WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity record sheet

  1. Lateral dimension-dependent antibacterial activity of graphene oxide sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaobin; Hu, Ming; Zeng, Tingying Helen; Wu, Ran; Jiang, Rongrong; Wei, Jun; Wang, Liang; Kong, Jing; Chen, Yuan

    2012-08-21

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising precursor to produce graphene-family nanomaterials for various applications. Their potential health and environmental impacts need a good understanding of their cellular interactions. Many factors may influence their biological interactions with cells, and the lateral dimension of GO sheets is one of the most relevant material properties. In this study, a model bacterium, Escherichia coli ( E. coli ), was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of well-dispersed GO sheets, whose lateral size differs by more than 100 times. Our results show that the antibacterial activity of GO sheets toward E. coli cells is lateral size dependent. Larger GO sheets show stronger antibacterial activity than do smaller ones, and they have different time- and concentration-dependent antibacterial activities. Large GO sheets lead to most cell loss after 1 h incubation, and their concentration strongly influences antibacterial activity at relative low concentration (oxidation capacity toward glutathione is similar, consistent with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy results. This suggests the lateral size-dependent antibacterial activity of GO sheets is caused by neither their aggregation states, nor oxidation capacity. Atomic force microscope analysis of GO sheets and cells shows that GO sheets interact strongly with cells. Large GO sheets more easily cover cells, and cells cannot proliferate once fully covered, resulting in the cell viability loss observed in the followed colony counting test. In contrast, small GO sheets adhere to the bacterial surfaces, which cannot effectively isolate cells from environment. This study highlights the importance of tailoring the lateral dimension of GO sheets to optimize the application potential with minimal risks for environmental health and safety.

  2. Hummocky moraine: sedimentary record of stagnant Laurentide Ice Sheet lobes resting on soft beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, N.; Boyce, J. I.; Barendregt, R. W.

    1999-02-01

    Over large areas of the western interior plains of North America, hummocky moraine (HM) formed at the margins of Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) lobes that flowed upslope against topographic highs. Current depositional models argue that HM was deposited supraglacially from stagnant debris-rich ice (`disintegration moraine'). Across southern Alberta, Canada, map and outcrop data show that HM is composed of fine-grained till as much as 25 m thick containing rafts of soft, glaciotectonized bedrock and sediment. Chaotic, non-oriented HM commonly passes downslope into weakly-oriented hummocks (`washboard moraine') that are transitional to drumlins in topographic lows; the same subsurface stratigraphy and till facies is present throughout. These landforms, and others such as doughnut-like `rim ridges', flat-topped `moraine plateaux' and linear disintegration ridges, are identified as belonging to subglacially-deposited soft-bed terrain. This terrain is the record of ice lobes moving over deformation till derived from weakly-lithified, bentonite-rich shale. Drumlins record continued active ice flow in topographic lows during deglaciation whereas HM was produced below the outer stagnant margins of ice lobes by gravitational loading (`pressing') of remnant dead ice blocks into wet, plastic till. Intervening zones of washboard moraine mark the former boundary of active and stagnant ice and show `hybrid' drumlins whose streamlined form has been altered by subglacial pressing (` humdrums') below dead ice. The presence of hummocky moraine over a very large area of interior North America provides additional support for glaciological models of a soft-bedded Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  3. A 25-year Record of Antarctic Ice Sheet Elevation and Mass Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A.; Muir, A. S.; Sundal, A.; McMillan, M.; Briggs, K.; Hogg, A.; Engdahl, M.; Gilbert, L.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1992, the European Remote-Sensing (ERS-1 and ERS-2), ENVISAT, and CryoSat-2 satellite radar altimeters have measured the Antarctic ice sheet surface elevation, repeatedly, at approximately monthly intervals. These data constitute the longest continuous record of ice sheet wide change. In this paper, we use these observations to determine changes in the elevation, volume and mass of the East Antarctic and West Antarctic ice sheets, and of parts of the Antarctic Peninsula ice sheet, over a 25-year period. The root mean square difference between elevation rates computed from our survey and 257,296 estimates determined from airborne laser measurements is 54 cm/yr. The longevity of the satellite altimeter data record allows to identify and chart the evolution of changes associated with meteorology and ice flow, and we estimate that 3.6 % of the continental ice sheet, and 21.7 % of West Antarctica, is in a state of dynamical imbalance. Based on this partitioning, we estimate the mass balance of the East and West Antarctic ice sheet drainage basins and the root mean square difference between these and independent estimates derived from satellite gravimetry is less than 5 Gt yr-1.

  4. Photovoltaic self-consumption: reference activity sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In order to promote the use of photovoltaic energy in self-consumption, Enerplan, the French association of solar energy professionals, has edited a set of reference sheets comprising the main technical and economic data of recent installations (cold generation facility, water treatment plant, farm, commercial and public buildings), in various French regions: description of the installation, project owner testimony, technical characteristics of the site, expected results, economic data, production/consumption results

  5. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. In vitro assessment of activity of graphene silver composite sheets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To synthesize graphene-based silver nanocomposites and evaluate their antimicrobial and anti-Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus (TBSV) activities. Methods: A graphene-based silver composite was prepared by adsorbing silver nanoparticles AgNPs to the surfaces of graphene oxide (GO) sheets. Scanning electron ...

  7. Evaluation of Randomly Selected Completed Medical Records Sheets in Teaching Hospitals of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parsa Mahjob

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Medical record documentation, often use to protect the patients legal rights, also providing information for medical researchers, general studies, education of health care staff and qualitative surveys is used. There is a need to control the amount of data entered in the medical record sheets of patients, considering the completion of these sheets is often carried out after completion of service delivery to the patients. Therefore, in this study the prevalence of completeness of medical history, operation reports, and physician order sheets by different documentaries in Jahrom teaching hospitals during year 2009 was analyzed. Methods and Materials: In this descriptive / retrospective study, the 400 medical record sheets of the patients from two teaching hospitals affiliated to Jahrom medical university was randomly selected. The tool of data collection was a checklist based on the content of medical history sheet, operation report and physician order sheets. The data were analyzed by SPSS (Version10 software and Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Average of personal (Demography data entered in medical history, physician order and operation report sheets which is done by department's secretaries were 32.9, 35.8 and 40.18 percent. Average of clinical data entered by physician in medical history sheet is 38 percent. Surgical data entered by the surgeon in operation report sheet was 94.77 percent. Average of data entered by operation room's nurse in operation report sheet was 36.78 percent; Average of physician order data in physician order sheet entered by physician was 99.3 percent. Conclusion: According to this study, the rate of completed record papers reviewed by documentary in Jahrom teaching hospitals were not desirable and in some cases were very weak and incomplete. This deficiency was due to different reason such as medical record documentaries negligence, lack of adequate education for documentaries, High work

  8. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Geomagnetic activity effects on plasma sheet energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we use three years (2001, 2002, and 2004 of Cluster plasma sheet data to investigate what happens to localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the plasma sheet during times of high magnetospheric activity. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have studied the influence on Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs and Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs from variations in the geomagnetic disturbance level as expressed by the Kp, the AE, and the Dst indices. We find that the ECR occurrence frequency increases during higher magnetospheric activities, and that the ECRs become stronger. This is true both for CLRs and for CGRs, and the localized energy conversion therefore concerns energy conversion in both directions between the particles and the fields in the plasma sheet. A higher geomagnetic activity hence increases the general level of energy conversion in the plasma sheet. Moreover, we have shown that CLRs live longer during magnetically disturbed times, hence converting more electromagnetic energy. The CGR lifetime, on the other hand, seems to be unaffected by the geomagnetic activity level. The evidence for increased energy conversion during geomagnetically disturbed times is most clear for Kp and for AE, but there are also some indications that energy conversion increases during large negative Dst. This is consistent with the plasma sheet magnetically mapping to the auroral zone, and therefore being more tightly coupled to auroral activities and variations in the AE and Kp indices, than to variations in the ring current region as described by the Dst index.

  10. Associations of geomagnetic activity with plasma sheet thinning and expansion: A statistical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hones, E.W. Jr.; Pytte, T.; West, H.I. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Associations of geomagnetic activity in the auroral zone with thinnings and expansions of the magnetotail plasma sheet are examined statistically in this paper. We first identified many plasma sheet thinnings and expansions in plasma and particle data from VELA satellites and from OGO 5 without reference to the ground magnetic data. These events were grouped according to the location of the detecting satellite in the magnetotail. For each such group the times of thinning or expansion were then used as fiducial times in a superposed-epoch analysis of the geomagnetic AL index values that were recorded in 8-hour intervals centered on the event times. The results show that many plasma sheet thinnings and expansions are related to discrete negative bay structures that are the classical signature of substorms. Furthermore, they support earlier findings that plasma sheet thinning and expansion at the VELA orbit (rroughly-equal18 R/sub E/) tend to be associated with the onset of the auroral zone negative bay and the beginning of its subsidence, respectively. Earthward of rroughly-equal13-15 R/sub E/, plasma sheet expansion occurs near the time of the onset of the negative bay, again in agreement with earlier findings. A large fraction of plasma sheet expansions to half thicknesses of > or approx. =6 R/sub E/ at the VELA orbit are associated not with a baylike geomagnetic disturbance but with subsidence of a prolonged interval of disturbance. The study also shows that many plasma sheet expansions are related simply to generally enhanced geomagnetic activity showing no baylike or other distinctive features

  11. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harv, M.R.

    1995-02-01

    This report on the Norwegian petroleum activity in 1994 is published by the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy. Production to the end of 1994 totaled 1.63 billion scm oe. At 31 Dec 1994, total reserves on the Norwegian continental shelf comprised 1.34 billion scm oe of oil, 1.35 billion scm oe of gas and 0.1 billion scm oe of NGLs. The net increment in oil and gas during 1994 was about 115 million scm oe. Twenty-seven exploration wells, including 22 wildcats and five appraisal wells, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the Norwegian continental shelf in 1994. Governmental approval was given for developing the second phase of the Ekofisk field, the Vigdis and Snorre Lunde oil fields, and two smaller formations on the Veslefrikk field. Investment in petroleum operations totaled about NOK 50 billion. Norwegian oil and gas production came to about 180 million scm oe. At present levels of output, Norway's petroleum resources are sufficient to support production of oil for 20 years and of gas for 115 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1994 is NOK 114 billion, representing about 34% of the country's total export earnings. State revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations came to about NOK 23.7 billion, or eight per cent of total government revenues. 24 figs., 13 tabs

  12. Active current sheets near the earth's bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, S.J.; Kessel, R.L.; Brown, C.C.; Woolliscroft, L.J.C.; Dunlop, M.W.; Farrugia, C.J.; Hall, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present here an investigation of active current sheets observed by the AMPTE UK spacecraft near the Earth's bow shock, concentrating on their macroscopic features and geometry. Events selected primarily by flow directions which deviate substantially from the Sun-Earth line show similar characteristics, including their association with an underlying macroscopic current sheet and a hot central region whose flow direction is organized, at least in part, by location relative to the inferred initial intersection point between the current sheet and the bow shock. This region is flanked by edges which, according to a Rankine-Hugoniot analysis, are often fast shocks whose orientation is consistent with that expected if a bulge on the bow shock convected past the spacecraft. They have found the magnetosheath manifestations of these events which they study in detail. They suggest that these events are the direct result of the disruption and reformation of the bow shock by the passage of an interplanetary current sheet, most probably a tangential discontinuity

  13. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  14. Extracting the respiration cycle lengths from ECG signal recorded with bed sheet electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehkaoja, A; Peltokangas, M; Lekkala, J

    2013-01-01

    A method for recognizing the respiration cycle lengths from the electrocardiographic (ECG) signal recorded with textile electrodes that are attached to a bed sheet is proposed. The method uses two features extracted from the ECG that are affected by the respiration: respiratory sinus arrhythmia and the amplitude of the R-peaks. The proposed method was tested in one hour long recordings with ten healthy young adults. A relative mean absolute error of 5.6 % was achieved when the algorithm was able to provide a result for approximately 40 % of the time. 90 % of the values were within 0.5 s and 97 % within 1 s from the reference respiration value. In addition to the instantaneous respiration cycle lengths, also the mean values during 1 and 5 minutes epochs are calculated. The effect of the ECG signal source is evaluated by calculating the result also from the simultaneously recorded reference ECG signal. The acquired respiration information can be used in the estimation of sleep quality and the detection of sleep disorders

  15. Abrupt Greenland Ice Sheet runoff and sea water temperature changes since 1821, recorded by coralline algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenos, N.; Hoey, T.; Bedford, J.; Claverie, T.; Fallick, A. E.; Lamb, C. M.; Nienow, P. W.; O'Neill, S.; Shepherd, I.; Thormar, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) contains the largest store of fresh water in the northern hemisphere, equivalent to ~7.4m of eustatic sea level rise, but its impacts on current, past and future sea level, ocean circulation and European climate are poorly understood. Previous estimates of GrIS melt, from 26 years of satellite observations and temperature driven melt-models over 48 years, show a trend of increasing melt. There are however no runoff data of comparable duration with which to validate temperature-based runoff models, or relationships between the spatial extent of melt and runoff. Further, longer runoff records that extend GrIS melt records to centennial timescales will enable recently observed trends to be put into a better historical context. We measured Mg/Ca, δ18O and structural cell size in annual growth bands of red coralline algae to reconstruct: (1) near surface sea water temperature; and, (2) melt/runoff from the GrIS. (1) Temperature: we reconstructed the longest (1821-2009) sub-annual resolution record of water temperature in Disko Bugt (western Greenland) showing an abrupt change in temperature oscillation patterns during the 1920s which may be attributable to the interaction between atmospheric temperature and mass loss from Jakobshavn Isbrae glacier. (2) GrIS runoff: using samples from distal parts of Søndre Strømfjord we produced the first reconstruction of decadal (1939-2002) GrIS runoff. We observed significant negative relationships between historic runoff, relative salinity and marine summer temperature. Our reconstruction shows a trend of increasing reconstructed runoff since the mid 1980s. In situ summer marine temperatures followed a similar trend. We suggest that since 1939 atmospheric temperatures have been important in forcing runoff. Subject to locating in situ coralline algae samples, these methods can be applied across hundreds to thousands of years. These results show that our technique has significant potential to enhance

  16. Use and Limitations of a Climate-Quality Data Record to Study Temperature Trends on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino C.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Koenig, Lora S.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented in recent literature along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data since 1981. Using a recently-developed climate-quality data record, 11- and 12-year trends in the clear-sky ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) IST product. Daily and monthly MODIS ISTs of the Greenland Ice Sheet beginning on 1 March 2000 and continuing through 31 December 2010 are now available at 6.25-km spatial resolution on a polar stereographic grid as described in Hall et al. (submitted). This record will be elevated in status to a climate-data record (CDR) when more years of data become available either from the MODIS on the Terra or Aqua satellites, or from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to be launched in October 2011. Maps showing the maximum extent of melt for the entire ice sheet and for the six major drainage basins have been developed from the MODIS IST dataset. Twelve-year trends of the duration of the melt season on the ice sheet vary in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the course of the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. IST 12-year trends are compared with in-situ data, and climate data from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Reanalysis.

  17. In vitro assessment of activity of graphene silver composite sheets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African. Index Medicus ... was cooled to −5 °C. The excess water was removed under ..... Microwave synthesis of graphene sheets supporting.

  18. A Climate-Data Record (CDR) of the "Clear-Sky" Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino C.; DiGirolamo, Nocolo E.; Shuman, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a climate-data record (CDR) of "clear-sky" ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The CDR provides daily and monthly-mean IST from March 2000 through December 2010 on a polar stereographic projection at a resolution of 6.25 km. The CDR is amenable to extension into the future using Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data. Regional "clear-sky" surface temperature increases since the early 1980s in the Arctic, measured using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) infrared data, range from 0.57 +/- 0.02 to 0.72 +/- 0.1 c per decade. Arctic warming has important implications for ice-sheet mass balance because much of the periphery of the Greenland Ice Sheet is already near O C during the melt season, and is thus vulnerable to rapid melting if temperatures continue to increase. An increase in melting of the ice sheet would accelerate sea-level rise, an issue affecting potentially billions of people worldwide. The IST CDR will provide a convenient data set for modelers and for climatologists to track changes of the surface temperature of the ice sheet as a whole and of the individual drainage basins on the ice sheet. The daily and monthly maps will provide information on surface melt as well as "clear-sky" temperature. The CDR will be further validated by comparing results with automatic-weather station data and with satellite-derived surface-temperature products.

  19. A Modified Porous Titanium Sheet Prepared by Plasma-Activated Sintering for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukimichi Tamaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a contamination-free porous titanium scaffold by a plasma-activated sintering within an originally developed TiN-coated graphite mold. The surface of porous titanium sheet with or without a coated graphite mold was characterized. The cell adhesion property of porous titanium sheet was also evaluated in this study. The peak of TiC was detected on the titanium sheet processed with the graphite mold without a TiN coating. Since the titanium fiber elements were directly in contact with the carbon graphite mold during processing, surface contamination was unavoidable event in this condition. The TiC peak was not detectable on the titanium sheet processed within the TiN-coated carbon graphite mold. This modified plasma-activated sintering with the TiN-coated graphite mold would be useful to fabricate a contamination-free titanium sheet. The number of adherent cells on the modified titanium sheet was greater than that of the bare titanium plate. Stress fiber formation and the extension of the cells were observed on the titanium sheets. This modified titanium sheet is expected to be a new tissue engineering material in orthopedic bone repair.

  20. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  1. Zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited seaweed cellulose sheet for antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutiya, Priyank L; Mahajan, Mayur S; Abdul Rasheed, M; Pandey, Manoj; Zaheer Hasan, S; Misra, Nirendra

    2018-06-01

    Seaweed cellulose was isolated from green seaweed Ulva fasciata using a common bleaching agent. Sheet containing porous mesh was prepared from the extracted seaweed crystalline cellulose along with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod clusters grown over the sheet by single step hydrothermal method. Seaweed cellulose and zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited seaweed cellulose sheet was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA, and SEM-EDX. Morphology showed that the diameter of zinc oxide nanorods were around 70nm. Zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited on seaweed cellulose sheet gave remarkable antibacterial activity towards gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus ceresus, Streptococcus thermophilis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginous) microbes. Such deposited sheet has potential applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, food packaging, water treatment and biotechnological industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary analysis of surface radiation measurements recorded at the Nansen ice sheet (Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonafe', U.; Dalpane, E.; Georgiadis, T.; Pitacco, A.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment on radiation and surface energy balance was conducted during the 9. Italian expedition in Antarctica at the Nancen ice sheet, a glacier situated close to the Italian base at Terra Nova Bay, to correlate surface balances to the formation and development of katabatic winds. Measurements were taken by radiometers covering the whole spectra of solar and terrestrial emissions and by fast sensors of atmospheric wind velocity and humidity for the application of the eddy correlation technique. A preliminary analysis of the radiometric data collected in order to quantify the major components of radiative energy balance during the Antarctic summer in clear sky conditions is reported and discussed. The findings show the very low available energy (mean about 1 W/m 2 ), in terms of net radiation, for the physical processes such as sensible- and latent-heat fluxes. Long-wave radiation balance was applied to estimate the reliability of the Swinbank's parametrization, relative to general conditions of the atmosphere

  3. Validation of a Climate-Data Record of the "Clear-Kky" Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Box, Jason E.; Koenig, Lora S.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Comiso, Josefino C.; Shuman, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Surface temperatures on the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied on the ground, using automatic weather station (AWS) data from the Greenland-Climate Network (GC-Net), and from analysis of satellite sensor data. Using Advanced Very High Frequency Radiometer (AVHRR) weekly surface temperature maps, warming of the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented since 1981. We extended and refined this record using higher-resolution Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from March 2000 to the present. We developed a daily and monthly climate-data record (CDR) of the "clear-sky" surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using an ice-surface temperature (1ST) algorithm developed for use with MODIS data. Validation of this CDR is ongoing. MODIS Terra swath data are projected onto a polar stereographic grid at 6.25-km resolution to develop binary, gridded daily and mean-monthly 1ST maps. Each monthly map also has a color-coded image map that is available to download. Also included with the monthly maps is an accompanying map showing number of days in the month that were used to calculate the mean-monthly 1ST. This is important because no 1ST decision is made by the algorithm for cells that are considered cloudy by the internal cloud mask, so a sufficient number of days must be available to produce a mean 1ST for each grid cell. Validation of the CDR consists of several facets: 1) comparisons between ISTs and in-situ measurements; 2) comparisons between ISTs and AWS data; and 3) comparisons of ISTs with surface temperatures derived from other satellite instruments such as the Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Previous work shows that Terra MODIS ISTs are about 3 C lower than in-situ temperatures measured at Summit Camp, during the winter of 2008-09 under clear skies. In this work we begin to compare surface temperatures derived from AWS data with ISTs from the MODIS CDR. The

  4. A Climate-Data Record (CDR) of the "Clear Sky" Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, J. C.; DiGirolamo, N. E.; Shuman, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the ice-surface temperature (IST) we are developing a climate-data record (CDR) of monthly IST of the Greenland ice sheet, from 1982 to the present using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data at 5-km resolution. "Clear-sky" surface temperature increases have been measured from the early 1980s to the early 2000s in the Arctic using AVHRR data, showing increases ranging from 0.57-0.02 (Wang and Key, 2005) to 0.72 0.10 deg C per decade (Comiso, 2006). Arctic warming has implications for ice-sheet mass balance because much of the periphery of the ice sheet is near 0 deg C in the melt season and is thus vulnerable to more extensive melting (Hanna et al., 2008). The algorithm used for this work has a long history of measuring IST in the Arctic with AVHRR (Key and Haefliger, 1992). The data are currently available from 1981 to 2004 in the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) dataset (Fowler et al., 2000). J. Key1NOAA modified the AVHRR algorithm for use with MODIS (Hall et al., 2004). The MODIS algorithm is now being processed over Greenland. Issues being addressed in the production of the CDR are: time-series bias caused by cloud cover, and cross-calibration between AVHRR and MODIS instruments. Because of uncertainties, time series of satellite ISTs do not necessarily correspond with actual surface temperatures. The CDR will be validated by comparing results with in-situ (see Koenig and Hall, in press) and automatic-weather station data (e.g., Shuman et al., 2001).

  5. High Arctic Holocene temperature record from the Agassiz ice cap and Greenland ice sheet evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecavalier, Benoit S; Fisher, David A; Milne, Glenn A; Vinther, Bo M; Tarasov, Lev; Huybrechts, Philippe; Lacelle, Denis; Main, Brittany; Zheng, James; Bourgeois, Jocelyne; Dyke, Arthur S

    2017-06-06

    We present a revised and extended high Arctic air temperature reconstruction from a single proxy that spans the past ∼12,000 y (up to 2009 CE). Our reconstruction from the Agassiz ice cap (Ellesmere Island, Canada) indicates an earlier and warmer Holocene thermal maximum with early Holocene temperatures that are 4-5 °C warmer compared with a previous reconstruction, and regularly exceed contemporary values for a period of ∼3,000 y. Our results show that air temperatures in this region are now at their warmest in the past 6,800-7,800 y, and that the recent rate of temperature change is unprecedented over the entire Holocene. The warmer early Holocene inferred from the Agassiz ice core leads to an estimated ∼1 km of ice thinning in northwest Greenland during the early Holocene using the Camp Century ice core. Ice modeling results show that this large thinning is consistent with our air temperature reconstruction. The modeling results also demonstrate the broader significance of the enhanced warming, with a retreat of the northern ice margin behind its present position in the mid Holocene and a ∼25% increase in total Greenland ice sheet mass loss (∼1.4 m sea-level equivalent) during the last deglaciation, both of which have implications for interpreting geodetic measurements of land uplift and gravity changes in northern Greenland.

  6. AC/TiO2/Rubber Composite Sheet Catalysts; Fabrication, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriwong Chaval

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The AC/TiO2/Rubber (ACTR composite sheets weresuccessfully fabricated by a simply mixing of fixed TiO2 suspension and natural rubber latex (60% HA contents withthe varyingamounts of activated carbon (AC suspension, followed by stirring, pouring into apetri dish mold, drying at room temperature (RT, after that taking out from a mold, reversing and drying again at RT. Then, the as-fabricated ACTR composite sheets were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and scanning electron microscopy (SEMtechniques. The photocatalytic efficiencies of all ACTR composite sheet samples were evaluated by photo degrading of methylene blue (MB dye solution under UV light irradiation. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of ACTR sheet with10.0wt%AC loading has the highest efficiency for the photo degradation of MB dye than the other sheets. This is due to the fact that it is relatively with the synergistic effect of well-combined titanium dioxide catalyst and activated carbon adsorbent.

  7. Validation of a Climate-Data Record of the "Clear-Sky" Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Box, Jason E.; Koenig, Lora S.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Comiso, Josefino C.; Shuman, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Surface temperatures on the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied on the ground, using automatic weather station (AWS) data from the Greenland-Climate Network (GC-Net), and from analysis of satellite sensor data. Using Advanced Very High Frequency Radiometer (AVHRR) weekly surface temperature maps, warming of the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented since 1981. We extended and refined this record using higher-resolution Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from March 2000 to the present. We developed a daily and monthly climate-data record (CDR) of the "clear-sky" surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using an ice-surface temperature (1ST) algorithm developed for use with MODIS data. Validation of this CDR is ongoing. MODIS Terra swath data are projected onto a polar stereographic grid at 6.25-km resolution to develop binary, gridded daily and mean-monthly 1ST maps. Each monthly map also has a color-coded image map that is available to download. Also included with the monthly maps is an accompanying map showing number of days in the month that were used to calculate the mean-monthly 1ST. This is important because no 1ST decision is made by the algorithm for cells that are considered cloudy by the internal cloud mask, so a sufficient number of days must be available to produce a mean 1ST for each grid cell. Validation of the CDR consists of several facets: 1) comparisons between ISTs and in-situ measurements; 2) comparisons between ISTs and AWS data; and 3) comparisons of ISTs with surface temperatures derived from other satellite instruments such as the Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Previous work shows that Terra MODIS ISTs are about 3 C lower than in-situ temperatures measured at Summit Camp, during the winter of 2008-09 under clear skies. In this work we begin to compare surface temperatures derived from AWS data with ISTs from the MODIS CDR.

  8. Revised estimates of Greenland ice sheet thinning histories based on ice-core records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecavalier, B.S.; Milne, G.A.; Fisher, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    -based reconstructions and, to some extent, the estimated elevation histories. A key component of the ice core analysis involved removing the influence of vertical surface motion on the dO signal measured from the Agassiz and Renland ice caps. We re-visit the original analysis with the intent to determine if the use...... of more accurate land uplift curves can account for some of the above noted discrepancy. To improve on the original analysis, we apply a geophysical model of glacial isostatic adjustment calibrated to sea-level records from the Queen Elizabeth Islands and Greenland to calculate the influence of land...... in this selection is further complicated by the possible influence of Innuitian ice during the early Holocene (12-8 ka BP). Our results indicate that a more accurate treatment of the uplift correction leads to elevation histories that are, in general, shifted down relative to the original curves at GRIP, NGRIP, DYE...

  9. Enhanced activity and stability of Pt catalysts on functionalized graphene sheets for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou, Rong; Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Wang, Jun; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Wang, Chongmin; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Aksay, Ilhan A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction using Pt nanoparticles supported on functionalized graphene sheets (FGSs) was studied. FGSs were prepared by thermal expansion of graphite oxide. Pt nanoparticles with average diameter of 2 nm were uniformly loaded on FGSs by impregnation methods. Pt-FGS showed a higher electrochemical surface area and oxygen reduction activity with improved stability as compared with the commercial catalyst. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical characterization suggest that the improved performance of Pt-FGS can be attributed to smaller particle size and less aggregation of Pt nanoparticles on the functionalized graphene sheets. (author)

  10. Synthesis of a quarter-century of satellite and airborne altimetry records to resolve long-term ice sheet elevation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, J.; Paolo, F. S.; Simonsen, S.; Gardner, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite and airborne altimetry provide the longest continuous record from which the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet can be derived, starting with the launch of ERS-1 in 1992. Accurate knowledge of the long-term mass balance is vital for understanding the geophysical processes governing the ice sheet contribution to present day sea-level rise. However, this record is comprised of several different measurement systems, with different accuracies and varying resolution. This poses a major challenge on the interpretation and reconstruction of consistent elevation-change time series for determining long-term ice sheet trends and variability. Previous studies using data from multiple satellite altimetry missions have relied on a cross-calibration technique based on crossover bias analysis to merge records from different sensors. This methodology, though accurate, limits the spatial coverage to typical resolutions of 10-50 km, restricting the approach to regional or continental-wide studies. In this study, we present a novel framework for seamless integration of heterogeneous altimetry records, using an adaptive least-squares minimization technique. The procedure allows reconstructing time series at fine spatial (sheet, including both data from the European Space Agency (ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and CryoSat-2) and NASA (ICESat and Operation IceBridge), with future inclusion of data from NASA's ICESat-2. Mission specific errors, estimated from independent airborne measurements and crossover analysis, are propagated to derive uncertainty bounds for each individual time series. We also perform an extensive analysis of the major corrections applied to raw satellite altimetry data to assess their overall effect on the estimated uncertainty. This methodology will allow us to determine robust long-term changes in the surface elevation of grounded Antarctic ice. Such a dataset will be invaluable to advancing ice sheet assimilation efforts and to disentangle causal

  11. Sea-level records from the U.S. mid-Atlantic constrain Laurentide Ice Sheet extent during Marine Isotope Stage 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, T; Creveling, J R; Mitrovica, J X

    2017-05-30

    The U.S. mid-Atlantic sea-level record is sensitive to the history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet as the coastline lies along the ice sheet's peripheral bulge. However, paleo sea-level markers on the present-day shoreline of Virginia and North Carolina dated to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3, from 50 to 35 ka, are surprisingly high for this glacial interval, and remain unexplained by previous models of ice age adjustment or other local (for example, tectonic) effects. Here, we reconcile this sea-level record using a revised model of glacial isostatic adjustment characterized by a peak global mean sea level during MIS 3 of approximately -40 m, and far less ice volume within the eastern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet than traditional reconstructions for this interval. We conclude that the Laurentide Ice Sheet experienced a phase of very rapid growth in the 15 kyr leading into the Last Glacial Maximum, thus highlighting the potential of mid-field sea-level records to constrain areal extent of ice cover during glacial intervals with sparse geological observables.

  12. Systematic logging utilizing a log sheet designed for drill core descriptions. An example in uranium exploration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, Eiji; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Iida, Yoshimasa

    2000-01-01

    We describe the log sheets used during uranium exploration activities for unconformity-related uranium deposits by JNC. The purpose of using the logging sheets is to standardize the objects which all geologists must observe and for data quality assurance. The log sheets are a three-part set describing basement lithology, sandstone lithology and geotechnics. We devised our own log sheets to describe both the sandstone and the underlying basement rock when we started exploration in Athabasca Basin, Canada. We modified the sheets to gain a better understanding of the geological features related to uranium mineralization, and made final improvements to satisfy required quality based on the criteria of descriptive objects and accuracy. Use of the log sheets resulted in effective performance of core logging and improvement in the display of data. (author)

  13. A statistical study of current-sheet formation above solar active regions based on selforganized criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulou, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Georgoulis, M.; Anastasiadis, A.; Toutountzi, A.

    2013-09-01

    We treat flaring solar active regions as physical systems having reached the self-organized critical state. Their evolving magnetic configurations in the low corona may satisfy an instability criterion, related to the excession of a specific threshold in the curl of the magnetic field. This imposed instability criterion implies an almost zero resistivity everywhere in the solar corona, except in regions where magnetic-field discontinuities and. hence, local currents, reach the critical value. In these areas, current-driven instabilities enhance the resistivity by many orders of magnitude forming structures which efficiently accelerate charged particles. Simulating the formation of such structures (thought of as current sheets) via a refined SOC cellular-automaton model provides interesting information regarding their statistical properties. It is shown that the current density in such unstable regions follows power-law scaling. Furthermore, the size distribution of the produced current sheets is best fitted by power laws, whereas their formation probability is investigated against the photospheric magnetic configuration (e.g. Polarity Inversion Lines, Plage). The average fractal dimension of the produced current sheets is deduced depending on the selected critical threshold. The above-mentioned statistical description of intermittent electric field structures can be used by collisional relativistic test particle simulations, aiming to interpret particle acceleration in flaring active regions and in strongly turbulent media in astrophysical plasmas. The above work is supported by the Hellenic National Space Weather Research Network (HNSWRN) via the THALIS Programme.

  14. Tropical tales of polar ice: evidence of Last Interglacial polar ice sheet retreat recorded by fossil reefs of the granitic Seychelles islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Andrea; Webster, Jody M.; Zwartz, Dan; Lambeck, Kurt; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In the search for a record of eustatic sea level change on glacial-interglacial timescales, the Seychelles ranks as one of the best places on the planet to study. Owing to its location with respect to the former margins of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets that wax and wane on orbital cycles, the local-or relative-sea level history is predicted to lie within a few meters of the globally averaged eustatic signal during the Last Interglacial period. We have surveyed and dated Last Interglacial fossil corals to ascertain peak sea level and hence infer maximum retreat of polar ice sheets during this time interval. We observe a pattern of gradually rising sea level in the Seychelles between ˜129 and 125 thousand years ago (ka), with peak eustatic sea level attained after 125 ka at 7.6 ± 1.7 m higher than present. After accounting for thermal expansion and loss of mountain glaciers, this sea-level budget would require ˜5-8 m of polar ice sheet contribution, relative to today's volume, of which only ˜2 m came from the Greenland ice sheet. This result clearly identifies the Antarctic ice sheet as a significant source of melt water, most likely derived from one of the unstable, marine-based sectors in the West and/or East Antarctic ice sheet. Furthermore, the establishment of a +5.9 ± 1.7 m eustatic sea level position by 128.6 ± 0.8 ka would require that partial AIS collapse was coincident with the onset of the sea level highstand.

  15. Modelling the effects of ice-sheet activity on CO2 outgassing by Icelandic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, J. J.; Ferguson, D.; Petersen, K. D.; Creyts, T. T.

    2017-12-01

    Glacial cycles may play a significant role in mediating the flux of magmatic CO2 between the Earth's mantle and atmosphere. In Iceland, it is thought that late-Pleistocene deglaciation led to a significant volcanic pulse, evidenced by increased post-glacial lava volumes and changes in melt chemistry consistent with depressurization. Investigating the extent to which glacial activity may have affected volcanic CO2 emissions from Iceland, and crucially over what timescale, requires detailed knowledge of how the magma system responded to the growth and collapse of the ice-sheet before and after the LGM. To investigate this, we coupled a model of magma generation and transport with a history of ice-sheet activity. Our results show that the emplacement and removal of the LGM ice-sheet likely led to two significant pulses of magmatic CO2. The first, and most significant of these, is associated with ice-sheet growth and occurs as the magma system recovers from glacial loading. This recovery happens from the base of the melting region upwards, producing a pulse of CO2 rich magma that is predicted to reach the surface around 20 ka after the loading event, close in time to the LGM. The second peak in CO2 output occurs abruptly following deglaciation as a consequence of increased rates of melt generation and transport in the shallow mantle. Although these post-glacial melts are relatively depleted in CO2, the increase in magma flux leads to a short-lived period of elevated CO2 emissions. Our results therefore suggest a negative feedback, whereby ice-sheet growth produces a delayed pulse of magmatic CO2, which, in addition to increased geothermal heat flux, may contribute towards driving deglaciation, which itself then causes further magmatism and CO2 outgassing. This model is consistent with the seismic structure of the asthenosphere below Iceland, and the established compositional and volumetric trends for sub- and post-glacial volcanism in Iceland. These trends show that

  16. A Satellite-Derived Climate-Quality Data Record of the Clear-Sky Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino C.; DiGirolamo, Nikolo E.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Key, Jeffrey R.; Koenig, Lora S.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a climate-quality data record of the clear-sky surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ice-surface temperature (1ST) algorithm. A climate-data record (CDR) is a time series of measurements of sufficient length, consistency, and continuity to determine climate variability and change. We present daily and monthly MODIS ISTs of the Greenland Ice Sheet beginning on 1 March 2000 and continuing through 31 December 2010 at 6.25-km spatial resolution on a polar stereographic grid. This record will be elevated in status to a CDR when at least nine more years of data become available either from MODIS Terra or Aqua, or from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to be launched in October 2011. Our ultimate goal is to develop a CDR that starts in 1981 with the Advanced Very High Resolution (AVHRR) Polar Pathfinder (APP) dataset and continues with MODIS data from 2000 to the present, and into the VIIRS era. Differences in the APP and MODIS cloud masks have so far precluded the current 1ST records from spanning both the APP and MODIS time series in a seamless manner though this will be revisited when the APP dataset has been reprocessed. The complete MODIS 1ST daily and monthly data record is available online.

  17. Local processes and regional patterns - Interpreting a multi-decadal altimetry record of Greenland Ice Sheet changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csatho, B. M.; Schenk, A. F.; Babonis, G. S.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; van der Veen, C. J.; Khan, S. A.; Porter, D. F.

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a new, comprehensive reconstruction of Greenland Ice Sheet elevation changes, generated using the Surface Elevation And Change detection (SERAC) approach. 35-year long elevation-change time series (1980-2015) were obtained at more than 150,000 locations from observations acquired by NASA's airborne and spaceborne laser altimeters (ATM, LVIS, ICESat), PROMICE laser altimetry data (2007-2011) and a DEM covering the ice sheet margin derived from stereo aerial photographs (1970s-80s). After removing the effect of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) and the elastic crustal response to changes in ice loading, the time series were partitioned into changes due to surface processes and ice dynamics and then converted into mass change histories. Using gridded products, we examined ice sheet elevation, and mass change patterns, and compared them with other estimates at different scales from individual outlet glaciers through large drainage basins, on to the entire ice sheet. Both the SERAC time series and the grids derived from these time series revealed significant spatial and temporal variations of dynamic mass loss and widespread intermittent thinning, indicating the complexity of ice sheet response to climate forcing. To investigate the regional and local controls of ice dynamics, we examined thickness change time series near outlet glacier grounding lines. Changes on most outlet glaciers were consistent with one or more episodes of dynamic thinning that propagates upstream from the glacier terminus. The spatial pattern of the onset, duration, and termination of these dynamic thinning events suggest a regional control, such as warming ocean and air temperatures. However, the intricate spatiotemporal pattern of dynamic thickness change suggests that, regardless of the forcing responsible for initial glacier acceleration and thinning, the response of individual glaciers is modulated by local conditions. We use statistical methods, such as principal

  18. A late glacial record of ice-sheet dynamics and melt supply recovered in the sediments of IODP Expedition 347 in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passchier, Sandra; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Kenzler, Michael; Johnson, Sean; Andrén, Thomas; Barker Jørgensen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Modern observations of increased surface ablation, meltwater routing to the bed, and increases in glacial speeds point to feedbacks between ice-sheet dynamics, melt supply, and subglacial discharge. Paleorecords have the potential to explore the decadal to centennial variability of these systems, but until recently such records were short and discontinuous in ice-proximal settings and underutilized for this specific purpose. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 in the Baltic Sea recovered annually laminated sediments that document the dynamics of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Hydraulic piston cores recovered from Sites M0060, M0063, M0064, and M0065 allow us to reconstruct a nearly complete record of ca. 6000 years in ice retreat history at annual to decadal resolution between ca. 17 and 11ka. The late glacial successions of these four IODP drillsites comprise of a till or proglacial fluvioglacial sediment overlain by variable thicknesses of well-laminated deglacial successions within several high-recovery holes. As the Scandinavian Ice Sheet retreated from the western Baltic Sea, and to the North, the ice-sheet's grounding line migrated across the four sites and deposited overlapping sections of high-resolution ice-proximal to ice-distal successions. Laser particle size results from Sites M0060 and M0063, and inspection of line-scan images, show shifts in sedimentary facies and lithologies that were not recognized during initial visual core description. For example, at Site M0060 in the Kattegat, ice-rafting fluxes in silty clays decrease upward and are negligible in the overlying varved succession. These characteristics are interpreted as ice retreat within a calving bay environment from ca. 17ka onward, followed by distal glacial marine deposition from sediment plumes governed by meltwater discharge. Moreover, at Site M0063 in the Baltic Sea, laser particle size distributions record an abrupt shift from interlaminated clayey silt to laminated clay

  19. Large-scale recording of astrocyte activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmerjahn, Axel; Bergles, Dwight E.

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes are highly ramified glial cells found throughout the central nervous system (CNS). They express a variety of neurotransmitter receptors that can induce widespread chemical excitation, placing these cells in an optimal position to exert global effects on brain physiology. However, the activity patterns of only a small fraction of astrocytes have been examined and techniques to manipulate their behavior are limited. As a result, little is known about how astrocytes modulate CNS function on synaptic, microcircuit, or systems levels. Here, we review current and emerging approaches for visualizing and manipulating astrocyte activity in vivo. Deciphering how astrocyte network activity is controlled in different physiological and pathological contexts is critical for defining their roles in the healthy and diseased CNS. PMID:25665733

  20. Design of node record for fast active reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wenqing; Luo Mingcheng; Tang Pengyi; Liu Jiajing; Wang Jian

    2014-01-01

    Active Reflector is the one of the innovations of Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) whose performance touches on that of the overall telescope. Therefore a real time control system is needed by the Active Reflector System. In this paper, a new record type-node record is designed for EPICS-based active reflector control system of FAST, according to more than 2000 controlled node, which will be convenient for node management of IOC and prove the reusage of IOC codes. The record type is used in design of active reflector control system of FAST Miyun model. (authors)

  1. Record of principal work activities/deliverables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    Over the five year period of performance, thirteen task assignments were issued by the DOE to ARINC Research. During the two year base period seven tasks were assigned. Two task assignments were issued for each of the three consecutive one year option periods. Associated with all task assignments were multiple subtasks, some of which required significant effort. These subtasks are appropriately cited in this report under their respective task assignments as principal work activities or deliverables. The technical and management support provided to the DOE under this contract focused on two general areas: (1) appraisal activities and (2) non-appraisal activities. Support to appraisals included planning, document review, developing lines-of-inquiry, interviewing, data collection, report writing, and follow-up. Such work was executed both on-site at the DOE facility under review and off-site. Non-appraisal support was varied and included such areas as document review, data base development, technical assessments. statistical analysis, policy analysis, reliability engineering, and workshop and conference planning and execution

  2. Active Appearance Segmentation for Intensity Inhomogeneity in Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bo; Lyksborg, Mark; Hecksher-Sørensen, J.

    2016-01-01

    inhomogeneities which are often seen in Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM) images. This robustness is achieved by modelling the appearance of an image as a regularized Normalized Gradient Field (rNGF). We perform two experiments to challenge the model. First it is tested using a repeated leave......Active Appearance Models (AAM) are used for annotating or segmenting shapes in biomedical images. Performance relies heavily on the image data used to train the AAM. In this paper we improve the generalization properties of the model by making it robust to slowly varying spatial intensity......-one-out approach on images with minimal imperfections where the left out images are corrupted by a simulated bias field and segmented using the AAM. Secondly we test the model on LSFM images with common acquisition problems. In both experiments the proposed approach outperforms the often used AAM implementation...

  3. RD-674B/UNH and RD-68lA/UNH Recorder-Reproducer Information Sheets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durkin, Matthew

    2000-01-01

    .... The system can be housed in a standard ElA cabinet with a 19-inch rack configuration. A major advantage of the RD-68IA/UNH is that audio recording need not be interrupted to provide simultaneous...

  4. ASYMMETRIC SUNSPOT ACTIVITY AND THE SOUTHWARD DISPLACEMENT OF THE HELIOSPHERIC CURRENT SHEET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Robbrecht, E.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have suggested a statistical tendency for the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) to be shifted a few degrees southward of the heliographic equator during the period 1965-2010, particularly in the years near sunspot minimum. Using potential-field source-surface extrapolations and photospheric flux-transport simulations, we demonstrate that this southward displacement follows from Joy's law and the observed hemispheric asymmetry in the sunspot numbers, with activity being stronger in the southern (northern) hemisphere during the declining (rising) phase of cycles 20-23. The hemispheric asymmetry gives rise to an axisymmetric quadrupole field, whose equatorial zone has the sign of the leading-polarity flux in the dominant hemisphere; during the last four cycles, the polarity of the IMF around the equator thus tended to match that of the north polar field both before and after polar field reversal. However, large fluctuations are introduced by the nonaxisymmetric field components, which depend on the longitudinal distribution of sunspot activity in either hemisphere. Consistent with this model, the HCS showed an average northward displacement during cycle 19, when the 'usual' alternation was reversed and the northern hemisphere became far more active than the southern hemisphere during the declining phase of the cycle. We propose a new method for determining the north-south displacement of the HCS from coronal streamer observations.

  5. Different bulk and active bacterial communities in cryoconite from the margin and interior of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stibal, Marek; Schostag, Morten; Cameron, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    composition of cryoconite over a melt season at two contrasting sites at the margin and in the interior of the Greenland ice sheet, using sequence analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction of coextracted 16S rDNA and rRNA. Significant differences were found between bulk (rDNA) and potentially active...

  6. Decoding ensemble activity from neurophysiological recordings in the temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiman, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    We study subjects with pharmacologically intractable epilepsy who undergo semi-chronic implantation of electrodes for clinical purposes. We record physiological activity from tens to more than one hundred electrodes implanted in different parts of neocortex. These recordings provide higher spatial and temporal resolution than non-invasive measures of human brain activity. Here we discuss our efforts to develop hardware and algorithms to interact with the human brain by decoding ensemble activity in single trials. We focus our discussion on decoding visual information during a variety of visual object recognition tasks but the same technologies and algorithms can also be directly applied to other cognitive phenomena.

  7. Large-scale multielectrode recording and stimulation of neural activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, A.; Chichilnisky, E.J.; Dabrowski, W.; Grillo, A.A.; Grivich, M.; Gunning, D.; Hottowy, P.; Kachiguine, S.; Litke, A.M.; Mathieson, K.; Petrusca, D.

    2007-01-01

    Large circuits of neurons are employed by the brain to encode and process information. How this encoding and processing is carried out is one of the central questions in neuroscience. Since individual neurons communicate with each other through electrical signals (action potentials), the recording of neural activity with arrays of extracellular electrodes is uniquely suited for the investigation of this question. Such recordings provide the combination of the best spatial (individual neurons) and temporal (individual action-potentials) resolutions compared to other large-scale imaging methods. Electrical stimulation of neural activity in turn has two very important applications: it enhances our understanding of neural circuits by allowing active interactions with them, and it is a basis for a large variety of neural prosthetic devices. Until recently, the state-of-the-art in neural activity recording systems consisted of several dozen electrodes with inter-electrode spacing ranging from tens to hundreds of microns. Using silicon microstrip detector expertise acquired in the field of high-energy physics, we created a unique neural activity readout and stimulation framework that consists of high-density electrode arrays, multi-channel custom-designed integrated circuits, a data acquisition system, and data-processing software. Using this framework we developed a number of neural readout and stimulation systems: (1) a 512-electrode system for recording the simultaneous activity of as many as hundreds of neurons, (2) a 61-electrode system for electrical stimulation and readout of neural activity in retinas and brain-tissue slices, and (3) a system with telemetry capabilities for recording neural activity in the intact brain of awake, naturally behaving animals. We will report on these systems, their various applications to the field of neurobiology, and novel scientific results obtained with some of them. We will also outline future directions

  8. A microcomputer-based daily living activity recording system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Shingo; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Hahn, Allen W; Thayer, Julian F; Caldwell, W Morton

    2003-01-01

    A new daily living activity recording system has been developed for monitoring health conditions and living patterns, such as respiration, posture, activity/rest ratios and general activity level. The system employs a piezoelectric sensor, a dual axis accelerometer, two low-power active filters, a low-power 8-bit single chip microcomputer and a 128 MB compact flash memory. The piezoelectric sensor, whose electrical polarization voltage is produced by mechanical strain, detects body movements. Its high-frequency output components reflect body movements produced by walking and running activities, while the low frequency components are mainly respiratory. The dual axis accelerometer detects, from body X and Y tilt angles, whether the patient is standing, sitting or lying down (prone, supine, left side or right side). The detected respiratory, behavior and posture signals are stored by the compact flash memory. After recording, these data are downloaded to a desktop computer and analyzed.

  9. Relevance of southward magnetic fields in the neutral sheet to anisotropic distribution of energetic electrons and substorm activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, A.T.Y.; Meng, C.

    1979-01-01

    The implications of southward magnetic fields at the magnetotail neutral sheet to the development of streaming anisotropy of energetic electrons and magnetospheric substorm activity are examined. Magnetic field and energetic particle measurements from the Imp 6 spacecraft, the AE index, and global auroral images from DMSP spacecraft are utilized in this study. Criteria are developed to identify events of southward magnetic fields at the neutral sheet which imply the presence of X-type magnetic neutral lines. Several features of the observations suggest that the southward magnetic fields and the implied X-type neutral lines are associated with magnetic bubbles in the neutral sheet region. It is found that the signatures of magnetic bubbles are sometimes detected in association with tailward streaming and flux enhancement of energetic electrons (47 keV< E<350keV). A cigar-shaped anisotropy in the energetic electron distribution is frequently but not always observed before the onset of tailward streaming of energetic electrons. The tailward streaming is magnetic field-aligned and occurs in the form of bursts, suggestic electrons. The tailward streaming is magnetic field-aligned and occurs in the form of bursts, suggesting that the generating process is activated somewhat quasi-periodically and is not in a steady state. Signatures of magnetic bubbles are also detected without any substantial enhancement or detectable tailward streaming of energetic electrons. By comparing Imp 6 observations with the AW index and global auroral images from DMSP spacecraft. It is found that signatures of magnetic bubbles in the neutral sheet are observed during substorms as well as during quiet geomagnetic conditions, indicating that magnetic bubbles are intrinsic features of the neutral sheet in the magnetotail regardless of substorm activity

  10. Protecting patients’ electronic health records using enhanced active bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salih, R.M.; Lilien, L.T.; Ben Othmane, L.; Arriaga, R.; Matic, A.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a solution that provides protection for patients' electronic health/medical records disseminated among different authorized healthcare information systems. The solution is known as Active Bundles using a Trusted Third Party (ABTTP). It is based on the use of trusted third parties, and the

  11. Snow Accumulation Variability Over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Since 1900: A Comparison of Ice Core Records With ERA-20C Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yetang; Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Hou, Shugui; Huai, Baojuan; Wu, Shuangye; Sun, Weijun; Qi, Shanzhong; Ding, Minghu; Zhang, Yulun

    2017-11-01

    This study uses a set of 37 firn core records over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) to test the performance of the twentieth century from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-20C) reanalysis for snow accumulation and quantify temporal variability in snow accumulation since 1900. The firn cores are allocated to four geographical areas demarcated by drainage divides (i.e., Antarctic Peninsula (AP), western WAIS, central WAIS, and eastern WAIS) to calculate stacked records of regional snow accumulation. Our results show that the interannual variability in ERA-20C precipitation minus evaporation (P - E) agrees well with the corresponding ice core snow accumulation composites in each of the four geographical regions, suggesting its skill for simulating snow accumulation changes before the modern satellite era (pre-1979). Snow accumulation experiences significantly positive trends for the AP and eastern WAIS, a negative trend for the western WAIS, and no significant trend for the central WAIS from 1900 to 2010. The contrasting trends are associated with changes in the large-scale moisture transport driven by a deepening of the low-pressure systems and anomalies of sea ice in the Amundsen Sea Low region.

  12. Highly Crumpled All-Carbon Transistors for Brain Activity Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Wenjing; Shi, Enzheng; Wei, Wenjing; Li, Xinming; Cao, Anyuan; Cao, Yanping; Fang, Ying

    2017-01-11

    Neural probes based on graphene field-effect transistors have been demonstrated. Yet, the minimum detectable signal of graphene transistor-based probes is inversely proportional to the square root of the active graphene area. This fundamentally limits the scaling of graphene transistor-based neural probes for improved spatial resolution in brain activity recording. Here, we address this challenge using highly crumpled all-carbon transistors formed by compressing down to 16% of its initial area. All-carbon transistors, chemically synthesized by seamless integration of graphene channels and hybrid graphene/carbon nanotube electrodes, maintained structural integrity and stable electronic properties under large mechanical deformation, whereas stress-induced cracking and junction failure occurred in conventional graphene/metal transistors. Flexible, highly crumpled all-carbon transistors were further verified for in vivo recording of brain activity in rats. These results highlight the importance of advanced material and device design concepts to make improvements in neuroelectronics.

  13. Low-cost automatic activity data recording system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes M.F.D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a low-cost, high quality device capable of monitoring indirect activity by detecting touch-release events on a conducting surface, i.e., the animal's cage cover. In addition to the detecting sensor itself, the system includes an IBM PC interface for prompt data storage. The hardware/software design, while serving for other purposes, is used to record the circadian activity rhythm pattern of rats with time in an automated computerized fashion using minimal cost computer equipment (IBM PC XT. Once the sensor detects a touch-release action of the rat in the upper portion of the cage, the interface sends a command to the PC which records the time (hours-minutes-seconds when the activity occurred. As a result, the computer builds up several files (one per detector/sensor containing a time list of all recorded events. Data can be visualized in terms of actograms, indicating the number of detections per hour, and analyzed by mathematical tools such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT or cosinor. In order to demonstrate method validation, an experiment was conducted on 8 Wistar rats under 12/12-h light/dark cycle conditions (lights on at 7:00 a.m.. Results show a biological validation of the method since it detected the presence of circadian activity rhythm patterns in the behavior of the rats

  14. Decontamination sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Kanesaki, Ken.

    1995-01-01

    The decontamination sheet of the present invention is formed by applying an adhesive on one surface of a polymer sheet and releasably appending a plurality of curing sheets. In addition, perforated lines are formed on the sheet, and a decontaminating agent is incorporated in the adhesive. This can reduce the number of curing operation steps when a plurality steps of operations for radiation decontamination equipments are performed, and further, the amount of wastes of the cured sheets, and operator's exposure are reduced, as well as an efficiency of the curing operation can be improved, and propagation of contamination can be prevented. (T.M.)

  15. Region-selective electroless gold plating on polycarbonate sheets by UV-patterning in combination with silver activating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Qinghua [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Zijin' gang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Chen Hengwu, E-mail: hwchen@zju.edu.c [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Zijin' gang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang Yi [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Zijin' gang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2010-02-28

    A simple, time- and cost-effective approach for region-selective metalization of polycarbonate (PC) surface has been established by combining photoresist-free UV-patterning with tin- and amine-free silver activating and electroless gold plating. The surface of PC sheets was exposed to the UV lights emitted from a low-pressure mercury lamp through a photomask, the micro pattern on the mask being transferred to the PC surface due to the photochemical generation of carboxyl groups on the UV-exposed region. The UV-exposed PC sheets were then treated with an ammoniacal AgNO{sub 3} solution, so that the silver ions were chemisorbed by the photochemically generated carboxyl groups. When the Ag{sup +}-adsorbed PC sheet was immersed into an electroless gold plating bath, shiny gold film quickly deposited on the UV-exposed region, resulting in the formation of a micro gold devices on the PC surface. The whole plating process including UV-exposure, surface activating and gold plating can be completed in about 3-4 h. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (ATR-FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were employed to trace the surface change during the plating process. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Scotch-tape test were employed to characterize the electrochemical properties and adhesion strength of the prepared micro gold devices, respectively. The prepared micro gold electrodes were demonstrated for amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide.

  16. Chemically-modified graphene sheets as an active layer for eco-friendly metal electroplating on plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Joon-Suk; Hwang, Taeseon; Nam, Gi-Yong; Hong, Jung-Pyo; Bae, Ah-Hyun; Son, Sang-Ik; Lee, Geun-Ho; Sung, Hak kyung; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon; Nam, Jae-Do

    2012-01-01

    Eco-friendly nickel (Ni) electroplating was carried out on a plastic substrate using chemically modified graphene sheets as an active and conductive layer to initiate electroplating without using conventional pre-treatment or electroless metal-seeding processes. A graphene oxide (GO) solution was self-assembled on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film followed by evaporation to give GO layers (thickness around 6.5 μm) on PET (GO/PET) film. Then, the GO/PET film was chemically and thermally reduced to convert the GO layers to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) layers on the PET substrate. The RGO-coated PET (RGO/PET) film showed the sheet resistance of 100 Ω per square. On RGO/PET film, Ni electroplating was conducted under the constant-current condition and the entire surface of the PET film was completely metalized with Ni without any voids.

  17. Time Multiplexed Active Neural Probe with 1356 Parallel Recording Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan C. Raducanu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a high electrode density and high channel count CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor active neural probe containing 1344 neuron sized recording pixels (20 µm × 20 µm and 12 reference pixels (20 µm × 80 µm, densely packed on a 50 µm thick, 100 µm wide, and 8 mm long shank. The active electrodes or pixels consist of dedicated in-situ circuits for signal source amplification, which are directly located under each electrode. The probe supports the simultaneous recording of all 1356 electrodes with sufficient signal to noise ratio for typical neuroscience applications. For enhanced performance, further noise reduction can be achieved while using half of the electrodes (678. Both of these numbers considerably surpass the state-of-the art active neural probes in both electrode count and number of recording channels. The measured input referred noise in the action potential band is 12.4 µVrms, while using 678 electrodes, with just 3 µW power dissipation per pixel and 45 µW per read-out channel (including data transmission.

  18. Intra-cranial recordings of brain activity during language production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anais eLlorens

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings in the neurophysiology of language production have provided a detailed description of the brain network underlying this behavior, as well as some indications about the timing of operations. Despite their invaluable utility, these data generally suffer from limitations either in terms of temporal resolution, or in terms of spatial localization. In addition, studying the neural basis of speech is complicated by the presence of articulation artifacts such as electro-myographic activity that interferes with the neural signal. These difficulties are virtually absent in a powerful albeit much less frequent methodology, namely the recording of intra-cranial brain activity (iEEG. Such recordings are only possible under very specific clinical circumstances requiring functional mapping before brain surgery, most notably patients that suffer for pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Here we review the research conducted with this methodology in the field of language production, with explicit consideration of its advantages and drawbacks. The available evidence is shown to be diverse, both in terms of the tasks and cognitive processes tested and in terms of the brain localizations being studied. Still, the review provides valuable information for characterizing the dynamics of the neural events occurring in the language production network. Following modality specific activities (in auditory or visual cortices, there is a convergence of activity in superior temporal sulcus, which is a plausible neural correlate of phonological encoding processes. Later, between 500 and 800 ms, inferior frontal gyrus (around Broca's area is involved. Peri-rolandic areas are recruited in the two modalities relatively early (200-500 ms window, suggesting a very early involvement of (pre- motor processes. We discuss how some of these findings may be at odds with conclusions drawn from available meta-analysis of language production.

  19. Development of a check sheet for collecting information necessary for occupational safety and health activities and building relevant systems in overseas business places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Uehara, Masamichi; Nakanishi, Shigemoto; Mori, Koji

    2016-06-07

    This study aimed to develop an information gathering check sheet to efficiently collect information necessary for Japanese companies to build global occupational safety and health management systems in overseas business places. The study group consisted of 2 researchers with occupational physician careers in a foreign-affiliated company in Japan and 3 supervising occupational physicians who were engaged in occupational safety and health activities in overseas business places. After investigating information and sources of information necessary for implementing occupational safety and health activities and building relevant systems, we conducted information acquisition using an information gathering check sheet in the field, by visiting 10 regions in 5 countries (first phase). The accuracy of the information acquired and the appropriateness of the information sources were then verified in study group meetings to improve the information gathering check sheet. Next, the improved information gathering check sheet was used in another setting (3 regions in 1 country) to confirm its efficacy (second phase), and the information gathering check sheet was thereby completed. The information gathering check sheet was composed of 9 major items (basic information on the local business place, safety and health overview, safety and health systems, safety and health staff, planning/implementation/evaluation/improvement, safety and health activities, laws and administrative organs, local medical care systems and public health, and medical support for resident personnel) and 61 medium items. We relied on the following eight information sources: the internet, company (local business place and head office in Japan), embassy/consulate, ISO certification body, university or other educational institutions, and medical institutions (aimed at Japanese people or at local workers). Through multiple study group meetings and a two-phased field survey (13 regions in 6 countries), an information

  20. GASN sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    This document gathers around 50 detailed sheets which describe and present various aspects, data and information related to the nuclear sector or, more generally to energy. The following items are addressed: natural and artificial radioactive environment, evolution of energy needs in the world, radioactive wastes, which energy for France tomorrow, the consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, ammunitions containing depleted uranium, processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel, transport of radioactive materials, seismic risk for the basic nuclear installations, radon, the precautionary principle, the issue of low doses, the EPR, the greenhouse effect, the Oklo nuclear reactors, ITER on the way towards fusion reactors, simulation and nuclear deterrence, crisis management in the nuclear field, does nuclear research put a break on the development of renewable energies by monopolizing funding, nuclear safety and security, the plutonium, generation IV reactors, comparison of different modes of electricity production, medical exposure to ionizing radiations, the control of nuclear activities, food preservation by ionization, photovoltaic solar collectors, the Polonium 210, the dismantling of nuclear installations, wind energy, desalination and nuclear reactors, from non-communication to transparency about nuclear safety, the Jules Horowitz reactor, CO 2 capture and storage, hydrogen, solar energy, the radium, the subcontractors of maintenance of the nuclear fleet, biomass, internal radio-contamination, epidemiological studies, submarine nuclear propulsion, sea energy, the Three Mile Island accident, the Chernobyl accident, the Fukushima accident, the nuclear after Fukushima

  1. Web-based Tools for Educators: Outreach Activities of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, D. A.; Holvoet, J. F.; Gogineni, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Kansas (KU) has implemented extensive outreach activities focusing on Polar Regions as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project. The PRISM project is developing advanced intelligent remote sensing technology that involves radar systems, an autonomous rover, and communications systems to measure detailed ice sheet characteristics, and to determine bed conditions (frozen or wet) below active ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica. These measurements will provide a better understanding of the response of polar ice sheets to global climate change and the resulting impact the ice sheets will have on sea level rise. Many of the research and technological development aspects of the PRISM project, such as robotics, radar systems, climate change and exploration of harsh environments, can kindle an excitement and interest in students about science and technology. These topics form the core of our K-12 education and training outreach initiatives, which are designed to capture the imagination of young students, and prompt them to consider an educational path that will lead them to scientific or engineering careers. The K-12 PRISM outreach initiatives are being developed and implemented in a collaboration with the Advanced Learning Technology Program (ALTec) of the High Plains Regional Technology in Education Consortium (HPR*TEC). ALTec is associated with the KU School of Education, and is a well-established educational research center that develops and hosts web tools to enable teachers nationwide to network, collaborate, and share resources with other teachers. An example of an innovative and successful web interface developed by ALTec is called TrackStar. Teachers can use TrackStar over the Web to develop interactive, resource-based lessons (called tracks) on-line for their students. Once developed, tracks are added to the TrackStar database and can be accessed and modified

  2. Reconciling records of ice streaming and ice margin retreat to produce a palaeogeographic reconstruction of the deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margold, Martin; Stokes, Chris R.; Clark, Chris D.

    2018-06-01

    This paper reconstructs the deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS; including the Innuitian Ice Sheet) from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), with a particular focus on the spatial and temporal variations in ice streaming and the associated changes in flow patterns and ice divides. We build on a recent inventory of Laurentide ice streams and use an existing ice margin chronology to produce the first detailed transient reconstruction of the ice stream drainage network in the LIS, which we depict in a series of palaeogeographic maps. Results show that the drainage network at the LGM was similar to modern-day Antarctica. The majority of the ice streams were marine terminating and topographically-controlled and many of these continued to function late into the deglaciation, until the ice sheet lost its marine margin. Ice streams with a terrestrial ice margin in the west and south were more transient and ice flow directions changed with the build-up, peak-phase and collapse of the Cordilleran-Laurentide ice saddle. The south-eastern marine margin in Atlantic Canada started to retreat relatively early and some of the ice streams in this region switched off at or shortly after the LGM. In contrast, the ice streams draining towards the north-western and north-eastern marine margins in the Beaufort Sea and in Baffin Bay appear to have remained stable throughout most of the Late Glacial, and some of them continued to function until after the Younger Dryas (YD). The YD influenced the dynamics of the deglaciation, but there remains uncertainty about the response of the ice sheet in several sectors. We tentatively ascribe the switching-on of some major ice streams during this period (e.g. M'Clintock Channel Ice Stream at the north-west margin), but for other large ice streams whose timing partially overlaps with the YD, the drivers are less clear and ice-dynamical processes, rather than effects of climate and surface mass balance are viewed as more likely drivers. Retreat

  3. The mechanistic exploration of porous activated graphene sheets-anchored SnO2 nanocrystals for application in high-performance Li-ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingchang; Ji, Xiaobo; Lu, Fang; Chen, Qiyuan; Banks, Craig E

    2013-09-28

    Porous activated graphene sheets have been for the first time exploited herein as encapsulating substrates for lithium ion battery (LIB) anodes. The as-fabricated SnO2 nanocrystals-porous activated graphene sheet (AGS) composite electrode exhibits improved electrochemical performance as an anode material for LIBs, such as better cycle performance and higher rate capability in comparison with graphene sheets, activated graphene sheets, bare SnO2 and SnO2-graphene sheet composites. The superior electrochemical performances of the designed anode can be ascribed to the porous AGS substrate, which improves the electrical conductivity of the electrode, inhibits agglomeration between particles and effectively buffers the strain from the volume variation during Li(+)-intercalation-de-intercalation and provides more cross-plane diffusion channels for Li(+) ions. As a result, the designed anode exhibits an outstanding capacity of up to 610 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles and a good rate performance of 889, 747, 607, 482 and 372 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100, 200, 500, 1000, and 2000 mA g(-1), respectively. This work is of importance for energy storage as it provides a new substrate for the design and implementation of next-generation LIBs exhibiting exceptional electrochemical performances.

  4. Adolescent Physical Activity and Motivational Profiles While Keeping a Physical Activity Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, Matthew O.; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Eggett, Dennis; Pennington, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between adolescents (N = 124) from physical education classes keeping a daily online leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) record and feelings of competence toward LTPA, motivational profiles toward LTPA, and LTPA behaviors. Method: A repeated measures ANCOVA was used to examine the relationships…

  5. Effect of material flow on joint strength in activation spot joining of Al alloy and steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Goro; Yogo, Yasuhiro; Takao, Hisaaki

    2014-01-01

    A new joining method for dissimilar metal sheets was developed where a rotated consumable rod of Al alloy is pressed onto an Al alloy sheet at the part overlapped with a mild steel sheet. The metal flow in the joining region is increased by the through-hole in the Al sheet and consumable Al rod. The rod creates the joint interface and pads out of the thinly joined parts through pressing. This produces a higher joint strength than that of conventional friction stir spot welding. Measurements of the joint interface showed the presence of a 5-10 nm thick amorphous layer consisting of Al and Mg oxides

  6. Synthesis of TiO2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets and their highly efficient photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eunwoo; Hong, Jin-Yong; Kang, Haeyoung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TiO 2 nanorods were successfully decorated on the surface of graphene sheets. ► Population of TiO 2 nanorods can be controlled by changing experimental conditions. ► TiO 2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets have an expanded light absorption range. ► TiO 2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets showed unprecedented photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanorod-decorated graphene sheets photocatalysts with different TiO 2 nanorods population have been synthesized by a simple non-hydrolytic sol–gel approach. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the TiO 2 nanorods are well-dispersed and successfully anchored on the graphene sheet surface through the formation of covalent bonds between Ti and C atoms. The photocatalytic activities are evaluated in terms of the efficiencies of photodecomposition and adsorption of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. The as-synthesized TiO 2 nanorod-decorated graphene sheets showed unprecedented photodecomposition efficiency compared to the pristine TiO 2 nanorods and the commercial TiO 2 (P-25, Degussa) under visible-light. It is believed that this predominant photocatalytic activity is due to the synergistic contribution of both a retarded charge recombination rate caused by a high electronic mobility of graphene and an increased surface area originated from nanometer-sized TiO 2 nanorods. Furthermore, photoelectrochemical study is performed to give deep insights into the primary roles of graphene that determines the photocatalytic activity.

  7. Pilot randomized trial of a volitional help sheet-based tool to increase leisure time physical activity in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Janine; Fletcher, Chloe; Flight, Ingrid; Wilson, Carlene

    2018-05-16

    To develop and test a volitional help sheet-based tool to improve physical activity in breast cancer survivors compared to a standard self-generated implementation intention intervention. Pilot randomized trial conducted online over 3 months. Participants were randomized to an online volitional help sheet (n = 50) or implementation intention (n = 51) intervention. Measures were taken at baseline, 1 and 3 months. The main outcome measure was moderate-strenuous leisure time physical activity. Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life and mood. Participants exposed to the volitional help sheet and implementation intention interventions showed similar effects after 1 month, with both groups reporting a significant increase in moderate-strenuous physical activity. After 3 months, the initial increase in physical activity was maintained by the volitional help sheet group, but not the implementation intention group. Improvements were also found for negative affect and emotional quality of life. While both interventions show promise in promoting physical activity in breast cancer survivors, the volitional help sheet may be more effective for facilitating lasting change and emotional well-being. Findings suggest that the volitional help sheet may have potential to offer a cost-effective contribution to consumer-led tertiary preventive health. Future research should test these initial findings in a definitive trial. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Physical activity is important for optimizing health in breast cancer survivors. Despite this, physical activity in this cohort remains low. Theory-based strategies are needed to help breast cancer survivors independently manage and maintain regular physical activity over the long term. What does this study add? Online planning interventions can improve physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Volitional help sheets, but not implementation intentions, show sustained

  8. Design and biological activity of β-sheet breaker peptide conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Sandra; Cardoso, Isabel; Boerner, Hans; Pereira, Maria Carmo; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Coelho, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The sequence LPFFD (iAβ 5 ) prevents amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) fibrillogenesis and neurotoxicity, hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as previously demonstrated. In this study iAβ 5 was covalently linked to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and the activity of conjugates was assessed and compared to the activity of the peptide alone by in vitro studies. The conjugates were characterized by MALDI-TOF. Competition binding assays established that conjugates retained the ability to bind Aβ with similar strength as iAβ 5 . Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that iAβ 5 conjugates inhibited amyloid fibril formation, which is in agreement with binding properties observed for the conjugates towards Aβ. The conjugates were also able to prevent amyloid-induced cell death, as evaluated by activation of caspase 3. These results demonstrated that the biological activity of iAβ 5 is not affected by the pegylation process.

  9. Visible-light promoted catalytic activity of dumbbell-like Au nanorods supported on graphene/TiO2 sheets towards hydrogenation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yunqian; Zhu, Mingyun; Wang, Xiaotian; Wu, Yanan; Huang, Chengqian; Fu, Wanlin; Meng, Xiangyu; Sun, Yueming

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the rationally-designed sharp corners on Au nanorods tremendously improved the catalytic activity, particularly in the presence of visible light irradiation, towards the hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. A strikingly increased rate constant of 50.6 g‑1 s‑1 L was achieved in M-Au-3, which was 41.8 times higher than that of parent Au nanorods under dark conditions. The enhanced activities were proportional to the extent of the protruding sharp corners. Furthermore, remarkably enhanced activities were achieved in novel ternary Au/RGO/TiO2 sheets, which were endowed with a 52.0 times higher rate constant than that of straight Au nanorods. These remarkably enhanced activities were even higher than those of previously reported 3–5 nm Au and 3 nm Pt nanoparticles. It was systematically observed that there are three aspects to the synergistic effects between Au and RGO sheets: (i) electron transfer from RGO to Au, (ii) a high concentration of p-nitrophenol close to dumbbell-like Au nanorods on RGO sheets, and (iii) increased local reaction temperature from the photothermal effect of both dumbbell-like Au nanorods and RGO sheets.

  10. Someday I May Want to Know about...Leisure and Recreational Activities for Children and Adults with Mental Retardation. A MCARC Information Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Association for Retarded Citizens, Rockville, MD.

    The fact sheet considers the importance of recreation and leisure time activities for people with mental retardation. A case is made for mainstreamed services, and suggestions are offered for families seeking to procure successful mainstreamed experiences in community recreational programs. Among suggestions are adapting family games to the…

  11. Dental Charting. Learning Activities, Unit Tests, Progress Chart, and Work Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Univ., Austin. Center for Occupational Curriculum Development.

    These materials are part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. These student materials, designed to be used with the Dental Charting Student Manual, consist of learning activities, unit…

  12. The Marfan Syndrome. Fact Sheet [and] Physical Education and Activity Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Marfan Foundation, Port Washington, NY.

    This document consists of two brochures, the first explaining the Marfan Syndrome and a second providing guidelines for physical education and activity for people who have this syndrome are provided. The brochure on factual information about Marfan syndrome outlines the associated medical problems involving the cardiovascular system, the skeleton,…

  13. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts. (a.... (b) Purpose of balance sheet accounts. The balance sheet accounts are intended to disclose the...

  14. Changes in sea ice cover and ice sheet extent at the Yermak Plateau during the last 160 ka - Reconstructions from biomarker records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, A.; Stein, R.; Fahl, K.; Ji, Z.; Yang, Z.; Wiers, S.; Matthiessen, J.; Forwick, M.; Löwemark, L.; O'Regan, M.; Chen, J.; Snowball, I.

    2018-02-01

    The Yermak Plateau is located north of Svalbard at the entrance to the Arctic Ocean, i.e. in an area highly sensitive to climate change. A multi proxy approach was carried out on Core PS92/039-2 to study glacial-interglacial environmental changes at the northern Barents Sea margin during the last 160 ka. The main emphasis was on the reconstruction of sea ice cover, based on the sea ice proxy IP25 and the related phytoplankton - sea ice index PIP25. Sea ice was present most of the time but showed significant temporal variability decisively affected by movements of the Svalbard Barents Sea Ice Sheet. For the first time, we prove the occurrence of seasonal sea ice at the eastern Yermak Plateau during glacial intervals, probably steered by a major northward advance of the ice sheet and the formation of a coastal polynya in front of it. Maximum accumulation of terrigenous organic carbon, IP25 and the phytoplankton biomarkers (brassicasterol, dinosterol, HBI III) can be correlated to distinct deglaciation events. More severe, but variable sea ice cover prevailed at the Yermak Plateau during interglacials. The general proximity to the sea ice margin is further indicated by biomarker (GDGT) - based sea surface temperatures below 2.5 °C.

  15. 76 FR 40454 - Proposed Information Collection (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Activity; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... Access to VHA Electronic Health Records, VA Form 10- 0400. OMB Control Number: 2900-0710. Type of Review... were granted power of attorney by veterans who have medical information recorded in VHA electronic...

  16. Positive effects of electronic patient records on three clinical activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    records prior to the trial period. The data comprise measurements from 11 team conferences, 7 ward rounds, and 10 nursing handovers. Results: During team conferences the clinicians experienced a reduction on five of six subscales of mental workload, and the physicians experienced an overall reduction...... in mental workload. The physician in charge also experienced increased clarity about the importance of and responsibilities for work tasks, and reduced mental workload during ward rounds. During nursing handovers the nurses experienced fewer missing pieces of information and fewer messages to pass on after...

  17. Coding the Complexity of Activity in Video Recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harter, Christopher Daniel; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical approach to coding and analyzing video data on human interaction and activity, using principles found in cultural historical activity theory. The systematic classification or coding of information contained in video data on activity can be arduous and time...... Bødker’s in 1996, three possible areas of expansion to Susanne Bødker’s method for analyzing video data were found. Firstly, a technological expansion due to contemporary developments in sophisticated analysis software, since the mid 1990’s. Secondly, a conceptual expansion, where the applicability...... of using Activity Theory outside of the context of human–computer interaction, is assessed. Lastly, a temporal expansion, by facilitating an organized method for tracking the development of activities over time, within the coding and analysis of video data. To expand on the above areas, a prototype coding...

  18. Understanding the adsorptive interactions of arsenate-iron nanoparticles with curved fullerene-like sheets in activated carbon using a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Cam, Le Minh; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thu; Goh, Bee-Min; Saunders, Martin; Jiang, Zhong-Tao; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z; El-Harbawi, Mohanad; Yin, Chun-Yang

    2017-06-07

    The prevalence of global arsenic groundwater contamination has driven widespread research on developing effective treatment systems including adsorption using various sorbents. The uptake of arsenic-based contaminants onto established sorbents such as activated carbon (AC) can be effectively enhanced via immobilization/impregnation of iron-based elements on the porous AC surface. Recent suggestions that AC pores structurally consist of an eclectic mix of curved fullerene-like sheets may affect the arsenic adsorption dynamics within the AC pores and is further complicated by the presence of nano-sized iron-based elements. We have therefore, attempted to shed light on the adsorptive interactions of arsenate-iron nanoparticles with curved fullerene-like sheets by using hybridized quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QMMM) calculations and microscopy characterization. It is found that, subsequent to optimization, chemisorption between HAsO 4 2- and the AC carbon sheet (endothermic process) is virtually non-existent - this observation is supported by experimental results. Conversely, the incorporation of iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) into the AC carbon sheet greatly facilitates chemisorption of HAsO 4 2- . Our calculation implies that iron carbide is formed at the junction between the iron and the AC interface and this tightly chemosorbed layer prevents detachment of the FeNPs on the AC surface. Other aspects including electronic structure/properties, carbon arrangement defects and rate of adsorptive interaction, which are determined using the Climbing-Image NEB method, are also discussed.

  19. Large-scale glacitectonic deformation in response to active ice sheet retreat across Dogger Bank (southern central North Sea) during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Emrys; Cotterill, Carol; Johnson, Kirstin; Crombie, Kirstin; James, Leo; Carr, Simon; Ruiter, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    High resolution seismic data from the Dogger Bank in the central southern North Sea has revealed that the Dogger Bank Formation records a complex history of sedimentation and penecontemporaneous, large-scale, ice-marginal to proglacial glacitectonic deformation. These processes led to the development of a large thrust-block moraine complex which is buried beneath a thin sequence of Holocene sediments. This buried glacitectonic landsystem comprises a series of elongate, arcuate moraine ridges (200 m up to > 15 km across; over 40-50 km long) separated by low-lying ice marginal to proglacial sedimentary basins and/or meltwater channels, preserving the shape of the margin of this former ice sheet. The moraines are composed of highly deformed (folded and thrust) Dogger Bank Formation with the lower boundary of the deformed sequence (up to 40-50 m thick) being marked by a laterally extensive décollement. The ice-distal parts of the thrust moraine complex are interpreted as a "forward" propagating imbricate thrust stack developed in response to S/SE-directed ice-push. The more complex folding and thrusting within the more ice-proximal parts of the thrust-block moraines record the accretion of thrust slices of highly deformed sediment as the ice repeatedly reoccupied this ice marginal position. Consequently, the internal structure of the Dogger Bank thrust-moraine complexes can be directly related to ice sheet dynamics, recording the former positions of a highly dynamic, oscillating Weichselian ice sheet margin as it retreated northwards at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum.

  20. Records in ultra low radioactivity measurements with neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentig, R. von; Goldbrunner, T.; Angloher, G.; Feilitzsch, F. von

    1999-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis has emerged to be an analytical method sensitive enough to detect fg/g traces of unstable primordial nuclides in complex matrices. Especially low count rate experiments in the field of solar neutrino physics and dark matter search can profit from the detection capabilities of this method which had been unattained so far. This gain in sensitivity has been achieved by combining neutron activation, radiochemical separation methods, and efficient low level counting systems at the new underground laboratory of the accelerator laboratory in Garching. Recent improvements which have been made in the purification and analysis of the liquid scintillator, as foreseen for the solar neutrino experiment BOREXINO, are being presented as an example in this paper

  1. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  2. Photovoltaic Reliability Group activities in USA and Brazil (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Cruz, Leila R. O.

    2015-09-01

    Recently prices of photovoltaic (PV) systems have been reduced considerably and may continue to be reduced making them attractive. If these systems provide electricity over the stipulated warranty period, it would be possible attain socket parity within the next few years. Current photovoltaic module qualifications tests help in minimizing infant mortality but do not guarantee useful lifetime over the warranty period. The PV Module Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) is trying to formulate accelerated tests that will be useful towards achieving the ultimate goal of assuring useful lifetime over the warranty period as well as to assure manufacturing quality. Unfortunately, assuring the manufacturing quality may require 24/7 presence. Alternatively, collecting data on the performance of fielded systems would assist in assuring manufacturing quality. Here PV systems installed by home-owners and small businesses can constitute as an important untapped source of data. The volunteer group, PV - Reliable, Safe and Sustainable Quality! (PVRessQ!) is providing valuable service to small PV system owners. Photovoltaic Reliability Group (PVRG) is initiating activities in USA and Brazil to assist home owners and small businesses in monitoring photovoltaic (PV) module performance and enforcing warranty. It will work in collaboration with small PV system owners, consumer protection agencies. Brazil is endowed with excellent solar irradiance making it attractive for installation of PV systems. Participating owners of small PV systems would instruct inverter manufacturers to copy the daily e-mails to PVRG and as necessary, will authorize the PVRG to carry out review of PV systems. The presentation will consist of overall activities of PVRG in USA and Brazil.

  3. Synthesis of N-doped microporous carbon via chemical activation of polyindole-modified graphene oxide sheets for selective carbon dioxide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Muhammad; Chandra, Vimlesh; Christian Kemp, K; Kim, Kwang S

    2013-01-01

    A polyindole-reduced graphene oxide (PIG) hybrid was synthesized by reducing graphene oxide sheets in the presence of polyindole. We have shown PIG as a material for capturing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The PIG hybrid was chemically activated at temperatures of 400–800 ° C, which resulted in nitrogen (N)-doped graphene sheets. The N-doped graphene sheets are microporous with an adsorption pore size of 0.6 nm for CO 2 and show a maximum (Brunauer, Emmet and Teller) surface area of 936 m 2 g −1 . The hybrid activated at 600 ° C (PIG6) possesses a surface area of 534 m 2 g −1 and a micropore volume of 0.29 cm 3 g −1 . PIG6 shows a maximum CO 2 adsorption capacity of 3.0 mmol g −1 at 25 ° C and 1 atm. This high CO 2 uptake is due to the highly microporous character of the material and its N content. The material retains its original adsorption capacity on recycling even after 10 cycles (within experimental error). PIG6 also shows high adsorption selectivity ratios for CO 2 over N 2 , CH 4 and H 2 of 23, 4 and 85 at 25 ° C, respectively. (paper)

  4. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  5. 75 FR 13293 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ..., Carriers, Government Agencies, and the Travel and Tourism Industry I-94 (Arrival and Departure Record... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland...

  6. 78 FR 73237 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ...-0088] Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB... entities over which the agency exercises regulatory authority. Recent trends lead the agency to estimate.... Requesters are not required to keep copies of any records or reports [[Page 73238

  7. A lightweight telemetry system for recording neuronal activity in freely behaving small animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schregardus, D.S.; Pieneman, A.W.; ter Maat, A.; Brouwer, T.J.F.; Gahr, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    A miniature lightweight radio telemetric device is described which is shown to be suitable for recording neuronal activity in freely behaving animals. Its size (12 × 5 × 8 mm) and weight (1.0-1.1 g with batteries, 0.4-0.5 g without) make the device particularly suitable for recording neuronal units

  8. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Active Fires Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational environmental data record (EDR) that contains pinpoint locations of active fires (AF) as identified by an algorithm...

  9. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Active Fires Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) that contains pinpoint locations of active fires (AF) as identified by an algorithm...

  10. Development and Testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children: Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Kerry L.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity-Elementary School (OSRAC-E) Version. Method: This system was developed to observe and document the levels and types of physical activity and physical and social contexts of physical activity in elementary school students…

  11. Regional environmental change and human activity over the past hundred years recorded in the sedimentary record of Lake Qinghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, ZhanJiang; Wang, Qiugui; Wang, Jinlong; Du, Jinzhou; Hu, Jufang; Ma, Yujun; Kong, Fancui; Wang, Zhuan

    2017-04-01

    Environmental change and human activity can be recorded in sediment cores in aquatic systems such as lakes. Information from such records may be useful for environmental governance in the future. Six sediment cores were collected from Lake Qinghai, China and its sublakes during 2012 and 2013. Measurements of sediment grain-size fractions indicate that sedimentation in the north and southwest of Lake Qinghai is dominated by river input, whereas that in Lake Gahai and Lake Erhai is dominated by dunes. The sedimentation rates in Lake Qinghai were calculated to be 0.101-0.159 cm/y, similar to the rates in other lakes on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Using these data and sedimentation rates from the literature, we compiled the spatial distribution of sedimentation rates. Higher values were obtained in the three main areas of Lake Qinghai: two in river estuaries and one close to sand dunes. Lower values were measured in the center and south of the lake. Measurements of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus concentrations, and TOC/TN ratios in three cores (QH01, QH02, and Z04) revealed four horizons corresponding to times of increased human activity. These anthropogenic events were (1) the development of large areas of cropland in the Lake Qinghai watershed in 1960, (2) the beginning of nationwide fertilizer use and increases in cropland area in the lake watershed after 1970, (3) the implementation of the national program "Grain to Green," and (4) the rapid increase in the tourism industry from 2000. Profiles of Rb, Sr concentrations, the Rb/Sr ratio, and grain-size fraction in core Z04 indicate that the climate has become drier over the past 100 years. Therefore, we suggest that lake sediments such as those in Lake Qinghai are useful media for high-resolution studies of regional environmental change and human activity.

  12. A new perspective on beta-sheet structures using vibrational Raman optical activity: From poly(L-lysine) to the prion protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McColl, L.H.; Blanch, E.W.; Gill, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    -sheet poly(L-lysine) contains up-and-down antiparallel beta-sheets based on the hairpin motif. The ROA spectrum of beta-sheet poly(L-lysine) was compared with ROA data on a number of native proteins containing different types of beta-sheet. Amide I and amide II ROA band patterns observed in beta-sheet poly(L-ly...

  13. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of decision... to employ up to four Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar...

  14. AI applications in sheet metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on research work done around the globe in the area of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in sheet metal forming. The first chapter offers an introduction to various AI techniques and sheet metal forming, while subsequent chapters describe traditional procedures/methods used in various sheet metal forming processes, and focus on the automation of those processes by means of AI techniques, such as KBS, ANN, GA, CBR, etc. Feature recognition and the manufacturability assessment of sheet metal parts, process planning, strip-layout design, selecting the type and size of die components, die modeling, and predicting die life are some of the most important aspects of sheet metal work. Traditionally, these activities are highly experience-based, tedious and time consuming. In response, researchers in several countries have applied various AI techniques to automate these activities, which are covered in this book. This book will be useful for engineers working in sheet metal industri...

  15. Strong correlation in acene sheets from the active-space variational two-electron reduced density matrix method: effects of symmetry and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Kenley; Greenman, Loren; Gidofalvi, Gergely; Mazziotti, David A

    2011-06-09

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic molecules with importance in several branches of science, including medicine, combustion chemistry, and materials science. The delocalized π-orbital systems in PAHs require highly accurate electronic structure methods to capture strong electron correlation. Treating correlation in PAHs has been challenging because (i) traditional wave function methods for strong correlation have not been applicable since they scale exponentially in the number of strongly correlated orbitals, and (ii) alternative methods such as the density-matrix renormalization group and variational two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) methods have not been applied beyond linear acene chains. In this paper we extend the earlier results from active-space variational 2-RDM theory [Gidofalvi, G.; Mazziotti, D. A. J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 129, 134108] to the more general two-dimensional arrangement of rings--acene sheets--to study the relationship between geometry and electron correlation in PAHs. The acene-sheet calculations, if performed with conventional wave function methods, would require wave function expansions with as many as 1.5 × 10(17) configuration state functions. To measure electron correlation, we employ several RDM-based metrics: (i) natural-orbital occupation numbers, (ii) the 1-RDM von Neumann entropy, (iii) the correlation energy per carbon atom, and (iv) the squared Frobenius norm of the cumulant 2-RDM. The results confirm a trend of increasing polyradical character with increasing molecular size previously observed in linear PAHs and reveal a corresponding trend in two-dimensional (arch-shaped) PAHs. Furthermore, in PAHs of similar size they show significant variations in correlation with geometry. PAHs with the strictly linear geometry (chains) exhibit more electron correlation than PAHs with nonlinear geometries (sheets).

  16. Myosin II activity is required for functional leading-edge cells and closure of epidermal sheets in fish skin ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Akiko; Sugimoto, Masazumi

    2011-09-01

    Re-epithelialization in skin wound healing is a process in which epidermal sheets grow and close the wound. Although the actin-myosin system is thought to have a pivotal role in re-epithelialization, its role is not clear. In fish skin, re-epithelialization occurs around 500 μm/h and is 50 times faster than in mammalian skin. We had previously reported that leading-edge cells of the epidermal outgrowth have both polarized large lamellipodia and "purse string"-like actin filament cables in the scale-skin culture system of medaka fish, Oryzias latipes (Cell Tissue Res, 2007). The actin purse-string (APS) is a supracellular contractile machinery in which adherens junctions (AJs) link intracellular myosin II-including actin cables between neighboring cells. In this study, we developed a modified "face-to-face" scale-skin culture system as an ex vivo model to study epidermal wound healing, and examined the role of the actin-myosin system in the rapid re-epithelialization using a myosin II ATPase inhibitor, blebbistatin. A low level of blebbistatin suppressed the formation of APS and induced the dissociation of keratocytes from the leading edge without attenuating the growth of the epidermal sheet or the migration rate of solitary keratocytes. AJs in the superficial layer showed no obvious changes elicited by blebbistatin. However, two epidermal sheets without APSs did not make a closure with each other, which was confirmed by inhibiting the connecting AJs between the superficial layers. These results suggest that myosin II activity is required for functional leading-edge cells and for epidermal closure.

  17. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  18. Mapping whole-brain activity with cellular resolution by light-sheet microscopy and high-throughput image analysis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Rudinskiy, Nikita; Paciscopi, Marco; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Costantini, Irene; Sacconi, Leonardo; Frasconi, Paolo; Hyman, Bradley T.; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2016-03-01

    Mapping neuronal activity patterns across the whole brain with cellular resolution is a challenging task for state-of-the-art imaging methods. Indeed, despite a number of technological efforts, quantitative cellular-resolution activation maps of the whole brain have not yet been obtained. Many techniques are limited by coarse resolution or by a narrow field of view. High-throughput imaging methods, such as light sheet microscopy, can be used to image large specimens with high resolution and in reasonable times. However, the bottleneck is then moved from image acquisition to image analysis, since many TeraBytes of data have to be processed to extract meaningful information. Here, we present a full experimental pipeline to quantify neuronal activity in the entire mouse brain with cellular resolution, based on a combination of genetics, optics and computer science. We used a transgenic mouse strain (Arc-dVenus mouse) in which neurons which have been active in the last hours before brain fixation are fluorescently labelled. Samples were cleared with CLARITY and imaged with a custom-made confocal light sheet microscope. To perform an automatic localization of fluorescent cells on the large images produced, we used a novel computational approach called semantic deconvolution. The combined approach presented here allows quantifying the amount of Arc-expressing neurons throughout the whole mouse brain. When applied to cohorts of mice subject to different stimuli and/or environmental conditions, this method helps finding correlations in activity between different neuronal populations, opening the possibility to infer a sort of brain-wide 'functional connectivity' with cellular resolution.

  19. Human motor cortical activity recorded with Micro-ECoG electrodes, during individual finger movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Degenhart, A D; Collinger, J L; Vinjamuri, R; Sudre, G P; Adelson, P D; Holder, D L; Leuthardt, E C; Moran, D W; Boninger, M L; Schwartz, A B; Crammond, D J; Tyler-Kabara, E C; Weber, D J

    2009-01-01

    In this study human motor cortical activity was recorded with a customized micro-ECoG grid during individual finger movements. The quality of the recorded neural signals was characterized in the frequency domain from three different perspectives: (1) coherence between neural signals recorded from different electrodes, (2) modulation of neural signals by finger movement, and (3) accuracy of finger movement decoding. It was found that, for the high frequency band (60-120 Hz), coherence between neighboring micro-ECoG electrodes was 0.3. In addition, the high frequency band showed significant modulation by finger movement both temporally and spatially, and a classification accuracy of 73% (chance level: 20%) was achieved for individual finger movement using neural signals recorded from the micro-ECoG grid. These results suggest that the micro-ECoG grid presented here offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution for the development of minimally-invasive brain-computer interface applications.

  20. A portable telemetry system for brain stimulation and neuronal activity recording in freely behaving small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuesong; Wang, Peng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Shaomin; Jiang, Jun; Wang, Qingbo; Chen, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2008-09-30

    A portable multi-channel telemetry system which can be used for brain stimulation and neuronal activity recording in freely behaving small animals is described here. This system consists of three major components of headstage, backpack and portable Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). The headstage contains high precision instrument amplifiers with high input impedance. The backpack is comprised of two parts: (1) a main board (size: 36 mm x 22 mm x 3.5 mm and weight: 40 g with batteries, 20 g without), with current/voltage stimulator and special circuit suitable for neuronal activity recording and (2) and a bluetooth transceiver, with a high data transmission rate up to 70 kb/s, suitable for downloading stimulation commands and uploading acquired data. We recorded neuronal activities of the primary motor area of a freely behaving rat with 12-bit resolution at 12 k samples/s. The recorded data and analysis results showed that the system was successful by comparing with the commercial equipment Cerebus 128-Channel Data Acquisition System (Cyberkinetics Inc.). Using the PDA, we can control stimulation and recording. It provides a flexible method to do some research work in the circumstances where other approaches would be difficult or impossible.

  1. Effect of heat- and steam-generating sheet on daily activities of living in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: randomized prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Hisaoka, Hidehiko; Kurosawa, Hisashi

    2008-05-01

    Thermotherapy is widely known to be effective for osteoarthritis of the knee (knee OA), but most treatment methods make use of dry heat. We developed a sheet that generates heat and steam simultaneously. In this prospective randomized study, we evaluated the effectiveness of this sheet. Of 41 female patients with knee OA randomized to use the heat/steam-generating sheet or the dry heat-generating sheet, 37 patients (20 using the heat/steam-generating sheet and 17 using the dry heat-generating sheet) who used the sheets continuously for 4 weeks were studied. Outcome measures included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Japan Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, which were applied at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks of use. Significant improvement of the total WOMAC score was observed at 2 and 4 weeks (compared to baseline) in the heat/steam-generating sheet group, but no significant change was observed in the dry heat-generating sheet group. Among the JOA scores, the gait ability score was also improved significantly only in the heat/steam-generating sheet group. The effects were still seen 6 weeks after completion of treatment. The present study provided evidence that the heat/steam-generating sheet that we developed is effective for alleviating pain and is especially superior in regard to improving stiffness and gait impairment in patients with knee OA. Furthermore, the effect persists for at least 6 weeks after application.

  2. Tectonic implications of seismic activity recorded by the northern Ontario seismograph network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Cajka, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The northern Ontario seismograph network, which has operated under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program since 1982, has provided valuable data to supplement those recorded by the Canadian national networks on earthquake activity, rockburst activity, the distribution of regional seismic velocities, and the contemporary stress field in northern Ontario. The combined networks recorded the largest earthquake known in northwestern Ontario, M 3.9 near Sioux Lookout on February 11, 1984, and many smaller earthquakes in northeastern Ontario. Focal mechanism solutions of these and older events showed high horizontal stress and thrust faulting to be dominant features of the contemporary tectonics of northern Ontario. The zone of more intense earthquake activity in western Quebec appeared to extend northwestward into the Kapuskasing area of northeastern Ontario, where an area of persistent microearthquake activity had been identified by a seismograph station near Kapuskasing. Controlled explosions of the 1984 Kapuskasing Uplift seismic profile experiment recorded on the northern Ontario seismograph network showed the presence of anomalously high LG velocities in northeastern Ontario (3.65 km/s) that when properly taken into account reduced the mislocation errors of well-recorded seismic events by 50% on average

  3. Simultaneous surface and depth neural activity recording with graphene transistor-based dual-modality probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingde; Xu, Xianchen; Yang, Long; Guo, Yichuan; Guan, Shouliang; Shi, Jidong; Wang, Jinfen; Fang, Ying

    2018-05-15

    Subdural surface and penetrating depth probes are widely applied to record neural activities from the cortical surface and intracortical locations of the brain, respectively. Simultaneous surface and depth neural activity recording is essential to understand the linkage between the two modalities. Here, we develop flexible dual-modality neural probes based on graphene transistors. The neural probes exhibit stable electrical performance even under 90° bending because of the excellent mechanical properties of graphene, and thus allow multi-site recording from the subdural surface of rat cortex. In addition, finite element analysis was carried out to investigate the mechanical interactions between probe and cortex tissue during intracortical implantation. Based on the simulation results, a sharp tip angle of π/6 was chosen to facilitate tissue penetration of the neural probes. Accordingly, the graphene transistor-based dual-modality neural probes have been successfully applied for simultaneous surface and depth recording of epileptiform activity of rat brain in vivo. Our results show that graphene transistor-based dual-modality neural probes can serve as a facile and versatile tool to study tempo-spatial patterns of neural activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Some Considerations Regarding the Reform in the Field of Civil Status Activity and Public Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lupsan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives imposed by the European Union on Romania regarding upgrading local public administration on the basis of information technologies, including the one in the marital status activity, which includes, in addition to setting the legal framework and setting up technological infrastructure and the identification of the organizational tools necessary to achieve operational objectives. In our work we present, based on the normative acts, a short history of the reform in the domain of marital status activity and population records.

  5. Techniques for extracting single-trial activity patterns from large-scale neural recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchland, Mark M; Yu, Byron M; Sahani, Maneesh; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2008-01-01

    Summary Large, chronically-implanted arrays of microelectrodes are an increasingly common tool for recording from primate cortex, and can provide extracellular recordings from many (order of 100) neurons. While the desire for cortically-based motor prostheses has helped drive their development, such arrays also offer great potential to advance basic neuroscience research. Here we discuss the utility of array recording for the study of neural dynamics. Neural activity often has dynamics beyond that driven directly by the stimulus. While governed by those dynamics, neural responses may nevertheless unfold differently for nominally identical trials, rendering many traditional analysis methods ineffective. We review recent studies – some employing simultaneous recording, some not – indicating that such variability is indeed present both during movement generation, and during the preceding premotor computations. In such cases, large-scale simultaneous recordings have the potential to provide an unprecedented view of neural dynamics at the level of single trials. However, this enterprise will depend not only on techniques for simultaneous recording, but also on the use and further development of analysis techniques that can appropriately reduce the dimensionality of the data, and allow visualization of single-trial neural behavior. PMID:18093826

  6. Muscle activation patterns during walking from transtibial amputees recorded within the residual limb-prosthetic interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Stephanie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powered lower limb prostheses could be more functional if they had access to feedforward control signals from the user’s nervous system. Myoelectric signals are one potential control source. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle activation signals could be recorded from residual lower limb muscles within the prosthetic socket-limb interface during walking. Methods We recorded surface electromyography from three lower leg muscles (tibilias anterior, gastrocnemius medial head, gastrocnemius lateral head and four upper leg muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus medius of 12 unilateral transtibial amputee subjects and 12 non-amputee subjects during treadmill walking at 0.7, 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 m/s. Muscle signals were recorded from the amputated leg of amputee subjects and the right leg of control subjects. For amputee subjects, lower leg muscle signals were recorded from within the limb-socket interface and from muscles above the knee. We quantified differences in the muscle activation profile between amputee and control groups during treadmill walking using cross-correlation analyses. We also assessed the step-to-step inter-subject variability of these profiles by calculating variance-to-signal ratios. Results We found that amputee subjects demonstrated reliable muscle recruitment signals from residual lower leg muscles recorded within the prosthetic socket during walking, which were locked to particular phases of the gait cycle. However, muscle activation profile variability was higher for amputee subjects than for control subjects. Conclusion Robotic lower limb prostheses could use myoelectric signals recorded from surface electrodes within the socket-limb interface to derive feedforward commands from the amputee’s nervous system.

  7. The strategic use of lecture recordings to facilitate an active and self-directed learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topale, Luminica

    2016-08-12

    New learning technologies have the capacity to dramatically impact how students go about learning and to facilitate an active, self-directed learning approach. In U. S. medical education, students encounter a large volume of content, which must be mastered at an accelerated pace. The added pressure to excel on the USMLE Step 1 licensing exam and competition for residency placements, require that students adopt an informed approach to the use of learning technologies so as to enhance rather than to detract from the learning process. The primary aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of how students were using recorded lectures in their learning and how their study habits have been influenced by the technology. Survey research was undertaken using a convenience sample. Students were asked to voluntarily participate in an electronic survey comprised of 27 closed ended, multiple choice questions, and one open ended item. The survey was designed to explore students' perceptions of how recorded lectures affected their choices regarding class participation and impacted their learning and to gain an understanding of how recorded lectures facilitated a strategic, active learning process. Findings revealed that recorded lectures had little influence on students' choices to participate, and that the perceived benefits of integrating recorded lectures into study practices were related to their facilitation of and impact on efficient, active, and self-directed learning. This study was a useful investigation into how the availability of lecture capture technology influenced medical students' study behaviors and how students were making valuable use of the technology as an active learning tool.

  8. Uranium mining sites - Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A first sheet proposes comments, data and key numbers about uranium extraction in France: general overview of uranium mining sites, status of waste rock and tailings after exploitation, site rehabilitation. The second sheet addresses the sources of exposure to ionizing radiations due to ancient uranium mining sites: discussion on the identification of these sources associated with these sites, properly due to mining activities or to tailings, or due to the transfer of radioactive substances towards water and to the contamination of sediments, description of the practice and assessment of radiological control of mining sites. A third sheet addresses the radiological exposure of public to waste rocks, and the dose assessment according to exposure scenarios: main exposure ways to be considered, studied exposure scenarios (passage on backfilled path and grounds, stay in buildings built on waste rocks, keeping mineralogical samples at home). The fourth sheet addresses research programmes of the IRSN on uranium and radon: epidemiological studies (performed on mine workers; on French and on European cohorts, French and European studies on the risk of lung cancer associated with radon in housing), study of the biological effects of chronic exposures. The last sheet addresses studies and expertises performed by the IRSN on ancient uranium mining sites in France: studies commissioned by public authorities, radioactivity control studies performed by the IRSN about mining sites, participation of the IRSN to actions to promote openness to civil society

  9. Modeling vocalization with ECoG cortical activity recorded during vocal production in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Fujii, Naotaka; Averbeck, Bruno B; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2014-01-01

    Vocal production is an example of controlled motor behavior with high temporal precision. Previous studies have decoded auditory evoked cortical activity while monkeys listened to vocalization sounds. On the other hand, there have been few attempts at decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production. Here we recorded cortical activity during vocal production in the macaque with a chronically implanted electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrode array. The array detected robust activity in motor cortex during vocal production. We used a nonlinear dynamical model of the vocal organ to reduce the dimensionality of `Coo' calls produced by the monkey. We then used linear regression to evaluate the information in motor cortical activity for this reduced representation of calls. This simple linear model accounted for circa 65% of the variance in the reduced sound representations, supporting the feasibility of using the dynamical model of the vocal organ for decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production.

  10. Multichannel brain recordings in behaving Drosophila reveal oscillatory activity and local coherence in response to sensory stimulation and circuit activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, Angelique C.; Zhou, Yanqiong; Stratton, Peter; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Neural networks in vertebrates exhibit endogenous oscillations that have been associated with functions ranging from sensory processing to locomotion. It remains unclear whether oscillations may play a similar role in the insect brain. We describe a novel “whole brain” readout for Drosophila melanogaster using a simple multichannel recording preparation to study electrical activity across the brain of flies exposed to different sensory stimuli. We recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from >2,000 registered recording sites across the fly brain in >200 wild-type and transgenic animals to uncover specific LFP frequency bands that correlate with: 1) brain region; 2) sensory modality (olfactory, visual, or mechanosensory); and 3) activity in specific neural circuits. We found endogenous and stimulus-specific oscillations throughout the fly brain. Central (higher-order) brain regions exhibited sensory modality-specific increases in power within narrow frequency bands. Conversely, in sensory brain regions such as the optic or antennal lobes, LFP coherence, rather than power, best defined sensory responses across modalities. By transiently activating specific circuits via expression of TrpA1, we found that several circuits in the fly brain modulate LFP power and coherence across brain regions and frequency domains. However, activation of a neuromodulatory octopaminergic circuit specifically increased neuronal coherence in the optic lobes during visual stimulation while decreasing coherence in central brain regions. Our multichannel recording and brain registration approach provides an effective way to track activity simultaneously across the fly brain in vivo, allowing investigation of functional roles for oscillations in processing sensory stimuli and modulating behavior. PMID:23864378

  11. Multichannel brain recordings in behaving Drosophila reveal oscillatory activity and local coherence in response to sensory stimulation and circuit activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, Angelique C; Zhou, Yanqiong; Stratton, Peter; Liu, Li; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2013-10-01

    Neural networks in vertebrates exhibit endogenous oscillations that have been associated with functions ranging from sensory processing to locomotion. It remains unclear whether oscillations may play a similar role in the insect brain. We describe a novel "whole brain" readout for Drosophila melanogaster using a simple multichannel recording preparation to study electrical activity across the brain of flies exposed to different sensory stimuli. We recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from >2,000 registered recording sites across the fly brain in >200 wild-type and transgenic animals to uncover specific LFP frequency bands that correlate with: 1) brain region; 2) sensory modality (olfactory, visual, or mechanosensory); and 3) activity in specific neural circuits. We found endogenous and stimulus-specific oscillations throughout the fly brain. Central (higher-order) brain regions exhibited sensory modality-specific increases in power within narrow frequency bands. Conversely, in sensory brain regions such as the optic or antennal lobes, LFP coherence, rather than power, best defined sensory responses across modalities. By transiently activating specific circuits via expression of TrpA1, we found that several circuits in the fly brain modulate LFP power and coherence across brain regions and frequency domains. However, activation of a neuromodulatory octopaminergic circuit specifically increased neuronal coherence in the optic lobes during visual stimulation while decreasing coherence in central brain regions. Our multichannel recording and brain registration approach provides an effective way to track activity simultaneously across the fly brain in vivo, allowing investigation of functional roles for oscillations in processing sensory stimuli and modulating behavior.

  12. Optimal swimming of a sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D; Lauga, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Propulsion at microscopic scales is often achieved through propagating traveling waves along hairlike organelles called flagella. Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model is frequently used to provide insight into problems of flagellar propulsion. We derive numerically the large-amplitude wave form of the two-dimensional swimming sheet that yields optimum hydrodynamic efficiency: the ratio of the squared swimming speed to the rate-of-working of the sheet against the fluid. Using the boundary element method, we show that the optimal wave form is a front-back symmetric regularized cusp that is 25% more efficient than the optimal sine wave. This optimal two-dimensional shape is smooth, qualitatively different from the kinked form of Lighthill's optimal three-dimensional flagellum, not predicted by small-amplitude theory, and different from the smooth circular-arc-like shape of active elastic filaments.

  13. Gas expulsions and biological activity recorded offshore Molene Island, Brittany (France): video supervised recording of OBS data and analogue modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Géli, L.; Dellong, D.; Evangelia, B.; Tary, J. B.; Bayrakci, G.; Lantéri, N.; Lin, J. Y.; Chen, Y. F.; Chang, E. T. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) commonly record signals from Short Duration Events (SDEs), having characteristics that are very different from those produced by tectonic earthquakes, e.g.: durations Brittany within the field of view of the EMSO-Molene underwater observatory, at a water depth of 12 m. The camera images and the recordings reveal the presence of crabs, octopus and several species of fish. Other acoustic signals can be related to the presence of moving algae or the influence from bad weather. Tides produce characteristic curves in the noise recorded on the geophones. SDEs have been recorded on both instruments, that may well have been caused by gas expulsions from the seabed into the water. In order to verify this hypothesis, an aquarium was filled with water overlying an even grain-sized quartz sand layer. A constant air supply through a narrow tube produced gas bubbles in a regular manner and an immersed ocean bottom geophone recorded the resulting acoustic signals. The bubbles tend to have a uniform size and to produce a waveform very close to those found on the OBSs. By comparing the number of SDEs and the volume of escaped air, estimates can be made regarding the volume of gas escaping the seafloor in different environments.

  14. Photocatalytic decomposition of selected estrogens and their estrogenic activity by UV-LED irradiated TiO_2 immobilized on porous titanium sheets via thermal-chemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlos, Maricor J.; Liang, Robert; Hatat-Fraile, Melisa M.; Bragg, Leslie M.; Zhou, Norman Y.; Servos, Mark R.; Andrews, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO_2 self-assembled on oxidized porous titanium sheets. • UV-LED/TiO_2 membrane treatment reduced the concentrations of estrogens. • Different pH conditions affect treatment efficiency. • The estrogenic activity removal was similar to the chemical disappearance. - Abstract: The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) remains a big challenge in water treatment. Risks associated with these compounds are not clearly defined and it is important that the water industry has additional options to increase the resiliency of water treatment systems. Titanium dioxide (TiO_2) has potential applications for the removal of EDCs from water. TiO_2 has been immobilized on supports using a variety of synthesis methods to increase its feasibility for water treatment. In this study, we immobilized TiO_2 through the thermal-chemical oxidation of porous titania sheets. The efficiency of the material to degrade target EDCs under UV-LED irradiation was examined under a wide range of pH conditions. A yeast-estrogen screen assay was used to complement chemical analysis in assessing removal efficiency. All compounds but 17β-estradiol were degraded and followed a pseudo first-order kinetics at all pH conditions tested, with pH 4 and pH 11 showing the most and the least efficient treatments respectively. In addition, the total estrogenic activity was substantially reduced even with the inefficient degradation of 17β-estradiol. Additional studies will be required to optimize different treatment conditions, UV-LED configurations, and membrane fouling mitigation measures to make this technology a more viable option for water treatment.

  15. Morphology of geomagnetic storms, recorded at Hurbanovo, and its relation to solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochabova, P.; Psenakova, M.

    1977-01-01

    The morphological structure of geomagnetic storms was investigated using the data on 414 storms, recorded in the years 1949 to 1968 at the Geomagnetic Observatory of Hurbanovo (phi=47.9 deg N, lambda=18.2 deg E). These data also formed a suitable basis for investigating the effect of the solar activity on the characteristic features of storms. The storm-time variation of the geomagnetic field was considered after the Sq-variation had been eliminated. The sets of storms, i.e. 263 storms recorded at a time of high sunspot activity and 151 storms recorded at a time of low activity, were divided into 7 groups, depending on the duration of their initial phase. In 92% of the investigated storms the increase in the horizontal component lasted from 0 to 15 hrs. The effect of the solar activity was markedly reflected in the occurrence of very severe storms, as well as in the maximum decrease in the H-component in the main phase. This can also be seen in the rate at which the storms recover. (author)

  16. A wireless recording system that utilizes Bluetooth technology to transmit neural activity in freely moving animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Robert E.; Collins, Vernell; Deadwyler, Sam A.

    2009-01-01

    A new wireless transceiver is described for recording individual neuron firing from behaving rats utilizing Bluetooth transmission technology and a processor onboard for discrimination of neuronal waveforms and associated time stamps. This universal brain activity transmitter (UBAT) is attached to rodents via a backpack and amplifier headstage and can transmit 16 channels of captured neuronal firing data via a Bluetooth transceiver chip over very large and unconstrained distances. The onboard microprocessor of the UBAT allows flexible online control over waveform isolation criteria via transceiver instruction and the two-way communication capacity allows for closed-loop applications between neural events and behavioral or physiological processes which can be modified by transceiver instructions. A detailed description of the multiplexer processing of channel data as well as examples of neuronal recordings in different behavioral testing contexts is provided to demonstrate the capacity for robust transmission within almost any laboratory environment. A major advantage of the UBAT is the long transmission range and lack of object-based line of sight interference afforded by Bluetooth technology, allowing flexible recording capabilities within multiple experimental paradigms without interruption. Continuous recordings over very large distance separations from the monitor station are demonstrated providing experimenters with recording advantages not previously available with other telemetry devices. PMID:19524612

  17. Application of active electrode compensation to perform continuous voltage-clamp recordings with sharp microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-González, J F; Destexhe, A; Bal, T

    2014-10-01

    Electrophysiological recordings of single neurons in brain tissues are very common in neuroscience. Glass microelectrodes filled with an electrolyte are used to impale the cell membrane in order to record the membrane potential or to inject current. Their high resistance induces a high voltage drop when passing current and it is essential to correct the voltage measurements. In particular, for voltage clamping, the traditional alternatives are two-electrode voltage-clamp technique or discontinuous single electrode voltage-clamp (dSEVC). Nevertheless, it is generally difficult to impale two electrodes in a same neuron and the switching frequency is limited to low frequencies in the case of dSEVC. We present a novel fully computer-implemented alternative to perform continuous voltage-clamp recordings with a single sharp-electrode. To reach such voltage-clamp recordings, we combine an active electrode compensation algorithm (AEC) with a digital controller (AECVC). We applied two types of control-systems: a linear controller (proportional plus integrative controller) and a model-based controller (optimal control). We compared the performance of the two methods to dSEVC using a dynamic model cell and experiments in brain slices. The AECVC method provides an entirely digital method to perform continuous recording and smooth switching between voltage-clamp, current clamp or dynamic-clamp configurations without introducing artifacts.

  18. A wireless recording system that utilizes Bluetooth technology to transmit neural activity in freely moving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Robert E; Collins, Vernell; Deadwyler, Sam A

    2009-09-15

    A new wireless transceiver is described for recording individual neuron firing from behaving rats utilizing Bluetooth transmission technology and a processor onboard for discrimination of neuronal waveforms and associated time stamps. This universal brain activity transmitter (UBAT) is attached to rodents via a backpack and amplifier headstage and can transmit 16 channels of captured neuronal firing data via a Bluetooth transceiver chip over very large and unconstrained distances. The onboard microprocessor of the UBAT allows flexible online control over waveform isolation criteria via transceiver instruction and the two-way communication capacity allows for closed-loop applications between neural events and behavioral or physiological processes which can be modified by transceiver instructions. A detailed description of the multiplexer processing of channel data as well as examples of neuronal recordings in different behavioral testing contexts is provided to demonstrate the capacity for robust transmission within almost any laboratory environment. A major advantage of the UBAT is the long transmission range and lack of object-based line of sight interference afforded by Bluetooth technology, allowing flexible recording capabilities within multiple experimental paradigms without interruption. Continuous recordings over very large distance separations from the monitor station are demonstrated providing experimenters with recording advantages not previously available with other telemetry devices.

  19. Orientation and Morphology Effects in Rapid Silicon Sheet Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszek, T. F.

    1984-01-01

    Radial growth anisotropies and equilibrium forms of point nucleated, dislocation free silicon sheets spreading horizontally on the free surface of a silicon melt were measured for (100), (110), (111), and (112) sheet planes. The growth process was recorded. Qualitative Wulff surface free energy polar plots were deduced from the equilibrium shapes for each sheet plane. Predicted geometries for the tip shape of unidirectional, dislocation free, horizontally grown sheets growing in various directions within the planes were analyzed. Polycrystalline sheets and dendrite propagation were analyzed. For dendrites, growth rates on the order of 2.5 m/min and growth rate anisotropies of 25 are measured.

  20. Motivation and intention to integrate physical activity into daily school life: the JAM World Record event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazou, Spyridoula; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2014-11-01

    Research on the motivation of stakeholders to integrate physical activity into daily school life is limited. The purpose was to examine the motivation of stakeholders to participate in a world record physical activity event and whether motivation was associated with future intention to use activity breaks during the daily school life and future participation in a similar event. After the 2012 JAM (Just-a-Minute) World Record event, 686 adults (591 women; 76.1% participated for children amotivation for participation in the next event were reported. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, and occupation, showed that intrinsic forms of motivation positively predicted, whereas amotivation negatively predicted, future intention to participate in the event and use the activity breaks. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that school-related participants were more intrinsically motivated and intended to use the activity breaks and repeat the event more than those who were not affiliated with a school. Nonschool participants reported higher extrinsic motivation and amotivation than school-related participants. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  1. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M Salman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male LPK and Lewis control animals (total n=16 were instrumented for telemetric recording of RSNA and MAP. At 12–13 weeks-of-age, resting RSNA and MAP, sympathetic and haemodynamic responses to both peripheral (hypoxia: 10% O2 and central chemoreflex (hypercapnia: 7% CO2 activation and acute stress (open-field exposure, were measured. As indicators of renal function, urinary protein (UPro and creatinine (Ucr levels were assessed. LPK rats had higher resting RSNA (1.2±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 µV, p<0.05 and MAP (151±8 vs. 97±2 mmHg, p<0.05 compared to Lewis. MAP was negatively correlated with Ucr (r=-0.80, p=0.002 and positively correlated with RSNA (r=0.66, p=0.014, with multiple linear regression modeling indicating the strongest correlation was with Ucr. RSNA and MAP responses to activation of the central chemoreflex and open-field stress were reduced in the LPK relative to the Lewis (all p<0.05. This is the first description of dual conscious telemetry recording of RSNA and MAP in a genetic rodent model of CKD. Elevated RSNA is likely a key contributor to the marked hypertension in this model, while attenuated RSNA and MAP responses to central chemoreflex activation and acute stress in the LPK indicate possible deficits in the neural processing of autonomic outflows evoked by these sympathoexcitatory pathways.

  2. Quality assurance records system for research and development activities in support of geologic repository programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.W.; Ryder, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Department of Energy, is conducting site-specific research for all three candidate sites for the first geologic high-level waste repository, as well as generic research for the second repository. In conjunction with this effort, PNL has developed a quality assurance (QA) program that is applicable to all organizations that are performing research and development (R and D) activities in support of the repository programs. This QA program meets the basic and supplemental requirements of ANSI/ASME NQA-1-1983 and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Review Plan for QA Programs for Site Characterization of High Level Nuclear Waste Repositories. A key part of this program is the handling of QA records that may ultimately support the licensing process for the repository. This paper describes a QA records system that is flexible enough to accommodate several types of research, such as paper studies, test method development, site characterization studies, software development, and hardware design. In addition, the QA records system is acceptable to a variety of sponsors who have licensing concerns. The QA procedures and their relation to the requirements are described. Most important is the discussion on the approaches used to assure that the records are organized such that the user can readily recreate or defend data, conclusions, and recommendations resulting from the research

  3. Intermontane eolian sand sheet development, Upper Tulum Valley, central-western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Francisco Fuhr Dal' Bó

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe intermontane Upper Tulum eolian sand sheet covers an area of ca. 125 km² at north of the San Juan Province, central-western Argentina. The sand sheet is currently an aggrading system where vegetation cover, surface cementation and periodic flooding withhold the development of dunes with slipfaces. The sand sheet surface is divided into three parts according to the distribution of sedimentary features, which reflects the variation in sediment budget, water table level and periodic flooding. The central sand sheet part is the main area of eolian deposition and is largely stabilized by vegetation. The sedimentary succession is 4 m thick and records the vertical interbedding of eolian and subaqueous deposits, which have been deposited for at least 3.6 ky with sedimentation rates of 86.1 cm/ky. The construction of the sand sheet is associated with deflation of the sand-graded debris sourced by San Juan alluvial fan, which is available mainly in drier fall-winter months where water table is lower and wind speeds are periodically above the threshold velocity for sand transport. The accumulation of sedimentary bodies occurs in a stabilized eolian system where vegetation cover, thin mud veneers and surface cementation are the main agents in promoting accumulation. The preservation of the sand sheet accumulations is enabled by the progressive creation of the accommodation space in a tectonically active basin and the continuous burial of geological bodies favored by high rates of sedimentation.

  4. Continuous recording of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity using fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Erland J.F.; Nystrøm, Birthe T.

    2001-01-01

    acyl-Coenzyme A, synthetase, activity assay, fluorescence recording, fatty acid probe, serum albumin, hydroxycoumarin, detergent, micelles, Pseudomonas fragi, rat liver microsomes......acyl-Coenzyme A, synthetase, activity assay, fluorescence recording, fatty acid probe, serum albumin, hydroxycoumarin, detergent, micelles, Pseudomonas fragi, rat liver microsomes...

  5. Pressure balance between lobe and plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumjohann, W.; Paschmann, G.; Luehr, H.

    1990-01-01

    Using eight months of AMPTE/IRM plasma and magnetic field data, the authors have done a statistical survey on the balance of total (thermal and magnetic) pressure in the Earth's plasma sheet and tail lobe. About 300,000 measurements obtained in the plasma sheet and the lobe were compared for different levels of magnetic activity as well as different distances from the Earth. The data show that lobe and plasma sheet pressure balance very well. Even in the worst case they do not deviate by more than half of the variance in the data itself. Approximately constant total pressure was also seen during a quiet time pass when IRM traversed nearly the whole magnetotail in the vertical direction, from the southern hemisphere lobe through the neutral sheet and into the northern plasma sheet boundary layer

  6. Automatic prediction of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity from the electronic medical records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lin

    Full Text Available We aimed to mine the data in the Electronic Medical Record to automatically discover patients' Rheumatoid Arthritis disease activity at discrete rheumatology clinic visits. We cast the problem as a document classification task where the feature space includes concepts from the clinical narrative and lab values as stored in the Electronic Medical Record.The Training Set consisted of 2792 clinical notes and associated lab values. Test Set 1 included 1749 clinical notes and associated lab values. Test Set 2 included 344 clinical notes for which there were no associated lab values. The Apache clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System was used to analyze the text and transform it into informative features to be combined with relevant lab values.Experiments over a range of machine learning algorithms and features were conducted. The best performing combination was linear kernel Support Vector Machines with Unified Medical Language System Concept Unique Identifier features with feature selection and lab values. The Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC is 0.831 (σ = 0.0317, statistically significant as compared to two baselines (AUC = 0.758, σ = 0.0291. Algorithms demonstrated superior performance on cases clinically defined as extreme categories of disease activity (Remission and High compared to those defined as intermediate categories (Moderate and Low and included laboratory data on inflammatory markers.Automatic Rheumatoid Arthritis disease activity discovery from Electronic Medical Record data is a learnable task approximating human performance. As a result, this approach might have several research applications, such as the identification of patients for genome-wide pharmacogenetic studies that require large sample sizes with precise definitions of disease activity and response to therapies.

  7. Extraction and characterization of essential discharge patterns from multisite recordings of spiking ongoing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Storchi

    Full Text Available Neural activation patterns proceed often by schemes or motifs distributed across the involved cortical networks. As neurons are correlated, the estimate of all possible dependencies quickly goes out of control. The complex nesting of different oscillation frequencies and their high non-stationariety further hamper any quantitative evaluation of spiking network activities. The problem is exacerbated by the intrinsic variability of neural patterns.Our technique introduces two important novelties and enables to insulate essential patterns on larger sets of spiking neurons and brain activity regimes. First, the sampling procedure over N units is based on a fixed spike number k in order to detect N-dimensional arrays (k-sequences, whose sum over all dimension is k. Then k-sequences variability is greatly reduced by a hierarchical separative clustering, that assigns large amounts of distinct k-sequences to few classes. Iterative separations are stopped when the dimension of each cluster comes to be smaller than a certain threshold. As threshold tuning critically impacts on the number of classes extracted, we developed an effective cost criterion to select the shortest possible description of our dataset. Finally we described three indexes (C,S,R to evaluate the average pattern complexity, the structure of essential classes and their stability in time.We validated this algorithm with four kinds of surrogated activity, ranging from random to very regular patterned. Then we characterized a selection of ongoing activity recordings. By the S index we identified unstable, moderatly and strongly stable patterns while by the C and the R indices we evidenced their non-random structure. Our algorithm seems able to extract interesting and non-trivial spatial dynamics from multisource neuronal recordings of ongoing and potentially stimulated activity. Combined with time-frequency analysis of LFPs could provide a powerful multiscale approach linking population

  8. The patients' active role in managing a personal electronic health record: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudendistel, Ines; Winkler, Eva; Kamradt, Martina; Brophy, Sarah; Längst, Gerda; Eckrich, Felicitas; Heinze, Oliver; Bergh, Bjoern; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Ose, Dominik

    2015-09-01

    The complexity of illness and cross-sectoral health care pose challenges for patients with colorectal cancer and their families. Within a patient-centered care paradigm, it is vital to give patients the opportunity to play an active role. Prospective users' attitudes regarding the patients' role in the context of a patient-controlled electronic health record (PEPA) were explored. A qualitative study across regional health care settings and health professions was conducted. Overall, 10 focus groups were performed collecting views of 3 user groups: patients with colorectal cancer (n = 12) and representatives from patient support groups (n = 2), physicians (n = 17), and other health care professionals (HCPs) (n = 16). Data were audio- and videotaped, transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The patients' responsibility as a gatekeeper and access manager was at the center of the focus group discussions, although HCPs addressed aspects that would limit patients taking an active role (e.g., illness related issues). Despite expressed concerns, PEPAs possibility to enhance personal responsibility was seen in all user groups. Giving patients an active role in managing a personal electronic health record is an innovative patient-centered approach, although existing restraints have to be recognized. To enhance user adoption and advance PEPAs potential, key user needs have to be addressed.

  9. Objectively recorded physical activity in early pregnancy: a multiethnic population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, S; Richardsen, K R; Mørkrid, K; Sletner, L; Birkeland, K I; Jenum, A K

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to compare objectively recorded physical activity (PA) levels and walking steps among pregnant women. Cross-sectional data from a multiethnic cohort (n = 823) of pregnant women consisting of 44% from Western countries, 24% from South Asia, 14% from Middle East, and 18% from other countries. PA and steps were recorded by the activity monitor SenseWear™ Pro3 Armband. A total of 678 women were included in the analysis. Western women walked significantly more steps and had higher moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels compared with South Asian women per weekday and weekend day. Interaction terms (P = 0.008) between ethnicity (Western vs South Asian) and parity, and education, respectively, were identified: having ≥ 1 children was positively associated with steps during weekends in South Asians in contrast to Western women. Having pregnancy and South Asian women without children and with higher education may have an elevated risk for an inactive lifestyle during pregnancy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Recordings of mucociliary activity in vivo: benefit of fast Fourier transformation of the photoelectric signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, S; Cervin, A; Runer, T; Thomasson, L

    1996-09-01

    Investigations of mucociliary activity in vivo are based on photoelectric recordings of light reflections from the mucosa. The alterations in light intensity produced by the beating cilia are picked up by a photodetector and converted to photoelectric signals. The optimal processing of these signals is not known, but in vitro recordings have been reported to benefit from fast Fourier transformation (FFT) of the signal. The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of FFT for frequency analysis of photoelectric signals originating from an artificial light source simulating mucociliary activity or from sinus or nasal mucosa in vivo, as compared to a conventional method of calculating mucociliary wave frequency, in which each peak in the signal is interpreted as a beat (old method). In the experiments with the artificial light source, the FFT system was superior to the conventional method by a factor of 50 in detecting weak signals. By using FFT signal processing, frequency could be correctly calculated in experiments with a compound signal. In experiments in the rabbit maxillary sinus, the spontaneous variations were greater when signals were processed by FFT. The correlation between the two methods was excellent: r = .92. The increase in mucociliary activity in response to the ciliary stimulant methacholine at a dosage of 0.5 microgram/kg was greater measured with the FFT than with the old method (55.3% +/- 8.3% versus 43.0% +/- 8.2%, p detected. In the human nose, recordings from aluminum foil placed on the nasal dorsum and from the nasal septa mucosa displayed some similarities in the lower frequency spectrum (light, the mean frequency in seven healthy volunteers being 7.8 +/- 1.6 Hz for the human nasal mucosa. It is concluded that the FFT system has greater sensitivity in detecting photoelectric signals derived from the mucociliary system, and that it is also a useful tool for analyzing the contributions of artifacts to the signal.

  11. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  12. Mobility Balance Sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorritsma, P.; Derriks, H.; Francke, J.; Gordijn, H.; Groot, W.; Harms, L.; Van der Loop, H.; Peer, S.; Savelberg, F.; Wouters, P.

    2009-06-01

    The Mobility Balance Sheet provides an overview of the state of the art of mobility in the Netherlands. In addition to describing the development of mobility this report also provides explanations for the growth of passenger and freight transport. Moreover, the Mobility Balance Sheet also focuses on a topical theme: the effects of economic crises on mobility. [nl

  13. Preliminary results of the ice_sheet_CCI round robin activity on the estimation of surface elevation changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ticconi, F.; Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovsky, K.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the first results of a research activity aiming to compare estimates of Surface Elevation Changes (SEC) over the Jakobshavn Isbræ basin (Greenland) using different repeat altimetry techniques and different sensors (laser vs. radar altimetry). The goal of this comparison...... is the identification of the best performing algorithm, in terms of accuracy, coverage and processing effort, for the generation of surface elevation change maps. The methods investigated here are the cross-over and repeat-track. The results of the inter-comparison are here reported and, from a first analysis...

  14. Improving Climate Literacy Using The Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM): A Prototype Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory For Use In K-12 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkides, D. J.; Larour, E. Y.; Perez, G.; Petrie, K.; Nguyen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Statistics indicate that most Americans learn what they will know about science within the confines of our public K-12 education system and the media. Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) aim to remedy science illiteracy and provide guidelines to exceed the Common Core State Standards that most U.S. state governments have adopted, by integrating disciplinary cores with crosscutting ideas and real life practices. In this vein, we present a prototype ';Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory' (I-Lab), geared to K-12 students, educators and interested members of the general public. I-Lab will allow users to perform experiments using a state-of-the-art dynamical ice sheet model and provide detailed downloadable lesson plans, which incorporate this model and are consistent with NGSS Physical Science criteria for different grade bands (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12). The ultimate goal of this website is to improve public climate science literacy, especially in regards to the crucial role of the polar ice sheets in Earth's climate and sea level. The model used will be the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), an ice flow model developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and UC Irvine, that simulates the near-term evolution of polar ice sheets (Greenland and Antarctica) and includes high spatial resolution capabilities and data assimilation to produce realistic simulations of ice sheet dynamics at the continental scale. Open sourced since 2011, ISSM is used in cutting edge cryosphere research around the globe. Thru I-Lab, students will be able to access ISSM using a simple, online graphical interface that can be launched from a web browser on a computer, tablet or smart phone. The interface will allow users to select different climate conditions and watch how the polar ice sheets evolve in time under those conditions. Lesson contents will include links to background material and activities that teach observation recording, concept articulation, hypothesis formulation and testing, and

  15. Thermal fluctuations in perpendicular recording media: New methodology for estimation of activation moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamiya, H; Oba, Y; Ohnuma, M; Hagiya, H; Oku, T; Suzuki, J; Yokoyama, M; Nishihara, Y; Katayama, T; Awano, H; Koda, T

    2011-01-01

    In nanoparticulate films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, a large demagnetizing field almost compensates for the experimentally designed change in the magnetic field applied parallel to the film normal. We propose a new method based on field-cycling to eliminate the uncertainty in the demagnetizing response from the analysis of the activation volume of the reversal or magnetic activation moment in such films. In this method, the applied field induced variation in the magnetic relaxation rate is measured before the effect of the demagnetizing field becomes dominant. We also discuss an analogical thermal-cycling method to clarify the temperature dependence of the barrier height for magnetization reversal in a magnetic field. We apply these methods to a Co 74 Pt 16 Cr 10 -SiO 2 nanoparticulate film as an example. The results demonstrate that these methods are useful for studying thermal fluctuations in perpendicular recording media.

  16. Electro activation of persulfate using iron sheet as low-cost electrode: the role of the operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jefferson E; Cardoso, Tais O; Barreto-Rodrigues, Marcio; Zazo, Juan A; Casas, José A

    2018-05-01

    This work assesses the role of the operational conditions upon the electro-activation of persulfate (PS) using sacrificed iron electrode as a continuous low-cost Fe 2+ source. An aqueous phenol solution (100 mg L -1 ) was selected as model effluent. The studied variables include current density (1-10 mA cm -2 ), persulfate concentration (0.7-2.85 g L -1 ), temperature (30-90°C) and the solution conductivity (2.7-20.7 mS cm -1 ) using Na 2 SO 4 and NaCl as supporting electrolyte. A mineralization degree of around 80% with Na 2 SO 4 and 92% in presence of NaCl was achieved at 30°C using 2.15 g L -1 PS at the lowest current density tested (1 mA cm -2 ). Besides PS concentration, temperature was the main variable affecting the process. In the range of 30-70°C, it showed a positive effect, achieving TOC conversion above 95% (using Na 2 SO 4 under the previous conditions) along with a significant increase in iron sludge, which adversely affects the economy of the process. A lumped and simplified kinetic model based on persulfate consumption and TOC mineralization is suggested. The activation energy obtained for the TOC decay was 29 kJ mol -1 . An estimated operating cost of US$ 3.00 per m 3 was obtained, demonstrating the economic feasibility of this process.

  17. Optimal use of EEG recordings to target active brain areas with transcranial electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Jacek P; Koessler, Laurent; Norcia, Anthony M; Bikson, Marom; Parra, Lucas C

    2017-08-15

    To demonstrate causal relationships between brain and behavior, investigators would like to guide brain stimulation using measurements of neural activity. Particularly promising in this context are electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), as they are linked by a reciprocity principle which, despite being known for decades, has not led to a formalism for relating EEG recordings to optimal stimulation parameters. Here we derive a closed-form expression for the TES configuration that optimally stimulates (i.e., targets) the sources of recorded EEG, without making assumptions about source location or distribution. We also derive a duality between TES targeting and EEG source localization, and demonstrate that in cases where source localization fails, so does the proposed targeting. Numerical simulations with multiple head models confirm these theoretical predictions and quantify the achieved stimulation in terms of focality and intensity. We show that constraining the stimulation currents automatically selects optimal montages that involve only a few (4-7) electrodes, with only incremental loss in performance when targeting focal activations. The proposed technique allows brain scientists and clinicians to rationally target the sources of observed EEG and thus overcomes a major obstacle to the realization of individualized or closed-loop brain stimulation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Image-guided recording system for spatial and temporal mapping of neuronal activities in brain slice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Geonho; Lee, Jeonghyeon; Kim, Hyeongeun; Jang, Jaemyung; Im, Changkyun; Jeon, Nooli; Jung, Woonggyu

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we introduce the novel image-guided recording system (IGRS) for efficient interpretation of neuronal activities in the brain slice. IGRS is designed to combine microelectrode array (MEA) and optical coherence tomography at the customized upright microscope. It allows to record multi-site neuronal signals and image of the volumetric brain anatomy in a single body configuration. For convenient interconnection between a brain image and neuronal signals, we developed the automatic mapping protocol that enables us to project acquired neuronal signals on a brain image. To evaluate the performance of IGRS, hippocampal signals of the brain slice were monitored, and corresponding with two-dimensional neuronal maps were successfully reconstructed. Our results indicated that IGRS and mapping protocol can provide the intuitive information regarding long-term and multi-sites neuronal signals. In particular, the temporal and spatial mapping capability of neuronal signals would be a very promising tool to observe and analyze the massive neuronal activity and connectivity in MEA-based electrophysiological studies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Actinides record, power calculations and activity for present isotopes in the spent fuel of a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enriquez C, P.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Lucatero, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    The administration of spent fuel is one of the more important stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, and this has become a problem of supreme importance in countries that possess nuclear reactors. Due to this in this work, the study on the actinides record and present fission products to the discharge of the irradiated fuel in a light water reactor type BWR is shown, to quantify the power and activity that emit to the discharge and during the cooling time. The analysis was realized on a fuel assembly type 10 x 10 with an enrichment average of 3.69 wt % in U-235 and the assembly simulation assumes four cycles of operation of 18 months each one and presents an exposition of 47 G Wd/Tm to the discharge. The module OrigenArp of the Scale 6 code is the computation tool used for the assembly simulation and to obtain the results on the actinides record presents to the fuel discharge. The study covers the following points: a) Obtaining of the plutonium vector used in the fuel production of mixed oxides, and b) Power calculation and activity for present actinides to the discharge. The results presented in this work, correspond at the same time immediate of discharge (0 years) and to a cooling stage in the irradiated fuel pool (5 years). (Author)

  20. Ionospheric Disturbances Recorded by DEMETER Satellite over Active Volcanoes: From August 2004 to December 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Zlotnicki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes electromagnetic data and plasma characteristics in the ionosphere recorded by DEMETER microsatellite over erupting volcanoes during the life of the mission: from August 2004 to December 2010. The time window in which anomalous changes are searched brackets the onset of the eruptive activity from 60 days before to 15 days after the period during which most pre- and posteruptive phenomena are amplified. 73 volcanoes have entered into eruption. For 58 of them, 269 anomalies were found in relation to 89 eruptions. They are distributed in 5 types, similarly to the ones observed above impeding earthquakes. The two main types are electrostatic turbulence (type 1, 23.4% and electromagnetic emissions (type 2, 69.5%. The maximum number of types 1 and 2 anomalies is recorded between 30 and 15 days before the surface activity, corresponding to the period of accelerating phenomena. The amount of anomalies seems related to the powerfulness of the eruptions. The appearance seems dependant on the likelihood to release bursts of gases during the preparatory eruptive phase. For the huge centenary October 26, 2010, Merapi (Indonesia eruption, 9 ionospheric type 2 anomalies appeared before the eruption. They mainly emerge during the mechanical fatigue stage during which microfracturing occurs.

  1. How the Internet Facilitates the Activity within a Consumer Culture : - A Study of the Online Vinyl Record Network

    OpenAIRE

    Söderlindh, Stefan; Broman, David

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe and analyze how the online vinyl record network functions from both a consumer and retailer perspective, in order to gain an understanding of how the Internet facilitates the activity within a consumer culture. The vinyl record industry is experiencing a revival, with an upswing in sales and media attention and a significant increase in the amount of online trading. This inductive study contains data from qualitative interviews with ten vinyl record c...

  2. Carbon sheet pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  3. Time-Resolved Records of Magnetic Activity on the Pallasite Parent Body and Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, J. F. J.; Nichols, C. I. O.; Herrero-Albillos, J.; Kronast, F.; Kasama, T.; Alimadadi, H.; van der Laan, G.; Nimmo, F.; Harrison, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although many small bodies apparently generated dynamo fields in the early solar system, the nature and temporal evolution of these fields has remained enigmatic. Time-resolved records of the Earth's planetary field have been essential in understanding the dynamic history of our planet, and equivalent information from asteroids could provide a unique insight into the development of the solar system. Here we present time-resolved records of magnetic activity on the main-group pallasite parent body and (16) Psyche, obtained using newly-developed nanomagnetic imaging techniques. For the pallasite parent body, the inferred field direction remained relatively constant and the intensity was initially stable at ~100 μT before it decreased in two discrete steps down to 0 μT. We interpret this behaviour as due to vigorous dynamo activity driven by compositional convection in the core, ultimately transitioning from a dipolar to multipolar field as the inner core grew from the bottom-up. For Psyche (measured from IVA iron meteorites), the inferred field direction reversed, while the intensity remained stable at >50 μT. Psyche cooled rapidly as an unmantled core, although the resulting thermal convection alone cannot explain these observations. Instead, this behaviour required top-down core solidification, and is attributed either to compositional convection (if the core also solidified from the bottom-up) or convection generated directly by top-down solidification (e.g. Fe-snow). The mechanism governing convection in small body cores is an open question (due partly to uncertainties in the direction of core solidification), and these observations suggest that unconventional (i.e. not thermal) mechanisms acted in the early solar system. These mechanisms are very efficient at generating convection, implying a long-lasting and widespread epoch of dynamo activity among small bodies in the early solar system.

  4. 78 FR 5477 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...-0046] Agency Information Collection Activities: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I... collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record. (3) Agency...- 854 is used by law enforcement agencies to bring alien witnesses and informants to the United States...

  5. 78 FR 24429 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ...-0046] Agency Information Collection Activities: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I... the Form/Collection: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record. (3) Agency form number, if any... Government. Form I-854 is used by law enforcement agencies to bring alien witnesses and informants to the...

  6. 76 FR 56503 - Agency Information Collection Activity (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... Electronic Health Records, VA Form 10- 0400. OMB Control Number: 2900-0710. Type of Review: Extension of a... power of attorney by veterans who have medical information recorded in VHA electronic health records...

  7. Correlations between histology and neuronal activity recorded by microelectrodes implanted chronically in the cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Douglas; Cogan, Stuart; Kane, Sheryl; Pikov, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Objective. To quantify relations between the neuronal activity recorded with chronically-implanted intracortical microelectrodes and the histology of the surrounding tissue, using radial distance from the tip sites and time after array implantation as parameters. Approach. ‘Utah’-type intracortical microelectrode arrays were implanted into cats’ sensorimotor cortex for 275-364 days. The brain tissue around the implants was immuno-stained for the neuronal marker NeuN and for the astrocyte marker GFAP. Pearson’s product-moment correlations were used to quantify the relations between these markers and the amplitudes of the recorded neuronal action potentials (APs) and their signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). Main results. S/N was more stable over post-implant time than was AP amplitude, but its increased correlation with neuronal density after many months indicates ongoing loss of neurons around the microelectrodes. S/N was correlated with neuron density out to at least 140 μm from the microelectrodes, while AP amplitude was correlated with neuron density and GFAP density within ˜80 μm. Correlations between AP amplitude and histology markers (GFAP and NeuN density) were strongest immediately after implantation, while correlation between the neuron density and S/N was strongest near the time the animals were sacrificed. Unlike AP amplitude, there was no significant correlation between S/N and density of GFAP around the tip sites. Significance. Our findings indicate an evolving interaction between changes in the tissue surrounding the microelectrodes and the microelectrode’s electrical properties. Ongoing loss of neurons around recording microelectrodes, and the interactions between their delayed electrical deterioration and early tissue scarring around the tips appear to pose the greatest threats to the microelectrodes’ long-term functionality.

  8. New Evaluation of the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR: Obtrusiveness, Compliance, and Participant Self-selection Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Manson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR is a method for collecting periodic brief audio snippets of participants’ daily lives using a portable recording device. The EAR can potentially intrude into people’s privacy, alter their natural behavior, and introduce self-selection biases greater than in other types of social science methods. Previous research (Mehl and Holleran, 2007, hereafter M&H has shown that participant non-compliance with, and perceived obtrusiveness of, an EAR protocol are both low. However, these questions have not been addressed in jurisdictions that require the consent of all parties to recording conversations. This EAR study required participants to wear a button bearing a microphone icon and the words “This conversation may be recorded” to comply with California’s all-party consent law. Results revealed self-reported obtrusiveness and non-compliance were actually lower in the present study than in the M&H study. Behaviorally assessed non-compliance did not differ between the two studies. Participants in the present study talked more about being in the study than participants in the M&H study, but such talk still comprised <2% of sampled conversations. Another potential problem with the EAR, participant self-selection bias, was addressed by comparing the EAR volunteers’ HEXACO personality dimensions to a non-volunteer sample drawn from the same student population. EAR volunteers were significantly and moderately higher in Conscientiousness, and lower in Emotionality, than non-volunteers. In conclusion, the EAR method can be successfully implemented in at least one all-party consent state (California. Interested researchers are encouraged to review this procedure with their own legal counsel.

  9. Anesthesia Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Anesthesia Anesthesia Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area En español ... Version (464 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is anesthesia? Anesthesia is a medical treatment that prevents patients ...

  10. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  11. Radiation protecting sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makiguchi, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    As protection sheets used in radioactivity administration areas, a thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet with a thickness of less 0.5 mm, solid content (ash) of less than 5% and a shore D hardness of less than 60 is used. A composite sheet with thickness of less than 0.5 mm laminated or coated with such a thermoplastic polyurethane composition as a surface layer and the thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet applied with secondary fabrication are used. This can satisfy all of the required properties, such as draping property, abrasion resistance, high breaking strength, necking resistance, endurance strength, as well as chemical resistance and easy burnability in burning furnace. Further, by forming uneveness on the surface by means of embossing, etc. safety problems such as slippage during operation and walking can be overcome. (T.M.)

  12. Global ice sheet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  13. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  14. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Queiroz

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855 (on two skeletons, and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  15. Lake sediment records on climate change and human activities in the Xingyun Lake catchment, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxiang; Ming, Qingzhong; Shi, Zhengtao; Chen, Guangjie; Niu, Jie; Lei, Guoliang; Chang, Fengqin; Zhang, Hucai

    2014-01-01

    Sediments from Xinyun Lake in central Yunnan, southwest China, provide a record of environmental history since the Holocene. With the application of multi-proxy indicators (total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), δ13C and δ15N isotopes, C/N ratio, grain size, magnetic susceptibility (MS) and CaCO3 content), as well as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C datings, four major climatic stages during the Holocene have been identified in Xingyun's catchment. A marked increase in lacustrine palaeoproductivity occurred from 11.06 to 9.98 cal. ka BP, which likely resulted from an enhanced Asian southwest monsoon and warm-humid climate. Between 9.98 and 5.93 cal. ka BP, a gradually increased lake level might have reached the optimum water depth, causing a marked decline in coverage by aquatic plants and lake productivity of the lake. This was caused by strong Asian southwest monsoon, and coincided with the global Holocene Optimum. During the period of 5.60-1.35 cal. ka BP, it resulted in a warm and dry climate at this stage, which is comparable to the aridification of India during the mid- and late Holocene. The intensifying human activity and land-use in the lake catchment since the early Tang Dynasty (∼1.35 cal. ka BP) were associated with the ancient Dian culture within Xingyun's catchment. The extensive deforestation and development of agriculture in the lake catchment caused heavy soil loss. Our study clearly shows that long-term human activities and land-use change have strongly impacted the evolution of the lake environment and therefore modulated the sediment records of the regional climate in central Yunnan for more than one thousand years.

  16. Lake sediment records on climate change and human activities in the Xingyun Lake catchment, SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Sediments from Xinyun Lake in central Yunnan, southwest China, provide a record of environmental history since the Holocene. With the application of multi-proxy indicators (total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (TN, δ13C and δ15N isotopes, C/N ratio, grain size, magnetic susceptibility (MS and CaCO3 content, as well as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C datings, four major climatic stages during the Holocene have been identified in Xingyun's catchment. A marked increase in lacustrine palaeoproductivity occurred from 11.06 to 9.98 cal. ka BP, which likely resulted from an enhanced Asian southwest monsoon and warm-humid climate. Between 9.98 and 5.93 cal. ka BP, a gradually increased lake level might have reached the optimum water depth, causing a marked decline in coverage by aquatic plants and lake productivity of the lake. This was caused by strong Asian southwest monsoon, and coincided with the global Holocene Optimum. During the period of 5.60-1.35 cal. ka BP, it resulted in a warm and dry climate at this stage, which is comparable to the aridification of India during the mid- and late Holocene. The intensifying human activity and land-use in the lake catchment since the early Tang Dynasty (∼1.35 cal. ka BP were associated with the ancient Dian culture within Xingyun's catchment. The extensive deforestation and development of agriculture in the lake catchment caused heavy soil loss. Our study clearly shows that long-term human activities and land-use change have strongly impacted the evolution of the lake environment and therefore modulated the sediment records of the regional climate in central Yunnan for more than one thousand years.

  17. Smithsonian Education - Families - Activity Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ). The True Story of the Hope Diamond The True Story of the Hope Diamond This rare blue diamond has the story! Download and print The True Story of the Hope Diamond (PDF). What Is a Fossil? What Is a all about the giant squid, a real-life sea monster. You can figure out the size of the creature by

  18. Control of downy mildew in greenhouse-grown cucumbers using blue photoselective polyethylene sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuveni, R.; Raviv, M.

    1997-01-01

    Six types of polyethylene sheets with or without a blue pigment, having an absorption peak at the yellow part of the spectrum (580 nm), in combination with three levels of UV-B (280 to 320 nm) absorbance, were investigated for their effects on sporangial production and colonization of Pseudoperonospora cubensis on cucumbers in growth chambers. The effect of these photoselective sheets on the epidemiology of downy mildew in greenhouse-grown cucumbers has been investigated in several locations. The addition of the blue pigment to the films resulted in a significant inhibition of colonization and sporangial production of P. cubensis, whereas filtration of the UV spectrum enhanced the colonization but had no effect on the sporangial production. The appearance of the first symptom-bearing plants was delayed under the blue covers, and consequently, a significant reduction in the disease incidence of downy mildew was recorded under all blue sheets at each corresponding level of UV-B transmittance in five different field experiments through four seasons. Regardless of the differences in disease incidence, there were no significant differences among the yields that were obtained under the various sheets, probably due to the lower photosynthetically active radiation transmissivity of the blue films. The optimal features required for a desirable commercial sheet are discussed

  19. 77 FR 32998 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or... USITC Publication 4325 (May 2012), entitled Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan...

  20. Exploring Deliberate Practice & the Use of Skill Sheets in the Collegiate Leadership Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott J.; Jenkins, Daniel M.; Krizanovic, Bela

    2018-01-01

    Little has been written about the use of skill sheets in leadership education and this paper demonstrates how they have been implemented in one specific context. Used in a number of domains (e.g., karate, cardiopulmonary resuscitation) skill sheets are checklists or rubrics that record skill performance. The use of skill sheets in leadership…

  1. 76 FR 71040 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Record Retention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... with soy protein. The records required to be retained by Sec. 101.82(c)(2)(ii)(B) are the records, e.g... Requirements for the Soy Protein and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Health Claim AGENCY: Food and Drug... notice solicits comments on the record retention requirements for the soy protein and coronary heart...

  2. Understanding Recent Mass Balance Changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderVeen, Cornelius

    2003-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to better understand the current transfer of mass between the Greenland Ice Sheet, the world's oceans and the atmosphere, and to identify processes controlling the rate of this transfer, to be able to predict with greater confidence future contributions to global sea level rise. During the first year of this project, we focused on establishing longer-term records of change of selected outlet glaciers, reevaluation of mass input to the ice sheet and analysis of climate records derived from ice cores, and modeling meltwater production and runoff from the margins of the ice sheet.

  3. Who children spend time with after school: associations with objectively recorded indoor and outdoor physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding how the determinants of behaviour vary by context may support the design of interventions aiming to increase physical activity. Such factors include independent mobility, time outdoors and the availability of other children. At present little is known about who children spend their time with after school, how this relates to time spent indoors or outdoors and activity in these locations. This study aimed to quantify who children spend their time with when indoors or outdoors and associations with moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Participants were 427 children aged 10–11 from Bristol, UK. Physical activity was recorded using an accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M) and matched to Global Positioning System receiver (Garmin Foretrex 201) data to differentiate indoor and outdoor location. Children self-reported who they spent time with after school until bed-time using a diary. Each 10 second epoch was coded as indoors or outdoors and for ‘who with’ (alone, friend, brother/sister, mum/dad, other grown-up) creating 10 possible physical activity contexts. Time spent and MVPA were summarised for each context. Associations between time spent in the different contexts and MVPA were examined using multiple linear regression adjusting for daylight, age, deprivation and standardised body mass index. Results During the after school period, children were most often with their mum/dad or alone, especially when indoors. When outdoors more time was spent with friends (girls: 32.1%; boys: 28.6%) than other people or alone. Regression analyses suggested hours outdoors with friends were positively associated with minutes of MVPA for girls (beta-coefficient [95% CI]: 17.4 [4.47, 30.24]) and boys (17.53 [2.76, 32.31]). Being outdoors with brother/sister was associated with MVPA for girls (21.2 [14.17, 28.25]) but not boys. Weaker associations were observed for time indoors with friends (girls: 4.61 [1.37, 7.85]; boys: (7.42 [2.99, 11

  4. Recording Spikes Activity in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons Using Flexible or Transparent Graphene Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Veliev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of nanoelectronics applied to neural interfaces has started few decades ago, and aims to provide new tools for replacing or restoring disabled functions of the nervous systems as well as further understanding the evolution of such complex organization. As the same time, graphene and other 2D materials have offered new possibilities for integrating micro and nano-devices on flexible, transparent, and biocompatible substrates, promising for bio and neuro-electronics. In addition to many bio-suitable features of graphene interface, such as, chemical inertness and anti-corrosive properties, its optical transparency enables multimodal approach of neuronal based systems, the electrical layer being compatible with additional microfluidics and optical manipulation ports. The convergence of these fields will provide a next generation of neural interfaces for the reliable detection of single spike and record with high fidelity activity patterns of neural networks. Here, we report on the fabrication of graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs on various substrates (silicon, sapphire, glass coverslips, and polyimide deposited onto Si/SiO2 substrates, exhibiting high sensitivity (4 mS/V, close to the Dirac point at VLG < VD and low noise level (10−22 A2/Hz, at VLG = 0 V. We demonstrate the in vitro detection of the spontaneous activity of hippocampal neurons in-situ-grown on top of the graphene sensors during several weeks in a millimeter size PDMS fluidics chamber (8 mm wide. These results provide an advance toward the realization of biocompatible devices for reliable and high spatio-temporal sensing of neuronal activity for both in vitro and in vivo applications.

  5. An active electrode for biopotential recording from small localized bio-sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallikarakis Nicolas E

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser bio-stimulation is a well-established procedure in Medical Acupuncture. Nevertheless there is still a confusion as to whether it works or the effect is just placebo. Although a plethora of scientific papers published, showing positive clinical results, there is still a lack of objective scientific proofs about the bio-stimulation effect of lasers used in Acupuncture. The objective of this work was to design and build a body surface electrode and an amplifier for biopotential recording from acupuncture points, considered here as small localized bio-sources (SLB. The design is aimed for studying SLB potentials provoked by laser stimulus, in search for objective proofs of the bio-stimulation effect of lasers used in Medical Acupuncture. Methods The active electrode presented features a new adjustable anchoring system and fractionation of the biopotential amplifier between the electrode and the cabinet's location. The new adjustable electrode anchoring system is designed to reduce the electrode-skin contact impedance, its variation and motion artifacts. That is achieved by increasing the electrode-skin tension and decreasing its relative movement. Additionally the sensing element provides local constant skin stretching thus eliminating the contribution of the skin potential artifact. The electrode is attached to the skin by a double-sided adhesive pad, where the sensing element is a stainless steel, 4 mm in diameter. The fractionation of the biopotential amplifier is done by incorporating the amplifier's front-end op-amps at the electrodes, thus avoiding the use of extra buffers. The biopotential amplifier features two selectable modes of operation: semi-AC-mode with a -3 dB bandwidth of 0.32–1000 Hz and AC-mode with a bandwidth of 0.16–1000 Hz. Results The average measured DC electrode-skin contact impedance of the proposed electrode was 450 kΩ, with electrode tension of 0.3 kg/cm2 on an unprepared skin of the inner

  6. Disintegration of liquid sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

  7. Safety advice sheets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  8. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  9. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  10. A tutorial on activity-based costing of electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federowicz, Marie H; Grossman, Mila N; Hayes, Bryant J; Riggs, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    As the American Recovery and Restoration Act of 2009 allocates $19 billion to health information technology, it will be useful for health care managers to project the true cost of implementing an electronic health record (EHR). This study presents a step-by-step guide for using activity-based costing (ABC) to estimate the cost of an EHR. ABC is a cost accounting method with a "top-down" approach for estimating the cost of a project or service within an organization. The total cost to implement an EHR includes obvious costs, such as licensing fees, and hidden costs, such as impact on productivity. Unlike other methods, ABC includes all of the organization's expenditures and is less likely to miss hidden costs. Although ABC is used considerably in manufacturing and other industries, it is a relatively new phenomenon in health care. ABC is a comprehensive approach that the health care field can use to analyze the cost-effectiveness of implementing EHRs. In this article, ABC is applied to a health clinic that recently implemented an EHR, and the clinic is found to be more productive after EHR implementation. This methodology can help health care administrators assess the impact of a stimulus investment on organizational performance.

  11. Design and measurements of low power multichannel chip for recording and stimulation of neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, M; Kmon, P; Grybos, P; Szczygiel, R; Kleczek, R; Otfinowski, P; Rauza, J

    2012-01-01

    A 64-channel Neuro-Stimulation-Recording chip named NRS64 for neural activity measurements has been designed and tested. The NRS64 occupies 5×5 mm² of silicon area and consumes only 25 µW/channel. A low cut-off frequency can be tuned in the 60 mHz-100 Hz range while a high cut-off frequency can be set to 4.7 kHz or 12 kHz. A voltage gain can be set to 139 V/V or 1100 V/V. A measured input referenced noise is 3.7 µV rms in 100 Hz-12 kHz band and 7.6 µV rms in 3 Hz-12 kHz band. A digital correction is used in each channel to tune the low cut-off frequency and offset voltage. Each channel is equipped additionally with a stimulation circuit with an artifact cancellation circuit. The stimulation circuit can be set with 8-bit resolution in six different ranges from 500 nA-512 µA range.

  12. Smart applications to track and record physical activity: implications for obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong SS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Siew Sun Wong,1 Yu Meng,1 Paul D Loprinzi,2 Nobuko Hongu3 1School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; 2Department of Exercise Science, Donna and Allan Lansing School of Nursing and Health Sciences, Bellarmine University, Louisville, KY, USA; 3Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: The primary purpose of this review is to answer three research questions: 1 What are the most popular features of physical activity (PA tracking and recording mobile applications (apps; 2 what features drive the app cost, peak rank, or gross sales; and 3 to what extent are evidence-based weight loss recommendations used in PA apps? Two hundred top grossing iOS health care and fitness apps were screened using a systematic review method. Fifty-five apps met the criteria as PA tracking and recording apps. Nearly half of these iOS PA apps are also available in Android. Two separate reviewers evaluated each PA app using 48 features. The top three most popular features are the use of behavioral strategies, use of the FITT Principles (frequency, intensity, time, type, and the use of the Principles for Physical Fitness. Free apps contain a mean of nine of the ten most popular features in paid apps, making them good bargains in PA promotion. Better peak rank is associated with the use of Fitness Principles, weight loss goal setting, or training videos. Ten PA apps met at least four of eight of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM recommendations for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. The least popular features were PA safety and workouts for special need populations. Implications for obesity treatment are discussed in relationship to individual end-users, health care providers, and app developers. Because current PA apps still lack validity and compliance to standards for PA safety and data security, medical consultation for weight loss is

  13. Functional characterization of GABAA receptor-mediated modulation of cortical neuron network activity in microelectrode array recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bader, Benjamin M; Steder, Anne; Klein, Anders Bue

    2017-01-01

    The numerous γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) subtypes are differentially expressed and mediate distinct functions at neuronal level. In this study we have investigated GABAAR-mediated modulation of the spontaneous activity patterns of primary neuronal networks from murine frontal...... of the information extractable from the MEA recordings offers interesting insights into the contributions of various GABAAR subtypes/subgroups to cortical network activity and the putative functional interplay between these receptors in these neurons....... cortex by characterizing the effects induced by a wide selection of pharmacological tools at a plethora of activity parameters in microelectrode array (MEA) recordings. The basic characteristics of the primary cortical neurons used in the recordings were studied in some detail, and the expression levels...

  14. Microseismic data records fault activation before and after a Mw 4.1 induced earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, T.; Eaton, D. W. S.

    2017-12-01

    Several large earthquakes (Mw 4) have been observed in the vicinity of the town of Fox Creek, Alberta. These events have been determined to be induced earthquakes related to hydraulic fracturing in the region. The largest of these has a magnitude Mw = 4.1, and is associated with a hydraulic-fracturing treatment close to Crooked Lake, about 30 km west of Fox Creek. The underlying factors that lead to localization of the high numbers of hydraulic fracturing induced events in this area remain poorly understood. The treatment that is associated with the Mw 4.1 event was monitored by 93 shallow three-level borehole arrays of sensors. Here we analyze the temporal and spatial evolution of the microseismic and seismic data recorded during the treatment. Contrary to expected microseismic event clustering parallel to the principal horizontal stress (NE - SW), the events cluster along obvious fault planes that align both NNE - SSW and N - S. As the treatment well is oriented N - S, it appears that each stage of the treatment intersects a new portion of the fracture network, causing seismicity to occur. Focal-plane solutions support a strike-slip failure along these faults, with nodal planes aligning with the microseismic cluster orientations. Each fault segment is activated with a cluster of microseismicity in the centre, gradually extending along the fault as time progresses. Once a portion of a fault is active, further seismicity can be induced, regardless if the present stage is distant from the fault. However, the large events seem to occur in regions with a gap in the microseismicity. Interestingly, most of the seismicity is located above the reservoir, including the larger events. Although a shallow-well array is used, these results are believed to have relatively high depth resolution, as the perforation shots are correctly located with an average error of 26 m in depth. This information contradicts previously held views that large induced earthquakes occur primarily

  15. Modulation of medial prefrontal cortical activity using in vivo recordings and optogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Guangchen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC serves major executive functions. mPFC output to subcortical brain areas such as the amygdala controls emotional processing and plays an important role in fear extinction. Impaired mPFC function correlates with extinction deficits in anxiety disorders such as PTSD and with cognitive decision-making deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders and persistent pain. Controlling mPFC output is a desirable therapeutic goal in neuropsychiatric disorders but functional differences of cell types (pyramidal cells and interneurons and regions (infralimbic and prelimbic represent a challenge. This electrophysiological study used optogenetics for the cell- and region-specific modulation of mPFC pyramidal output in the intact anesthetized animal. Results Extracellular single-unit recordings were made from infralimbic (IL pyramidal cells, IL interneurons and prelimbic (PL pyramidal cells 2–3 weeks after intra-IL injection of a viral vector encoding channel rhodopsin 2 (ChR2 under the control of the CaMKII promoter (rAAV5/CaMKIIa-ChR2(H134R-EYFP or a control vector that lacked the ChR2 sequence (rAAV5/CaMKIIa-EYFP. Optical stimulation with laser-generated blue light pulses delivered through an optical fiber to the IL increased spontaneous and evoked action potential firing of ChR2 expressing IL pyramidal cells but had no effect on IL interneurons that were distinguished from pyramidal cells based on their higher firing rate and shorter spike duration. Optical activation of IL pyramidal cells also inhibited PL pyramidal cells, suggesting that IL output controls PL output. The effects were light intensity-dependent and reversible. Confocal microscopy confirmed ChR2-EYFP or control vector expression in mPFC pyramidal cells but not in GABAergic cells. Conclusions The novelty of our study is the analysis of optogenetic effects on background and evoked activity of defined cell types in different mPFC regions. The

  16. Cholera Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level. Cholera cases are ...

  17. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  18. NTPR Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  19. Production (information sheets)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Documentation sheets: Geo energy 2 Integrated System Approach Petroleum Production (ISAPP) The value of smartness 4 Reservoir permeability estimation from production data 6 Coupled modeling for reservoir application 8 Toward an integrated near-wellbore model 10 TNO conceptual framework for "E&P

  20. Hibernia fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This fact sheet gives details of the Hibernia oil field including its location, discovery date, oil company's interests in the project, the recoverable reserves of the two reservoirs, the production system used, capital costs of the project, and overall targets for Canadian benefit. Significant dates for the Hibernia project are listed. (UK)

  1. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  2. Effects of flow sheet implementation on physician performance in the management of asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Gary

    2002-01-01

    This project focused on increasing compliance, in a large family practice group, with quality indicators for the management of asthma. The objective was to determine if use of a flow sheet incorporating the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines could improve compliance with those guidelines if the flow sheet was placed in patients' medical records. After review and selection of 14 clinical quality indicators, physicians in the practice implemented a flow sheet as an intervention. These flow sheets were inserted into the records of 122 randomly selected patients with asthma. Medical records were reviewed before the flow sheets were placed in the records, and again approximately 6 months later, to determine if there was a change in compliance with the quality indicators. Improvement of documentation was demonstrated in 13 of the 14 quality indicators. The results indicate that compliance with asthma management quality indicators can improve with the use of a flow sheet.

  3. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  4. A preliminary report on the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging with simultaneous urodynamics to record brain activity during micturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krhut, Jan; Tintera, Jaroslav; Holý, Petr; Zachoval, Roman; Zvara, Peter

    2012-08-01

    We mapped brain activity during micturition using functional magnetic resonance imaging with simultaneous recording of urodynamic properties during slow bladder filling and micturition. We evaluated 12 healthy female volunteers 20 to 68 years old. Eight subjects could urinate while supine. Meaningful data were obtained on 6 of these subjects. Brain activity was recorded continuously during bladder filling and micturition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements made during the micturition phase were used for the final analysis. Using group statistics we identified clusters of brain activity in the parahippocampal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus during micturition. At the individual level we also observed activation in the upper pontine region, thalamus and posterior cingulum. In subjects unable to void brain activation was documented in the frontal lobe and posterior cingulate gyrus but not in the pons, thalamus or anterior cingulate gyrus. In 5 subjects we identified a relevant pattern of brain activity during the terminal portion of the filling phase when the patient reported a strong desire to urinate. This new protocol allows for the localization of brain structures that are active during micturition. Data suggest that additional validation studies are needed. Future studies will test modifications that include more detailed monitoring of bladder sensation, stratifying subjects based on age and gender, and increasing the number of data points by adding subjects and the number of micturitions recorded in a single subject. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 78 FR 67383 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Importer ID Input Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... or record keepers from the collection of information (total capital/startup costs and operations and...: 300,000. Estimated Time per Respondent: 15 minutes. Estimated Total Annual Burden Hours: 75,000. Dated...

  6. A Near-Annual Record of Hurricane Activity From the Little Bahama Bank Over the Last 700 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, T. S.; van Hengstum, P. J.; Donnelly, J. P.; Sullivan, R.; Albury, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term and high-resolution records of hurricane activity that extend past the short observational record (8m vibracores collected with a Rossfelder P-3. The previous core analyzed (TPBH-C1, Continental Shelf Research, 2014) was likely obtained from the cave-area of the bluehole, and previous radiocarbon-dated bivalves deeper in the core were likely impacted by an old-carbon effect, casting doubt on the veracity of the previous age-model at this site. Recent overwash beds from Hurricane Jeanne (2004) and Hurricane Floyd (1999) are present at all coretops, and additional radiocarbon dating that includes terrestrial organic matter fragments indicates a near-annual sedimentation rate in the bluehole (>1cm yr-1), with the record spanning the last 700 years. Since 1866 CE, 12 hurricanes with wind speeds exceeding Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson Scale (wind speeds 154-177 km hr-1) have passed within a 50 km radius of TPBH, many of which can be associated with coarse-grained overwash deposits in the top 200 cm of TPBH-C3. It appears from this high-resolution record that 1500-1650 CE and 1750-1800 CE were active intervals for hurricanes near Abaco, which were previously identified in a lower-resolution (multi-decadal) hurricane reconstruction from Abaco (Blackwood Sinkhole). Additionally, these active intervals coincide with evidence of regional storminess from multiple reconstructions based on historical archives (e.g.: Archivo General de Indias, newspapers, ships' logbooks, meteorological journals), and the 1500-1650 CE active interval falls within a previously identified 1400-1675 CE active interval of intense hurricane strikes on the Northeastern United States. Once the age-model is finalized, further comparison of this record to other regional oceanographic and high-resolution hurricane reconstructions may provide further insight into the drivers of hurricane activity during the last millennium.

  7. 75 FR 76997 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and Electronic System for Travel Authorization AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security ACTION: 30-Day notice...

  8. 76 FR 44349 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and Electronic System for Travel Authorization AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security ACTION: 30-day notice...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit at your plant. Include supporting calculations. (b) Records of low carbon feed... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is...

  10. Enhanced ice sheet melting driven by volcanic eruptions during the last deglaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschitiello, Francesco; Pausata, Francesco S R; Lea, James M; Mair, Douglas W F; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2017-10-24

    Volcanic eruptions can impact the mass balance of ice sheets through changes in climate and the radiative properties of the ice. Yet, empirical evidence highlighting the sensitivity of ancient ice sheets to volcanism is scarce. Here we present an exceptionally well-dated annual glacial varve chronology recording the melting history of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet at the end of the last deglaciation (∼13,200-12,000 years ago). Our data indicate that abrupt ice melting events coincide with volcanogenic aerosol emissions recorded in Greenland ice cores. We suggest that enhanced ice sheet runoff is primarily associated with albedo effects due to deposition of ash sourced from high-latitude volcanic eruptions. Climate and snowpack mass-balance simulations show evidence for enhanced ice sheet runoff under volcanically forced conditions despite atmospheric cooling. The sensitivity of past ice sheets to volcanic ashfall highlights the need for an accurate coupling between atmosphere and ice sheet components in climate models.

  11. [Automated anesthesia record systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, W; Mönk, S; Eberle, B

    1997-07-01

    The introduction of electronic anaesthesia documentation systems was attempted as early as in 1979, although their efficient application has become reality only in the past few years. The advantages of the electronic protocol are apparent: Continuous high quality documentation, comparability of data due to the availability of a data bank, reduction in the workload of the anaesthetist and availability of additional data. Disadvantages of the electronic protocol have also been discussed in the literature. By going through the process of entering data on the course of the anaesthetic procedure on the protocol sheet, the information is mentally absorbed and evaluated by the anaesthetist. This information may, however, be lost when the data are recorded fully automatically-without active involvement on the part of the anaesthetist. Recent publications state that by using intelligent alarms and/or integrated displays manual record keeping is no longer necessary for anaesthesia vigilance. The technical design of automated anaesthesia records depends on an integration of network technology into the hospital. It will be appropriate to connect the systems to the internet, but safety requirements have to be followed strictly. Concerning the database, client server architecture as well as language standards like SQL should be used. Object oriented databases will be available in the near future. Another future goal of automated anaesthesia record systems will be using knowledge based technologies within these systems. Drug interactions, disease related anaesthetic techniques and other information sources can be integrated. At this time, almost none of the commercially available systems has matured to a point where their purchase can be recommended without reservation. There is still a lack of standards for the subsequent exchange of data and a solution to a number of ergonomic problems still remains to be found. Nevertheless, electronic anaesthesia protocols will be required in

  12. Film sheet cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A novel film sheet cassette is described for handling CAT photographic films under daylight conditions and facilitating their imaging. A detailed description of the design and operation of the cassette is given together with appropriate illustrations. The resulting cassette is a low-cost unit which is easily constructed and yet provides a sure light-tight seal for the interior contents of the cassette. The individual resilient fingers on the light-trap permit the ready removal of the slide plate for taking pictures. The stippled, non-electrostatic surface of the pressure plate ensures an air layer and free slidability of the film for removal and withdrawal of the film sheet. The advantage of the daylight system is that a darkroom need not be used for inserting and removing the film in and out of the cassette resulting in a considerable time saving. (U.K.)

  13. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  14. Information sheets on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    These sheets, presented by the Cea, bring some information, in the energy domain, on the following topics: the world energy demand and the energy policy in France and in Europe, the part of the nuclear power in the energy of the future, the greenhouse gases emissions and the fight against the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide storage cost and the hydrogen economy. (A.L.B.)

  15. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  16. A functional model and simulation of spinal motor pools and intrafascicular recordings of motoneuron activity in peripheral nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Abdelghani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Decoding motor intent from recorded neural signals is essential for the development of effective neural-controlled prostheses. To facilitate the development of online decoding algorithms we have developed a software platform to simulate neural motor signals recorded with peripheral nerve electrodes, such as longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (LIFEs. The simulator uses stored motor intent signals to drive a pool of simulated motoneurons with various spike shapes, recruitment characteristics, and firing frequencies. Each electrode records a weighted sum of a subset of simulated motoneuron activity patterns. As designed, the simulator facilitates development of a suite of test scenarios that would not be possible with actual data sets because, unlike with actual recordings, in the simulator the individual contributions to the simulated composite recordings are known and can be methodically varied across a set of simulation runs. In this manner, the simulation tool is suitable for iterative development of real-time decoding algorithms prior to definitive evaluation in amputee subjects with implanted electrodes. The simulation tool was used to produce data sets that demonstrate its ability to capture some features of neural recordings that pose challenges for decoding algorithms.

  17. Comparison of arrhythmogenicity and proinflammatory activity induced by intramyocardial or epicardial myoblast sheet delivery in a rat model of ischemic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommi Pätilä

    Full Text Available Although cell therapy of the failing heart by intramyocardial injections of myoblasts to results in regenerative benefit, it has also been associated with undesired and prospectively fatal arrhythmias. We hypothesized that intramyocardial injections of myoblasts could enhance inflammatory reactivity and facilitate electrical cardiac abnormalities that can be reduced by epicardial myoblast sheet delivery. In a rat model of ischemic heart failure, myoblast therapy either by intramyocardial injections or epicardial cell sheets was given 2 weeks after occlusion of the coronary artery. Ventricular premature contractions (VPCs were assessed, using an implanted three-lead electrocardiograph at 1, 7, and 14 days after therapy, and 16-point epicardial electropotential mapping (EEPM was used to evaluate ventricular arrhythmogenicity under isoproterenol stress. Cardiac functioning was assessed by echocardiography. Both transplantation groups showed therapeutic benefit over sham therapy. However, VPCs were more frequent in the Injection group on day 1 and day 14 after therapy than in animals receiving epicardial or sham therapy (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively. EEPM under isoproterenol stress showed macroreentry at the infarct border area, leading to ventricular tachycardias in the Injection group, but not in the myoblast sheet- or sham-treated groups (p = 0.045. Both transplantation types modified the myocardial cytokine expression profile. In animals receiving epicardial myoblast therapy, selective reductions in the expressions of interferon gamma, interleukin (IL-1β and IL12 were observed, accompanied by reduced infiltration of inflammatory CD11b- and CD68-positive leukocytes, compared with animals receiving myoblasts as intramyocardial injections. Intramyocardial myoblast delivery was associated with enhanced inflammatory and immunomodulatory reactivity and increased frequency of VPCs. In comparison to intramyocardial injection, the epicardial

  18. Sheet pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.; Baker, W.R.; Ise, J. Jr.; Kunkel, W.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Stone, J.M.

    1958-01-01

    Three types of sheet-like discharges are being studied at Berkeley. The first of these, which has been given the name 'Triax', consists of a cylindrical plasma sleeve contained between two coaxial conducting cylinders A theoretical analysis of the stability of the cylindrical sheet plasma predicts the existence of a 'sausage-mode' instability which is, however, expected to grow more slowly than in the case of the unstabilized linear pinch (by the ratio of the radial dimensions). The second pinch device employs a disk shaped discharge with radial current guided between flat metal plates, this configuration being identical to that of the flat hydromagnetic capacitor without external magnetic field. A significant feature of these configurations is the absence of a plasma edge, i.e., there are no regions of sharply curved magnetic field lines anywhere in these discharges. The importance of this fact for stability is not yet fully investigated theoretically. As a third configuration a rectangular, flat pinch tube has been constructed, and the behaviour of a flat plasma sheet with edges is being studied experimentally

  19. College Experience and Volunteering. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    College experience and volunteering are positively correlated. Measurable differences in civic activity exist between young people who attend college and young people who do not. This fact sheet explores volunteering as civic engagement among youth with college experience, ages 19-25, which was down for the second year in a row in 2006. The…

  20. Imaging a seizure model in zebrafish with structured illumination light sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Dale, Savannah; Ball, Rebecca; VanLeuven, Ariel J.; Baraban, Scott; Sornborger, Andrew; Lauderdale, James D.; Kner, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Zebrafish are a promising vertebrate model for elucidating how neural circuits generate behavior under normal and pathological conditions. The Baraban group first demonstrated that zebrafish larvae are valuable for investigating seizure events and can be used as a model for epilepsy in humans. Because of their small size and transparency, zebrafish embryos are ideal for imaging seizure activity using calcium indicators. Light-sheet microscopy is well suited to capturing neural activity in zebrafish because it is capable of optical sectioning, high frame rates, and low excitation intensities. We describe work in our lab to use light-sheet microscopy for high-speed long-time imaging of neural activity in wildtype and mutant zebrafish to better understand the connectivity and activity of inhibitory neural networks when GABAergic signaling is altered in vivo. We show that, with light-sheet microscopy, neural activity can be recorded at 23 frames per second in twocolors for over 10 minutes allowing us to capture rare seizure events in mutants. We have further implemented structured illumination to increase resolution and contrast in the vertical and axial directions during high-speed imaging at an effective frame rate of over 7 frames per second.

  1. Surface elevation changes of the greenland ice sheet - results from ESA'S ice sheet CCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovky, Kirill; Meister, Rakia

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure long-term climate data records for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), ESA have launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI). This work presents the preliminary steps towards the Ice Sheet CCI's surface elevation change (SEC) derivation using radar altimeter data. In order to find...... the most optimal method, a Round Robin exercise was conducted in which the scientific community was asked to provide their best SEC estimate over the Jakobshavn Isbr drainage basin. The participants used both repeat-track (RT), overlapping footprints, and the cross-over (XO) methods, and both ICESat laser...... and Envisat radar altimeter data were used. Based on this and feedback sheets describing their methods we found that a combination of the RT and XO techniques yielded the best results. In the following, the obtained results will be presented and discussed....

  2. 77 FR 64533 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Regulations Relating to Recordation and Enforcement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... the collection of information (a total capital/startup costs and operations and maintenance costs... Management and Budget (OMB) approval. All comments will become a matter of public record. In this document... intellectual property rights for which federal law provides import protection. Respondents may submit their...

  3. 75 FR 24731 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Regulations Relating to Recordation and Enforcement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... respondents or record keepers from the collection of information (a total of capital/startup costs and... request for Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval. All comments will become a matter of public... and determine if such goods infringe on [[Page 24732

  4. Cross-validation of independent ultra-low-frequency magnetic recording systems for active fault studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Can; Bin, Chen; Christman, Lilianna E.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Klemperer, Simon L.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Kappler, Karl N.; Bleier, Tom E.; Dunson, J. Clark

    2018-04-01

    When working with ultra-low-frequency (ULF) magnetic datasets, as with most geophysical time-series data, it is important to be able to distinguish between cultural signals, internal instrument noise, and natural external signals with their induced telluric fields. This distinction is commonly attempted using simultaneously recorded data from a spatially remote reference site. Here, instead, we compared data recorded by two systems with different instrumental characteristics at the same location over the same time period. We collocated two independent ULF magnetic systems, one from the QuakeFinder network and the other from the United States Geological Survey (USGS)-Stanford network, in order to cross-compare their data, characterize data reproducibility, and characterize signal origin. In addition, we used simultaneous measurements at a remote geomagnetic observatory to distinguish global atmospheric signals from local cultural signals. We demonstrated that the QuakeFinder and USGS-Stanford systems have excellent coherence, despite their different sensors and digitizers. Rare instances of isolated signals recorded by only one system or only one sensor indicate that caution is needed when attributing specific recorded signal features to specific origins.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Assessing sensory versus optogenetic network activation by combining (o)fMRI with optical Ca2+ recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Florian; Wachsmuth, Lydia; Schwalm, Miriam; Prouvot, Pierre-Hugues; Jubal, Eduardo Rosales; Fois, Consuelo; Pramanik, Gautam; Zimmer, Claus; Stroh, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Encoding of sensory inputs in the cortex is characterized by sparse neuronal network activation. Optogenetic stimulation has previously been combined with fMRI (ofMRI) to probe functional networks. However, for a quantitative optogenetic probing of sensory-driven sparse network activation, the level of similarity between sensory and optogenetic network activation needs to be explored. Here, we complement ofMRI with optic fiber-based population Ca2+ recordings for a region-specific readout of neuronal spiking activity in rat brain. Comparing Ca2+ responses to the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal upon sensory stimulation with increasing frequencies showed adaptation of Ca2+ transients contrasted by an increase of blood oxygenation level-dependent responses, indicating that the optical recordings convey complementary information on neuronal network activity to the corresponding hemodynamic response. To study the similarity of optogenetic and sensory activation, we quantified the density of cells expressing channelrhodopsin-2 and modeled light propagation in the tissue. We estimated the effectively illuminated volume and numbers of optogenetically stimulated neurons, being indicative of sparse activation. At the functional level, upon either sensory or optogenetic stimulation we detected single-peak short-latency primary Ca2+ responses with similar amplitudes and found that blood oxygenation level-dependent responses showed similar time courses. These data suggest that ofMRI can serve as a representative model for functional brain mapping. PMID:26661247

  6. Assessing sensory versus optogenetic network activation by combining (o)fMRI with optical Ca2+ recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Florian; Wachsmuth, Lydia; Schwalm, Miriam; Prouvot, Pierre-Hugues; Jubal, Eduardo Rosales; Fois, Consuelo; Pramanik, Gautam; Zimmer, Claus; Faber, Cornelius; Stroh, Albrecht

    2016-11-01

    Encoding of sensory inputs in the cortex is characterized by sparse neuronal network activation. Optogenetic stimulation has previously been combined with fMRI (ofMRI) to probe functional networks. However, for a quantitative optogenetic probing of sensory-driven sparse network activation, the level of similarity between sensory and optogenetic network activation needs to be explored. Here, we complement ofMRI with optic fiber-based population Ca 2+ recordings for a region-specific readout of neuronal spiking activity in rat brain. Comparing Ca 2+ responses to the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal upon sensory stimulation with increasing frequencies showed adaptation of Ca 2+ transients contrasted by an increase of blood oxygenation level-dependent responses, indicating that the optical recordings convey complementary information on neuronal network activity to the corresponding hemodynamic response. To study the similarity of optogenetic and sensory activation, we quantified the density of cells expressing channelrhodopsin-2 and modeled light propagation in the tissue. We estimated the effectively illuminated volume and numbers of optogenetically stimulated neurons, being indicative of sparse activation. At the functional level, upon either sensory or optogenetic stimulation we detected single-peak short-latency primary Ca 2+ responses with similar amplitudes and found that blood oxygenation level-dependent responses showed similar time courses. These data suggest that ofMRI can serve as a representative model for functional brain mapping. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  8. Use of TV in space science activities - Some considerations. [onboard primary experimental data recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, T. C.

    1977-01-01

    Advantages in the use of TV on board satellites as the primary data-recording system in a manned space laboratory when certain types of experiments are flown are indicated. Real-time or near-real-time validation, elimination of film weight, improved depth of field and low-light sensitivity, and better adaptability to computer and electronic processing of data are spelled out as advantages of TV over photographic techniques, say, in fluid dynamics experiments, and weightlessness studies.

  9. Magnetic configurations of the tilted current sheets in magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the geometrical structures of tilted current sheet and tail flapping waves have been analysed based on multiple spacecraft measurements and some features of the tilted current sheets have been made clear for the first time. The geometrical features of the tilted current sheet revealed in this investigation are as follows: (1 The magnetic field lines (MFLs in the tilted current sheet are generally plane curves and the osculating planes in which the MFLs lie are about vertical to the equatorial plane, while the normal of the tilted current sheet leans severely to the dawn or dusk side. (2 The tilted current sheet may become very thin, the half thickness of its neutral sheet is generally much less than the minimum radius of the curvature of the MFLs. (3 In the neutral sheet, the field-aligned current density becomes very large and has a maximum value at the center of the current sheet. (4 In some cases, the current density is a bifurcated one, and the two humps of the current density often superpose two peaks in the gradient of magnetic strength, indicating that the magnetic gradient drift current is possibly responsible for the formation of the two humps of the current density in some tilted current sheets. Tilted current sheets often appear along with tail current sheet flapping waves. It is found that, in the tail flapping current sheets, the minimum curvature radius of the MFLs in the current sheet is rather large with values around 1 RE, while the neutral sheet may be very thin, with its half thickness being several tenths of RE. During the flapping waves, the current sheet is tilted substantially, and the maximum tilt angle is generally larger than 45°. The phase velocities of these flapping waves are several tens km/s, while their periods and wavelengths are several tens of minutes, and several earth radii, respectively. These tail flapping events generally last several hours and occur during quiet periods or periods of

  10. The PHARMS (Patient Held Active Record of Medication Status) feasibility study: a research proposal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Elaine

    2018-01-08

    Medication errors are a major source of preventable morbidity, mortality and cost and many occur at the times of hospital admission and discharge. Novel interventions (such as new methods of recording medication information and conducting medication reconciliation) are required to facilitate accurate transfer of medication information. With existing evidence supporting the use of information technology and the patient representing the one constant in the care process, an electronic patient held medication record may provide a solution. This study will assess the feasibility of introducing a patient held electronic medication record in primary and secondary care using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR).This feasibility study is a mixed method study of community dwelling older adult patients admitted to an urban secondary care facility comprising a non-randomised intervention and qualitative interviews with key stakeholders. Outcomes of interest include clinical outcomes and process evaluation.This study will yield insights pertaining to feasibility, acceptability and participation for a more definitive evaluation of the intervention. The study also has the potential to contribute to knowledge of implementation of technology in a healthcare context and to the broader area of implementation science.

  11. Multichannel micromanipulator and chamber system for recording multineuronal activity in alert, non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Charles M; Goodell, Baldwin; Lear, Alex

    2007-07-01

    We describe the design and performance of an electromechanical system for conducting multineuron recording experiments in alert non-human primates. The system is based on a simple design, consisting of a microdrive, control electronics, software, and a unique type of recording chamber. The microdrive consists of an aluminum frame, a set of eight linear actuators driven by computer-controlled miniature stepping motors, and two printed circuit boards (PCBs) that provide connectivity to the electrodes and the control electronics. The control circuitry is structured around an Atmel RISC-based microcontroller, which sends commands to as many as eight motor control cards, each capable of controlling eight motors. The microcontroller is programmed in C and uses serial communication to interface with a host computer. The graphical user interface for sending commands is written in C and runs on a conventional personal computer. The recording chamber is low in profile, mounts within a circular craniotomy, and incorporates a removable internal sleeve. A replaceable Sylastic membrane can be stretched across the bottom opening of the sleeve to provide a watertight seal between the cranial cavity and the external environment. This greatly reduces the susceptibility to infection, nearly eliminates the need for routine cleaning, and permits repeated introduction of electrodes into the brain at the same sites while maintaining the watertight seal. The system is reliable, easy to use, and has several advantages over other commercially available systems with similar capabilities.

  12. Perforation of metal sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Jens Erik

    simulation is focused on the sheet deformation. However, the effect on the tool and press is included. The process model is based on the upper bound analysis in order to predict the force progress and hole characteristics etc. Parameter analyses are divided into two groups, simulation and experimental tests......The main purposes of this project are:1. Development of a dynamic model for the piercing and performation process2. Analyses of the main parameters3. Establishing demands for process improvements4. Expansion of the existing parameter limitsThe literature survey describes the process influence...

  13. Pre-LGM Northern Hemisphere ice sheet topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kleman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We here reconstruct the paleotopography of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during the glacial maxima of marine isotope stages (MIS 5b and 4.We employ a combined approach, blending geologically based reconstruction and numerical modeling, to arrive at probable ice sheet extents and topographies for each of these two time slices. For a physically based 3-D calculation based on geologically derived 2-D constraints, we use the University of Maine Ice Sheet Model (UMISM to calculate ice sheet thickness and topography. The approach and ice sheet modeling strategy is designed to provide robust data sets of sufficient resolution for atmospheric circulation experiments for these previously elusive time periods. Two tunable parameters, a temperature scaling function applied to a spliced Vostok–GRIP record, and spatial adjustment of the climatic pole position, were employed iteratively to achieve a good fit to geological constraints where such were available. The model credibly reproduces the first-order pattern of size and location of geologically indicated ice sheets during marine isotope stages (MIS 5b (86.2 kyr model age and 4 (64 kyr model age. From the interglacial state of two north–south obstacles to atmospheric circulation (Rocky Mountains and Greenland, by MIS 5b the emergence of combined Quebec–central Arctic and Scandinavian–Barents-Kara ice sheets had increased the number of such highland obstacles to four. The number of major ice sheets remained constant through MIS 4, but the merging of the Cordilleran and the proto-Laurentide Ice Sheet produced a single continent-wide North American ice sheet at the LGM.

  14. Electrogastrography in Adults and Children: The Strength, Pitfalls, and Clinical Significance of the Cutaneous Recording of the Gastric Electrical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Riezzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous electrogastrography (EGG is a non-invasive technique to record gastric myoelectrical activity from the abdominal surface. Although the recent rapid increase in the development of electrocardiography, EGG still suffers from several limitations. Currently, computer analysis of EGG provides few reliable parameters, such as frequency and the percentage of normal and altered slow wave activity (bradygastria and tachygastria. New EGG hardware and software, along with an appropriate arrangement of abdominal electrodes, could detect the coupling of the gastric slow wave from the EGG. At present, EGG does not diagnose a specific disease, but it puts in evidence stomach motor dysfunctions in different pathological conditions as gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia. Despite the current pitfalls of EGG, a multitasking diagnostic protocol could involve the EGG and the 13C-breath testing for the evaluation of the gastric emptying time—along with validated gastrointestinal questionnaires and biochemical evaluations of the main gastrointestinal peptides—to identify dyspeptic subgroups. The present review tries to report the state of the art about the pathophysiological background of the gastric electrical activity, the recording and processing methodology of the EGG with particular attention to multichannel recording, and the possible clinical application of the EGG in adult and children.

  15. Experiments on sheet metal shearing

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Within the sheet metal industry, different shear cutting technologies are commonly used in several processing steps, e.g. in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc. Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.Numerical models to predict forces and sheared edge geometry for different sheet metal grades and different shear parameter set-ups a...

  16. THE MOTRU MINING BASIN – GIS APPLICATION ON SHEET EROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel TITU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Motru Mining Basin – GIS Application on Sheet Erosion. The activation of the sheet erosion has important negative effects upon the soil profile. The anticipation of this geomorphologic process is important for taking some measures for protecting the susceptible areas. Within our study, we will carry out a quantitative estimation of the soil losses in the Motru Mining Basin, caused by the activation of the sheet erosion mechanism. We will apply the classic methodology proposed by the ROMSEM model of the USLE type by using the GIS technology

  17. Ice flow Modelling of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Tangaa

    Models of ice flow have a range of application in glaciology, including investigating the large-scale response of ice sheets to changes in climate, assimilating data to estimate unknown conditions beneath the ice sheet, and in interpreting proxy records obtained from ice cores, among others. In t...... a steady state with respect to the reference climate at the end of the simulation and that the mass balance of the ice sheet at this time was more sensitive to recent climate fluctuations than the temperature forcing in the early or mid-Holocene.......Models of ice flow have a range of application in glaciology, including investigating the large-scale response of ice sheets to changes in climate, assimilating data to estimate unknown conditions beneath the ice sheet, and in interpreting proxy records obtained from ice cores, among others....... In this PhD project, the use of ice flow models for the interpretation of the age-structure of the Greenland ice sheet, i.e. the depth within the ice, at which ice deposited at given times are found at present day. Two different observational data sets of this archive were investigated. Further, paleo...

  18. Safe Loads on Ice Sheets (Ice Engineering. Number 13)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haynes, F. D; Carey, Kevin L; Cattabriga, Gioia

    1996-01-01

    Every winter, ice sheets that grow on lakes and rivers in northern states are used for ice roads, ice bridges, construction platforms, airstrips, and recreational activities, It becomes very important...

  19. The plasma sheet boundary and Ksub(p)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Freeman and Maguire (1967) first drew attention to the intrusion of energetic plasma from the tail to the geostationary orbit during geomagnetically disturbed times. Vasyliunas (1968) reported a correlation between the inward extension of the inner boundary of the plasma sheet and the Ksub(p) index and pointed out that the plasma sheet could occasionally reach the geostationary orbit distance. More recently McIlwain (1972) using the more refined detectors aboard the ATS-5 geostationary space-craft, has emphasized the correlation between the location of the plasma sheet boundary along the ATS orbit and geomagnetic activity. Using some older but unpublished data from the Suprathermal Ion Detector aboard the ATS-1 geostationary satellite, the relation between the local time occurrence of the plasma sheet at the geostationary orbit (6.6Rsub(E)) and Ksub(p) index is reported and then a relationship for the shift in the plasma sheet radial position is derived. (Auth.)

  20. An implantable two axis micromanipulator made with a 3D printer for recording neural activity in free-swimming fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Loranzie S; Van Wert, Jacey C; Mensinger, Allen F

    2017-08-15

    Chronically implanted electrodes allow monitoring neural activity from free moving animals. While a wide variety of implanted headstages, microdrives and electrodes exist for terrestrial animals, few have been developed for use with aquatic animals. A two axis micromanipulator was fabricated with a Formlabs 3D printer for implanting electrodes into free-swimming oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau). The five piece manipulator consisted of a base, body, electrode holder, manual screw drive and locking nut. The manipulator measured approximately 25×20×30mm (l×w×h) and weighed 5.28g after hand assembly. Microwire electrodes were inserted successfully with the manipulator to record high fidelity signals from the anterior lateral line nerve of the toadfish. The micromanipulator allowed the chronically implanted electrodes to be repositioned numerous times to record from multiple sites and extended successful recording time in the toadfish by several days. Three dimensional printing allowed an inexpensive (<$US 5 material), two axis micromanipulator to be printed relatively rapidly (<2h) to successfully record from multiple sites in the anterior lateral line nerve of free-swimming toadfish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Methods of recording theatre activity across publicly funded hospitals in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, J

    2013-10-13

    A review of theatre activity in all Health Service Executive (HSE) hospitals in Cork and Kerry in 2008 required a manual extraction of theatre activity data from largely paper-based logbooks. A key data management recommendation suggested that "a standardised computerised theatre logbook system be developed in all hospitals in the region". HSE (2010) Reconfiguration of health services for Cork and Kerry-theatre utilisation review. ISBN 978-1-906218-54-6.

  2. Evaluation of Prompted Annotation of Activity Data Recorded from a Smart Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Cleland

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the design and evaluation of a mobile based tool to collect activity data on a large scale. The current approach, based on an existing activity recognition module, recognizes class transitions from a set of specific activities (for example walking and running to the standing still activity. Once this transition is detected the system prompts the user to provide a label for their previous activity. This label, along with the raw sensor data, is then stored locally prior to being uploaded to cloud storage. The system was evaluated by ten users. Three evaluation protocols were used, including a structured, semi-structured and free living protocol. Results indicate that the mobile application could be used to allow the user to provide accurate ground truth labels for their activity data. Similarities of up to 100% where observed when comparing the user prompted labels and those from an observer during structured lab based experiments. Further work will examine data segmentation and personalization issues in order to refine the system.

  3. Data Acquisition and Digital Filtering for Infrasonic Records on Active Volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Chilo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a digital data acquisition system for volcanic infrasound records. The system includes four electret condenser element microphones, a QF4A512 programmable signal converter from Quickfilter Technologies and a MSP430 microcontroller from Texas Instruments. The signal output of every microphone is converted to digital via a 16-bit Analog to Digital Converter (ADC. To prevent errors in the conversion process, Anti-Aliasing Filters are employed prior to the ADC. Digital filtering is performed after the ADC using a Digital Signal Processor, which is implemented on the QF4A512. The four digital signals are summed to get only one signal. Data storing and digital wireless data transmission will be described in a future paper.

  4. Comparison of energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water technique with energy intake, heart rate, and activity recording in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, S.; Westerterp, K.R.; Brueck, K.

    1989-01-01

    Average daily energy expenditure determined by the doubly labeled water technique (dlwEE) was compared in six subjects (aged 20-30 y) over 2 wk under usual living conditions; average food energy intake and energy expenditure estimated from individual diary records of physical activity. In addition, energy expenditure was estimated from 24-h heart rate recordings carried out on two randomly chosen days of the 2-wk period. The group means of the dlwEE were 1.94 +/- 0.24 (means +/- SD) times larger than resting metabolic rate (= 1.94 met) and nearly identical to the average daily energy intake (1.93 +/- 0.23 met). Energy expenditure estimated from the diaries of activity and from the 24-h heart rate recording varied between 1.67 and 2.24 met depending on the calculation procedure. The dlwEE (1.94 +/- 0.24 met) is much higher than that recently determined for sedentary people (1.25 met) and thus explains that young students may achieve body weight balance with a relatively high daily food energy intake

  5. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  6. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  7. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  8. The statistical studies of the inner boundary of plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Cao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of plasma sheet ions into the inner magnetosphere is very important to the inner magnetospheric dynamics since plasma sheet ions are one of the major particle sources of ring current during storm times. However, the direct observations of the inner boundary of the plasma sheet are fairly rare due to the limited number of satellites in near equatorial orbits outside 6.6 RE. In this paper, we used the ion data recorded by TC-1 from 2004 to 2006 to study the distribution of inner boundary of ion plasma sheet (IBIPS and for the first time show the observational distribution of IBIPS in the equatorial plane. The IBIPS has a dawn-dusk asymmetry, being farthest to the Earth in the 06:00 08:00 LT bin and closest to the Earth in the 18:00–20:00 LT bin. Besides, the IBIPS has also a day-night asymmetry, which may be due to the fact that the ions on the dayside are exposed more time to loss mechanisms on their drift paths. The radial distance of IBIPS decrease generally with the increase of Kp index. The mean radial distance of IBIPS is basically larger than 6.6 RE during quiet times and smaller than 6.6 RE during active times. When the strength of convection electric field increases, the inward shift of IBIPS is most significant on the night side (22:00–02:00 LT. For Kp ≤ 0+, only 16% of IBIPSs penetrate inside the geosynchronous orbit. For 2 ≤ Kp +, however, 70% of IBIPSs penetrate inside the geosynchronous orbit. The IBIPS has weak correlations with the AE and Dst indexes. The average correlation coefficient between Ri and Kp is −0.58 while the correlation coefficient between Ri and AE/Dst is only −0.29/0.17. The correlation coefficients are local time dependent. Particularly, Ri and Kp are highly correlated (r=−0.72 in the night sector, meaning that the radial distance of IBIPS Ri in the night sector has the good response to the Kp index These observations indicate that Kp plays a key role in determining the position of

  9. Annual Energy Balance Sheets 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    During the year 2002 the primary supply of energy reached 629 TWh, which is 7.7 TWh less than 2001. The decrease originates mainly from the reduced electricity production from water power. Also the electricity production in nuclear power plants decreased by 4.5 TWh. If we were to look at the supplied energy for final consumption we will find a slightly rise by 1.8 TWh. The year 2002 was warmer than a 'normal' year and that consequently brings lower energy needs. Compared with 2001, 2002 was not warmer and a net electricity import of 5.4 TWh covered the energy needs. The energy use increased by 3.3 TWh between 2002 and 2001. The industry sector shows the largest rise by 2.9 TWh, nearly 2 per cent. Within that sector, energy from biomass fuel had a rise by 6.7 per cent. The household sector decreases its energy use by 2.7 per cent, and oil and electricity show the largest decrease. The proportionately high electricity price probably had a slowing down effect on the electricity use. The balance sheets of energy sources are showing the total supply and consumption of energy sources expressed in original units, i.e. units recorded in the primary statistics - mainly commercial units. The production of derived energy commodities is recorded on the supply - side of the balance sheets of energy sources, which is not the case in the energy balance sheets. The balance sheets of energy sources also include specifications of input--output and energy consumption in energy conversion industries. The energy balance sheets are based on primary data recorded in the balance sheets of energy sources, here expressed in a common energy unit, TJ. The production of derived energy is recorded in a second flow-step comprising energy turnover in energy conversion and is also specified in complementary input - output tables for energy conversion industries. The following items are shown in the energy balance sheets. 1.1 Inland supply of primary energy; 1.3 Import; 1.4 Export; 1.5 Changes in

  10. Preterm labor--modeling the uterine electrical activity from cellular level to surface recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihana, S; Marque, C

    2008-01-01

    Uterine electrical activity is correlated to the appearance of uterine contractions. forceful contractions appear at the end of term. Therefore, understanding the genesis and the propagation of uterine electrical activity may provide an efficient tool to diagnose preterm labor. Moreover, the control of uterine excitability seems to have important consequences in the control of preterm labor. Modeling the electrical activity in uterine tissue is thus an important step in understanding physiological uterine contractile mechanisms and to permit uterine EMG simulation. Our model presented in this paper, incorporates ion channel models at the cell level, the reaction diffusion equations at the tissue level and the spatiotemporal integration at the uterine EMG reconstructed level. This model validates some key physiological observation hypotheses concerning uterine excitability and propagation.

  11. Activated crystals of fluorite type as photochromic mediums for recording of volumetric holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangel'skaya, V.A.; Ashcheulov, Yu.V.; Perfilov, V.N.; Rejterov, V.M.; Sukhanov, V.I.; Feofilov, P.P.

    1975-01-01

    The paper is a study of the mechanism of photochromism and of the photochromic and holographic properties of fluorides of alkaline earth metals with one and two rare-earth activators. It is shown that the angular selectivity of ''thick'' (d approximately 2-5 mm) crystals is 2-3 angular minutes and that the optimum energy exposures, corresponding to the maximum diffraction efficiency values, are 0.1-1.0 J/cm 2 for singly-activated crystals and 1.0-10 J/cm 2 for crystals with two activators. The diffraction efficiencies of holograms of both types of crystals is in the range of approximately 0.1-0.2%. The experimental data are compared with calculations made for photochromic crystals with pigmentation centres. It is suggested that the materials studied can serve as a basis for measuring volumetric holograms. (author)

  12. Zinc Oxide-Containing Porous Boron-Carbon-Nitrogen Sheets from Glycine-Nitrate Combustion: Synthesis, Self-Cleaning, and Sunlight-Driven Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathidasan, T; Mandalam, Aditya; Balasubramanian, M; Dhandapani, P; Sathiyanarayanan, S; Mayavan, Sundar

    2015-08-26

    We developed a single-step thermal method that enables successful inclusion of ZnO components in the porous boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) framework to form a new class of functional hybrid. ZnO-containing BCN hybrids were prepared by treating a mixture of B2O3, glycine, and zinc nitrate at 500 °C. Glycine-nitrate decomposition along with B2O3 acts as a source for ZnO-BCN formation. The incorporation of ZnO onto BCN has extended the photoresponse of ZnO in the visible region, which makes ZnO-BCN a preferable photocatalyst relative to ZnO upon sunlight exposure. It is interesting to note that as-prepared 2D ZnO-BCN sheets dispersed in PDMS form a stable coating over aluminum alloys. The surface exhibited a water contact angle (CA) of 157.6° with 66.6 wt % ZnO-BCN in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a water droplet (7 μL) roll-off angle of <6° and also demonstrates oil fouling resistant superhydrophobicity. In brief, the present study focuses on the gram scale synthesis of a new class of sunlight-driven photocatalyst and also its application toward the development of superhydrophobic and oleophobic coating.

  13. Settlement during vibratory sheet piling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, P.

    2007-01-01

    During vibratory sheet piling quite often the soil near the sheet pile wall will settle. In many cases this is not a problem. For situations with houses, pipelines, roads or railroads at relative short distance these settlements may not be acceptable. The purpose of the research described in this

  14. Elemental geochemical records of seafloor hydrothermal activities in the sediments from the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Shikui; YU Zenghui; DU Tongjun

    2007-01-01

    The major and minor element contents in the sediment core H9 from the hydrothermal fields of the Okinawa Trough show a sharp change at the depth of 80 cm. The elements enriched in the upper 80 cm core are those enriched in the hydrothermal deposits and in the surface sediments recovered from the hydrothermal fields in the trough, which indicates the input of hydrothermal materials. Comparing with other hydrothermal sediments from Mid-ocean Ridges or the Lau Basin, the degree of the enrichment of elements iron, copper, cobalt, and nickel is relatively low. However, the enrichment of elements manganese, lead, arsenic, antimony and mercury is remarkable. The average contents of these elements in the upper 80 cm core sediments are three to six times those in the lower section, and 3 ~ 12 times those in the surface sediments which are not influenced by hydrothermal activities. Hydrothermal activities have contributed significant manganese, lead, arsenic, antimony and mercury to the sediments, and these elements are distinct indicators for the hydrothermal activity in the Okinawa Trough. The significant enrichment of these elements in Core H9 upward from the depth 80 cm indicates the start or the significant enhancing of the hydrothermal activity in this area at about 5 740 aB. P. The average accumulation rate of manganese during this period is about 40 461 μg/( cm2 · ka), which is similar to the hydrothermal sediments in the Lau Basin or the East Pacific Rise.

  15. Plasma dynamics in current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, S.Yu.; Drejden, G.V.; Kirij, N.P.; AN SSSR, Leningrad

    1992-01-01

    Plasma dynamics in successive stages of current sheet evolution is investigated on the base of analysis of time-spatial variations of electron density and electrodynamic force fields. Current sheet formation is realized in a two-dimensional magnetic field with zero line under the action of relatively small initial disturbances (linear regimes). It is established that in the limits of the formed sheet is concentrated dense (N e ∼= 10 16 cm -3 ) (T i ≥ 100 eV, bar-Z i ≥ 2) hot pressure of which is balanced by the magnetic action of electrodynamic forces is carried out both plasma compression in the sheet limits and the acceleration along the sheet surface from a middle to narrow side edges

  16. Statistical identification of stimulus-activated network nodes in multi-neuron voltage-sensitive dye optical recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathiazar, Elham; Anemuller, Jorn; Kretzberg, Jutta

    2016-08-01

    Voltage-Sensitive Dye (VSD) imaging is an optical imaging method that allows measuring the graded voltage changes of multiple neurons simultaneously. In neuroscience, this method is used to reveal networks of neurons involved in certain tasks. However, the recorded relative dye fluorescence changes are usually low and signals are superimposed by noise and artifacts. Therefore, establishing a reliable method to identify which cells are activated by specific stimulus conditions is the first step to identify functional networks. In this paper, we present a statistical method to identify stimulus-activated network nodes as cells, whose activities during sensory network stimulation differ significantly from the un-stimulated control condition. This method is demonstrated based on voltage-sensitive dye recordings from up to 100 neurons in a ganglion of the medicinal leech responding to tactile skin stimulation. Without relying on any prior physiological knowledge, the network nodes identified by our statistical analysis were found to match well with published cell types involved in tactile stimulus processing and to be consistent across stimulus conditions and preparations.

  17. Evolution of the Eurasian Ice Sheets during the Last Deglaciation (25-10 kyr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A. L. C.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Mangerud, J.; Svendsen, J. I.; Lohne, Ø. S.

    2014-12-01

    Both the timing of maximum extent and subsequent pace of retreat of the interconnected Eurasian (British-Irish, Scandinavian, Svalbard-Barents-Kara Sea) Ice Sheets were spatially variable likely reflecting contrasts in response to forcing mechanisms, geographical settings and glacial dynamics both between individual ice sheets and ice-sheet sectors. For example the maximum limit along the western continental shelf edge was reached up to 3,000 years earlier than the maximum, mainly terrestrial, limits in the east. We present new time-slice reconstructions of the ice-sheet evolution through the last deglaciation based on a compiled chronology of over 5,000 dates and published ice-margin positions. Ice-sheet margins are depicted every 1,000 years (25-10 kyr) and include uncertainty estimates (represented by maximum, minimum and most-credible lines). The new ice-sheet scale reconstructions summarise and provide the means for direct comparison of the empirical geological record against simulations of the deglacial ice-sheet evolution from numerical and isostatic ice-sheet modelling and the timing of abrupt events observed in deglacial climate and ocean records. The reconstruction process has identified both instances of conflicting evidence and gaps in the geological record that should be a focus for future studies. This work is part of an on-going project to reconstruct the changing limits of the Eurasian Ice Sheets through the last glacial cycle (www.uib.no/project/dated).

  18. Swing Boat: Inducing and Recording Locomotor Activity in a Drosophila melanogaster Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Berlandi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that physical activity can slow down progression of neurodegeneration in humans. To date, automated ways to induce activity have been predominantly described in rodent models. To study the impact of activity on behavior and survival in adult Drosophila melanogaster, we aimed to develop a rotating tube device “swing boat” which is capable of monitoring activity and sleep patterns as well as survival rates of flies. For the purpose of a first application, we tested our device on a transgenic fly model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Activity of flies was recorded in a climate chamber using the Drosophila Activity Monitoring (DAM System connected to data acquisition software. Locomotor activity was induced by a rotating tube device “swing boat” by repetitively tilting the tubes for 30 min per day. A non-exercising group of flies was used as control and activity and sleep patterns were obtained. The GAL4-/UAS system was used to drive pan-neuronal expression of human Aβ42 in flies. Immunohistochemical stainings for Aβ42 were performed on paraffin sections of adult fly brains. Daily rotation of the fly tubes evoked a pronounced peak of activity during the 30 min exercise period. Pan-neuronal expression of human Aβ42 in flies caused abnormalities in locomotor activity, reduction of life span and elevated sleep fragmentation in comparison to wild type flies. Furthermore, the formation of amyloid accumulations was observed in the adult fly brain. Gently induced activity over 12 days did not evoke prominent effects in wild type flies but resulted in prolongation of median survival time by 7 days (32.6% in Aβ42-expressing flies. Additionally, restoration of abnormally decreased night time sleep (10% and reduced sleep fragmentation (28% were observed compared to non-exercising Aβ42-expressing flies. On a structural level no prominent effects regarding prevalence of amyloid aggregations and Aβ42 RNA expression were

  19. Relationships of self-reported physical activity domains with accelerometry recordings in French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, David; Charles, Marie-Aline; Tafflet, Muriel; Lommez, Agnès; Borys, Jean-Michel; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to examine the relationships of self-reported physical activity (PA) by domain (leisure, occupational, other) with PA and sedentary time as measured objectively by accelerometry. Subjects were adults with low habitual PA levels from a community in northern France. Among subjects in the lowest tertile of a PA score from a screening questionnaire, 160 (37% males, age: 41.0 +/- 10.8 years, BMI: 25.1 +/- 4.1 kg/m(2), mean +/- SD) completed a detailed instrument (Modifiable Activity Questionnaire), and wore an accelerometer (Actigraph) for seven consecutive days. Relationships between questionnaire domains (occupational, leisure, and "non-occupational non-leisure") and accelerometry measures (total activity and sedentary time) were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. In this population, the highest contributor to total reported PA (h/week) was occupational PA. Time spent in non-occupational non-leisure PA ranked second in women and third in men. The most frequent non-occupational non-leisure PA were shopping and household chores. In women, non-occupational non-leisure PA contributed more than occupational or leisure-time PA to total PA energy expenditure (median: 18.0, 9.1, and 4.9 MET-h/week, respectively). Total PA by accelerometry (count/day) was correlated to leisure-time PA in women (r = 0.22, P time (h/day) and non-occupational non-leisure PA (MET-h/week, r = -0.30, P importance of assessing non-occupational non-leisure PA for a better understanding of how individuals partition their time between active or sedentary occupations.

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of thin current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughton, William

    2002-01-01

    Observations indicate that the current sheet in the Earth's geomagnetic tail may compress to a thickness comparable to an ion gyro-radius prior to substorm onset. In recent years, there has been considerable controversy regarding the kinetic stability of these thin structures. In particular, the growth rate of the kink instability and its relevance to magnetotail dynamics is still being debated. In this work, a series of fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations are performed for a thin Harris sheet. The ion to electron mass ratio is varied between m i /m e =4→400 and careful comparisons are made with a formally exact approach to the linear Vlasov theory. At low mass ratio m i /m e <64, the simulations are in excellent agreement with the linear theory, but at high mass ratio the kink instability is observed to grow more rapidly in the kinetic simulations than predicted by theory. The resolution to this apparent discrepancy involves the lower hybrid instability which is active on the edge of the sheet and rapidly produces nonlinear modifications to the initial equilibrium. The nature of this nonlinear deformation is characterized and a simple model is proposed to explain the physics. After the growth and saturation of the lower hybrid fluctuations, the deformed current sheet is similar in structure to a Harris equilibrium with an additional background population. This may explain the large growth rate of the kink instability at later times, since this type of modification to the Harris sheet has been shown to greatly enhance the growth rate of the kink mode

  1. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  2. Photocatalytic decomposition of selected estrogens and their estrogenic activity by UV-LED irradiated TiO{sub 2} immobilized on porous titanium sheets via thermal-chemical oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlos, Maricor J., E-mail: mjarlos@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Liang, Robert; Hatat-Fraile, Melisa M. [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Waterloo Institute of Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Bragg, Leslie M. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Zhou, Norman Y. [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Waterloo Institute of Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Servos, Mark R. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Andrews, Susan A. [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} self-assembled on oxidized porous titanium sheets. • UV-LED/TiO{sub 2} membrane treatment reduced the concentrations of estrogens. • Different pH conditions affect treatment efficiency. • The estrogenic activity removal was similar to the chemical disappearance. - Abstract: The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) remains a big challenge in water treatment. Risks associated with these compounds are not clearly defined and it is important that the water industry has additional options to increase the resiliency of water treatment systems. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) has potential applications for the removal of EDCs from water. TiO{sub 2} has been immobilized on supports using a variety of synthesis methods to increase its feasibility for water treatment. In this study, we immobilized TiO{sub 2} through the thermal-chemical oxidation of porous titania sheets. The efficiency of the material to degrade target EDCs under UV-LED irradiation was examined under a wide range of pH conditions. A yeast-estrogen screen assay was used to complement chemical analysis in assessing removal efficiency. All compounds but 17β-estradiol were degraded and followed a pseudo first-order kinetics at all pH conditions tested, with pH 4 and pH 11 showing the most and the least efficient treatments respectively. In addition, the total estrogenic activity was substantially reduced even with the inefficient degradation of 17β-estradiol. Additional studies will be required to optimize different treatment conditions, UV-LED configurations, and membrane fouling mitigation measures to make this technology a more viable option for water treatment.

  3. Recording of the Neural Activity Induced by the Electrical Subthalamic Stimulation Using Ca2+ Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Yagi, Tetsuya; Osanai, Makoto

    The basal ganglia (BG) have important roles in some kind of motor control and learning. Parkinson's disease is one of the motor impairment disease. Recently, to recover a motor severity in patients of Parkinsonism, the stimulus electrode is implanted to the subthalamic nucleus, which is a part of the basal ganglia, and the deep brain stimulation (DBS) is often conducted. However, the effects of the DBS on the subthalamic neurons have not been elucidated. Thus, to analyze the effects of the electrical stimulation on the subthalamic neurons, we conducted the calcium imaging at the mouse subthalamic nucleus. When the single stimulus was applied to the subthalamic nucleus, the intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) transients were observed. In the case of application of the single electrical stimulation, the [Ca2+]i arose near the stimulus position. When 100 Hz 10-100 times tetanic stimulations were applied, the responded area and the amplitudes of [Ca2+]i transients were increased. The [Ca2+]i transients were disappeared almost completely on the action potential blockade, but blockade of the excitatory and the inhibitory synaptic transmission had little effects on the responded area and the amplitudes of the [Ca2+]i transients. These results suggested that the electrical stimulation to the subthalamic neurons led to activate the subthalamic neurons directly but not via synaptic transmissions. Thus, DBS may change the activity of the subthalamic neurons, hence, may alter the input-output relationship of the subthalamic neurons

  4. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ...)] Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to... from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313, 314, 317, and 379 (Third Review...

  5. QUANTITATIVE FLOW-ANALYSIS AROUND AQUATIC ANIMALS USING LASER SHEET PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STAMHUIS, EJ; VIDELER, JJ

    Two alternative particle image velocimetry (PIV) methods have been developed, applying laser light sheet illumination of particle-seeded flows around marine organisms, Successive video images, recorded perpendicular to a light sheet parallel to the main stream, were digitized and processed to map

  6. Identification of fall predictors in the active elderly population from the routine medical records of general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastrucci, Vieri; Lorini, Chiara; Rinaldi, Giada; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo

    2018-03-01

    Aim To evaluate the possibility of determining predictors of falls in the active community-dwelling elderly from the routine medical records of the general practitioners (GPs). Time constraints and competing demands in the clinical encounters frequently undermine fall-risk evaluation. In the context of proactive primary healthcare, quick, and efficient tools for a preliminary fall-risk assessment are needed in order to overcome these barriers. The study included 1220 subjects of 65 years of age or older. Data were extracted from the GPs' patient records. For each subject, the following variables were considered: age, gender, diseases, and pharmacotherapy. Univariate and multivariable analyses have been conducted to identify the independent predictors of falls. Findings The mean age of the study population was 77.8±8.7 years for women and 74.9±7.3 years for men. Of the sample, 11.6% had experienced one or more falls in the previous year. The risk of falling was found to increase significantly (P<0.05) with age (OR=1.03; 95% CI=1.01-1.05), generalized osteoarthritis (OR=2.01; 95% CI=1.23-3.30), tinnitus (OR=4.14; 95% CI=1.25-13.74), cognitive impairment (OR=4.12; 95% CI=2.18-7.80), and two or more co-existing diseases (OR=5.4; 95% CI=1.68-17.39). Results suggest that it is possible to identify patients at higher risk of falling by going through the current medical records, without adding extra workload on the health personnel. In the context of proactive primary healthcare, the analysis of fall predictors from routine medical records may allow the identification of which of the several known and hypothesized risk factors may be more relevant for developing quick and efficient tools for a preliminary fall-risk assessment.

  7. Comparing two methods to record maximal voluntary contractions and different electrode positions in recordings of forearm extensor muscle activity: Refining risk assessments for work-related wrist disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Camilla; Nordander, Catarina; Granqvist, Lothy; Forsman, Mikael; Hansson, Gert-Åke

    2018-01-01

    Wrist disorders are common in force demanding industrial repetitive work. Visual assessment of force demands have a low reliability, instead surface electromyography (EMG) may be used as part of a risk assessment for work-related wrist disorders. For normalization of EMG recordings, a power grip (hand grip) is often used as maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the forearm extensor muscles. However, the test-retest reproducibility is poor and EMG amplitudes exceeding 100% have occasionally been recorded during work. An alternative MVC is resisted wrist extension, which may be more reliable. To compare hand grip and resisted wrist extension MVCs, in terms of amplitude and reproducibility, and to examine the effect of electrode positioning. Twelve subjects participated. EMG from right forearm extensors, from four electrode pairs, was recorded during MVCs, on three separate occasions. The group mean EMG amplitudes for resisted wrist extension were 1.2-1.7 times greater than those for hand grip. Resisted wrist extension showed better reproducibility than hand grip. The results indicate that the use of resisted wrist extension is a more accurate measurement of maximal effort of wrist extensor contractions than using hand grip and should increase the precision in EMG recordings from forearm extensor muscles, which in turn will increase the quality of risk assessments that are based on these.

  8. History of the Greenland Ice Sheet: paleoclimatic insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John Thomas; Brigham-Grette, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Paleoclimatic records show that the Greenland Ice Sheet consistently has lost mass in response to warming, and grown in response to cooling. Such changes have occurred even at times of slow or zero sea-level change, so changing sea level cannot have been the cause of at least some of the ice-shee...

  9. Copula Regression Analysis of Simultaneously Recorded Frontal Eye Field and Inferotemporal Spiking Activity during Object-Based Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng; Clark, Kelsey L.; Gong, Xiajing; Noudoost, Behrad; Li, Mingyao; Moore, Tirin

    2015-01-01

    Inferotemporal (IT) neurons are known to exhibit persistent, stimulus-selective activity during the delay period of object-based working memory tasks. Frontal eye field (FEF) neurons show robust, spatially selective delay period activity during memory-guided saccade tasks. We present a copula regression paradigm to examine neural interaction of these two types of signals between areas IT and FEF of the monkey during a working memory task. This paradigm is based on copula models that can account for both marginal distribution over spiking activity of individual neurons within each area and joint distribution over ensemble activity of neurons between areas. Considering the popular GLMs as marginal models, we developed a general and flexible likelihood framework that uses the copula to integrate separate GLMs into a joint regression analysis. Such joint analysis essentially leads to a multivariate analog of the marginal GLM theory and hence efficient model estimation. In addition, we show that Granger causality between spike trains can be readily assessed via the likelihood ratio statistic. The performance of this method is validated by extensive simulations, and compared favorably to the widely used GLMs. When applied to spiking activity of simultaneously recorded FEF and IT neurons during working memory task, we observed significant Granger causality influence from FEF to IT, but not in the opposite direction, suggesting the role of the FEF in the selection and retention of visual information during working memory. The copula model has the potential to provide unique neurophysiological insights about network properties of the brain. PMID:26063909

  10. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy and recording of the physiological activity of tracheal ciliated cells treated by fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertsson, M.; Hakansson, C.H.; Mecklenburg, C. von

    1983-01-01

    The ciliated epithelium of the rabbit's trachea was irradiated with daily fractions of 2 Gy to an accumulated dose of 20 Gy. The beat frequency of the cilia was recorded and specimens were taken for SEM-, TEM- and LM-investigations. Examination was made 1-10 days after each fractionation schedule. An increased ciliary beat frequency was recorded at 2 Gy and 4 Gy. With increasing dose, there was an inverted relationship to the frequency. Light-microscopy showed edema and an increased amount of goblet cells in relation to the increasing dose. With SEM an increased number of ciliary blebs could be seen. These could be classified according to size and number, and showed a positive correlation to the dose. TEM-investigations showed signs of increased intracellular activity at higher doses in the form of multilobulated nuclei and an increasing number of nuclear pores. At lower doses, an increased amount of mitochondria appeared in the apical part of the cell. It is at present difficult to evaluate any correlation between the physiological activity and the morphology. More biological data are needed to explain the early irradiation effects

  12. Superfund fact sheet: The remedial program. Fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes what various actions the EPA can take to clean up hazardous wastes sites. Explanations of how the criteria for environmental and public health risk assessment are determined and the role of state and local governments in site remediation are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no formal scientific training

  13. An ECG simulator for generating maternal-foetal activity mixtures on abdominal ECG recordings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, Joachim; Andreotti, Fernando; Li, Qiao; Oster, Julien; Clifford, Gari D; Zaunseder, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Accurate foetal electrocardiogram (FECG) morphology extraction from non-invasive sensors remains an open problem. This is partly due to the paucity of available public databases. Even when gold standard information (i.e derived from the scalp electrode) is present, the collection of FECG can be problematic, particularly during stressful or clinically important events. In order to address this problem we have introduced an FECG simulator based on earlier work on foetal and adult ECG modelling. The open source foetal ECG synthetic simulator, fecgsyn, is able to generate maternal-foetal ECG mixtures with realistic amplitudes, morphology, beat-to-beat variability, heart rate changes and noise. Positional (rotation and translation-related) movements in the foetal and maternal heart due to respiration, foetal activity and uterine contractions were also added to the simulator. The simulator was used to generate some of the signals that were part of the 2013 PhysioNet Computing in Cardiology Challenge dataset and has been posted on Physionet.org (together with scripts to generate realistic scenarios) under an open source license. The toolbox enables further research in the field and provides part of a standard for industry and regulatory testing of rare pathological scenarios. (paper)

  14. Activation of ion implanted Si for backside processing by Ultra-fast Laser Thermal Annealing: Energy homogeneity and micro-scale sheet resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huet, K.; Lin, Rong; Boniface, C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper ion activation of implanted silicon using ultra-fast laser thermal annealing (LTA) process was discussed. The results stated that there was high dopant activation using LTA process for over 70%, excellent within shot activation uniformity, and there was a possibility for overlap...... parameter optimization. It was observed that, for activation LTA process, shallow box-shaped profiles- high diffusivity of B in liquids and high-temperatures was observed only near the surface in a submicrosecond timescale. Possible solutions were suggested as to low-cost and high-end for overlap...

  15. Record of the Solar Activity and of Other Geophysical Phenomenons in Tree Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigozo, Nivaor Rodolfo

    1999-01-01

    Tree ring studies are usually used to determine or verify climatic factors which prevail in a given place or region and may cause tree ring width variations. Few studies are dedicated to the geophysical phenomena which may underlie these tree ring width variations. In order to look for periodicities which may be associated to the solar activity and/or to other geophysical phenomena which may influence tree ring growth, a new interactive image analysis method to measure tree ring width was developed and is presented here. This method makes use of a computer and a high resolution flatbed scanner; a program was also developed in Interactive Data Language (IDL 5.0) to study ring digitized images and transform them into time series. The main advantage of this method is the tree ring image interactive analysis without needing complex and high cost instrumentation. Thirty-nine samples were collected: 12 from Concordia - S. C., 9 from Canela - R. S., 14 from Sao Francisco de Paula - R. S., one from Nova Petropolis - R. S., 2 from Sao Martinho da Serra - R. S. e one from Chile. Fit functions are applied to ring width time series to obtain the best long time range trend (growth rate of every tree) curves and are eliminated through a standardization process that gives the tree ring index time series from which is performed spectral analysis by maximum entropy method and iterative regression. The results obtained show periodicities close to 11 yr, 22 yr Hale solar cycles and 5.5 yr for all sampling locations 52 yr and Gleissberg cycles for Concordia - S. C. and Chile samples. El Nino events were also observed with periods around 4 e 7 yr.

  16. E12 sheet plastination: Techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottone, Nicolas Ernesto; Baptista, Carlos A C; Latorre, Rafael; Bianchi, Homero Felipe; Del Sol, Mariano; Fuentes, Ramon

    2017-10-30

    Plastination is an anatomical technique that consists of replacing the liquids and fat of specimens by reactive polymers through forced impregnation in a vacuum. These are then polymerized to achieve the final result. E12 sheet plastination involves epoxy resin impregnation of thin (2-4 mm) and ultra-thin (SciELO databases, and manual searches. After searching, 616 records were found using the online and manual searches (MEDLINE, n: 207; EMBASE, n: 346; SciELO, n: 44; Manual search: 23). Finally, 96 records were included in this review (after duplicates and articles unrelated to the subject were excluded). The aim of this work was to review the E12 sheet plastination technique, searching for articles concerning views of it, identifying the different variants implemented by researchers since its creation by Gunther von Hagens, and to identify its applications from teaching and research in anatomy to morphological sciences. Clin. Anat., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Annual Energy Balance Sheets 2003-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    During the year 2004 the supply of primary energy reached 657.6 TWh. That is an increased supply by 16 TWh compared with 2003, The electricity production in hydropower and wind power stations increased by 7 TWh, to 61 TWh during the year 2004. The electricity generated in nuclear power plants was 77.5 TWh, an increase by 10 TWh. During the year 2004 Sweden net exported 2.1 TWh electricity. But in year 2003 we net imported 12.8 TWh electricity. The energy use increased from 406 TWh to 409 TWh between year 2003 and year 2004. The use of coal and coke in manufacturing increased by 22 per cent, and the use of oil products in transport sector increased by 4 per cent. The energy balance sheets are based on data primary recorded in the balance sheets of energy sources, here expressed in a common energy unit, TJ. The production of derived energy is here recorded in a second flow-step comprising energy turnover in energy conversion and is also specified in complementary input-output tables for energy conversion industries

  18. Predicting Hot Deformation of AA5182 Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John T.; Carpenter, Alexander J.; Jodlowski, Jakub P.; Taleff, Eric M.

    Aluminum 5000-series alloy sheet materials exhibit substantial ductilities at hot and warm temperatures, even when grain size is not particularly fine. The relatively high strain-rate sensitivity exhibited by these non-superplastic materials, when deforming under solute-drag creep, is a primary contributor to large tensile ductilities. This active deformation mechanism influences both plastic flow and microstructure evolution across conditions of interest for hot- and warm-forming. Data are presented from uniaxial tensile and biaxial bulge tests of AA5182 sheet material at elevated temperatures. These data are used to construct a material constitutive model for plastic flow, which is applied in finite-element-method (FEM) simulations of plastic deformation under multiaxial stress states. Simulation results are directly compared against experimental data to explore the usefulness of this constitutive model. The effects of temperature and stress state on plastic response and microstructure evolution are discussed.

  19. Spread-sheet application to classify radioactive material for shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    A spread-sheet application has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to aid the shipper when classifying nuclide mixtures of normal form, radioactive materials. The results generated by this spread-sheet are used to confirm the proper US DOT classification when offering radioactive material packages for transport. The user must input to the spread-sheet the mass of the material being classified, the physical form (liquid or not) and the activity of each regulated nuclide. The spread-sheet uses these inputs to calculate two general values: 1)the specific activity of the material and a summation calculation of the nuclide content. The specific activity is used to determine if the material exceeds the DOT minimal threshold for a radioactive material. If the material is calculated to be radioactive, the specific activity is also used to determine if the material meets the activity requirement for one of the three low specific activity designations (LSA-I, LSA-II, LSA-III, or not LSA). Again, if the material is calculated to be radioactive, the summation calculation is then used to determine which activity category the material will meet (Limited Quantity, Type A, Type B, or Highway Route Controlled Quantity). This spread-sheet has proven to be an invaluable aid for shippers of radioactive materials at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. (authors)

  20. VISL: A Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory For Outreach and K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. L. C.; Halkides, D. J.; Larour, E. Y.; Moore, J.; Dunn, S.; Perez, G.

    2015-12-01

    We present an update on our developing Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory (VISL). Geared to K-12 classrooms and the general public, VISL's main goal is to improve climate literacy, especially in regards to the crucial role of the polar ice sheets in Earth's climate and sea level. VISL will allow users to perform guided experiments using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), a state-of-the-art ice flow model developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and UC Irvine that simulates the near-term evolution of the ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica. VISL users will access ISSM via a graphical interface that can be launched from a web browser on a computer, tablet or smart phone. Users select climate conditions and run time by moving graphic sliders then watch how a given region evolves in time under those conditions. Lesson plans will include conceptual background, instructions for table top experiments related to the concepts addressed in a given lesson, and a guide for performing model experiments and interpreting their results. Activities with different degrees of complexity will aim for consistency with NGSS Physical Science criteria for different grade bands (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12), although they will not be labeled as such to encourage a broad user base. Activities will emphasize the development of physical intuition and critical thinking skills, understanding conceptual and computational models, as well as observation recording, concept articulation, hypothesis formulation and testing, and mathematical analysis. At our present phase of development, we seek input from the greater science education and outreach communities regarding VISL's planned content, as well as additional features and topic areas that educators and students would find useful.

  1. 2012 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  2. State Fact Sheets on COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . COPD Homepage Data and Statistics Fact Sheets Publications Publications ...

  3. Optical recording of neuronal activity with a genetically-encoded calcium indicator in anesthetized and freely moving mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Lütcke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent calcium (Ca2+ indicator proteins (FCIPs are promising tools for functional imaging of cellular activity in living animals. However, they have still not reached their full potential for in vivo imaging of neuronal activity due to limitations in expression levels, dynamic range, and sensitivity for reporting action potentials. Here, we report that viral expression of the ratiometric Ca2+ sensor yellow cameleon 3.60 (YC3.60 in pyramidal neurons of mouse barrel cortex enables in vivo measurement of neuronal activity with high dynamic range and sensitivity across multiple spatial scales. By combining juxtacellular recordings and two-photon imaging in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrate that YC3.60 can resolve single action potential (AP-evoked Ca2+ transients and reliably reports bursts of APs with negligible saturation. Spontaneous and whisker-evoked Ca2+ transients were detected in individual apical dendrites and somata as well as in local neuronal populations. Moreover, bulk measurements using wide-field imaging or fiber-optics revealed sensory-evoked YC3.60 signals in large areas of the barrel field. Fiber-optic recordings in particular enabled measurements in awake, freely moving mice and revealed complex Ca2+ dynamics, possibly reflecting different behavior-related brain states. Viral expression of YC3.60 - in combination with various optical techniques - thus opens a multitude of opportunities for functional studies of the neural basis of animal behavior, from dendrites to the levels of local and large-scale neuronal populations.

  4. Plasma sheet behavior during substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hones, E.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Auroral or magnetic substorms are periods of enhanced auroral and geomagnetic activity lasting one to a few hours that signify increased dissipation of energy from the magnetosphere to the earth. Data acquired during the past decade from satellites in the near-earth sector of the magnetotail have suggested that during a substorm part of the plasma sheet is severed from earth by magnetic reconnection, forming a plasmoid, i.e., a body of plasma and closed magnetic loops, that flows out of the tail into the solar wind, thus returning plasma and energy that have earlier been accumulated from the solar wind. Very recently this picture has been dramatically confirmed by observations, with the ISEE 3 spacecraft in the magnetotail 220 R/sub E/ from earth, of plasmoids passing that location in clear delayed response to substorms. It now appears that plasmoid release is a fundamental process whereby the magnetosphere gives up excess stored energy and plasma, much like comets are seen to do, and that the phenomena of the substorm seen at earth are a by-product of that fundamental process

  5. Australian Government Balance Sheet Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Au-Yeung; Jason McDonald; Amanda Sayegh

    2006-01-01

    Since almost eliminating net debt, the Australian Government%u2019s attention has turned to the financing of broader balance sheet liabilities, such as public sector superannuation. Australia will be developing a significant financial asset portfolio in the %u2018Future Fund%u2019 to smooth the financing of expenses through time. This raises the significant policy question of how best to manage the government balance sheet to reduce risk. This paper provides a framework for optimal balance sh...

  6. Energy information sheets, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  7. Energy information sheets, September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  8. Canada and the Kyoto Protocol: Fact Sheet No. 5 - Developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This fact sheet acknowledges that global change affects developed and developing countries alike, and the fact that most developing countries do not have the human, financial and technical capacity to effectively address climate change issues without help from the industrialized nations. The fact sheet also puts Canada on record as being in agreement with the spirit of the Kyoto Protocol to encourage the participation of developing countries in global efforts to combat climate change and promote sustainable development and reaffirms Canada's willingness to provide financial and technical assistance to developing countries to enable them to play a meaningful part in this global effort. In this context, the fact sheet briefly describes the new Canada Climate Change Development Fund which has been set up to reduce the growth of GHG emissions and support carbon sink activities in developing countries, to strengthen the capacity of developing conuntries to reduce their vulnerability to adverse effects of climate change, and to participate in global efforts to combat them

  9. Methodologies for analysis of patterning in the mouse RPE sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Dalal, Nupur; Chrenek, Micah A.; Gardner, Christopher; Ziesel, Alison; Jiang, Yi; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our goal was to optimize procedures for assessing shapes, sizes, and other quantitative metrics of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and contact- and noncontact-mediated cell-to-cell interactions across a large series of flatmount RPE images. Methods The two principal methodological advances of this study were optimization of a mouse RPE flatmount preparation and refinement of open-access software to rapidly analyze large numbers of flatmount images. Mouse eyes were harvested, and extra-orbital fat and muscles were removed. Eyes were fixed for 10 min, and dissected by puncturing the cornea with a sharp needle or a stab knife. Four radial cuts were made with iridectomy scissors from the puncture to near the optic nerve head. The lens, iris, and the neural retina were removed, leaving the RPE sheet exposed. The dissection and outcomes were monitored and evaluated by video recording. The RPE sheet was imaged under fluorescence confocal microscopy after staining for ZO-1 to identify RPE cell boundaries. Photoshop, Java, Perl, and Matlab scripts, as well as CellProfiler, were used to quantify selected parameters. Data were exported into Excel spreadsheets for further analysis. Results A simplified dissection procedure afforded a consistent source of images that could be processed by computer. The dissection and flatmounting techniques were illustrated in a video recording. Almost all of the sheet could be routinely imaged, and substantial fractions of the RPE sheet (usually 20–50% of the sheet) could be analyzed. Several common technical problems were noted and workarounds developed. The software-based analysis merged 25 to 36 images into one and adjusted settings to record an image suitable for large-scale identification of cell-to-cell boundaries, and then obtained quantitative descriptors of the shape of each cell, its neighbors, and interactions beyond direct cell–cell contact in the sheet. To validate the software, human- and computer

  10. Detecting the Elusive P-Wave: A New ECG Lead to Improve the Recording of Atrial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Alan; Finlay, Dewar D; Guldenring, Daniel; Bond, Raymond R; McLaughlin, James

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we report on a lead selection method that was developed to detect the optimal bipolar electrode placement for recording of the P-wave. The study population consisted of 117 lead body surface potential maps recorded from 229 healthy subjects. The optimal bipolar lead was developed using the training set (172 subjects) then extracted from the testing dataset (57 subjects) and compared to other lead systems previously reported for improved recording of atrial activity. All leads were assessed in terms of P-wave, QRS, and STT root mean square (RMS). The P/QRST RMS ratio was also investigated to determine the atrioventricular RMS ratio. Finally, the effect of minor electrode misplacements on the P-lead was investigated. The P-lead discovered in this study outperformed all other investigated leads in terms of P-wave RMS. The P-lead showed a significant improvement in median P-wave RMS (93 versus 72 μV, p < 0.001) over the next best lead, Lead II. An improvement in QRS and STT RMS was also observed from the P-lead in comparison to lead II (668 versus 573 μV, p < 0.001) and (327 versus 196 μV, p < 0.001). Although P-wave RMS was reduced by incorrect electrode placement, significant improvement over Lead II was still evident. The P-lead improves P-wave RMS signal strength over all other investigated leads. Also the P-lead does not reduce QRS and STT RMS making it an appropriate choice for atrial arrhythmia monitoring. Given the improvement in signal-to-noise ratio, an improvement in algorithms that rely on P-wave analysis may be achieved.

  11. Evidence of Influence of Human Activities and Volcanic Eruptions on Environmental Perchlorate from a 300-Year Greenland Ice Core Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Dai, Jihong; Peterson, Kari Marie; Kennedy, Joshua Andrew; Cox, Thomas S; Ferris, David G

    2018-06-26

    A 300-year (1700-2007) chronological record of environmental perchlorate, reconstructed from high-resolution analysis of a central Greenland ice core, shows that perchlorate levels in the post-1980 atmosphere were two-to-three times those of the pre-1980 environment. While this confirms recent reports of increased perchlorate in Arctic snow since 1980 compared with the levels for the prior decades (1930-1980), the longer Greenland record demonstrates that the Industrial Revolution and other human activities, which emitted large quantities of pollutants and contaminants, did not significantly impact environmental perchlorate, as perchlorate levels remained stable throughout the eighteenth, nineteenth, and much of the twentieth centuries. The increased levels since 1980 likely result from enhanced atmospheric perchlorate production, rather than from direct release from perchlorate manufacturing and applications. The enhancement is probably influenced by the emission of organic chlorine compounds in the last several decades. Prior to 1980, no significant long-term temporal trends in perchlorate concentration are observed. Brief (a few years) high concentration episodes appear frequently over an apparently stable and low background (~1 ng kg‒1). Several such episodes coincide in time with large explosive volcanic eruptions including the 1912 Novarupta/Katmai eruption in Alaska. It appears that atmospheric perchlorate production is impacted by large eruptions in both high and low latitudes, but not by small eruptions and non-explosive degassing.

  12. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  13. Results of gas flux records in the seismically active area of Val d'Agri (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lapenna

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Val d Agri area is well-known for oil exploration. An old 500 m deep exploration well in the northern part of this area has been used for long-term hydrogeochemical investigations. The well is characterized by a discharge of about 500 L/min of thermal water (27.8°C and a simultaneous methane gas emission of about 200 L/min. Gas analyses gave evidence that the methane come from a multiple deep reservoir. Continuous records of gas emission showed some anomalous variations occurred during the past three years. The gas flux anomalies were in a distinctive coincidence with self-potential anomalies of one station close to the hydrogeochemical station. The present paper describes the interpretation of these anomalies in relation to the geodynamic activity in the area.

  14. Characterization of Tensile Mechanical Behavior of MSCs/PLCL Hybrid Layered Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Intan Pangesty

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A layered construct was developed by combining a porous polymer sheet and a cell sheet as a tissue engineered vascular patch. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs sheet on the tensile mechanical properties of porous poly-(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone (PLCL sheet. The porous PLCL sheet was fabricated by the solid-liquid phase separation method and the following freeze-drying method. The MSCs sheet, prepared by the temperature-responsive dish, was then layered on the top of the PLCL sheet and cultured for 2 weeks. During the in vitro study, cellular properties such as cell infiltration, spreading and proliferation were evaluated. Tensile test of the layered construct was performed periodically to characterize the tensile mechanical behavior. The tensile properties were then correlated with the cellular properties to understand the effect of MSCs sheet on the variation of the mechanical behavior during the in vitro study. It was found that MSCs from the cell sheet were able to migrate into the PLCL sheet and actively proliferated into the porous structure then formed a new layer of MSCs on the opposite surface of the PLCL sheet. Mechanical evaluation revealed that the PLCL sheet with MSCs showed enhancement of tensile strength and strain energy density at the first week of culture which is characterized as the effect of MSCs proliferation and its infiltration into the porous structure of the PLCL sheet. New technique was presented to develop tissue engineered patch by combining MSCs sheet and porous PLCL sheet, and it is expected that the layered patch may prolong biomechanical stability when implanted in vivo.

  15. Effect of Cell Sheet Manipulation Techniques on the Expression of Collagen Type II and Stress Fiber Formation in Human Chondrocyte Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongin, Sopita; Waikakul, Saranatra; Chotiyarnwong, Pojchong; Siriwatwechakul, Wanwipa; Viravaidya-Pasuwat, Kwanchanok

    2018-03-01

    Cell sheet technology is applied to human articular chondrocytes to construct a tissue-like structure as an alternative treatment for cartilage defect. The effect of a gelatin manipulator, as a cell sheet transfer system, on the quality of the chondrocyte sheets was investigated. The changes of important chondrogenic markers and stress fibers, resulting from the cell sheet manipulation, were also studied. The chondrocyte cell sheets were constructed with patient-derived chondrocytes using a temperature-responsive polymer and a gelatin manipulator as a transfer carrier. The properties of the cell sheets, including sizes, expression levels of collagen type II and I, and the localization of the stress fibers, were assessed and compared with those of the cell sheets harvested without the gelatin manipulator. Using the gelatin manipulator, the original size of the chondrocyte cell sheets was retained with abundant stress fibers, but with a decrease in the expression of collagen type II. Without the gelatin manipulator, although the cell shrinkage occurred, the cell sheet with suppressed stress fiber formation showed significantly higher levels of collagen type II. These results support our observations that stress fiber formation in chondrocyte cell sheets affected the production of chondrogenic markers. These densely packed tissue-like structures possessed a good chondrogenic activity, indicating their potential for use in autologous chondrocyte implantation to treat cartilage defects.

  16. Ice_Sheets_CCI: Essential Climate Variables for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, R.; Sørensen, L. S.; Khan, A.; Aas, C.; Evansberget, D.; Adalsteinsdottir, G.; Mottram, R.; Andersen, S. B.; Ahlstrøm, A.; Dall, J.; Kusk, A.; Merryman, J.; Hvidberg, C.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Nagler, T.; Rott, H.; Scharrer, M.; Shepard, A.; Ticconi, F.; Engdahl, M.

    2012-04-01

    As part of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (www.esa-cci.org) a long-term project "ice_sheets_cci" started January 1, 2012, in addition to the existing 11 projects already generating Essential Climate Variables (ECV) for the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). The "ice_sheets_cci" goal is to generate a consistent, long-term and timely set of key climate parameters for the Greenland ice sheet, to maximize the impact of European satellite data on climate research, from missions such as ERS, Envisat and the future Sentinel satellites. The climate parameters to be provided, at first in a research context, and in the longer perspective by a routine production system, would be grids of Greenland ice sheet elevation changes from radar altimetry, ice velocity from repeat-pass SAR data, as well as time series of marine-terminating glacier calving front locations and grounding lines for floating-front glaciers. The ice_sheets_cci project will involve a broad interaction of the relevant cryosphere and climate communities, first through user consultations and specifications, and later in 2012 optional participation in "best" algorithm selection activities, where prototype climate parameter variables for selected regions and time frames will be produced and validated using an objective set of criteria ("Round-Robin intercomparison"). This comparative algorithm selection activity will be completely open, and we invite all interested scientific groups with relevant experience to participate. The results of the "Round Robin" exercise will form the algorithmic basis for the future ECV production system. First prototype results will be generated and validated by early 2014. The poster will show the planned outline of the project and some early prototype results.

  17. On Jovian plasma sheet structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurana, K.K.; Kivelson, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors evaluate several models of Jovian plasma sheet structure by determining how well they organize several aspects of the observed Voyager 2 magnetic field characteristics as a function of Jovicentric radial distance. It is shown that in the local time sector of the Voyager 2 outbound pass (near 0300 LT) the published hinged-magnetodisc models with wave (i.e., models corrected for finite wave velocity effects) are more successful than the published magnetic anomaly model in predicting locations of current sheet crossings. They also consider the boundary between the plasma sheet and the magnetotail lobe which is expected to vary slowly with radial distance. They use this boundary location as a further test of the models of the magnetotail. They show that the compressional MHD waves have much smaller amplitude in the lobes than in the plasma sheet and use this criterion to refine the identification of the plasma-sheet-lobe boundary. When the locations of crossings into and out of the lobes are examined, it becomes evident that the magnetic-anomaly model yields a flaring plasma sheet with a halfwidth of ∼ 3 R J at a radial distance of 20 R J and ∼ 12 R J at a radial distance of 100 R J . The hinged-magnetodisc models with wave, on the other hand, predict a halfwidth of ∼ 3.5 R J independent of distance beyond 20 R J . New optimized versions of the two models locate both the current sheet crossings and lobe encounters equally successfully. The optimized hinged-magnetodisc model suggests that the wave velocity decreases with increasing radial distance. The optimized magnetic anomaly model yields lower velocity contrast than the model of Vasyliunas and Dessler (1981)

  18. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  19. Technical note: Evaluation of an ear-attached movement sensor to record cow feeding behavior and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, J P; van Laar, H; Rump, P; Doorenbos, J; van Meurs, K; Griffioen, G M; Dijkstra, J

    2014-05-01

    The ability to monitor dairy cow feeding behavior and activity could improve dairy herd management. A 3-dimensional accelerometer (SensOor; Agis Automatisering BV, Harmelen, the Netherlands) has been developed that can be attached to ear identification tags. Based on the principle that behavior can be identified by ear movements, a proprietary model classifies sensor data as "ruminating," "eating," "resting," or "active." The objective of the study was to evaluate this sensor on accuracy and precision. First, a pilot evaluation of agreement between 2 independent observers, recording behavior from 3 cows for a period of approximately 9h each, was performed. Second, to evaluate the sensor, the behavior of 15 cows was monitored both visually (VIS) and with the sensor (SENS), with approximately 20 h of registration per cow, evenly distributed over a 24-h period, excluding milking. Cows were chosen from groups of animals in different lactation stages and parities. Each minute of SENS and VIS data was classified into 1 of 9 categories (8 behaviors and 1 transition behavior) and summarized into 4 behavioral groups, namely ruminating, eating, resting, or active, which were analyzed by calculating kappa (κ) values. For the pilot evaluation, a high level of agreement between observers was obtained, with κ values of ≥ 0.96 for all behavioral categories, indicating that visual observation provides a good standard. For the second trial, relationships between SENS and VIS were studied by κ values on a minute basis and Pearson correlation and concordance correlation coefficient analysis on behavior expressed as percentage of total registration time. Times spent ruminating, eating, resting, and active were 42.6, 15.9, 31.6, and 9.9% (SENS) respectively, and 42.1, 13.0, 30.0, and 14.9% (VIS), respectively. Overall κ for the comparison of SENS and VIS was substantial (0.78), with κ values of 0.85, 0.77, 0.86, and 0.47 for "ruminating," "eating," "resting," and "active

  20. Geomorphological records of diachronous quarrying activities along the ancient Appia route at the Aurunci Mountain pass (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luzio, E.; Carfora, P.

    2018-04-01

    The topic of this research consists in the description of landscape modifications occurring from the 4th century BCE to the 19th century CE as a consequence of quarrying activities on carbonate slopes along a tract of the ancient Appia route crossing the central Apennine belt at the Aurunci Mountain pass (Lazio region, central Italy). The main objectives were to discern different quarrying phases and techniques, quantify quarrying activities and understand the role of quarrying in create morphological features. Multidisciplinary studies were completed including aerial photogrammetry, geoarchaeological field surveys, morphometric characterization of quarry areas, structural analysis of rock outcrops aided by terrestrial photogrammetry, GPS measurements. The results of this study show how the local geomorpological and tectonic setting determined which kinds of extractable rock material, i.e., rock blocks or breccias, were used for different purposes. Moreover, different phases of extraction were evidenced. A main Roman quarrying phase, lasting between the 4th century BCE and the 1st century CE, was recognized as taking place over eight quarry areas. These are delimited by sharp edges and have regular shapes, revealing in some cases a staircase-like morphological profile, and are characterized by similar volumes of extracted rock material. A later quarrying phase -the Bourbon Age, 19th century CE-is assumed to be evidenced instead by five quarries with a peculiar semi-elliptical shape and different volumes of carved material. Seven quarries were found to be of uncertain age. The quarry system described in this paper, together with geomorphological records of slope cuts, terraced surfaces, and the remains of retaining walls, represents a unique and important example of anthropogenic landscape modification in the territory of the central Apennines caused by the construction and maintenance of a Roman road over the centuries. This could be relevant for further studies on

  1. Documentation: Records and Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with documentation to include the beginning of documentation, the requirements of Good Manufacturing Practice reports and records, and the steps that can be taken to minimize Good Manufacturing Practice documentation problems. It is important to remember that documentation for 503a compounding involves the Formulation Record, Compounding Record, Standard Operating Procedures, Safety Data Sheets, etc. For 503b outsourcing facilities, compliance with Current Good Manufacturing Practices is required, so this article is applicable to them. For 503a pharmacies, one can see the development and modification of Good Manufacturing Practice and even observe changes as they are occurring in 503a documentation requirements and anticipate that changes will probably continue to occur. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  2. Pharmacogenomics Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all prescription drugs. For example, it converts the painkiller codeine into its active form, morphine. There are ... patients by providing guidance on dose, possible side effects, or differences in effectiveness for people with certain ...

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and in Vitro Antibacterial Activities of CdO Nanoparticle and Nano-sheet Mixed-ligand of Cadmium(ІІ Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rashidi Ranjbar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the synthesis of a Schiff-base mixed-ligand complex of cadmium(ІІ in bulk and nano-scales via the precipitation and sonochemical methods, respectively. The complex formula is [Cd(3-bpdh(3-bpdbCl2]n (1, where the ligands are 3-bpdh = 2,5-bis(3-pyridyl-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene and 3-bpdb = 1,4-bis(3-pyridyl-2,3-diaza-1,3-butadiene. The structure of mixed-ligand complex (1 was characterized by IR, 1H NMR and elemental analyses. Cadmium(ІІ oxide nanoparticles were prepared by direct thermolysis from nanosheet of complex (1. The cadmium(ІІ oxide structure was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD and Energy Dispersive X-ray  analyses (EDAX. Size, morphology and structural dispersion of all obtained nanostructures were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The Schiff-base ligands, bulk and nano-scales of complex (1 and cadmium(ІІ oxide nanoparticles were analyzed for antibacterial activities against Bacillus alvei (bacteria causing the honey bee European foulbrood disease. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC has been shown moderate antibacterial activities compared with some other standard drugs. Known antibiotics like penicillin and SXT (Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were used as positive control.

  4. The Development of Student’s Activity Sheets (SAS) Based on Multiple Intelligences and Problem-Solving Skills Using Simple Science Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardani, D. S.; Kirana, T.; Ibrahim, M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to produce SAS based on MI and problem-solving skills using simple science tools that are suitable to be used by elementary school students. The feasibility of SAS is evaluated based on its validity, practicality, and effectiveness. The completion Lesson Plan (LP) implementation and student’s activities are the indicators of SAS practicality. The effectiveness of SAS is measured by indicators of increased learning outcomes and problem-solving skills. The development of SAS follows the 4-D (define, design, develop, and disseminate) phase. However, this study was done until the third stage (develop). The written SAS was then validated through expert evaluation done by two experts of science, before its is tested to the target students. The try-out of SAS used one group with pre-test and post-test design. The result of this research shows that SAS is valid with “good” category. In addition, SAS is considered practical as seen from the increase of student activity at each meeting and LP implementation. Moreover, it was considered effective due to the significant difference between pre-test and post-test result of the learning outcomes and problem-solving skill test. Therefore, SAS is feasible to be used in learning.

  5. A Dual Role of Graphene Oxide Sheet Deposition on Titanate Nanowire Scaffolds for Osteo-implantation: Mechanical Hardener and Surface Activity Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjun; Hou, Lijuan; Li, Tingting; Gong, Ziqiang; Huang, Huandi; Wang, Ge; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaoyun

    2015-12-01

    Scaffold biomaterials with open pores and channels are favourable for cell growth and tissue regeneration, however the inherent poor mechanical strength and low surface activity limit their applications as load-bearing bone grafts with satisfactory osseointegration. In this study, macro-porous graphene oxide (GO) modified titanate nanowire scaffolds with desirable surface chemistry and tunable mechanical properties were prepared through a simple hydrothermal process followed by electrochemical deposition of GO nanosheets. The interconnected and porous structure of the GO/titanate nanowire scaffolds provides a large surface area for cellular attachment and migration and displays a high compressive strength of approximately 81.1 MPa and a tunable Young’s modulus over the range of 12.4-41.0 GPa, which satisfies site-specific requirements for implantation. Surface chemistry of the scaffolds was modulated by the introduction of GO, which endows the scaffolds flexibility in attaching and patterning bioactive groups (such as -OH, -COOH and -NH2). In vitro cell culture tests suggest that the GO/titanate nanowire scaffolds act as a promising biomaterial candidate, in particular the one terminated with -OH groups, which demonstrates improved cell viability, and proliferation, differentiation and osteogenic activities.

  6. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1993-01-26

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  7. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene; Van Voris, Peter

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  8. Up-scalable sheet-to-sheet production of high efficiency perovskite module and solar cells on 6-in. substrate using slot die coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Giacomo, Francesco; Shanmugam, Santhosh; Fledderus, Henri; Bruijnaers, Bardo J.; Verhees, Wiljan J.H.; Dorenkamper, Maarten S.; Veenstra, Sjoerd C.; Qiu, Weiming; Gehlhaar, Robert; Merckx, Tamara; Aernouts, Tom; Andriessen, Ronn; Galagan, Yulia

    2018-01-01

    Scalable sheet-to-sheet slot die coating processes have been demonstrated for perovskite solar cells and modules. The processes have been developed on 6 in. × 6 in. glass/ITO substrates for two functional layers: the perovskite photo-active layer and the Spiro-OMeTAD hole transport layer. Perovskite

  9. Development of Farm Records Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Abubakar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm records are mostly manually kept on paper notebooks and folders where similar records are organized in one folder or spread sheet. These records are usually kept for many years therefore they becomes bulky and less organized. Consequently, it becomes difficult to search, update and tedious and time consuming to manage these records. This study was carried-out to overcome these problems associated with manual farm records keeping by developing user-friendly, easily accessible, reliable and secured software. The software was limited records keeping in crop production, livestock production, poultry production, employees, income and expenditure. The system was implemented using Java Server Faces (JSF for designing Graphical User Interface (GUI, Enterprises Java Beans (EJB for logic tier and MySQL database for storing farm records.

  10. Hanford Site Treated Effluent Disposal Facility process flow sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a novel method of using precipitation, destruction and recycle factors to prepare a process flow sheet. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, located near Richland, Washington, and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. When completed and operating, the TEDF effluent water flow will meet or exceed water quality standards for the 300 Area process sewer effluents. A preliminary safety analysis document (PSAD), a preconstruction requirement, needed a process flow sheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics and organics throughout the process, including the effluents, and providing estimates of stream flow quantities, activities, composition, and properties (i.e. temperature, pressure, specific gravity, pH and heat transfer rates). As the facility begins to operate, data from process samples can be used to provide better estimates of the factors, the factors can be entered into the flow sheet and the flow sheet will estimate more accurate steady state concentrations for the components. This report shows how the factors were developed and how they were used in developing a flow sheet to estimate component concentrations for the process flows. The report concludes with how TEDF sample data can improve the ability of the flow sheet to accurately predict concentrations of components in the process

  11. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Rodhe, Lars [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  12. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Holm, A.

    2015-01-01

    to sea level high stands during past interglacial periods. A number of AIS models have been developed and applied to try to understand the workings of the AIS and to form a robust basis for future projections of the AIS contribution to sea level change. The recent DCESS (Danish Center for Earth System......The Antarctic ice sheet is a major player in the Earth’s climate system and is by far the largest depository of fresh water on the planet. Ice stored in the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) contains enough water to raise sea level by about 58 m, and ice loss from Antarctica contributed significantly...

  13. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Rodhe, Lars

    2007-03-01

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  14. Sheet Beam Klystron Instability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.

    2009-01-01

    Using the principle of energy balance we develop a 2D theory for calculating growth rates of instability in a two-cavity model of a sheet beam klystron. An important ingredient is a TE-like mode in the gap that also gives a longitudinal kick to the beam. When compared with a self-consistent particle-in-cell calculation, with sheet beam klystron-type parameters, agreement is quite good up to half the design current, 65 A; at full current, however, other, current-dependent effects come in and the results deviate significantly

  15. The social balance sheet 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Ph. Delhez; P. Heuse

    2005-01-01

    Each year, in the 4th quarter’s Economic Review, the National Bank examines the provisional results of the social balance sheets. As all the social balance sheets are not yet available for 2004, the study is based on a limited population of enterprises, compiled according to the principle of a constant sample. This population is made up of 38,530 enterprises employing around 1,331,000 workers in 2004. The main results of the analysis, in terms of employment, working hours, labour cost and tra...

  16. A late Holocene metal record of Andean climate and anthropogenic activity in lake sediments near Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, S. A.; Kelly, M. A.; Jackson, B. P.; Stroup, J. S.; Osterberg, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    The tropical hypothesis maintains that major changes in global climate are motivated by phenomena based at tropical latitudes. Evidence for this hypothesis lies in: modern-day observations of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); East African lake sediment records of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) position that precede high-latitude changes; and the potential for ITCZ shifts to cause major CO2 degassing from the Southern Ocean. In order to improve the understanding of these phenomena we present an ~1800 year record of atmospheric metal deposition in a lake sediment core near Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru (13.9 °S). In June, 2010 we collected a 1.45 meter-long core from Yanacocha - a small, closed-basin tarn that has been isolated from glacial input since ~11,200 BP. The chronology for the core is based on 4 of 6 AMS 14C dates on aquatic macrofossils and one sharp Zr/Ti anomaly at 36 cm, likely derived from the 350 BP eruption of Huaynaputina. We completely digested organic-rich core samples at 1 cm resolution using HNO3, HCl, and HF in a closed-vessel microwave system, and then analyzed the digestates for 67 metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Here we show fluxes of lithogenic metals (Fe, Nb, Ti, and Zr) that reflect changes in wind strength and aridity, fluxes of lithogenic metal isotopes (REEs and Pb) that reflect wind direction, and enrichment factors (EFs) of metals (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb) that reflect anthropogenic activity. Five episodic peaks in lithogenic metal fluxes, centered around 1800, 1300, 900, 600, and 100 yrs BP, are thought to result from either drier or windier conditions, potentially caused by a northern ITCZ position or a more persistent El Niño state. The provenance of atmospheric deposition, evidenced by REE ratios (light REEs / heavy REEs), suggest that high lithogenic fluxes are associated with a change in wind direction, possibly caused by a change in the ENSO state, which will be explored with forthcoming Pb

  17. Environmental Management Fact Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    In recent years, the need for nuclear materials has decreased and the Department of Energy (DOE) has focused greater attention on cleaning up contamination left from past activities. The Office of Environmental Management (EM) within DOE is responsible for managing waste and cleaning up contamination at DOE sites across the nation. This collection…

  18. Nuclear accident dosimetry. Revision of emergency data sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.

    1976-09-01

    The Emergency Data Sheets on Nuclear Accident Dosimetry have been revealed following the publication of a three part manual on this subject (Delafield, Dennis and Gibson, AERE-R 7485/6/7, 1973). This memo provides an explanation of the action levels adopted for the initial segregation of irradiated persons following a criticality accident, by monitoring the activity of indium foils contained in personnel dosimeters and the induced body sodium activity. The data sheets are given as an Appendix. They provide basic information on; the segregation of irradiated persons, the estimation of radiation exposure, and the assessment of personnel γ-ray and neutron doses. (author)

  19. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  20. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  1. A Physical Activity Reference Data-Set Recorded from Older Adults Using Body-Worn Inertial Sensors and Video Technology—The ADAPT Study Data-Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kevin Bourke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity monitoring algorithms are often developed using conditions that do not represent real-life activities, not developed using the target population, or not labelled to a high enough resolution to capture the true detail of human movement. We have designed a semi-structured supervised laboratory-based activity protocol and an unsupervised free-living activity protocol and recorded 20 older adults performing both protocols while wearing up to 12 body-worn sensors. Subjects’ movements were recorded using synchronised cameras (≥25 fps, both deployed in a laboratory environment to capture the in-lab portion of the protocol and a body-worn camera for out-of-lab activities. Video labelling of the subjects’ movements was performed by five raters using 11 different category labels. The overall level of agreement was high (percentage of agreement >90.05%, and Cohen’s Kappa, corrected kappa, Krippendorff’s alpha and Fleiss’ kappa >0.86. A total of 43.92 h of activities were recorded, including 9.52 h of in-lab and 34.41 h of out-of-lab activities. A total of 88.37% and 152.01% of planned transitions were recorded during the in-lab and out-of-lab scenarios, respectively. This study has produced the most detailed dataset to date of inertial sensor data, synchronised with high frame-rate (≥25 fps video labelled data recorded in a free-living environment from older adults living independently. This dataset is suitable for validation of existing activity classification systems and development of new activity classification algorithms.

  2. Whooping Cough (Pertussis) - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... months 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Tosferina (pertussis) The best ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  3. The quantitative inspection of iron aluminide green sheet using transient thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, Michael L.; Hinders, Mark K.; Scorey, Clive; Winfree, William

    1999-01-01

    The recent development of manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of thin iron aluminide, FeAl, sheet requires advanced quantitative methods for on-line inspection. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for flaws and the development of appropriate flaw detection methods are key elements in an effective quality management system. The first step in the fabrication of thin FeAl alloy sheet is the formation of a green sheet, either by cold rolling or tape casting FeAl powder mixed with organic binding agents. The finished sheet is obtained using a series of process steps involving binder elimination, densification, sintering, and annealing. Non-uniformities within the green sheet are the major contributor to material failure in subsequent sheet processing and the production of non-conforming finished sheet. Previous work has demonstrated the advantages of using active thermography to detect the flaws and heterogeneity within green powder composites (1)(2)(3). The production environment and physical characteristics of these composites provide for unique challenges in developing a rapid nondestructive inspection capability. Thermography is non-contact and minimizes the potential damage to the fragile green sheet. Limited access to the material also demands a one-sided inspection technique. In this paper, we will describe the application of thermography for 100% on-line inspection within an industrial process. This approach is cost competitive with alternative technologies, such as x-ray imaging systems, and provides the required sensitivity to the variations in material composition. The formation of green sheet flaws and their transformation into defects within intermediate and finished sheet products will be described. A green sheet conformance criterion will be presented which would significantly reduce the probability of processing poor quality green sheet which contributes to higher waste and inferior bulk alloy sheet

  4. Principles for designing proteins with cavities formed by curved β sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos, Enrique; Basanta, Benjamin; Chidyausiku, Tamuka M.; Tang, Yuefeng; Oberdorfer, Gustav; Liu, Gaohua; Swapna, G. V. T.; Guan, Rongjin; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Dou, Jiayi; Pereira, Jose Henrique; Xiao, Rong; Sankaran, Banumathi; Zwart, Peter H.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Baker, David

    2017-01-12

    Active sites and ligand-binding cavities in native proteins are often formed by curved β sheets, and the ability to control β-sheet curvature would allow design of binding proteins with cavities customized to specific ligands. Toward this end, we investigated the mechanisms controlling β-sheet curvature by studying the geometry of β sheets in naturally occurring protein structures and folding simulations. The principles emerging from this analysis were used to design, de novo, a series of proteins with curved β sheets topped with α helices. Nuclear magnetic resonance and crystal structures of the designs closely match the computational models, showing that β-sheet curvature can be controlled with atomic-level accuracy. Our approach enables the design of proteins with cavities and provides a route to custom design ligand-binding and catalytic sites.

  5. ICESat's First Year of Measurements Over the Polar Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, C. A.

    2004-05-01

    NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission was developed to measure changes in elevation of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Its primary mission goal is to significantly refine estimates of polar ice sheet mass balance. Obtaining precise, spatially dense, ice sheet elevations through time is the first step towards this goal. ICESat data will then enable study of associations between observed ice changes and dynamic or climatic forcing factors, and thus enable improved estimation of the present and future contributions of the ice sheets to global sea level rise. ICESat was launched on January 12, 2003 and acquired science data from February 20th to March 29th with the first of the three lasers of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Data acquisition with the second laser began on September 25th and continued until November 18th, 2003. For one-year change detection, the second laser is scheduled for operation from approximately February 17th to March 20th, 2004. Additional operational periods will be selected to 1) enable periodic measurements through the year, and 2) to support of other NASA Earth Science Enterprise missions and activities. To obtain these precise ice sheet elevations, GLAS has a 1064 nm wavelength laser operating at 40 Hz with a designed range precision of about 10 cm. The laser footprints are about 70 m in diameter on the Earth's surface and are spaced every 172 m along-track. The on-board GPS receiver enables radial orbit determinations to an accuracy better than 5 cm. The star-tracking attitude-determination system will enable laser footprints to be located to 6 m horizontally when attitude calibration is completed. The orbital altitude averages 600 km at an inclination of 94 degrees with coverage extending from 86 degrees N and S latitude. The spacecraft attitude can be controlled to point the laser beam to within 50 m of surface reference tracks over the ice sheets and to point off-nadir up to 5 degrees to

  6. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier against...

  7. Manifold free multiple sheet superplastic forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Bridges, Robert L.

    2004-01-13

    Fluid-forming compositions in a container attached to enclosed adjacent sheets are heated to relatively high temperatures to generate fluids (gases) that effect inflation of the sheets. Fluid rates to the enclosed space between the sheets can be regulated by the canal from the container. Inflated articles can be produced by a continuous, rather than batch-type, process.

  8. On the possible eigenoscillations of neutral sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, W.A.; Costa, J.M. da; Aruquipa, E.G.; Sudano, J.P.

    1974-12-01

    A neutral sheet model with hyperbolic tangent equilibrium magnetic field and hyperbolic square secant density profiles is considered. It is shown that the equation for small oscillations takes the form of an eigenvalue oscillation problem. Computed eigenfrequencies of the geomagnetic neutral sheet were found to be in the range of the resonant frequencies of the geomagnetic plasma sheet computed by other authors

  9. Extravehicular Activity Fact Sheet: An EVA Chronology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology chronicles the 154 EVAs conducted from March 1965 to April 1997. It is intended to make clear the crucial role played by EVA in...

  10. Fact Sheet 1999. Norwegian Petroleum Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Jan

    1999-10-01

    As discussed in this publication, petroleum resources in the order of 9.5 billion (bn) standard cubic metres (scm) oil equivalents (oe) have been discovered on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS), 77 per cent in the North Sea, 19 per cent in the Norwegian Sea and four per cent in the Barents Sea. By the end of 1998, remaining reserves on the NCS totalled 1.6 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 160 mill scm oe of natural gas liquids. Thirty-two exploration wells, including 21 wildcats and 11 for appraisal, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1998. 939 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. In 1998 governmental approval was given for the Huldra, Snorre B phase II, Gullfaks satellites phase II and Yme Beta West. Norwegian offshore petroleum production in 1998 totalled 222.5 scm oe, including 168.9 mill scm oe of oil, 43.6 mill scm oe of gas and 10 mill scm oe of NGL/condensate. Oil production declined by 4 per cent compared with 1997, while gas sales rose by 2 per cent. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1998 was NOK 123 bn, or about 30 per cent of the country`s total earnings from foreign sales. Petroleum production and pipeline transport accounted for 12 per cent of Norway`s gross national product. Net government revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations is put at 27.6 billion NOK. The publication also includes a list of white papers and a list of useful postal addresses. 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project (ISMIP6) contribution to CMIP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Sophie M.J.; Payne, Tony; Larour, Eric; Seroussi, Helene; Goelzer, Heiko; Lipscomb, William; Gregory, Jonathan; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Shepherd, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Reducing the uncertainty in the past, present and future contribution of ice sheets to sea-level change requires a coordinated effort between the climate and glaciology communities. The Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6) is the primary activity within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project – phase 6 (CMIP6) focusing on the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. In this paper, we describe the framework for ISMIP6 and its relationship to other activities within CMIP6. The ISMIP6 experimental design relies on CMIP6 climate models and includes, for the first time within CMIP, coupled ice sheet – climate models as well as standalone ice sheet models. To facilitate analysis of the multi-model ensemble and to generate a set of standard climate inputs for standalone ice sheet models, ISMIP6 defines a protocol for all variables related to ice sheets. ISMIP6 will provide a basis for investigating the feedbacks, impacts, and sea-level changes associated with dynamic ice sheets and for quantifying the uncertainty in ice-sheet-sourced global sea-level change. PMID:29697697

  12. Geometry of thin liquid sheet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1994-01-01

    Incompresible, thin sheet flows have been of research interest for many years. Those studies were mainly concerned with the stability of the flow in a surrounding gas. Squire was the first to carry out a linear, invicid stability analysis of sheet flow in air and compare the results with experiment. Dombrowski and Fraser did an experimental study of the disintegration of sheet flows using several viscous liquids. They also detected the formulation of holes in their sheet flows. Hagerty and Shea carried out an inviscid stability analysis and calculated growth rates with experimental values. They compared their calculated growth rates with experimental values. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. Brown experimentally investigated thin liquid sheet flows as a method of application of thin films. Clark and Dumbrowski carried out second-order stability analysis for invicid sheet flows. Lin introduced viscosity into the linear stability analysis of thin sheet flows in a vacuum. Mansour and Chigier conducted an experimental study of the breakup of a sheet flow surrounded by high-speed air. Lin et al. did a linear stability analysis that included viscosity and a surrounding gas. Rangel and Sirignano carried out both a linear and nonlinear invisid stability analysis that applies for any density ratio between the sheet liquid and the surrounding gas. Now there is renewed interest in sheet flows because of their possible application as low mass radiating surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of sheet flows that are of interest for a space radiator system. Analytical expressions that govern the sheet geometry are compared with experimental results. Since a space radiator will operate in a vacuum, the analysis does not include any drag force on the sheet flow.

  13. Multi-decadal dynamic thinning on the northwest margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Kjær, Kurt H.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    records with a 25 m grid resolution and vertical uncertainty of 4.6m. Comparative DEMs were derived from laser altimetry data recorded in 2005 and 2010. Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) can be partitioned into surface mass balance (SMB) processes (runoff and precipitation) and ice dynamics...

  14. Biogeochemical cycling in a subarctic fjord adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meire, L.

    2016-01-01

    Temperatures in the Arctic have increased rapidly in recent years resulting in the melting of sea ice and glaciers at unprecedented rates. In 2012, sea ice extent across the Arctic reached a record minimum and the melt extent of Greenland Ice Sheet reached a record maximum. The accelerated mass loss

  15. On the energy release rate in a turbulent current sheet on the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardakov, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that turbulent current sheets on the Sun, realizing in the form of the Parker - Sweet flow, are in quasilinear regime of turbulence (or in the regime of instability threshold). The energy release rate in such sheets does not exceed 10 26 erg/s for typical plasma parameters in active regions

  16. Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project (ISMIP6) contribution to CMIP6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowicki, Sophie M J; Payne, Anthony; Larour, Eric; Seroussi, Helene; Goelzer, Heiko|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412549123; Lipscomb, William; Gregory, Jonathan; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Shepherd, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the uncertainty in the past, present, and future contribution of ice sheets to sea-level change requires a coordinated effort between the climate and glaciology communities. The Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6) is the primary activity within the Coupled Model

  17. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  18. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  19. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  20. Record club

    CERN Document Server

    Record club

    2010-01-01

      Bonjour a tous, Voici les 24 nouveaux DVD de Juillet disponibles depuis quelques jours, sans oublier les 5 CD Pop musique. Découvrez la saga du terroriste Carlos, la vie de Gainsbourg et les aventures de Lucky Luke; angoissez avec Paranormal Activity et évadez vous sur Pandora dans la peau d’Avatar. Toutes les nouveautés sont à découvrir directement au club. Pour en connaître la liste complète ainsi que le reste de la collection du Record Club, nous vous invitons sur notre site web: http://cern.ch/crc. Toutes les dernières nouveautés sont dans la rubrique « Discs of the Month ». Rappel : le club est ouvert les Lundis, Mercredis, Vendredis de 12h30 à 13h00 au restaurant n°2, bâtiment 504. A bientôt chers Record Clubbers.  

  1. Load Test in Sheet Pile

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Orlando Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    In this work, are discussed experiences in the use of mathematical modeling and testing in hydraulic engineering structures. For this purpose the results of load tests in sheet pile, evaluating horizontal and vertical deformations that occur in the same exposed. Comparisons between theoretical methods for calculating deformations and mathematical models based on the Finite Element Method are established. Finally, the coincidence between the numerical model and the results of the load test ful...

  2. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  3. Moisture content in raw rubber sheet analyzed by transflectance near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnarit Rittiron

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content is an important trait for rubber sheet trading system. Therefore, a calibration equation for predicting moisture content was created by near infrared (NIR technique in order to develop a more fair trading system in Thailand. Spectra were recorded in two systems. One was measurement on each rubber sheet and the other was on a pile of sheets. Both were measured by a handheld NIR spectrometer in the short wavelength region (700–1100 nm in the transflectance mode using Teflon as a diffuse reflector. The spectra showed the peak at about 900 nm which belongs to isoprene, the major component of rubber sheet. Pretreatment with second derivative was applied to remove baseline shift effect occurring due to thickness differences on each rubber sheet. From validation results, moisture contents predicted by single sheet system were more accurate than a pile of sheet system with standard error of prediction (SEP = 0.39% and bias of -0.07%, and they were not significantly different from the actual values at 95% confidence. As a result, determining moisture content in each rubber sheet by a handheld NIR spectrometer provided accurate values, easy and rapid operation.

  4. Record breakers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the sixties, CERN’s Fellows were but a handful of about 50 young experimentalists present on site to complete their training. Today, their number has increased to a record-breaking 500. They come from many different fields and are spread across CERN’s different activity areas.   “Diversifying the Fellowship programme has been the key theme in recent years,” comments James Purvis, Head of the Recruitment, Programmes and Monitoring group in the HR Department. “In particular, the 2005 five-yearly review introduced the notion of ‘senior’ and ‘junior’ Fellowships, broadening the target audience to include those with Bachelor-level qualifications.” Diversification made CERN’s Fellowship programme attractive to a wider audience but the number of Fellows on site could not have increased so much without the support of EU-funded projects, which were instrumental in the growth of the programme. ...

  5. Data analysis & probability drill sheets : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Forest, Chris

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the data analysis & probability concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages your students to review the concepts in unique ways. Each drill sheet contains warm-up and timed drill activities for the student to practice data analysis & probability concepts.

  6. Participation in Sports and Civic Engagement. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mark Hugo; Moore, Kimberlee

    2006-01-01

    One reason to offer sports in school is to teach youth the values, skills, and habits that will make them more active, engaged, and responsible citizens. Past evidence on the civic effects of sports is mixed, but points to some potential positive civic effects. This fact sheet uses recent data from the 2002 National Youth Survey of Civic…

  7. State Arts Agency Fact Sheet: Support for Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This national overview of state arts agency grants and services for arts education includes summary statistics and geographic distribution. The fact sheet uses data from Final Descriptive Reports of state arts agency grant-making activities submitted annually to the National Assembly of State Arts Agencies (NASAA) and the National Endowment for…

  8. Validation of Using Fitness Center Attendance Electronic Records to Assess the Frequency of Moderate/Vigorous Leisure-Time Physical Activity among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amireault, Steve; Godin, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide three construct validity evidence for using fitness center attendance electronic records to objectively assess the frequency of leisure-time physical activity among adults. One hundred members of a fitness center (45 women and 55 men; aged 18 to 64 years) completed a self-report leisure-time physical…

  9. Orientation determination of interfacial beta-sheet structures in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khoi Tan; King, John Thomas; Chen, Zhan

    2010-07-01

    Structural information such as orientations of interfacial proteins and peptides is important for understanding properties and functions of such biological molecules, which play crucial roles in biological applications and processes such as antimicrobial selectivity, membrane protein activity, biocompatibility, and biosensing performance. The alpha-helical and beta-sheet structures are the most widely encountered secondary structures in peptides and proteins. In this paper, for the first time, a method to quantify the orientation of the interfacial beta-sheet structure using a combined attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR) and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopic study was developed. As an illustration of the methodology, the orientation of tachyplesin I, a 17 amino acid peptide with an antiparallel beta-sheet, adsorbed to polymer surfaces as well as associated with a lipid bilayer was determined using the regular and chiral SFG spectra, together with polarized ATR-FTIR amide I signals. Both the tilt angle (theta) and the twist angle (psi) of the beta-sheet at interfaces are determined. The developed method in this paper can be used to obtain in situ structural information of beta-sheet components in complex molecules. The combination of this method and the existing methodology that is currently used to investigate alpha-helical structures will greatly broaden the application of optical spectroscopy in physical chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and structural biology.

  10. Indoor external dose rates due to decorative sheet stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, C.H.; Sheu, R.D.; Jiang, S.H. [Dept. of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    2002-03-01

    The specific activities in decorative sheet stone made of granite or marble were measured, whereby the absolute peak efficiency of the HPGe detectors employed in the measurements for the sheet-stone sample was determined using the semi-empirical method. The spatial distribution for the indoor external dose rates due to the radionuclides present in the decorative sheet stone used to clad the floor and the four walls of a standard room was calculated using a three-dimensional point kernel computer code. It was found that the spatial distribution for the indoor dose rates was complex and non-uniform, which represents a difference in relation to the results of earlier studies. (orig.)

  11. Indoor external dose rates due to decorative sheet stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.H.; Sheu, R.D.; Jiang, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    The specific activities in decorative sheet stone made of granite or marble were measured, whereby the absolute peak efficiency of the HPGe detectors employed in the measurements for the sheet-stone sample was determined using the semi-empirical method. The spatial distribution for the indoor external dose rates due to the radionuclides present in the decorative sheet stone used to clad the floor and the four walls of a standard room was calculated using a three-dimensional point kernel computer code. It was found that the spatial distribution for the indoor dose rates was complex and non-uniform, which represents a difference in relation to the results of earlier studies. (orig.)

  12. The extreme melt across the Greenland ice sheet in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Mote, T. L.; Tedesco, M.; Albert, M. R.; Keegan, K.; Shuman, C. A.; DiGirolamo, N. E.; Neumann, G.

    2012-10-01

    The discovery of the 2012 extreme melt event across almost the entire surface of the Greenland ice sheet is presented. Data from three different satellite sensors - including the Oceansat-2 scatterometer, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder - are combined to obtain composite melt maps, representing the most complete melt conditions detectable across the ice sheet. Satellite observations reveal that melt occurred at or near the surface of the Greenland ice sheet across 98.6% of its entire extent on 12 July 2012, including the usually cold polar areas at high altitudes like Summit in the dry snow facies of the ice sheet. This melt event coincided with an anomalous ridge of warm air that became stagnant over Greenland. As seen in melt occurrences from multiple ice core records at Summit reported in the published literature, such a melt event is rare with the last significant one occurring in 1889 and the next previous one around seven centuries earlier in the Medieval Warm Period. Given its rarity, the 2012 extreme melt across Greenland provides an exceptional opportunity for new studies in broad interdisciplinary geophysical research.

  13. Experimental formability analysis of bondal sandwich sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Abdolvahed; Banabic, Dorel

    2018-05-01

    Metal/polymer/metal sandwich sheets have recently attracted the interests of industries like automotive industry. These sandwich sheets have superior properties over single-layer metallic sheets including good sound and vibration damping and light weight. However, the formability of these sandwich sheets should be enhanced which requires more research. In this paper, the formability of Bondal sheet (DC06/viscoelastic polymer/DC06 sandwich sheet) was studied through different types of experiments. The mechanical properties of Bondal were determined by uniaxial tensile tests. Hemispherical punch stretching and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out to determine the forming limit diagram (FLD) of Bondal. Furthermore, cylindrical and square cup drawing tests were performed in dry and oil lubricated conditions. These tests were conducted at different blank holding forces (BHFs). An interesting observation about Bondal sheet deep drawing was obtaining of higher drawing depths at dry condition in comparison with oil-lubricated condition.

  14. Buckling and stretching of thin viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kiely, Doireann; Breward, Chris; Griffiths, Ian; Howell, Peter; Lange, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    Thin glass sheets are used in smartphone, battery and semiconductor technology, and may be manufactured by producing a relatively thick glass slab and subsequently redrawing it to a required thickness. The resulting sheets commonly possess undesired centerline ripples and thick edges. We present a mathematical model in which a viscous sheet undergoes redraw in the direction of gravity, and show that, in a sufficiently strong gravitational field, buckling is driven by compression in a region near the bottom of the sheet, and limited by viscous resistance to stretching of the sheet. We use asymptotic analysis in the thin-sheet, low-Reynolds-number limit to determine the centerline profile and growth rate of such a viscous sheet.

  15. 77 FR 42339 - Records Schedules; Availability and Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ..., 9 items, 7 temporary items). Records of financial reporting and accounting. Proposed for permanent... litigation file duplicates. Proposed for permanent retention are investigation indices, history sheets with..., ownership, value, disposition, and accounting classification of real and personal property assets. Included...

  16. Chronic neural probe for simultaneous recording of single-unit, multi-unit, and local field potential activity from multiple brain sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothof, F.; Bonini, L.; Lanzilotto, M.; Livi, A.; Fogassi, L.; Orban, G. A.; Paul, O.; Ruther, P.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Drug resistant focal epilepsy can be treated by resecting the epileptic focus requiring a precise focus localisation using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) probes. As commercial SEEG probes offer only a limited spatial resolution, probes of higher channel count and design freedom enabling the incorporation of macro and microelectrodes would help increasing spatial resolution and thus open new perspectives for investigating mechanisms underlying focal epilepsy and its treatment. This work describes a new fabrication process for SEEG probes with materials and dimensions similar to clinical probes enabling recording single neuron activity at high spatial resolution. Approach. Polyimide is used as a biocompatible flexible substrate into which platinum electrodes and leads are integrated with a minimal feature size of 5 μm. The polyimide foils are rolled into the cylindrical probe shape at a diameter of 0.8 mm. The resulting probe features match those of clinically approved devices. Tests in saline solution confirmed the probe stability and functionality. Probes were implanted into the brain of one monkey (Macaca mulatta), trained to perform different motor tasks. Suitable configurations including up to 128 electrode sites allow the recording of task-related neuronal signals. Main results. Probes with 32 and 64 electrode sites were implanted in the posterior parietal cortex. Local field potentials and multi-unit activity were recorded as early as one hour after implantation. Stable single-unit activity was achieved for up to 26 days after implantation of a 64-channel probe. All recorded signals showed modulation during task execution. Significance. With the novel probes it is possible to record stable biologically relevant data over a time span exceeding the usual time needed for epileptic focus localisation in human patients. This is the first time that single units are recorded along cylindrical polyimide probes chronically implanted 22 mm deep into the

  17. A stereo-compound hybrid microscope for combined intracellular and optical recording of invertebrate neural network activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, William N; Wang, Jean; Brandon, Christopher J

    2007-05-15

    Optical recording studies of invertebrate neural networks with voltage-sensitive dyes seldom employ conventional intracellular electrodes. This may in part be due to the traditional reliance on compound microscopes for such work. While such microscopes have high light-gathering power, they do not provide depth of field, making working with sharp electrodes difficult. Here we describe a hybrid microscope design, with switchable compound and stereo objectives, that eases the use of conventional intracellular electrodes in optical recording experiments. We use it, in combination with a voltage-sensitive dye and photodiode array, to identify neurons participating in the swim motor program of the marine mollusk Tritonia. This microscope design should be applicable to optical recording studies in many preparations.

  18. Dynamic Antarctic ice sheet during the early to mid-Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, Edward; DeConto, Robert M.; Pollard, David; Levy, Richard H.

    2016-03-01

    Geological data indicate that there were major variations in Antarctic ice sheet volume and extent during the early to mid-Miocene. Simulating such large-scale changes is problematic because of a strong hysteresis effect, which results in stability once the ice sheets have reached continental size. A relatively narrow range of atmospheric CO2 concentrations indicated by proxy records exacerbates this problem. Here, we are able to simulate large-scale variability of the early to mid-Miocene Antarctic ice sheet because of three developments in our modeling approach. (i) We use a climate-ice sheet coupling method utilizing a high-resolution atmospheric component to account for ice sheet-climate feedbacks. (ii) The ice sheet model includes recently proposed mechanisms for retreat into deep subglacial basins caused by ice-cliff failure and ice-shelf hydrofracture. (iii) We account for changes in the oxygen isotopic composition of the ice sheet by using isotope-enabled climate and ice sheet models. We compare our modeling results with ice-proximal records emerging from a sedimentological drill core from the Ross Sea (Andrill-2A) that is presented in a companion article. The variability in Antarctic ice volume that we simulate is equivalent to a seawater oxygen isotope signal of 0.52-0.66‰, or a sea level equivalent change of 30-36 m, for a range of atmospheric CO2 between 280 and 500 ppm and a changing astronomical configuration. This result represents a substantial advance in resolving the long-standing model data conflict of Miocene Antarctic ice sheet and sea level variability.

  19. 78 FR 70570 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Arrival and Departure Record (Forms I-94 and I-94W) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... information technology; and (e) the annual costs burden to respondents or record keepers from the collection... estimated time to complete ESTA or Form I-94W. There are no proposed changes to Form I-94. Type of Review... Responses: 4,387,550. Estimated Time per Response: 8 minutes. Estimated Burden Hours: 583,544. Estimated...

  20. Strontium-90 fluoride data sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a compilation of available data and appropriate literature references on the properties of strontium-90 fluoride and nonradioactive strontium fluoride. The objective of the document is to compile in a single source pertinent data to assist potential users in the development, licensing, and use of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled radioisotope heat sources for terrestrial power conversion and thermal applications. The report is an update of the Strontium-90 Fluoride Data Sheet (BNWL-2284) originally issued in April 1977.

  1. Vietnamese Hurricane Response Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Các tờ dữ kiện được cung cấp nơi đây mô tả vai trò của EPA trong việc đáp ứng với bão và cách các chương trình cụ thể cung cấp sự hỗ trợ. The Vietnamese fact sheets provided here describe EPA's role in a hurricane response.

  2. Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project (ISMIP6) Contribution to CMIP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Sophie M. J.; Payne, Tony; Larour, Eric; Seroussi, Helene; Goelzer, Heiko; Lipscomb, William; Gregory, Jonathan; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Shepherd, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the uncertainty in the past, present, and future contribution of ice sheets to sea-level change requires a coordinated effort between the climate and glaciology communities. The Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6) is the primary activity within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6) focusing on the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. In this paper, we describe the framework for ISMIP6 and its relationship with other activities within CMIP6. The ISMIP6 experimental design relies on CMIP6 climate models and includes, for the first time within CMIP, coupled ice-sheetclimate models as well as standalone ice-sheet models. To facilitate analysis of the multi-model ensemble and to generate a set of standard climate inputs for standalone ice-sheet models, ISMIP6 defines a protocol for all variables related to ice sheets. ISMIP6 will provide a basis for investigating the feedbacks, impacts, and sea-level changes associated with dynamic ice sheets and for quantifying the uncertainty in ice-sheet-sourced global sea-level change.

  3. Thematic sheets on the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevissen, E.; Galle, Ch.; L'Hostis, V.; Millard, A.; Moulin, Ch.; Mauchien, P.; Vitart, X.; Rivalier, P.; Diop, Ch.; Boullis, B.; Feron, D.; Santarini, G.; Lieven, Th.; Laffont, G.; Cachon, L.; Moulin, C.

    2004-01-01

    This document presents eleven description sheets of researches realized in the CEA laboratories. The following topics are concerned: the diffusion of tritiated water, iodine 125 and chlorine 36 in the Meuse/Haute-Marne rocks of the underground laboratory of Bure; effect of the granulates nature on the thermal and hydro mechanics behavior of concrete at high temperature (60-450 C); first validation of a damage model for reinforced concrete affected by the corrosion of its reinforcements; analysis of pollutants traces; centrifuge extractors of the high activity laboratory; the advanced partitioning; the disadvantages of the Monte-Carlo method in the radiation protection domain; the Purex process; materials damage by enzymes; the acoustic emission applied for the materials corrosion; the helium circuits technology for the gas cooled reactors; high level speciation. (A.L.B.)

  4. Casimir interactions between graphene sheets and metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosdoff, D.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2011-01-01

    The Casimir force between graphene sheets and metamaterials is studied. Theoretical results based on the Lifshitz theory for layered, planar, two-dimensional systems in media are presented. We consider graphene-graphene, graphene-metamaterial, and metal-graphene-metamaterial configurations. We find that quantum effects of the temperature-dependent force are not apparent until the submicron range. In contrast to results with bulk dielectric and bulk metallic materials, no Casimir repulsion is found when graphene is placed on top of a magnetically active metamaterial substrate, regardless of the strength of the low-frequency magnetic response. In the case of the metal-graphene-metamaterial setting, repulsion between the metamaterial and the metal-graphene system is possible only when the dielectric response from the metal contributes significantly.

  5. Reconstructing the temperature regime of the Weichselian ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmlund, P.

    1997-01-01

    Areas in Sweden are described, where the ice could have been at the pressure melting point during the last ice age. In order to calculate probable degrees of glacial erosion, estimates on the time of ice coverage and the temperature distribution in time are combined data on erosion rates from present day glaciers. An estimate of the extent of ice cover can be made using the proxy temperature record from the Greenland ice cores and a model of the ice sheet. Adding the estimations on climate and ice sheet shape outlined in this contribution, to erosion figures we may conclude that the crucial areas for glaciation erosion are within the mountains and where the present Baltic and the Gulf of Bothnia are situated. At these sites erosion rates of some tens of meters may have occurred. In inland northern Sweden and inland southern Sweden the potential for glacial erosion seems to be small. 14 refs

  6. Reconstructing the temperature regime of the Weichselian ice sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmlund, P. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography

    1997-04-01

    Areas in Sweden are described, where the ice could have been at the pressure melting point during the last ice age. In order to calculate probable degrees of glacial erosion, estimates on the time of ice coverage and the temperature distribution in time are combined data on erosion rates from present day glaciers. An estimate of the extent of ice cover can be made using the proxy temperature record from the Greenland ice cores and a model of the ice sheet. Adding the estimations on climate and ice sheet shape outlined in this contribution, to erosion figures we may conclude that the crucial areas for glaciation erosion are within the mountains and where the present Baltic and the Gulf of Bothnia are situated. At these sites erosion rates of some tens of meters may have occurred. In inland northern Sweden and inland southern Sweden the potential for glacial erosion seems to be small. 14 refs.

  7. Reconstructions of Fire Activity in North America and Europe over the Past 250 Years: A comparison of the Global Charcoal Database with Historical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, B. I.; Marlon, J. R.; Mouillot, F.; Daniau, A. L.; Bartlein, P. J.; Schaefer, A.

    2017-12-01

    Fire is intertwined with climate variability and human activities in terms of both its causes and consequences, and the most complete understanding will require a multidisciplinary approach. The focus in this study is to compare data-based records of variability in climate and human activities, with fire and land cover change records over the past 250 years in North America and Europe. The past 250 years is a critical period for contextualizing the present-day impact of human activities on climate. Data are from the Global Charcoal Database and from historical reconstructions of past burning. The GCD is comprised of sediment records of charcoal accumulation rates collected around the world by dozens of researchers, and facilitated by the PAGES Global Paleofire Working Group. The historical reconstruction extends back to 1750 CE is based on literature and government records when available, and completed with non-charcoal proxies including tree ring scars or storylines when data are missing. The key data sets are independent records, and the methods and results are independent of any climate or fire-model simulations. Results are presented for Europe, and subsets of North America. Analysis of fire trends from GCD and the historical reconstruction shows broad agreement, with some regional variations as expected. Western USA and North America in general show the best agreement, with departures in the GCD and historical reconstruction fire trends in the present day that may reflect limits in the data itself. Eastern North America shows agreement with an increase in fire from 1750 to 1900, and a strong decreasing trend thereafter. We present ideas for why the trends agree and disagree relative to historical events, and to the sequence of land-cover change in the regions of interest. Together with careful consideration of uncertainties in the data, these results can be used to constrain Earth System Model simulations of both past fire, which explicitly incorporate

  8. Dynamics of Radially Expanding Liquid Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Nayanika; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2018-04-01

    The process of atomization often involves ejecting thin liquid sheets at high speeds from a nozzle that causes the sheet to flap violently and break up into fine droplets. The flapping of the liquid sheet has long been attributed to the sheet's interaction with the surrounding gas phase. Here, we present experimental evidence to the contrary and show that the flapping is caused by the thinning of the liquid sheet as it spreads out from the nozzle exit. The measured growth rates of the waves agree remarkably well with the predictions of a recent theory that accounts for the sheet's thinning but ignores aerodynamic interactions. We anticipate these results to not only lead to more accurate predictions of the final drop-size distribution but also enable more efficient designs of atomizers.

  9. Modern climate challenges and the geological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Today's changing climate poses challenges about the influence of human activity, such as greenhouse gas emissions and land use changes, the natural variability of Earth's climate, and complex feedback processes. Ice core and instrumental records show that over the last century, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations have risen to 390 parts per million volume (ppmv), about 40% above pre-Industrial Age concentrations of 280 ppmv and nearly twice those of the last glacial maximum about 22,000 years ago. Similar historical increases are recorded in atmospheric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). There is general agreement that human activity is largely responsible for these trends. Substantial evidence also suggests that elevated greenhouse gas concentrations are responsible for much of the recent atmospheric and oceanic warming, rising sea level, declining Arctic sea-ice cover, retreating glaciers and small ice caps, decreased mass balance of the Greenland and parts of the Antarctic ice sheets, and decreasing ocean pH (ocean "acidification"). Elevated CO2 concentrations raise concern not only from observations of the climate system, but because feedbacks associated with reduced reflectivity from in land and sea ice, sea level, and land vegetation relatively slowly (centuries or longer) to elevated 2 levels. This means that additional human-induced climate change is expected even if the rate of CO2 emissions is reduced or concentrations immediately stabilized.

  10. A stereo-compound hybrid microscope for combined intracellular and optical recording of invertebrate neural network activity

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, William N.; Wang, Jean; Brandon, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Optical recording studies of invertebrate neural networks with voltage-sensitive dyes seldom employ conventional intracellular electrodes. This may in part be due to the traditional reliance on compound microscopes for such work. While such microscopes have high light-gathering power, they do not provide depth of field, making working with sharp electrodes difficult. Here we describe a hybrid microscope design, with switchable compound and stereo objectives, that eases the use of conventional...

  11. Shape Optimization of Swimming Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, J.; Hosoi, A.E.

    2005-03-01

    The swimming behavior of a flexible sheet which moves by propagating deformation waves along its body was first studied by G. I. Taylor in 1951. In addition to being of theoretical interest, this problem serves as a useful model of the locomotion of gastropods and various micro-organisms. Although the mechanics of swimming via wave propagation has been studied extensively, relatively little work has been done to define or describe optimal swimming by this mechanism.We carry out this objective for a sheet that is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous Newtonian fluid. Using a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics, we derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to optimize swimming speed and efficiency. The optimization equations are solved numerically using two different schemes: a limited memory BFGS method that uses cubic splines to represent the wave profile, and a multi-shooting Runge-Kutta approach that uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method to vary the parameters of the equations until the constraints are satisfied. The former approach is less efficient but generalizes nicely to the non-lubrication setting. For each optimization problem we obtain a one parameter family of solutions that becomes singular in a self-similar fashion as the parameter approaches a critical value. We explore the validity of the lubrication approximation near this singular limit by monitoring higher order corrections to the zeroth order theory and by comparing the results with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations.

  12. Magnetic properties of sheet silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, O.; Coey, J.M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Susceptibility, magnetisation and Moessbauer measurements are reported for a representative selection of 2:1 layer phyllosilicates. Eight samples from the mica, vermiculite and smectite groups include examples diluted in iron which are paramagnetic at all temperatures, as well as iron-rich silicates which order magnetically below 10 K. Anisotropic susceptibility of crystals of muscovite, biotite and vermiculite is quantitatively explained with a model where the Fe 2+ ions lie in sites of effective trigonal symmetry, the trigonal axis lying normal to the sheets. The ferrous ground state is an orbital singlet. Ferric iron gives an isotropic contribution to the susceptibility. Fe 2+ -Fe 2+ exchange interactions are ferromagnetic with Gapprox. equal to2 K, whereas Fe 3+ -Fe 3+ coupling is antiferromagnetic in the purely ferric minerals. A positive paramagnetic Curie temperature for glauconite may be attributable to Fe 2+ → Fe 3+ charge transfer. Magnetic order was found to set in inhomogeneously for glauconite at 1-7 K. One biotite sample showed an antiferromagnetic transition at Tsub(N) = 7 K marked by a well-defined susceptibility maximum. Its magnetic structure, consisting of ferromagnetic sheets with moments in their planes coupled antiferromagnetically by other, weak interactions, resembles that found earlier for the 1:1 mineral greenalite. (orig.)

  13. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  14. Predicting Pulsar Scintillation from Refractive Plasma Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Dana; Pen, Ue-Li

    2018-05-01

    The dynamic and secondary spectra of many pulsars show evidence for long-lived, aligned images of the pulsar that are stationary on a thin scattering sheet. One explanation for this phenomenon considers the effects of wave crests along sheets in the ionized interstellar medium, such as those due to Alfvén waves propagating along current sheets. If these sheets are closely aligned to our line-of-sight to the pulsar, high bending angles arise at the wave crests and a selection effect causes alignment of images produced at different crests, similar to grazing reflection off of a lake. Using geometric optics, we develop a simple parameterized model of these corrugated sheets that can be constrained with a single observation and that makes observable predictions for variations in the scintillation of the pulsar over time and frequency. This model reveals qualitative differences between lensing from overdense and underdense corrugated sheets: Only if the sheet is overdense compared to the surrounding interstellar medium can the lensed images be brighter than the line-of-sight image to the pulsar, and the faint lensed images are closer to the pulsar at higher frequencies if the sheet is underdense, but at lower frequencies if the sheet is overdense.

  15. A pilot study to evaluate the magnitude of association of the use of electronic personal health records with patient activation and empowerment in HIV-infected veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Cédric B. Crouch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The HITECH Act signed into law in 2009 requires hospitals to provide patients with electronic access to their health information through an electronic personal health record (ePHR in order to receive Medicare/Medicaid incentive payments. Little is known about who uses these systems or the impact these systems will have on patient outcomes in HIV care. The health care empowerment model provides rationale for the hypothesis that knowledge from an electronic personal health record can lead to greater patient empowerment resulting in improved outcomes. The objective was to determine the patient characteristics and patient activation, empowerment, satisfaction, knowledge of their CD4, Viral Loads, and antiretroviral medication, and medication adherence outcomes associated with electronic personal health record use in Veterans living with HIV at the San Francisco VA Medical Center. The participants included HIV-Infected Veterans receiving care in a low volume HIV-clinic at the San Francisco VA Medical Center, divided into two groups of users and non-users of electronic personal health records. The research was conducted using in-person surveys either online or on paper and data abstraction from medical records for current anti-retroviral therapy (ART, CD4 count, and plasma HIV-1 viral load. The measures included the Patient Activation Measure, Health Care Empowerment Inventory, ART adherence, provider satisfaction, current CD4 count, current plasma viral load, knowledge of current ART, knowledge of CD4 counts, and knowledge of viral load. In all, 40 participants were recruited. The use of electronic personal health records was associated with significantly higher levels of patient activation and levels of patient satisfaction for getting timely appointments, care, and information. ePHR was also associated with greater proportions of undetectable plasma HIV-1 viral loads, of knowledge of current CD4 count, and of knowledge of current viral load. The

  16. Off-balance sheet exposures and banking crises in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Barrell, R; Davis, P; Liadze, I; Karim, D

    2012-01-01

    Against the background of the acknowledged importance of off-balance-sheet exposures in the sub prime crisis, we seek to investigate whether this was a new phenomenon or common to earlier crises. Using a logit approach to predicting banking crises in 14 OECD countries we find a significant impact of a proxy for the ratio of banks‟ off-balance-sheet activity to total (off and on balance sheet) activity, as well as capital and liquidity ratios, the current account balance and GDP growth. These ...

  17. The spectral stability of several sunscreening agents on stratum corneum sheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammeyer, A.; Westerhof, W.; Bolhuis, P. A.; Ris, A. J.; Hische, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    Synopsis Film layers of seventeen commercially available sunscreen products and sixteen active ingredients on stratum corneum sheets were spectrophotometrically monitored before and after simulated solar irradiation. Fixed irradiation doses were given within the daily terrestrial limits. From the

  18. Experimental investigation on spontaneously active hippocampal cultures recorded by means of high-density MEAs: analysis of the spatial resolution effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Maccione

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on experiments performed with high-resolution Active Pixel Sensor microelectrode arrays (APS-MEAs coupled with spontaneously active hippocampal cultures, this work investigates the spatial resolution effects of the neuroelectronic interface on the analysis of the recorded electrophysiological signals. The adopted methodology consists, first, in recording the spontaneous activity at the highest spatial resolution (inter-electrode separation of 21 µm from the whole array of 4096 microelectrodes. Then, the full resolution dataset is spatially down sampled in order to evaluate the effects on raster plot representation, array-wide spike rate (AWSR, mean firing rate (MFR and mean bursting rate (MBR. Furthermore, the effects of the array-to-network relative position are evaluated by shifting a subset of equally spaced electrodes on the entire recorded area. Results highlight that MFR and MBR are particularly influenced by the spatial resolution provided by the neuroelectronic interface. On high-resolution large MEAs, such analysis better represent the time-based parameterization of the network dynamics. Finally, this work suggest interesting capabilities of high-resolution MEAs for spatial-based analysis in dense and low-dense neuronal preparation for investigating signalling at both local and global neuronal circuitries.

  19. Large-scale Modeling of the Greenland Ice Sheet on Long Timescales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anne Munck

    is investigated as well as its early history. The studies are performed using an ice-sheet model in combination with relevant forcing from observed and modeled climate. Changes in ice-sheet geometry influences atmospheric flow (and vice versa) hereby changing the forcing patterns. Changes in the overall climate...... and climate model is included shows, however, that a Föhn effect is activated and hereby increasing temperatures inland and inhibiting further ice-sheet expansion into the interior. This indicates that colder than present temperatures are needed in order for the ice sheet to regrow to the current geometry....... Accordingto this hypothesis, two stages of uplift since the Late Miocene lead to the present-day topography. The results of the ice-sheet simulations show geometries in line with geologicobservations through the period, and it is found that the uplift events enhance the effect of the climatic deterioration...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples ...

  1. Health symptoms in residents living near shale gas activity: A retrospective record review from the Environmental Health Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Weinberger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence demonstrates an association between health symptoms and exposure to unconventional natural gas development (UNGD. The purpose of this study is to describe the health of adults in communities with intense UNGD who presented for evaluation of symptoms. Records of 135 structured health assessments conducted between February 2012 and October 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Publicly available data were used to determine proximity to gas wells. Analysis was restricted to records of adults who lived within 1km of a well in Pennsylvania and denied employment in the gas industry (n=51. Symptoms in each record were reviewed by a physician. Symptoms that could be explained by pre-existing or concurrent conditions or social history and those that began or worsened prior to exposure were excluded. Exposure was calculated using date of well drilling within 1km. The number of symptoms/participant ranged from 0 to 19 (mean=6.2; SD=5.1. Symptoms most commonly reported were: sleep disruption, headache, throat irritation, stress or anxiety, cough, shortness of breath, sinus problems, fatigue, nausea, and wheezing. These results are consistent with findings of prior studies using self-report without physician review. In comparison, our results are strengthened by the collection of health data by a health care provider, critical review of symptoms for possible alternative causes, and confirmation of timing of exposure to unconventional natural gas well relative to symptom onset or exacerbation. Our findings confirm earlier studies and add to the growing body of evidence of the association between symptoms and exposure to UNGD. Keywords: Hydraulic fracturing, Health, Fracking, Shale gas, Unconventional gas

  2. Catalog of CERCLA applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) - fact sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    Section 121(d) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), requires attainment of federal and state applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs). Subpart E, Section 300.400(g) {open_quotes}Identification of applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements{close_quotes} of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)(55 FR 8666, March 8, 1990) describes the process for attaining ARARs. The purpose of this catalog is to provide DOE Program Offices and Field Organizations with all of the {open_quotes}Quick Reference Fact Sheets{close_quotes} on attaining ARARS. These fact sheets provide overviews of ARARs for CERCLA cleanup actions pertinent to DOE environmental restoration activities. All of the fact sheets in this catalog were prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency`s Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Fact sheets 1-7 discuss land disposal restrictions (LDRs) and their applicability. LDRs may pertain to a number of CERCLA response actions at DOE facilities. Fact Sheets 8-13 are based on the CERCLA Compliance with Other Laws Manual: Parts I and II and provide an overview of many other CERCLA ARARs. Overview of ARARs-Focus on ARAR Waivers (fact sheet 11), provides a good introduction to ARARS. The last two fact sheets, 14 and 15, are periodic reports that describe additional fact sheets and clarify issues.

  3. Late Neolithic phytolith and charcoal records of human activities and vegetation change in Shijiahe culture, Tanjialing site, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hong Zhu

    Full Text Available There is significant archaeological evidence marking the collapse of the Shijiahe culture in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China during the late Neolithic Period. However, the causes for this cultural collapse remain unclear. Our sedimentary records from a 3.3 m long profile and 76 phytolith and charcoal samples from the Tanjialing archaeological sites provide records of interactions between an ancient culture and vegetation change. During the early Shijiahe culture (c, 4850-4400 cal BP, the climate was warm and humid. Fire was intensively used to clear the vegetation. In the mid-period of the Shijiahe culture (c, 4400-4200 cal BP, the climate became slightly dry-cold and this was accompanied by decreasing water, leading to settlements. From c, 4200 cal BP, severe drought eroded the economic foundation of rice-cultivation. These conditions forced people to abandon the Shijiahe ancient city to find water in other regions, leading to the collapse of the Shijiahe culture.

  4. The Eurasian ice sheet reinforces the East Asian summer monsoon during the interglacial 500 000 years ago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuzhen Yin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea and ice-core records show that interglacial periods were overall less "warm" before about 420 000 years ago than after, with relatively higher ice volume and lower greenhouse gases concentration. This is particularly the case for the interglacial Marine Isotope Stage 13 which occurred about 500 000 years ago. However, by contrast, the loess and other proxy records from China suggest an exceptionally active East Asian summer monsoon during this interglacial. A three-dimension Earth system Model of Intermediate complexity was used to understand this seeming paradox. The astronomical forcing and the remnant ice sheets present in Eurasia and North America were taken into account in a series of sensitivity experiments. Expectedly, the seasonal contrast is larger and the East Asian summer monsoon is reinforced compared to Pre-Industrial time when Northern Hemisphere summer is at perihelion. Surprisingly, the presence of the Eurasian ice sheet was found to reinforce monsoon, too, through a south-eastwards perturbation planetary wave. The trajectory of this wave is influenced by the Tibetan plateau.

  5. Buckling of Aluminium Sheet Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegadekatte, Vishwanath; Shi, Yihai; Nardini, Dubravko

    Wrinkling is one of the major defects in sheet metal forming processes. It may become a serious obstacle to implementing the forming process and assembling the parts, and may also play a significant role in the wear of the tool. Wrinkling is essentially a local buckling phenomenon that results from compressive stresses (compressive instability) e.g., in the hoop direction for axi-symmetric systems such as beverage cans. Modern beverage can is a highly engineered product with a complex geometry. Therefore in order to understand wrinkling in such a complex system, we have started by studying wrinkling with the Yoshida buckling test. Further, we have studied the buckling of ideal and dented beverage cans under axial loading by laboratory testing. We have modelled the laboratory tests and also the imperfection sensitivity of the two systems using finite element method and the predictions are in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  6. Prototypical model for tensional wrinkling in thin sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Davidovitch, B.; Schroll, R. D.; Vella, D.; Adda-Bedia, M.; Cerda, E. A.

    2011-01-01

    The buckling and wrinkling of thin films has recently seen a surge of interest among physicists, biologists, mathematicians, and engineers. This activity has been triggered by the growing interest in developing technologies at ever-decreasing scales and the resulting necessity to control the mechanics of tiny structures, as well as by the realization that morphogenetic processes, such as the tissue-shaping instabilities occurring in animal epithelia or plant leaves, often emerge from mechanical instabilities of cell sheets. Although the most basic buckling instability of uniaxially compressed plates was understood by Euler more than two centuries ago, recent experiments on nanometrically thin (ultrathin) films have shown significant deviations from predictions of standard buckling theory. Motivated by this puzzle, we introduce here a theoretical model that allows for a systematic analysis of wrinkling in sheets far from their instability threshold. We focus on the simplest extension of Euler buckling that exhibits wrinkles of finite length--a sheet under axisymmetric tensile loads. The first study of this geometry, which is attributed to Lamé, allows us to construct a phase diagram that demonstrates the dramatic variation of wrinkling patterns from near-threshold to far-from-threshold conditions. Theoretical arguments and comparison to experiments show that the thinner the sheet is, the smaller is the compressive load above which the far-from-threshold regime emerges. This observation emphasizes the relevance of our analysis for nanomechanics applications.

  7. Prototypical model for tensional wrinkling in thin sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Davidovitch, B.

    2011-10-31

    The buckling and wrinkling of thin films has recently seen a surge of interest among physicists, biologists, mathematicians, and engineers. This activity has been triggered by the growing interest in developing technologies at ever-decreasing scales and the resulting necessity to control the mechanics of tiny structures, as well as by the realization that morphogenetic processes, such as the tissue-shaping instabilities occurring in animal epithelia or plant leaves, often emerge from mechanical instabilities of cell sheets. Although the most basic buckling instability of uniaxially compressed plates was understood by Euler more than two centuries ago, recent experiments on nanometrically thin (ultrathin) films have shown significant deviations from predictions of standard buckling theory. Motivated by this puzzle, we introduce here a theoretical model that allows for a systematic analysis of wrinkling in sheets far from their instability threshold. We focus on the simplest extension of Euler buckling that exhibits wrinkles of finite length--a sheet under axisymmetric tensile loads. The first study of this geometry, which is attributed to Lamé, allows us to construct a phase diagram that demonstrates the dramatic variation of wrinkling patterns from near-threshold to far-from-threshold conditions. Theoretical arguments and comparison to experiments show that the thinner the sheet is, the smaller is the compressive load above which the far-from-threshold regime emerges. This observation emphasizes the relevance of our analysis for nanomechanics applications.

  8. Aligned carbon nanotube-silicon sheets: a novel nano-architecture for flexible lithium ion battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kun; Yildiz, Ozkan; Bhanushali, Hardik; Wang, Yongxin; Stano, Kelly; Xue, Leigang; Zhang, Xiangwu; Bradford, Philip D

    2013-09-25

    Aligned carbon nanotube sheets provide an engineered scaffold for the deposition of a silicon active material for lithium ion battery anodes. The sheets are low-density, allowing uniform deposition of silicon thin films while the alignment allows unconstrained volumetric expansion of the silicon, facilitating stable cycling performance. The flat sheet morphology is desirable for battery construction. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR), Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains gridded daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived from the NOAA Climate Data...

  10. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide…

  11. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  12. Advanced friction modeling for sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Meinders, Vincent T.

    2012-01-01

    The Coulomb friction model is frequently used for sheet metal forming simulations. This model incorporates a constant coefficient of friction and does not take the influence of important parameters such as contact pressure or deformation of the sheet material into account. This article presents a

  13. Advanced friction modeling in sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han

    2011-01-01

    The Coulomb friction model is frequently used for sheet metal forming simulations. This model incorporates a constant coefficient of friction and does not take the influence of important parameters such as contact pressure or deformation of the sheet material into account. This article presents a

  14. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beilharz, D.; Guyon, A.; Li, E.Q.; Thoraval, Marie-Jean; Thoroddsen, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a

  15. Molding cork sheets to complex shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Simpson, W. G.; Walker, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    Partially cured cork sheet is easily formed to complex shapes and then final-cured. Temperature and pressure levels required for process depend upon resin system used and final density and strength desired. Sheet can be bonded to surface during final cure, or can be first-formed in mold and bonded to surface in separate step.

  16. Passive recording of an active transform, an example from the Levant continental margin and the Dead Sea Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Guy; Lazar, Michael; Schattner, Uri

    2017-04-01

    Transform faults accommodate lateral motion between two adjacent plates. Records of plate motion and consequent boundary development on land is, at times, scarce and limited to structures along the fault axis. Investigation of a passive continental margin adjacent to the plate boundary might broaden the scope and provide estimates for its structural development. To examine this hypothesis, we analyzed depth and time migrated 3D seismic data together with four boreholes located along the southern Levant continental margin, ca. 100 Km from the continental Dead Sea fault (DSF). The analysis focus on the Plio-Pleistocene sequence, a key period in the development of the DSF. It includes formation of structural maps, stacking pattern investigation and calculation of sedimentation rates based on decompacted 3D depth data. These, in turn, enabled the reconstruction of margin development. This includes Messinian-earliest Zanclean NNE-SSW sinistral strike-slip faulting followed by Zanclean-Late Gelasian syn-depositional folding striking in the same direction. Abrupt change is marked by the Top Gelasian surface that shows indications of regional mass slumping. Successive Mid-Late Pleistocene progradation marks a basinward shift of the depocenter. Progradation controls margin sedimentation rates during the mid-late Pleistocene. These were found to increase throughout the whole Plio-Pleistocene, in contrast to reported sediment discharge from the Nile, which was shown to decrease after the Gelasian. Correlations to onshore findings, suggest that the continental margin records strain localization on the DSF during the Pliocene-Gelasian. This trend peaked at 1.8 Ma when short wavelength strain ceased along the margin, and differential subsidence commenced basinwards. This is attributed to consequent deepening of the DSF plate boundary.

  17. Dynamics of the Greenland Ice Sheet over multiple timescales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup

    to further constrain the individual components of the current budget, and in conjunction with longer records, it is important to provide a trustworthy basis for future projections. In this thesis, using airborne- and satellite derived data combined with terrestrial and marine observations, the dynamic...... become grounded and also assuming a similar warming pattern. This thesis implies that in order to investigate the response of the Greenland Ice Sheet to future climate change much is to be gained by merging and incorporating data from both marine and terrestrial geology, combined with air- and satellite...

  18. Nano-scaled hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin sheets support osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshimitsu; Hirose, Motohiro; Kotobuki, Noriko; Ohgushi, Hajime; Furuzono, Tsutomu; Sato, Junichi

    2007-01-01

    A novel biomaterial that was composed of nano-scaled sintered hydroxyapatite (HAp) and silk fibroin (SF) was fabricated. We cultured rat marrow mesenchymal cells (MMCs) on this biomaterial (nano-HAp/SF sheet), on bare SF sheets, and on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dishes as controls, then evaluated cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of the MMCs. After 1 h of culture, a large number of viable cells were observed on the nano-HAp/SF sheets in comparison to the controls. In addition, after 3 h of culture, the morphology of the cells on the nano-HAp/SF sheets was quite different from that on the SF sheets. MMCs extrude their cytoplasmic processes to nano-HAp particles and are well attached to the sheets. After 14 days of culture, under osteogenic conditions, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and bone-specific osteocalcin secretion of the cells on nano-HAp/SF sheets were higher than were those on the controls. These results indicated that the surface of the nano-HAp/SF sheets is covered with appropriate HAp crystal for MMC adhesion/proliferation and that the sheets effectively support the osteogenic differentiation of MMCs. Therefore, the nano-HAp/SF sheet is an effective biomaterial that is applicable in bone reconstruction surgery

  19. SPICE: Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, M.; Escola, R.; Roca, M.; Thibaut, P.; Aublanc, J.; Shepherd, A.; Remy, F.; Benveniste, J.; Ambrózio, A.; Restano, M.

    2017-12-01

    For the past 25 years, polar-orbiting satellite radar altimeters have provided a valuable record of ice sheet elevation change and mass balance. One of the principle challenges associated with radar altimetry comes from the relatively large ground footprint of conventional pulse-limited radars, which reduces their capacity to make measurements in areas of complex topographic terrain. In recent years, progress has been made towards improving ground resolution, through the implementation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or Delay-Doppler, techniques. In 2010, the launch of CryoSat-2 heralded the start of a new era of SAR Interferometric (SARIn) altimetry. However, because the satellite operated in SARIn and LRM mode over the ice sheets, many of the non-interferometric SAR altimeter processing techniques have been optimized for water and sea ice surfaces only. The launch of Sentinel-3, which provides full non-interferometric SAR coverage of the ice sheets, therefore presents the opportunity to further develop these SAR processing methodologies over ice sheets. Here we present results from SPICE, a 2 year study that focuses on (1) developing and evaluating Sentinel-3 SAR altimetry processing methodologies over the Polar ice sheets, and (2) investigating radar wave penetration through comparisons of Ku- and Ka-band satellite measurements. The project, which is funded by ESA's SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) programme, has worked in advance of the operational phase of Sentinel-3, to emulate Sentinel-3 SAR and pseudo-LRM data from dedicated CryoSat-2 SAR acquisitions made at the Lake Vostok, Dome C and Spirit sites in East Antarctica, and from reprocessed SARIn data in Greenland. In Phase 1 of the project we have evaluated existing processing methodologies, and in Phase 2 we are investigating new evolutions to the Delay-Doppler Processing (DDP) and retracking chains. In this presentation we (1) evaluate the existing Sentinel-3 processing chain by

  20. Phenological Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phenology is the scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions. The few records...

  1. Improving Surface Mass Balance Over Ice Sheets and Snow Depth on Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Box, Jason; Kurtz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) over ice sheets and snow on sea ice (SOSI) are important components of the cryosphere. Large knowledge gaps remain in scientists' abilities to monitor SMB and SOSI, including insufficient measurements and difficulties with satellite retrievals. On ice sheets, snow accumulation is the sole mass gain to SMB, and meltwater runoff can be the dominant single loss factor in extremely warm years such as 2012. SOSI affects the growth and melt cycle of the Earth's polar sea ice cover. The summer of 2012 saw the largest satellite-recorded melt area over the Greenland ice sheet and the smallest satellite-recorded Arctic sea ice extent, making this meeting both timely and relevant.

  2. Folded Sheet Versus Transparent Sheet Models for Human Symmetry Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ninio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the mysteries of human symmetry perception, reaction time data were collected on the detection of symmetry or repetition violations, in the context of short term visual memory studies. The histograms for reaction time distributions are rather narrow in the case of symmetry judgments. Their analysis was performed in terms of a simple kinetic model of a mental process in two steps, a slow one for the construction of the representation of the images to be compared, and a fast one, in the 50 ms range, for the decision. There was no need for an additional ‘mental rotation’ step. Symmetry seems to facilitate the construction step. I also present here original stimuli showing a color equalization effect across a symmetry axis, and its counterpart in periodic patterns. According to a “folded sheet model”, when a shape is perceived, the brain automatically constructs a mirror-image representation of the shape. Based in part on the reaction time analysis, I present here an alternative “transparent sheet” model in which the brain constructs a single representation, which can be accessed from two sides, thus generating simultaneously a pattern and its mirror-symmetric partner. Filtering processes, implied by current models of symmetry perception could intervene at an early stage, by nucleating the propagation of similar perceptual groupings in the two symmetric images.

  3. Use of a Web-based physical activity record system to analyze behavior in a large population: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Hideyuki; Yamada, Yosuke; Ishida, Mika; Takase, Hideto; Kimura, Misaka

    2015-03-19

    The use of Web-based physical activity systems has been proposed as an easy method for collecting physical activity data. We have developed a system that has exhibited high accuracy as assessed by the doubly labeled water method. The purpose of this study was to collect behavioral data from a large population using our Web-based physical activity record system and assess the physical activity of the population based on these data. In this paper, we address the difference in physical activity for each urban scale. In total, 2046 participants (aged 30-59 years; 1105 men and 941 women) participated in the study. They were asked to complete data entry before bedtime using their personal computer on 1 weekday and 1 weekend day. Their residential information was categorized as urban, urban-rural, or rural. Participant responses expressed the intensity of each activity at 15-minute increments and were recorded on a Web server. Residential areas were compared and multiple regression analysis was performed. Most participants had a metabolic equivalent (MET) ranging from 1.4 to 1.8, and the mean MET was 1.60 (SD 0.28). The median value of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, ≥3 MET) was 7.92 MET-hours/day. A 1-way ANCOVA showed that total physical activity differed depending on the type of residential area (F2,2027=5.19, P=.006). The urban areas (n=950) had the lowest MET-hours/day (mean 37.8, SD, 6.0), followed by urban-rural areas (n=432; mean 38.6, SD 6.5; P=.04), and rural areas (n=664; mean 38.8, SD 7.4; P=.002). Two-way ANCOVA showed a significant interaction between sex and area of residence on the urban scale (F2,2036=4.53, P=.01). Men in urban areas had the lowest MET-hours/day (MVPA, ≥3 MET) at mean 7.9 (SD 8.7); men in rural areas had a MET-hours/day (MVPA, ≥3 MET) of mean 10.8 (SD 12.1, P=.002). No significant difference was noted in women among the 3 residential areas. Multiple regression analysis showed that physical activity consisting of

  4. Technical note: Evaluation of an ear-attached movement sensor to record cow feeding behavior and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.P.; Laar, van H.; Rump, P.; Doorenbos, J.; Meurs, van K.; Griffioen, G.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to monitor dairy cow feeding behavior and activity could improve dairy herd management. A 3-dimensional accelerometer (SensOor; Agis Automatisering BV, Harmelen, the Netherlands) has been developed that can be attached to ear identification tags. Based on the principle that behavior can

  5. Automated recording of home cage activity and temperature of individual rats housed in social groups: The Rodent Big Brother project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, William S; Tse, Karen; Grant, Claire; Keerie, Amy; Simpson, David J; Pedersen, John C; Rimmer, Victoria; Leslie, Lauren; Klein, Stephanie K; Karp, Natasha A; Sillito, Rowland; Chartsias, Agis; Lukins, Tim; Heward, James; Vickers, Catherine; Chapman, Kathryn; Armstrong, J Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the activity and temperature of rats is commonly required in biomedical research. Conventional approaches necessitate single housing, which affects their behavior and wellbeing. We have used a subcutaneous radiofrequency identification (RFID) transponder to measure ambulatory activity and temperature of individual rats when group-housed in conventional, rack-mounted home cages. The transponder location and temperature is detected by a matrix of antennae in a baseplate under the cage. An infrared high-definition camera acquires side-view video of the cage and also enables automated detection of vertical activity. Validation studies showed that baseplate-derived ambulatory activity correlated well with manual tracking and with side-view whole-cage video pixel movement. This technology enables individual behavioral and temperature data to be acquired continuously from group-housed rats in their familiar, home cage environment. We demonstrate its ability to reliably detect naturally occurring behavioral effects, extending beyond the capabilities of routine observational tests and conventional monitoring equipment. It has numerous potential applications including safety pharmacology, toxicology, circadian biology, disease models and drug discovery.

  6. Development of a lung slice preparation for recording ion channel activity in alveolar epithelial type I cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crandall Edward D

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung fluid balance in the healthy lung is dependent upon finely regulated vectorial transport of ions across the alveolar epithelium. Classically, the cellular locus of the major ion transport processes has been widely accepted to be the alveolar type II cell. Although evidence is now emerging to suggest that the alveolar type I cell might significantly contribute to the overall ion and fluid homeostasis of the lung, direct assessment of functional ion channels in type I cells has remained elusive. Methods Here we describe a development of a lung slice preparation that has allowed positive identification of alveolar type I cells within an intact and viable alveolar epithelium using living cell immunohistochemistry. Results This technique has allowed, for the first time, single ion channels of identified alveolar type I cells to be recorded using the cell-attached configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Conclusion This exciting new development should facilitate the ascription of function to alveolar type I cells and allow us to integrate this cell type into the general model of alveolar ion and fluid balance in health and disease.

  7. Searching for learning-dependent changes in the antennal lobe: simultaneous recording of neural activity and aversive olfactory learning in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Roussel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity in the honeybee brain has been studied using the appetitive olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex, in which a bee learns the association between an odor and a sucrose reward. In this framework, coupling behavioral measurements of proboscis extension and invasive recordings of neural activity has been difficult because proboscis movements usually introduce brain movements that affect physiological preparations. Here we took advantage of a new conditioning protocol, the aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, which does not generate this problem. We achieved the first simultaneous recordings of conditioned sting extension responses and calcium imaging of antennal lobe activity, thus revealing on-line processing of olfactory information during conditioning trials. Based on behavioral output we distinguished learners and non-learners and analyzed possible learning-dependent changes in antennal lobe activity. We did not find differences between glomerular responses to the CS+ and the CS- in learners. Unexpectedly, we found that during conditioning trials non-learners exhibited a progressive decrease in physiological responses to odors, irrespective of their valence. This effect could neither be attributed to a fitness problem nor to abnormal dye bleaching. We discuss the absence of learning-induced changes in the antennal lobe of learners and the decrease in calcium responses found in non-learners. Further studies will have to extend the search for functional plasticity related to aversive learning to other brain areas and to look on a broader range of temporal scales

  8. Neutron activation analysis and the geochemistry of common and trace elements at extinction boundaries in the geological record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attrep, M. Jr.; Orth, C.J.; Quintana, L.R.

    1994-01-01

    The discovery of the iridium anomaly at the 65-Ma Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction boundary initiated numerous investigations, including the search for the coupling of these extinctions with other astronomical events. One hypothesis is that these periodic extinctions are coupled to terrestrial impacts from cyclic swarms of comets or asteroids. The studies have focused on elucidating the conditions and causes of extinction of life at these geological boundaries using elemental abundance patterns. The authors use instrumental neutron activation methods to determine whole-rock abundances for about 40 trace and common elements in thousands of samples. The platinum group elements (iridium, gold, platinum, and osmium) and nickel are measured by radiochemical activation analysis. The authors can measure iridium at levels down to 1 picogram/gram level

  9. Tube sheet design for PFBR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Top and bottom tube sheets of PFBR Steam Generators have been analysed with 3D and axisymmetric models using CASTEM Programs. Analysis indicates that the effects of piping reactions at the inlet/outlet nozzles on the primary stresses in the tube sheets are negligible and the asymmetricity of the deformation pattern introduced in the tube sheet by the presence of inlet/outlet and manhole nozzles is insignificant. The minimum tube sheet thicknesses for evaporator and reheater are 135 mm and 75 mm respectively. Further analysis has indicated the minimum fillet radius at the junction of tube sheet and dished end should be 20 mm. Simplified methodology has been developed to arrive at the number of thermal baffles required to protect the tube sheet against fatigue damage due to thermal transient. This method has been applied to PFBR steam generators to determine the required number of thermal baffles. For protecting the bottom tube sheet of evaporator against the thermal shock due to feed water and secondary pump trip, one thermal shield is found to be sufficient. Further analysis is required to decide upon the actual number to take care of the severe thermal transient, following the event of sudden dumping of water/steam, immediately after the sodium-water reaction. (author)

  10. Thermomechanical processing of plasma sprayed intermetallic sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Scorey, Clive; Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  11. Millennial-scale instability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet during the last glaciation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanfoush, S.L.; Hodell, D.A.; Charles, C.D.; Guilderson, T.P.; Mortyn, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Records of ice-rafted detritus (IRD) concentration in deep-sea cores from the southeast Atlantic Ocean reveal millennial-scale pulses of IRD delivery between 20,000 and 74,000 years ago. Prominent IRD layers correlate across the Polar Frontal Zone, suggesting episodes of Antarctic Ice Sheet

  12. Radiation dominated relativistic current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroschek, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic Current Sheets (RCS) feature plasma instabilities considered as potential key to magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation in Poynting flux dominated plasma flows. We show in a series of kinetic plasma simulations that the physical nature of non-linear RCS evolution changes in the presence of incoherent radiation losses: In the ultra-relativistic regime (i.e. magnetization parameter sigma = 104 defined as the ratio of magnetic to plasma rest frame energy density) the combination of non-linear RCS dynamics and synchrotron emission introduces a temperature anisotropy triggering the growth of the Relativistic Tearing Mode (RTM). As direct consequence the RTM prevails over the Relativistic Drift Kink (RDK) Mode as competitive RCS instability. This is in contrast to the previously studied situation of weakly relativistic RCS (sigma ∼ 1) where the RDK is dominant and most of the plasma is thermalized. The simulations witness the typical life cycle of ultra-relativistic RCS evolving from a violent radiation induced collapse towards a radiation quiescent state in rather classical Sweet-Parker topology. Such a transition towards Sweet-Parker configuration in the late non-linear evolution has immediate consequences for the efficiency of magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation. Ceasing dissipation rates directly affect our present understanding of non-linear RCS evolution in conventional striped wind scenarios. (author)

  13. World-sheet gauge fields in superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porrati, M.; Tomboulis, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the introduction of world-sheet 2-dimensional gauge fields in a manner consistent with world-sheet supersymmetry. We obtain the effective string action resulting from the exact integration over the world-sheet gauge fields to show that it generally describes string models with spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetries with continuous breaking parameters. We examine the question of spacetime supersymmetry spontaneous breaking, and show that breaking with continuous, in particular arbitrarily small breaking parameters does not occur; only breaking for discrete values of parameters is possible. (orig.)

  14. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  15. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  16. Field evaluation of ZeroFly--an insecticide incorporated plastic sheeting against malaria vectors & its impact on malaria transmission in tribal area of northern Orissa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S K; Upadhyay, A K; Haque, M A; Tyagi, P K; Mohanty, S S; Mittal, P K; Dash, A P

    2009-10-01

    Insecticide incorporated plastic sheeting is a new technology to control mosquitoes in emergency shelter places and also temporary habitations in different locations. Therefore, field studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of ZeroFly plastic sheeting treated with deltamethrin on prevailing disease vectors Anopheles culicifacies and An. fluviatilis and its impact on malaria transmission in one of the highly endemic areas of Orissa. The study was conducted in Birkera block of Sundargarh district, Orissa state. The study area comprised 3 villages, which were randomized as ZeroFly plastic sheet, untreated plastic sheet and no sheet area. ZeroFly plastic sheets and untreated plastic sheets were fixed in study and control villages respectively covering all the rooms in each household. Longitudinal studies were conducted on the bioefficacy with the help of cone bioassays, monitoring of the mosquito density through hand catch, floor sheet and exit trap collections and fortnightly domiciliary active surveillance in all the study villages. In ZeroFly plastic sheeting area, there was a significant reduction of 84.7 per cent in the entry rate of total mosquitoes in comparison to pre-intervention phase. There was 56.2 per cent immediate mortality in total mosquitoes in houses with ZeroFly sheeting. The overall feeding success rate of mosquitoes in the trial village was only 12.5 per cent in comparison to 49.7 and 51.1 per cent in villages with untreated plastic sheet and no sheet respectively. There was a significant reduction of 65.0 and 70.5 per cent in malaria incidence in ZeroFly plastic sheeting area as compared to untreated plastic sheet and no sheet area respectively. Our study showed that introduction of ZeroFly plastic sheets in a community-based intervention programme is operationally feasible to contain malaria especially in the high transmission difficult areas.

  17. Photocatalytic perfermance of sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets by microwave assisted synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Suqin, E-mail: liusuqin888@126.com [Department of Chemical engineering and Food Science, Hubei University of arts and science, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Tang, Huiling; Zhou, Huan [Department of Chemical engineering and Food Science, Hubei University of arts and science, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Dai, Gaopeng, E-mail: dgp2000@126.com [Department of Chemical engineering and Food Science, Hubei University of arts and science, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Wang, Wanqiang [Department of Chemical engineering and Food Science, Hubei University of arts and science, Xiangyang 441053 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets were successfully synthesized via a facile microwave-assisted method. The as-prepared samples exhibit a high activity for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • Sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets were synthesized by a facile microwave-assisted method. • The presence of PEG-10000 plays a critical role in the formation of BiVO{sub 4} sheets. • Ostwald ripening is the primary driving force for the formation of sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4}. • The sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets exhibit a high visible-light photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets were successfully synthesized in an aqueous solution containing bismuth nitrate, ammonium metavanadate and polyethylene glycol with a molecular weight of 10,000 (PEG-10000) using a facile microwave-assisted method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results show that the presence of PEG-10000 plays a critical role in the formation of BiVO{sub 4} sheets, and Ostwald ripening is the primary driving force for the formation of sandwich-like structures. The sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets exhibit a high activity for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm). The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets can be attributed to its large surface area over the irregular BiVO{sub 4} particles.

  18. Photocatalytic perfermance of sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets by microwave assisted synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Suqin; Tang, Huiling; Zhou, Huan; Dai, Gaopeng; Wang, Wanqiang

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets were successfully synthesized via a facile microwave-assisted method. The as-prepared samples exhibit a high activity for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • Sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets were synthesized by a facile microwave-assisted method. • The presence of PEG-10000 plays a critical role in the formation of BiVO_4 sheets. • Ostwald ripening is the primary driving force for the formation of sandwich-like BiVO_4. • The sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets exhibit a high visible-light photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets were successfully synthesized in an aqueous solution containing bismuth nitrate, ammonium metavanadate and polyethylene glycol with a molecular weight of 10,000 (PEG-10000) using a facile microwave-assisted method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, N_2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results show that the presence of PEG-10000 plays a critical role in the formation of BiVO_4 sheets, and Ostwald ripening is the primary driving force for the formation of sandwich-like structures. The sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets exhibit a high activity for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm). The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets can be attributed to its large surface area over the irregular BiVO_4 particles.

  19. Practical implementation of Wilhelm Osbahr’s entrepreneur balance sheet theory assumptions – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EWA ŚNIEŻEK , MICHAŁ WIATR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present the possibilities of the practical application of Osbahr’s balance sheet theory assumptions, as one of many possible attempts to close the information gap in the financial reporting of the twenty-first century. Wilhelm Osbahr, at the beginning of the 20th century, made an attempt to solve the problem of indicating the balance sheet values (the impact of balance sheet evaluation on the balance sheet items, from the point of view of an entrepreneur or business owner, at the same time clearly emphasizing the necessity to deal with the balance sheet structure through the prism of the objectives pursued by the company. Osbahr postulated highlighting any changes occurring in the economic structure of the company and its components, which do not result directly from its operating activities, and so to present them in the position called “adjustments”. This article uses the deductive method supported by literature studies and a case study method. The authors using the case study method confirm the possibility of using the described balance sheet theory in the current financial reporting based on actual data of the company ABC Ltd. They also show that a balance sheet which is presented according to the new reporting formula discloses new quality of information for the financial reporting users.

  20. Nonadiabatic heating of the central plasma sheet at substorm onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.Y.; Frank, L.A.; Rostoker, G.; Fennell, J.; Mitchell, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Heating events in the plasma sheet boundary layer and central plasma sheet are found to occur at the onset of expansive phase activity. The main effect is a dramatic increase in plasma temperature, coincident with a partial dipolarization of the magnetic field. Fluxes of energetic particles increase without dispersion during these events which occur at all radial distances up to 23 R E , the apogee of the ISEIE spacecraft. A major difference between these heating events and those observed at geosynchronous distances lies in the heating mechanism which is nonadiabatic beyond 10 R E but may be adiabatic closer to Earth. The energy required to account for the increase in plasma thermal energy is comparable with that required for Joule heating of the ionosphere. The plasma sheet must be considered as a major sink in the energy balance of substorm. The authors estimate lobe magnetic pressures during these events. Changes in lobe pressure are generally not correlated with onsets or intensifications of expansive phase activity

  1. Intensity variation of cosmic rays near the heliospheric current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badruddin, K.S.; Yadav, R.S.; Yadav, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    Cosmic ray intensity variations near the heliospheric current sheet-both above and below it-have been studied during 1964-76. Superposed epoch analysis of the cosmic ray neutron monitor data with respect to sector boundaries (i.e., heliospheric current sheet crossings) has been performed. In this analysis data from neutron monitors well distributed in latitude over the Earth's surface is used. First, this study has been made during the two solar activity minimum periods 1964-65 and 1975-76, using the data from Thule (cut-off rigidity O GV), Deep River (cut-off rigidity 1.02 GV), Rome (cut-off rigidity 6.32 GV) and Huancayo (cut-off rigidity 13.45 GV) neutron monitors. The data is analyzed from Deep River, Rome and Huancayo neutron monitors, for which data is available for the full period (1964-76), by dividing the periods according to the changes in solar activity, interplanetary magnetic field polarity and coronal holes. All these studies have shown a negative gradient with respect to heliomagnetic latitude (current sheet). These results have been discussed in the light of theoretical and observational evidences. Suggestions have been given to overcome the discrepancy between the observational and theoretical results. Further, possible explanations for these observational results have been suggested. (author)

  2. Oscillation of the current sheet velocity in plasma focus discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melzacki, K.; Nardi, V.

    1994-01-01

    The oscillation of the propagation speed of the plasma focus current sheet has been recorded with schlieren photography. The sheet stuttering in the propagation during the implosion phase has a frequency of about 60 MHz. The effect could be recorded due to application of long exposure time (60 ns) technique. It is not detectable in the subnanosecond pictures. The pictures are taken in black schlieren. The probing range of the electron density gradient, with integration along the path of the 1 J, Q-switched ruby laser beam, has been selected by the size of the stop and aperture within 3 x 10 18 cm -3 and 3 x 10 20 cm -3 . Raising the sensitivity threshold to 2 x 10 19 cm -3 (refraction angle of 4 mrad) has helped to clear the pictures by limiting their image to high gradients of density only. With this technique (and other diagnostic methods) the dynamics of 6 kJ, 16 kV plasma focus discharges in deuterium at 5 torr, with a 10% decrease of the magnetic insulation at the breech has been investigated. The average implosion velocity of the current sheath obtained with this effect, 5 x 10 6 cm/s, is consistent with those measured by the smear effect, and the electric probe. The electron density gradient has been determined at several instants; at the pinch time it is (3 ± 1.5) x 10 20 cm -4 . The data are discussed on the basis of several pictures

  3. Supraglacial bacterial community structures vary across the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Karen A.; Stibal, Marek; Zarsky, Jakub D.

    2016-01-01

    The composition and spatial variability of microbial communities that reside within the extensive (>200 000 km(2)) biologically active area encompassing the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is hypothesized to be variable. We examined bacterial communities from cryoconite debris and surface ice across...... the GrIS, using sequence analysis and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA genes from co-extracted DNA and RNA. Communities were found to differ across the ice sheet, with 82.8% of the total calculated variation attributed to spatial distribution on a scale of tens of kilometers separation. Amplicons related...... to Sphingobacteriaceae, Pseudanabaenaceae and WPS-2 accounted for the greatest portion of calculated dissimilarities. The bacterial communities of ice and cryoconite were moderately similar (global R = 0.360, P = 0.002) and the sampled surface type (ice versus cryoconite) did not contribute heavily towards community...

  4. Spatially Localized Particle Energization by Landau Damping in Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G.; McCubbin, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of particle energization through the removal of energy from turbulent fluctuations in heliospheric plasmas is a grand challenge problem in heliophysics. Under the weakly collisional conditions typical of heliospheric plasma, kinetic mechanisms must be responsible for this energization, but the nature of those mechanisms remains elusive. In recent years, the spatial localization of plasma heating near current sheets in the solar wind and numerical simulations has gained much attention. Here we show, using the innovative and new field-particle correlation technique, that the spatially localized particle energization occurring in a nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation has the velocity space signature of Landau damping, suggesting that this well-known collisionless damping mechanism indeed actively leads to spatially localized heating in the vicinity of current sheets.

  5. High performance nano-titania photocatalytic paper composite. Part II: Preparation and characterization of natural zeolite-based nano-titania composite sheets and study of their photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seonghyuk; Fleming, Paul D.; Joyce, Margaret; Ari-Gur, Pnina

    2009-01-01

    A novel paper composite with high photocatalytic performance was fabricated using natural zeolite (clinoptilolite)-based nanosized TiO 2 . Photocatalytic materials, from sol-gel derived TiO 2 colloids to its coupling with zeolite, have been designed, prepared and characterized. As-prepared anatase TiO 2 on zeolite particles were readily used in photocatalytic paper, which revealed zeolite-TiO 2 particles dispersed on a dense network of fibers with microvoids. Natural zeolite-based TiO 2 composite sheets described here decomposed gaseous toluene very effectively after UV irradiation and its removal efficiency was higher than that accomplished by photocatalytic paper made with Degussa P25 TiO 2 or Ahlstrom commercial photocatalytic non-woven paper.

  6. Cultural noise and the night-day asymmetry of the seismic activity recorded at the Bunker-East (BKE) Vesuvian Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, Nicola; Mazzarella, Adriano

    2018-01-01

    Mazzarella and Scafetta (2016) showed that the seismic activity recorded at the Bunker-East (BKE) Vesuvian station from 1999 to 2014 suggests a higher nocturnal seismic activity. However, this station is located at about 50 m from the main road to the volcano's crater and since 2009 its seismograms also record a significant diurnal cultural noise due mostly to tourist tours to Mt. Vesuvius. Herein, we investigate whether the different seismic frequency between day and night times could be an artifact of the peculiar cultural noise that affects this station mostly from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm from spring to fall. This time-distributed cultural noise should evidently reduce the possibility to detect low magnitude earthquakes during those hours but not high magnitude events. Using hourly distributions referring to different magnitude thresholds from M = 0.2 to M = 2.0, the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency diagram applied to the day and night-time sub-catalogs and Montecarlo statistical modeling, we demonstrate that the day-night asymmetry persists despite an evident disruption induced by cultural noise during day-hours. In particular, for the period 1999-2017, and for earthquakes with M ≥ 2 we found a Gutenberg-Richter exponent b = 1.66 ± 0.07 for the night-time events and b = 2.06 ± 0.07 for day-time events. Moreover, we repeat the analysis also for an older BKE catalog covering the period from 1992 to 2000 when cultural noise was not present. The analysis confirms a higher seismic nocturnal activity that is also characterized by a smaller Gutenberg-Richter exponent b for M ≥ 2 earthquakes relative to the day-time activity. Thus, the found night-day seismic asymmetric behavior is likely due to a real physical feature affecting Mt. Vesuvius.

  7. fibrin–chitosan–sodium alginate composite sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sodium alginate composite (F–C–SA) in sheet form. F–C–SA composite was prepared and characterized for its physicochemical properties like water absorption capacity, surface morphology, FTIR spectra and mechanical properties.

  8. Single clay sheets inside electrospun polymer nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaohui

    2005-03-01

    Nanofibers were prepared from polymer solution with clay sheets by electrospinning. Plasma etching, as a well controlled process, was used to supply electrically excited gas molecules from a glow discharge. To reveal the structure and arrangement of clay layers in the polymer matrix, plasma etching was used to remove the polymer by controlled gasification to expose the clay sheets due to the difference in reactivity. The shape, flexibility, and orientation of clay sheets were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Additional quantitative information on size distribution and degree of exfoliation of clay sheets were obtained by analyzing electron micrograph of sample after plasma etching. Samples in various forms including fiber, film and bulk, were thinned by plasma etching. Morphology and dispersion of inorganic fillers were studied by electron microscopy.

  9. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Overview Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV/ ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Last Reviewed: August 25, 2017 ...

  10. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  11. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  12. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  13. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  14. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  15. Energized Oxygen : Speiser Current Sheet Bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D. E.; Jahn, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    A single population of energized Oxygen (O+) is shown to produce a cross-tail bifurcated current sheet in 2.5D PIC simulations of the magnetotail without the influence of magnetic reconnection. Treatment of oxygen in simulations of space plasmas, specifically a magnetotail current sheet, has been limited to thermal energies despite observations of and mechanisms which explain energized ions. We performed simulations of a homogeneous oxygen background, that has been energized in a physically appropriate manner, to study the behavior of current sheets and magnetic reconnection, specifically their bifurcation. This work uses a 2.5D explicit Particle-In-a-Cell (PIC) code to investigate the dynamics of energized heavy ions as they stream Dawn-to-Dusk in the magnetotail current sheet. We present a simulation study dealing with the response of a current sheet system to energized oxygen ions. We establish a, well known and studied, 2-species GEM Challenge Harris current sheet as a starting point. This system is known to eventually evolve and produce magnetic reconnection upon thinning of the current sheet. We added a uniform distribution of thermal O+ to the background. This 3-species system is also known to eventually evolve and produce magnetic reconnection. We add one additional variable to the system by providing an initial duskward velocity to energize the O+. We also traced individual particle motion within the PIC simulation. Three main results are shown. First, energized dawn- dusk streaming ions are clearly seen to exhibit sustained Speiser motion. Second, a single population of heavy ions clearly produces a stable bifurcated current sheet. Third, magnetic reconnection is not required to produce the bifurcated current sheet. Finally a bifurcated current sheet is compatible with the Harris current sheet model. This work is the first step in a series of investigations aimed at studying the effects of energized heavy ions on magnetic reconnection. This work differs

  16. RECORDS REACHING RECORDING DATA TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. L. Gresik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  17. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  18. Carbon dioxide adsorption in graphene sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Mishra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Control over the CO2 emission via automobiles and industrial exhaust in atmosphere, is one of the major concerns to render environmental friendly milieu. Adsorption can be considered to be one of the more promising methods, offering potential energy savings compared to absorbent systems. Different carbon nanostructures (activated carbon and carbon nanotubes have attracted attention as CO2 adsorbents due to their unique surface morphology. In the present work, we have demonstrated the CO2 adsorption capacity of graphene, prepared via hydrogen induced exfoliation of graphitic oxide at moderate temperatures. The CO2 adsorption study was performed using high pressure Sieverts apparatus and capacity was calculated by gas equation using van der Waals corrections. Physical adsorption of CO2 molecules in graphene was confirmed by FTIR study. Synthesis of graphene sheets via hydrogen exfoliation is possible at large scale and lower cost and higher adsorption capacity of as prepared graphene compared to other carbon nanostructures suggests its possible use as CO2 adsorbent for industrial application. Maximum adsorption capacity of 21.6 mmole/g was observed at 11 bar pressure and room temperature (25 ºC.

  19. Neutron activation and atomic absorption analyses of heavy metals in corals of Malaysia: historical recorders for sustainable environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazlin Mokhtar; Almah Awaludin; Abdul Khalik Wood; Lim Kim Shenk; Tan Pey Fang; Yasmin Mohd Hasni

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the determination of total chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in skeletons of the corals Porites sp., sediment and sea water samples taken from various locations in waters of Kedah, Johor and Labuan. Sampling was carried out around Pulau Bunting, Pulau Bidan, Pulau Telur, Pulau Songsong, all in Kedah, Pulau Burung in Labuan, and Pulau Lima in Johor. The concentrations of metals were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The range of concentrations of Cr, Mn and Zn in coral samples of this study were <0.2 - 1.60, 1.20 - 11.10 and 3.55 - 15.08 μg/g, respectively. Concentrations in sediment samples were Cr 0.62 - 5.19 μg/g, Mn 71.0 - 162 μg/g and Zn 28.2 - 57.8 μg/g. The levels in seawater samples were Cr 0.004 - 0.28 mg/l, Mn 0.26 - 0.33 mg/l, and Zn 0.92 - 1.56 mg/l. (Author)

  20. Copper contamination in thin stainless steel sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbert, R.K. Jr.; Dobbins, A.G.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The standard welding technique used at Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for joining thin stainless sheet is the gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process. One of the reoccurring problems with the sheet welds is surface cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). Metallography shows that the cracks are only about 0.05 mm (0.002 in.) deep which is significant in a 0.25 mm (0.01 in.) thick sheet. Thus, welding requirements do not permit any surfacing cracking as detected by a fluorescent dye penetrant test conducted on every part after welding. Surface cracks have been found in both of the two most common weld designs in the thin sheet fabricated at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. These butt joints are welded between two 0.25 mm thick stainless steel sheets and a tube with eyelet welded to a 25 mm (0.98 in.) thick sheet. The weld between the two sheets is made on a semiautomatic seam welding unit, whereas the tube-to-eyelet-to-sheet welds are done manually. The quality of both welds is very dependent on the welding procedure and the way the parts are placed in the weld fixturing. Metallographic examination has indicated that some welded parts with surface cracking in the weld region had copper particles on the surface, and the question of copper contamination has been raised. With the aid of a scanning electron microscope and an electron microprobe, the existence of copper in an around the surface cracks has been verified. The copper is on the surface of the parts prior to welding in the form of small dust particles

  1. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  2. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.

    2015-08-14

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  3. Buckling Behavior of Substrate Supported Graphene Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuijian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The buckling of graphene sheets on substrates can significantly degrade their performance in materials and devices. Therefore, a systematic investigation on the buckling behavior of monolayer graphene sheet/substrate systems is carried out in this paper by both molecular mechanics simulations and theoretical analysis. From 70 simulation cases of simple-supported graphene sheets with different sizes under uniaxial compression, two different buckling modes are investigated and revealed to be dominated by the graphene size. Especially, for graphene sheets with length larger than 3 nm and width larger than 1.1 nm, the buckling mode depends only on the length/width ratio. Besides, it is revealed that the existence of graphene substrate can increase the critical buckling stress and strain to 4.39 N/m and 1.58%, respectively, which are about 10 times those for free-standing graphene sheets. Moreover, for graphene sheets with common size (longer than 20 nm, both theoretical and simulation results show that the critical buckling stress and strain are dominated only by the adhesive interactions with substrate and independent of the graphene size. Results in this work provide valuable insight and guidelines for the design and application of graphene-derived materials and nano-electromechanical systems.

  4. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.; Guyon, A.; Li, E.  Q.; Thoraval, M.-J.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  5. Variation of mineralogy and organic material during the early stages of aqueous activity recorded in Antarctic micrometeorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, T.; Yabuta, H.; Itoh, S.; Sakamoto, N.; Mitsunari, T.; Okubo, A.; Okazaki, R.; Nakamura, T.; Tachibana, S.; Terada, K.; Ebihara, M.; Imae, N.; Kimura, M.; Nagahara, H.

    2017-07-01

    Micrometeorites (MMs) recovered from surface snow near the Dome Fuji Station, Antarctica are almost free from terrestrial weathering and contain very primitive materials, and are suitable for investigation of the evolution and interaction of inorganic and organic materials in the early solar system. We carried out a comprehensive study on seven porous and fluffy MMs [four Chondritic porous (CP) MMs and three fluffy fine-grained (Fluffy Fg) MMs] and one fine-grained type 1 (Fg C1) MM for comparison with scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, and secondary ion mass spectrometer. They show a variety of early aqueous activities. Four out of the seven CP MMs contain glass with embedded metal and sulfide (GEMS) and enstatite whiskers/platelets and do not have hydrated minerals. Despite the same mineralogy, organic chemistry of the CP MMs shows diversity. Two of them contain considerable amounts of organic materials with high carboxyl functionality, and one of them contains nitrile (Ctbnd N) and/or nitrogen heterocyclic groups with D and 15N enrichments, suggesting formation in the molecular cloud or a very low temperature region of the outer solar system. Another two CP MMs are poorer in organic materials than the above-mentioned MMs. Organic material in one of them is richer in aromatic C than the CP MMs mentioned above, being indistinguishable from those of hydrated carbonaceous chondrites. In addition, bulk chemical compositions of GEMS in the latter organic poor CP MMs are more homogeneous and have higher Fe/(Si + Mg + Fe) ratios than those of GEMS in the former organic-rich CP MMs. Functional group of the organic materials and amorphous silicate in GEMS in the organic-poor CP MMs may have transformed in the earliest stage of aqueous alteration, which did not form hydrated minerals. Three Fluffy Fg MMs contain abundant phyllosilicates, showing a clear evidence of aqueous alteration

  6. Increased aeolian activity during humidity shifts as recorded in a raised bog in south-west Sweden during the past 1700 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. de Jong

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of testate amoebae and aeolian sediment influx (ASI were used to reconstruct effective humidity changes and aeolian activity in the coastal zone of south-west Sweden. Cores were taken from an ombrotrophic peat sequence from the Undarsmosse bog. Since both types of analysis were carried out on the same core, a direct comparison between humidity fluctuations in the bog and aeolian activity was possible, potentially providing detailed information on atmospheric circulation changes in this region. Relatively wet bog surface conditions occurred from around 1500 to 1230 and 770 to 380 cal. yrs BP, whereas dry conditions dominated from ca. 1630 to 1530, 1160 to 830 and 300 to 50 cal. yrs BP. The transitions between these phases occurred within 60–100 years and are characterised by a major change in the testate amoebae assemblages. A watertable reconstruction was used to study the hydrological changes at the bog surface in more detail. ASI peak events were reconstructed around 1450, 1150, 850 and after 370 cal. yrs BP. Most interestingly, these aeolian activity peaks started during the recorded hydrological transitions, regardless of the direction of these shifts. Our results therefore suggest that humidity shifts in this region were associated with temporary intensifications of atmospheric circulation during the past 1700 years. Several ASI peaks apparently coincide with reduced solar activity, possibly suggesting a solar related cause for some of the observed events.

  7. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... sheets. This rule is applicable to balance sheets filed by registered investment companies except for... of this part. Balance sheets filed under this rule shall comply with the following provisions: Assets...

  8. Observations of the Formation, Development, and Structure of a Current Sheet in an Eruptive Solar Flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaton, Daniel B.; Darnel, Jonathan M. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Bartz, Allison E., E-mail: daniel.seaton@noaa.gov [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We present Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of a structure we interpret as a current sheet associated with an X4.9 flare and coronal mass ejection that occurred on 2014 February 25 in NOAA Active Region 11990. We characterize the properties of the current sheet, finding that the sheet remains on the order of a few thousand kilometers thick for much of the duration of the event and that its temperature generally ranged between 8 and 10 MK. We also note the presence of other phenomena believed to be associated with magnetic reconnection in current sheets, including supra-arcade downflows and shrinking loops. We estimate that the rate of reconnection during the event was M{sub A} ≈ 0.004–0.007, a value consistent with model predictions. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this event for reconnection-based eruption models.

  9. Design and results of the ice sheet model initialisation initMIP-Greenland: an ISMIP6 intercomparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Goelzer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Earlier large-scale Greenland ice sheet sea-level projections (e.g. those run during the ice2sea and SeaRISE initiatives have shown that ice sheet initial conditions have a large effect on the projections and give rise to important uncertainties. The goal of this initMIP-Greenland intercomparison exercise is to compare, evaluate, and improve the initialisation techniques used in the ice sheet modelling community and to estimate the associated uncertainties in modelled mass changes. initMIP-Greenland is the first in a series of ice sheet model intercomparison activities within ISMIP6 (the Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6, which is the primary activity within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6 focusing on the ice sheets. Two experiments for the large-scale Greenland ice sheet have been designed to allow intercomparison between participating models of (1 the initial present-day state of the ice sheet and (2 the response in two idealised forward experiments. The forward experiments serve to evaluate the initialisation in terms of model drift (forward run without additional forcing and in response to a large perturbation (prescribed surface mass balance anomaly; they should not be interpreted as sea-level projections. We present and discuss results that highlight the diversity of data sets, boundary conditions, and initialisation techniques used in the community to generate initial states of the Greenland ice sheet. We find good agreement across the ensemble for the dynamic response to surface mass balance changes in areas where the simulated ice sheets overlap but differences arising from the initial size of the ice sheet. The model drift in the control experiment is reduced for models that participated in earlier intercomparison exercises.

  10. Design and results of the ice sheet model initialisation experiments initMIP-Greenland: an ISMIP6 intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goelzer, Heiko; Nowicki, Sophie; Edwards, Tamsin; Beckley, Matthew; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Aschwanden, Andy; Calov, Reinhard; Gagliardini, Olivier; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Gregory, Jonathan; Greve, Ralf; Humbert, Angelika; Huybrechts, Philippe; Kennedy, Joseph H.; Larour, Eric; Lipscomb, William H.; Le clec'h, Sébastien; Lee, Victoria; Morlighem, Mathieu; Pattyn, Frank; Payne, Antony J.; Rodehacke, Christian; Rückamp, Martin; Saito, Fuyuki; Schlegel, Nicole; Seroussi, Helene; Shepherd, Andrew; Sun, Sainan; van de Wal, Roderik; Ziemen, Florian A.

    2018-04-01

    Earlier large-scale Greenland ice sheet sea-level projections (e.g. those run during the ice2sea and SeaRISE initiatives) have shown that ice sheet initial conditions have a large effect on the projections and give rise to important uncertainties. The goal of this initMIP-Greenland intercomparison exercise is to compare, evaluate, and improve the initialisation techniques used in the ice sheet modelling community and to estimate the associated uncertainties in modelled mass changes. initMIP-Greenland is the first in a series of ice sheet model intercomparison activities within ISMIP6 (the Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6), which is the primary activity within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) focusing on the ice sheets. Two experiments for the large-scale Greenland ice sheet have been designed to allow intercomparison between participating models of (1) the initial present-day state of the ice sheet and (2) the response in two idealised forward experiments. The forward experiments serve to evaluate the initialisation in terms of model drift (forward run without additional forcing) and in response to a large perturbation (prescribed surface mass balance anomaly); they should not be interpreted as sea-level projections. We present and discuss results that highlight the diversity of data sets, boundary conditions, and initialisation techniques used in the community to generate initial states of the Greenland ice sheet. We find good agreement across the ensemble for the dynamic response to surface mass balance changes in areas where the simulated ice sheets overlap but differences arising from the initial size of the ice sheet. The model drift in the control experiment is reduced for models that participated in earlier intercomparison exercises.

  11. The use of health related quality of life data to produce information sheets for patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S N; Hogg, E S; Cheung, W K A; Lai, L K L; Jassal, P; Lowe, D

    2015-07-01

    Health related quality of life information gives patients and carers an indication of how they will be affected following treatment. Such knowledge can promote realistic expectations and help patients come to terms with their outcome. The aim of this paper is to describe the background development of patient information sheets produced at our unit. The data were compiled using a common head and neck cancer specific quality of life questionnaire (University of Washington Quality of Life [UW-QOL]). There are 12 domains comprising activity, appearance, anxiety, chewing, mood, pain, recreation, saliva, shoulder, speech, swallowing and taste. The data were collected over 19 years at our unit and focus on follow-up records at around 2 years as this gives a good indication of health related quality of life in survivorship. UW-QOL questionnaires were available from 1,511 patients treated following primary diagnosis of head and neck cancer, and there were 24 subgroups based on cancer site, stage and treatment. There were 2 other subgroups: 132 having transoral laser resection and 176 having laryngectomy. The patient and carer research forum helped to design the information sheets, which display overall quality of life, percentages with 'good' outcome and 'significant problem' by domain, and the most important domains. Three examples are included in this paper: early stage oral cancer treated by surgery alone, early laryngeal cancer treated by surgery alone, and late stage oropharyngeal cancer treated by surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. All 26 subgroup information sheets are available in booklet form and on the internet. How the surgical community best utilises this type of resource needs further research.

  12. Meltwater drainage beneath ice sheets: What can we learn from uniting observations of paleo- and contemporary subglacial hydrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, L. M.; Carter, S. P.; Greenwood, S. L.; Schroeder, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding meltwater at the base of ice sheets is critical for predicting ice flow and subglacial sediment deformation. Whereas much progress has been made with observing contemporary systems, these efforts have been limited by the short temporal scales of remote sensing data, the restricted spatial coverage of radar sounding data, and the logistical challenges of direct access. Geophysical and sedimentological data from deglaciated continental shelves reveal broad spatial and temporal perspectives of subglacial hydrology, that complement observations of contemporary systems. Massive bedrock channels, such as those on the sediment-scoured inner continental shelf of the Amundsen Sea and the western Antarctic Peninsula, are up to hundreds of meters deep, which indicate either catastrophic drainage events or slower channel incision over numerous glaciations or sub-bank full drainage events. The presence of these deep channels has implications for further ice loss as they may provide conduits today for warm water incursion into sub-ice shelf cavities. Sediment-based subglacial channels, widespread in the northern hemisphere terrestrial domain and increasingly detected on both Arctic and Antarctic marine margins, help characterize more ephemeral drainage systems active during ice sheet retreat. Importantly, some observed sediment-based channels are connected to upstream subglacial lakes and terminate at paleo-grounding lines. From these records of paleo-subglacial hydrology, we extract the relative timing of meltwater drainage, estimate water fluxes, and contemplate the sources and ultimate fate of basal meltwater, refining predictive models for modern systems. These insights provided by geological data fill a gap in knowledge regarding spatial and temporal dynamics of subglacial hydrology and offer hindsight into meltwater drainage influence/association with ice flow and retreat behavior. The union of information gathered from paleo- and contemporary subglacial

  13. Effects of electromechanical resonance on photocatalytic reduction of the free-hanging graphene oxide sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostovari, F.; Abdi, Y.; Darbari, S.; Ghasemi, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this report we present a simple, low-temperature method which is compatible with standard technology, to achieve graphene-based devices in large quantity. In this approach we take advantage of photocatalytic behavior of TiO 2 to achieve photocatalytic reduction of chemically synthesized graphene oxide (GO) sheets. TiO 2 nanoparticles have been deposited on GO sheets hanging from Au/SiO 2 /Si interdigital electrodes to realize TiO 2 /GO heterostructures. We investigated photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanoparticles in the presence of UV-illumination, to reduce the GO sheets. Based on the Raman spectroscopy, the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanoparticles resulted in a decrease in the number of C–O bonds. Electrical measurements show that graphene sheets with the controlled electrical conductivity were obtained, so that higher illumination time led to higher conductivity and better reduction of GO sheets. Also, strain-induced photocatalytic reduction of the GO sheets has been investigated by their electrical characteristics. It has been shown for the first time that the electromechanical-induced strain enhances the photocatalytic behavior of the fabricated TiO 2 /GO heterostructure significantly.

  14. Effects of electromechanical resonance on photocatalytic reduction of the free-hanging graphene oxide sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostovari, F.; Abdi, Y., E-mail: y.abdi@ut.ac.ir [University of Tehran, Nano-Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Darbari, S. [Tarbiat Modarres University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, F. [University of Tehran, Nano-Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In this report we present a simple, low-temperature method which is compatible with standard technology, to achieve graphene-based devices in large quantity. In this approach we take advantage of photocatalytic behavior of TiO{sub 2} to achieve photocatalytic reduction of chemically synthesized graphene oxide (GO) sheets. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been deposited on GO sheets hanging from Au/SiO{sub 2}/Si interdigital electrodes to realize TiO{sub 2}/GO heterostructures. We investigated photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the presence of UV-illumination, to reduce the GO sheets. Based on the Raman spectroscopy, the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles resulted in a decrease in the number of C-O bonds. Electrical measurements show that graphene sheets with the controlled electrical conductivity were obtained, so that higher illumination time led to higher conductivity and better reduction of GO sheets. Also, strain-induced photocatalytic reduction of the GO sheets has been investigated by their electrical characteristics. It has been shown for the first time that the electromechanical-induced strain enhances the photocatalytic behavior of the fabricated TiO{sub 2}/GO heterostructure significantly.

  15. Traction forces exerted by epithelial cell sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, A; Anon, E; Ghibaudo, M; Di Meglio, J-M; Hersen, P; Ladoux, B; Du Roure, O; Silberzan, P; Buguin, A

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the adhesion and migration of individual cells have been well described in terms of physical forces, the mechanics of multicellular assemblies is still poorly understood. Here, we study the behavior of epithelial cells cultured on microfabricated substrates designed to measure cell-to-substrate interactions. These substrates are covered by a dense array of flexible micropillars whose deflection enables us to measure traction forces. They are obtained by lithography and soft replica molding. The pillar deflection is measured by video microscopy and images are analyzed with home-made multiple particle tracking software. First, we have characterized the temporal and spatial distributions of traction forces of cellular assemblies of various sizes. The mechanical force balance within epithelial cell sheets shows that the forces exerted by neighboring cells strongly depend on their relative position in the monolayer: the largest deformations are always localized at the edge of the islands of cells in the active areas of cell protrusions. The average traction stress rapidly decreases from its maximum value at the edge but remains much larger than the inherent noise due to the force resolution of our pillar tracking software, indicating an important mechanical activity inside epithelial cell islands. Moreover, these traction forces vary linearly with the rigidity of the substrate over about two decades, suggesting that cells exert a given amount of deformation rather than a force. Finally, we engineer micropatterned substrates supporting pillars with anisotropic stiffness. On such substrates cellular growth is aligned with respect to the stiffest direction in correlation with the magnitude of the applied traction forces.

  16. Controversies Regarding Goodwill Evaluation, Depreciation and Recording Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Feleaga

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In some of the continental European countries (e.g. France, there is a necessity to make a clear distinction between the legal issue of commerce fund (fonds de commerce, in French language, and the related accounting concept represented by goodwill. Fonds de commerce represents a set of movable and immovable goods with a common destination, therefore having a unique legal status. Goodwill is an intangible asset item that is placed within the Balance Sheet. It holds together all the fonds de commerce elements which finally form a subset containing the following: (i intangible assets; (ii not evaluated, nor separately recorded; (iii purchased, but not internally created; (iv which compete for the maintenance and further development of the company’s activity potential. The goodwill issue appears very often within the consolidated accounts. A commercial relationship between the parent of a group and one of its subsidiaries may appear either through the creation of a new enterprise (initiated by the group leader, or by acquisition of already existent business. In this second case, we are talking about a business combination. The acquired goodwill is mentioned in the Balance Sheet, amongst non-current intangible asset items. The internally generated goodwill is not recognised within the Balance Sheet. Goodwill may be stated as the difference between the acquisition cost and the percentage belonging to the buyer within the fair value of the assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities identifiable acquired. In the advanced accounting systems, goodwill is no longer amortized. His useful life is undefined, but not unlimited. The fact that is no longer amortized determines an annual depreciation test. Such a depreciation test is meant to evaluate the goodwill on the basis of present cash flows.

  17. ESR in a disordered network of nanographene sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, M.; Tsugeno, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Joly, V. L. J.; Takai, K.; Enoki, T.

    2011-12-01

    Randomly networked nanographene sheets have been studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique at 20 GHz (K-band) and 35 GHz (Q-band). Nanographene has spin-polarized non-bonding π-electron states (edge-state spins) localized in the zigzag edge region. We have investigated the temperature dependence of an ESR signal of activated carbon fibers at two different microwave powers for each frequency. The signal intensity smoothly increases with decreasing temperature at any microwave power. The line width of ESR signal with a Lorentzian line shape decreases linearly upon cooling, and then increases steeply after taking a minimum at about 20 K irrespective of microwave power. The former is interpreted as the Korringa relation in the localized edge spins and conduction π carriers. The latter may be caused by inhomogeneous line broadening of the ESR signal from randomly distributed nanographene sheets with different sizes due to the suppression of electron hopping between nanographene sheets, i.e. electron localization. The discontinuous line broadening and the signal intensity drop at around 20 K reported in the previous X-band ESR at 1 μW were not observed, probably because of either higher microwave power than 1 μW or some amount of oxygen adsorption in our sample in the present study.

  18. Ion and electron Kappa distribution functions in the plasma sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, P. S.; Stepanova, M. V.; Espinoza, C.; Antonova, E. E.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a study of ion and electron flux spectra in the Earth's plasma sheet using kappa distribution functions. Satellite data from the THEMIS mission were collected for thousands of crossings through the plasma sheet, between 7 and 35 Re and during the years 2008-2009. The events were separated according to the geomagnetic activity at the time. Our results show the distribution of the kappa index and characteristic energies across the plasma sheet and its evolution with distance to Earth for quiet times and for the substorm expansion and recovery phases. For the ions, it is observed that the kappa values tend to decrease outwards and that this effect is more significant in the dusk sector, where the smallest values are found for distances beyond 15 Re. The main effect of the substorms appears as an enhancement of this behavior. The electrons show a much more homogeneous distribution in quiet times, with a mild tendency for larger kappa values at larger distances. During substorms, the kappa values tend to equalize and appear very homogenous during expansion. However, they exhibit a significant increase in the dusk sector during the recovery substorm phase. Finally, we observe that the characteristic energy of the particles during substorms increases and concentrate at distances less than 15 Re.

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations ...

  20. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Activity Calendar Activity Information Sheets I Heard Hurdle ... Links Sleep Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Physical Activity Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Lurking in ...

  1. Health risk among asbestos cement sheet manufacturing workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanprasit, Wantanee; Sujirarat, Dusit; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai

    2009-12-01

    To assess asbestos exposure and calculate the relative risks of lung cancer among asbestos cement roof sheet workers and to predict the incidence rate of lung cancer caused by asbestos in Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four asbestos cement roof factories. Both area and personal air samples were collected and analyzed employing NIOSH method # 7400 and counting rule A for all procesess and activities. The time weight average exposures were calculated for each studied task using average area concentrations of the mill and personal concentrations. Then, cumulative exposures were estimated based on the past nation-wide air sampling concentrations and those from the present study. The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer among asbestos cement sheet workers was calculated and the number of asbestos related lung cancer case was estimated. The roof fitting polishers had the highest exposure to airborne asbestos fiber (0.73 fiber/ml). The highest average area concentration was at the conveyor to the de-bagger areas (0.02 fiber/ml). The estimated cumulative exposure for the workers performed studied-tasks ranged in between 90.13-115.65 fiber-years/ml while the relative risk of lung cancer calculated using US. EPA's model were 5.37-5.96. Based on the obtained RR, lung cancer among AC sheet in Thailand would be 2 case/year. In case that AC sheet will not be prohibited from being manufactured, even though only chrysotile is allowed, the surveillance system should be further developed and more seriously implemented. The better control measures for all processes must be implemented. Furthermore, due to the environmental persistence of asbestos fiber, its life cycle analysis should be conducted in order to control environmental exposure of general population.

  2. Vinyl Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartmanski, Dominik; Woodward, Ian

    2018-01-01

    . This relational process means that both the material affordances and entanglements of vinyl allow us to feel, handle, experience, project, and share its iconicity. The materially mediated meanings of vinyl enabled it to retain currency in independent and collector’s markets and thus resist the planned......In this paper, we use the case of the vinyl record to show that iconic objects become meaningful via a dual process. First, they offer immersive engagements which structure user interpretations through various material experiences of handling, use, and extension. Second, they always work via...

  3. Comparison of soft tissue artifact and its effects on knee kinematics between non-obese and obese subjects performing a squatting activity recorded using an exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Julien; de Guise, Jaques A; Fuentes, Alexandre; Hagemeister, Nicola

    2018-03-01

    Rigid attachment systems are one of the methods used to compensate for soft tissue artifact (STA) inherent in joint motion analyses. The goal of this study was to quantify STA of an exoskeleton design to reduce STA at the knee, and to assess the accuracy of 3D knee kinematics recorded with the exoskeleton in non-obese and obese subjects during quasi-static weight-bearing squatting activity using biplane radiography. Nine non-obese and eight obese subjects were recruited. The exoskeleton was calibrated on each subject before they performed a quasistatic squatting activity in the EOS ® imaging system. 3D models of exoskeleton markers and knee bones were reconstructed from EOS ® radiographs; they served to quantify STA and to evaluate differences between the markers and bones knee kinematics during the squatting activity. The results showed that STA observed at the femur was larger in non-obese subjects than in obese subjects in frontal rotation (p = 0.004), axial rotation (p = 0.000), medio-lateral displacement (p = 0.000) and antero-posterior displacement (p = 0.019), while STA observed at the tibia was lower in non-obese subjects than in obese subjects for the three rotations (p exoskeleton were greater among non-obese subjects than obese subjects, which is encouraging for future biomechanical studies on pathologies such as osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Best Management Practice, Fact Sheet 2. Sheet Flow to Open Space

    OpenAIRE

    Sample, David; Doumar, Lia

    2013-01-01

    This publication explains what sheet flow to open space is, where and how it is used, their limitations, routine and nonroutine maintenance, expected costs, and a glossary of terms. This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices.

  5. Long-Term Recordings of Arcuate Nucleus Kisspeptin Neurons Reveal Patterned Activity That Is Modulated by Gonadal Steroids in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Charlotte; Moya, Manuel Ricu; DeFazio, R Anthony; Johnson, Michael L; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2017-10-01

    Pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is key to fertility. Pulse frequency is modulated by gonadal steroids and likely arises subsequent to coordination of GnRH neuron firing activity. The source of rhythm generation and the site of steroid feedback remain critical unanswered questions. Arcuate neurons that synthesize kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (KNDy) may be involved in both of these processes. We tested the hypotheses that action potential firing in KNDy neurons is episodic and that gonadal steroids regulate this pattern. Targeted extracellular recordings were made of green fluorescent protein-identified KNDy neurons in brain slices from adult male mice that were intact, castrated, or castrated and treated with estradiol or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). KNDy neurons exhibited marked peaks and nadirs in action potential firing activity during recordings lasting 1 to 3.5 hours. Peaks, identified by Cluster analysis, occurred more frequently in castrated than intact mice, and either estradiol or DHT in vivo or blocking neurokinin type 3 receptor in vitro restored peak frequency to intact levels. The frequency of peaks in firing rate and estradiol regulation of this frequency is similar to that observed for GnRH neurons, whereas DHT suppressed firing in KNDy but not GnRH neurons. We further examined the patterning of action potentials to identify bursts that may be associated with increased neuromodulator release. Burst frequency and duration are increased in castrated compared with intact and steroid-treated mice. The observation that KNDy neurons fire in an episodic manner that is regulated by steroid feedback is consistent with a role for these neurons in GnRH pulse generation and regulation. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  6. Shape induced (spherical, sheets and rods) optical and magnetic properties of CdS nanostructures with enhanced photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under ultra-violet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Bilal; Kumar, Sachin; Kumar, Sumeet; Ojha, Animesh K., E-mail: animesh@mnnit.ac.in

    2016-09-15

    CdS nanostructures of different shapes such as, nanoparticles (NPs), nanosheets (NS) and nanorods (NRs) have been synthesized by one step chemical solvothermal method. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, UV–visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy (RS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. The effect of shape on optical and magnetic properties of CdS nanostructures was studied. The optical band gap and emission spectra are found to be shape dependent. CdS NRs were found to have high saturation (Ms) magnetization than that of CdS NPs and NS. The role of shape on photocatalytic performance of CdS NPs, NS and NRs was investigated by monitoring the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under the UV irradiation of wavelength 365 nm. The lower recombination rate of electron-hole pairs and larger surface area as reactive facets for adsorption of MB dye molecules in CdS NS are mainly lead to the better photocatalytic performance of CdS NS compared to NPs and NRs. - Highlights: • Synthesis of CdS nanostructures with different shapes (spherical, rod and sheet) by easy and low cost solvothermal method. • Shape induced optical and magnetic properties of CdS nanostructures have been investigated. • The shapes of nanostructures play an important role for photocatalytic performance of CdS nanostructures.

  7. A very thin light sheet technique used to investigate meniscus shapes by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a light sheet technique is described to accurately (50 μm) measure meniscus profiles in film formation problems. The use of a slit to create the thin (0.1 mm) laser sheet makes the technique easy to implement, and allows tunable sheet thickness. The low light intensity obtained through the slit is compensated by the induced fluorescence of the tested fluid, which provides good picture contrast. After video recording through a microscope, the actual meniscus is recovered by image processing and proper calibration. The efficiency of the technique is demonstrated on a coating flow experiment. Due to its good accuracy and ease of use, this technique is expected to provide useful quantitative information about meniscus problems, in particular for the validation of computational fluid dynamics CFD solutions of coating flows. (author)

  8. On the reconstruction of palaeo-ice sheets: Recent advances and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Chris R.; Tarasov, Lev; Blomdin, Robin; Cronin, Thomas M.; Fisher, Timothy G.; Gyllencreutz, Richard; Hattestrand, Clas; Heyman, Jakob; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Hughes, Anna L. C.; Jakobsson, Martin; Kirchner, Nina; Livingstone, Stephen J.; Margold, Martin; Murton, Julian B.; Noormets, Riko; Peltier, W. Richard; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Piper, David J. W.; Preusser, Frank; Renssen, Hans; Roberts, David H.; Roche, Didier M.; Saint-Ange, Francky; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Teller, James T.

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing the growth and decay of palaeo-ice sheets is critical to understanding mechanisms of global climate change and associated sea-level fluctuations in the past, present and future. The significance of palaeo-ice sheets is further underlined by the broad range of disciplines concerned with reconstructing their behaviour, many of which have undergone a rapid expansion since the 1980s. In particular, there has been a major increase in the size and qualitative diversity of empirical data used to reconstruct and date ice sheets, and major improvements in our ability to simulate their dynamics in numerical ice sheet models. These developments have made it increasingly necessary to forge interdisciplinary links between sub-disciplines and to link numerical modelling with observations and dating of proxy records. The aim of this paper is to evaluate recent developments in the methods used to reconstruct ice sheets and outline some key challenges that remain, with an emphasis on how future work might integrate terrestrial and marine evidence together with numerical modelling. Our focus is on pan-ice sheet reconstructions of the last deglaciation, but regional case studies are used to illustrate methodological achievements, challenges and opportunities. Whilst various disciplines have made important progress in our understanding of ice-sheet dynamics, it is clear that data-model integration remains under-used, and that uncertainties remain poorly quantified in both empirically-based and numerical ice-sheet reconstructions. The representation of past climate will continue to be the largest source of uncertainty for numerical modelling. As such, palaeo-observations are critical to constrain and validate modelling. State-of-the-art numerical models will continue to improve both in model resolution and in the breadth of inclusion of relevant processes, thereby enabling more accurate and more direct comparison with the increasing range of palaeo-observations. Thus

  9. Bessel light sheet structured illumination microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshirvani Allahabadi, Golchehr

    Biomedical study researchers using animals to model disease and treatment need fast, deep, noninvasive, and inexpensive multi-channel imaging methods. Traditional fluorescence microscopy meets those criteria to an extent. Specifically, two-photon and confocal microscopy, the two most commonly used methods, are limited in penetration depth, cost, resolution, and field of view. In addition, two-photon microscopy has limited ability in multi-channel imaging. Light sheet microscopy, a fast developing 3D fluorescence imaging method, offers attractive advantages over traditional two-photon and confocal microscopy. Light sheet microscopy is much more applicable for in vivo 3D time-lapsed imaging, owing to its selective illumination of tissue layer, superior speed, low light exposure, high penetration depth, and low levels of photobleaching. However, standard light sheet microscopy using Gaussian beam excitation has two main disadvantages: 1) the field of view (FOV) of light sheet microscopy is limited by the depth of focus of the Gaussian beam. 2) Light-sheet images can be degraded by scattering, which limits the penetration of the excitation beam and blurs emission images in deep tissue layers. While two-sided sheet illumination, which doubles the field of view by illuminating the sample from opposite sides, offers a potential solution, the technique adds complexity and cost to the imaging system. We investigate a new technique to address these limitations: Bessel light sheet microscopy in combination with incoherent nonlinear Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM). Results demonstrate that, at visible wavelengths, Bessel excitation penetrates up to 250 microns deep in the scattering media with single-side illumination. Bessel light sheet microscope achieves confocal level resolution at a lateral resolution of 0.3 micron and an axial resolution of 1 micron. Incoherent nonlinear SIM further reduces the diffused background in Bessel light sheet images, resulting in

  10. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club November  Selections Just in time for the holiday season, we have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then Nov 2011. New films include the all 5 episodes of Fast and Furious, many of the most famous films starring Jean-Paul Belmondo and those of Louis de Funes and some more recent films such as The Lincoln Lawyer and, according to some critics, Woody Allen’s best film for years – Midnight in Paris. For the younger generation there is Cars 2 and Kung Fu Panda 2. New CDs include the latest releases by Adele, Coldplay and the Red Hot Chili Peppers. We have also added the new Duets II CD featuring Tony Bennett singing with some of today’s pop stars including Lady Gaga, Amy Winehouse and Willy Nelson. The Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday ...

  11. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club June Selections We have put a significant number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club and select the «Discs of the Month» button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then June 2011. New films include the latest Action, Suspense and Science Fiction film hits, general drama movies including the Oscar-winning The King’s Speech, comedies including both chapter of Bridget Jones’s Diary, seven films for children and a musical. Other highlights include the latest Harry Potter release and some movies from the past you may have missed including the first in the Terminator series. New CDs include the latest releases by Michel Sardou, Mylene Farmer, Jennifer Lopez, Zucchero and Britney Spears. There is also a hits collection from NRJ. Don’t forget that the Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtimes from 12h30 to 13h00 in Restaurant 2, Building 504. (C...

  12. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club Nouveautés été 2011 Le club de location de CDs et de DVDs vient d’ajouter un grand nombre de disques pour l’été 2011. Parmi eux, Le Discours d’un Roi, oscar 2011 du meilleur film et Harry Potter les reliques de la mort (1re partie). Ce n’est pas moins de 48 DVDs et 10 CDs nouveaux qui vous sont proposés à la location. Il y en a pour tous les genres. Alors n’hésitez pas à consulter notre site http://cern.ch/record.club, voir Disc Catalogue, Discs of the month pour avoir la liste complète. Le club est ouvert tous les Lundi, Mercredi, Vendredi de 12h30 à 13h dans le bâtiment du restaurent N°2 (Cf. URL: http://www.cern.ch/map/building?bno=504) A très bientôt.  

  13. The transposition of the balance sheet to financial and functional balance sheet. Research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana GĂDĂU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the title suggests, through this paper we want to highlight the necessity of treating again the content and the form of the balance sheet in order to adapt it to a more efficient analysis, this way surpassing the informational valences of the classic balance sheet. The functional and the financial balance sheet will be taken into account. These models of balance sheet permit the complex analyses regarding the solvability or the bankruptcy risk of an enterprise to take place, and also other analyses, like the analysis of the structure and the financial/ functional equilibrium, the analysis of the company on operating cycles and their role in the functioning of the company. Through the particularities offered by each of these two models of balance sheet, we want to present the advantages of a superior informing. This content of this material is based on a vast investigation of the specialized literature.

  14. Objectively recorded physical activity in pregnancy and postpartum in a multi-ethnic cohort: association with access to recreational areas in the neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardsen, Kåre Rønn; Mdala, Ibrahimu; Berntsen, Sveinung; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Martinsen, Egil Wilhelm; Sletner, Line; Jenum, Anne Karen

    2016-07-07

    Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, compared to non-pregnant women, a lower proportion of pregnant women meet the physical activity guidelines. Our objectives were to explore overall changes and ethnic differences in objectively recorded moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) during pregnancy and postpartum and to investigate the associations with objective and perceived access to recreational areas. We analysed 1,467 person-observations from 709 women in a multi-ethnic population-based cohort, with MVPA data recorded with the SenseWear™ Pro(3) Armband in early pregnancy (mean gestational week (GW) 15), mid-pregnancy (mean GW 28) and postpartum (mean postpartum week 14). MVPA was limited to bouts ≥10 min. Women were nested within 56 neighbourhoods defined by postal code area. We derived neighbourhood-level objective access to recreational areas (good vs limited) by geographic information systems. We collected information about perceived access (high vs low perception) to recreational areas in early pregnancy. We treated ethnicity, objective and perceived access as explanatory variables in separate models based on linear mixed effects regression analyses. Overall, MVPA dropped between early and mid-pregnancy, followed by an increase postpartum. Western women performed more MVPA than women in other ethnic groups across time points, but the differences increased postpartum. Women residing in neighbourhoods with good objective access to recreational areas accumulated on average nine additional MVPA minutes/day (p perceived and objective access to recreational areas remained significantly associated with MVPA. The association between MVPA and access to recreational areas did not differ by time point, ethnic group or socio-economic position. In all ethnic groups, we observed a decline in MVPA between early and mid-pregnancy. However, at both time points during pregnancy, and especially three months

  15. Controlling microstructure and texture in magnesium alloy sheet by shear-based deformation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagapuram, Dinakar

    Application of lightweight Mg sheet is limited by its low workability, both in production of sheet (typically by multistep hot and cold-rolling) and forming of sheet into components. Large strain extrusion machining (LSEM), a constrained chip formation process, is used to create Mg alloy AZ31B sheet in a single deformation step. The deformation in LSEM is shown to be intense simple shear that is confined to a narrow zone, which results in significant deformation-induced heating up to ~ 200°C and reduces the need for pre-heating to realize continuous sheet forms. This study focuses on the texture and microstructure development in the sheet processed by LSEM. Interestingly, deep, highly twinned steady-state layer develops in the workpiece subsurface due to the compressive field ahead of the shear zone. The shear deformation, in conjunction with this pre-deformed twinned layer, results in tilted-basal textures in the sheet with basal planes tilted well away from the surface. These textures are significantly different from those in rolled sheet, where basal planes are nearly parallel to the surface. By controlling the strain path, the basal plane inclination from the surface could be varied in the range of 32-53°. B-fiber (basal plane parallel to LSEM shear plane), associated with basal slip, is the major texture component in the sheet. An additional minor C2-fiber component appears above 250°C due to the thermal activation of pyramidal slip. Together with these textures, microstructure ranges from severely cold-worked to (dynamically) recrystallized type, with the corresponding grain sizes varying from ultrafine- (~ 200 nm) to fine- (2 mum) grained. Small-scale limiting dome height (LDH) confirmed enhanced formability (~ 50% increase in LDH) of LSEM sheet over the conventional rolled sheet. Premature, twinning-driven shear fractures are observed in the rolled sheet with the basal texture. In contrast, LSEM sheet with a tilted-basal texture favorably oriented for

  16. Antarctic Ice Sheet Discharge Driven by Atmosphere-Ocean Feedbacks Across the Last Glacial Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogwill, C. J.; Turney, C. S.; Golledge, N. R.; Etheridge, D. M.; Rubino, M.; Thornton, D.; Baker, A.; Weber, M. E.; Woodward, J.; van Ommen, T. D.; Moy, A. D.; Davies, S. M.; Bird, M. I.; Winter, K.; Munksgaard, N.; Menviel, L.; Rootes, C.; Vohra, J.; Rivera, A.; Cooper, A.

    2016-12-01

    Reconstructing the dynamic response of the Antarctic ice sheets to warming during the Last Glacial Termination (LGT; 18,000-11,650 yrs ago) allows us to identify ice-climate feedbacks that could improve future projections1,2. Whilst the sequence of events during this period are reasonably well-known, relatively poor chronological control has precluded precise alignment of ice, atmospheric and marine records2, making it difficult to assess relationships between Antarctic ice-sheet dynamics, climate change and sea-level rise3-5. Here we present results from a highly-resolved `horizontal ice core'6,7 from the Weddell Sea Embayment, which records millennial-scale ice-sheet dynamics across this extensive sector of Antarctica. Counterintuitively, we find ice-sheet surface drawdown of 600 m across the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR; 14,600-12,700 yrs ago)5, with stabilisation during the subsequent millennia of atmospheric warming. Earth system and ice-sheet modelling highlights that this response was likely sustained by strong ocean-ice feedbacks4,8; however, the drivers remain uncertain. Given the coincidence of the ice-sheet changes recorded with marked shifts in atmospheric circulation9,10,11we suggest that millennial-scale Antarctic ice-sheet behaviour was initiated and sustained by global atmospheric teleconnections across the LGT. This has important ramifications ice-sheet stability under contemporary climate change, with changing atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. 1 Collins, M. et al. in Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. 2 Weber, M. E. et al. Nature 510, 134-138, (2014). 3 Weaver, A. J., et al., Science 299, 1709-1713, (2003). 4 Golledge, N. R. et al. Nat Commun 5, (2014). 5 Pedro, J. B. et al. Nature Geosci9. 51-55 (2015). 6 Turney, C. S. M. et al. Journal of Quaternary Science 28, 697-704 (2013). 7 Winter, K. et al. Geophys. Res. Lett.43. 5. 2019-2026 (2016). 8 Menviel, L., A. et al., Quaternary Science Reviews 30, 1155-1172 (2011). 9 Hogg

  17. Interaction of ice sheets and climate during the past 800 000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stap, L. B.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; de Boer, B.; Bintanja, R.; Lourens, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    During the Cenozoic, land ice and climate interacted on many different timescales. On long timescales, the effect of land ice on global climate and sea level is mainly set by large ice sheets in North America, Eurasia, Greenland and Antarctica. The climatic forcing of these ice sheets is largely determined by the meridional temperature profile resulting from radiation and greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. As a response, the ice sheets cause an increase in albedo and surface elevation, which operates as a feedback in the climate system. To quantify the importance of these climate-land ice processes, a zonally averaged energy balance climate model is coupled to five one-dimensional ice sheet models, representing the major ice sheets. In this study, we focus on the transient simulation of the past 800 000 years, where a high-confidence CO2 record from ice core samples is used as input in combination with Milankovitch radiation changes. We obtain simulations of atmospheric temperature, ice volume and sea level that are in good agreement with recent proxy-data reconstructions. We examine long-term climate-ice-sheet interactions by a comparison of simulations with uncoupled and coupled ice sheets. We show that these interactions amplify global temperature anomalies by up to a factor of 2.6, and that they increase polar amplification by 94%. We demonstrate that, on these long timescales, the ice-albedo feedback has a larger and more global influence on the meridional atmospheric temperature profile than the surface-height-temperature feedback. Furthermore, we assess the influence of CO2 and insolation by performing runs with one or both of these variables held constant. We find that atmospheric temperature is controlled by a complex interaction of CO2 and insolation, and both variables serve as thresholds for northern hemispheric glaciation.

  18. Interaction of ice sheets and climate during the past 800 000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Stap

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the Cenozoic, land ice and climate interacted on many different timescales. On long timescales, the effect of land ice on global climate and sea level is mainly set by large ice sheets in North America, Eurasia, Greenland and Antarctica. The climatic forcing of these ice sheets is largely determined by the meridional temperature profile resulting from radiation and greenhouse gas (GHG forcing. As a response, the ice sheets cause an increase in albedo and surface elevation, which operates as a feedback in the climate system. To quantify the importance of these climate–land ice processes, a zonally averaged energy balance climate model is coupled to five one-dimensional ice sheet models, representing the major ice sheets. In this study, we focus on the transient simulation of the past 800 000 years, where a high-confidence CO2 record from ice core samples is used as input in combination with Milankovitch radiation changes. We obtain simulations of atmospheric temperature, ice volume and sea level that are in good agreement with recent proxy-data reconstructions. We examine long-term climate–ice-sheet interactions by a comparison of simulations with uncoupled and coupled ice sheets. We show that these interactions amplify global temperature anomalies by up to a factor of 2.6, and that they increase polar amplification by 94%. We demonstrate that, on these long timescales, the ice-albedo feedback has a larger and more global influence on the meridional atmospheric temperature profile than the surface-height-temperature feedback. Furthermore, we assess the influence of CO2 and insolation by performing runs with one or both of these variables held constant. We find that atmospheric temperature is controlled by a complex interaction of CO2 and insolation, and both variables serve as thresholds for northern hemispheric glaciation.

  19. RECORD CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2010-01-01

    DVD James Bond – Series Complete To all Record Club Members, to start the new year, we have taken advantage of a special offer to add copies of all the James Bond movies to date, from the very first - Dr. No - to the latest - Quantum of Solace. No matter which of the successive 007s you prefer (Sean Connery, George Lazenby, Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, Pierce Brosnan or Daniel Craig), they are all there. Or perhaps you have a favourite Bond Girl, or even perhaps a favourite villain. Take your pick. You can find the full selection listed on the club web site http://cern.ch/crc; use the panel on the left of the page “Discs of the Month” and select Jan 2010. We remind you that we are open on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 12:30 to 13:00 in Restaurant 2 (Bldg 504).

  20. Record dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robe, Dominic M.; Boettcher, Stefan; Sibani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    When quenched rapidly beyond their glass transition, colloidal suspensions fall out of equilibrium. The pace of their dynamics then slows down with the system age, i.e., with the time elapsed after the quench. This breaking of time translational invariance is associated with dynamical observables...... which depend on two time-arguments. The phenomenology is shared by a broad class of aging systems and calls for an equally broad theoretical description. The key idea is that, independent of microscopic details, aging systems progress through rare intermittent structural relaxations that are de......-facto irreversible and become increasingly harder to achieve. Thus, a progression of record-sized dynamical barriers are traversed in the approach to equilibration. Accordingly, the statistics of the events is closely described by a log-Poisson process. Originally developed for relaxation in spin glasses...

  1. Simulating a Dynamic Antarctic Ice Sheet in the Early to Middle Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, E.; DeConto, R.; Pollard, D.; Levy, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    There are a variety of sources of geological data that suggest major variations in the volume and extent of the Antarctic ice sheet during the early to middle Miocene. Simulating such variability using coupled climate-ice sheet models is problematic due to a strong hysteresis effect caused by height-mass balance feedback and albedo feedback. This results in limited retreat of the ice sheet once it has reached the continental size, as likely occurred prior to the Miocene. Proxy records suggest a relatively narrow range of atmospheric CO2 during the early to middle Miocene, which exacerbates this problem. We use a new climate forcing which accounts for ice sheet-climate feedbacks through an asynchronous GCM-RCM coupling, which is able to better resolve the narrow Antarctic ablation zone in warm climate simulations. When combined with recently suggested mechanisms for retreat into subglacial basins due to ice shelf hydrofracture and ice cliff failure, we are able to simulate large-scale variability of the Antarctic ice sheet in the Miocene. This variability is equivalent to a seawater oxygen isotope signal of ~0.5 ‰, or a sea level equivalent change of ~35 m, for a range of atmospheric CO2 between 280 - 500 ppm.

  2. Early Shear Failure Prediction in Incremental Sheet Forming Process Using FEM and ANN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayedfar, Majid; Hanaei, Hengameh; Majdi Rani, Ahmad; Musa, Mohd Azam Bin; Sadegh Momeni, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    The application of incremental sheet forming process as a rapid forming technique is rising in variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive and biomechanical purposes. However, the sheet failure is a big challenge in this process which leads wasting lots of materials. Hence, this study tried to propose a method to predict the early sheet failure in this process using mathematical solution. For the feasibility of the study, design of experiment with the respond surface method is employed to extract a set of experiments data for the simulation. The significant forming parameters were recognized and their integration was used for prediction system. Then, the results were inserted to the artificial neural network as input parameters to predict a vast range of applicable parameters avoiding sheet failure in ISF. The value of accuracy R2 ∼0.93 was obtained and the maximum sheet stretch in the depth of 25mm were recorded. The figures generate from the trend of interaction between effective parameters were provided for future studies.

  3. Flapping dynamics of a thin liquid sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivukkarasan, M.; Kumaran, Dhivyaraja; Panchagnula, Mahesh; Multi-phase flow physics Group Team

    2017-11-01

    We attempt to delineate and describe the complete evolution of a thin soap film when air is blown through a nozzle in the normal direction. The sequence of events and its intrinsic dynamics are captured using high speed imaging. By careful observation, it was observed that multiple mechanisms occur in the same system and each event is triggered by an independent mechanism. The events include (a) flapping of a liquid sheet and pinching of the bubble, (b) onset of rupture on the liquid sheet, (c) formation of ligaments and (d) ejection of drops. From this study, it is shown that these events are predominantly governed by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, Taylor - Culick law, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and capillary instability, respectively. The present experiments can be considered as an extension to the previous studies on soap films as well as thin flapping sheets which has direct relevance to coaxial atomizers used in aircraft applications.

  4. Symmetry breaking bifurcations of a current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.D.; Dewar, R.L.; Johnson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Using a time evolution code with periodic boundary conditions, the viscoresistive hydromagnetic equations describing an initially static, planar current sheet with large Lundquist number have been evolved for times long enough to reach a steady state. A cosh 2 x resistivity model was used. For long periodicity lengths L p , the resistivity gradient drives flows that cause forced reconnection at X point current sheets. Using L p as a bifurcation parameter, two new symmetry breaking bifurcations were found: a transition to an asymmetric island chain with nonzero, positive, or negative phase velocity, and a transition to a static state with alternating large and small islands. These states are reached after a complex transient behavior, which involves a competition between secondary current sheet instability and coalescence

  5. Evolution of the MHD sheet pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthaeus, W.H.; Montgomery, D.

    1979-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) problem of recurrent interest for both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas is the evolution of the unstable sheet pinch, a current sheet across which a dc magnetic field reverses sign. The evolution of such a sheet pinch is followed with a spectral-method, incompressible, two-dimensional, MHD turbulence code. Spectral diagnostics are employed, as are contour plots of vector potential (magnetic field lines), electric current density, and velocity stream function (velocity streamlines). The nonlinear effect which seems most important is seen to be current filamentation: the concentration of the current density onto sets of small measure near a mgnetic X point. A great deal of turbulence is apparent in the current distribution, which, for high Reynolds numbers, requires large spatial grids (greater than or equal to (64) 2 ). 11 figures, 1 table

  6. Dipole-sheet multipole magnets for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The dipole-sheet formalism can be used to describe both cylindrical current-sheet multipole magnets and cylindrical-bore magnets made up of permanent magnet blocks. For current sheets, the formalism provides a natural way of finding a finite set of turns that approximate a continuous distribution. The formalism is especially useful In accelerator applications where large-bore, short, high-field-quality magnets that are dominated by fringe fields are needed. A further advantage of the approach is that in systems with either open or cylindrically symmetric magnetic boundaries, analytical expressions for the three-dimensional fields that are suitable for rapid numerical evaluation can be derived. This development is described in some detail. Also, recent developments in higher-order particle-beam optics codes based on the formalism are described briefly

  7. Symmetry breaking bifurcations of a current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.D.; Dewar, R.L.; Johnson, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    Using a time evolution code with periodic boundary conditions, the viscoresistive hydromagnetic equations describing an initially static, planar current sheet with large Lundquist number have been evolved for times long enough to reach a steady state. A cosh 2 x resistivity model was used. For long periodicity lengths, L p , the resistivity gradient drives flows which cause forced reconnection at X point current sheets. Using L p as a bifurcation parameter, two new symmetry breaking bifurcations were found - a transition to an asymmetric island chain with nonzero, positive or negative phase velocity, and a transition to a static state with alternating large and small islands. These states are reached after a complex transient behavior which involves a competition between secondary current sheet instability and coalescence. 31 refs., 6 figs

  8. Continuous liquid sheet generator for ion stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, B.; Batson, P.; Leemann, B.; Rude, B.

    1984-10-01

    Many of the technical problems of generating a large thin liquid sheet from 0.02 to 0.20 μm thick (3 to 40 μgm/cm 2 ) have been solved. It is shown that this perennial sheet is stable and consonant in dimension. Several ion beam species from the SuperHILAC have been used for evaluation; at 0.11 MeV/n. In one of three modes this sheet serves as an equivalent substitute for a carbon foil. The second mode is characterized by a solid-like charge state distribution but with a varying fraction of unstripped ions. The third mode gives stripping performance akin to a vapor stripping medium. 9 references, 7 figures

  9. Practical implementation of Wilhelm Osbahr’s entrepreneur balance sheet theory assumptions – the case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Śnieżek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present the possibilities of the practical application of Osbahr’s balance sheet theoryassumptions, as one of many possible attempts to close the information gap in the financial reporting of thetwenty-first century. Wilhelm Osbahr, at the beginning of the 20th century, made an attempt to solve the problemof indicating the balance sheet values (the impact of balance sheet evaluation on the balance sheet items,from the point of view of an entrepreneur or business owner, at the same time clearly emphasizing the necessityto deal with the balance sheet structure through the prism of the objectives pursued by the company. Osbahrpostulated highlighting any changes occurring in the economic structure of the company and its components,which do not result directly from its operating activities, and so to present them in the position called “adjustments”.This article uses the deductive method supported by literature studies and a case study method. Theauthors using the case study method confirm the possibility of using the described balance sheet theory in thecurrent financial reporting based on actual data of the company ABC Ltd. They also show that a balance sheetwhich is presented according to the new reporting formula discloses new quality of information for the financialreporting users.

  10. Evolution of three-dimensional relativistic current sheets and development of self-generated turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamoto, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the temporal evolution of three-dimensional relativistic current sheets in Poynting-dominated plasma is studied for the first time. Over the past few decades, a lot of efforts have been conducted on studying the evolution of current sheets in two-dimensional space, and concluded that sufficiently long current sheets always evolve into the so-called plasmoid chain, which provides a fast reconnection rate independent of its resistivity. However, it is suspected that plasmoid chain can exist only in the case of two-dimensional approximation, and would show transition to turbulence in three-dimensional space. We performed three-dimensional numerical simulation of relativistic current sheet using resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamic approximation. The results showed that the three-dimensional current sheets evolve not into plasmoid chain but turbulence. The resulting reconnection rate is 0.004, which is much smaller than that of plasmoid chain. The energy conversion from magnetic field to kinetic energy of turbulence is just 0.01 per cent, which is much smaller than typical non-relativistic cases. Using the energy principle, we also showed that the plasmoid is always unstable for a displacement in the opposite direction to its acceleration, probably interchange-type instability, and this always results in seeds of turbulence behind the plasmoids. Finally, the temperature distribution along the sheet is discussed, and it is found that the sheet is less active than plasmoid chain. Our finding can be applied for many high-energy astrophysical phenomena, and can provide a basic model of the general current sheet in Poynting-dominated plasma.

  11. Dating Antarctic ice sheet collapse: Proposing a molecular genetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugnell, Jan M.; Pedro, Joel B.; Wilson, Nerida G.

    2018-01-01

    Sea levels at the end of this century are projected to be 0.26-0.98 m higher than today. The upper end of this range, and even higher estimates, cannot be ruled out because of major uncertainties in the dynamic response of polar ice sheets to a warming climate. Here, we propose an ecological genetics approach that can provide insight into the past stability and configuration of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). We propose independent testing of the hypothesis that a trans-Antarctic seaway occurred at the last interglacial. Examination of the genomic signatures of bottom-dwelling marine species using the latest methods can provide an independent window into the integrity of the WAIS more than 100,000 years ago. Periods of connectivity facilitated by trans-Antarctic seaways could be revealed by dating coalescent events recorded in DNA. These methods allow alternative scenarios to be tested against a fit to genomic data. Ideal candidate taxa for this work would need to possess a circumpolar distribution, a benthic habitat, and some level of genetic structure indicated by phylogeographical investigation. The purpose of this perspective piece is to set out an ecological genetics method to help resolve when the West Antarctic Ice Shelf last collapsed.

  12. Composition and plasma properties of the plasma sheet in the Earth's magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsini, S.; Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H.

    1986-01-01

    A statistical study of the plasma sheet properties, based on 300 h of data from the ISEE-1 Ion Composition Experiment, yiels a description of H + and He ++ densities and temperatures as functions of magnetospheric substorm activity and geocentric distance. The H + and He ++ temperatures are found to be well correlated, such that a ratio T(He ++ )/T(H + ) = 2.7±0.1 is typical. However, linear-regression analysis typically yields a nonvanishing T(He ++ ) in the limit T(H + ) #-> # 0, a limit that is approached through the addition of cold ionospheric H + to the plasma sheet during active periods. The plasma sheet proton temperature T(H + ) varies inversely with geocentric distance, and the radial gradient of T(H + ) increases with increasing activity index AE. The density ratio N (He ++ )/N(H + ) increases with geocentric distance, irrespective of AE

  13. Vibration reduction and power generation with piezoceramic sheets mounted to a flexible shaft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloetjes, P.J.; de Boer, Andries

    2008-01-01

    A flexible shaft with surface-mounted piezoceramic sheets and strain sensors is considered which suffers from resonance and self-excited vibration. Frequency domain models, time domain simulations, and control experiments are used to analyze active modal damping and active modal balancing methods.

  14. The Potato People in "School Daze": Presented by Theatre Beyond Words. Cue Sheet for Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Rachel

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of the Potato People in "School Daze." The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains seven pages of reproducible activity sheets for use in class with activities and discussion questions on the following topics: (1) Meet the…

  15. Balance Velocities of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joughin, Ian; Fahnestock, Mark; Ekholm, Simon; Kwok, Ron

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetry data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail the location of an ice stream in northeastern Greenland, which was only recently discovered using satellite imagery. Enhanced flow associated with all of the major outlets is clearly visible, although small errors in the source data result in less accurate estimates of the absolute flow speeds. Nevertheless, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning.

  16. 1998 energy balance sheet of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the energy balance sheet of France for the year 1998 according to the data published by the energy observatory from the general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) and according to the press communication given by C. Pierret, French state secretary of the industry. The following points are commented: the energy balance sheet (national production and energy independence, the energy shares in the consumption), the decay of the energy bill, and the details of the bill by energy type. (J.S.)

  17. Physics of the magnetotail current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's magnetotail plays an important role in the solar-wind--magnetosphere coupling. At the midplane of the magnetotail is a current sheet where the dominant magnetic field component reverses sign. The charged particle motion in and near the current sheet is collisionless and nonintegrable, exhibiting chaotic scattering. The current understanding of the dynamical properties of the charged particle motion is discussed. In particular, the relationships between particle dynamics and global attributes of the system are elucidated. Geometrical properties of the phase space determine important physical observables on both micro- and macroscales

  18. W-Band Sheet Beam Klystron Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheitrum, G.; Caryotakis, G.; Burke, A.; Jensen, A.; Jongewaard, E.; Krasnykh, A.; Neubauer, M.; Phillips, R.; Rauenbuehler, K.

    2011-01-01

    Sheet beam devices provide important advantages for very high power, narrow bandwidth RF sources like accelerator klystrons (1). Reduced current density and increased surface area result in increased power capabi1ity, reduced magnetic fields for focusing and reduced cathode loading. These advantages are offset by increased complexity, beam formation and transport issues and potential for mode competition in the ovennoded cavities and drift tube. This paper will describe the design issues encountered in developing a 100 kW peak and 2 kW average power sheet beam k1ystron at W-band including beam formation, beam transport, circuit design, circuit fabrication and mode competition.

  19. Balance sheet capacity and endogenous risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Danielsson; Hyun Song Shin; Jean-Pierre Zigrand

    2011-01-01

    Banks operating under Value-at-Risk constraints give rise to a well-defined aggregate balance sheet capacity for the banking sector as a whole that depends on total bank capital. Equilibrium risk and market risk premiums can be solved in closed form as functions of aggregate bank capital. We explore the empirical properties of the model in light of recent experience in the financial crisis and highlight the importance of balance sheet capacity as the driver of the financial cycle and market r...

  20. Canada and the Kyoto Protocol: Fact Sheet No. 1 - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This fact sheet outlines the principles underlying Canada's position at the sixth Conference of Parties (COP6) regarding climate change. Capsule descriptions of the Canadian view on carbon sinks (advocating a broader inclusion of sink activities), application of the flexibility mechanisms (the Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation and International Emissions Trading), the issue of compliance (Canada favoring strong incentives to ensure compliance), and strengthening the capacity of developing countries to enhance their contribution to fighting climate change (Canada acknowledging that capacity building and technology transfer needs to be a central part of the global approach to combating climate change)

  1. Rapid fabricating technique for multi-layered human hepatic cell sheets by forceful contraction of the fibroblast monolayer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sakai

    Full Text Available Cell sheet engineering is attracting attention from investigators in various fields, from basic research scientists to clinicians focused on regenerative medicine. However, hepatocytes have a limited proliferation potential in vitro, and it generally takes a several days to form a sheet morphology and multi-layered sheets. We herein report our rapid and efficient technique for generating multi-layered human hepatic cell (HepaRG® cell sheets using pre-cultured fibroblast monolayers derived from human skin (TIG-118 cells as a feeder layer on a temperature-responsive culture dish. Multi-layered TIG-118/HepaRG cell sheets with a thick morphology were harvested on day 4 of culturing HepaRG cells by forceful contraction of the TIG-118 cells, and the resulting sheet could be easily handled. In addition, the human albumin and alpha 1-antitrypsin synthesis activities of TIG-118/HepaRG cells were approximately 1.2 and 1.3 times higher than those of HepaRG cells, respectively. Therefore, this technique is considered to be a promising modality for rapidly fabricating multi-layered human hepatocyte sheets from cells with limited proliferation potential, and the engineered cell sheet could be used for cell transplantation with highly specific functions.

  2. Relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in stationary incompressible MHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Nickeler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic configurations with strong localized current concentrations and vortices play an important role in the dissipation of energy in space and astrophysical plasma. Within this work we investigate the relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in incompressible, stationary equilibria. For this approach it is helpful that the similar mathematical structure of magnetohydrostatics and stationary incompressible hydrodynamics allows us to transform static equilibria into stationary ones. The main control function for such a transformation is the profile of the Alfvén-Mach number MA, which is always constant along magnetic field lines, but can change from one field line to another. In the case of a global constant MA, vortices and electric current concentrations are parallel. More interesting is the nonlinear case, where MA varies perpendicular to the field lines. This is a typical situation at boundary layers like the magnetopause, heliopause, the solar wind flowing around helmet streamers and at the boundary of solar coronal holes. The corresponding current and vortex sheets show in some cases also an alignment, but not in every case. For special density distributions in 2-D, it is possible to have current but no vortex sheets. In 2-D, vortex sheets of field aligned-flows can also exist without strong current sheets, taking the limit of small Alfvén Mach numbers into account. The current sheet can vanish if the Alfvén Mach number is (almost constant and the density gradient is large across some boundary layer. It should be emphasized that the used theory is not only valid for small Alfvén Mach numbers MA MA ≲ 1. Connection to other theoretical approaches and observations and physical effects in space plasmas are presented. Differences in the various aspects of theoretical investigations of current sheets and vortex sheets are given.

  3. Transmural recording of shock potential gradient fields, early postshock activations, and refibrillation episodes associated with external defibrillation of long-duration ventricular fibrillation in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, James D; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Allison, J Scott; Dosdall, Derek J; Melnick, Sharon B; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E; Walcott, Gregory P

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge of the shock potential gradient (nablaV) and postshock activation is limited to internal defibrillation of short-duration ventricular fibrillation (SDVF). The purpose of this study was to determine these variables after external defibrillation of long-duration VF (LDVF). In six pigs, 115-20 plunge needles with three to six electrodes each were inserted to record throughout both ventricles. After the chest was closed, the biphasic defibrillation threshold (DFT) was determined after 20 seconds of SDVF with external defibrillation pads. After 7 minutes of LDVF, defibrillation shocks that were less than or equal to the SDVF DFT strength were given. For DFT shocks (1632 +/- 429 V), the maximum minus minimum ventricular voltage (160 +/- 100 V) was 9.8% of the shock voltage. Maximum cardiac nablaV (28.7 +/- 17 V/cm) was 4.7 +/- 2.0 times the minimum nablaV (6.2 +/- 3.5 V/cm). Although LDVF did not increase the DFT in five of the six pigs, it significantly lengthened the time to earliest postshock activation following defibrillation (1.6 +/- 2.2 seconds for SDVF and 4.9 +/- 4.3 seconds for LDVF). After LDVF, 1.3 +/- 0.8 episodes of spontaneous refibrillation occurred per animal, but there was no refibrillation after SDVF. Compared with previous studies of internal defibrillation, during external defibrillation much less of the shock voltage appears across the heart and the shock field is much more even; however, the minimum nablaV is similar. Compared with external defibrillation of SDVF, the biphasic external DFT for LDVF is not increased; however, time to earliest postshock activation triples. Refibrillation is common after LDVF but not after SDVF in these normal hearts, indicating that LDVF by itself can cause refibrillation without requiring preexisting heart disease.

  4. Record Club

    CERN Document Server

    Record Club

    2012-01-01

      March  Selections By the time this appears, we will have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left panel of the web page and then Mar 2012. New films include recent releases such as Johnny English 2, Bad Teacher, Cowboys vs Aliens, and Super 8. We are also starting to acquire some of the classic films we missed when we initiated the DVD section of the club, such as appeared in a recent Best 100 Films published by a leading UK magazine; this month we have added Spielberg’s Jaws and Scorsese’s Goodfellas. If you have your own ideas on what we are missing, let us know. For children we have no less than 8 Tin-Tin DVDs. And if you like fast moving pop music, try the Beyonce concert DVD. New CDs include the latest releases from Paul McCartney, Rihanna and Amy Winehouse. There is a best of Mylene Farmer, a compilation from the NRJ 201...

  5. Laminin-521 Promotes Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet Formation on Light-Induced Cell Sheet Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets (rBMSC sheets are attractive for cell-based tissue engineering. However, methods of culturing rBMSC sheets are critically limited. In order to obtain intact rBMSC sheets, a light-induced cell sheet method was used in this study. TiO2 nanodot films were coated with (TL or without (TN laminin-521. We investigated the effects of laminin-521 on rBMSCs during cell sheet culturing. The fabricated rBMSC sheets were subsequently assessed to study cell sheet viability, reattachment ability, cell sheet thickness, collagen type I deposition, and multilineage potential. The results showed that laminin-521 could promote the formation of rBMSC sheets with good viability under hyperconfluent conditions. Cell sheet thickness increased from an initial 26.7 ± 1.5 μm (day 5 up to 47.7 ± 3.0 μm (day 10. Moreover, rBMSC sheets maintained their potential of osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. This study provides a new strategy to obtain rBMSC sheets using light-induced cell sheet technology.

  6. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on classifying articles under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and determining the applicability of EPA’s articles exclusion policy for purposes of the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. The primary goal of this document is to help the regulated community comply with the requirements of the CDR rule.

  7. Lamination sheet of AA BST magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame, long and narrow)and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a very wide aperture, 0.564 m of "good field". To demonstrate the size, the petite AA secretary, Val Mansfield, poses with a lamination sheet. See also 7811105, 7906163, 8006050.

  8. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance...

  9. Multiscale friction modeling for sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Felder, Eric; Montmitonnet, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The most often used friction model for sheet metal forming simulations is the relative simple Coulomb friction model. This paper presents a more advanced friction model for large scale forming simulations based on the surface change on the micro-scale. The surface texture of a material changes when

  10. Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemicals Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the chemical manufacturing, processing, and use information collected for the 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. Users do not have access to the complete CDR data set and should draw conclusions with care.

  11. Warm Deep Drawing of Aluminium Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, P.J.; Werkhoven, R.J.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminium sheet drawing processes can be improved by manipulating local flow behaviour by means of elevated temperatures and temperature gradients in the tooling. Forming tests showed that a substantial improvement is possible not only for 5xxx but also for 6xxx series alloys. Finite element method

  12. Renewable Energy Project Development Assistance (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Tribes selected to receive assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy 2013 Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, which provides technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects on tribal lands.

  13. Toxicity of Pesticides. Agrichemical Fact Sheet 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Winand K.

    This fact sheet gives the acute oral and dermal toxicity (LD 50) of over 250 pesticides in lab animals. The chemicals are categorized as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, or miscellaneous compounds. One or more trade names are given for each pesticide. In addition, a brief explanation of toxicity determination is given. (BB)

  14. The storm time central plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schödel

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The plasma sheet plays a key role during magnetic storms because it is the bottleneck through which large amounts of magnetic flux that have been eroded from the dayside magnetopause have to be returned to the dayside magnetosphere. Using about five years of Geotail data we studied the average properties of the near- and midtail central plasma sheet (CPS in the 10–30 RE range during magnetic storms. The earthward flux transport rate is greatly enhanced during the storm main phase, but shows a significant earthward decrease. Hence, since the magnetic flux cannot be circulated at a sufficient rate, this leads to an average dipolarization of the central plasma sheet. An increase of the specific entropy of the CPS ion population by a factor of about two during the storm main phase provides evidence for nonadiabatic heating processes. The direction of flux transport during the main phase is consistent with the possible formation of a near-Earth neutral line beyond ~20 RE.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; storms and substorms

  15. Geometry task sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  16. Algebra task sheets : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  17. Geometry task sheets : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  18. Full size testing of sheet pile walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Katsma, H.; Stolle, P.

    1996-01-01

    Azobé (Lophira alata) is widely used in timber sheet pile walls in the Netherlands. The boards in these walls are coupled and therefore load-sharing can be expected. A simulation model based on the finite element method DIANA (DIANA, 1992) was developed and load-sharing could be calculated. To check

  19. Ice sheets on plastically-yielding beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Many fast flowing regions of ice sheets are underlain by a layer of water-saturated sediments, or till. The rheology of the till has been the subject of some controversy, with laboratory tests suggesting almost perfectly plastic behaviour (stress independent of strain rate), but many models adopting a pseudo-viscous description. In this work, we consider the behaviour of glaciers underlain by a plastic bed. The ice is treated as a viscous gravity current, on a bed that allows unconstrained slip above a critical yield stress. This simplified description allows rapid sliding, and aims to investigate 'worst-case' scenarios of possible ice-sheet disintegration. The plastic bed results in an approximate ice-sheet geometry that is primarily controlled by force balance, whilst ice velocity is determined from mass conservation (rather than the other way around, as standard models would hold). The stability of various states is considered, and particular attention is given to the pace at which transitions between unstable states can occur. Finally, we observe that the strength of basal tills depends strongly on pore pressure, and combine the model with a description of subglacial hydrology. Implications for the present-day ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica will be discussed. Funding: ERC Marie Curie FP7 Career Integration Grant.

  20. Thin sheet numerical modelling of continental collision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Munt, I.; Garcia-Gastellanos, D.; Fernandez, M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the effects of incorporating surface mass transport and the gravitational potential energy of both crust and lithospheric mantle to the viscous thin sheet approach. Recent 2D (cross-section) numerical models show that surface erosion and sediment transport can play a major role in shaping