavonoids(KS-Fs), in Kushen. Their remarkable difference in physicochemical properties was circumvented by integrated optimization of column and mobile phase. The separation was achieved on an alkaline-resisting C18 column via gradient elution with acetonitrile(ACN) and 0.025%(volume ratio) diethylamine(DEA) in water as mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.7 mL/min, and the column temperature was maintained at 35 °C. UV detection wavelength was set at 225 nm to monitor KS-As, and then changed to 335 nm for KS-Fs at 26th min, which was kept for 30 min before returning to the original wavelength. All the calibration curves show good linearity(r2〉0.999) within test ranges. The intra- and inter-day precision values of these components were less than 3.82%, and the average recovery rates obtained were in a range of 97.24%―102.64% for all the samples with RSD below 3.94%. This assay was successfully applied to determining the major active components in commercial herbal samples of Kushen. Moreover, the possible relationship between sample and the geographical region was visualized based on the contents of the 6 compounds in the light of principal component analysis(PCA). The results suggest that the proposed method facilitates the quality control of Kushen.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Two Types of Active Components with Different Physicochemical Properties in Kushen by HPLC-UV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-feng; ZHAO Qin-qin; SHAO Qin; FAN Xiao-hui

    2011-01-01

    A simple,reliable and accurate high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)coupled with a UV detector at varied wavelength was developed for the quantitation of two types of anti-carcinogenic compounds,namely,Kushen alkaloids(KS-As)and Kushen fiavonoids(KS-Fs),in Kushen.Their remarkable difference in physicochemical properties was circumvented by integrated optimization of column and mobile phase.The separation was achieved on an alkaline-resisting C18 column via gradient elution with acetonitrile(ACN)and 0.025%(volume ratio)diethylamine(DEA)in water as mobile phase.The flow rate was 0.7mL/min,and the column temperature was maintained at 35℃.UV detection wavelength was set at 225 nm to monitor KS-As,and then changed to 335 nm for KS-Fs at 26th min,which was kept for 30 min before returning to the original wavelength.All the calibration curves show good linearity(r2>0.999)within test ranges.The intra-and inter-day precision values of these components were less than 3.82%,and the average recovery rates obtained were in a range of 97.24%—102.64% for all the samples with RSD below 3.94%.This assay was successfully applied to determining the major active components in commercial herbal samples of Kushen. Moreover, the possible relationship between sample and the geographical region was visualized based on the contents of the 6 compounds in the light of principal component analysis(PCA).The results suggest that the proposed method facilitates the quality control of Kushen.

  12. MiR-21 simultaneously regulates ERK1 signaling in HSC activation and hepatocyte EMT in hepatic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-21 (miR-21 plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of liver fibrosis. Here, we determined the serum and hepatic content of miR-21 in patients with liver cirrhosis and rats with dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic cirrhosis and examined the effects of miR-21 on SPRY2 and HNF4α in modulating ERK1 signaling in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of hepatocytes. METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine miR-21 and the expression of SPRY2, HNF4α and other genes. Immunoblotting assay was carried out to examine the expression of relevant proteins. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to assess the effects of miR-21 on its predicted target genes SPRY2 and HNF4α. Primary HSCs and hepatocytes were treated with miR-21 mimics/inhibitors or appropriate adenoviral vectors to examine the relation between miR-21 and SPRY2 or HNF4α. RESULTS: The serum and hepatic content of miR-21 was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients and rats. SPRY2 and HNF4α mRNA levels were markedly lower in the cirrhotic liver. MiR-21 overexpression was associated with enhanced ERK1 signaling and EMT in liver fibrosis. Luciferase assay revealed suppressed SPRY2 and HNF4α expression by miR-21. Ectopic miR-21 stimulated ERK1 signaling in HSCs and induced hepatocyte EMT by targeting SPRY2 or HNF4α. Downregulating miR-21 suppressed ERK1 signaling, inhibited HSC activation, and blocked EMT in TGFβ1-treated hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS: MiR-21 modulates ERK1 signaling and EMT in liver fibrosis by regulating SPRY2 and HNF4α expression. MiR-21 may serve as a potentially biomarker as well as intervention target for hepatic cirrhosis.

  13. Physician assessment of disease activity in JIA subtypes. Analysis of data extracted from electronic medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Deli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Although electronic medical records (EMRs have facilitated care for children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, analyses of treatment outcomes have required paper based or manually re-entered data. We have started EMR discrete data entry for JIA patient visits, including joint examination and global assessment, by physician and patient. In this preliminary study, we extracted data from the EMR to Xenobase™ (TransMed Systems, Inc., Cupertino, CA, an application permitting cohort analyses of the relationship between global assessment to joint examination and subtype. Methods During clinic visits, data were entered into discrete fields in ambulatory visit forms in the EMR (EpicCare™, Epic Systems, Verona, WI. Data were extracted using Clarity Reports, then de-identified and uploaded for analyses to Xenobase™. Parameters included joint examination, ILAR diagnostic classification, physician global assessment, patient global assessment, and patient pain score. Data for a single visit for each of 160 patients over a 2 month period, beginning March, 2010, were analyzed. Results In systemic JIA patients, strong correlations for physician global assessment were found with pain score, joint count and patient assessment. In contrast, physician assessment for patients with persistent oligoarticular and rheumatoid factor negative patients showed strong correlation with joint counts, but only moderate correlation with pain scores and patient global assessment. Conversely, for enthesitis patients, physician assessment correlated strongly with pain scores, and moderately with joint count and patient global assessment. Rheumatoid factor positive patients, the smallest group studied, showed moderate correlation for all three measures. Patient global assessment for systemic patients showed strong correlations with pain scores and joint count, similar to data for physician assessment. For polyarticular and enthesitis patients

  14. Equilibrium isotherm and kinetic studies for the simultaneous removal of phenol and cyanide by use of S. odorifera (MTCC 5700) immobilized on coconut shell activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Balomajumder, Chandrajit

    2016-09-01

    In this study, simultaneous removal of phenol and cyanide by a microorganism S. odorifera (MTCC 5700) immobilized onto coconut shell activated carbon surface (CSAC) was studied in batch reactor from mono and binary component aqueous solution. Activated carbon was derived from coconut shell by chemical activation method. Ferric chloride (Fecl3), used as surface modification agents was applied to biomass. Optimum biosorption conditions were obtained as a function of biosorbent dosage, pH, temperature, contact time and initial phenol and cyanide concentration. To define the equilibrium isotherms, experimental data were analyzed by five mono component isotherm and six binary component isotherm models. The higher uptake capacity of phenol and cyanide onto CSAC biosorbent surface was 450.02 and 2.58 mg/g, respectively. Nonlinear regression analysis was used for determining the best fit model on the basis of error functions and also for calculating the parameters involved in kinetic and isotherm models. The kinetic study results revealed that Fractal-like mixed first second order model and Brouser-Weron-Sototlongo models for phenol and cyanide were capable to offer accurate explanation of biosorption kinetic. According to the experimental data results, CSAC with immobilization of bacterium S. odorifera (MTCC 5700) seems to be an alternative and effective biosorbent for the elimination of phenol and cyanide from binary component aqueous solution.

  15. Extraction of nano-silicon with activated carbons simultaneously from rice husk and their synergistic catalytic effect in counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Waqar; Bahrani, Majid Raissan Al; Yang, Zhichun; Khan, Jahangeer; Jing, Wenkui; Jiang, Fan; Chu, Liang; Liu, Nishuang; Li, Luying; Gao, Yihua

    2016-12-01

    The extraction of renewable energy resources particularly from earth abundant materials has always been a matter of significance in industrial products. Herein, we report a novel simultaneous extraction of nano-silicon with activated carbons (nano-Si@ACs) from rice husk (RH) by chemical activation method. As-extracted nano-Si@ACs is then used as an energy harvesting materials in counter electrodes (CEs) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The morphology, structure and texture studies confirm the high surface area, abundant active sites and porous structure of nano-Si@ACs. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry analyses reveal that the nano-Si@ACs is highly beneficial for fast I3‑ reduction and superior electrolyte diffusion capability. The nano-Si@ACs CE based DSSC exhibits enhanced power conversion efficiency of (8.01%) in contrast to pristine Pt CE (7.20%). These favorable results highlight the potential application of RH in low-cost, high-efficiency and Pt-free DSSCs.

  16. The simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures by isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, O W; Chan, K; Lau, Y K; Wong, W C

    1989-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures using isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed. It involves the use of an octadecylsilane column as the stationary phase with methanol, water, tetrahydrofuran, phosphoric acid mixtures as mobile phase including sodium dioctylsulphosuccinate as the ion-pair agent. The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 4.6 by means of phosphoric acid and ammonium hydroxide solutions. The proposed method involves the simple dilution of the samples with the mobile phase and the addition of metoclopramide hydrochloride as the internal standard. The active ingredients under investigation were chlorpheniramine, codeine, diphenhydramine, ephedrine, ethylmorphine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine and pholcodine, which exist as various combinations in cough-cold mixtures. The optimum composition of the mobile phase and the optimum flow rate were determined and are reported. The method was applied to the determination of active ingredients in seven commercially available cough-cold mixtures.

  17. Early aqueous activity on the ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies recorded by fayalite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Patricia M; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N; Wakita, Shigeru; Ciesla, Fred J; Hutcheon, Ian D

    2015-06-23

    Chronology of aqueous activity on chondrite parent bodies constrains their accretion times and thermal histories. Radiometric (53)Mn-(53)Cr dating has been successfully applied to aqueously formed carbonates in CM carbonaceous chondrites. Owing to the absence of carbonates in ordinary (H, L and LL), and CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites, and the lack of proper standards, there are no reliable ages of aqueous activity on their parent bodies. Here we report the first (53)Mn-(53)Cr ages of aqueously formed fayalite in the L3 chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 as Myr after calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), the oldest Solar System solids. In addition, measurements using our synthesized fayalite standard show that fayalite in the CV3 chondrite Asuka 881317 and CO3-like chondrite MacAlpine Hills 88107 formed and Myr after CAIs, respectively. Thermal modelling, combined with the inferred conditions (temperature and water/rock ratio) and (53)Mn-(53)Cr ages of aqueous alteration, suggests accretion of the L, CV and CO parent bodies ∼1.8-2.5 Myr after CAIs.

  18. Differences in foraging activity of deep sea diving odontocetes in the Ligurian Sea as determined by passive acoustic recorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorli, Giacomo; Au, Whitlow W. L.; Neuheimer, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the trophic roles of deep-diving odontocete species and how they vary in space and time is challenged by our ability to observe foraging behavior. Though sampling methods are limited, foraging activity of deep-diving odontocetes can be monitored by recording their biosonar emissions. Daily occurrence of echolocation clicks was monitored acoustically for five months (July-December 2011) in the Ligurian Sea (Mediterranean Sea) using five passive acoustic recorders. Detected odontocetes included Cuvier's beaked whales (Zipuhius cavirostris), sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), and long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas). The results indicated that the foraging strategies varied significantly over time, with sperm whales switching to nocturnal foraging in late September whereas Risso's dolphins and pilot whales foraged mainly at night throughout the sampling period. In the study area, winter nights are about five hours longer than summer nights and an analysis showed that pilot whales and Risso's dolphins adjusted their foraging activity with the length of the night, foraging longer during the longer winter nights. This is the first study to show that marine mammals exhibit diurnal foraging patterns closely correlated to sunrise and sunset.

  19. Thalamic activation modulates the responses of neurons in rat primary auditory cortex: an in vivo intracellular recording study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Han

    Full Text Available Auditory cortical plasticity can be induced through various approaches. The medial geniculate body (MGB of the auditory thalamus gates the ascending auditory inputs to the cortex. The thalamocortical system has been proposed to play a critical role in the responses of the auditory cortex (AC. In the present study, we investigated the cellular mechanism of the cortical activity, adopting an in vivo intracellular recording technique, recording from the primary auditory cortex (AI while presenting an acoustic stimulus to the rat and electrically stimulating its MGB. We found that low-frequency stimuli enhanced the amplitudes of sound-evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs in AI neurons, whereas high-frequency stimuli depressed these auditory responses. The degree of this modulation depended on the intensities of the train stimuli as well as the intervals between the electrical stimulations and their paired sound stimulations. These findings may have implications regarding the basic mechanisms of MGB activation of auditory cortical plasticity and cortical signal processing.

  20. A decadal satellite record of gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere to study polar stratospheric cloud formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Lars; Spang, Reinhold; Orr, Andrew; Alexander, M. Joan; Holt, Laura A.; Stein, Olaf

    2017-02-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves yield substantial small-scale temperature fluctuations that can trigger the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). This paper introduces a new satellite record of gravity wave activity in the polar lower stratosphere to investigate this process. The record is comprised of observations of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite from January 2003 to December 2012. Gravity wave activity is measured in terms of detrended and noise-corrected 15 µm brightness temperature variances, which are calculated from AIRS channels that are the most sensitive to temperature fluctuations at about 17-32 km of altitude. The analysis of temporal patterns in the data set revealed a strong seasonal cycle in wave activity with wintertime maxima at mid- and high latitudes. The analysis of spatial patterns indicated that orography as well as jet and storm sources are the main causes of the observed waves. Wave activity is closely correlated with 30 hPa zonal winds, which is attributed to the AIRS observational filter. We used the new data set to evaluate explicitly resolved temperature fluctuations due to gravity waves in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis. It was found that the analysis reproduces orographic and non-orographic wave patterns in the right places, but that wave amplitudes are typically underestimated by a factor of 2-3. Furthermore, in a first survey of joint AIRS and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) satellite observations, nearly 50 gravity-wave-induced PSC formation events were identified. The survey shows that the new AIRS data set can help to better identify such events and more generally highlights the importance of the process for polar ozone chemistry.

  1. Simultaneous selection by object-based attention in visual and frontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Poort, Jasper; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2014-01-01

    Models of visual attention hold that top-down signals from frontal cortex influence information processing in visual cortex. It is unknown whether situations exist in which visual cortex actively participates in attentional selection. To investigate this question, we simultaneously recorded neuronal

  2. Simultaneous determination of mycophenolate mofetil and its active metabolite, mycophenolic acid, by differential pulse voltammetry using multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Soleimani, Mohammad; Afkhami, Abbas

    2014-09-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of mycophenolate mofetil (MPM) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) was fabricated by multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNTs/GCE). The electrochemical behavior of these two drugs was studied at the modified electrode using cyclic voltammetry and adsorptive differential pulse voltammetry. MPM and MPA were oxidized at the GCE during an irreversible process. DPV analysis showed two oxidation peaks at 0.87V and 1.1V vs. Ag/AgCl for MPM and an oxidation peak at 0.87V vs. Ag/AgCl for MPA in phosphate buffer solution of pH5.0. The MWCNTs/GCE displayed excellent electrochemical activities toward oxidation of MPM and MPA relative to the bare GCE. The experimental design algorithm was used for optimization of DPV parameters. The electrode represents linear responses in the range 5.0×10(-6) to 1.6×10(-4)molL(-1) and 2.5×10(-6)molL(-1) to 6.0×10(-5)molL(-1) for MPM and MPA, respectively. The detection limit was found to be 9.0×10(-7)molL(-1) and 4.0×10(-7)molL(-1) for MPM and MPA, respectively. The modified electrode showed a good sensitivity and stability. It was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of MPM and MPA in plasma and urine samples.

  3. A 1500 yr record of North Atlantic storm activity based on optically dated relict beach scarps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buynevich, Ilya V.; Fitzgerald, Duncan M.; Goble, Ronald J.

    2007-06-01

    Understanding of long-term dynamics of intense coastal storms is important for determining the frequency and impact of these events on sandy coasts. We use optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates on relict scarps within a prograded barrier sequence to reconstruct the chronology of large-magnitude erosional events in the western Gulf of Maine. OSL dates obtained on quartz-rich sediments immediately overlying relict scarps indicate severe beach erosion and retreat due to erosional events ca. 1550, 390, 290, and 150 cal yr B.P. Our data provide new evidence of increased storm activity (most likely frequency and/or intensity of extratropical storms) during the past 500 yr, which was preceded by a relatively calm period lasting ˜1000 yr. The width of the coastal sequence preserved between successive paleoscarps shows strong correlation with the time interval elapsed between storms. Our findings indicate that diagnostic geophysical and sedimentological signatures of severe erosional events offer new opportunities for assessing the impact and timing of major storms along sandy coasts.

  4. Simultaneous structure-activity studies and arming of natural products by C-H amination reveal cellular targets of eupalmerin acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Cisar, Justin S.; Zhou, Cong-Ying; Vera, Brunilda; Williams, Howard; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Romo, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Natural products have a venerable history of, and enduring potential for the discovery of useful biological activity. To fully exploit this, the development of chemical methodology that can functionalize unique sites within these complex structures is highly desirable. Here, we describe the use of rhodium(II)-catalysed C-H amination reactions developed by Du Bois to carry out simultaneous structure-activity relationship studies and arming (alkynylation) of natural products at ‘unfunctionalized’ positions. Allylic and benzylic C-H bonds in the natural products undergo amination while olefins undergo aziridination, and tertiary amine-containing natural products are converted to amidines by a C-H amination-oxidation sequence or to hydrazine sulfamate zwitterions by an unusual N-amination. The alkynylated derivatives are ready for conversion into cellular probes that can be used for mechanism-of-action studies. Chemo- and site-selectivity was studied with a diverse library of natural products. For one of these—the marine-derived anticancer diterpene, eupalmerin acetate—quantitative proteome profiling led to the identification of several protein targets in HL-60 cells, suggesting a polypharmacological mode of action.

  5. Simultaneous quantification of 25 active constituents in the total flavonoids extract from Herba Desmodii Styracifolii by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Panpan; Yan, Wenying; Han, Qingjie; Wang, Chunying; Zhang, Zijian

    2015-04-01

    A sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 25 active constituents, including 21 flavonoids and four phenolic acids in the total flavonoids extract from Herba Desmodii Styracifolii for the first time. Among the 25 compounds, seven compounds including caffeic acid, acacetin, genistein, genistin, diosmetin, diosmin and hesperidin were identified and quantified for the first time in Herba Desmodii Styracifolii. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a ZORBAX SB-C18 (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5.0 μm) column using gradient elution of methanol and 0.1‰ acetic acid v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The identification and quantification of the analytes were achieved using negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The method was fully validated in terms of limits of detection and quantification, linearity, precision and accuracy. The results indicated that the developed method is simple, rapid, specific and reliable. Furthermore, the developed method was successfully applied to quantify the 25 active components in six batches of total flavonoids extract from Herba Desmodii Styracifolii.

  6. Neural Network Based Active Disturbance Rejection Control of a Novel Electrohydraulic Servo System for Simultaneously Balancing and Positioning by Isoactuation Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To satisfy the lightweight requirements of large pipe weapons, a novel electrohydraulic servo (EHS system where the hydraulic cylinder possesses three cavities is developed and investigated in the present study. In the EHS system, the balancing cavity of the EHS is especially designed for active compensation for the unbalancing force of the system, whereas the two driving cavities are employed for positioning and disturbance rejection of the large pipe. Aiming at simultaneously balancing and positioning of the EHS system, a novel neural network based active disturbance rejection control (NNADRC strategy is developed. In the NNADRC, the radial basis function (RBF neural network is employed for online updating of parameters of the extended state observer (ESO. Thereby, the nonlinear behavior and external disturbance of the system can be accurately estimated and compensated in real time. The efficiency and superiority of the system are critically investigated by conducting numerical simulations, showing that much higher steady accuracy as well as system robustness is achieved when comparing with conventional ADRC control system. It indicates that the NNADRC is a very promising technique for achieving fast, stable, smooth, and accurate control of the novel EHS system.

  7. Simultaneous detection of eight active components in Radix Tinosporae by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Qiuyue; Hashi, Yuki; Chen, Zilin

    2016-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of eight major active components (magnoflorine, menisperine, 20-hydroxyecdysone, cepharanthine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, columbin, and palmatine) in Radix Tinosporae. The separation was performed on an InterSustainSwift C18 column (1.9 μm, 2.1 id × 100 mm) at 40 °C with a gradient elution. A mixture of acetonitrile and methanol (v/v = 1:1) and ammonium acetate buffer (25 mmol/L ammonium acetate with 0.2% formic acid) were used as mobile phases, and the flow rate was set at 0.4 mL/min. The recovery was tested in real samples and calculated to be 86.97-111.28%, and all the compounds showed good linearity (r > 0.998) in relatively wide concentration ranges. The developed method was applied to the determination of eight active compounds in real herb samples, which were collected from four different places. It has been demonstrated that the proposed method has great potential for the quality control of the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Tinosporae.

  8. The Potential of the Bi-Directional Gaze: A Call for Neuroscientific Research on the Simultaneous Activation of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems through Tantric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Lidke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a call for the development of a neuroscientific research protocol for the study of the impact of Tantric practice on the autonomic nervous system. Tantric texts like Abhinavagupta’s Tantrāloka map out a complex meditative ritual system in which inward-gazing, apophatic, sense-denying contemplative practices are combined with outward-gazing, kataphatic sense-activating ritual practices. Abhinavagupta announces a culminating “bi-directional” state (pratimīlana-samādhi as the highest natural state (sahaja-samādhi in which the practitioner becomes a perfected yogi (siddhayogi. This state of maximized cognitive capacities, in which one’s inward gaze and outward world-engagement are held in balance, appears to be one in which the anabolic metabolic processes of the parasympathetic nervous system and the catabolic metabolic processes of the sympathetic nervous systems are simultaneously activated and integrated. Akin to secularized mindfulness and compassion training protocols like Emory’s CBCT, I propose the development of secularized “Tantric protocols” for the development of secular and tradition-specific methods for further exploring the potential of the human neurological system.

  9. A flow cytometer-based method to simultaneously assess activity and selectivity of compounds against the intracellular forms of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Cristian Gabriel; Solana, Maria Elisa; Curto, Maria de Los Angeles; Lammel, Estela Maria; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Alba Soto, Catalina Dirney

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is a major unsolved health issue in Latin America and an emerging threat worldwide. New drugs are urgently needed for chemotherapy as those available (benznidazole and nifurtimox) have variable efficacy and elevated toxicity. Efforts are actually oriented to improve tools and technologies (e.g. transgenic parasites, flow cytometry or image-based systems) for the screening of large numbers of candidate compounds for their activity against Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). Methods that test drug efficacy and selectivity in the same assay are suitable to accelerate the process of drug discovery. Here, we developed a GFP expressing T. cruzi from a moderate virulence stock and confirmed that the transgenic parasite retained the biological characteristics of the parental strain. With this tool, we established a flow cytometer-based method to simultaneously test drug activity against intracellular amastigotes and toxicity to the host cell. This one-step procedure allows determining the selectivity index of the tested compound in a sensitive and accurate manner even with low infection rates. This method can provide additional information on the interactions between drug, parasites and host cell and could be adapted to other trypanosomatids and protozoa with intracellular multiplication.

  10. Motion compensation for brain PET imaging using wireless MR active markers in simultaneous PET-MR: phantom and non-human primate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuan; Ackerman, Jerome L; Petibon, Yoann; Normandin, Marc D; Brady, Thomas J; El Fakhri, Georges; Ouyang, Jinsong

    2014-05-01

    Brain PET scanning plays an important role in the diagnosis, prognostication and monitoring of many brain diseases. Motion artifacts from head motion are one of the major hurdles in brain PET. In this work, we propose to use wireless MR active markers to track head motion in real time during a simultaneous PET-MR brain scan and incorporate the motion measured by the markers in the listmode PET reconstruction. Several wireless MR active markers and a dedicated fast MR tracking pulse sequence module were built. Data were acquired on an ACR Flangeless PET phantom with multiple spheres and a non-human primate with and without motion. Motions of the phantom and monkey's head were measured with the wireless markers using a dedicated MR tracking sequence module. The motion PET data were reconstructed using list-mode reconstruction with and without motion correction. Static reference was used as gold standard for quantitative analysis. The motion artifacts, which were prominent on the images without motion correction, were eliminated by the wireless marker based motion correction in both the phantom and monkey experiments. Quantitative analysis was performed on the phantom motion data from 24 independent noise realizations. The reduction of bias of sphere-to-background PET contrast by active marker based motion correction ranges from 26% to 64% and 17% to 25% for hot (i.e., radioactive) and cold (i.e., non-radioactive) spheres, respectively. The motion correction improved the channelized Hotelling observer signal-to-noise ratio of the spheres by 1.2 to 6.9 depending on their locations and sizes. The proposed wireless MR active marker based motion correction technique removes the motion artifacts in the reconstructed PET images and yields accurate quantitative values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Optical recording of neuronal activity with a genetically-encoded calcium indicator in anesthetized and freely moving mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Lütcke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent calcium (Ca2+ indicator proteins (FCIPs are promising tools for functional imaging of cellular activity in living animals. However, they have still not reached their full potential for in vivo imaging of neuronal activity due to limitations in expression levels, dynamic range, and sensitivity for reporting action potentials. Here, we report that viral expression of the ratiometric Ca2+ sensor yellow cameleon 3.60 (YC3.60 in pyramidal neurons of mouse barrel cortex enables in vivo measurement of neuronal activity with high dynamic range and sensitivity across multiple spatial scales. By combining juxtacellular recordings and two-photon imaging in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrate that YC3.60 can resolve single action potential (AP-evoked Ca2+ transients and reliably reports bursts of APs with negligible saturation. Spontaneous and whisker-evoked Ca2+ transients were detected in individual apical dendrites and somata as well as in local neuronal populations. Moreover, bulk measurements using wide-field imaging or fiber-optics revealed sensory-evoked YC3.60 signals in large areas of the barrel field. Fiber-optic recordings in particular enabled measurements in awake, freely moving mice and revealed complex Ca2+ dynamics, possibly reflecting different behavior-related brain states. Viral expression of YC3.60 - in combination with various optical techniques - thus opens a multitude of opportunities for functional studies of the neural basis of animal behavior, from dendrites to the levels of local and large-scale neuronal populations.

  12. Glass shards, pumice fragments and volcanic aerosol particles - diagenesis a recorder of volcanic activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenholzner, J. H.; Schroettner, H.; Poelt, P.; Delgado, H.

    2003-04-01

    Detailed SEM/EDS studies of Triassic (Southern Alps, A, I, Sl) and Miocene (Mixteca Alta, Mexico) tuffs revealed that volcanic glass shards can be replaced by zeolites (analcite), chlorites and smectites preserving the shape of primary shards (1). The Triassic pyroclastic deposits have been incorporated in the pre-Alpine burial diagenesis, the Miocene pyroclastic deposits are bentonites. The volcanologist is impressed by the circumstances that million years old pyroclast relict textures can be sized. Shape parameters obtained by image analysis can be compared with much younger pyroclastic deposits (2). Both deposits have not been effected by shearing. The alteration of pumice fragments of Triassic age is not a simple replacement process. Intergrowth of different illites and chlorites and probably vesicle filling by SiO2 and subsequent overgrowth make a reconstruction sometimes difficult. These processes are accompanied by the formation of REE-, Y- and Zr-bearing minerals as well as with the alteration of zircons. Studies of recently erupted ash from Popocatepetl volcano reveal the presence of a variety of µm-sized contact-metamorphosed clasts being a part of the volcanic ash (3). Such clasts should be present in many older pyroclastic deposits, especially where volcanoes had been situated on massive sedimentary units providing contact metamorphism in the realm of a magma chamber or during magma ascent. Volcanic aerosol particles collected in 1997 from the passively degassing plume of Popocatepetl volcano revealed in FESEM/EDS analysis (H. Schroettner and P. Poelt) a wide spectrum of fluffy, spherical and coagulated spherical particles (µm-sized). Under pre-vacuum conditions they remained stable for ca. 3 years (3). In nature the fate of these particles in the atmosphere is unknown. Are there relicts in marine, lacustrine sediments and ice cores, which could be used as proxies of volcanic activity? (1) Obenholzner &Heiken,1999. Ann.Naturhist.Mus.Wien, 100 A, 13

  13. A high-resolution lake sediment record of glacier activity from SE Greenland defines abrupt Holocene cooling events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balascio, N. L.; Bradley, R. S.; D'Andrea, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Orbital driven changes in high latitude summer insolation during the Holocene are responsible for the primary millennial-scale climate trends in the Arctic. Following deglaciation, maximum summer temperatures generally occurred during the early to mid-Holocene and declined through the late Holocene. Superimposed on this gradual cooling trend are centennial- and decadal-scale intervals that indicate more rapid perturbations of the arctic climate system. Highly resolved sedimentary records from terrestrial and marine sites help to better characterize climate system dynamics during the Holocene and investigate forcing and feedback mechanism that operate on different timescales. Reconstructing glacial activity can provide valuable paleoclimate information about trends in summer temperature and/or winter precipitation. Proglacial lakes contain sediment archives of meltwater input from glaciers and typically have high sedimentation rates preserving detailed information on glacial activity. However, interpreting proglacial sedimentary records can be difficult because 1) there may be significant input of sediment from non-glacial sources, 2) there is often a lack of organic material for radiocarbon dating, and 3) not all glaciers are sensitive to rapid climatic changes. Here we present a c. 10 cal ka BP record of glacier activity from Kulusuk Lake (65.6°N, 37.1°W; 202 m a.s.l.), a proglacial lake in southeast Greenland that is well constrained by radiocarbon dates and shows a clear signal of changes in glacial input throughout the Holocene. Kulusuk Lake is presently fed by meltwater from two cirque glaciers. It has a small catchment and no other significant source of sediment input. A 3.5 m sediment core contains distinct lithologic changes defined by grain size, magnetic susceptibility, organic content, and scanning XRF data. During the early Holocene, an overall decrease in meltwater input from 8.7-7.7 ka indicates the retreat of the glaciers in response to regional

  14. In vitro effects of simultaneous exposure to platinum and cadmium on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and DNA damage and potential protective effects of selenium and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariba, Blanka; Živković, Tanja; Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Gluščić, Valentina; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Peraica, Maja; Pizent, Alica

    2017-04-01

    Circulating platinum (Pt) is detectable in the blood of Pt-treated cancer patients for over a decade after the treatment. Prolonged exposure to Pt, in combination with adverse compounds from nutrition and lifestyle, such as cadmium (Cd), could increase the risk from second cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simultaneous exposure to Cd- and Pt-compounds on oxidative and DNA damage and the possible protective effects of zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se). The aqueous solutions of PtCl4, CdCl2 × H2O, ZnCl2 and Na2SeO3 were added, alone or in combination, to whole blood and isolated erythrocytes to produce the final concentrations of 2000 μg/L of Pt, 8 μg/L of Cd, 100 μg/L of Se, and 1000 μg/L of Zn. The activity of copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione in whole blood was determined after 1 h exposure in in vitro conditions. The induction of DNA strand-breaks in human peripheral blood leukocytes was determined with the alkaline comet assay after 24 h exposure. Exposure to Pt and/or Cd decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and elevated DNA damage compared to control. A statistically significant change in the activity of both enzymes and in the induction of DNA strand-breaks was observed in the cells treated with Pt + Cd combination, while the addition of Se and/or Zn resulted in partial recovery of these effects. The results indicate that combined exposure to Pt and Cd could disrupt antioxidant protection of the organism and increase DNA damage, whereas Se and Zn could partially ameliorate these harmful effects.

  15. Simultaneous quantification of three active alkaloids from a traditional Chinese medicine Ramulus Mori (Sangzhi) in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuang; Wang, Baolian; Xia, Xuejun; Li, Xue; Wang, Renyun; Sheng, Li; Li, Dan; Liu, Yuling; Li, Yan

    2015-05-10

    Fagomine, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) are the major bioactive constituents in the active fraction of alkaloids from the traditional Chinese medicine mulberry twig (Ramulus Mori, Chinese name Sang Zhi), which has a strong activity on α-glucosidase in vitro and in vivo. A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of DNJ, fagomine and DAB in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared using a simple protein precipitation by the addition of 1% volume of Tris and two volumes of methanol-acetonitrile. The analytes and internal standard (IS, miglitol) were chromatographed in an XBridge™ amide column with a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (0.1% ammonium hydroxide) at a flow rate of 0.7mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Linear detection responses were obtained for DNJ ranging from 5.00 to 5000.00ng/mL, 10.00 to 2500.00ng/mL for fagomine and DAB. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) were 5.00, 10.00, 10.00ng/mL for DNJ, fagomine and DAB, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precisions (R.S.D.%) were within 10% for three analytes with accuracies (R.E.%) less than 12%. The mean recoveries of analytes were greater than 85%. All analytes were proved to be stable during the sample storage, preparation and analytic procedures. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the three alkaloids in rats after oral administration of the active fraction of alkaloids from mulberry twig.

  16. Simultaneous association of total energy consumption and activity-related energy expenditure with risks of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cheng; Beresford, Shirley A; Van Horn, Linda; Tinker, Lesley F; Thomson, Cynthia A; Neuhouser, Marian L; Di, Chongzhi; Manson, JoAnn E; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Seguin, Rebecca; Manini, Todd; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Prentice, Ross L

    2014-09-01

    Total energy consumption and activity-related energy expenditure (AREE) estimates that have been calibrated using biomarkers to correct for measurement error were simultaneously associated with the risks of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes among postmenopausal women who were enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative at 40 US clinical centers and followed from 1994 to the present. Calibrated energy consumption was found to be positively related, and AREE inversely related, to the risks of various cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and diabetes. These associations were not evident in most corresponding analyses that did not correct for measurement error. However, an important analytical caveat relates to the role of body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)). In the calibrated variable analyses, BMI was regarded, along with self-reported data, as a source of information on energy consumption and physical activity, and BMI was otherwise excluded from the disease risk models. This approach cannot be fully justified with available data, and the analyses herein imply a need for improved dietary and physical activity assessment methods and for longitudinal self-reported and biomarker data to test and relax modeling assumptions. Estimated hazard ratios for 20% increases in total energy consumption and AREE, respectively, were as follows: 1.49 (95% confidence interval: 1.18, 1.88) and 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.69, 0.92) for total cardiovascular disease; 1.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.73) and 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.73, 0.96) for total invasive cancer; and 4.17 (95% confidence interval: 2.68, 6.49) and 0.60 (95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.83) for diabetes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Simultaneous real-time monitoring of multiple cortical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Disha; Hill, N. Jeremy; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Ritaccio, Anthony L.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Real-time monitoring of the brain is potentially valuable for performance monitoring, communication, training or rehabilitation. In natural situations, the brain performs a complex mix of various sensory, motor or cognitive functions. Thus, real-time brain monitoring would be most valuable if (a) it could decode information from multiple brain systems simultaneously, and (b) this decoding of each brain system were robust to variations in the activity of other (unrelated) brain systems. Previous studies showed that it is possible to decode some information from different brain systems in retrospect and/or in isolation. In our study, we set out to determine whether it is possible to simultaneously decode important information about a user from different brain systems in real time, and to evaluate the impact of concurrent activity in different brain systems on decoding performance. Approach. We study these questions using electrocorticographic signals recorded in humans. We first document procedures for generating stable decoding models given little training data, and then report their use for offline and for real-time decoding from 12 subjects (six for offline parameter optimization, six for online experimentation). The subjects engage in tasks that involve movement intention, movement execution and auditory functions, separately, and then simultaneously. Main results. Our real-time results demonstrate that our system can identify intention and movement periods in single trials with an accuracy of 80.4% and 86.8%, respectively (where 50% would be expected by chance). Simultaneously, the decoding of the power envelope of an auditory stimulus resulted in an average correlation coefficient of 0.37 between the actual and decoded power envelopes. These decoders were trained separately and executed simultaneously in real time. Significance. This study yielded the first demonstration that it is possible to decode simultaneously the functional activity of multiple

  18. Records of human activity during the late-Holocene in the soils of the African dense humid forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Rivat, Julie; Bentaleb, Ilham; Biwolé, Achille; Bourland, Nils; Bremond, Laurent; Daïnou, Kasso; Fayolle, Adeline; Gillet, Jean-François; Gorel, Anaïs; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Hardy, Olivier; Livingstone Smith, Alexandre; Oslisly, Richard; Vleminckx, Jason; Beeckman, Hans; Doucet, Jean-Louis

    2014-05-01

    Recently, several authors gathered data about the presence of past human populations in tropical regions covered by dense forest nowadays. In Central Africa, there is a growing body of evidence for past human settlements along the Atlantic coast, but very little information is available further inland. In the perspective, soil records seem to be the most appropriated so as to appraise the spatial and temporal extent of human activity in the African dense humid forest. In this paper, we thus aimed to present a synthesis of the archaeological and archaeobotanical data obtained during several fieldwork campaigns in an archaeologically unexplored area of 200,000 km² located in southern Cameroon and the northern Republic of Congo. A total of 275 test pits, among them 30 pedological pits up to 150 cm deep, were excavated in the study area. So as to get a long temporal scale as well as a fine resolution spatial scale, we quantified wood charcoal and charred endocarps in soil samples by layers of 10 cm taken for 100 pits located along transects of systematic sampling. Spatial projections were performed using statistics together with multivariate analyses. AMS radiocarbon dating allowed interpreting the temporal framework. Evidence of past human activities through either artifacts or charred botanical remains was observed in all pits, in particular with the ubiquitous presence of charcoal at each site. Main charcoal peaks were interpreted as fields (slash-and-burn agriculture) in the vicinity of ancient villages, the later marked by the presence of both potsherds and oil palm endocarps. The dichotomy of these kinds of activities may have impacted differentially the environment during the past. The set of 73 radiocarbon dates extending from 15,000 BP to the present time provided more dates in the late-Holocene showing a bimodal distribution which was interpreted as two phases of human expansion with an intermediate phase of population crash. The 2300-1300 BP phase is

  19. The First Simultaneous 3.5 and 1.3mm Polarimetric Survey of Active Galactic Nuclei in the Northern Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Agudo, I; Gomez, J L; Wiesemeyer, H

    2014-01-01

    Short millimeter observations of radio-loud AGN offer the opportunity to study the physics of their inner relativistic jets, from where the bulk millimeter emission is radiated. Millimeter jets are significantly less affected by Faraday rotation and depolarization than in radio. Also, the millimeter emission is dominated by the innermost jet regions, that are invisible in radio owing to synchrotron opacity. We present the first dual frequency simultaneous 86GHz and 229GHz polarimetric survey of all four Stokes parameters of a large sample of 211 radio loud active galactic nuclei, designed to be flux limited at 1Jy at 86GHz. The observations were most of them made in mid August 2010 using the XPOL polarimeter on the IRAM 30 m millimeter radio telescope. Linear polarization detections above 3 sigma median level of ~1.0% are reported for 183 sources at 86GHz, and for 23 sources at 229GHz, where the median 3 sigma level is ~6.0%. We show a clear excess of the linear polarization degree detected at 229GHz with reg...

  20. Simultaneous Activation of Induced Heterodimerization between CXCR4 Chemokine Receptor and Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Reveals a Mechanism for Regulation of Tumor Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Christopher J; Scarlett, Kisha A; Chetram, Mahandranauth A; Jones, Kia J; Sandifer, Brittney J; Davis, Ahriea S; Marcus, Adam I; Hinton, Cimona V

    2016-05-06

    The G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR4 generates signals that lead to cell migration, cell proliferation, and other survival mechanisms that result in the metastatic spread of primary tumor cells to distal organs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that CXCR4 can form homodimers or can heterodimerize with other G-protein-coupled receptors to form receptor complexes that can amplify or decrease the signaling capacity of each individual receptor. Using biophysical and biochemical approaches, we found that CXCR4 can form an induced heterodimer with cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) in human breast and prostate cancer cells. Simultaneous, agonist-dependent activation of CXCR4 and CB2 resulted in reduced CXCR4-mediated expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and ultimately reduced cancer cell functions such as calcium mobilization and cellular chemotaxis. Given that treatment with cannabinoids has been shown to reduce invasiveness of cancer cells as well as CXCR4-mediated migration of immune cells, it is plausible that CXCR4 signaling can be silenced through a physical heterodimeric association with CB2, thereby inhibiting subsequent functions of CXCR4. Taken together, the data illustrate a mechanism by which the cannabinoid system can negatively modulate CXCR4 receptor function and perhaps tumor progression.

  1. Simultaneous Multi-Wavelength Observations of Magnetic Activity in Ultracool Dwarfs. I. The Complex Behavior of the M8.5 Dwarf TVLM513-46546

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, E; Giampapa, M S; Rutledge, R E; Liebert, J; Martin, E; Basri, G; Fleming, T A; Johns-Krull, C M; Phan-Bao, N; Sherry, W H

    2007-01-01

    [Abridged] We present the first simultaneous radio, X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical spectroscopic observations of the M8.5 dwarf TVLM513-46546, with a duration of 9 hours. These observations are part of a program to study the origin of magnetic activity in ultracool dwarfs, and its impact on chromospheric and coronal emission. Here we detect steady quiescent radio emission superposed with multiple short-duration, highly polarized flares; there is no evidence for periodic bursts previously reported for this object, indicating their transient nature. We also detect soft X-ray emission, with L_X/L_bol~10^-4.9, the faintest to date for any object later than M5, and a possible weak X-ray flare. TVLM513-46546 continues the trend of severe violation of the radio/X-ray correlation in ultracool dwarfs, by nearly 4 orders of magnitude. From the optical spectroscopy we find that the Balmer line luminosity exceeds the X-ray luminosity by a factor of a few, suggesting that, unlike in early M dwarfs, chromospheric heating ...

  2. Simultaneous determination of morniflumate and its major active metabolite, niflumic acid, in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography in stability and pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hea-Young; Park, Geun-Kyeong; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2013-11-01

    A rapid, sensitive and stable high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of morniflumate and its major active metabolite, niflumic acid, in human plasma. HPLC analysis was carried out using a 5 µm particle size, C18 -bonded silica column with a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.005 m potassium phosphate monobasic in water (60:40, v/v) as the mobile phase and UV detection at 287 nm. The method involved the treatment with 50 μL of 0.4 m hydrochloric acid for the stability of morniflumate, extraction with diethylether and evaporation to dryness under a nitrogen stream. The lower limit of quantitation for morniflumate and niflumic acid was 50 and 500 ng/mL, respectively. The calibration curves for morniflumate and niflumic acid were linear over the concentration range of 50-20,000 ng/mL and 500-50,000 ng/mL, respectively, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.9995 and inter- or intra-batch coefficients of variation not exceeding 13.79%. The variability (percentage difference) of incurred sample re-analysis did not exceed 11.72% and all of the repeat samples fell within 20% of the mean value. This assay procedure was applied successfully to an examination of the pharmacokinetics of morniflumate and its metabolite, niflumic acid, in human subjects.

  3. Ultrasonic enhancement of the simultaneous removal of quaternary toxic organic dyes by CuO nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: Central composite design, kinetic and isotherm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashamiri, Somayeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar; Rahimi, Mahmood Reza; Goudarzi, Alireza; Jannesar, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (CuO-NPs-AC) were prepared and fully analyzed and characterized with FE-SEM, XRD and FT-IR. Subsequently, this novel material was used for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted adsorption of brilliant green (BG), auramine O (AO), methylene blue (MB) and eosin yellow (EY) dyes. Problems regard to dyes spectra overlap in quaternary solution of this dyes were omitted by derivative spectrophotometric method. The best pH in quaternary system was studied by using one at a time method to achieved maximum dyes removal percentage. Subsequently, sonication time, adsorbent dosage and initial dyes concentrations influence on dyes removal was optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function approach (DFA). Desirability score of 0.978 show optimum conditions set at sonication time (4.2 min), adsorbent mass (0.029 g), initial dyes concentration (4.5 mg L(-1)). Under this optimum condition the removal percentage for MB, AO, EY and BG dyes 97.58, 94.66, 96.22 and 94.93, respectively. The adsorption rate well fitted by pseudo second-order while adsorption capacity according to the Langmuir model as best equilibrium isotherm model for BG, MB, AO and EY was 20.48, 21.26, 22.34 and 21.29 mg g(-1), respectively.

  4. Simultaneous analysis of 11 main active components in Cirsium setosum based on HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and combined with statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qian; Chang, Lu; Ren, Yanping; Cao, Liang; Sun, Yingguang; Du, Yingfeng; Shi, Xiaowei; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Lantong

    2012-11-01

    A novel method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous determination of the 11 major active components including ten flavonoids and one phenolic acid in Cirsium setosum. Separation was performed on a reversed-phase C(18) column with gradient elution of methanol and 0.1‰ acetic acid (v/v). The identification and quantification of the analytes were achieved on a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Multiple-reaction monitoring scanning was employed for quantification with switching electrospray ion source polarity between positive and negative modes in a single run. Full validation of the assay was carried out including linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, limits of detection and quantification. The results demonstrated that the method developed was reliable, rapid, and specific. The 25 batches of C. setosum samples from different sources were first determined using the developed method and the total contents of 11 analytes ranged from 1717.460 to 23028.258 μg/g. Among them, the content of linarin was highest, and its mean value was 7340.967 μg/g. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis were performed to differentiate and classify the samples, which is helpful for comprehensive evaluation of the quality of C. setosum.

  5. Simultaneous structure-activity studies and arming of natural products by C–H amination reveal cellular targets of eupalmerin acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Cisar, Justin S.; Zhou, Congying; Vera, Brunilda; Williams, Howard; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Romo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    To fully exploit the inherent and enduring potential of natural products for fundamental cell biology and drug lead discovery, synthetic methods for functionalizing unique sites are highly desirable. Here we describe a strategy for the derivatization of natural products at ‘unfunctionalized’ positions via Rh(II)-catalyzed amination enabling simultaneous structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies and arming (alkynylation) of natural products. Employing Du Bois C–H amination, allylic and benzylic C–H bonds underwent amination and olefins underwent aziridination. With tertiary amine-containing natural products, amidines were produced via C–H amination/oxidation and unusual N-aminations provided hydrazine sulfamate inner salts. The alkynylated derivatives are readied for subsequent conjugation to access cellular probes for mechanism of action studies. Both chemo- and site-selectivity was studied by application to a diverse set of natural products including the marine-derived anticancer diterpene, eupalmerin acetate (EPA). Quantitative proteome profiling with an alkynyl EPA derivative obtained by site-selective, allylic C–H amination led to identification of several protein targets in HL-60 cells, including several known to be associated with cancer proliferation, suggestive of a polypharmacological mode of action for EPA. PMID:23695633

  6. Enabling virtual screening of potent and safer antimicrobial agents against noma: mtk-QSBER model for simultaneous prediction of antibacterial activities and ADMET properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, M N D S

    2015-01-01

    Neglected diseases are infections that thrive mainly among underdeveloped countries, particularly those belonging to regions found in Asia, Africa, and America. One of the most complex diseases is noma, a dangerous health condition characterized by a polymicrobial and opportunistic nature. The search for potent and safer antibacterial agents against this disease is therefore a goal of particular interest. Chemoinformatics can be used to rationalize the discovery of drug candidates, diminishing time and financial resources. However, in the case of noma, there is no in silico model available for its use in the discovery of efficacious antibacterial agents. This work is devoted to report the first mtk-QSBER model, which integrates dissimilar kinds of chemical and biological data. The model was generated with the aim of simultaneously predicting activity against bacteria present in noma, and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, toxicity) parameters. The mtk-QSBER model was constructed by employing a large and heterogeneous dataset of chemicals and displayed accuracies higher than 90% in both training and prediction sets. We confirmed the practical applicability of the model by predicting multiple profiles of the investigational antibacterial drug delafloxacin, and the predictions converged with the experimental reports. To date, this is the first model focused on the virtual search for desirable anti-noma agents.

  7. A colourimetric sensor for the simultaneous determination of oxidative status and antioxidant activity on the same membrane: N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylene diamine (DMPD) on Nafion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çekiç, Sema Demirci; Avan, Asli Neslihan; Uzunboy, Seda; Apak, Reşat

    2015-03-20

    A colourimetric sensor capable of simultaneously measuring oxidative status (OS) in terms of the hazard produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant activity (AOA) in regard to ROS-scavenging ability of antioxidant compounds was developed. The coloured cationic semi-quinone derivatives, caused by ROS oxidative degradation of N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylene diamine hydrochloride (DMPD) in pH 5.7 acetate-buffered medium, were formed in solution and immobilized on a perfluorosulfonate-based Nafion membrane. ROS, namely hydroxyl (·OH) and superoxide (O2(·-)) radicals, were produced by Fenton/UV and xanthine/xanthine oxidase methods, respectively. The pink-coloured, (+)-charged chromophore (referred to as DMPD-quinone or DMPDQ), resulting from the reaction between DMPD and ROS, could be completely retained on the solid membrane sensor by electrostatic interaction with the anionic sulfonate groups of Nafion. After equilibration, the Nafion membrane surface was homogeneously coloured enabling an absorbance measurement at 514 nm, while the aqueous phase completely lacked colour. Antioxidants, when present, caused an absorbance decrease on the membrane due to their ROS scavenging action, giving rise to less DMPDQ production. The absorbance decrease on the sensor was linearly dependent on antioxidant concentration over a reasonable concentration range, enabling the simultaneous determination of OS and AOA-against ROS. The proposed antioxidant sensing method was tested in synthetic and real antioxidant mixtures, and validated against standard antioxidant capacity assays (i.e. ABTS and CUPRAC) for a variety of polyphenolic and antioxidant compounds. The dynamic linear ranges of antioxidants with the DMPD sensor in protection against hydroxyl and superoxide radicals generally varied within the micromolar to a few tens of micromolar concentration interval over one order-of-magnitude. Choosing three representative compounds in the high (epigallocatechin gallate), medium

  8. A rabbit model for simultaneous recording the electromyography of the gallbladder and sphincter of Oddi and the pressure of gallbladder and common bile duct%同步检测胆囊及Oddi氏括约肌电活动和胆管压力的兔模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文辉清; 沈磊; 时鑫; 龙萍; 刘衍民

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立同步检测胆囊及Oddi括约肌肌电活动及胆囊、胆总管压力的动物模型.方法 对6只家兔用7F静脉深穿管分别经肝穿刺进入胆囊腔及经十二指肠腔插入胆总管.将铂金电极缝在胆囊底部浆膜上.以多通道生理仪记录家兔的胆囊及Oddi括约肌肌电信号和胆囊、胆总管压力.结果 Oddi氏括约肌肌电的峰电位>0.05 mV,最大电位为0.26 mV,频率为0~2次/分;而慢波电位≤0.05 mV,频率为8⒍11次/分.胆囊内压力最大为15 cm H2O(6.83~15.00 cm H2O),胆总管最大压力为22 cm H2O(11~22 cm H2O).胆囊肌电活动的波形缺乏规律性.结论 兔可以作为同步检测胆囊及Oddi氏括约肌肌电活动和胆囊、胆总管压力的模型.%Objective To investigate an animal model for recording the electromyography (EMG) of the gallbladder/sphincter of Oddi and the pressure of gallbladder and common bile duct.Methods The animal model was established in 6 rabbits.A 7F central venous catheter was adopted to penetrate into the gallbladder through the liver.A pair bipolar platinum electrode was stitched onto the gallbladder at the serosal side.Another 7F central venous catheter with a pair bipolar platinum electrode was used to insert into the common bile duct near the sphincter of Oddi (SO).The signal of myoelectrical activity of SO and the gallbladder was recorded through a multi-channel physiological instrument.Meanwhile the changes in the pressure of the gallbladder and common bile duct were observed.Results The spike potential of SO in rabbits was above 0.05 mV,and the most value was 0.26 mV.The frequency of the spike potential was 2 times/min.The slow wave potential of SO was below 0.05 mV,and the frequency was 8-11 times/min.The pressure of gallbladder was 15 cm H2O (6.83-15.00 cm H2O).The pressure of common bile duct was 22 cm H2O (11-22 cm H2O).The EMG of gallbladder was unclear.Conclusion Rabbits can be used to establish the animal model recording the

  9. Ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal synthesis of activated carbon-HKUST-1-MOF hybrid for efficient simultaneous ultrasound-assisted removal of ternary organic dyes and antibacterial investigation: Taguchi optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, F Nasiri; Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K; Hajati, S; Pezeshkpour, V

    2016-07-01

    Activated carbon (AC) composite with HKUST-1 metal organic framework (AC-HKUST-1 MOF) was prepared by ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal method and characterized by FTIR, SEM and XRD analysis and laterally was applied for the simultaneous ultrasound-assisted removal of crystal violet (CV), disulfine blue (DSB) and quinoline yellow (QY) dyes in their ternary solution. In addition, this material, was screened in vitro for their antibacterial actively against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) bacteria. In dyes removal process, the effects of important variables such as initial concentration of dyes, adsorbent mass, pH and sonication time on adsorption process optimized by Taguchi approach. Optimum values of 4, 0.02 g, 4 min, 10 mg L(-1) were obtained for pH, AC-HKUST-1 MOF mass, sonication time and the concentration of each dye, respectively. At the optimized condition, the removal percentages of CV, DSB and QY were found to be 99.76%, 91.10%, and 90.75%, respectively, with desirability of 0.989. Kinetics of adsorption processes follow pseudo-second-order model. The Langmuir model as best method with high applicability for representation of experimental data, while maximum mono layer adsorption capacity for CV, DSB and QY on AC-HKUST-1 estimated to be 133.33, 129.87 and 65.37 mg g(-1) which significantly were higher than HKUST-1 as sole material with Qm to equate 59.45, 57.14 and 38.80 mg g(-1), respectively.

  10. Massively parallel recording of unit and local field potentials with silicon-based electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csicsvari, Jozsef; Henze, Darrell A; Jamieson, Brian; Harris, Kenneth D; Sirota, Anton; Barthó, Péter; Wise, Kensall D; Buzsáki, György

    2003-08-01

    Parallel recording of neuronal activity in the behaving animal is a prerequisite for our understanding of neuronal representation and storage of information. Here we describe the development of micro-machined silicon microelectrode arrays for unit and local field recordings. The two-dimensional probes with 96 or 64 recording sites provided high-density recording of unit and field activity with minimal tissue displacement or damage. The on-chip active circuit eliminated movement and other artifacts and greatly reduced the weight of the headgear. The precise geometry of the recording tips allowed for the estimation of the spatial location of the recorded neurons and for high-resolution estimation of extracellular current source density. Action potentials could be simultaneously recorded from the soma and dendrites of the same neurons. Silicon technology is a promising approach for high-density, high-resolution sampling of neuronal activity in both basic research and prosthetic devices.

  11. Simultaneous production of l-lactic acid with high optical activity and a soil amendment with food waste that demonstrates plant growth promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitpreechavanich, Vichien; Hayami, Arisa; Talek, Anfal; Chin, Clament Fui Seung; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sakai, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    A unique method to produce highly optically-active l-lactic acid and soil amendments that promote plant growth from food waste was proposed. Three Bacillus strains Bacillus subtilis KBKU21, B. subtilis N3-9 and Bacillus coagulans T27, were used. Strain KBKU21 accumulated 36.9 g/L l-lactic acid with 95.7% optical activity and 98.2% l-lactic acid selectivity when fermented at 43°C for 84 h in a model kitchen refuse (MKR) medium. Residual precipitate fraction (anaerobically-fermented MKR (AFM) compost) analysis revealed 4.60%, 0.70% and 0.75% of nitrogen (as N), phosphorous (as P2O5), and potassium (as K2O), respectively. Additionally, the carbon to nitrogen ratio decreased from 13.3 to 10.6. AFM compost with KBKU21 promoted plant growth parameters, including leaf length, plant height and fresh weight of Brassica rapa (Komatsuna), than that by chemical fertilizers or commercial compost. The concept provides an incentive for the complete recycling of food waste, contributing towards a sustainable production system.

  12. Conduit dynamics in transitional rhyolitic activity recorded by tuffisite vein textures from the 2008-2009 Chaitén eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie eSaubin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of hazardous silicic eruptions are controlled by complex, poorly-understood conduit processes. Observations of recent Chilean rhyolite eruptions have revealed the importance of hybrid activity, involving simultaneous explosive and effusive emissions from a common vent. Such behaviour hinges upon the ability of gas to decouple from magma in the shallow conduit. Tuffisite veins are increasingly suspected to be a key facilitator of outgassing, as they repeatedly provide a transient permeable escape route for volcanic gases. Intersection of foam domains by tuffisite veins appears critical to efficient outgassing. However, knowledge is currently lacking into textural heterogeneities within shallow conduits, their relationship with tuffisite vein propagation, and the implications for fragmentation and degassing processes. Similarly, the magmatic vesiculation response to upper conduit pressure perturbations, such as those related to the slip of dense magma plugs, remains largely undefined. Here we provide a detailed characterization of an exceptionally large tuffisite vein within a rhyolitic obsidian bomb ejected during transitional explosive-effusive activity at Chaitén, Chile in May 2008. Vein textures and chemistry provide a time-integrated record of the invasion of a dense upper conduit plug by deeper fragmented magma. Quantitative textural analysis reveals diverse vesiculation histories of various juvenile clast types.Using vesicle size distributions, bubble number densities, zones of diffusive water depletion, and glass H2O concentrations, we propose a multi-step degassing/fragmentation history, spanning deep degassing to explosive bomb ejection. Rapid decompression events of ~3-4 MPa are associated with fragmentation of foam and dense magma at ~200-350 metres depth in the conduit, permitting vertical gas and pyroclast mobility over hundreds of metres. Permeable pathway occlusion in the dense conduit plug by pyroclast accumulation

  13. Conduit dynamics in transitional rhyolitic activity recorded by tuffisite vein textures from the 2008-2009 Chaitén eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubin, Elodie; Tuffen, Hugh; Gurioli, Lucia; Owen, Jacqueline; Castro, Jonathan; Berlo, Kim; McGowan, Ellen; Schipper, C.; Wehbe, Katia

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms of hazardous silicic eruptions are controlled by complex, poorly-understood conduit processes. Observations of recent Chilean rhyolite eruptions have revealed the importance of hybrid activity, involving simultaneous explosive and effusive emissions from a common vent. Such behaviour hinges upon the ability of gas to decouple from magma in the shallow conduit. Tuffisite veins are increasingly suspected to be a key facilitator of outgassing, as they repeatedly provide a transient permeable escape route for volcanic gases. Intersection of foam domains by tuffisite veins appears critical to efficient outgassing. However, knowledge is currently lacking into textural heterogeneities within shallow conduits, their relationship with tuffisite vein propagation, and the implications for fragmentation and degassing processes. Similarly, the magmatic vesiculation response to upper conduit pressure perturbations, such as those related to the slip of dense magma plugs, remains largely undefined. Here we provide a detailed characterization of an exceptionally large tuffisite vein within a rhyolitic obsidian bomb ejected during transitional explosive-effusive activity at Chaitén, Chile in May 2008. Vein textures and chemistry provide a time-integrated record of the invasion of a dense upper conduit plug by deeper fragmented magma. Quantitative textural analysis reveals diverse vesiculation histories of various juvenile clast types. Using vesicle size distributions, bubble number densities, zones of diffusive water depletion, and glass H2O concentrations, we propose a multi-step degassing/fragmentation history, spanning deep degassing to explosive bomb ejection. Rapid decompression events of ~3-4 MPa are associated with fragmentation of foam and dense magma at ~200-350 metres depth in the conduit, permitting vertical gas and pyroclast mobility over hundreds of metres. Permeable pathway occlusion in the dense conduit plug by pyroclast accumulation and sintering

  14. Conduit dynamics in transitional rhyolitic activity recorded by tuffisite vein textures from the 2008-2009 Chaitén eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubin, Elodie; Tuffen, Hugh; Gurioli, Lucia; Owen, Jacqueline; Castro, Jonathan; Berlo, Kim; McGowan, Ellen; Schipper, C. Ian; Wehbe, Katia

    2016-04-01

    Conduit processes govern the mechanisms of hazardous silicic eruptions, but our understanding of complex conduit behaviour is far from complete. Observations of recent Chilean rhyolite eruptions have revealed the importance of hybrid activity, involving simultaneous explosive and effusive emissions from a common vent[1]. Such behaviour hinges upon the ability of gas to decouple from magma in the shallow conduit. Tuffisite veins are increasingly suspected to be a key facilitator of outgassing, as they repeatedly provide a transient permeable escape route for volcanic gases. However, we have limited insights into the interactions between tuffisites and foams that appear critical to efficient outgassing[2], and into how heterogeneous conduit magma responds to pressure perturbations related to repeated disruption or slip of dense magma plugs. Here we provide a detailed characterization of an exceptionally large tuffisite vein within a rhyolitic obsidian bomb ejected during transitional explosive-effusive activity at volcán Chaitén, Chile in May 2008. Vein textures and chemistry provide a time-integrated record of the invasion of a dense upper conduit plug by deeper fragmented magma. Quantitative textural analysis reveals diverse vesiculation histories of varied juvenile clast types. Using vesicle size distributions, bubble number densities, zones of diffusive water depletion, and glass H2O concentrations, we propose a multi-step degassing/fragmentation history, spanning deep degassing to explosive bomb ejection. Rapid decompression events of ~3-4 MPa are associated with fragmentation of foam and dense magma at ~200-300 metres depth in the conduit, permitting vertical gas and pyroclast mobility over >100-200 metres. Permeable pathway occlusion in the dense conduit plug by pyroclast accumulation and sintering preceded ultimate bomb ejection, which triggered a final bubble nucleation event. Our results highlight how the vesiculation response of magma to decompression

  15. Late Quaternary climatic events and sea-level changes recorded by turbidite activity, Dakar Canyon, NW Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierau, Roberto; Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Krastel, Sebastian; Henrich, Rüdiger

    2010-03-01

    The relationship of sea-level changes and short-term climatic changes with turbidite deposition is poorly documented, although the mechanisms of gravity-driven sediment transport in submarine canyons during sea-level changes have been reported from many regions. This study focuses on the activity of the Dakar Canyon off southern Senegal in response to major glacial/interglacial sea-level shifts and variability in the NW-African continental climate. The sedimentary record from the canyon allows us to determine the timing of turbidite events and, on the basis of XRF-scanning element data, we have identified the climate signal at a sub-millennial time scale from the surrounding hemipelagic sediments. Over the late Quaternary the highest frequency in turbidite activity in the Dakar Canyon is confined to major climatic terminations when remobilisation of sediments from the shelf was triggered by the eustatic sea-level rise. However, episodic turbidite events coincide with the timing of Heinrich events in the North Atlantic. During these times continental climate has changed rapidly, with evidence for higher dust supply over NW Africa which has fed turbidity currents. Increased aridity and enhanced wind strength in the southern Saharan-Sahelian zone may have provided a source for this dust.

  16. Origin of facilitation of motor-evoked potentials after paired magnetic stimulation: direct recording of epidural activity in conscious humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, V; Pilato, F; Oliviero, A; Dileone, M; Saturno, E; Mazzone, P; Insola, A; Profice, P; Ranieri, F; Capone, F; Tonali, P A; Rothwell, J C

    2006-10-01

    A magnetic transcranial conditioning stimulus given over the motor cortex at intensities below active threshold for obtaining motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) facilitates EMG responses evoked at rest in hand muscles by a suprathreshold magnetic stimulus given 10-25 ms later. This is known as intracortical facilitation (ICF). We recorded descending volleys produced by single and paired magnetic motor cortex stimulation through high cervical epidural electrodes implanted for pain relief in six conscious patients. At interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 10 and 15 ms, although MEP was facilitated, there was no change in the amplitude or number of descending volleys. An additional I wave sometimes was observed at 25 ms ISI. In one subject, we also evaluated the effects of reversing the direction of the induced current in the brain. At 10 ms ISI, the facilitation of the MEPs disappeared and was replaced by slight suppression; at 2 ms ISI, there was a pronounced facilitation of epidural volleys. Subsequent experiments on healthy subjects showed that a conditioning stimulus capable of producing ICF of MEPs had no effect on the EMG response evoked by transmastoidal electrical stimulation of corticospinal tract. We conclude that ICF occurs because either 1) the conditioning stimulus has a (thus far undetected) effect on spinal cord excitability that increases its response to the same amplitude test volley or 2) that it can alter the composition (but not the amplitude) of the descending volleys set up by the test stimulus such that a larger proportion of the activity is destined for the target muscle.

  17. Strategies in the processing and analysis of continuous gravity record in active volcanic areas: the case of Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hinderer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to describe new strategies in the processing and analysis of continuous gravity records collected in active volcanic areas and to assess how permanent gravity stations can improve the geophysical monitoring of a volcano. The experience of 15 years in continuous gravity monitoring on Mt. Vesuvius is discussed. Several geodynamic phenomena can produce temporal gravity changes. An eruption, for instance, is associated with the ascent of magma producing changes in the density distribution at depth, and leading to ground deformation and gravity changes The amplitude of such gravity variations is often quite small, in the order of 10-102 nms-2, so their detection requires high quality data and a rigorous procedure to isolate from the records those weak gravity signals coming from different sources. Ideally we need gravity signals free of all effects which are not of volcanic origin. Therefore solid Earth tide, ocean and atmospheric loading, instrumental drift or any kind of disturbances other than due to the volcano dynamics have to be removed. The state of the art on the modelling of the solid Earth tide is reviewed. The atmospheric dynamics is one of the main sources precluding the detection of small gravity signals. The most advanced methods to reduce the atmospheric effects on gravity are presented. As the variations of the calibration factors can prevent the repeatability of high-precision measurements, new approaches to model the instrumental response of mechanical gravimeters are proposed too. Moreover, a strategy for an accurate modelling of the instrumental drift and to distinguish it from longterm gravity changes is suggested.

  18. Physical Principles for Scalable Neural Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Henry Marblestone*

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneously measuring the activities of all neurons in a mammalian brain at millisecond resolution is a challenge beyond the limits of existing techniques in neuroscience. Entirely new approaches may be required, motivating an analysis of the fundamental physical constraints on the problem. We outline the physical principles governing brain activity mapping using optical, electrical,magnetic resonance, and molecular modalities of neural recording. Focusing on the mouse brain, we analyze the scalability of each method, concentrating on the limitations imposed by spatiotemporal resolution, energy dissipation, and volume displacement. We also study the physics of powering and communicating with microscale devices embedded in brain tissue.

  19. Envisioning Curriculum as Six Simultaneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hanin; Conner, Lindsey; Mayo, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the discourse of complexity thinking to envision curriculum as six partial and coupled facets that exist simultaneously: curriculum as structure, curriculum as process, curriculum as content, curriculum as teaching, curriculum as learning and curriculum as activity. Such a curriculum is emergent and self-organising. It is emergent…

  20. A late Holocene metal record of Andean climate and anthropogenic activity in lake sediments near Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, S. A.; Kelly, M. A.; Jackson, B. P.; Stroup, J. S.; Osterberg, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    The tropical hypothesis maintains that major changes in global climate are motivated by phenomena based at tropical latitudes. Evidence for this hypothesis lies in: modern-day observations of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); East African lake sediment records of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) position that precede high-latitude changes; and the potential for ITCZ shifts to cause major CO2 degassing from the Southern Ocean. In order to improve the understanding of these phenomena we present an ~1800 year record of atmospheric metal deposition in a lake sediment core near Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru (13.9 °S). In June, 2010 we collected a 1.45 meter-long core from Yanacocha - a small, closed-basin tarn that has been isolated from glacial input since ~11,200 BP. The chronology for the core is based on 4 of 6 AMS 14C dates on aquatic macrofossils and one sharp Zr/Ti anomaly at 36 cm, likely derived from the 350 BP eruption of Huaynaputina. We completely digested organic-rich core samples at 1 cm resolution using HNO3, HCl, and HF in a closed-vessel microwave system, and then analyzed the digestates for 67 metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Here we show fluxes of lithogenic metals (Fe, Nb, Ti, and Zr) that reflect changes in wind strength and aridity, fluxes of lithogenic metal isotopes (REEs and Pb) that reflect wind direction, and enrichment factors (EFs) of metals (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb) that reflect anthropogenic activity. Five episodic peaks in lithogenic metal fluxes, centered around 1800, 1300, 900, 600, and 100 yrs BP, are thought to result from either drier or windier conditions, potentially caused by a northern ITCZ position or a more persistent El Niño state. The provenance of atmospheric deposition, evidenced by REE ratios (light REEs / heavy REEs), suggest that high lithogenic fluxes are associated with a change in wind direction, possibly caused by a change in the ENSO state, which will be explored with forthcoming Pb

  1. Holocene ice dynamics and bottom-water formation associated with Cape Darnley polynya activity recorded in Burton Basin, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andreas; Dietze, Elisabeth; Kuhn, Gerhard; Esper, Oliver; Voigt, Ines; Hartmann, Kai; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    A multi-proxy study including sedimentological, mineralogical, biogeochemical and micropaleontological methods was conducted on sediment core PS69/849-2 retrieved from Burton Basin, MacRobertson Shelf, East Antarctica. The goal of this study was to depict the deglacial and Holocene environmental history of the MacRobertson Land-Prydz Bay region. A special focus was put on the timing of ice-sheet retreat and the variability of bottom-water formation due to sea ice formation through the Holocene. Results from site PS69/849-2 provide the first paleo-environmental record of Holocene variations in bottom-water production probably associated to the Cape Darnley polynya, which is the second largest polynya in the Antarctic. Methods included end-member modeling of laser-derived high-resolution grain size data to reconstruct the depositional regimes and bottom-water activity. The provenance of current-derived and ice-transported material was reconstructed using clay-mineral and heavy-mineral analysis. Conclusions on biogenic production were drawn by determination of biogenic opal and total organic carbon. It was found that the ice shelf front started to retreat from the site around 12.8 ka BP. This coincides with results from other records in Prydz Bay and suggests warming during the early Holocene optimum next to global sea level rise as the main trigger. Ice-rafted debris was then supplied to the site until 5.5 cal. ka BP, when Holocene global sea level rise stabilized and glacial isostatic rebound on MacRobertson Land commenced. Throughout the Holocene, three episodes of enhanced bottom-water activity probably due to elevated brine rejection in Cape Darnley polynya occured between 11.5 and 9 cal. ka BP, 5.6 and 4.5 cal. ka BP and since 1.5 cal. ka BP. These periods are related to shifts from warmer to cooler conditions at the end of Holocene warm periods, in particular the early Holocene optimum, the mid-Holocene warm period and at the beginning of the neoglacial. In

  2. Records Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — All Federal Agencies are required to prescribe an appropriate records maintenance program so that complete records are filed or otherwise preserved, records can be...

  3. Evaluation of sediment capping with active barrier systems (ABS) using calcite/zeolite mixtures to simultaneously manage phosphorus and ammonium release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianwei; Zhan, Yanhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency and mechanism of sediment capping with an active barrier system (ABS) using calcite/zeolite mixtures to simultaneously prevent phosphorus (P) and ammonium (NH(4)(+)) release from eutrophic lake sediments under anaerobic conditions was investigated through a series of batch and sediment incubation experiments. For this, natural calcite and various zeolites (natural, NaCl-pretreated and CaCl(2)-pretreated zeolites) were applied. Batch tests showed that the calcite was efficient for the removal of phosphate in aqueous solution and the zeolite was an efficient adsorbent for the removal of NH(4)(+) from aqueous solution. Sediment incubation experiments showed that the P and NH(4)(+) fluxes from the anaerobic sediments were significantly reduced by the ABS using the mixture of calcite and natural zeolite. Higher calcite dosage was found to be favorable for the prevention of P release from the sediments using the ABS. For controlling the P release from the sediments, the mixture of calcite and CaCl(2)-pretreated zeolite as a capping material was more efficient than that of calcite and natural zeolite, whereas the mixture of calcite and NaCl-pretreated zeolite was less efficient than that of calcite and natural zeolite. Batch and sediment incubation experiments proved that the zeolite as a component of the ABS using the mixture of calcite and CaCl(2)-pretreated zeolite has a dual function: (i) preventing NH(4)(+) release from the sediments; and (ii) supplying Ca(2+) through a Ca(2+)/NH(4)(+) exchange to improve the ability of the capping material to immobilize P release from the sediments.

  4. [Simultaneous determination of five active components of compound α-ketoacid tablet in human urine by ion-pair reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoya; Zhong, Yuan; Huang, Zhongping; Jin, Chen; Wang, Lili; Pan, Zaifa

    2015-02-01

    A simple and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of five active components, D, L-α-hydroxymethionine calcium (HMACa), α-ketovaline calcium (KVCa), D, L-α-ketoisoleucine calcium (KILCa), α-ketoleucine calcium (KLCa) and α-ketophenylalanine calcium (KPACa) of compound α-ketoacid tablet in human urine by ion-pair reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed and validated. The separation conditions, such as the concentration of ion-pair reagent, the pH value of the mobile phase and the concentration of the buffer were optimized. All the five analytes were separated well on a C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with diode array detection at 210 nm and the column temperature of 35 °C. The mobile phases were acetonitrile and 20 mmol/L phosphate buffer (containing 15 mmol/L tetrabutylammonium hydroxide; pH 7) at the flow rate of 1. 0 mL/min with gradient elution. The calibration curves for the five components were linear in the range from 20 to 200 mg/L (r≥ 0. 9990). The limits of detection (LODs, S/N= 3) were 3.0, 5. 0, 3. 6, 5.7 and 2. 5 mg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N= 10) were 9. 6, 16.7, 12.0, 19.0 and 8.3 mg/L for HMACa, KVCa, KILCa, KLCa and KPACa, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 7%, and the average recoveries were between 86.79% and 112. 00% in the human urine with RSDs lower than 9% (n= 5). The method proved precise, specific and reproducible, and can be used for the determination of the five components in urine.

  5. Simultaneous ultrasound-assisted ternary adsorption of dyes onto copper-doped zinc sulfide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: Optimization by response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaram, Arash; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Hajati, Shaaker; Goudarzi, Alireza; Bazrafshan, Ali Akbar

    2015-06-01

    The simultaneous and competitive ultrasound-assisted removal of Auramine-O (AO), Erythrosine (Er) and Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solutions were rapidly performed onto copper-doped zinc sulfide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (ZnS:Cu-NP-AC). ZnS:Cu nanoparticles were studied by FESEM, XRD and TEM. First, the effect of pH was optimized in a one-at-a-time procedure. Then the dependency of dyes removal percentage in their ternary solution on the level and magnitude of variables such as sonication time, initial dyes concentrations and adsorbent dosage was fully investigated and optimized by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) as well as by regarding desirability function (DF) as a good and general criterion. The good agreement found between experimental and predicted values supports and confirms the suitability of the present model to predict adsorption state. The applied ultrasound strongly enhanced mass transfer process and subsequently performance. Hence, a small amount of the adsorbent (0.04 g) was capable to remove high percentage of dyes, i.e. 100%, 99.6% and 100% for MB, AO and Er, respectively, in very short time (2.5 min). The experimental equilibrium data fitting to Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models showed that the Langmuir model applies well for the evaluation and description of the actual behavior of adsorption. The small amount of proposed adsorbent (0.015 g) was applicable for successful removal of dyes (RE > 99.0%) in short time (2.5 min) with high adsorption capacity in single component system (123.5 mg g-1 for MB, 123 mg g-1 for AO and 84.5 mg g-1 for Er). Kinetics evaluation of experiments at various time intervals reveals that adsorption processes can be well predicated and fitted by pseudo-second-order and Elovich models.

  6. Simultaneous determination of free and bonded forms of odor-active carbonyls in wine using a headspace solid phase microextraction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mónica; Zapata, Julián; Ferreira, Vicente

    2014-11-21

    This paper presents a new strategy for the direct evaluation of odor-active carbonyls in the wine headspace and for the simultaneous estimation of their amounts in odorless bonded forms. In the final developed strategy, 25 mL of wine are spiked with internal and surrogate standards and let to equilibrate for at least 12 h in an oxygen-free chamber. Ten milliliter of the sample are then transferred to a standard headspace vial. Carbonyls in the headspace are preconcentrated on a PDMS/DVD fiber keeping the sample unstirred at 45°C for just 10 min and are further analyzed on a GC-MS equipped with a quadrupole in SIM mode. Normalized peak analyte areas interpolated in calibration plots built with synthetic wines give estimations of the concentrations of free forms, while the ratios of the areas of surrogates observed in wines to those observed in synthetic wine make it possible to get estimations of the proportion of each analyte present in bonded non-volatile form. The validity of this approach has been demonstrated both via standard recovery experiments and via the analysis of samples previously incubated with glyoxal in order to break aldehyde-bisulfite complexes. In general, method detection limits (below 1 μg L(-1)), precision (RSD (%)wine contain relevant amounts of aldehydes (more than 95% in some cases) in the form of reversible odorless complexes, supporting a previous observation about the potential implication of these complexes on the development of oxidized aroma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous analysis of oxybutynin and its active metabolite N-desethyl oxybutynin in human plasma by stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS to support a bioequivalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Primal; Patel, Daxesh P; Sanyal, Mallika; Berawala, Hiren; Guttikar, Swati; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2013-10-01

    An isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of oxybutynin and its pharmacologically active metabolite N-desethyl oxybutynin in human plasma. Extraction of oxybutynin, its metabolite and their deuterated analogs as internal standards (ISs) from 300 μL human plasma was carried out by liquid-liquid extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether-ethyl acetate solvent mixture. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on Cosmosil C18 (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column under isocratic conditions with acetonitrile-1.0mM ammonium acetate (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase. Six endogenous plasma phospholipids (496.3/184.0, 524.3/184.0, 758.5/184.0, 786.5/184.0, 806.5/184.0 and 810.5/184.0) were monitored to determine the extraction efficiency under different extraction conditions. The precursor→product ion transition for both the analytes and ISs were monitored on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operating in the multiple reaction monitoring and positive ionization mode. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.050-10.0 ng/mL for oxybutynin and 0.500-100 ng/mL for N-desethyl oxybutynin. The mean extraction recovery for analytes (80.4%) and ISs (76.9%) was consistent across five QC levels. Bench top, wet and dry extract, freeze-thaw and long term stability was evaluated for both the analytes. The method was applied to support a bioequivalence study of 5mg tablet formulation in 74 healthy Indian subjects. Assay reproducibility was demonstrated by reanalysis of 344 incurred samples.

  8. A Physical Activity Reference Data-Set Recorded from Older Adults Using Body-Worn Inertial Sensors and Video Technology—The ADAPT Study Data-Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kevin Bourke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity monitoring algorithms are often developed using conditions that do not represent real-life activities, not developed using the target population, or not labelled to a high enough resolution to capture the true detail of human movement. We have designed a semi-structured supervised laboratory-based activity protocol and an unsupervised free-living activity protocol and recorded 20 older adults performing both protocols while wearing up to 12 body-worn sensors. Subjects’ movements were recorded using synchronised cameras (≥25 fps, both deployed in a laboratory environment to capture the in-lab portion of the protocol and a body-worn camera for out-of-lab activities. Video labelling of the subjects’ movements was performed by five raters using 11 different category labels. The overall level of agreement was high (percentage of agreement >90.05%, and Cohen’s Kappa, corrected kappa, Krippendorff’s alpha and Fleiss’ kappa >0.86. A total of 43.92 h of activities were recorded, including 9.52 h of in-lab and 34.41 h of out-of-lab activities. A total of 88.37% and 152.01% of planned transitions were recorded during the in-lab and out-of-lab scenarios, respectively. This study has produced the most detailed dataset to date of inertial sensor data, synchronised with high frame-rate (≥25 fps video labelled data recorded in a free-living environment from older adults living independently. This dataset is suitable for validation of existing activity classification systems and development of new activity classification algorithms.

  9. 78 FR 5477 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I-854, Extension Without Change, of a Currently Approved... Alien Witness and Informant Record. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the...: Primary: Individuals or Households. Form I- 854 is used by law enforcement agencies to bring...

  10. 78 FR 24429 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I-854; Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved... Collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record. (3) Agency...: State, local or Tribal Government. Form I-854 is used by law enforcement agencies to bring...

  11. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  12. Recording large-scale neuronal ensembles with silicon probes in the anesthetized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjetnan, Andrea Gomez Palacio; Luczak, Artur

    2011-10-19

    Large scale electrophysiological recordings from neuronal ensembles offer the opportunity to investigate how the brain orchestrates the wide variety of behaviors from the spiking activity of its neurons. One of the most effective methods to monitor spiking activity from a large number of neurons in multiple local neuronal circuits simultaneously is by using silicon electrode arrays. Action potentials produce large transmembrane voltage changes in the vicinity of cell somata. These output signals can be measured by placing a conductor in close proximity of a neuron. If there are many active (spiking) neurons in the vicinity of the tip, the electrode records combined signal from all of them, where contribution of a single neuron is weighted by its 'electrical distance'. Silicon probes are ideal recording electrodes to monitor multiple neurons because of a large number of recording sites (+64) and a small volume. Furthermore, multiple sites can be arranged over a distance of millimeters, thus allowing for the simultaneous recordings of neuronal activity in the various cortical layers or in multiple cortical columns (Fig. 1). Importantly, the geometrically precise distribution of the recording sites also allows for the determination of the spatial relationship of the isolated single neurons. Here, we describe an acute, large-scale neuronal recording from the left and right forelimb somatosensory cortex simultaneously in an anesthetized rat with silicon probes (Fig. 2).

  13. Record club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record club

    2010-01-01

      Bonjour a tous, Voici les 24 nouveaux DVD de Juillet disponibles depuis quelques jours, sans oublier les 5 CD Pop musique. Découvrez la saga du terroriste Carlos, la vie de Gainsbourg et les aventures de Lucky Luke; angoissez avec Paranormal Activity et évadez vous sur Pandora dans la peau d’Avatar. Toutes les nouveautés sont à découvrir directement au club. Pour en connaître la liste complète ainsi que le reste de la collection du Record Club, nous vous invitons sur notre site web: http://cern.ch/crc. Toutes les dernières nouveautés sont dans la rubrique « Discs of the Month ». Rappel : le club est ouvert les Lundis, Mercredis, Vendredis de 12h30 à 13h00 au restaurant n°2, bâtiment 504. A bientôt chers Record Clubbers.  

  14. Mid to late Holocene aeolian activity revealed by a multiproxy peat record in continental CE Europe (Northern Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panait, Andrei Marian; Feurdean, Angelica; Hutchinson, Simon Mark; Tanţǎu, Ioan

    2016-04-01

    Peat bogs, and especially ombrogenous mire, are increasingly used as continental archives of aeolian dust and sand deposition. Since ombrogenous peat is formed above ground water level all the inputs are atmospheric. Dust is more influenced by regional climatic patterns due to its small size, whereas sand tends to record local patterns in storm frequency and intensity reflecting its larger particle size. However, both size fractions are significantly underused proxies of past climate variability. Here, an ombrogenous peat profile from Tǎul Muced in the Rodnei Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians), located in a temperate continental climate, with Atlantic and Baltic influences, provides the very first record of mid to late Holocene aeolian activity from Romania highlighting the interplay between local and regional controls in a continental area of CE Europe. We use a multiproxy approach combining radiocarbon dating, the physical properties of the peat (loss-on-ignition, bulk density), mineral magnetic measurements (ARM, SIRM), geochemical (Ti and Zr) and particle size analysis (via both laser diffraction and the manual counting of sand particles under a steromicroscope) to determine changes in: i) atmospheric dust deposition and ii) wind velocities during the last 7800 years. We found that the aeolian particles are mainly silt (3.9-63 μm) (dust) and sand (63-1200 μm). The mineralogical composition of the aeolian sediment in peat is mainly quartz, more rarely calcite and very rarely other minerals such as feldspar, sulphur, mica (biotite and muscovite), magnetite and other melanocrate minerals. The roundness of the sand particles varies from well-rounded to sub-angular and angular, and suggests that the sand particles have different source areas. Results from this study show that over the last 7600 years the pattern of wind frequency changed several times: there are periods characterised by a low aeolian input around 6950-6550, 5000-3900, 3500-2900, 1650

  15. Statistical analysis of automatically detected ion density variations recorded by DEMETER and their relation to seismic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Parrot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Many examples of ionospheric perturbations observed during large seismic events were recorded by the low-altitude satellite DEMETER. However, there are also ionospheric variations without seismic activity. The present study is devoted to a statistical analysis of the night-time ion density variations. Software was implemented to detect variations in the data before earthquakes world-wide. Earthquakes with magnitudes >4.8 were selected and classified according to their magnitudes, depths and locations (land, close to the coast, or below the sea. For each earthquake, an automatic search for ion density variations was conducted from 15 days before the earthquake, when the track of the satellite orbit was at less than 1,500 km from the earthquake epicenter. The result of this first step provided the variations relative to the background in the vicinity of the epicenter for each 15 days before each earthquake. In the second step, comparisons were carried out between the largest variations over the 15 days and the earthquake magnitudes. The statistical analysis is based on calculation of the median values as a function of the various seismic parameters (magnitude, depth, location. A comparison was also carried out with two other databases, where on the one hand, the locations of the epicenters were randomly modified, and on the other hand, the longitudes of the epicenters were shifted. The results show that the intensities of the ionospheric perturbations are larger prior to the earthquakes than prior to random events, and that the perturbations increase with the earthquake magnitudes.


  16. A brief analysis on the Simultaneous Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous interpretation (SI) is an intellectual activity which requires interpreter to translate form one language into another simultaneously. As the most challenged field of interpretation, SI is considered to be the highest level of language interpreting for it requires special quality of skills which can never be acquired without systematic and sophisticated training.

  17. Interactive Record Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to carry out demographic analyses at individual and group levels, a manual method of linking individual event records from parish registers was developed in the late 1950s. In order to save time and to work with larger areas than small parishes, systems for automatic record linkage were developed a couple of decades later. A third method, an interactive record linkage, named Demolink, has been developed even more recently. The main new feature of the method is the possibility of linking from more than two historical sources simultaneously. This improves the process of sorting out which events belong to which individual life courses. This paper discusses how Demolink was used for record linkage in a large Norwegian parish for the period 1801-1878.

  18. Record breakers

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the sixties, CERN’s Fellows were but a handful of about 50 young experimentalists present on site to complete their training. Today, their number has increased to a record-breaking 500. They come from many different fields and are spread across CERN’s different activity areas.   “Diversifying the Fellowship programme has been the key theme in recent years,” comments James Purvis, Head of the Recruitment, Programmes and Monitoring group in the HR Department. “In particular, the 2005 five-yearly review introduced the notion of ‘senior’ and ‘junior’ Fellowships, broadening the target audience to include those with Bachelor-level qualifications.” Diversification made CERN’s Fellowship programme attractive to a wider audience but the number of Fellows on site could not have increased so much without the support of EU-funded projects, which were instrumental in the growth of the programme. ...

  19. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David;

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...

  20. 78 FR 70570 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    .... There are no proposed changes to Form I-94. Type of Review: Revision. Affected Public: Individuals, Carriers, and the Travel and Tourism Industry. Form I-94 (Arrival and Departure Record) Estimated Number...

  1. 76 FR 28239 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... proposed changes to CBP Form I-94. Type of Review: Revision. Affected Public: Individuals, Carriers, and the Travel and Tourism Industry. I-94 (Arrival and Departure Record) Estimated Number of...

  2. Validation of Using Fitness Center Attendance Electronic Records to Assess the Frequency of Moderate/Vigorous Leisure-Time Physical Activity among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amireault, Steve; Godin, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide three construct validity evidence for using fitness center attendance electronic records to objectively assess the frequency of leisure-time physical activity among adults. One hundred members of a fitness center (45 women and 55 men; aged 18 to 64 years) completed a self-report leisure-time physical…

  3. The 9-MilCA method as a rapid, partly automated protocol for simultaneously recording milk coagulation, curd firming, syneresis, cheese yield, and curd nutrients recovery or whey loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Stocco, G; Bittante, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and test a new laboratory cheesemaking procedure [9-mL milk cheesemaking assessment (9-MilCA)], which records 15 traits related to milk coagulation, curd firming, syneresis, cheese yield, and curd nutrients recovery or whey loss. This procedure involves instruments found in many laboratories (i.e., heaters and lacto-dynamographs), with an easy modification of the sample rack for the insertion of 10-mL glass tubes. Four trials were carried out to test the 9-MilCA procedure. The first trial compared 8 coagulation and curd firming traits obtained using regular or modified sample racks to process milk samples from 60 cows belonging to 5 breeds and 3 farms (480 tests). The obtained patterns exhibited significant but irrelevant between-procedure differences, with better repeatability seen for 9-MilCA. The second trial tested the reproducibility and repeatability of the 7 cheesemaking traits obtained using the 9-MilCA procedure on individual samples from 60 cows tested in duplicate in 2 instruments (232 tests). The method yielded very repeatable outcomes for all 7 tested cheese yield and nutrient recovery traits (repeatability >98%), with the exception of the fresh cheese yield (84%), which was affected by the lower repeatability (67%) of the water retained in the curd. In the third trial (96 tests), we found that using centrifugation in place of curd cooking and draining (as adopted in several published studies) reduced the efficiency of whey separation, overestimated all traits, and worsened the repeatability. The fourth trial compared 9-MilCA with a more complex model cheese-manufacturing process that mimics industry practices, using 1,500-mL milk samples (72 cows, 216 tests). The average results obtained from 9-MilCA were similar to those obtained from the model cheeses, with between-method correlations ranging from 78 to 99%, except for the water retained in the curd (r=54%). Our results indicate that new 9-MilCA method is a

  4. A novel versatile Hybrid Infusion-MultiElectrode recording (HIME system for acute drug delivery and multisite acquisition of neuronal activity in freely moving mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg eSenkov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To characterize information transfer in defined brain circuits involving multiple brain regions and to evaluate underlying molecular mechanisms and their dysregulation in major brain diseases, a simple and reliable system is ultimately required for electrophysiologically recording of local field potentials (LFPs, or local EEG in combination with local delivery of drugs, enzymes and gene expression-controlling viruses near the place of recording. Here we provide a new design of a versatile reusable hybrid infusion-recording (HIME system which can be utilized in freely moving mice performing cognitive tasks. The HIME system allows monitoring neuronal activity in multiple layers in several brain structures. Here, we provide examples of bilateral injection and recordings of full spectrum of learning and memory related oscillations, i.e. theta (4-12 Hz, gamma (40-100 and ripple activity (130-150 Hz, in five hippocampal layers as well as in the CA1 and CA2 regions. Furthermore, the system is designed to be used for parallel recordings in the amygdala, cortex and other brain areas, before and after infusion of reagents of interest, either in or off a cognitive test. We anticipate that the HIME system can be particularly convenient to advance functional neuroglycobiological studies and molecular deciphering of mechanisms governing long-term memory consolidation.

  5. Simultaneous translocations of FGFR3/MMSET and CCND1 into two different IGH alleles in multiple myeloma: lack of concurrent activation of both proto-oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Borja; Martín-Subero, José I; Lahortiga, Idoya; Largo, Cristina; Larrayoz, María J; Odero, María D; Prosper, Felipe; Cigudosa, Juan C; Siebert, Reiner; Calasanz, María J

    2007-05-01

    The simultaneous occurrence of two different translocations affecting both alleles of the IGH gene has rarely been reported in multiple myeloma. In such a case, two different oncogenes might become transcriptionally deregulated. To investigate this hypothesis, we have characterized the plasma cell leukemia cell line SK-MM2 and a primary myeloma both carrying simultaneous IGH-FGFR3/MMSET and IGH-CCND1 fusions as shown by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization. Remarkably, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that only one of the oncogene loci was transcriptionally upregulated in both instances. Moreover, the upregulated oncogenes differed between both samples. Thus, biallelic IGH translocations might exert different pathogenetic effects in plasma cell disorders.

  6. Facile synthesis of efficient visible active C-doped TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials with high surface area for the simultaneous removal of phenol and Cr(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, A.Daya; Reddy, P.Manoj Kumar; Srinivaas, M. [Department of Chemistry, IIT Hyderabad, Yeddumailaram 502 205 (India); Ghosal, P., E-mail: csubbu@iith.ac.in [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Xanthopoulos, N. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Subrahmanyam, Ch. [Department of Chemistry, IIT Hyderabad, Yeddumailaram 502 205 (India)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Facile synthesis of C-doped TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials with high surface area. • Utilization of citric acid and ascorbic acid as fuels based on evolution of gases. • Enhanced visible activity for the oxidation of phenol and reduction of Cr(VI). • Study of simultaneous oxidation of phenol and reduction of Cr(VI) for the first time. • Proposed plausible mechanism for the simultaneous removal of phenol and Cr(VI). - Abstract: A single step synthesis of carbon doped TiO{sub 2} (anatase) nanomaterials have been reported by using combustion synthesis using ascorbic acid and citric acid fuels. X-ray diffraction studies indicated the formation of nanosized anatase titania, whereas, transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation of nanosized TiO{sub 2} anatase. The carbon doping into TiO{sub 2} matrix was identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, whereas, thermogravimetric study quantified the carbon doping. Diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectra indicated the band gap of less than 3 eV, a prerequisite for the photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. The N{sub 2} adsorption studies revealed the high surface area (upto 290 m{sup 2}/g) of the synthesized photocatalysts. Typical photocatalytic activity data indicated that the simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and phenol is advantageous than degradation of the individual pollutants.

  7. Quality assessment of Cinnamomi Ramulus by the simultaneous analysis of multiple active components using high-performance thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxue; He, Jiao; Xu, Huarong; Bi, Kaishun; Li, Qing

    2014-09-01

    A novel and improved method for the quality assessment of Cinnamomi Ramulus was developed and completely validated. The method was established using fingerprint technology and simultaneous quantitative determination of six main marker compounds including coumarin, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, 2-methoxy cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, and 2-methoxy cinnamaldehyde in the herbal medicine for the first time. A newly developed high-performance thin-layer chromatography method, which achieved simultaneous definition of five marker components by comparing the colors and retardation factor values of the bands in high-performance thin-layer chromatography, was first used for the authentication of Cinnamomi Ramulus. The fingerprints of 26 batches of herbal samples from different regions of China showed very similar chromatographic patterns that were evaluated by similarity analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. In addition, six marker compounds were simultaneously determined using single standard to determine multiple components by the relative response factors. Compared with the external standard method, the new quantitative method was validated to determine multiple compounds in 26 batches of Cinnamomi Ramulus samples. All results demonstrated that the simple and rapid method could be effectively utilized for the quality control of Cinnamomi Ramulus. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Temporal and spatial variations in TEC using simultaneous measurements from the Indian GPS network of receivers during the low solar activity period of 2004–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. V. V. D. Prasad

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available With the recent increase in the satellite-based navigation applications, the ionospheric total electron content (TEC and the L-band scintillation measurements have gained significant importance. In this paper we present the temporal and spatial variations in TEC derived from the simultaneous and continuous measurements made, for the first time, using the Indian GPS network of 18 receivers located from the equator to the northern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA region and beyond, covering a geomagnetic latitude range of 1° S to 24° N, using a 16-month period of data for the low sunspot activity (LSSA years of March 2004 to June 2005. The diurnal variation in TEC at the EIA region shows its steep increase and reaches its maximum value between 13:00 and 16:00 LT, while at the equator the peak is broad and occurs around 16:00 LT. A short-lived day minimum occurs between 05:00 to 06:00 LT at all the stations from the equator to the EIA crest region. Beyond the crest region the day maximum values decrease with the increase in latitude, while the day minimum in TEC is flat during most of the nighttime hours, i.e. from 22:00 to 06:00 LT, a feature similar to that observed in the mid-latitudes. Further, the diurnal variation in TEC show a minimum to maximum variation of about 5 to 50 TEC units, respectively, at the equator and about 5 to 90 TEC units at the EIA crest region, which correspond to range delay variations of about 1 to 8 m at the equator to about 1 to 15 m at the crest region, at the GPS L1 frequency of 1.575 GHz. The day-to-day variability is also significant at all the stations, particularly during the daytime hours, with maximum variations at the EIA crest regions. Further, similar variations are also noticed in the corresponding equatorial electrojet (EEJ strength, which is known to be one of the major contributors for the observed day-to-day variability in TEC. The seasonal variation in TEC maximizes during the equinox

  9. Simultaneous consolidation and creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette

    1997-01-01

    Materials that exhibit creep under constant effective stress typically also show rate dependent behavior. The creep deformations and the rate sensitive behavior is very important when engineering and geological problems with large time scales are considered. When stress induced compaction...... (consolidation) is retarded by slow drainage of excess pore pressure it is expected that consolidation and creep occur simultaneously. A constitutive model adressing the problems of rate sensitive behavior and simultaneous consolidation and creep is presented....

  10. Spoken Spanish: turn taking, interventing and simultaneous speech in spontaneus conversation

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Conversation is a very important human activity through which people connect to the outer world. In this article, we try to understand the dynamics of spontaneous speech (taking turns, interventions, simultaneous speech) and the reasons why the participants do not participate equally in a conversation. The work is based on a recorded ten minute long spontaneous conversation among Spanish students and on the analysis of its tran scription. The corpus has got all the characteristics of spoken l...

  11. pHEMA encapsulated PEDOT-PSS-CNT microsphere microelectrodes for recording single unit activity in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eCastagnola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The long-term reliability of neural interfaces and stability of high-quality recordings are still unsolved issues in neuroscience research. High surface area PEDOT-PSS-CNT composites are able to greatly improve the performance of recording and stimulation for traditional intracortical metal microelectrodes by decreasing their impedance and increasing their charge transfer capability. This enhancement significantly reduces the size of the implantable device though preserving excellent electrical performances. On the other hand, the presence of nanomaterials often rises concerns regarding possible health hazards, especially when considering a clinical application of the devices. For this reason, we decided to explore the problem from a new perspective by designing and testing an innovative device based on nanostructured microspheres grown on a thin tether, integrating PEDOT-PSS-CNT nanocomposites with a soft synthetic permanent biocompatible hydrogel. The pHEMA hydrogel preserves the electrochemical performance and high quality recording ability of PEDOT-PSS-CNT coated devices, reduces the mechanical mismatch between soft brain tissue and stiff devices and also avoids direct contact between the neural tissue and the nanocomposite, by acting as a biocompatible protective barrier against potential nanomaterial detachment. Moreover, the spherical shape of the electrode together with the surface area increase provided by the nanocomposite deposited on it, maximize the electrical contact and may improve recording stability over time. These results have a good potential to contribute to fulfill the grand challenge of obtaining stable neural interfaces for long-term applications.

  12. 75 FR 59733 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... (without change). Affected Public: Individuals, Carriers, and the Travel and Tourism Industry. I-94... Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and Electronic System for Travel Authorization AGENCY: U.S. Customs and... for Travel Authorization (ESTA). This request for comment is being made pursuant to the...

  13. Simultaneous Denoising, Deconvolution, and Demixing of Calcium Imaging Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A; Soudry, Daniel; Gao, Yuanjun; Machado, Timothy A; Merel, Josh; Pfau, David; Reardon, Thomas; Mu, Yu; Lacefield, Clay; Yang, Weijian; Ahrens, Misha; Bruno, Randy; Jessell, Thomas M; Peterka, Darcy S; Yuste, Rafael; Paninski, Liam

    2016-01-20

    We present a modular approach for analyzing calcium imaging recordings of large neuronal ensembles. Our goal is to simultaneously identify the locations of the neurons, demix spatially overlapping components, and denoise and deconvolve the spiking activity from the slow dynamics of the calcium indicator. Our approach relies on a constrained nonnegative matrix factorization that expresses the spatiotemporal fluorescence activity as the product of a spatial matrix that encodes the spatial footprint of each neuron in the optical field and a temporal matrix that characterizes the calcium concentration of each neuron over time. This framework is combined with a novel constrained deconvolution approach that extracts estimates of neural activity from fluorescence traces, to create a spatiotemporal processing algorithm that requires minimal parameter tuning. We demonstrate the general applicability of our method by applying it to in vitro and in vivo multi-neuronal imaging data, whole-brain light-sheet imaging data, and dendritic imaging data.

  14. Simultaneous quantification of five major active components in capsules of the traditional Chinese medicine 'Shu-Jin-Zhi-Tong' by high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Xin Yang; Xiao-Xia Zhang; Rui-Miao Chang; Yan.Wei Wang; Xiao-Ni Li

    2011-01-01

    A simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of five major bioactive components in 'Shu-Jin- Zhi-Tong' capsules (SJZTC), for the purposes of quality control of this commonly prescribed traditional Chinese medicine. Under the optimum conditions, excellent separation was achieved, and the assay was fully validated in terms of linearity, precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy. The validated method was applied successfully to the determination of the five compounds in SJZTC samples from different production batches. The HPLC method can be used as a valid analytical method to evaluate the intrinsic quality of SJZTC.

  15. Comparison of two dedicated 'in beam' PET systems via simultaneous imaging of {sup 12}C-induced {beta}{sup +}-activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attanasi, F; Belcari, N; Del Guerra, A; Moehrs, S; Rosso, V; Vecchio, S [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Enghardt, W [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institute of Nuclear and Hadron Physics, PO Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Parodi, K [Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: sara.vecchio@pi.infn.it

    2009-01-21

    The selective energy deposition of hadrontherapy has led to a growing interest in quality assurance techniques such as 'in-beam' PET. Due to the current lack of commercial solutions, dedicated detectors need to be developed. In this paper, we compare the performances of two different 'in-beam' PET systems which were simultaneously operated during and after low energy carbon ion irradiation of PMMA phantoms at GSI Darmstadt. The results highlight advantages and drawbacks of a novel in-beam PET prototype against a long-term clinically operated tomograph for ion therapy monitoring. (note)

  16. Simultaneous enhancement of methane production and methane content in biogas from waste activated sludge and perennial ryegrass anaerobic co-digestion: The effects of pH and C/N ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaohu; Li, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Lingling

    2016-09-01

    It is necessary to find an appropriate strategy to simultaneously enhance the methane production and methane content in biogas from waste activated sludge (WAS) and grass co-digestion. In this study an efficient strategy, i.e., adjusting the initial pH 12 and C/N ratio 17/1, for simultaneous enhancement of methane production and methane content in biogas from WAS and perennial ryegrass co-digestion was reported. Experimental results indicated that the maximal methane production was 310mL/gVSadd at the optimum conditions after 30-d anaerobic digestion, which was, respectively, about 1.5- and 3.8-fold of the sole WAS and sole perennial ryegrass anaerobic digestion. Meanwhile, the methane content in biogas was about 74%, which was much higher than that of sole WAS (64%) or sole perennial ryegrass (54%) anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Robert Recorde

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The 16th-Century intellectual Robert Recorde is chiefly remembered for introducing the equals sign into algebra, yet the greater significance and broader scope of his work is often overlooked. This book presents an authoritative and in-depth analysis of the man, his achievements and his historical importance. This scholarly yet accessible work examines the latest evidence on all aspects of Recorde's life, throwing new light on a character deserving of greater recognition. Topics and features: presents a concise chronology of Recorde's life; examines his published works; describes Recorde's pro

  18. A novel carbon fiber bundle microelectrode and modified brain slice chamber for recording long-term multiunit activity from brain slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, T K; Gillette, M U

    1996-11-01

    The fabrication and characteristics of a novel multiunit recording electrode and modified brain slice chamber suitable for long-term recording from brain slices are described. The electrode consisted of an electrolyte-filled glass micropipette with a 20-50 microns thick wax-coated bundle of 5-micron diameter carbon fibers extending 2.5 cm from the tapered end and an AgCl-coated silver wire inserted into the open end and connected to a preamplifier. Both ends of the electrode were sealed with wax to prevent evaporation of the electrolyte. The brain slice was maintained over this extended period in an interface-type brain slice chamber modified to completely surround the slice with medium. Using this electrode, regular 24-h oscillations of spontaneous multiunit activity were recorded for 3 days from a single location in a 500 microns thick rat suprachiasmatic nucleus brain slice. Preliminary data suggest that this novel carbon fiber bundle electrode will be a favorable alternative to traditional metal electrodes for long-term recording of multiunit activity from brain slices.

  19. Dynamics of regional brain activity in epilepsy: a cross-disciplinary study on both intracranial and scalp-recorded epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minadakis, George; Ventouras, Errikos; Gatzonis, Stylianos D.; Siatouni, Anna; Tsekou, Hara; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Sakas, Damianos E.; Stonham, John

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Recent cross-disciplinary literature suggests a dynamical analogy between earthquakes and epileptic seizures. This study extends the focus of inquiry for the applicability of models for earthquake dynamics to examine both scalp-recorded and intracranial electroencephalogram recordings related to epileptic seizures. Approach. First, we provide an updated definition of the electric event in terms of magnitude and we focus on the applicability of (i) a model for earthquake dynamics, rooted in a nonextensive Tsallis framework, (ii) the traditional Gutenberg and Richter law and (iii) an alternative method for the magnitude-frequency relation for earthquakes. Second, we apply spatiotemporal analysis in terms of nonextensive statistical physics and we further examine the behavior of the parameters included in the nonextensive formula for both types of electroencephalogram recordings under study. Main results. We confirm the previously observed power-law distribution, showing that the nonextensive formula can adequately describe the sequences of electric events included in both types of electroencephalogram recordings. We also show the intermittent behavior of the epileptic seizure cycle which is analogous to the earthquake