WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity radioactive waste

  1. Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).

  2. Transporting Radioactive Waste: An Engineering Activity. Grades 5-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    This brochure contains an engineering activity for upper elementary, middle school, and high school students that examines the transportation of radioactive waste. The activity is designed to inform students about the existence of radioactive waste and its transportation to disposal sites. Students experiment with methods to contain the waste and…

  3. Activities of the IAEA in the area of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremenkov, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    The IAEA activity in the area of radioactive waste management mainly concentrates on three areas, namely: (i) the establishing of international principles and standards for the safe management of radioactive waste; (ii) to promote the development and improvements of waste processing technologies, including handling, treatment, conditioning, packaging, storage and disposal of waste; and (iii) assisting developing Member States in establishing good waste management practice through dissemination of technical information, providing technical support and training. These activities are carried out by the Waste Technology Section, Department of Nuclear Energy, and the Waste Safety Section, Department of Nuclear Safety. The Waste Technology Section's activities are organized into four subprogrammes covering: the handling, processing and storage of radioactive waste; radioactive waste disposal; technology and management aspects of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration; and waste management information and support services

  4. International Symposium on Disposal of Low Activity Radioactive Waste, Cordoba, Spain, 13-17 December 2004

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The topical issues addressed by the symposium were: policies and strategies for low activity radioactive waste; very low activity radioactive waste; low activity radioactive waste from decommissioning; long lived low activity radioactive waste and other materials; and unique low activity radioactive waste.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented

  6. Radioecological activity limits for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmet, E. Osmanlioglu

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Near surface disposal is an option used by many countries for the disposal of radioactive waste containing mainly short lived radionuclides. Near surface disposal term includes broad range of facilities from simple trenches to concrete vaults. Principally, disposal of radioactive waste requires the implementation of measures that will provide safety for human health and environment now and in the future. For this reason preliminary activity limits should be determined to avoid radioecological problems. Radioactive waste has to be safely disposed in a regulated manner, consistent with internationally agreed principles and standards and with national legislations to avoid serious radioecological problems. The purpose of this study, presents a safety assessment approach to derive operational and post-closure radioecological activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste. Disposal system has three components; the waste, the facility (incl. engineered barriers) and the site (natural barriers). Form of the waste (unconditioned or conditioned) is effective at the beginning of the migration scenerio. Existence of the engineered barriers in the facility will provide long term isolation of the waste from environment. The site characteristics (geology, groundwater, seismicity, climate etc.) are important for the safety of the system. Occupational exposure of a worker shall be controlled so that the following dose limits are not exceeded: an effective dose of 20mSv/y averaged over 5 consecutive years; and an effective dose of 50mSv in any single year. The effective dose limit for members of the public recommended by ICRP and IAEA is 1 mSv/y for exposures from all man-made sources [1,2]. Dose constraints are typically a fraction of the dose limit and ICRP recommendations (0.3 mSv/y) could be applied [3,4]. Radioecological activity concentration limits of each radionuclide in the waste (Bq/kg) were calculated. As a result of this study radioecological activity

  7. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from utilization of radioisotopes and each step of the nuclear fuel cycle and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are presented. On the safe management of radioactive waste management, international safety standards are established such as ''The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management (IAEA)'' and T he Joint Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management . Basic steps of radioactive waste management consist of treatment, conditioning and disposal. Disposal is the final step of radioactive waste management and its safety is confirmed by safety assessment in the licensing process. Safety assessment means evaluation of radiation dose rate caused by radioactive materials contained in disposed radioactive waste. The results of the safety assessment are compared with dose limits. The key issues of radioactive waste disposal are establishment of long term national strategies and regulations for safe management of radioactive waste, siting of repository, continuity of management activities and financial bases for long term, and security of human resources. (Author)

  8. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1978-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the present situation, from a Belgian standpoint, in the field of the radioactive wastes processing. It estimates the annual quantity of various radioactive waste produced per 1000 MW(e) PWR installed from the ore mining till reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The methods of treatment concentration, fixation, final storable forms for liquid and solid waste of low activity and for high level activity waste. The storage of radioactive waste and the plutonium-bearing waste treatement are also considered. The estimated quantity of wastes produced for 5450 MW(e) in Belgium and their destination are presented. (A.F.)

  9. Status of defense radioactive waste disposal activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs, U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. As a byproduct to their activities, nuclear production facilities have generated, and will continue to generate, certain radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed and disposed of in a safe and cost-effective manner. Compliance with all applicable Federal and State regulations is required. This paper describes the principal elements that comprise Defense Programs' approach to waste management and disposal. The status of high-level, transuranic, and low-level radioactive waste disposal is set forth. Defense Programs' activities in connection with the environmental restoration of inactive facilities and with the safe transport of waste materials are summarized. Finally, the principal challenges to realizing the goals set for the defense waste program are discussed in terms of regulatory, public acceptance, technical, and budget issues

  10. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.

    2001-02-01

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients

  11. Radioactive Waste Management Program Activities in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanic, R.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of radioactive waste management in Croatia comprises three major areas: management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW), spent fuel management and decommissioning. All the work regarding radioactive waste management program is coordinated by Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) and Croatian Power Utility (HEP) in cooperation with other relevant institutions. Since the majority of work has been done in developing low and intermediate level radioactive waste management program, the paper will focus on this part of radioactive waste management, mainly on issues of site selection and characterization, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance. A short description of national radioactive waste management infrastructure will also be presented. (author)

  12. Distinguishing method for contamination/radio-activation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Takuji; Kato, Keiichiro; Koda, Satoshi.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of distinguishing the contamination/radio-activation of radioactive wastes used in processing wastes generated upon dismantling of exhausted nuclear reactors. Especially, contaminated/radio-activation is distinguished for wastes having openings such as pipes and valves, by utilizing scattering of γ-rays or γ-ray to β-ray ratio. That is, ratio of scattered γ-rays and direct γ-rays or ratio of β-rays and γ-rays from radioactive wastes are measured and compared by a radiation detector, to distinguish whether the radioactive wastes contaminated materials or radio-activated materials. For example, when an object to be measured having an opening is contaminated at the inner side, the radiation detector facing to the opening mainly detects high direct γ-rays emitted from the object to be measured while a radiation detector not facing the opening mainly detects high scattered γ-rays relatively. On the other hand, when the object is a radio-activated material, any of the detectors detect scattered γ-rays, so that they can be distinguished by these ratios. (I.S.)

  13. Radioactive waste characterisation by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, Tangi

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear activities produce radioactive wastes classified following their radioactive level and decay time. an accurate characterization is necessary for efficient classification and management. Medium and high level wastes containing long lived radioactive isotopes will be stored in deep geological storage for hundreds of thousands years. at the end of this period, it is essential to ensure that the wastes do not represent any risk for humans and environment, not only from radioactive point of view, but also from stable toxic chemicals. This PhD thesis concerns the characterization of toxic chemicals and nuclear material in radioactive waste, by using neutron activation analysis, in the frame of collaboration between the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA Cadarache, France, and the Institute of Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety of the research center, FZJ (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH), Germany. The first study is about the validation of the numerical model of the neutron activation cell MEDINA (FZJ), using MCNP Monte Carlo transport code. Simulations and measurements of prompt capture gamma rays from small samples measured in MEDINA have been compared for a number of elements of interest (beryllium, aluminum, chlorine, copper, selenium, strontium, and tantalum). The comparison was performed using different nuclear databases, resulting in satisfactory agreement and validating simulation in view of following studies. Then, the feasibility of fission delayed gamma-ray measurements of "2"3"9Pu and "2"3"5U in 225 L waste drums has been studied, considering bituminized or concrete matrixes representative of wastes produced in France and Germany. The delayed gamma emission yields were first determined from uranium and plutonium metallic samples measurements in REGAIN, the neutron activation cell of LMN, showing satisfactory consistency with published data. The useful delayed gamma signals of "2"3"9Pu and "2"3"5U, homogeneously distributed in the 225 L

  14. Immersed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This document presents a brief overview of immersed radioactive wastes worldwide: historical aspects, geographical localization, type of wastes (liquid, solid), radiological activity of immersed radioactive wastes in the NE Atlantic Ocean, immersion sites and monitoring

  15. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  16. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book highlights the main issues of public concern related to radioactive waste management and puts them into perspective. It provides an overview of radioactive waste management covering, among other themes, policies, implementation and public communication based on national experiences. Its purpose is to assists in increasing the understanding of radioactive waste management issues by public and national authorities, organizations involved in radioactive waste management and the nuclear industry; it may also serve as a source book for those who communicate with the public. Even in the unlikely event that nuclear power does not further develop around the world, the necessity for dealing with nuclear waste from past usages, from uranium mining and milling, decontamination and decommissioning of existing nuclear facilities and from the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research would still exist. In many countries, radioactive waste management planning involves making effective institutional arrangements in which responsibilities and liabilities are well established for the technical operation and long term surveillance of disposal systems. Financing mechanisms are part of the arrangements. Continuous quality assurance and quality control, at all levels of radioactive waste management, are essential to ensure the required integrity of the system. As with any other human activity, improvements in technology and economics may be possible and secondary problems avoided. Improvements and confirmation of the efficiency of processes and reduction of uncertainties can only be achieved by continued active research, development and demonstration, which are the goals of many national programmes. International co-operation, also in the form of reviews, can contribute to increasing confidence in the ongoing work. The problem of radioactive wastes is not a unique one; it may be compared with other problems of toxic wastes resulting from many other

  17. Management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.; Volckaert, G.; Wacquier, W.

    1998-09-01

    The document gives an overview of of different aspects of radioactive waste management in Belgium. The document discusses the radioactive waste inventory in Belgium, the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste as well as activities related to the characterisation of different waste forms. A separate chapter is dedicated to research and development regarding deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. In the Belgian waste management programme, particular emphasis is on studies for disposal in clay. Main results of these studies are highlighted and discussed

  18. Classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Tomioka, Hideo; Kamike, Kozo; Komatu, Junji

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive wastes generally include nuclear fuels, materials contaminated with radioactive contaminants or neutron activation to be discarded. The solid wastes arising from the radiation control area in nuclear facilities are used to treat and stored as radioactive solid wastes at the operation of nuclear facilities in Japan. However, these wastes include many non-radioactive wastes. Especially, a large amount of wastes is expected to generate at the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the near future. It is important to classify these wastes into non-radioactive and radioactive wastes. The exemption or recycling criteria of radioactive solid wastes is under discussion and not decided yet in Japan. Under these circumstances, the Nuclear Safety Committee recently decided the concept on the category of non-radioactive waste for the wastes arising from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The concept is based on the separation and removal of the radioactively contaminated parts from radioactive solid wastes. The residual parts of these solid wastes will be treated as non-radioactive waste if no significant difference in radioactivity between the similar natural materials and materials removed the radioactive contaminants. The paper describes the procedures of classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes. (author)

  19. Low activation material design methodology for reduction of radio-active wastes of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, A.; Satou, M.; Nogami, S.; Kakinuma, N.; Kinno, M.; Hayashi, K.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the concrete shielding walls and pipes around a reactor pressure vessel of a light water reactor become low level radioactive waste at decommission phase because they contain radioactive nuclides by thermal-neutron irradiation during its operation. The radioactivity of some low level radioactive wastes is close to the clearance level. It is very desirable in terms of life cycle cost reduction that the radioactivity of those low level radioactive wastes is decreased below clearance level. In case of light water reactors, however, methodology of low activation design of a nuclear plant has not been established yet because the reactor is a large-scale facility and has various structural materials. The Objectives of this work are to develop low activation material design methodology and material fabrication for reduction of radio-active wastes of nuclear power plant such as reinforced concrete. To realize fabrication of reduced radioactive concrete, it is necessary to develop (1) the database of the chemical composition of raw materials to select low activation materials, (2) the tool for calculation of the neutron flux and the spectrum distribution of nuclear plants to evaluate radioactivity of reactor components, (3) optimization of material process conditions to produce the low activation cement and the low activation steels. Results of the data base development, calculation tools and trial production of low activation cements will be presented. (authors)

  20. An overview of the AECB's strategy for regulating radioactive waste management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.; Smythe, W.D.; Duncan, R.M.; Coady, J.R.

    1982-07-01

    The goal of the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board in regulating the management of radioactive wastes is to ensure the protection of people and the environment. A program of cooperation with other agencies, identification and adoption of baselines for describing radioactive wastes, development of explicit criteria and requirements, publication of related regulatory documents, establishment of independent consultative processes with technical experts and the public, and maintenance of awareness and compatibility with international activities is underway. Activities related to high-level radioactive waste, uranium mine and mill tailings, low- and medium-level wastes, radioactive effluents from nuclear facilities, and decommissioning and decontamination are described

  1. Treatment and conditioning of historical radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Ghe.; Dragolici, F.; Ionascu, L.; Rotarescu, Ghe.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the management of historical radioactive waste from the storage facility of Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant. The historical waste stored into storage facility of IFIN-HH consists of spent sealed radioactive sources, empty contaminated containers, wooden radioactive waste, low specific activity radioactive waste, contaminated waste as well as radioactive waste from operation of WWR-S research reactor. After decommissioning of temporary storage facility about 5000 packages with radioactive waste were produced and transferred to the disposal facility. A large amount of packages have been transferred and disposed of to repository but at the end of 2000 there were still about 800 packages containing cement conditioned radioactive waste in an advanced state of degradation declared by authorities as 'historical waste'. During the management of historical waste campaign there were identified: radium spent radioactive sources, containers containing other spent sealed radioactive sources, packages containing low specific activity waste consist of thorium scrap allow, 30 larger packages (316 L), packages with activity lower than activity limit for disposal, packages with activity higher than activity limit for disposal. At the end of 2008, the whole amount of historical waste which met the waste acceptance criteria has been conditioned and transferred to disposal facility. (authors)

  2. Radioactive wastes. Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many documents (journal articles, book chapters, non-conventional documents..) deal with radioactive wastes but very often this topic is covered in a partial way and sometimes the data presented are contradictory. The aim of this article is to precise the definition of radioactive wastes and the proper terms to describe this topic. It describes the main guidelines of the management of radioactive wastes, in particular in France, and presents the problems raised by this activity: 1 - goal and stakes of the management; 2 - definition of a radioactive waste; 3 - radionuclides encountered; 4 - radio-toxicity and radiation risks; 5 - French actors of waste production and management; 6 - French classification and management principles; 7 - wastes origin and characteristics; 8 - status of radioactive wastes in France per categories; 9 - management practices; 10 - packages conditioning and fabrication; 11 - storage of wastes; 12 - the French law from December 30, 1991 and the opportunities of new ways of management; 13 - international situation. (J.S.)

  3. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  4. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  5. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  6. The disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormai, P.

    2006-01-01

    The first part shows different ways of 'producing' radioactive wastes, defines the wastes of small, medium and high activity and gives estimation on the quantity of the necessary capacities of waste disposal facilities. The modern radioactive waste disposal that is the integrated processing of the form of waste, the package, the technical facility and the embedding geological environment that guarantee the isolation together. Another factor is the lifetime of radioactive waste which means that any waste containing long lifetime waste in higher concentration than 400-4000 kBq/kg should be disposed geologically. Today the centre of debate disposal of radioactive waste is more social than technical. For this reason not only geological conditions and technical preparations, but social discussions and accepting communities are needed in selecting place of facilities. Now, the focus is on long term temporary disposal of high activity wastes, like burnt out heating elements. The final part of the paper summarizes the current Hungarian situation of disposal of radioactive wastes. (T-R.A.)

  7. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Almost all IAEA Member States use radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and scientific research, and countries remain responsible for the safe handling and storage of all radioactively contaminated waste that result from such activities. In some cases, waste must be specially treated or conditioned before storage and/or disposal. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Energy Department aimed at establishing appropriate technologies and procedures for managing radioactive wastes. (IAEA)

  8. Decision for counting condition of radioactive waste activities measuring by Ludlum detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang-Purwanto

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive waste must measured for activities before be throw out to environment. Measuring will be important in ordered to know activities can be given management direction. For activities radioactive waste on limit threshold value must processed, but for under limit threshold value activities can be throw out to environment. Activities measuring for solid radioactive waste and liquid by (Total, β, γ) Ludlum detector connected Mode-1000 Scaler Counting. Before measuring for solid waste activities was decisioned optimally counting condition, and be obtained are : sample weight 3.5 gram, heating temperature of 125 o C and heating time at 60 minutes. Activities measuring result by total detector ranges from (0.68-0.71) 10 -1 μCi/gram, β detector ranges from (0.24-0.25) 10 -1 μCi/gram and γ detector ranges from (0.35-0.37) μCi/gram

  9. Radioactivity evaluation method for pre-packed concrete packages of low-level dry active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Toshiaki; Funahashi, Tetsuo; Watabe, Kiyomi; Ozawa, Yukitoshi; Kashiwagi, Makoto

    1998-01-01

    Low-level dry active wastes of nuclear power plants are grouted with cement mortal in a container and planned to disposed into the shallow land disposal site. The characteristics of radionuclides contained in dry active wastes are same as homogeneous solidified wastes. In the previous report, we reported the applicability of the radioactivity evaluation methods established for homogeneous solidified wastes to pre-packed concrete packages. This report outlines the developed radioactivity evaluation methods for pre-packed concrete packages based upon recent data. Since the characteristics of dry active wastes depend upon the plant system in which dry active wastes originate and the types of contamination, sampling of wastes and activity measurement were executed to derive scaling factors. The radioactivity measurement methods were also verified. The applicability of non-destructive methods to measure radioactivity concentration of pre-packed concrete packages was examined by computer simulation. It is concluded that those methods are accurate enough to measure actual waste packages. (author)

  10. Development for low-activation concrete design reducing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Ken-ichi; Kinno, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Concrete is very valuable and inexpensive material, however it can be changed to be expensive and hard to deal with in use of a nuclear plant after long operation. One of the counter plans for the above is to use low-activation concrete instead of the ordinary concrete, that will reduce radioactive waste and could be even below clearance level in decommissioning and that is very useful in term of life cycle cost. Radioactive analysis showed that Co and Eu were the major target elements which decide the radioactivity level of reinforced concrete in decommissioning stage, and a several material were selected as a low-activation raw material from wide survey of raw materials for concrete (typically aggregates and cements). With the canditate of raw materials, several low-activation concrete were proposed for various portion of light water reactor plant, which reduction ratio were 1/10 to 1/30 which were mainly consist of limestone and low heat cement or white cement, and 1/100 to 1/300 which were mainly consist of alumina aggregate or quartz and high almina cement, comparing to the ordinary concrete in ΣDi/Ci unit, where 'Di' indicates concentration of each residual radioisotope, Ci defined by IAEA as a clearance level, and suffition of 'i' indicates each radioisotope. National funded project for development of low-activation design method for reduction of radioactive waste below clearance level were started from 2005 with aiming (1) development of a database on the content of target elements, which transform radioactive nuclides, in raw materials of reinforced concrete, (2) development of calculation tools for estimation of residual radioactivity of plant components, and (3) development of low-activation materials for concrete such as cements and reinforcing steel bars for structural components. For the optimized design for applying low-activation concrete to the reactor portion, effective evaluation of neutron spectrum in the certain portion including

  11. Regulation of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the regulation of radioactive waste management of the UJD are presented. Radioactive waste (RAW) is the gaseous, liquid or solid material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or activities greater than clearance levels and for which no use is foreseen. The classification of radioactive waste on the basis of type and activity level is: - transition waste; - short lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-SL); - long lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-LL); - high level waste. Waste management (in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll.) involves collection, sorting, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal of radioactive waste originated by nuclear facilities and conditioning, transport to repository and disposal of other radioactive waste (originated during medical, research and industrial use of radioactive sources). The final goal of radioactive waste management is RAW isolation using a system of engineered and natural barriers to protect population and environment. Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic regulates radioactive waste management in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll. Inspectors regularly inspect and evaluate how the requirements for nuclear safety at nuclear facilities are fulfilled. On the basis of safety documentation evaluation, UJD issued permission for operation of four radioactive waste management facilities. Nuclear facility 'Technologies for treatment and conditioning contains bituminization plants and Bohunice conditioning centre with sorting, fragmentation, evaporation, incineration, supercompaction and cementation. Final product is waste package (Fibre reinforced container with solidified waste) acceptable for near surface repository in Mochovce. Republic repository in Mochovce is built for disposal of short lived low and intermediate level waste. Next

  12. Thermal treatment of organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrubasik, A.; Stich, W.

    1993-01-01

    The organic radioactive waste which is generated in nuclear and isotope facilities (power plants, research centers and other) must be treated in order to achieve a waste form suitable for long term storage and disposal. Therefore the resulting waste treatment products should be stable under influence of temperature, time, radioactivity, chemical and biological activity. Another reason for the treatment of organic waste is the volume reduction with respect to the storage costs. For different kinds of waste, different treatment technologies have been developed and some are now used in industrial scale. The paper gives process descriptions for the treatment of solid organic radioactive waste of low beta/gamma activity and alpha-contaminated solid organic radioactive waste, and the pyrolysis of organic radioactive waste

  13. Radioactivity and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated by nuclear activities must be reprocessed using specific treatments before packaging, storage and disposal. This digest paper gives first a classification of radioactive wastes according to their radionuclides content activity and half-life, and the amount of wastes from the different categories generated each year by the different industries. Then, the radiotoxicity of nuclear wastes is evaluated according to the reprocessing treatments used and to their environmental management (surface storage or burial). (J.S.)

  14. Management of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchokosa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Radioactive Wastes is to protect workers and the public from the radiological risk associated with radioactive waste for the present and future. It application of the principles to the management of waste generated in a radioisotope uses in the industry. Any material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than ‘exempt quantities’ established by the competent regulatory authorities and for which no further use is foreseen or intended. Origin of the Radioactive Waste includes Uranium and Thorium mining and milling, nuclear fuel cycle operations, Operation of Nuclear power station, Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and Institutional uses of isotopes. There are types of radioactive waste: Low-level Waste (LLW) and High-level Waste. The Management Options for Radioactive Waste Depends on Form, Activity, Concentration and half-lives of the radioactive waste, Storage and disposal methods will vary according to the following; the radionuclides present, and their concentration, and radio toxicity. The contamination results basically from: Contact between radioactive materials and any surface especially during handling. And it may occur in the solid, liquid or gas state. Decontamination is any process that will either reduce or completely remove the amount of radionuclides from a contaminated surface

  15. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan

  16. Management of hospital radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantrana, D.

    1986-01-01

    The general structure of a regulatory scheme for the management of hospital radioactive wastes is presented. The responsabilities of an institution in the radioactive waste management, and storage conditions are defined. The radioactive wastes are classified in physical terms, and the criteria for evaluating the activity of solid wastes are described. The container characteristics and, the types of treatments given to the wastes are specified. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Radioactive wastes management development in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.A.; Cruz, P.F.; Rivera, J.D.; Jorquera, O.H.

    1994-01-01

    A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future

  18. ANDRA - National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. Activity report 2015. Financial report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Created in 1979 within the CEA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. Its 3 basic missions were extended and their funding secured through the 2006 Planning Act: - a R and D mission to propose safe long-term solution for radioactive waste without current disposal system; this mission includes long-term storage, since the 2006 Planning Act, in order to propose interim solutions while final ones are being studied; - an industrial mission concerning, on one hand, waste acceptance criteria and control and, on the other hand, siting, construction, operation, closure and monitoring of repositories. This mission includes as well a public service mission in terms of i) collection of waste of the 'small-scale nuclear activities' producers or owners (including the so-called 'household' radioactive waste, i.e. waste owned by private individuals) and ii) clean-up and rehabilitation of orphan polluted sites; - an information mission, notably through the regular publication of the National Inventory of radioactive materials and waste. This mission includes as well an active policy of dialogue with stakeholders both at national and local level. This document is the activity and financial report of the Andra for the year 2015

  19. ANDRA - National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. Activity report 2016. Financial report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Created in 1979 within the CEA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. Its 3 basic missions were extended and their funding secured through the 2006 Planning Act: - a R and D mission to propose safe long-term solution for radioactive waste without current disposal system; this mission includes long-term storage, since the 2006 Planning Act, in order to propose interim solutions while final ones are being studied; - an industrial mission concerning, on one hand, waste acceptance criteria and control and, on the other hand, siting, construction, operation, closure and monitoring of repositories. This mission includes as well a public service mission in terms of i) collection of waste of the 'small-scale nuclear activities' producers or owners (including the so-called 'household' radioactive waste, i.e. waste owned by private individuals) and ii) clean-up and rehabilitation of orphan polluted sites; - an information mission, notably through the regular publication of the National Inventory of radioactive materials and waste. This mission includes as well an active policy of dialogue with stakeholders both at national and local level. This document is the activity and financial report of the Andra for the year 2016

  20. Management of Radioactive Wastes in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Ghani, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    The management of radioactive wastes is one area of increasing interest especially in developing countries having more and more activities in the application of radioisotopes in medicine, research and industry. For a better understanding of radioactive waste management in developing countries this work will discuss the following items:Classification of countries with respect to waste management programs. Principal Radionuclides used in medicine, biological research and others and the range of radioactivity commonly used. Estimation of radioactive waste volumes and activities. Management of liquid wastes Collection. Treatment. Management of small volumes of organic liquid waste. Collection Treatment. Packaging and storage of radioactive wastes

  1. The management of low activity radioactive waste: IAEA guidance and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvat, D.; Rowat, J.H.; Potier, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the safety standards and reports of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) applicable to the management and disposal of low activity radioactive waste and provides some historical perspective on their development. Some of the most important current issues in the area of low activity radioactive waste management are discussed in the context of related ongoing IAEA activities. At the end of the paper, a number of issues and questions are raised for consideration and discussion at this symposium. (author)

  2. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  3. Radioactive waste management in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, L.; Reyes L, J.; Jimenez D, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the radioactive waste management in Mexico, particularly the activities that the National Institute of Nuclear Research (NINR) is undertaking in this field. Classification and annual generation of radioactive waste, together with practices and facilities relating to the management of radioactive waste are addressed. The respective national legal framework and policy are outlined. (author)

  4. Radioactive waste management at AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadsby, R.D.; Allan, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    AECL has maintained an active program in radioactive waste management since 1945, when the Canadian nuclear program commenced activities at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Waste management activities have included operation of waste management storage and processing facilities at AECL's CRL and Whiteshell Laboratories (WL); operation of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Office on behalf of Natural Resources Canada to resolve historic radioactive waste problems (largely associated with radioactive ore recovery, transport and processing operations) that are the responsibility of the Federal Government; development of the concept and related technology for geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste; development of the Intrusion-Resistant Underground Structure (IRUS) disposal concept for low-level nuclear waste; development of dry storage technology for the interim storage of used fuel; and development and assessment of waste processing technology for application in CANDU nuclear power plants and at CRL and WL. Today these activities are continuing. In addition, AECL is: preparing to decommission the nuclear facilities at WL; carrying out a number of smaller decommissioning projects at CRL; putting in place projects to upgrade the low-level liquid waste processing capabilities of the CRL Waste Treatment Centre, recover and process highly active liquid wastes currently in storage, and recover, condition and improve the storage of selected fuel wastes currently stored in below-ground standpipes in the CRL waste management areas; and assessing options for additional remediation projects to improve the management of other wastes currently in storage and to address environmental contamination from past practices. (author)

  5. Status of activities: Low-level radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, C.B.; Shilkett, R.C.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    A primary objective of low-level radioactive waste management in the United States is to protect the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. In support of this objective is the development of waste treatment and disposal technologies designed to provide stabilization and long-term institutional control of low-level radioactive wastes. Presented herein is a technical review of specific low-level radioactive waste management activities in the United States. Waste treatment and disposal technologies are discussed along with the performance objectives of the technologies aimed at protecting the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. 13 refs., 4 figs

  6. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoulfanidis, N.

    1991-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste is a very important part of the nuclear industry. The future of the nuclear power industry depends to a large extent on the successful solution of the perceived or real problems associated with the disposal of both low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW). All the activities surrounding the management of radioactive waste are reviewed. The federal government and the individual states are working toward the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the Low-Level Waste Policy Act. The two congressional acts are reviewed and progress made as of early 1990 is presented. Spent-fuel storage and transportation are discussed in detail as are the concepts of repositories for HLW. The status of state compacts for LLW is also discussed. Finally, activities related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are also described

  7. Radioactive waste from non-licensed activities - identification of waste, compilation of principles and guidance, and proposed system for final management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.; Pers, K.

    2001-07-01

    Presently national guidelines for the handling of radioactive waste from non-licensed activities are lacking in Sweden. Results and information presented in this report are intended to form a part of the basis for decisions on further work within the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute on regulations or other guidelines on final management and final disposal of this type of waste. An inventory of radioactive waste from non-licensed activities is presented in the report. In addition, existing rules and principles used in Sweden - and internationally - on the handling of radioactive and toxic waste and non-radioactive material are summarized. Based on these rules and principles a system is suggested for the final management of radioactive material from non-licensed activities. A model is shown for the estimation of dose as a consequence of leaching of radio-nuclides from different deposits. The model is applied on different types of waste, e.g. peat ashes, light concrete and low-level waste from a nuclear installation

  8. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Managing radioactive wastes used to be a peripheral activity for the French atomic energy commission (Cea). Over the past 40 years, it has become a full-fledged phase in the fuel cycle of producing electricity from the atom. In 2005, the national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) presented to the government a comprehensive overview of the results drawn from 15 years of research. This landmark report has received recognition beyond France's borders. By broadening this agency's powers, an act of 28 June 2006 acknowledges the progress made and the quality of the results. It also sets an objective for the coming years: work out solutions for managing all forms of radioactive wastes. The possibility of recovering wastes packages from the disposal site must be assured as it was asked by the government in 1998. The next step will be the official demand for the creation of a geological disposal site in 2016

  9. Waste management assessment and technical review programme. WATRP. An international peer review service for radioactive waste management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency provides international peer review services in radioactive waste management to those Member States that have established radioactive waste management programmes. Such services are provided within Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme (WATRP). The main objective of WATRP is to provide international expertise and information on a requested subject in the field of radioactive waste management and to validate that programmes and activities are sound and performing well. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Law on the management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This law regulate the relations of legal persons, enterprises without the rights of legal persons, and natural persons in the management of radioactive waste in Lithuania and establish the legal grounds for the management of radioactive waste. Thirty one article of the law deals with the following subjects: principles of radioactive waste management, competence of the Government, State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Environment and Radiation Protection Center in the sphere of regulation of the radioactive waste management, activities subject to licensing, issue of licences and authorisations, duties and responsibilities of the waste producer, founding of the radioactive waste management agency, its basic status and principles of the activities, functions of the agency, management of the agency, transfer of the radioactive waste to the agency, assessment of the existing waste management facilities and their past practices, siting, design and construction, safety assessment, commissioning and operation of the radioactive waste management facilities, radiation protection, quality assurance, emergency preparedness, decommissioning of radioactive waste storage and other facilities, post-closure surveillance of the repository, disused sealed sources, transportation, export and transit of radioactive waste

  11. Management on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Bhatia, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The basic philosophy governing the radioactive waste management activities in India is to concentrate and contain as much activity as possible and to discharge to the environment only such of these streams that have radioactive content much below the nationally and internationally accepted standards. The concept of ''Zero Release'' is also kept in view. At Tarapur, the effluents are discharged into coastal waters after the radioactivity of the effluents is brought down by a factor 100. The effluents fΩm Rajasthan reactors are discharged into a lake keeping their radioactivity well within permissible limits and a solar evaporation plant is being set up. The plant, when it becomes operational, will be a step towards the concept of ''Zero Release''. At Kalpakkam, the treated wastes are proposed to be diluted by circulating sea water and discharged away from the shore through a long pipe. At Narora, ion exchange followed by chemical precipitation is to be employed to treat effluents and solar evaporation process for total containment. Solid wastes are stored/dispsed in the concrete trenches, underground with the water proofing of external surfaces and the top of the trench is covered with concrete. Highly active wastes are stored/disposed in tile holes which are vaults made of steel-lined, reinforced concrete pipes. Gas cleaning, dilution and dispersion techniques are adopted to treat gaseous radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  12. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  13. What to do with radioactive wastes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This power point presentation (82 slides) gives information on what is a radioactive waste, radioactivity and historical review of radioactivity, radioactive period, natural radioactivity (with examples of data), the three main radiation types (α, β, γ), the origin of radioactive wastes (nuclear power, research, defense, other), the proportion of radioactive wastes in the total of industrial wastes in France, the classification of nuclear wastes according to their activity and period, the quantities and their storage means, the 1991 december 30 law (France) related to the radioactive waste management, the situation in other countries (Germany, Belgium, Canada, USA, Finland, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland), volume figures and previsions for the various waste types in 2004, 2010 and 2020, the storage perspectives, the French national debate on radioactive waste management and the objective of perpetuated solutions, the enhancement of the public information, the 15 June 2006 law on a sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes with three main axis (deep separation and transmutation, deep storage, waste conditioning and long term surface storage), and the development of a nuclear safety and waste culture that could be extended to other types of industry

  14. Radioactive Waste Management BasisSept 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this RWMB is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  15. Radioactive waste management - an educational challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulenko, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    University Radioactive Waste Management educational programs are being actively advanced by the educational support activities of the Offices of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) of the DOE. The DOE fellowship program formats of funding students and requiring a practical research experience (practicum) at a DOE site has helped to combine the academic process with a practical work experience. Support for faculty in these programs is augmenting the benefits of the fellowship programs. The many job opportunities and funding sources for students which currently exists in the radioactive waste management area are fueling an increase in academic programs seeking recognition of their radioactive waste management curriculums

  16. World ocean and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiknadze, O.E.; Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The radioecological situation that took shape in the Arctic, North Atlantic Ocean and Far East regions as a result of radioactive waste marine disposal was assessed. Accurate account of radionuclides formation and decay in submerged water-water reactors of nuclear submarines suggests that total activity of radioactive waste disposed near the Novaya Zemlya amounted to 107 kCi by the end of 1999. Activity of radioactive waste disposed in the North Atlantic currently is not in excess of 430 kCi. It is pointed out that the Far East region heads the list in terms of total activity disposed (529 kCi). Effective individual dose for critical groups of population in the Arctic, North Atlantic and Far East regions was determined. The conclusion was made that there is no detrimental effect of the radioactive waste disposed on radioecological situation in the relevant areas [ru

  17. The Activities of Nuclear Training Centre Ljubljana in the Area of Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jencic, I.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Training Centre Ljubljana has several activities related to radioactive waste management. These activities include training of professionals in the area of nuclear physics and nuclear technology, radiation protection courses, organization of international courses and workshops in the area of radioactive waste management, and public information on radioactivity and waste management. The paper will describe the specifics and the extent of training related to radioactive waste. Recently we have participated in a European coordination action CETRAD and an overview of the results of this project will also be presented. Very important component of our activity is public information that is based on an information centre and live lectures to organized groups of visitors, mostly schoolchildren. About one half of one school generation of Slovenia visits the Information centre every year. A poll is conducted among visitors every year and its results are a very useful tool to follow the evolution of public opinion on nuclear energy and radioactive waste disposal. The latter is, at least in Slovenia, still considered as the major obstacle against the use of nuclear energy. (authors)

  18. Specified radioactive waste final disposal act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Masaya

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive wastes must be finally and safely disposed far from human activities. Disposal act is a long-range task and needs to be understood and accepted by public for site selection. This paper explains basic policy of Japanese Government for final disposal act of specified radioactive wastes, examination for site selection guidelines to promote residential understanding, general concept of multi-barrier system for isolating the specific radioactive wastes, and research and technical development for radioactive waste management. (S. Ohno)

  19. Underground storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, D.N.

    1977-01-01

    An introductory survey of the underground disposal of radioactive wastes is given. Attention is paid to various types of radioactive wastes varying from low to highly active materials, as well as mining techniques and salt deposits

  20. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahissa Campa, Jaime; Pahissa, Marta H. de

    2000-01-01

    Throughout this century, the application of nuclear energy has produced many benefits, in industry, in research, in medicine, and in the generation of electricity. These activities generate wastes in the same way as do other human activities. The primary objective of radioactive waste management is to protect human health and environment now and in the future without imposing undue burden on future generations, through sound, safe and efficient radioactive waste management. This paper briefly describes the different steps of the management of short lived low and intermediate level wastes, and presents and overview of the state of art in countries involved in nuclear energy, describing their organizations, methodologies used in the processing of these wastes and the final disposal concepts. It also presents the Argentine strategy, its technical and legal aspects. Worldwide experience during the past 50 years has shown that short lived low and intermediate level wastes can be successfully isolated from human and environment in near surface disposal facilities. (author)

  1. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfredson, P.G.; Levins, D.M.

    1975-08-01

    Present and future methods of managing radioactive wastes in the nuclear industry are reviewed. In the stages from uranium mining to fuel fabrication, the main purpose of waste management is to limit and control dispersal into the environment of uranium and its decay products, particularly radium and radon. Nuclear reactors produce large amounts of radioactivity but release rates from commercial power reactors have been low and well within legal limits. The principal waste from reprocessing is a high activity liquid containing essentially all the fission products along with the transuranium elements. Most high activity wastes are currently stored as liquids in tanks but there is agreement that future wastes must be converted into solids. Processes to solidify wastes have been demonstrated in pilot plant facilities in the United States and Europe. After solidification, wastes may be stored for some time in man-made structures at or near the Earth's surface. The best method for ultimate disposal appears to be placing solid wastes in a suitable geological formation on land. (author)

  2. Radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.

    1988-01-01

    For the Federal Government the safe disposal of waste from nuclear power plants constitutes the precondition for their further operation. The events in the year 1987 about the conditioning and transport of low activity waste and medium activity waste made it clear that it was necessary to intensify state control and to examine the structures in the field of waste disposal. A concept for the control of radioactive waste with negligible heat development (LAW) from nuclear installations is presented. (DG) [de

  3. Radioactive waste: show time? - 16309

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codee, Hans; Verhoef, Ewoud

    2009-01-01

    Time will render radioactive waste harmless. How can we manage the time radioactive substances remain harmful? Just 'wait and see' or 'marking time' is not an option. We need to isolate the waste from our living environment and control it as long as necessary. For the situation in the Netherlands, it is obvious that a period of long term storage is needed. Both the small volume of waste and the limited financial possibilities are determining factors. Time is needed to let the volume of waste grow and to let the money, needed for disposal, grow in a capital growth fund. An organisation such as COVRA - the radioactive waste organisation in the Netherlands - can only function when it has good, open and transparent relationship with the public and particularly with the local population. If we tell people that we safely store radioactive waste for 100 years, they often ask: 'That long?' How can we explain the long-term aspect of radioactive waste management in a way people can relate to? In this paper, an overview is given of the activities of COVRA on the communication of radioactive waste management. (authors)

  4. Removing radio-active wastes from nuclear power stations by the STEAG system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatz, H.

    1978-01-01

    The mobile STEAG System for conditioning radio-active wastes from nuclear power stations represents a particularly safe and economic method of removing them in present day conditions. Cementation by the FAFNIR System is used for the greater part of the waste, the liquid concentrate (evaporator concentrate and filter slurry). For the special case of the medium active resin balls from the primary circuits, embedding in plastic by the FAMA process has proved to be the only available successful process so far. The highly active solid waste from the reactor core is decomposed by the MOSAIK System, is packed in transportable and storable containers and is removed from the fuel element storage pond. The systems are so safe that faults or interruptions of power station operation due to faults in removing radio-active wastes can be excluded. (orig.) [de

  5. Recent IAEA activities to support utilisation of cementitious materials in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojowan, M.I.; Samanta, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency promotes a safe and effective management of radioactive waste and has suitable programmes in place to serve the needs of Member States in this area. In support of these programmes the Waste Technology Section fosters technology transfer, promotes information exchange and cooperative research, as well as builds capacity in Member States to manage radioactive wastes, resulting both from the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications. Technical assistance in pre disposal area covers all of these activities and is delivered through established Agency mechanisms including publication of technical documents. While the Agency does not conduct any in-house research activities, its Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) foster research in Member States. There are 2 CRPs concerning cementitious materials: a CRP on cements and an on-going CRP on irradiated graphite waste. The CRP on cements has resulted in the recent IAEA publication TECDOC-1701. An important activity concerned with characterisation of cementitious waste forms is the LABONET network of laboratory-based centres of expertise involved in the characterization of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The Waste Technology Section is preparing a series of comprehensive state of the art technical handbooks

  6. Volume reduction through incineration of low-activity radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymeri, J.; Gauthey, J.C.; Chaise, D.; Lafite, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the waste treatment plant, designed by Technicatome (CEA) for an Indonesian Nuclear Research Center, is to reduce through incineration the volume of low-activity radioactive wastes such as technological solids (cotton, PVC, paper board), biological solids (animal bones) and liquids (cutting fluids...). The complete combustion is realized with a total air multi-fuel burner (liquid wastes) and flash pyrolysis-complete combustion (solid wastes). A two stage flue gas filtration system, a flue gas washing system, and an ash recovery system are used. A test platform has been built. 3 figs

  7. Recycling of radioactive mineral waste by activity separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schartmann, F.; Cramer, T.; Meier-Kortwig, J.; Diedenhofen, S.; Wotruba, H.

    2005-01-01

    The AST process is a device for the recycling of building rubble originating from the dismantling of nuclear installations. Due to the activity separation in the process, a major part of rubble which would have otherwise been radioactive waste can now be cleared. The AST process has been developed in the course of the combined research project ''Aufbereitung radioaktiver mineralischer Rueckstaede durch Aktivitaetsseparation (Recycling of radioactive mineral waste by activity separation)'' which was sponsored by the BMBF (Federal Ministry for Education and Research). The first step was to investigate the activity distribution between the various constituents of activated heavy concrete (additions: hematite, magnetite, iron cuttings), of contaminated heavy and normal concrete, as well as of composition floor. Heavy concrete with metal additions showed a selective activation of the various constituents. Contaminated rubble often exhibits a selective enrichment of the activity in the cement in contrast to the aggregate. The AST facility for activity separation was designed on the basis of these results. Trial operation with various types of building rubble was carried out using three methods for sorting, screening according to grain size, magnetic separation and radiometric sorting. The use of these three methods was adapted to the material. (orig.)

  8. Defense radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  9. Collection and Segregation of Radioactive Waste. Principals for Characterization and Classification of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewinska, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated by all activities which utilize radioactive materials as part of their processes. Generally such activities include all steps in the nuclear fuel cycle (for power generation) and non-fuel cycle activities. The increasing production of radioisotopes in a Member State without nuclear power must be accompanied by a corresponding development of a waste management system. An overall waste management scheme consists of the following steps: segregation, minimization, treatment, conditioning, storage, transport, and disposal. To achieve a satisfactory overall management strategy, all steps have to be complementary and compatible. Waste segregation and minimization are of great importance mainly because they lead to cost reduction and reduction of dose commitments to the personnel that handle the waste. Waste characterization plays a significant part in the waste segregation and waste classification processes, it implicates required waste treatment process including the need for the safety assessment of treatment conditioning and storage facilities

  10. Radioactive waste treatment and handling in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    1984-01-01

    Classification of radioactive wastes customary in France and the program of radiation protection in handling them are discussed. Various methods of radioactive waste processing and burial are considered. The French classification of radioactive wastes differs from one used in the other countries. Wastes are classified under three categories: A, B and C. A - low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes with short-lived radionuclides (half-life - less than 30 years, negligible or heat release, small amount of long-lived radionuclides, especially such as plutonium, americium and neptunium); B - low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes with long-lived radionuclides (considerable amounts of long-lived radionuclides including α-emitters, low and moderate-level activity of β- and γ-emitters, low and moderate heat release); C - high-level radioactive wastes with long-lived radionuclides (high-level activity of β- and γ-emitters, high heat release, considerable amount of long-lived radionuclides). Volumetric estimations of wastes of various categories and predictions of their growth are given. It is noted that the concept of closed fuel cycle with radiochemical processing of spent fuel is customary in France

  11. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teillac, J.

    1988-01-01

    This study of general interest is an evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste management and consequently the preservation of the environment for the protection of man against ionizing radiations. The following topics were developed: radiation effects on man; radioactive waste inventory; radioactive waste processing, disposal and storage; the present state and future prospects [fr

  12. Sponsored research on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The report is in chapters entitled: introduction (background, responsibilities, options, structure of the programme); strategy development; disposal of accumulations; disposal of radioactive waste arisings; quality assurance for waste conditioning quality assurance related to radioactive waste disposal (effectiveness of different rock types as natural barriers to the movement of radioactivity, and non-site specific factors in the design of repositories; radiological assessment; environmental studies; research and development to meet requirements specific to UKAEA wastes; long term research (processes for the solidification of highly active liquid wastes); plutonium contamination waste minimisation. (U.K.)

  13. High Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28--May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issue related to international high level radioactive waste management activities and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities. Individual records are processed separately for the data bases

  14. ANDRA - National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. Activity report 2006. Management report - Financial statements 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    Created in 1979 within the CEA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. Its 3 basic missions were extended and their funding secured through the 2006 Planning Act: - a R and D mission to propose safe long-term solution for radioactive waste without current disposal system; this mission includes long-term storage, since the 2006 Planning Act, in order to propose interim solutions while final ones are being studied; - an industrial mission concerning, on one hand, waste acceptance criteria and control and, on the other hand, siting, construction, operation, closure and monitoring of repositories. This mission includes as well a public service mission in terms of i) collection of waste of the 'small-scale nuclear activities' producers or owners (including the so-called 'household' radioactive waste, i.e. waste owned by private individuals) and ii) clean-up and rehabilitation of orphan polluted sites; - an information mission, notably through the regular publication of the National Inventory of radioactive materials and waste. This mission includes as well an active policy of dialogue with stakeholders both at national and local level. This document is the activity report with the management and financial statements report of the Andra for the year 2006

  15. Radioactive waste management from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    This report has been published as a NSA (Nuclear Systems Association, Japan) commentary series, No. 13, and documents the present status on management of radioactive wastes produced from nuclear facilities in Japan and other countries as well. Risks for radiation accidents coming from radioactive waste disposal and storage together with risks for reactor accidents from nuclear power plants are now causing public anxiety. This commentary concerns among all high-level radioactive waste management from nuclear fuel cycle facilities, with including radioactive wastes from research institutes or hospitals. Also included is wastes produced from reactor decommissioning. For low-level radioactive wastes, the wastes is reduced in volume, solidified, and removed to the sites of storage depending on their radioactivities. For high-level radioactive wastes, some ten thousand years must be necessary before the radioactivity decays to the natural level and protection against seismic or volcanic activities, and terrorist attacks is unavoidable for final disposals. This inevitably results in underground disposal at least 300 m below the ground. Various proposals for the disposal and management for this and their evaluation techniques are described in the present document. (S. Ohno)

  16. Radioactive waste packages stored at the Aube facility for low-intermediate activity wastes. A selective and controlled storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The waste package is the first barrier designed to protect the man and the environment from the radioactivity contained in wastes. Its design is thus particularly stringent and controlled. This brochure describes the different types of packages for low to intermediate activity wastes like those received and stored at the Aube facility, and also the system implemented by the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) and by waste producers to safely control each step of the design and fabrication of these packages. (J.S.)

  17. Characterization of the solid radioactive waste from Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordache, M.; Lautaru, V.; Bujoreanu, D.

    2005-01-01

    During the operation of a nuclear plant significant quantities of radioactive waste result that have a very large diversity. At Cernavoda NPP large amounts of wastes are either non-radioactive wastes or radioactive wastes, each of these being managed completely different from each other. For a CANDU type reactor, the occurrence of radioactive wastes is due to contamination with the following types of radioactive substances: - fission products resulting from nuclear fuel burning; - activated products from materials composing the technological systems; - activated products in process fluids. Radioactive wastes can be in solid, liquid or gas form. At Cernavoda NPP the solid wastes represent about 70% of the waste volume which is produced during plant operation and as a consequence of maintenance and decontamination operations. The most important types of solid wastes that are obtained and then handled, processed (if necessary) and temporarily stored are: solid low-level radioactive wastes (classified as compactible and non-compactible), solid medium radioactive wastes, spent resins, used filters and filter cartridges. The liquid radioactive waste class includes organic liquids (used oil, scintillator liquids and used solvents) and aqueous wastes resulting from process system operating, from decontamination and maintenance operations. Radioactive gas wastes occur subsequently to the fission process inside the fuel elements as well as due to the neutron activation of process fluids in the reactor systems. As result of plant operation, iodine, noble gases, tritium and radioactive particles occur and are passed toward the ventilation stack in a controlled manner so that environmental release of radioactive materials with concentrations exceeding the maximum permissible level could not occur. (authors)

  18. USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vath, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes current research, development and demonstration (R, D and D) programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment. During the twelve month period ending September 30, 1981, 14 prime US Department of Energy contractors were involved with over 40 low-level radioactive waste disposal technology projects. Three specific projects or task areas have been selected for discussion to illustrate new and evolving technologies, and application of technology developed in other waste management areas to low-level waste treatment. The areas to be discussed include a microwave plasma torch incinerator, application of waste vitrification, and decontamination of metal waste by melting

  19. Status report on Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In 1981, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was created by Article 4590f-1 to site, develop, operate, decommission, and close a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility for Texas generated waste. In 1989, the Authority's act was recodified by the Texas legislature in the Health and Safety Code., Title 5. Sanitation and Environmental Quality, Subtitle D. Nuclear and Radioactive Materials, Chapter 402. The Authority is governed by a Board of Directors appointed by the Governor, composed of a certified health physicist, geologist, attorney, medical doctor, and two private citizens. Under the statute, low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material with a half-life of 35 years or less or having less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics. Materials with half-lives of greater than 35 years may be classed as low-level waste if special criteria are established by the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control. Subsequent sessions of the legislature have amended the act to revise siting criteria, require consideration of state land, create a Citizen's Advisory Committee, incorporate alternative designs, and establish a special low-level radioactive waste account in the state treasury. The Authority began its activities in 1982. The Authority has proposed a site in far West Texas near Fort Hancock, but El Paso County, the neighboring county to the west, has instituted three separate lawsuits to slow or stop the site selection process. Particular attention was paid early in the site selection process to items which could be fatal flaws from a licensing standpoint. This paper discusses the Fort Hancock site description, site evaluation studies, siting issues, waste volume projections, facility design, license application, cost and schedule

  20. Radioactive wastes and spent fuels management in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maset, Elvira R.

    2006-01-01

    CNEA was created in 1950 and since then has carried out research and development activities, production of radioisotopes, medical and industrial applications, and those activities related with the nuclear fuel cycle, including the operation of two nuclear power stations. More ever, different public and private institutions use radioactive materials in medical, industrial and research activities. These activities generate different types of radioactive waste, desuse sealed sources and spent fuel. The management of radioactive waste of all types produced in the country, as the spent nuclear fuel of power and research reactors and the used radioactive sources was always and it is at present a CNEA's responsibility. In February 2003, according to the Law No. 25.018, called 'Management of Radioactive Waste Regimen', the 'Radioactive Waste Management National Programme' was created by CNEA to fulfill the institutional functions and responsibilities established in the Law, in order to guarantee the safe management of radioactive waste according to the regulations established by the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Agency and to the legislation in force. (author) [es

  1. Radioactive waste programme in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmins, A.

    2000-01-01

    An overview is made on the use of radioactive sources and waste management in Latvia. Brief overview of the development of national legal documents - the framework law of environmental protection; international agreements; the new law on radiation safety and nuclear safety; regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers - is given. The regulatory infrastructure in the nearest future is outlined. The institutional framework for radioactive waste management is described. Basic design of the repository and radioactive waste inventory are also given. The activities on the EU DG Environment project CASIOPEE are reported

  2. ANSTO's radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  3. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluchet, J.; Roger, B.

    1975-10-01

    After mentioning the importance of the problem of the disposal of wastes produced in the electro-nuclear industry, a short reminder on a few laws of radioactivity (nature and energy of radiations, half-life) and on some basic dosimetry is given. The conditioning and storage procedures are then indicated for solid wastes. The more active fractions of liquid wastes are incorporated into blocks of glass, whereas the less active are first concentrated by chemical treatments or by evaporation. The concentrates are then embedded into concrete, asphalt or resins. Storage is done according to the nature of each type of wastes: on a hard-surfaced area or inside concrete-lined trenches for the lowest radioactivity, in pits for the others. Transuranium elements with very long half-lives are buried in very deep natural cavities which can shelter them for centuries. From the investigations conducted so far and from the experience already gained, it can be concluded that safe solutions are within our reach [fr

  4. Characterization of the solid radioactive waste From Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordache, M.; Laotaru, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: During the operation of a nuclear plant significant quantities of radioactive waste result that have a very large diversity. At Cernavoda NPP large amounts of wastes are either non-radioactive wastes or radioactive wastes, each of these being managed completely different from which other. For a CANDU type reactor, the appearance of radioactive wastes is due to contamination with the following types of radioactive substances: - fission products resulting from nuclear fuel burning; - activated products from materials composing the technological systems; - activated products in process fluids. Radioactive wastes can be in solid, liquid or gas form. At Cernavoda NPP the solid wastes represent about 70% of the waste volume which is produced during plant operation and as a consequence of maintenance and decontamination operations. The most important types of solid wastes that are obtained and then handled, processed (if necessary) and temporarily stored are: solid low-level radioactive wastes (classified as compactible and non-compactible), solid medium radioactive wastes, spent resins, used filters and filter cartridges. The liquid radioactive waste class includes organic liquids (used oil, scintillator liquids and used solvents) and aqueous wastes resulting from process system operating, from decontamination and maintenance operations. Radioactive gas wastes occur subsequently to the fission process inside the fuel elements as well as due to the neutron activation of process fluids in the reactor systems. As result of plant operation, iodine, noble gases, tritium and radioactive particles occur and are passed toward the ventilation stack in a controlled manner so that environmental release of radioactive materials with concentrations exceeding the maximum permissible level could not occur. (authors)

  5. Processing method and processing device for liquid waste containing surface active agent and radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Takashi; Matsuda, Masami; Baba, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Ryozo; Yukita, Atsushi.

    1998-01-01

    Washing liquid wastes containing surface active agents and radioactive materials are sent to a deaerating vessel. Ozone is blown into the deaerating vessel. The washing liquid wastes dissolved with ozone are introduced to a UV ray irradiation vessel. UV rays are irradiated to the washing liquid wastes, and hydroxy radicals generated by photodecomposition of dissolved ozone oxidatively decompose surface active agents contained in the washing liquid wastes. The washing liquid wastes discharged from the UV ray irradiation vessel are sent to an activated carbon mixing vessel and mixed with powdery activated carbon. The surface active agents not decomposed in the UV ray irradiation vessel are adsorbed to the activated carbon. Then, the activated carbon and washing liquid wastes are separated by an activated carbon separating/drying device. Radioactive materials (iron oxide and the like) contained in the washing liquid wastes are mostly granular, and they are separated and removed from the washing liquid wastes in the activated carbon separating/drying device. (I.N.)

  6. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomek, D.

    1980-01-01

    The prospects of nuclear power development in the USA up to 2000 and the problems of the fuel cycle high-level radioactive waste processing and storage are considered. The problems of liquid and solidified radioactive waste transportation and their disposal in salt deposits and other geologic formations are discussed. It is pointed out that the main part of the high-level radioactive wastes are produced at spent fuel reprocessing plants in the form of complex aqueous mixtures. These mixtures contain the decay products of about 35 isotopes which are the nuclear fuel fission products, about 18 actinides and their daughter products as well as corrosion products of fuel cans and structural materials and chemical reagents added in the process of fuel reprocessing. The high-level radioactive waste management includes the liquid waste cooling which is necessary for the short and middle living isotope decay, separation of some most dangerous components from the waste mixture, waste solidification, their storage and disposal. The conclusion is drawn that the seccessful solution of the high-level radioactive waste management problem will permit to solve the problem of the fuel cycle radioactive waste management as a whole. The salt deposits, shales and clays are the most suitable for radioactive waste disposal [ru

  7. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuramoto, Naohiko.

    1992-01-01

    When granular materials comprising radioactive wastes containing phosphorus are processed at first in a fluidized bed type furnace, if the granular materials are phosphorus-containing activated carbon, granular materials comprising alkali compound such as calcium hydroxide and barium hydroxide are used as fluidizing media. Even granular materials of slow burning speed can be burnt stably in a fluidizing state by high temperature heat of the fluidizing media, thereby enabling to take a long burning processing time. Accordingly, radioactive activated carbon wastes can be processed by burning treatment. (T.M.)

  8. Regulation of Federal radioactive waste activities. Summary of report to Congress on extending the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's licensing or regulatory authority to Federal radioactive waste storage and disposal activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1979-09-01

    The NRC Authorization Bill for FY 1979 directed NRC to conduct a study of extending the Commission's licensing or regulatory authority to include categories of existing and future Federal radioactive waste storage and disposal activities not presently subject to such authority. The report includes a complete listing and inventory of all radioactive waste storage and disposal activities now being conducted or planned by Federal agencies. The NRC study has attempted to present a general comparison of the relative hazards associated with defense-generated and commercial wastes. Options for extending Commission authority were developed and analyzed. The implications of NEPA were analyzed in the context of these options. The national security implications of extending NRC's regulatory authority over DOE programs are examined and evaluated. Costs and benefits are identified and assessed. The Commission's recommendations, based on the study, are to extend licensing authority over new DOE disposal activities involving transuranic wastes and non-defense low-level waste and to initiate a pilot program to test the feasibility of NRC playing a consultative role in the evaluation of existing DOE activities

  9. International co-operation for safe radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    As a specialised inter-governmental body, NEA pursues three main objectives for its radioactive waste management programme: - The promotion of studies to improve the data base available in support of national programmes. - The support of Research and Development through co-ordination of national activities and promotion of international projects. - An improvement in the general level of understanding of waste management issues and options, particularly in the field of waste disposal. The management of radioactive waste from nuclear activities covers several sequences of complex technical operations. However, as the ultimate objective of radioactive waste management is the disposal of the waste, the largest part of the work programme is directed towards the analysis of disposal options. In addition, NEA is active in various other areas of waste management, such as the treatment and conditioning of waste, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the institutional aspects of the long term management of radioactive waste

  10. Radioactive waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the more frequent questions that arise when discussing nuclear energy's potential contribution to mitigating climate change concerns that of how to manage radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is produced through nuclear power generation, but also - although to a significantly lesser extent - in a variety of other sectors including medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education. The amount, type and physical form of radioactive waste varies considerably. Some forms of radioactive waste, for example, need only be stored for a relatively short period while their radioactivity naturally decays to safe levels. Others remain radioactive for hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Public concerns surrounding radioactive waste are largely related to long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Countries around the world with existing nuclear programmes are developing longer-term plans for final disposal of such waste, with an international consensus developing that the geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) is the most technically feasible and safe solution. This article provides a brief overview of the different forms of radioactive waste, examines storage and disposal solutions, and briefly explores fuel recycling and stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management decision making

  11. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  12. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1982-01-01

    Following a definition of the term 'radioactive waste', including a discussion of possible criteria allowing a delimitation of low-level radioactive against inactive wastes, present techniques of handling high-level, intermediate-level and low-level wastes are described. The factors relevant for the establishment of definitive disposals for high-level wastes are discussed in some detail. Finally, the waste management organization currently operative in Austria is described. (G.G.)

  13. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.

    1994-01-01

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  14. ANDRA - National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. 2014 Activity report - Responsibility in action. Financial report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Created in 1979 within the CEA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. Its 3 basic missions were extended and their funding secured through the 2006 Planning Act: - a R and D mission to propose safe long-term solution for radioactive waste without current disposal system; this mission includes long-term storage, since the 2006 Planning Act, in order to propose interim solutions while final ones are being studied; - an industrial mission concerning, on one hand, waste acceptance criteria and control and, on the other hand, siting, construction, operation, closure and monitoring of repositories. This mission includes as well a public service mission in terms of i) collection of waste of the 'small-scale nuclear activities' producers or owners (including the so-called 'household' radioactive waste, i.e. waste owned by private individuals) and ii) clean-up and rehabilitation of orphan polluted sites; - an information mission, notably through the regular publication of the National Inventory of radioactive materials and waste. This mission includes as well an active policy of dialogue with stakeholders both at national and local level. This document is the activity and financial report of the Andra for the year 2014

  15. ANDRA - National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. Activity report and sustainable development 2013. Financial report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Created in 1979 within the CEA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. Its 3 basic missions were extended and their funding secured through the 2006 Planning Act: - a R and D mission to propose safe long-term solution for radioactive waste without current disposal system; this mission includes long-term storage, since the 2006 Planning Act, in order to propose interim solutions while final ones are being studied; - an industrial mission concerning, on one hand, waste acceptance criteria and control and, on the other hand, siting, construction, operation, closure and monitoring of repositories. This mission includes as well a public service mission in terms of i) collection of waste of the 'small-scale nuclear activities' producers or owners (including the so-called 'household' radioactive waste, i.e. waste owned by private individuals) and ii) clean-up and rehabilitation of orphan polluted sites; - an information mission, notably through the regular publication of the National Inventory of radioactive materials and waste. This mission includes as well an active policy of dialogue with stakeholders both at national and local level. This document is the activity and Sustainable Development Report, with the financial report, of the Andra for the year 2013

  16. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  17. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  18. The radioactive waste management at IAEA laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deron, S.; Ouvrard, R.; Hartmann, R.; Klose, H.

    1992-10-01

    The report gives a brief description of the nature of the radioactive wastes generated at the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf, their origin and composition, their management and monitoring. The management of the radioactive waste produced at IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf is governed by the Technical Agreements of 1985 between the IAEA and the Austrian Health Ministry. In the period of 1982 to 1991 waste containers of low activity and radiotoxicity generated at laboratories other than the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) were transferred to the FZS waste treatment and storage plant: The total activity contained in these drums amounted to < 65 MBq alpha activity; < 1030 MBq beta activity; < 2900 MBq gamma activity. The radioactive waste generated at SAL and transferred to the FZs during the same period included. Uranium contaminated solid burnable waste in 200 1 drums, uranium contaminated solid unburnable waste in 200 1 drums, uranium contaminated liquid unburnable waste in 30 1 bottles, plutonium contaminated solid unburnable waste in 200 1 drums. In the same period SAL received a total of 146 Kg uranium and 812 g plutonium and exported out of Austria, unused residues of samples. The balance, i.e.: uranium 39 kg, plutonium 133 g constitutes the increase of the inventory of reference materials, and unused residues awaiting export, accumulated at SAL and SIL fissile store as a result of SAL operation during this 10 year period. The IAEA reexports all unused residues of samples of radioactive and fissile materials analyzed at his laboratories, so that the amount of radioactive materials ending in the wastes treated and stored at FZS is kept to a minimum. 5 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Grading of Requirements for Radioactive Waste Activities in Nuclear Research Reactors: Radioisotope Production Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, Y.E.

    2017-01-01

    A graded approach is applicable in all stages of the life time of a research reactor. During the life time of a research reactor, any grading performed should not, in any manner, affect safety functions and operational limits and conditions are preserved, so that there are no undue radiological hazards to workers, public or environment. The grading of activities should be based on safety analyses, and regulatory requirements. Other elements to be considered in grading are the complexity and the maturity of the technology, operating experience associated with the activities and the stage in the life time of the facility. In order to ensure that proper and a de quate provision is made for the safety implications associated with the management and disposal of radioactive waste, the waste is characterized and classified. The general scheme for classifying radioactive waste as presented in the current study is based on considerations of long term safety, and thus, by implication, disposal of the waste. This classification provides a starting point for the grading of activities associated with the packaging and disposal of radioactive waste

  20. Vitrification of Three Low-Activity Radioactive Waste Streams from Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, D.M.; Crawford, C.L.; Ha, B.C.; Bibler, N.E.

    1998-09-01

    As part of a demonstration for British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Incorporated (BNFL), the Immobilization Technology Section (ITS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has produced and characterized three low-activity waste (LAW) glasses from Hanford radioactive waste samples. The three LAW glasses were produced from radioactive supernate samples that had been treated by the Waste Processing Technology Section (WPTS) at SRTC to remove most of the radionuclides. These three glasses were produced by mixing the waste streams with between four and nine glass-forming chemicals in platinum/gold crucibles and heating the mixture to between 1120 and 1150 degrees C. Compositions of the resulting glass waste forms were close to the target compositions. Low concentrations of radionuclides in the LAW feed streams and, therefore, in the glass waste forms supported WPTS conclusions that pretreatment had been successful. No crystals were detected in the LAW glasses. In addition, all glass waste forms passed the leach tests that were performed. These included a 20 degrees C Product Consistency Test (PCT) and a modified version of the United States Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)

  1. National Plan for the management of radioactive materials and wastes 2013-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-02-01

    This new release of the National Plan for the management of radioactive materials and wastes (PNGMDR) first addresses the principles and objectives of this management: presentation of radioactive materials and wastes, principles to be taken into account to define the different management ways, legal and institutional framework for waste management, societal dimension and memory safeguarding, waste management cost and financing. It proposes an assessment and draws perspectives for the existing management practices: management of historical situations, management of residues of mine processing and mine tailings, management of radioactive wastes, waste management with respect to radioactive decay, valorization of radioactive wastes, incineration of radioactive wastes, storage of very-low-activity wastes, of storage of low- and medium-activity and short-life wastes, management of reinforced natural radioactivity wastes. The third part gives an overview of needs and perspectives for management methods: wastes requiring a specific processing, low-activity long-life wastes, and high-activity and medium-activity long-life wastes

  2. Radioactive and mixed waste management plan for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Plan for the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is written to meet the requirements for an annual report of radioactive and mixed waste management activities outlined in DOE Order 5820.2A. Radioactive and mixed waste management activities during FY 1994 listed here include principal regulatory and environmental issues and the degree to which planned activities were accomplished

  3. The stakes in managing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissier, F.

    2012-01-01

    Like any human activity, the nuclear industry produces wastes. The wastes containing radioactive substances have to be managed as a function of the related risks. Nowadays, 1.300.000 tons of radioactive wastes have accumulated in France. More than 90% of them have short half-lives and are stored on the ground by ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) on 2 sites in the Aube district. ANDRA also designs solutions for stocking the other wastes. Those with long half-lives and very high activity will be stored deep underground (500 meter deep) at Cigeo in the Meuse and Haute-Marne districts. The wastes with long half-lives but low activity (less than 10 5 decays/s for graphite and less than a few thousands decays/s for radium contaminated wastes) will be disposed in a specific way. Implementing a storage solution for each type of waste is necessary for the nuclear industry's sustainability, but it does not dispense the latter from pursuing its efforts to reduce the quantity and danger of the wastes produced. This holds in particular for the so-called 'fourth generation' of future installations. It is important to take stock of all the issues related to managing nuclear wastes

  4. Low-level Radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting describes low-level radioactive waste management problems and contains 8 papers: 1 Low-level radioactive waste management: exemption concept and criteria used by international organizations. 2 Low-level radioactive waste management: french and foreign regulations 3 Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE) 4 Low-level radioactive waste management in COGEMA (FRANCE) 5 Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE) 6 Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals 7 Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws 8 Methods of low-level radioactive materials measurements during reactor dismantling or nuclear facilities demolition (FRANCE)

  5. The European Community's research and development activities on the management of radioactive waste from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, B.

    1984-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities is conducting an R and D programme on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The activities carried out within this framework that concern, in particular, management of the radioactive waste arising from the decommissioning are outlined. Characterization of the radioactivity inventory of nuclear power plants at the end of their useful life is of fundamental importance in this context. Research in this field comprises analyses of the trace elements in reactor materials which are relevant for the formation of long-lived radionuclides by neutron activation, as well as examinations of samples taken from activated and contaminated plant components. Most of the radioactive plant components are only surface contaminated. Highly efficient decontamination techniques are being developed with the objective of achieving conditions permitting unrestricted release of the material treated. Other activities concern the conditioning of steel and concrete waste for disposal, and the management of graphite waste from gas-cooled reactors. Large containers are being developed for transport and disposal of radioactive components. Finally, the methods of radiological evaluation and measurement are being studied which are required to decide whether material from the dismantling of nuclear power plants has to be disposed of as radioactive waste or not. (author)

  6. Derivation of activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste in near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    criteria for disposal of radioactive wastes to near surface facilities. These criteria are qualitative in nature and, for example, they do not address limitations on radionuclide content of waste, waste packages or the facility as a whole. This publication is to present an approach for establishing radiological waste acceptance criteria using a safety assessment methodology and to illustrate its application in establishing limits on the total activity and the activity concentrations of radioactive waste to be disposed in near surface disposal facilities. The approach makes use of accepted methods and computational schemes currently used in assessing the safety of near surface disposal facilities both during the operational and post-closure periods. The scope of this publication covers the use of safety assessment methodology to calculate total and specific activities limits for radioactive waste in near surface disposal facilities. It is used to evaluate the potential operational and post-closure radiological impact of solid and solidified radioactive waste in near surface facilities. The radioactive waste types used to illustrate the approach range from waste containing radionuclides used for medical, industrial and research purposes to waste arising from nuclear fuel cycle activities. They also include waste arising from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The focus of the publication is on using of safety assessment methodology in derivation of quantitative radioactivity limits. This report deals with the role of activity limits in disposal system safety (Section 2), the relevant radiation protection criteria (Section 3), the approach to derive activity limits (Section 4), illustrations of the application of this approach (Section 5), and guidance on the use of the approach (Section 6)

  7. Processing method for radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Keijiro

    1991-01-01

    Drainages, such as water after used for washing operators' clothes and water used for washing hands and for showers have such features that the radioactive concentration is extremely low and detergent ingredients and insoluble ingredients such as waste threads, hairs and dirts are contained. At present, waste threads are removed by a strainer. Then, after measuring the radioactivity and determining that the radioactivity is less than a predetermined concentration, they are released to circumstances. However, various organic ingredients such as detergents and dirts in the liquid wastes are released as they are and it is not preferred in respect of environmental protection. Then, in the present invention, activated carbon is filled in a container orderly so that the diameter of the particles of the activated carbon is increased in the upper layer and decreased in the lower layer, and radioactive liquid wastes are passed through the container. With such a constitution. Both of soluble substances and insoluble substances can be removed efficiently without causing cloggings. (T.M.)

  8. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilleux, E.

    1984-01-01

    The first part of this paper briefly describes the nuclear industry in Belgium and the problem of radioactive wastes with regard to their quality and quantity. The second part emphasizes the recent guidelines regarding the management of the nuclear industry in general and the radioactive wastes in particular. In this respect, important tasks are the reinforcement of administrative structures with regard to the supervision and the control of nuclear activities, the establishment of a mixed company entrusted with the covering of the needs of nuclear plants in the field of nuclear fuels and particularly the setting up of a public autonomous and specialized organization, the 'Public Organization for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials', in short 'O.N.D.R.A.F.'. This organization is in charge of the management of the transport, the conditioning, the storage and the disposal of radioactive wastes. (Auth.)

  9. Radioactive waste management perspectives in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Mat Bakar Mahusin; Mohamad Hakiman Mohamad Yusoff; Muhammad Zahid Azrmi

    2009-01-01

    Waste Technology Development Centre (WasTeC) has been mandated to carry out radioactive waste management activities since 1984. The main objective of WasTeC is to deal with radioactive waste in a manner that protects health and the environment now and in the future, without imposing undue burdens on the future generations. This centre provides services for waste generators within Nuclear Malaysia and also for external waste generators. Services provided include transportation of radioactive waste, decontamination, treatment and storage. This paper will discuss on procedure for applying for services, responsibility of waste generator, responsibility of waste operator, need to comply with waste acceptance criteria and regulations related to management of radioactive waste. (Author)

  10. Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, A.M.; Guetat, P.; Garbay, H.

    1991-01-01

    The politics of radioactive waste management is a part of waste management and activity levels are one of the components of potential waste pollutions in order to assume man and environment safety. French regulations about personnel and public' radiation protection defines clearly the conditions of radioactive waste processing, storage, transport and disposal. But below some activity levels definite by radiation protection laws, any administrative procedures or processes can be applied for lack of legal regulations. So regulations context is not actually ready to allow a rational low-level radioactive waste management. 15 refs.; 4 tabs.; 3 figs

  11. ANSTO`s radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  12. Chemical decontamination method for radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Tsutomu; Akimoto, Hidetoshi

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to a decontamination method for radioactive metal waste products derived from equipment that handles radioactive materials whose surfaces have been contaminated; in particular it concerns a decontamination method that reduces the amount of radioactive waste by decontaminating radioactive waste substances to a level of radioactivity in line with normal waste products. In order to apply chemical decontamination to metal waste products whose surfaces are divided into carbon steel waste and stainless steel waste; the carbon steel waste is treated using only a primary process in which the waste is immersed in a sulfuric acid solution, while the stainless steel waste must be treated with both the primary process and then electrolytically reduces it for a specific length of time and a secondary process that uses a solution of sulfuric acid mixed with oxidizing metal salts. The method used to categorize metal waste into carbon steel waste and stainless steel waste involves determining the presence, or absence, of magnetism. Voltage is applied for a fixed duration; once that has stopped, electrolytic reduction repeats the operative cycle of applying, then stopping voltage until the potential of the radioactive metal waste is retained in the active region. 1 fig. 2 tabs

  13. Radioactive wastes of Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This conference studies the radioactive waste of nuclear industry. Nine articles and presentations are exposed here; the action of the direction of nuclear installations safety, the improvement of industrial proceedings to reduce the waste volume, the packaging of radioactive waste, the safety of radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact studies, a presentation of waste coming from nuclear power plants, the new waste management policy, the international panorama of radioactive waste management, the international transport of radioactive waste, finally an economic analysis of the treatment and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. (N.C.)

  14. Radioactive Waste in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies. Contents: - Foreword; - Key Points for Policy Makers; - Executive Summary; - Introduction; - Theme 1 - Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes in Perspective; - Theme 2 - The Outlook for Wastes Arising from Coal and from Nuclear Power Generation; - Risk, Perceived Risk and Public Attitudes; - Concluding Discussion and Lessons Learnt; - Strategic Issues for Radioactive Waste; - Strategic Issues for Hazardous Waste; - Case Studies - The Management of Coal Ash, CO 2 and Mercury as Wastes; - Risk and Perceived Risk; - List of Participants; - List of Abbreviations. (authors)

  15. Radioactive liquid waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Tetsuya; Kuramitsu, Kiminori; Ishii, Tomoharu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a system for processing radioactive liquid wastes containing laundry liquid wastes, shower drains or radioactive liquid wastes containing chemical oxygen demand (COD) ingredients and oil content generated from a nuclear power plant. Namely, a collecting tank collects radioactive liquid wastes. A filtering device is connected to the exit of the collective tank. A sump tank is connected to the exit of the filtering device. A powdery active carbon supplying device is connected to the collecting tank. A chemical fluid tank is connected to the collecting tank and the filtering device by way of chemical fluid injection lines. Backwarding pipelines connect a filtered water flowing exit of the filtering device and the collecting tank. The chemical solution is stored in the chemical solution tank. Then, radioactive materials in radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant are removed by the filtering device. The water quality standard specified in environmental influence reports can be satisfied. In the filtering device, when the filtering flow rate is reduced, the chemical fluid is supplied from the chemical fluid tank to the filtering device to recover the filtering flow rate. (I.S.)

  16. Proposed goals for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.P.; Frazier, D.H.; Hoos, I.R.; McGrath, P.E.; Metlay, D.S.; Stoneman, W.C.; Watson, R.A.

    1977-04-01

    Goals are proposed for the national radioactive waste management program to establish a policy basis for the guidance and coordination of the activities of government, business, and academic organizations whose responsibility it will be to manage radioactive wastes. The report is based on findings, interpretations, and analyses of selected primary literature and interviews of personnel concerned with waste management. Public concerns are identified, their relevance assessed, and a conceptual framework is developed that facilitates understanding of the dimensions and demands of the radioactive waste management problem. The nature and scope of the study are described along with the approach used to arrive at a set of goals appropriately focused on waste management

  17. High-level radioactive waste disposal problem in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkin, Vasily I.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation on radioactive waste management in Russia discusses criteria for the selection of disposal sites, how the various types of waste should be contained and stored, and gives a list showing the liable owner, type, volume, activity and storage place of the present amount of radioactive waste. The bulk of this waste, in volume and radioactivity, is at the enterprises of Minatom of the Russian Federation

  18. Processing method and device for radioactive waste containing surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukita, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Ryozo; Izumida, Tatsuo; Nishi, Takashi; Hattori, Yasuo.

    1997-01-01

    Washing liquid wastes generated in washing facilities in a nuclear power plant are collected in a liquid waste collecting tank. A suspension containing a powdery active carbon is supplied to the liquid waste collecting tank. Organic ingredients such as of a surfactant, oil ingredients and radioactive materials in the form of ions contained in the washing liquid wastes are adsorbed to the powdery active carbon. The washing liquid wastes containing the powdery active carbon and granular radioactive materials are led into an active carbon separating and drying device. The powdery active carbon and granular radioactive materials contained in the washing liquid wastes are filtered and separated by a filtering plate, and accumulated as filtered materials on the surface of the filtering plate. The purified washing liquid wastes are discharged to the outside. The filtered materials are dried by hot steams (or hot water) and dried air. The filtered materials are peeled from the filtering plate. The filtered materials, in other word, dried powdery active carbon and granular radioactive materials are transported to and burnt in an incinerator. (I.N.)

  19. Radioactive waste management profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    In 1989, the International Atomic Energy Agency began development of the Waste Management Data Base (WMDB) to, primarily, establish a mechanism for the collection, integration, storage, and retrieval of information relevant to radioactive waste management in Member States. This report is a summary and compilation of the information contained in the data base. The WMDB contains information and data on several aspects of waste management and offer a ready source of information on such activities as R and D efforts, waste disposal plans and programmes, important programme milestones, waste volume projections, and national and regulatory policies. This report is divided into two parts. Part one describes the Waste Management Data Base system and the type of information it contains. The second part contains data provided by Member States between August 1989 and December 1990 in response to a questionnaire sent by the Agency. However, if a Member State did not respond to the questionnaire, data from IAEA sources, such as technical assistance mission reports, were used - where such data exist. The WMDB system became operational in January 1991. The type of information contained in the data base includes radioactive waste management plans, policies and activities in Member States

  20. Estimation of global inventories of radioactive waste and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    A variety of nuclear activities have been carried out in the second part of the twentieth century for different purposes. Initially the emphasis was on military applications, but with the passage of time the main focus of nuclear activities has shifted to peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to the use of radioactive material in industry, medicine and research. Regardless of the objectives, the nuclear activities generate radioactive waste. It was considered worthwhile to produce a set of worldwide data that could be assessed to evaluate the legacy of the nuclear activities performed up to the transition between the twentieth and the twenty first century. The assessment tries to cover the inventory of all the human produced radioactive material that can be considered to result from both military and civilian applications. This has caused remarkable difficulties since much of the data, particularly relating to military programmes, are not readily available. Consequently the data on the inventory of radioactive material should be considered as order-of-magnitude approximations. This report as a whole should be considered as a first iteration in a continuing process of updating and upgrading. The accumulations of radioactive materials can be considered a burden for human society, both at present and in the future, since they require continuing monitoring and control. Knowing the amounts and types of such radioactive inventories can help in the assessment of the relative burdens. Knowledge of the national or regional radioactive waste inventory is necessary for planning management operations, including the sizing and design of conditioning, storage and disposal facilities. A global inventory, either of radioactive waste or of other environmental accumulations of radioactive material, could be used to provide a perspective on the requirements and burdens associated with their management, by means of comparisons with the burdens caused by other types of waste or other

  1. Krsko NPP radioactive waste characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanata, D.; Kroselj, V.; Jankovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    In May 2005 Krsko NPP initiated the Radioactive Waste Characterization Project and commissioned its realization to the consulting company Enconet International, Zagreb. The Agency for Radwaste Management was invited to participate on the Project. The Project was successfully closed out in August 2006. The main Project goal consisted of systematization the existing and gathering the missing radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, thermal and biological information and data on radioactive waste. In a general perspective, the Project may also be considered as a part of broader scope of activities to support state efforts to find a disposal solution for radioactive waste in Slovenia. The operational low and intermediate level radioactive waste has been structured into 6 waste streams that contain evaporator concentrates and tank sludges, spent ion resins, spent filters, compressible and non-compressible waste as well as specific waste. For each of mentioned waste streams, process schemes have been developed including raw waste, treatment and conditioning technologies, waste forms, containers and waste packages. In the paper the main results of the Characterization Project will be briefly described. The results will indicate that there are 17 different types of raw waste that have been processed by applying 9 treatment/conditioning technologies. By this way 18 different waste forms have been produced and stored into 3 types of containers. Within each type of container several combinations should be distinguished. Considering all of this, there are 34 different types of waste packages altogether that are currently stored in the Solid Radwaste Storage Facility at the Krsko NPP site. Because of these findings a new identification system has been recommended and consequently the improvement of the existing database on radioactive waste has been proposed. The potential areas of further in depth characterization are indicated. In the paper a brief description on the

  2. FFTF radioactive solid waste handling and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The equipment necessary for the disposal of radioactive solid waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is scheduled to be available for operation in late 1982. The plan for disposal of radioactive waste from FFTF will utilize special waste containers, a reusable Solid Waste Cask (SWC) and a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC). The SWC will be used to transport the waste from the Reactor Containment Building to a concrete and steel DSWC. The DSWC will then be transported to a burial site on the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. Radioactive solid waste generated during the operation of the FFTF consists of activated test assembly hardware, reflectors, in-core shim assemblies and control rods. This radioactive waste must be cleaned (sodium removed) prior to disposal. This paper provides a description of the solid waste disposal process, and the casks and equipment used for handling and transport

  3. Chemistry and technology of radioactive waste management - the IAEA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremenkov, V.M.; )

    2003-01-01

    The paper refers the consideration of chemical composition of radioactive waste in selection of particular method and technology for waste treatment and conditioning, importance of physico-chemical parameters of waste processing techniques for optimisation of waste processing to produce waste form of appropriate quality. Consideration of waste chemistry is illustrated by several IAEA activities on radioactive waste management and by outlining the scope of some selected technical reports on different waste management subjects. Different components of the IAEA activities on radioactive waste management and on technology transfer are presented and discussed. (author)

  4. Dynamics of radioactive waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Daniela; Virtopeanu, Cornelia; Ivan, Alexandrina

    2008-01-01

    In Romania there are in operation three facilities licensed for collection, treatment and storage of radioactive waste resulted from industry, research, medicine, and agriculture, named institutional radioactive waste. The repository, which is of near surface type, is designed for disposing institutional radioactive waste. The institutional radioactive wastes generated are allowed to be disposed into repository according to the waste acceptance criteria, defined for the disposal facility. The radioactive wastes which are not allowed for disposal are stored on the site of each facility which is special authorised for this. The paper describes the dynamics of generation of institutional waste in Romania, both for radioactive waste which are allowed to be disposed into repository and for radioactive waste which are not allowed to be disposed of. (authors)

  5. Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste. General Safety Requirements Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    There are a large number of facilities and activities around the world in which radioactive material is produced, handled and stored. This Safety Requirements publication presents international consensus requirements for the management of radioactive waste prior to its disposal. It provides the safety imperatives on the basis of which facilities can be designed, operated and regulated. The publication is supported by a number of Safety Guides that provide up to date recommendations and guidance on best practices for management of particular types of radioactive waste, for storage of radioactive waste, for assuring safety by developing safety cases and supporting safety assessments, and for applying appropriate management systems. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. Responsibilities associated with the predisposal management of radioactive waste; 4. Steps in the predisposal management of radioactive waste; 5. Development and operation of predisposal radioactive waste management facilities and activities; Annex: Predisposal management of radioactive waste and the fundamental safety principles.

  6. Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste. General Safety Requirements Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    There are a large number of facilities and activities around the world in which radioactive material is produced, handled and stored. This Safety Requirements publication presents international consensus requirements for the management of radioactive waste prior to its disposal. It provides the safety imperatives on the basis of which facilities can be designed, operated and regulated. The publication is supported by a number of Safety Guides that provide up to date recommendations and guidance on best practices for management of particular types of radioactive waste, for storage of radioactive waste, for assuring safety by developing safety cases and supporting safety assessments, and for applying appropriate management systems. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. Responsibilities associated with the predisposal management of radioactive waste; 4. Steps in the predisposal management of radioactive waste; 5. Development and operation of predisposal radioactive waste management facilities and activities; Annex: Predisposal management of radioactive waste and the fundamental safety principles.

  7. Radioactive wastes: sources, treatment, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.; Blomeke, J.O.

    1975-01-01

    Sources, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes are analyzed in an attempt to place a consideration of the problem of permanent disposal at the level of established or easily attainable technology. In addition to citing the natural radioactivity present in the biosphere, the radioactive waste generated at each phase of the fuel cycle (mills, fabrication plants, reactors, reprocessing plants) is evaluated. The three treatment processes discussed are preliminary storage to permit decay of the short-lived radioisotopes, solidification of aqueous wastes, and partitioning the long-lived α emitters for separate and long-term storage. Dispersion of radioactive gases to the atmosphere is already being done, and storage in geologically stable structures such as salt mines is under active study. The transmutation of high-level wastes appears feasible in principle, but exceedingly difficult to develop

  8. Radioactive waste management: An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.Y.

    1992-01-01

    Scientists, governments, and the general public have devoted considerable attention to the subject of radioactive waste over the past 35 years. The subject has gained even more attention of late, owing to heightened awareness of environmental protection. Potential transboundary effects have further added to this interest, which today extends beyond local domains to regional and global levels. Almost all of the IAEA's Member States generate some radioactive wastes. The type of waste they produce varies, however, as do the quantities, which range from a few grams to several hundred tonnes of wastes per year. This article will summarize the status of waste management and disposal activities in IAEA Member States as well as providing a brief background on what radioactive waste is, where it comes from, and how it is managed

  9. Controlling radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtinger, W.

    1992-01-01

    The guideline of the Ministry for Environmental Protection for controlling radioactive waste with a negligible development of heat defines in detail what data are relevant to the control of radioactive waste and should be followed up on and included in a system of documentation. By introducing the AVK (product control system for tracing the course of waste disposal) the operators of German nuclear power plants have taken the requirements of this guideline into account. In particular, possibilities for determining the degree of radioactivity of radioactive waste, which the BMU-guidelines call for, were put into practice by means of the programming technology of the product control system's module MOPRO. (orig.) [de

  10. Aspects of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutoiu, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The origin and types of radioactive waste, the objective and the fundamental principles of radioactive waste management and the classification of radioactive waste are presented. Problems of the radioactive waste management are analyzed. (authors)

  11. CAN WE CONSIDER WASTES GENERATED DURING RADIOIMMUNOASSAYS AS A RADIOACTIVE WASTE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shapilov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents issues of the radiation protection provision for the management of radioactive waste produced by the radioimmunological analysis with the use of 125I marker, calculated and experimental data on radioactive waste specific activities are analyzed.

  12. Radioactive waste management at nuclear power plant Cernavoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raducea, D.

    2002-01-01

    Many human activities generate waste, but people are worried about wastes produced in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Their concern is an unjustified fear toward the hazards from radioactive waste, probably because in any country generating electric power by NPPs a lot of attention is paid to relevant parties involved in radioactive waste management. Significant attention is also given to the management of radioactive waste at the Cemavoda NPP. The general approach required for the collection, handling, conditioning and storage of radioactive wastes, while maintaining acceptable levels of safety for workers, members of the public and the environment, is conceptually established. The overall programme provides the necessary facilities to adequately manage solid radioactive waste from Cemavoda NPP Unit 1 and will be capable of expansion when other units are brought into service. (author)

  13. Improving radioactive waste management: an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency's low-activity waste effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheisz, Daniel J; Czyscinski, Kenneth S; Klinger, Adam D

    2006-11-01

    Radioactive waste disposal in the United States is marked by a fragmented regulatory system, with requirements that often focus on the origin or statutory definition of the waste, rather than the hazard of the material in question. It may be possible to enhance public protection by moving toward a system that provides disposal options appropriate for the hazard presented by the waste in question. This paper summarizes aspects of an approach focusing on the potential use, with appropriate conditions, of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle-C hazardous waste landfills for disposal of "low-activity" wastes and public comments on the suggested approach.

  14. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  15. Radioactive waste gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Kaoru; Minemoto, Masaki; Takezawa, Kazuaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively separate and remove only hydrogen from hydrogen gas-containing radioactive waste gases produced from nuclear power plants without using large scaled facilities. Constitution: From hydrogen gas-enriched waste gases which contain radioactive rare gases (Kr, Xe) sent from the volume control tank of a chemical volume control system, only the hydrogen is separated in a hydrogen separator using palladium alloy membrane and rare gases are concentrated, volume-decreased and then stored. In this case, an activated carbon adsorption device is connected at its inlet to the radioactive gas outlet of the hydrogen separator and opened at its outlet to external atmosphere. In this system, while only the hydrogen gas permeates through the palladium alloy membrane, other gases are introduced, without permeation, into the activated carbon adsorption device. Then, the radioactive rare gases are decayed by the adsorption on the activated carbon and then released to the external atmosphere. (Furukawa, Y.)

  16. Removal of phenol from radioactive waste solutions using activated granular Carbon and activated vermiculite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz El-Din, M.R.; Atta, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of both activated granular carbon (AGC) and activated vermiculite (AV) in removal of phenol from aqueous waste solutions is of great interest. The aim of the present study is to compare the absorbance capacities of both AGC and AV for the removal of phenol from radioactive waste solutions and to identify the factors affecting the sorption process. The experimental results were in the form of batch sorption measurements for the removal of phenol at ambient temperature (29 ± 1 degree C) and for times up to 40 min and 180 min for AGC and AV, respectively. The results indicated that activated carbon has good efficiency to adsorb phenol. Freundlich equation has been fitted to both AGC and AV for the contaminant removal. The adsorption capacities of both AGC and AV to phenol were 17.4 mg g-1 and 4.5 mg g-1, respectively. The maximum desorption percent of phenol from both loaded AGC and loaded AV were 9 % and 0 %, respectively, and it attained within about 200 min. accordingly, it is recommended that activated carbon is preferred in the applied field for removing phenol from radioactive aqueous wastes

  17. Liquid radioactive wastes from hospitals by polymeric membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal, J.M.; Sancho, M.; Verdu, G.; Campayo, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Streams containing I''125 produced from RIA process, classified as radioactive waste of low activity, are generated by all different treatments applied in IN VITRO techniques. Consequently, an accumulation of solutions containing I''125 is produced in the order of 50-100 L/month approximately. The storage at sanitary centres and the accumulation caused by it creates a serious problem in the hospital. According to the specific activity and the installation spill authorization, one can choose between three ways of handling: direct discharge, temporal storage until the radioactive waste come to decay and then discharged, waste management by the authorised company (ENRESA). If the third way of discharge is applied the treatment of waste using membranes should be considered. Using membranes, important reduction coefficients in volume in the order of 10:1 are obtained. The aim of this work is the declassification of the I''125 solutions as a liquid radioactive waste using membrane techniques. Both, a radioactive concentrated waste and non-contaminated waste are obtained. (Author)

  18. Summary report, low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Vol. 4. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    'Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts' is a supplement to 'LLW Notes' and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  19. Summary report. Low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Volume 4, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    'Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts' is a supplement to 'LLW Notes' and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  20. Andra. Everything on the management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-08-01

    This publication briefly presents the ANDRA, the French National Agency for the management of radioactive wastes, its mission, its activities, its financing, and some key figures. It briefly presents the phenomenon of radioactivity, radioactive wastes and their storage. It presents the different classes of radioactive wastes (very-low-level, low- and intermediate-level and short-lived, low-level and long-lived, high-level and intermediate-level and long-lived) and their storage principles. It sketches the pathway followed by a waste from its production to its storage. It presents the various ANDRA sites

  1. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  2. Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrin, J.O.

    1991-01-01

    In medical establishments, radioisotopes are used in diagnostic techniques, in chemotherapy or in radioimmunology. Hospitable radioactive wastes are characterized by polymorphism and low activity levels in a great volume. These wastes are also associated with infectivity and toxicity. This paper makes a balance and describes new radioactive waste management proposals. 4 refs.; 3 tabs.; 1 fig

  3. Active waste disposal monitoring at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes an active waste disposal monitoring system proposed to be installed beneath the low-level radioactive disposal site at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. The monitoring instruments will be installed while the waste is being disposed. Instruments will be located adjacent to and immediately beneath the disposal area within the unsaturated zone to provide early warning of contaminant movement before contaminants reach the Snake River Plain Aquifer. This study determined the optimum sampling techniques using existing monitoring equipment. Monitoring devices were chosen that provide long-term data for moisture content, movement of gamma-emitting nuclides, and gas concentrations in the waste. The devices will allow leachate collection, pore-water collection, collection of gasses, and access for drilling through and beneath the waste at a later time. The optimum monitoring design includes gas sampling devices above, within, and below the waste. Samples will be collected for methane, tritium, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and volatile organic compounds. Access tubes will be utilized to define the redistribution of radionuclides within, above, and below the waste over time and to define moisture content changes within the waste using spectral and neutron logging, respectively. Tracers will be placed within the cover material and within waste containers to estimate transport times by conservative chemical tracers. Monitoring the vadose zone below, within, and adjacent to waste while it is being buried is a viable monitoring option. 12 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  4. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    day, ASTM C1308 testing (similar to ANSI/ANS 16.1 testing) was only performed on two fly ash geopolymer monoliths at 67-68 wt% FBSR loading and three clay geopolymer monoliths at 42 wt% FBSR loading. More clay geopolymers need to be made and tested at longer times at higher FBSR loadings for comparison to the fly ash monoliths. Monoliths made with metakaolin (heat treated) clay are of a more constant composition and are very reactive as the heat treated clay is amorphous and alkali activated. The monoliths made with fly ash are subject to the inherent compositional variation found in fly ash as it is a waste product from burning coal and it contains unreactive components such as mullite. However, both the fly ash and the clay based monoliths perform well in long term ASTM C1308 testing. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) tests: ASTM C1285 testing (Product Consistency Test) of granular and monolithic waste forms; Comparison of granular BSR radioactive to ESTD and pilot scale granular non-radioactive waste form made from the Rassat simulant; Comparison of granular radioactive to granular non-radioactive waste form made from the Rassat simulant made using the SRNL BSR; Comparison of monolithic BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR and ESTD non-radioactive waste forms made of fly ash; Comparison of granular BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR non-radioactive waste forms made of fly ash; Comparison of granular BSR radioactive waste forms to monolithic BSR non-radioactive waste forms made of clay; ASTM C1308 Accelerated Leach Test for Diffusive Releases from Solidified Waste and a Computer Program to Model Diffusive, Fractional Leaching from Cylindrical Waste Forms; Comparison of BSR non-radioactive waste forms to monolithic ESTD non-radioactive waste forms made from fly ash; Testing of BSR non-radioactive monoliths made from clay

  5. Decision Assessment of Clearance Level on Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin; Gunandjar

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive waste on the safe level activity containing very small radioactive material gives small radiology influence to the human, it is not necessary to control by regulatory body. The radioactive waste on the safe level activity is safe to release as the common waste. For exemption of the control, it is required the safe activity level limits in which the value of clearance level is fulfilled by regulatory body, however until now it is not decided yet. The exemption decision is obtained if its activity is lower than or same with clearance level based on the annual effective dose receiving by public on the value is lower than or same with 0,01 mSv. The exposure pathways of radioactive waste to the human have important role for determination of clearance level. The decision assessment of clearance level on the radioactive waste management has been done by analysis of radioactive exposure pathways to the human for activities of the disposal and the recycle of solid wastes, also the release of liquid and gas effluent. For solid waste disposal, the exposure pathway was evaluated since the transportation of packed waste from the treatment facility to the disposal facility and during its operation. Exposure pathways for solid waste recycle consist of the pathways for handling and transportation of cleared material to the recycling facility, the fabrication and the utilization of its product. Exposure pathways for liquid and gas releases occur since its releases to the environment up to the human (public) by specific traffic lane. (author)

  6. Non-fuel cycle radioactive waste policy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirel, H.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated in Turkey are mostly low level radioactive waste generated from the operation of one research reactor, research centers and universities, hospitals, and from radiological application of various industries. Disused sealed sources which potentially represent medium and high radiological risks in Turkey are mainly Am-241, Ra-226, Kr-85, Co-60, Ir-192 and Cs-137. All radioactive waste produced in Turkey is collected, segregated, conditioned and stored at CWPSF. Main components of the facility are listed below: Liquid waste is treated in chemical processing unit where precipitation is applied. Compactable solids are compressed in a compaction cell. Spent sources are embedded into cement mortar with their original shielding. If the source activities are in several millicuries, sometimes dismantling is applied and segregated sources are conditioned in shielded drums. Due to increasing number of radiation and nuclear related activities, the waste facility of CNAEM is now becoming insufficient to meet the storage demand of the country. TAEA is now in a position to establish a new radioactive waste management facility and studies are now being carried out on the selection of best place for the final storage of processed radioactive wastes. Research and development studies in TAEA should continue in radioactive waste management with the aim of improving data, models, and concepts related to long-term safety of disposal of long-lived waste

  7. Radioactive waste management in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.T.; Baehr, W.; Plumb, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The activities of the Agency in waste management have therefore laid emphasis on advising developing Member States on the management of wastes from the uses of radioactive materials. At the present time, developing countries are mostly concerned with the management of nuclear wastes generated from medical centres, research institutes, industrial facilities, mining operations, and research reactors. In certain instances, management of such wastes has lapsed causing serious accidents. Radiation source mismanagement has resulted in fatalities to the public in Mexico (1962), Algeria (1978), Morocco (1984), and Brazil (1987). The objective of these activities is to support the countries to develop the required expertise for self-sufficiency in safe management of radioactive wastes. What follows are details of the Agency mechanisms in place to meet the above objectives

  8. Hanford's Radioactive Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Radioactive Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, is located in the Hanford Site Low-Level Burial Grounds and is designated as Trench 31 in the 218-W-5 Burial Ground. Trench 31 is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act compliant landfill and will receive wastes generated from both remediation and waste management activities. On December 30, 1994, Westinghouse Hanford Company declared readiness to operate Trench 31, which is the Hanford Site's (and the Department of Energy complex's) first facility for disposal of low-level radioactive mixed wastes

  9. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.; Lester, R.K.; Greenberg, S.C.; Mitchell, H.C.; Walker, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Purpose of this book is to assist in developing public policy and institutions for the safe management of radioactive waste, currently and long term. Both high-level waste and low-level waste containing transuranium elements are covered. The following conclusions are drawn: the safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; the basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged. The following recommendations are made: a national Radioactive Waste Authority should be established as a federally chartered public corporation; with NRC as the primary agency, a comprehensive regulatory framework should be established to assure the safety of all radioactive waste management operations under U.S. jurisdiction or control; ERDA should continue to have primary government responsibility for R and D and demonstration of radioactive waste technology; and the U.S. government should propose that an international Radioactive Waste Commission be established under the IAEA

  10. Characterisation of radioactive waste at Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordache, M.; Bujoreanu, L.; Popescu, I. V.

    2008-01-01

    During the operation of a nuclear plant significant quantities of radioactive waste results that have a very large diversity. At Cernavoda NPP the important waste categories are non-radioactive wastes and radioactive wastes, which are manipulated completely different from which other. For a CANDU type reactor, the production of radioactive wastes is due to contamination with the following types of radioactive substances: - fission products resulting from nuclear fuel burning; - activated products of materials which form part of the technological systems; - activated products of process fluids. Radioactive wastes can be in solid, liquid or gas form. At Cernavoda NPP the solid wastes represent about 70% of the waste volume which is produced during plant operation and as a consequence of maintenance and decontamination activities. The most important types of solid wastes that are obtained and then handled, processed (if required) and temporarily stored are: solid low level radioactive wastes (classified as compact and non-compact), solid medium radioactive wastes, spent resins, used filters and filter cartridges. The liquid radioactive waste class includes organic liquids (used oil, scintillator liquids and used solvents) and aqueous wastes resulting from process system operating, decontamination and maintenance operations. Radioactive gas wastes occur subsequent to the fission process inside the fuel elements as well as due to the process fluids neutron activation in the reactor systems. As result of the plant operation, iodine, noble gases, tritium and radioactive particles occur and are passed to the ventilation stack in a controlled manner so that an exceeding of the maximum permissible concentrations of radioactive material to the environment should not occur. (authors)

  11. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented on the environmental behavior of radioactive wastes. The management of high-level wastes and waste disposal methods were discussed. Some topics included were ore processing, coagulation, absorption and ion exchange, fixation, ground disposal, flotation, evaporation, transmutation and extraterrestrial disposal. Reports were given of the 226 Ra, 224 Ra and tritium activity in hot springs, 90 Sr concentrations in the groundwater and in White Oak Creek, radionuclide content of algae, grasses and plankton, radionuclides in the Danube River, Hudson River, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, Columbia River and other surface waters. Analysis showed that 239 Pu was scavenged from Lake Michigan water by phytoplankton and algae by a concentration factor of up to 10,000. Benthic invertebrates and fish showed higher 239 Pu concentrations than did their pelagic counterparts. Concentration factors are also given for 234 Th, 60 Co, Fe and Mr in marine organisms. Two models for predicting the impact of radioactivity in the food chain on man were mentioned. In an accidental release from a light-water power reactor to the ocean, the most important radionuclides discharged were found to be 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239 Pu and activation products 65 Zr, 59 Fe, and 95 Zr

  12. Reportable Nuclide Criteria for ORNL Radioactive Waste Management Activities - 13005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, Kip; Forrester, Tim; Saunders, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee generates numerous radioactive waste streams. Many of those streams contain a large number of radionuclides with an extremely broad range of concentrations. To feasibly manage the radionuclide information, ORNL developed reportable nuclide criteria to distinguish between those nuclides in a waste stream that require waste tracking versus those nuclides of such minimal activity that do not require tracking. The criteria include tracking thresholds drawn from ORNL onsite management requirements, transportation requirements, and relevant treatment and disposal facility acceptance criteria. As a management practice, ORNL maintains waste tracking on a nuclide in a specific waste stream if it exceeds any of the reportable nuclide criteria. Nuclides in a specific waste stream that screen out as non-reportable under all these criteria may be dropped from ORNL waste tracking. The benefit of these criteria is to ensure that nuclides in a waste stream with activities which meaningfully affect safety and compliance are tracked, while documenting the basis for removing certain isotopes from further consideration. (authors)

  13. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaguma, Masahiko; Takahara, Nobuaki; Hara, Satomi.

    1996-01-01

    In a processing device for filtering laundry liquid wastes and shower drains incorporated with radioactive materials, a fiber filtration device is disposed and an activated carbon filtration device is also disposed subsequent to the fiber filtration device. In addition, a centrifugal dewatering device is disposed for dewatering spent granular activated carbon in the activated carbon filtration device, and a minute filtering device is disposed for filtering the separated dewatering liquid. Filtrates filtered by the minute filtration device are recovered in a collecting tank. Namely, at first, suspended solid materials in laundry liquid wastes and shower drains are captured, and then, ingredients concerning COD are adsorbed in the activated carbon filtration device. The radioactive liquid wastes of spent granular activated carbon in the activated carbon filtration device are reduced by dewatering them by the centrifugal dewatering device, and then the granular activated carbon is subjected to an additional processing. Further, it is separated by filtration using the minute filtration device and removed as cakes. Since the filtrates are recovered to the collecting tank and filtered again, the water quality of the drains is not degraded. (N.H.)

  14. Where, when, how: the place of radioactive wastes in France. Andra, 1998 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 activity report of the French national agency of radioactive wastes (Andra) presents successively: the role and missions of the Andra (history, status of radioactive wastes in France, surface storage and know-how, underground research laboratories, site selection and public information); the aspects of safety (inventory, identification and labelling of wastes, environmental policy, public relation, safety rules and reports, information storage); the scientific programs (collaborations, financing, site studies, rock mechanics and reversibility of storage, design of storage facilities, services); financial report. (J.S.)

  15. The conceptual design of waste repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities containing comparatively high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Naro

    2002-02-01

    Advisory Committee on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy reported the basic approach to the RI and Institute etc. wastes on March 2002. According to it, radioactive waste form medical, industrial and research facilities should be classified by their radioactivity properties and physical and chemical properties, and should be disposed in the appropriate types of repository with that classification. For the radioactive waste containing comparatively high radioactivity generated from reactors, NSC has established the Concentration limit for disposal. NSC is now discussing about the limit for the radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities containing comparatively high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) preliminary studied about the repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities and discussed about the problems for design on H12. This study was started to consider those problems, and to develop the conceptual design of the repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities. Safety assessment for that repository is also performed. The result of this study showed that radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities of high activity should be disposed in the repository that has higher performance of barrier system comparing with the vault type near surface facility. If the conditions of the natural barrier and the engineering barrier are clearer, optimization of the design will be possible. (author)

  16. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government's decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state's opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE's progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada's opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE's activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE's radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE's low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department's past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials

  17. Old radioactive waste storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a recall of the regulatory context for the management of old sites used for the storage of radioactive wastes with respect with their activity, the concerned products, the disposal or storage type, this document describes AREVA's involvement in the radioactive waste management process in France. Then, for the different kinds of sites (currently operated sites having radioactive waste storage, storage sites for uranium mineral processing residues), it indicates their location and name, their regulatory status and their control authority, the reference documents. It briefly presents the investigation on the long term impact of uranium mineral processing residues on health and environment, evokes some aspects of public information transparency, and presents the activities of an expertise group on old uranium mines. The examples of the sites of Bellezane (uranium mineral processing residues) and COMURHEX Malvesi (assessment of underground and surface water quality at the vicinity of this installation) are given in appendix

  18. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. In short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This booklet gives a summary of the national inventory report on radioactive wastes that are present on the French territory (as recorded until december, 2007). Intended for public information, the booklet explains the basics of radioactive materials and wastes and waste management, and gives some data on present and future waste volumes, information about radioactive waste classification, the geographical distribution of waste sites in France, etc. The various types of radioactive wastes are described (classified by their lifetime and activity level) as well as historical storage sites, polluted areas where wastes are stored, radioactive objects, etc. and their respective management approaches are presented

  19. Management of hospital radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houy, J.C.; Rimbert, J.C.; Bouvet, C.; Laugle, S.

    1997-01-01

    The hospital radioactive wastes are of three types: solid, liquid and gaseous. Prior to final evacuation all these wastes are checked by a detector the threshold of which is lower than the standard. This system allows detecting activities very low under the daily recommended threshold of 37 kBq (1μ Ci), for the group II. In metabolic radiotherapy the unsealed sources of iodine 131 will form mainly the wastes arising from the rooms contaminated by the patient himself. In this service anything touching the patient's room most by systematically checked. All the rooms are provided with toilette with two compartments, one connected traditionally to the sewerage system for faeces and the other coupled to tanks for urine storing. The filled reservoirs waits around 10 month span prior to being emptied, after checking, into the sewerage system. The volume activity most be lower than 7 Bq per liter (standard). For the hot labs, injection room and in-vitro lab, the liquid waste retrieved from dedicated stainless sinks are stored in storage tanks and will waits for 2 years before evacuation. The undies coming from the metabolic radiotherapy service are possible contaminated by the patient sheets, pillow cases, etc. These undies freshly contaminated may be contaminating if the contamination is non fixated. All the undies coming from this service are checked like all the wastes by means of the fixed detector. For the solid wastes two evacuation channels are possible: the urban garbage repository for household wastes and the Brest waste repository for hospital wastes. For the liquid waste arising for urines, used washing water, etc, the evacuation will be done towards city sewerage system after storing or dilution. Concerning the liquid wastes presenting chemical risks, they will be evacuated in cans by NETRA. Concerning the gaseous wastes, trapped on active carbon filters, they will be handled like solid wastes and will be directed to the waste repository of Brest. The other

  20. Development of a Radioactive Waste Assay System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Duck Won; Song, Myung Jae; Shin, Sang Woon; Sung, Kee Bang; Ko, Dae Hach [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Jeong; Park, Jong Mook; Jee, Kwang Yoong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear Act of Korea requires the manifest of low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated at nuclear power plants prior to disposal sites.Individual history records of the radioactive waste should be contained the information about the activity of nuclides in the drum, total activity, weight, the type of waste. A fully automated nuclide analysis assay system, non-destructive analysis and evaluation system of the radioactive waste, was developed through this research project. For the nuclides that could not be analysis directly by MCA, the activities of the representative {gamma}-emitters(Cs-137, Co-60) contained in the drum were measured by using that system. Then scaling factors were used to calculate the activities of {alpha}, {beta}-emitters. Furthermore, this system can automatically mark the analysis results onto the drum surface. An automated drum handling system developed through this research project can reduce the radiation exposure to workers. (author). 41 refs., figs.

  1. Developing a Pre-disposal radioactive waste management framework for malawi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasi, Ephron

    2016-04-01

    In Malawi, uranium mining and other potential radioactive waste generating activities are on the increase. An elaborate national policy document and strategy on radioactive waste management is however not available. A national policy is important because it provides overall direction and the basis for decision making with respect to the management of radioactive waste in a country. Thus the absence of the national policy creates a gap in the country’s regulatory framework for ensuring safety and protection of people and the environment from sources of ionizing radiation. The present study was undertaken to minimize the impact of this regulatory framework gap by proposing a predisposal radioactive waste management framework for Malawi. This was achieved by analyzing the current and anticipated applications of radioactive materials and activities. The international and national regulatory requirements related to predisposal radioactive waste management were also reviewed and analyzed. The study found out that a predisposal radioactive waste management frame work comprised of onsite management of wastes from hospitals and uranium mining and export of high activity disused sources to supplier or management facilities in nearby countries would be the best for Malawi for now and the next ten years. (au)

  2. Assessment of Malaysia Institutional radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Hakimi Sakuma; Nik Marzukee; Ibrahim Martibi

    1996-01-01

    A complete inventory of radioactive wastes from different source bas been set up in Malaysia. Wastes from external agencies were sent to the National Radioactive Waste Management Center at MINT for final disposal. MINT has been collecting information on the accumulated wastes received since 1982. Assessment of radioactive waste management in Malaysia has been conducted based on the inventory record. The information in the inventory include description of users, type volume, characteristics of the wastes; and the current and accumulated activities of the radioisotopes in the wastes forms while storing. The records indicate that there is a significant increase in the volume of wastes from medical and industrial applications. The category of users varies; there are about 270 industrial users, about 60 in medical fields and 13 in research institutes and universities. Major users generating sealed source wastes for the industrial sector are services, manufacturing and consumer companies; including government department and universities. It is estimated that by the year 2005, approximately a total accumulated processed waste package volume for disposal will be between 210-215 m sup 3. This estimate includes low level and intermediate level wastes. From this study, future waste management activities in Malaysia can be planned with proper policy decision, treatment conditioning, storage and disposal facilities. This will enable radioactive wastes to be kept under control and their potential impact on man and the environment to be minimal

  3. Scaling factors for the activity determination of radioactive waste from nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medici, Marcela A.; Piumetti, Elsa H.

    2007-01-01

    Specific information of the total activity and activity concentration of the radionuclides contained is required for conditioning, transporting and final disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the complexity associated to alpha and beta measurements for these emitters it is worldwide used, particularly in the case of heterogeneous radioactive waste, the Scaling Factor Method. As in other cases, inputs of the results of the analysis of waste samples taking from waste streams are necessary. The Scaling Factor Method is based on the determination of averaged correlations between the activity concentrations of Difficult to Measure (DTM) nuclides (i.e. alpha and beta emitters) and the activity concentration of easy to measure nuclides (i.e. strong gamma emitters) called Key Nuclides (KN). In the application of this method two phases may be identified: in the first one the degree of correlation between averaged activities of DTM and a given KN is verified, and specific Scaling Factors are derived for every DTM radionuclide. In the second stage the total activity and the activity concentration of the selected KN is determined in each waste item and, by applying the SFs obtained previously, the activities of DTM nuclides are calculated. It is concluded that this method is appropriate and cost-effective and it is stressed that it is only applicable while the Nuclear Power Reactor is in operation. (author)

  4. Chapter 7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The inspection and assessment activities of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) focused on minimization of activity and the quantity of produced radioactive waste (RAW), and on increasing safety of waste management. The general scheme of rad-waste management in the Slovak Republic is presented. The radioactive wastes produced during the operation of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 and NPP Mochovce in 1999 are listed.Liquid RAW was treated and conditioned into a solid form at the nuclear facility Technology for treatment and conditioning of RAW. In 1999 combustible solid waste was treated at the nuclear facility Incinerator of VUJE Trnava. Produced liquid and solid RAW are stored at designed equipment at individual nuclear installations (in case of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce in compliance with the Regulation No. 67/1987 Coll. law).The status of free capacity of these storages as of 31.121999 is presented. Storage solidified product built the SE-VYZ was fully filled at the end of 1999. In 1999 there was a significant improvement in the process of radioactive waste management by: (A) issuing approval for commissioning the National Repository for RAW, (B) issuing approval for commissioning the Treatment and Conditioning Center for RAW, (C) having the application for approval to transport conditioned RAW to the National repository Mochovce in the final stage of evaluation. At the beginning of 2000 it is realistic to expect that RAW conditioned in the Conditioning center of RAW will start to be disposed at the National repository of RAW in Mochovce

  5. Management of radioactive waste at INR-technical support for processing of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Popescu, I.V.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Institute for nuclear research (INR) subsidiary of the Romanian authority for nuclear activities has its own radwaste treatment plant (STDR). STDR is supposed to treat and condition radioactive waste from the nuclear fuel facility, the TRIGA reactor, post irradiation examination laboratories and other research laboratories of NRI. The main steps of waste processing are: pretreatment (collection, characterization, segregation, decontamination)., treatment (waste volume reduction, radionuclide removal, compositional change), conditioning (immobilization and containerization), interim storage of the packages in compliance with safety requirements for the protection of human health and environmental protection, transport of the packages containing radioactive waste, disposal.

  6. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes is perhaps the most controversial and least understood aspect of the use of nuclear materials in generating electrical power, the investigation of biochemical processes through tracer kinetics, and the diagnosis and treatment of disease. In the siting of nuclear power facilities, the disposal of radioactive wastes is invariably posed as the ultimate unanswerable question. In the fall of 1979, biochemical and physiologic research employing radioactive tracers was threatened with a slowdown resulting from temporary closure of sites for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Radioactive pharmaceuticals used extensively for diagnosis and treatment of human disease have increased dramatically in price, partly as a result of the escalating cost of disposing of radioactive wastes created during production of the labeled pharmaceuticals. These problems have resulted in identification of the disposal of LLW as the most pressing issue in the entire scheme of management of hazardous wastes. How this issue as well as the separate issue of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) are being addressed at both national and state levels is the subject of this chapter

  7. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, H.; Closs, K.D.; Kuhn, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solutions to the technical problem of the disposal of radioactive waste are limited by a) the state of knowledge of reprocessing possibilites, b) public acceptance of the use of those techniques which are known, c) legislative procedures linking licensing of new nuclear power plants to the solution of waste problems, and d) other political constraints. Wastes are generated in the mining and enriching of radioactive elements, and in the operation of nuclear power plants as well as in all fields where radioactive substances may be used. Waste management will depend on the stability and concentration of radioactive materials which must be stored, and a resolution of the tension between numerous small storage sites and a few large ones, which again face problems of public acceptability

  8. The IAEA's high level radioactive waste management programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saire, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the different activities that are performed under the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) high level radioactive waste management programme. The Agency's programme is composed of five main activities (information exchange, international safety standards, R ampersand D activities, advisory services and special projects) which are described in the paper. Special emphasis is placed on the RADioactive WAste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme which was implemented in 1991 to document international consensus that exists on the safe management of radioactive waste. The paper also raises the question about the need for regional repositories to serve certain countries that do not have the resources or infrastructure to construct a national repository

  9. ANDRA - National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. Activity report 2007. Management report - Financial statements at December 31, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Created in 1979 within the CEA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. Its 3 basic missions were extended and their funding secured through the 2006 Planning Act: - a R and D mission to propose safe long-term solution for radioactive waste without current disposal system; this mission includes long-term storage, since the 2006 Planning Act, in order to propose interim solutions while final ones are being studied; - an industrial mission concerning, on one hand, waste acceptance criteria and control and, on the other hand, siting, construction, operation, closure and monitoring of repositories. This mission includes as well a public service mission in terms of i) collection of waste of the 'small-scale nuclear activities' producers or owners (including the so-called 'household' radioactive waste, i.e. waste owned by private individuals) and ii) clean-up and rehabilitation of orphan polluted sites; - an information mission, notably through the regular publication of the National Inventory of radioactive materials and waste. This mission includes as well an active policy of dialogue with stakeholders both at national and local level. This document is the activity report with the management and financial statements report of the Andra for the year 2007

  10. United Kingdom government policy towards radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, G.

    1986-01-01

    There are three areas of radioactive waste management which exemplify, beyond any reasonable doubt, that the United Kingdom has in the past (and intends in the future), to pursue a policy of dispersal and disposal of radioactive wastes: These are: (I) dumping of low-level waste in the deep ocean and, on a parallel, seabed emplacement of highly active waste; (II) the liquid discharges from Windscale into the Irish Sea; and (III) land dumping of low- and intermediate-level waste

  11. Collecting and identifying the radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, C. GH.

    2001-01-01

    The procedure 'Collecting and identifying the radioactive waste' applied by the Radioactive Waste Management Department, STDR, complies with the requirements of the competent authority concerning the radioactive source management. One of the most important tasks, requiring the application of this procedure, is collecting and identification of 'historical wastes' for which a complete book keeping does not exist from different reasons. The chapter 1 presents the procedure's goal and the chapter 2 defines the applicability field. Chapter 3 enlists the reference documents while the chapter 4 gives the definitions and abbreviations used in the procedure. Chapter 5 defines responsibilities of the operators implied in collecting, identification and characterization of the radioactive wastes, the producers of the radioactive wastes being implied. Chapter 6 gives the preliminary conditions for applying the procedure. Among these, the transport, collecting, processing, storing and characterization costs are implied, as well as the compliance with technical and different other condition. The procedure structure is presented in the chapter 7. In collecting radioactive wastes, two situations are possible: 1- the producer is able to prepare the wastes for transport and to deliver them to STDR; 2 - the wastes are received from the producer by a delegate STDR operator, properly and technically prepared. The producer must demonstrate by documents the origin and possession, analysis bulletins specifying, the radionuclides activity and measurement date, physical state and, in addition, for spent radiation sources, the series/number of the container and producer. In case the producer is not able to display all this information, the wastes are taken into custody by the STDR labs in view of their analysis. A record in writing is completed specifying the transfer of radioactive wastes from the producer to the STDR, a record which is sent to the national authority in charge with the

  12. Socioeconomic aspects and public opinion concerning radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Valentin

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear energy aspects in Spain are presented. The role of ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A.) a public company, that manages low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Spain is discussed. ENRESA activities such as radioactive wastes transportation and processing, radioactive wastes disposal, decommissioning of an uranium plant, environmental recovery procedures, geological studies, information dissemination of nuclear energy, sponsoring of conferences, courses, etc, are briefly reported

  13. Radioactive waste communication policy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, V.

    1993-01-01

    ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A.), is a State-owned company, founded in 1985 and is responsible for radioactive waste management in Spain. ENRESA's activities are developed following a General Radioactive Waste Plan approved by the Spanish Government. As in most countries, Spanish public opinion is concerned with the most activities related to radioactivity or rad-waste management due to different facts but mainly to a lack of information on the matter. This situation provides misuse of information on it by some politicians, green groups and media which increases distrust of public on responsible companies and institutions. To gain public acceptance, it would be necessary to develop long-term information policy, due to the fact that results in communication are reached in the long term. ENRESA is carrying out a Communication Plan (CP) which has been implemented in a continuous way with success around the area of the disposal site of low and intermediate level wastes as well as around an old uranium mill factory in which remedial actions are being implemented. The implantation of CP at a national level is being done stepwise. The more relevant issues related to the radioactive waste situation in Spain, as well as the communication actions are explained in this document

  14. The review of radioactive waste management in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilzadeh, R.; Mirzahosseini, A.; Rahnomaei, N. A.

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generally classified on the basis of how much radiation and the type of radiation it emits as well as the length of time over which it will continue to emit radiation. Many activities dealing with radioactive materials produce nuclear wastes, including civilian nuclear power programs (nuclear Power plant operations and nuclear fuel-cycle activities), defense nuclear programs (nuclear weapons production, naval nuclear reactor programs, and related R and D), and industrial and institutional activities (scientific research, medical operations, and other industrial uses of Radioisotopic sources or Radio chemicals). To minimize the potential adverse health and environment impacts to people and other systems including of animals, plant and etc, during the entire lifetime of the radionuclides involved, nuclear waste must be carefully and properly managed. The scope of nuclear - waste management encompasses generation, processing (treatment and packaging), storage, transport, and disposal. in this research the effect of radioactive waste on environment and also disposal methods and radioactive waste management in countries is surveyed

  15. Isotopic analysis of radioactive waste packages (an inexpensive approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, D.A.; Richmond, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    A computer printout of the isotopic analysis for all radioactive waste packages containing resins, or other aqueous filter media is now required at the disposal sites at Barnwell, South Carolina, and Beatty, Nevada. Richland, Washington requires an isotopic analysis for all radioactive waste packages. The NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission), through 10 CFR 61, will require shippers of radioactive waste to classify and label for disposal all radioactive waste forms. These forms include resins, filters, sludges, and dry active waste (trash). The waste classification is to be based upon 10 CFR 61 (Section 1-7). The isotopes upon which waste classification is to be based are tabulated. 7 references, 8 tables

  16. Radioactive waste mangement in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of the Canadian radioactive waste management program are to manage the wastes so that the potential hazards of the material are minimized, and to manage the wastes in a manner which places the minimum possible burden on future generations. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all activities in the nuclear field in Canada, including radioactive waste management facility licensing. The Atomic Energy Control Act authorizes the Board to make rules for regulating its proceedings and the performance of its functions. The Atomic Energy Control Regulations define basic regulatory requirements for the licensing of facilities, equipment and materials, including requirements for records and inspection, for security and for health and safety

  17. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, G.

    2007-01-01

    geological disposal of high active waste. Therefore SCK-CEN, NIRAS/ONDRAF and the Economic Interest Grouping EURIDICE join their effort to demonstrate the feasibility of geological disposal of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Boom clay. A first step of this demonstration is the PRACLAY project. The objectives of the PRACLAY project are the demonstration of the reference design for vitrified HLW, as well as the characterization, verification, confirmation and demonstration of relevant elements of the disposal system and their behaviour by means of a combination of small surface and large in situ experiments

  18. Radioactive waste solidification material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Yukio; Wakuta, Kuniharu; Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a radioactive waste solidification material containing vermiculite cement used for a vacuum packing type waste processing device, which contains no residue of calcium hydroxide in cement solidification products. No residue of calcium hydroxide means, for example, that peak of Ca(OH) 2 is not recognized in an X ray diffraction device. With such procedures, since calcium sulfoaluminate clinker and Portland cement themselves exhibit water hardening property, and slugs exhibit hydration activity from the early stage, the cement exhibits quick-hardening property, has great extension of long term strength, further, has no shrinking property, less dry- shrinkage, excellent durability, less causing damages such as cracks and peeling as processing products of radioactive wastes, enabling to attain highly safe solidification product. (T.M.)

  19. International trends of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    1989-01-01

    The new trends of radioactive waste management in the world such as focusing on decreasing the amount of radioactive wastes, developing decontamination and decommissioning technology, conscientious solution for radiactive waste disposal, carrying out social services of waste treatment and quality assurance are reviewed. Besides, comments and suggestions are presented. Key words Radioactive waste management, Radioactive waste treatment, Radioactive waste disposal

  20. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  1. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  2. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  3. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

  4. IAEA decadal activities in the field of radioactive gaseous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumb, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    The IAEA has long recognized that gaseous waste management is vital in the design and safe operation of all nuclear facilities such that in the decade of the 1980's the IAEA program covered the important aspects of the entire field. The activities reviewed in this paper were marked at the outset by a comprehensive international symposium on the subject in February 1980 organized by the IAEA jointly with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD when the detailed state-of-the-art was established in 43 papers. In the interim, experts have been convened in IAEA sponsored meetings to result in sixteen technical documents which included summaries of three substantial Co-ordinated Research Programs. Early IAEA activities paid particular attention to management of gas radionuclides which from a matured nuclear industry, could be judged to build-up to long-term sources of irradiation for regional and global populations. Mid-term ongoing activities in handling and retention of gaseous radionuclides arising from abnormal operations in nuclear power plants were given much emphasis following the Chernobyl accident. In the latter years the IAEA activities included detailed examinations of the design and operation of gas cleaning systems for the range of nuclear facilities. Technical reports on gaseous waste management were issued relating to high-level liquid waste conditioning plants (including control of semi-volatiles), nuclear power plants, low- and intermediate-level radioactive materials handling facilities and radioactive waste incinerators

  5. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  6. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes

  7. Radioactive waste management at Institute for Nuclear Research (ICN) - Pitesti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, C.

    2004-01-01

    The amounts of liquid and solid wastes accumulated at the Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant are given. The technologies used for the treatment and conditioning of radioactive wastes are presented. The final product is metallic drum-concrete-radioactive wastes (type A package) for the final disposal at the National Repository Baita, Bihor. The facilities for radioactive waste management at ICN Pitesti are: Plant for treatment, with uranium recovery of liquid radioactive waste resulting from the fabrication of CANDU type nuclear fuel; Plant for treatment of low-active liquid wastes; Plant for conditioning in concrete of the radioactive concentrate obtained during the evaporation treatment of liquid radioactive waste; Plant for incineration of solid radioactive waste contaminated with natural uranium; Plant for treatment and conditioning of organic liquid radioactive waste with tritium content. This wastes are generated by Cernavoda-NPP operation; Plant for conditioning into bitumen of spent ion exchangers at TRIGA reactor. The existing Facility is Baita repository - with two rock cavities of an uranium mine and the total capacity of 21000 containers (200 l drums)

  8. Information about activity, status and radiation conditions of Republic radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidumarov, P.

    2000-01-01

    All radioactive wastes in the Republic of Uzbekistan are stored in the Republic Radioactive Waste Repository in Parkent district of Tashkent region. In the facility there are 2 tanks for solid radioactive waste, each of 800 m 3 , one of them is full, second is in operation; 2 tanks for liquid radioactive waste each tank of 200 m 3 , both of them are empty; 6 storages, each of 3 m 3 all of them are empty; 3 storages for spent radioactive sources, one of them is full, 2 of them are in operation; 4 storages for high level radioactive waste, each storage of 3.5 m 3 , one of them is in operation, 3 are empty; one sealed storage containing 135 m 3 of concrete blocks with waste from electronic industry. According to conclusions of a few competent examinations RRWR does not cause damage to the environment. Geographic location and technical conditions of the repository are satisfactory. Low deposition of underground water (62 m) excludes penetration of radioisotopes. There were no radiation accidents during the repository operation

  9. Radioactive liquid waste filtering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inami, Ichiro; Tabata, Masayuki; Kubo, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent clogging in filter materials and improve the filtration performance for radioactive liquid wastes without increasing the amount of radioactive wastes. Constitution: In a radioactive waste filtering device, a liquid waste recycling pipe and a liquid recycling pump are disposed for recycling the radioactive liquid wastes in a liquid wastes vessel. In this case, the recycling pipe and the recycling pump are properly selected so as to satisfy the conditions capable of making the radioactive liquid wastes flowing through the pipe to have the Reynolds number of 10 4 - 10 5 . By repeating the transportation of radioactive liquid wastes in the liquid waste vessel through the liquid waste recycling pipe by the liquid waste recycling pump and then returning them to the liquid waste vessel again, particles of fine grain size in the suspended liquids are coagulated with each other upon collision to increase the grain size of the suspended particles. In this way, clogging of the filter materials caused by the particles of fine grain size can be prevented, thereby enabling to prevent the increase in the rising rate of the filtration differential pressure, reduce the frequency for the occurrence of radioactive wastes such as filter sludges and improve the processing performance. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration - SURAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Act specifies, among other things, responsibilities of the government in the field of safe disposal of radioactive wastes. To satisfy this responsibility, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has established the Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration (SURAO). SURAO's major responsibilities include: (a) the preparation, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of radioactive waste repositories and the monitoring of their environmental impacts; (b) radioactive waste management; (c) spent or irradiated nuclear fuel processing into a form suitable for storage/disposal or reuse; (d) record-keeping of received radioactive wastes and their producers; (e) administration of fund transfers as stipulated by the Atomic Act, Article 27; (f) development of proposals for specification of fees to be paid to the Nuclear Account; (g) responsibility for and coordination of research and development in the field of radioactive waste handling and management; (h) supervision of licensees' margin earmarked for the decommissioning of their facilities; (i) providing services in radioactive waste handling and management; (j) handling and management of radioactive wastes that have been transferred to the Czech Republic from abroad and cannot be sent back; (k) interim administration of radioactive wastes that have become state property. The Statute of the Administration is reproduced in full. (P.A.)

  11. Remediation of the Provisional Storage of Radioactive Waste near Zavratec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.

    1998-01-01

    In 1996 the remediation of the provisional storage situated near village Zavratec in western part of Slovenia started. In this storage radioactive waste contaminated with radium has been stored for many decades The RAO Agency organized remedial works, in which these activities inventorying and repacking of radioactive waste were carried out. Simultaneously with these activities a detailed programme for covering public relations was prepared and implemented. On the basis of the experimental results and general storage conditions relocation of radioactive waste to the Slovenian central storage was recommended and it is planned to be concluded by the end of 1998. In this paper main remedial activities in the provisional storage of radioactive waste near Zavratec are presented. An important and most challenging part of these activities represent PR activities. (author)

  12. Final treatment of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svolik, S.

    2004-01-01

    Final treatment of liquid radioactive wastes which are produced by 1 st and 2 nd bloc of the Mochovce NPP, prepares the NPP in its natural range. The purpose of the equipment is liquidation of wastes, which are formed at production. Wastes are warehoused in the building of active auxiliary plants in the present time, where are reservoirs in which they are deposited. Because they are already feeling and in 2006 year they should be filled definitely, it is necessary to treat them in that manner, so as they may be liquidated. Therefore the Board of directors of the Slovenske elektrarne has disposed about construction of final treatment of liquid radioactive wastes in the Mochovce NPP. Because of transport the wastes have to be treated in the locality of power plant. Technically, the final treatment of the wastes will be interconnected with building of active operation by bridges. These bridges will transport the wastes for treatment into processing centre

  13. Issues and trends in radioactive waste management in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmanlioglu, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on issues associated with the waste management aspects of Turkey. Predisposal management of radioactive wastes covers a broad range of activities. This also includes waste identification, characterization and conditioning. Experience gained over years shows that current predisposal waste management practices are well advanced. The paper concludes these activities based on experience gained by CWPSF (CNAEM Waste Processing and Storage Facility) and includes issues and trends in radioactive waste management. In addition general information is presented on ongoing national projects and IAEA research projects on various issues of waste management. (author)

  14. Perspectives concerning radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a general overview of the principles of radioactive waste management as established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Subsequently, research and development related to radioactive waste management at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK·CEN is discussed. Different topical areas are treated including radioactive waste characterisation, decontamination and the long-term management of radioactive waste. The decommissioning of the BR3 reactor and the construction and the exploitation of the underground research laboratory HADES are cited as examples of the pioneering role that SCK·CEN has played in radioactive waste management.

  15. RADWASS update. Radioactive Waste Safety Standards Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delattre, D.

    2000-01-01

    By the late 1980s, the issue of radioactive wastes and their management was becoming increasingly politically important. The IAEA responded by establishing a high profile family of safety standards, the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS). By this means, the IAEA intended to draw attention to the fact that well-established procedures for the safe management of radioactive wastes already were in place. The programme was intended to establish an ordered structure for safety documents on waste management and to ensure comprehensive coverage of all relevant subject areas. RADWASS documents are categorized under four subject areas - discharges, predisposal, disposal, and environmental restoration. The programme is overseen through a formalized review and approval mechanism that was established in 1996 for all safety standards activities. The Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC) is a standing body of senior regulatory officials with technical expertise in radioactive waste safety. To date, three Safety Requirements and seven Safety Guides have been issued

  16. The Net Enabled Waste Management Database as an international source of radioactive waste management information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csullog, G.W.; Friedrich, V.; Miaw, S.T.W.; Tonkay, D.; Petoe, A.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA's Net Enabled Waste Management Database (NEWMDB) is an integral part of the IAEA's policies and strategy related to the collection and dissemination of information, both internal to the IAEA in support of its activities and external to the IAEA (publicly available). The paper highlights the NEWMDB's role in relation to the routine reporting of status and trends in radioactive waste management, in assessing the development and implementation of national systems for radioactive waste management, in support of a newly developed indicator of sustainable development for radioactive waste management, in support of reporting requirements for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, in support of IAEA activities related to the harmonization of waste management information at the national and international levels and in relation to the management of spent/disused sealed radioactive sources. (author)

  17. An interim report of the Subcommittee on Radioactive Waste Countermeasures: measures for radioactive waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Subcommittee on Radioactive Waste Countermeasures has studied on the measures for land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and ultra-low-level radioactive wastes and the measures for treatment and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and transuranium wastes. The results of studies so far are presented as an interim report. In disposal of low-level radioactive wastes, the land disposal is being required increasingly. The measures according to the levels of radioactivity are necessary. For the ultra-low-level radioactive wastes, their occurrence in large quantities is expected along with reactor decommissioning. In disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes, the present status is a transition toward the practical stages. Transuranium wastes should increase in their arising in the future. (Mori, K.)

  18. Management of radioactive waste in FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.

    1998-01-01

    In the last forty years, in FR Yugoslavia, as a result of the two research reactors operation and as a result of the radionuclides application in the medicine, industry and agriculture, radioactive waste materials of different levels of specific activity was generated. As a temporary solution, these radioactive waste materials are stored in the two interim storage facilities. Since the one of the storages is completely filled with the radioactive waste materials that are packed in the metal drums and plastic barrels, and the second one has a effective space for radioactive waste materials storing for the approximately next few years, attempts are made in the 'Vinca' institute of nuclear sciences in developing the immobilization process for the low and intermediate level radioactive waste materials and their safe disposal into the appropriate disposal system, that was adopted for such materials. Research work on optimization of the chosen techniques in treatment, conditioning, immobilization and storing the radioactive waste materials is in progress. Investigations are carrying out on materials that are adopted as components of the engineer trench system, in aim to improve their physical-chemical properties, mainly retention the radionuclides release from the disposal facility to environment, as well as their mechanical characteristics. Parallel with the optimization of the composition of the materials that will create the engineer trench system, optimization of the processes and matrix-radioactive waste mixture forms is in progress, and we hope that this work will influence the design of the future Yugoslav storage center, shallow land burial type, for low and intermediate level radioactive waste materials

  19. Radioactive waste management in European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vico, E.

    2002-01-01

    Although the Euratom Treaty does not assign direct authorities to the European Union in the Field of radioactive waste, the Commission has developed a series of activities related to this type of waste. The article deals with these Community initiatives, and the problems of radioactive waste management in the different Member States, and future plans in the field in the light of forthcoming European Union enlargement in 2004. (Author)

  20. Activation analyses updating the ITER radioactive waste assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampin, R.; Zheng, S.; Lilley, S.; Na, B.C.; Loughlin, M.J.; Taylor, N.P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Comprehensive updated of ITER radwaste assessment. ► Latest coupled neutronics and activation methods. ► Type A waste at shutdown decays to TFA within 100 years. ► Most type B waste at shutdown is still type B after 100 years. - Abstract: A study is reported which computes the radiation transport and activation response throughout the ITER machine and updates the ITER radioactive waste assessment using modern 3D models and up-to-date methods. The latest information on component design, maintenance, replacement schedules and materials is adopted. The radwaste classification is revised for all the major components of ITER, as well as several representative port plugs. Results include categorisation snapshots at different decay times, time histories of radiological quantities throughout the machine, and guidelines on interim decay times for components. All plasma-facing materials except tungsten are found to classify as type B due to the transmutation of their main constituents. Major contributors to the IRAS index of all materials are reported. Elemental concentration limits for type A classification of first wall and divertor materials are obtained; for the steels, only a reduction in service lifetime can reduce the waste class. Comparison of total waste amounts with earlier assessments is limited by the fact that analyses of some components are still preliminary; the trend, however, indicates a potential reduction in the total amount of waste if component segregation is demonstrated.

  1. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S.; Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature

  2. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  3. Non-fuel cycle radioactive waste policy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmir, A.I.; Uslu, I.

    2001-01-01

    2000. By categorizing the disposal of 'solid', 'liquid' and 'gaseous' waste, an efficient management system is achieved. Solid radioactive waste consists mainly of protective clothing, plastic sheets and bags, gloves, masks, organs and tissues, animal carcasses, filters, overshoes, paper wipes, towels, metal and glass, hand tools, discarded radiopharmaceuticals containers and discarded equipment. It generally contains a relatively low level of radioactivity when compared to liquid wastes. Special consideration should always be given to the management of contaminated sharp objects, such as needles and syringes, scalpel blades, blood lancets, glass ampoules, etc. Short-lived solid radioactive wastes are stored in the waste storage rooms of the facilities until their activities reduce to an acceptable level to be released to the municipal waste disposal area. The liquid waste can be discharged to sewage system when its activity concentration come down to permissible discharge level which is based on IAEA S S-70. The liquid waste from iodine therapy patients is mostly collected and stored in storage tanks. If the treated patient number is low the waste should be collected separately in shielded drums and stored in waste storage rooms of the facilities until its activity concentration level decreases to an acceptable level. b) Management of Sealed Sources. Sealed radiation sources are widely used in industry, medicine and research in Turkey. Sealed sources have a life cycle, which begins with manufacture and culminates in disposal. Each source life cycle comprises a number of potential stages. A source life cycle can involve individuals in the following key organisations: regulator, manufacturer, Original Equipment Manufacturer, distributor, user (one or subsequent users), waste management organisation, and operator of storage or disposal facility. The large number of organisations potentially involved and their interactions mean that life cycles tend to be complex and can

  4. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)

  5. Radioactive waste (disposal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, P.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)

  6. National facilities for the management of institutional radioactive waste in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotarescu, Gh.; Turcanu, C.N.; Dragolici, F.; Nicu, M.; Lungu, L.; Cazan, L.; Matei, G.; Guran, V.

    2000-01-01

    The management of the non-fuel cycle radioactive wastes from all over Romania is centralized at IFIN-HH in the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR). Final disposal is carried out at the National Repository of Radioactive Wastes (DNDR) at Baita Bihor. Radioactive waste treated at STDR arise from three main sources: 1. Wastes arising from the WWR-S research reactor during operation and the future decommissioning works; 2. Local waste from other facilities operating on IFIN-HH site. These sources include wastes generated during the normal activities of the STDR; 3. Wastes from IFIN-HH off site facilities and activities including medical, biological, and industrial applications all over the country. The Radiochemical Production Center, operating within IFIN-HH is the most important source of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid), as the operational wastes arising from processing at STDR are. The STDR basically consists of liquid and solid waste treatment and conditioning facilities, a radioactive decontamination centre, a laundry and an intermediate storage area. The processing system of the STDR are located at six principal areas performing the following activities: 1. Liquid effluent treatment; 2. Burning of combustible solid stuff; 3. Compaction of solid non-combustible stuff; 4. Cement conditioning; 5. Radioactive decontamination; 6. Laundry. The annual designed treatment capacity of the plant is 1500 m 3 Low Level Aqueous Waste, 100 m 3 Low Level Solid Waste and shielded drums for Intermediate Level Waste. The temporary storage within and final disposal of waste in the frame of DNDR are explained as well as the up-dating of institutional radioactive waste infrastructure

  7. Process for treatment of detergent-containing radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, K.; Chino, K.; Funabashi, K.; Horiuchi, S.; Motojima, K.

    1984-01-01

    A detergent-containing radioactive liquid waste originating from atomic power plants is concentrated to have about 10 wt. % detergent concentration, then dried in a thin film evaporator, and converted into powder. Powdered activated carbon is added to the radioactive waste in advance to prevent the liquid waste from foaming in the evaporator by the action of surface active agents contained in the detergent. The activated carbon is added in accordance with the COD concentration of the radioactive liquid waste to be treated, and usually at a concentration 2-4 times as large as the COD concentration of the liquid waste to be treated. A powdery product having a moisture content of not more than 15 wt. % is obtained from the evaporator, and pelletized and then packed into drums to be stored for a predetermined period

  8. Education and training in radioactive waste topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon Cabrera, S.; Marco Arboli, M.

    2003-01-01

    Tecnologically developed countries rely on nuclear fission as an important source for the production of electrical power. some of th epower plants in current generation will continue to be operated for at least 20 years, and there exist plans for the future. As a consequence, these countries take part in R and D projects oriented towards progress to be made in the management of radioactive waste, and particularly in the industrial implementation of technical solutions for the management of long-lived waste. The great experience of CIEMAT in this field has made it possible that different standard and re-creation training actions were carried out in the last years. At national level, these actions have covered both the question of reducing the impact of radioactive waste and the problem of its management. In the first subject, actions have been focused to the following aspects: Characterization of radioactive waste, where the present-day knowledge on efficient technologies of physicochemical and radiological characterization of low and medium activity waste are provided. Partitioning and Transmutation, where the development of new technologies like the Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and the climination by transmutation, that reduce the hazards associated with waste of high activity are shown. Decommissioning of nuclear ficilities, development of techniques which will allow to mange these wastes with minimum radioactive waste generation, using new techniques for the decontamination and cutting of contaminated materials that have to be immobilized. On the second subject Management of Radioactive Wastes, a doctorate course organised in collaboration with the Polytechnic University of Madrid, and sponsored by ENRESA. At the international level, CIEMAT usually takes part in training activities of the technical assistance programmes of the International Atomic Energy agency (IAEA). In particular, actions related to Safety assessment methodologies for near surface

  9. First days of R and D in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The first meeting of R and D in radioactive waste management was organized by ENRESA on 21,22,23 April 1993. The main objective was to disseminate the most relevant works within the 2nd R and D plan, and to establish and adequate form involved for discussion R and D radioactive waste management. (Author) The meeting was articulated in 50 sessions: I.- Low and medium radioactive wastes II.- High level radioactive wastes: activities of ENRESA III.- High level radioactive wastes: near field. IV.- Biosphere, radiological protection, behaviour evaluation V.- Dismantling and decommissioning nuclear facilities VI.- Geosphere

  10. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, D.H.; Heacock, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a process for treating radioactive waste whereby a mud of radioactive waste and cementing material is formed in a mixer. This mud is then transferred from the mixer to a storage and transport container where it is allowed to harden. To improve transport efficiency an alkali silicate or an alkaline-earth metal silicate is added to the mud. For one hundred parts by weight of radioactive waste in the mud, twenty to one hundred parts by weight of cementing material are added and five to fifty parts by weight of silicate, the amount of waste in the mud exceeding the combined amount of cementing and silicate material [fr

  11. This is how we manage Sweden's radioactive waste. Activities 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    SKB operates systems and facilities for the management and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste in Sweden. SKB has conducted extensive R, D and D work with regard to constructing a spent fuel encapsulation plant and a deep repository in crystalline bedrock. This annual report treats all the different activities without going into technical details

  12. Disposal and environmental assessment of solid waste and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2000-01-01

    Along with the development of economic construction, the industrial and agricultural production, military and scientific activities of human being, large amounts of solid and radioactive wastes have been produced, causing serious pollution of ecologic environments and living space of human being itself. To assess and administer the solid and radioactive wastes in geologic-ecologic environments are duty-bound responsibilities of modern geologists and the focus of recent geo-ecologic work

  13. Low-level radioactive waste management: federal-state cooperation or confusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the legislative history of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and discusses major issues and problems resulting from the implementation of the Act. Five specific issues addressed in this paper are: what radioactive waste constitutes ''low-level radioactive waste'' within the meaning of the Act; what responsibilities, if any, do the states have to dispose of federal radioactive waste; what liabilities and protections govern the disposal of waste not generated in a disposal-site state (hereafter, the ''host state''); to what standards of care should generators of low-level radioactive waste be held, and by what authority should such generators be licensed and inspected; which disposal-site activities should be considered ''disposal,'' and which activities should be considered ''management,'' within the meaning of the Act, and what authority do the states have, under the Act, to engage in each activity, respectively. The federal government and state governments must solve these problems in order to implement the Act, and thus, to establish equity among the 50 states, and the interstate regional compacts

  14. Desactivation of liquid radioactive wastes of low and medium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golinski, M.; Charomska, K.

    1978-01-01

    The results of research made according to the prodranm of scientific and technical cooperation of the CMEA countries are discussed. The main direction of these research works is on future improvement of installations for purification of liquid radioactive wastes by chemical methods of coprecipitation and coagulation, ion exchange, sorption, distillation and electrolysis. It was shown that methods of coprecipitation and coagulation have low efficiency and the activity reduction factor seldom was more than 10. In sorption processes different sorbents, both organic and nonorganic were used. The modified bentonite used as a sorbent agent has shown high selectivity towards zesium ions. Waste concentration by means of distillation is an universal but rather expensive method and is applied mainly in the cases of high salts concentration and high specific activity of liquid wastes. Electrolysis, as a method of the liquid wastes purification is used in the USSR and has high efficiency with low energy consumption. (I.T.) [ru

  15. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.

    1976-12-01

    The following conclusions are reached: (1) safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; (2) basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; (3) the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and (4) the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged

  16. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, F.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is given of the report of an Expert Group appointed in 1976 to consider the 1959 White Paper 'The Control of Radioactive Wastes' in the light of the changes that have taken place since it was written and with the extended remit of examining 'waste management' rather than the original 'waste disposal'. The Group undertook to; review the categories and quantities present and future of radioactive wastes, recommend the principles for the proper management of these wastes, advise whether any changes in practice or statutory controls are necessary and make recommendations. (UK)

  17. The treatment of radioactive waste in Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyuk, R.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The main purpose of radioactive waste treatment is security of humanity and environment for future. The formation of radioactive waste in Institute of Nuclear Physics connects with scientific and research works on reactor and cyclotron. There are works in the field of radiochemistry, activation analysis, research of material. It is connected with some different materials used in practical work: mountain rock, food-stuffs, biological materials and other. The Institute of Nuclear Physics has enterprise, making radioactive isotopes. In consequence of this work radioactive wastes form. Average annual volume of liquid radioactive waste is 2000 m 3 in year. During normal work of nuclear reactor and enterprise of radioactive isotope small part of radionuclides with gaseous waste gets in environment. The content of inert gas does not exceed 2% of permissible level . Value of radionuclides fall out in area from 0.5 Km to 10 Km does not differ global fall out and changes from 1.1.10 6 Bq/km 2 to 1.6.10 7 Bq/km 2 month (permissible doze - 5.6.10 8 Bq/km 2 .month). The solid radioactive waste of medium and low activity are burying on Republic point of radioactive waste storage. Annual volume of solid radioactive waste is 60 m 3 in year and total radioactivity is 10 11 Bk. The solid radioactive waste of high activity are going to of Chelyabinsk. The liquid radioactive waste belong to second and third group of radioactive waste (classification of IAEA). The decontamination of liquid radioactive waste are made on the station of liquid radioactive waste treatment by method of sedimentation and distillation. The productivity of this plant is 15m 3 in day. Before treatment liquid radioactive waste is analyzed to determine chemical and radiochemical composition. It is solution with content of salt from 0.8 g/l to 15 g/l, salt Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ - 20 mg-eqv/l, oxygen - 100 mg O 2 /l , activity from 10 2 Bq/l to 10 4 Bq/l. The radionuclides composition of liquid radioactive

  18. Safety of radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, P.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive waste produced in France vary considerably by their activity level, their half lives, their volume or even their nature. In order to manage them safely, the treatment and final disposal solution must be adapted to the type of waste considered by setting up specific waste management channels. A strong principle in France is that it is the responsibility of the nuclear operators as waste producers to dispose of their waste or have them disposed of in a suitable manner. The competent authorities regulate and control the radioactive waste management activities. At present, only short-lived low and intermediate level waste have a definitive solution, the surface repository, where adequate waste packages are disposed of in concrete structures. Other types of radioactive waste are in interim storage facilities at the production sites. For very low level waste coming mainly from dismantling of nuclear facilities a dedicated repository is planned to be built in the coming years. Dedicated repositories are also planned for radiferous, tritiated and graphite waste. As for high level waste and long-lived waste coming mainly from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel the disposal options are being sought along the lines specified by law 91-1381 concerning research on radioactive waste management, passed on December 30, 1991: research of solutions to partition and transmute long-lived radionuclides in the waste; studies of retrievable and non retrievable disposal in deep geological layers with the help of underground laboratories; studies of processes for conditioning and long term surface storage of these waste. In 2006, the French Parliament will assess the results of the research conducted by ANDRA relative to deep geological disposal as well as the work conducted by CEA in the two other areas of research and, if this research is conclusive, pass a law defining the final disposal option. (author)

  19. The radioactive waste management programme in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, Alvaro R.; Vico, Elena

    2002-01-01

    In 1984 the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos (ENRESA) was set up in order to be responsible for all radioactive waste management activities in the country. ENRESA is a state-owned company, the shareholders of which are CIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, formerly (JEN) and SEPI (Sociedad Estatal de Participaciones Industriales), both institutions dependent on the Spanish Government. ENRESA has a broad scope of responsibilities, including not only the management of L/ILW, HLW and spent fuel but also the decommissioning of nuclear installations, as well as the rehabilitation of uranium mining and milling facilities when required. The policy on radioactive waste management is defined by the Government, and the strategies are developed by ENRESA in accordance with the General Radioactive Waste Management Plan. This Plan is a strategic document which must be submitted yearly by ENRESA to the Government, for its approval when the Ministry of Economy decided so. The plan, in general terms, contains the main aspects related to waste generation and forecasts, as well as the strategies and technical solutions to be prepared, along with the associated economic and financial aspects. ENRESA's activities are financed by the waste producers. On the one hand the nucleoelectric sector pays a percentage fee on all the electricity sales, while small producers pay tariffs according to the services provided, both are approved by the Government. The Fifth General Radioactive Waste Plan, approved by the Government in July 1999, is currently in force and contains the strategies for the management of radioactive wastes and decommissioning of nuclear installations in Spain. (author)

  20. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  1. Management of radioactive waste: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Paulo Sant'ana; Taynara Cristina Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from co...

  2. Method of storing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshio; Hiratake, Susumu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the radiation doses externally irradiated from treated radioactive waste and also reduce the separation of radioactive nuclide due to external environmental factors such as air, water or the like. Method: Radioactive waste adhered with radioactive nuclide to solid material is molten to mix and submerge the radioactive nuclide adhered to the surface of the solid material into molten material. Then, the radioactive nuclide thus mixed is solidified to store the waste in solidified state. (Aizawa, K.)

  3. Radioactive waste management of the nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine services, for diagnosis and therapy, generate radioactive wastes. The general characteristics and the amount of wastes that are generated in each facility are function of the number of patients treated, the procedures adopted, and the radioisotopes used. The management of these wastes embraces every technical and administrative activity necessary to handle the wastes, from the moment of their generation, till their final disposal, must be planned before the nuclear medicine facility is commissioned, and aims at assuring people safety and environmental protection. The regulatory framework was established in 1985, when the National Commission on Nuclear Energy issued the regulation CNEN-NE-6.05 'Radioactive waste management in radioactive facilities'. Although the objective of that regulation was to set up the rules for the operation of a radioactive waste management system, many requirements were broadly or vaguely defined making it difficult to ascertain compliance in specific facilities. The objective of the present dissertation is to describe the radioactive waste management system in a nuclear medicine facility and provide guidance on how to comply with regulatory requirements. (author)

  4. Radioactive waste in Federal Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is responsible for the long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste according to the Federal Atomic Energy Act. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since 1985, the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for 1986 and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year 2000. The result of this forecast is presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste. Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Method for calcining radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorklund, W.J.; McElroy, J.L.; Mendel, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the preparation of radioactive wastes in a low leachability form involves calcining the radioactive waste on a fluidized bed of glass frit, removing the calcined waste to melter to form a homogeneous melt of the glass and the calcined waste, and then solidifying the melt to encapsulate the radioactive calcine in a glass matrix

  6. Participation of the ININ in the activities of radioactive waste management of the Laguna Verde Central

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano L, M.; Rodriguez C, C.; Linares R, D.; Ramirez G, R.; Zarate M, N.

    2006-01-01

    From the beginning of the operation of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV) the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) has come supporting the CLV in the activities of administration of the humid and dry radioactive waste generated by the operation of the two units of the CLV, from the elaboration of procedures to the temporary storage in site, the implementation of a program of minimization and segregation of dry solid wastes, until the classification of the lots of humid waste and bulk dry wastes. In this work the description of the management activities of radioactive wastes carried out by the ININ in the facilities of the CLV to the date is presented, as well as some actions that they are had drifted in the future near, among those that it stands out the determination of the total alpha activity in humid samples by means of scintillation analysis. (Author)

  7. Radioactive waste management policy for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.; Simionov, V.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear power is part of energy future as a clean and environmental friendly source of energy. For the case of nuclear power, two specific aspects come more often in front of public attention: how much does it cost and what happens with radioactive waste. The competitiveness of nuclear power vs other sources of energy is already proved in many developed and developing countries. As concerns the radioactive wastes treatment and disposal, industrial technologies are available. Even final solutions for disposal of high level radioactive waste, including spent fuel, are now fully developed and ready for large scale implementation. Policies and waste management strategies are established by all countries having nuclear programs. Once, the first nuclear power reactor was commissioned in Romania, and based on the national legal provisions, our company prepared the first issue of a general strategy for radioactive waste management. The general objective of the strategy is to dispose the waste according to adequate safety standards protecting the man and the environment, without undue burden on future generations. Two target objectives were established for long term: an interim spent fuel dry storage facility and a low and intermediate level waste repository. A solution for spent fuel disposal will be implemented in the next decade, based on international experience. Principles for radioactive waste management, recommended by IAEA are closely followed in the activities of our company. The continuity of responsibilities is considered to be very important. The radioactive waste management cost will be supported by the company. A tax on unit price of electricity will be applied. The implementation of radioactive waste management strategy includes as a major component the public information. A special attention will be paid by the company to an information program addressed to different categories of public in order to have a better acceptance of our nuclear power projects

  8. Ocean disposal of radioactive waste: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    For hundreds of years, the seas have been used as a place to dispose of wastes resulting from human activities and although no high level radioactive waste (HLW) has been disposed of into the sea, variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive waste (LLW) have been dumped at more than 50 sites in the northern part of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. So far, samples of sea water, sediments and deep sea organisms collected on the various sites have not shown any excess in the levels of radionuclides above those due to nuclear weapons fallout except on certain occasions where caesium and plutonium were detected at higher levels in samples taken close to packages at the dumping site. Since 1957, the date of its first meeting to design methodologies to assess the safety of ''radioactive waste disposal into the sea'', the IAEA has provided guidance and recommendations for ensuring that disposal of radioactive wastes into the sea will not result in unacceptable hazards to human health and marine organisms, damage to amenities or interference with other legitimate uses of the sea. Since the Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (referred to as the London Dumping Convention) came into force in 1975, the dumping of waste has been regulated on a global scale. The London Dumping Convention entrusted IAEA with specific responsibilities for the definition of high level radioactive wastes unsuitable for dumping at sea, and for making recommendations to national authorities for issuing special permits for ocean dumping of low level radioactive wastes. This paper presents a status report of immersion operations of low-level radioactive waste and the current studies the IAEA is undertaking on behalf of the LDC

  9. Evolution in radioactive waste countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, Yasutaka

    1984-01-01

    The establishment of radioactive waste management measures is important to proceed further with nuclear power development. While the storage facility projects by utilities are in progress, large quantity of low level wastes are expected to arise in the future due to the decommissioning of nuclear reactors, etc. An interim report made by the committee on radioactive waste countermeasures to the Atomic Energy Commission is described as follows: the land disposal measures of ultra-low level and low level radioactive wastes, that is, the concept of level partitioning, waste management, the possible practice of handling wastes, etc.; the treatment and disposal measures of high level radioactive wastes and transuranium wastes, including task sharing among respective research institutions, the solidification/storage and the geological formation disposal of high level wastes, etc. (Mori, K.)

  10. Development of joint regulatory guidance on the management of higher activity radioactive wastes on nuclear licensed sites - 16095

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, Mick; Ilett, Doug; Whittall, Andy

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 the UK Government's response (1) to recommendations by its Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM) established, in England and Wales, that geological disposal, supported by safe and secure interim storage, is the preferred route for the long-term management of higher-activity radioactive waste (i.e. that which is not suitable for near-surface disposal). It also gave the responsibility for delivering the programme for a deep geological repository to the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The Scottish Government has a policy of long term, near site, near surface safe and secure interim storage. To support the open and transparent approach promised by Government, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), the Environment Agency and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) are developing joint guidance on the management of higher-activity radioactive waste to explain regulatory objectives in securing safe and secure interim storage and the associated management of radioactive wastes. The guidance comes in two parts: - Guidance on the regulatory process; - Technical guidance modules. The guidance promotes a cradle to grave approach to radioactive waste management and by aligning the regulatory interests of environmental and safety regulators it delivers one of the Government's 'Better Regulation' objectives. This paper describes the process by which the joint guidance was produced with particular emphasis on stakeholder engagement. It describes the key features of the guidance, including the concept of the radioactive waste management case (RWMC). Finally the problems encountered with dissemination and implementation are discussed together with measures taken by the regulators to improve these aspects. (1) : UK Government and the devolved administrations, 'Response to the Report and Recommendations from the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM)', (PB 12303) October 2006. www.defra.gov.uk/environment/radioactivity/waste

  11. Study on rich alumina alkali-activated slag clay minerals cementitious materials for immobilization of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuxiang; Qian Guangren; Yi Facheng; Shi Rongming; Fu Yibei; Li Lihua; Zhang Jun

    1999-01-01

    The composition and some properties of its pastes of rich alumina alkali-activated slag clay minerals (RAAASCM) cementitious materials for immobilization of radioactive waste are studied. Experimental results show that heat activated kaolinite, Xingjiang zeolite, modified attapulgite clay are better constituents of RAAASCM. RAAASCM cementitious materials pastes exhibit high strength, low porosity, fewer harmful pore, and high resistance to sulphate corrosion as well as gamma irradiation. The Sr 2+ , Cs + leaching portion of the simulated radioactive waste forms based on RAAASCM, is low

  12. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards

  13. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Third edition of the ANDRA's national inventory report on radioactive wastes that are present on the French territory (as recorded until december, 2007). After a brief historical review of the national inventory and the way it is constructed, the report gives the basics on radioactive wastes, their classification, origins and management processes, followed by a general presentation and discussion of the inventory results (radioactive wastes and materials). Results are then detailed for the different activity sectors using radioactive materials (nuclear industry, medical domain, scientific research, conventional industry, Defense...). Information is also given concerning radioactive polluted areas (characterization and site management) and radioactive waste inventories in various foreign countries

  14. Andra - Everything you ever wanted to know about radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-08-01

    Andra is a publicly owned industrial and commercial body, set up by the French act of 30 December 1991. Its role was expanded by the 2006 Planning Act on the long-term management of radioactive materials and waste. Andra is independent of the producers of radioactive waste, and is under the supervision of the ministries responsible for energy, research and the environment. Andra is responsible for identifying, implementing and guaranteeing safe management solutions for all French radioactive waste, in order to protect present and future generations from the risks inherent in such substances. Andra's role involves a number of activities: running the two existing above-ground disposal facilities in the Aube, the first one for low- and intermediate- level, short-lived waste (LILW-SL) and the other one for very-low-level waste (VLLW), the Cires facility; monitoring the Manche disposal facility, the CSM, France's first above-ground disposal facility for low- and intermediate-level waste, which is now closed; studying and designing disposal facilities for waste as yet without a special facility, that is: Low-level, long-lived waste (LLW-LL), High-level and intermediate-level long-lived waste (HLW, ILW-LL) - the Cigeo project; taking in radioactive waste from hospitals, research laboratories, universities and radioactive objects owned by private individuals (old luminous clocks and watches, health care equipment containing radium, natural laboratory salts, certain minerals, etc.); at the request of the owner or the authorities, cleaning up sites polluted by radioactivity; surveying and listing French radioactive waste and issuing the National Inventory of Radioactive Materials and Waste every three years; informing all members of the public by means of documents, exhibitions, visits to its facilities, etc.; preserving the memory of its centers; promoting and disseminating its know-how outside France. Contents: 1 - Andra, its role, its activities, its funding; 2

  15. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  16. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L.

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R ampersand D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R ampersand D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action

  17. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? 2006 geographic inventory of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document presents, by region, the localization of existing radioactive wastes in France at the date of December 31, 2004. In addition to the geographic situation, this inventory is presented by site and by category of waste producer or owner. The collection of these data is based on the free declaration made by waste owners or producers. The gathered information has been reformatted and homogenized and is reported in a synthetic way in the form of tables and files. Thus, 899 sites have been indexed, among which 159 are presented in the form of a detailed file. For each region, a table details the registered sites by category of producer/owner and the location of the main ones is reported on a regional map. The registered waste producers are radionuclide users belonging to 4 specific domains: medical, research, industry and national defense. The corresponding wastes are in general modest both in quantity and activity. The sites polluted by radioactive substances are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated or not. (J.S.)

  19. System for disposing of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.A.; Hansen, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for disposing of radioactive waste material from nuclear reactors by solidifying the liquid components to produce an encapsulated mass adapted for disposal by burial. The method contemplates mixing of radioactive waste materials, with or without contained solids, with a setting agent capable of solidifying the waste liquids into a free standing hardened mass, placing the resulting liquid mixture in a container with a proportionate amount of a curing agent to effect solidification under controlled conditions, and thereafter burying the container and contained solidified mixture. The setting agent is a water-extendable polymer consisting of a suspension of partially polymerized particles of urea formaldehyde in water, and the curing agent is sodium bisulfate. Methods are disclosed for dewatering slurry-like mixtures of liquid and particulate radioactive waste materials, such as spent ion exchange resin beads, and for effecting desired distribution of non-liquid radioactive materials in the central area of the container prior to solidification, so that the surrounding mass of lower specific radioactivity acts as a partial shield against higher radioactivity of the non-liquid radioactive materials. The methods also provide for addition of non-radioactive filler materials to dilute the mixture and lower the overall radioactivity of the hardened mixture to desired Lowest Specific Activity counts. An inhibiting agent is added to the liquid mixture to adjust the solidification time, and provision is made for adding additional amounts of setting agent and curing agent to take up any free water and further encapsulate the hardened material within the container. 30 claims

  20. System for disposing of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.A.; Hansen, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    A system is described for disposing of radioactive waste material from nuclear reactors by solidifying the liquid components to produce an encapsulated mass adapted for disposal by burial. The method contemplates mixing of radioactive waste materials, with or without contained solids, with a setting agent capable of solidifying the waste liquids into a free standing hardened mass, placing the resulting liquid mixture in a container with a proportionate amount of a curing agent to effect solidification under controlled conditions, and thereafter burying the container and contained solidified mixture. The setting agent is a water-extendable polymer consisting of a suspension of partially polymerized particles of urea formaldehyde in water, and the curing agent is sodium bisulfate. Methods are disclosed for dewatering slurry-like mixtures of liquid and particulate radioactive waste materials, such as spent ion exchange resin beads, and for effecting desired distribution of non-liquid radioactive materials in the central area of the container prior to solidification, so that the surrounding mass of lower specific radioactivity acts as a partial shield against higher radioactivity of the non-liquid radioactive materials. The methods also provide for addition of non-radioactive filler materials to dilute the mixture and lower the overall radioactivity of the hardened mixture to desired Lowest Specific Activity counts. An inhibiting agent is added to the liquid mixture to adjust the solidification time, and provision is made for adding additional amounts of setting agent and curing agent to take up any free water and further encapsulate the hardened material within the container

  1. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming As A Supplementary Treatment For Hanford's Low Activity Waste And Secondary Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides

  2. Handling of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza Mir, Azucena

    1998-01-01

    Based on characteristics and quantities of different types of radioactive waste produced in the country, achievements in infrastructure and the way to solve problems related with radioactive waste handling and management, are presented in this paper. Objectives of maintaining facilities and capacities for controlling, processing and storing radioactive waste in a conditioned form, are attained, within a great range of legal framework, so defined to contribute with safety to people and environment (au)

  3. Educational support programs: Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) currently sponsors two educationally related programs: the Radioactive Waste Management Fellowship Program and the Radioactive Waste Management Research Program for Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU). The graduate fellowship program was implemented in 1985 to meet the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) expected manpower needs for trained scientists and engineers to assist in carrying out the activities of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. It is recognized that a shortage of master's and doctoral level scientists and engineers in disciplines supportive of the nation's high-level radioactive waste management (RWM) program may impede the DOE's ability to properly carry out its mission under the act. The fellowship program encourages talented undergraduate students to enter graduate programs designed to educate and train them in fields directly related to RWM. The program supports graduate students in various disciplines, including nuclear science and engineering, health physics, and certain area of geology and chemical engineering. It also encourages universities to support and improve research activities and academic programs related to the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

  4. Low-level waste (LLW) reclamation program for the Point Lepreau Solid Radioactive Waste Management Facility (SRWMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersereau, M.; McIntyre, K.

    2006-01-01

    Low level radioactive waste retrieved from intermediate storage vaults at Point Lepreau Generating Station has been sorted to remove the non-radioactive portion. The program began with trials to validate procedures and equipment, followed by a production run that is on-going. Waste boxes are opened and sorted at a ventilated sorting table. The sorted waste is directed to the station's free-release ('Likely Clean') waste stream or to the radioactive waste stream, depending on activity measurements. The radioactive waste content of the sorted materials has been reduced by 96% (by mass) using this process. (author)

  5. Low-level waste (LLW) reclamation program for the Point Lepreau Solid Radioactive Waste Management Facility (SRWMF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mersereau, M.; McIntyre, K. [Point Lepreau Generating Station, Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada)]. E-mail: MMersereau@nbpower.com; KMcIntyre@nbpower.com

    2006-07-01

    Low level radioactive waste retrieved from intermediate storage vaults at Point Lepreau Generating Station has been sorted to remove the non-radioactive portion. The program began with trials to validate procedures and equipment, followed by a production run that is on-going. Waste boxes are opened and sorted at a ventilated sorting table. The sorted waste is directed to the station's free-release ('Likely Clean') waste stream or to the radioactive waste stream, depending on activity measurements. The radioactive waste content of the sorted materials has been reduced by 96% (by mass) using this process. (author)

  6. The radioactive waste management policy and practice in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, M.

    1996-01-01

    In recent period, the new Czech Atomic Law is in the final stage of preparation, and the author expects that Parliament of the Czech Republic will approve it in the first half of the year 1996. Partly the law deals with new distribution of responsibilities among bodies involved in utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, the state and local authorities. The new provisions include also radioactive waste management activities. These provisions clarify the relations between radioactive waste generators and state, and define explicitly duties of waste generators. One of the most important duties is to cover all expenses for radioactive waste management now and in the future, including radioactive waste disposal and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The law establishes radioactive waste management and decommissioning funds and the new, on waste generators independent radioactive waste management organization, controlled by state, to ensure the safety of inhabitants and the environment, and a optimization of expenses. Parallel to the preparation of the law, the Ministry of Industry and Trade prepares drafts of a statute of the radioactive waste management organization and its control board, and of the methodology and rules of management the radioactive waste fund. First drafts of these documents are expected to be complete in January 1996. The paper will describe recent practice and policy of the radioactive waste management including uranium mining and milling tailings, amounts of waste and its activities, economical background, and safety. A special attention will be paid to description of expected changes in connection with the new Atomic Law and expected steps and time schedule of reorganization of the radioactive waste management structure in the Czech Republic

  7. Fusion reactor radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed

  8. radioactive waste disposal standards abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian; Zhang Xue

    2012-01-01

    With the world focus on human health and environmental protection, the problem of radioactive waste disposal has gradually become a global issue, and the focus of attention of public. The safety of radioactive waste disposal, is not only related to human health and environmental safety, but also an important factor of affecting the sustainable development of nuclear energy. In recent years the formulation of the radioactive waste disposal standards has been generally paid attention to at home and abroad, and it has made great progress. In China, radioactive waste management standards are being improved, and there are many new standards need to be developed. The revised task of implement standards is very arduous, and there are many areas for improvement about methods and procedures of the preparation of standards. This paper studies the current situation of radioactive waste disposal standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, USA, France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and give some corresponding recommendations of our radioactive waste disposal standards. (authors)

  9. Disposal facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Toru.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To remove heat generated from radioactive wastes thereby prevent the working circumstances from being worsened in a disposal-facility for radioactive wastes. Constitution: The disposal-facility comprises a plurality of holes dug out into the ground inside a tunnel excavated for the storage of radioactive wastes. After placing radioactive wastes into the shafts, re-filling materials are directly filled with a purpose of reducing the dosage. Further, a plurality of heat pipes are inserted into the holes and embedded within the re-filling materials so as to gather heat from the radioactive wastes. The heat pipes are connected to a heat exchanger disposed within the tunnel. As a result, heating of the solidified radioactive wastes itself or the containing vessel to high temperature can be avoided, as well as thermal degradation of the re-filling materials and the worsening in the working circumstance within the tunnel can be overcome. (Moriyama, K.)

  10. Analysis through indicators of the management of radioactive waste in a radioactive facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador Balbona, Zayda; Argudin Bocourt, William

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of the management of radioactive waste in the center of isotopes of the Republic of Cuba is the objective of this work. To do so, all the operations of the management system are evaluated through indicators used by this radioactive facility over a decade ago. Available information is processed from 1996 until 2012. The major waste generators are identified through the indicator of annual generation of each working group by local and by worker and it were analyzed the available store radioactive inventory, the relationship between the variation of annual technological waste volume of waste and the annual total manipulated activity, the relationship generation-declassification and the percent of liquid effluents managed as waste. Indicators of unconditional clearance, as well as the of the gaseous and liquid discharges are presented. It is concluded, with all these indicators, that it is possible to determine where are the causes of the behavior in the generation of radioactive waste if it is an increase of manipulated activity int the places of work or of worker, or improper application of the procedures of collection. It is controlled not only management, but also determines in which aspects can work to achieve the objective of minimizing the formation of these wastes, to be able to reduce the production costs. National shedding environmental regulations are met and the results are acceptable)

  11. The Radioactive Waste Management Programme in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, A. R.; Vico, E.

    2000-01-01

    In 1984 the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos (ENRESA) was set up in order to be responsible for all radioactive waste management activities in the country. ENRESA is a state-owned company, the shareholders of which are CIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, formerly (JEN) and SEPI (Sociedad Estatal de Participaciones Industriales), both institutions dependent on the Ministry of Industry and Energy. ENRESA has a broad scope of responsibilities, including not only the management of L/ILW, HLW and spent fuel but also the decommissioning of nuclear installations, as well as the rehabilitation of uranium mining and milling facilities when required. The policy on radioactive waste management is defined by the Government, and the strategies are developed by ENRESA in accordance with the General Radioactive Waste Management Plan. This Plan is a strategic document which must be submitted yearly by ENRESA to the Government, for its approval when the Ministry of Industry and Energy decided so. The plan, in general terms, contains the main aspects related to waste generation and forecasts, as well as the strategies and technical solutions to be prepared, along with the associated economic and financial aspects. ENRESA's activities are financed by the waste producers. On the one hand the nucleoelectric sector pays a percentage fee on all the electricity sales, while small producers pay tariffs according to the services provided, both are approved by the Government. The fifth General Radioactive Waste Plan, approved by the Government in July 1999, is currently in force and contains the strategies for the management of radioactive wastes and decommissioning of nuclear installations in Spain. (author)

  12. Sampling and characterization of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zepeda R, C.; Monroy G, F.; Reyes A, T.; Lizcano, D.; Cruz C, A. C.

    2017-09-01

    To define the management of radioactive liquid wastes stored in 200 L drums, its isotope and physicochemical characterization is essential. An adequate sampling, that is, representative and homogeneous, is fundamental to obtain reliable analytical results, therefore, in this work, the use of a sampling mechanism that allows collecting homogenous aliquots, in a safe way and minimizing the generation of secondary waste is proposed. With this mechanism, 56 drums of radioactive liquid wastes were sampled, which were characterized by gamma spectrometry, liquid scintillation, and determined the following physicochemical properties: ph, conductivity, viscosity, density and chemical composition by gas chromatography. 67.86% of the radioactive liquid wastes contains H-3 and of these, 47.36% can be released unconditionally, since it presents activities lower than 100 Bq/g. 94% of the wastes are acidic and 48% have viscosities <50 MPa s. (Author)

  13. The IAEA's activities in the field of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    The IAEA has been concerned with radioactive waste management since its inception. Its programme in this area was expanded in the mid 1970s as questions related to the management and disposal of radioactive wastes came into focus in conjunction with the further industrial development of nuclear power. The objectives of the Agency's waste management programme are to assist its Member States in the safe and effective management of wastes by organizing the exchange and dissemination of information, providing guidance and technical assistance and supporting research. The current programme addresses all aspects of the industrial use of nuclear power under the aspects (a) technology of handling and treatment of wastes, (b) underground disposal of wastes, (c) environmental aspects of nuclear energy, including sea disposal of radioactive wastes. Systematic reviews have been made and publications issued concerning the technology of handling, treating, conditioning, and storing various categories of wastes, including liquid and gaseous wastes, wastes from nuclear power plants, spent fuel reprocessing and mining and milling of uranium ores, as well as wastes from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. As waste disposal is the current issue of highest interest, an Agency programme was set up in 1977 to develop a set of guidelines on the safe underground disposal of low-, intermediate- and high-level wastes in shallow ground, rock cavities or deep geological repositories. This programme will continue until 1990. Eleven Safety Series and Technical Documents and Reports have been published under this programme so far, which also addresses safety and other criteria for waste disposal. The environmental part of the waste management programme is concerned with the assessment of radiological and non-radiological consequences of discharges from nuclear facilities, including de minimis concepts in waste disposal and environmental models and data for radionuclide releases

  14. Electronic archive system for the management of historic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calin, M. R.; Garlea, C.; Petre, A. R.; Serbina, L.

    2005-01-01

    The development of nuclear activities in Magurele, Ilfov, during the last decades has led to the accumulation of an important quantity of radioactive waste. In addition to this, there is also a large number of former radioactive sources, now shut and removed from use, currently stored at IFIN-HH. This project deals with the discharge of historic waste storages belonging to the following nuclear units: - the WWR-S nuclear reactor - (the main reactor hall, the pump hall, the hot cells and annexes); - C.P.R. - used filters storage; - S.T.D.R. - storage for both historic radioactive waste and used filters; - shut sources in the storehouses in the 'Texas Bunker' building and annexes. For a modern management, including a proper system of quality insurance, an archiving system became needed. The electronic archive is based on several informational streams: the activity of storing historic radioactive waste; - the activity of locating historic radioactive waste; - the radiological descriptions of the storehouses and their influence areas; - the determination of the waste's composition. So as to reach these objectives, information regarding the following is necessary: the storehouse's inventory, the historic radioactive waste's characteristics and proprieties, the neighbors of this facility, the way in which the environment and the personnel involved in the operations are being influenced, the preparing of discharge operations, semblances. The data base conceived to tackle the problems of data related to nuclear waste management has been programmed in Microsoft Access (Microsoft Office). (authors)

  15. Methodology development for radioactive waste treatment of CDTN/BR - liquid low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Carlos Antonio de

    1996-01-01

    The radioactive liquid wastes generated in Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN) were initially treated by precipitation/filtration and then the resulting wet solid wastes were incorporated in cement. These wastes were composed of different chemicals and different radioactivities and were generated by different sectors. The objective of the waste treatment method was to obtain minimum wet solid waste volume and decontamination and minimum operational cost. The composition of the solid wastes were taken into consideration for compatible cementation process. Approximately 5,400 litres of liquid radioactive wastes were treated by this process during 1992-1995. The volume reduction was 1/24 th and contained 20% solids. (author)

  16. Report of safety of the characterizing system of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Jimenez D, J.; Reyes L, J.

    1998-09-01

    Report of safety of the system of radioactive waste of the ININ: Installation, participant personnel, selection of the place, description of the installation, equipment. Proposed activities: operations with radioactive material, calibration in energy, calibration in efficiency, types of waste. Maintenance: handling of radioactive waste, physical safety. Organization: radiological protection, armor-plating, personal dosemeter, risks and emergency plan, environmental impact, medical exams. (Author)

  17. LLNL radioactive waste management plan as per DOE Order 5820.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The following aspects of LLNL's radioactive waste management plan are discussed: program administration; description of waste generating processes; radioactive waste collection, treatment, and disposal; sanitary waste management; site 300 operations; schedules and major milestones for waste management activities; and environmental monitoring programs (sampling and analysis)

  18. Hospitalar radioactive waste of low activity, a daily practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezio, M.T.; Vieira, M.R. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil - CROL, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Introduction According to the law we should have a specific area for storing and treating waste. That area should have special containers for temporary storage in order to assure the radioactive decay for all the radioactive waste, biological contaminated or non biological and in solid or liquid form. According with that law the limits established for discharge are: For solid waste, we must not discharge more than 370 MBq in a minimum volume of 0,1 m{sup 3} and is not allowed waste with activities higher than 3,7 kBq; For liquid waste discharges from the department to the public sewer, the average concentrations calculated taking into account the water flow of the sewer system that serves the installation, should be the following:The annual medium concentration must not exceed 3 times the reference concentration (C.R.) for that nuclide; The monthly medium concentration must not exceed 15 times the reference concentration (C.R.); The daily medium concentration must not exceed 60 times the reference concentration (C.R.); The reference concentration (C.R.), expressed in Bq.m{sup -3}, should be calculated taking into account the relevant incorporation per ingestion. The calculation of C.R. in liquid waste should have into account the following: For the general public the effective dose E achieved, per ingestion by an individual in the group of age g is determined according to the following formula(1):E= {sigma}{sub i} h(g){sub j,ing} X J{sub j,ing}, where h(g){sub j,ing} is the committed effective dose per unit-intake for the ingested radionuclide j (Sv/Bq) by an individual in the group of age g; J{sub j,ing} is the relevant intake via ingestion of the radionuclide j (Bq). The effective dose E achieved by an individual in the group of age g should not be higher than 0,1 mSv/year. If the average water volume ingested by an individual adult is 800 l, the value J{sub j,ing}, calculated by the formula (1) should be referred to 1000 l, in order to obtain the C.R., for the

  19. Disposal approach for long-lived low and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak; Park, Joo Wan; Kim, Chang Lak

    2005-01-01

    There certainly exists the radioactive inventory that exceeds the waste acceptance criteria for final disposal of the low and intermediate-level radioactive waste. In this paper, current disposal status of the long-lived radioactive waste in several nations are summarized and the basic procedures for disposal approach are suggested. With this suggestion, intensive discussion and research activities can hopefully be launched to set down the possible resolutions to dispose of the long-lived radioactive waste

  20. Radioactive wastes assay technique and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. M.; Hong, D. S; Kim, T. K.; Bae, S. M.; Shon, J. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2004-12-01

    The waste inventory records such as the activities and radio- nuclides contained in the waste packages are to be submitted with the radioactive wastes packages for the final disposal. The nearly around 10,000 drums of waste stocked in KAERI now should be assayed for the preparation of the waste inventory records too. For the successive execution of the waste assay, the investigation into the present waste assay techniques and equipment are to be taken first. Also the installation of the waste assay equipment through the comprehensive design, manufacturing and procurement should be proceeded timely. As the characteristics of the KAERI-stocked wastes are very different from that of the nuclear power plant and those have no regular waste streams, the application of the in-direct waste assay method using the scaling factors are not effective for the KAERI-generated wastes. Considering for the versal conveniency including the accuracy over the wide range of waste forms and the combination of assay time and sensitivity, the TGS(Tomographic Gamma Scanner) is appropriate as for the KAERI -generated radioactive waste assay equipment

  1. Historically Black Colleges and Universities Radioactive Waste Management Research Program: Summary of activities, 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1985 to 1986 activities of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Radioactive Waste Management Research Program sponsored by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The first set of three awards was made in September,1984. In September, 1985, two of these projects were renewed and a new proposal was funded. The program has been enthusiastically received by the community of HBCUs and the program sponsor

  2. Radioactive wastes - inventories and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Hollmann, A.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is given of the origins, types, conditioning, inventories, and expected abundance of radioactive wastes in the future in the Federal Republic of Germany. The Federal Government's radioactive waste disposal scheme provides that radioactive wastes be buried in deep geological formations which are expected to ensure a maintenance-free, unlimited and safe disposal without intentional excavation of the wastes at a later date. (orig./BBR) [de

  3. International Conference on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Book of Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the conference was to highlight the importance of an integrated long term approach to the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. The objectives of the conference were: • To foster information exchange between Member States, • To provide inputs that will promote further harmonization of safety in the fields of predisposal management and disposal of radioactive waste, • To highlight progress made in the safety of all types of radioactive waste. The conference served as a forum for discussing past experiences and future challenges. Furthermore, it seeked to identify Member States’ needs in order to assist them — through specific activities under future IAEA programmes in this area — to develop and implement safe solutions for the management of their entire radioactive waste inventory. The conference addressed all aspects of predisposal management and disposal of radioactive waste and spent fuel, including waste arising from accidental situations. The management of radioactive waste and residues from mining activities, as well as the control of discharges from nuclear facilities and activities, were, however, outside of its scope.

  4. Significance of chemotoxic admixtures in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    The double hazard potential of mixed wastes is characterized by several criteria: radioactivity on the one hand, and chemical toxicity, in flammability, corrosiveness as well as chemical reactivity on the other. The author argues that mixed wastes assigned for ultimate disposal should therefore be thoroughly detoxified, inertized, or mineralized, prior to conditioning and packaging. Strategies and techniques are presented which ensure the elimination of hazardous organic chemicals and minimizing waste volumes to be disposed of. Advantage can be taken of mixing mineralized filter dusts, arising in the combustion of hazardous chemical wastes with low-activity inertized radioactive wastes as a solidifying reagent. Simultaneous geological disposal of such mixed waste is feasible without any drawbacks

  5. Technological and organizational aspects of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document comprises collected lecture on radioactive waste management which were given by specialists of the Radioactive Waste Management Section of the IAEA, scientific-industrial enterprise 'Radon' (Moscow, RF) and A.A. Bochvar's GNTs RF VNIINM (Moscow, RF) on various courses, seminars and conferences. These lectures include the following topics: basic principles and national systems of radioactive waste management; radioactive waste sources and their classification; collection, sorting and initial characterization of radioactive wastes; choice of technologies of radioactive waste processing and minimization of wastes; processing and immobilization of organic radioactive wastes; thermal technologies of radioactive waste processing; immobilization of radioactive wastes in cements, asphalts, glass and polymers; management of worked out closed radioactive sources; storage of radioactive wastes; deactivation methods; quality control and assurance in radioactive waste management

  6. Radioactive waste management in the VS military nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobal'chuk, O.V.; Kruglov, A.K.; Sokolova, I.D.; Smirnov, Yu.V.

    1989-01-01

    Organization and plans of radioactive waste management in the US military nuclear industry, determining transition from the policy of temporal waste storage to their final and safe disposal are presented. Programs of long-term management of high-level, transuranium and low-level wastes, the problems of the work financing and the structure of management activities related to the radioactive waste processing military nuclear industry enterprises are considered

  7. ANDRA - National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. Annual sustainable development and activity report 2011. Management report and financial statements 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Created in 1979 within the CEA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. Its 3 basic missions were extended and their funding secured through the 2006 Planning Act: - a R and D mission to propose safe long-term solution for radioactive waste without current disposal system; this mission includes long-term storage, since the 2006 Planning Act, in order to propose interim solutions while final ones are being studied; - an industrial mission concerning, on one hand, waste acceptance criteria and control and, on the other hand, siting, construction, operation, closure and monitoring of repositories. This mission includes as well a public service mission in terms of i) collection of waste of the 'small-scale nuclear activities' producers or owners (including the so-called 'household' radioactive waste, i.e. waste owned by private individuals) and ii) clean-up and rehabilitation of orphan polluted sites; - an information mission, notably through the regular publication of the National Inventory of radioactive materials and waste. This mission includes as well an active policy of dialogue with stakeholders both at national and local level. This document is the activity and Sustainable Development Report, with the management and financial statements report, of the Andra for the year 2011

  8. ANDRA - National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. Annual sustainable development and activity report 2012. Management report and financial statements 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Created in 1979 within the CEA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. Its 3 basic missions were extended and their funding secured through the 2006 Planning Act: - a R and D mission to propose safe long-term solution for radioactive waste without current disposal system; this mission includes long-term storage, since the 2006 Planning Act, in order to propose interim solutions while final ones are being studied; - an industrial mission concerning, on one hand, waste acceptance criteria and control and, on the other hand, siting, construction, operation, closure and monitoring of repositories. This mission includes as well a public service mission in terms of i) collection of waste of the 'small-scale nuclear activities' producers or owners (including the so-called 'household' radioactive waste, i.e. waste owned by private individuals) and ii) clean-up and rehabilitation of orphan polluted sites; - an information mission, notably through the regular publication of the National Inventory of radioactive materials and waste. This mission includes as well an active policy of dialogue with stakeholders both at national and local level. This document is the activity and Sustainable Development Report, with the management and financial statements report, of the Andra for the year 2012

  9. Ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The activities developed by the Federal Institution of Physical Engineering PTB and by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) concentrated, among others, on work to implement ultimate storage facilities for radioactive wastes. The book illuminates this development from site designation to the preliminary evaluation of the Gorleben salt dome, to the preparation of planning documents proving that the Konrad ore mine is suitable for a repository. The paper shows the legal provisions involved; research and development tasks; collection of radioactive wastes ready for ultimate disposal; safety analysis in the commissioning and post-operational stages, and product control. The historical development of waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany and international cooperation in this area are outlined. (DG) [de

  10. National inventory of radioactive wastes and valorizable materials. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This national inventory of radioactive wastes is a reference document for professionals and scientists of the nuclear domain and also for any citizen interested in the management of radioactive wastes. It contains: 1 - general introduction; 2 - the radioactive wastes: definition, classification, origin and management; 3 - methodology of the inventory: organization, accounting, prospective, production forecasting, recording of valorizable materials, exhaustiveness, verification tools; 4 - general results: radioactive waste stocks recorded until December 31, 2002, forecasts for the 2003-2020 era, post-2020 prospects: dismantling operations, recording of valorizable materials; 5 - inventory per producer or owner: front-end fuel cycle facilities, power generation nuclear centers, back-end fuel cycle facilities, waste processing or maintenance facilities, civil CEA research centers, non-CEA research centers, medical activities (diagnostics, therapeutics, analyses), various industrial activities (sources fabrication, control, particular devices), military research and experiment centers, storage and disposal facilities; 6 - elements about radioactive polluted sites; 7 - examples of foreign inventories; 8 - conclusion and appendixes. (J.S.)

  11. Radioactive waste management practices in India: achievements and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattal, P.K.; Basu, S.

    2013-01-01

    Safe and effective management of radioactive waste has been given utmost importance from the very inception of nuclear industry in India. This article gives an account of the basic principles, practices being followed in our country to achieve this objective. A brief description of the existing methods for management of diverse kinds of radioactive wastes including high level radioactive waste and also the research and development activities to address the future challenges is presented in the article. (author)

  12. Radioactive waste from non-power applications in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, Ann-Christin; Lindbom, Gunilla; Persson, Monica

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The system for handling of radioactive waste from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle in Sweden is well established and has been in use for many years. Radioactive waste from other sources is not always handled as rigorously. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, SSI has identified the issue and therefore initiated a study with the aim to achieve a sufficient system for handling and disposal of radioactive waste from all sources of radioactive waste. In this paper we discuss some of the sources of radioactive waste and the specific problems they represent. We give a brief description on how they are regulated and handled today and identify some interesting issues. Conventional industry, hospitals, research and education: In the conventional industry the use of different types of radioactive sources is common. The size and type of radioactive source depends on the application (from some megaBq up to thousands of terraBq). The radioactive waste from hospitals, research institutions and pharmaceutical or bio-technical industries consists mainly of very short-lived radionuclides. Also most sealed sources used in the medical field contains short-lived radionuclides. According to the Swedish Radiation Protection Act a licence is needed for the use of sealed sources exceeding 50 kiloBq. For hospitals and research institutes the SSI issues one license covering all radioactive sources below 500 megaBq up to a summary limit depending on the application. All sources with activity exceeding 500 megaBq require a separate license. SSI has issued about 2500 licences. For each licence an annual fee is paid to the SSI. When the radioactive source has fulfilled its purpose the licensee is obliged to inform the SSI that the source is no longer in use and show a certificate from the recognised waste facility. Not until this has been done the licensee is released from its responsibilities. SSI has issued regulations on Radioactive Waste Not Associated with Nuclear Energy. These

  13. Advantages of the segregation step for the radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; Mattos, Maria Fernanda S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the increasing use of radioactive materials in the research activities, the waste management is essential to guarantee personnel safety and the preservation of the environmental quality. It is possible to determine the date of discharge in the public sewage treatment system based on the estimated activity of the radioactive waste and on the solid waste discharge limit of 74 Bq/g as recommended by the radiation protection rules. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the advantages of the waste segregation by specific activity as a means of minimization of the stored waste. The residual specific activity and volume were estimated in the several steps of assays using 32 P and 3 H. The storage times were calculated and compared with the estimated time considering the residual activity as 2 % of the total activity used in the experiment. The segregation by steps of the assay allowed for the reduction of the waste volume and stored time. In the assays with 3 H only 20 % of the total waste generated was stored and in the assays with 32 P it was possible to discharge 90 % of the radioactive waste after 38 days. (author)

  14. General criteria for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.; Musgrave, B.C.; Watkins, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques are being developed for conversion of radioactive wastes to solids and their placement into repositories. Criteria for such disposal are needed to assure protection of the biosphere. The ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle should be applicable at all times during the disposal period. Radioactive wastes can be categorized into three classes, depending on the activity. Three approaches were developed for judging the adequacy of disposal concepts: acceptable risk, ore body comparison, and three-stage ore body comparison

  15. Research programme on radioactive wastes - Synthesis report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brander, S.

    2010-02-01

    This short synthesis report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) issued by the head of the programme on radioactive wastes reports on activities during the year 2009. Background information on the definition of topics to be focussed on is briefly presented. In particular, topics such as communication with the general public, knowledge-saving and marking concepts for radioactive wastes are noted. Work done in these areas as well as on waste management in general are discussed. Conferences held and the transfer of know-how are noted, as is cooperation with foreign organisations active in the area of nuclear research and waste management. Finally, work planned for 2010 is noted

  16. Artificial neural networks in the evaluation of the radioactive waste drums activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens, J.R.A.J.; Hiromoto, G.

    2006-01-01

    The mathematical techniques are becoming more important to solve geometry and standard identification problems. The gamma spectrometry of radioactive waste drums would be a complex solution problem. The main difficulty is the detectors calibration for this geometry; the waste is not homogeneously distributed inside the drums, therefore there are many possible combinations between the activity and the position of these radionuclides inside the drums, making the preparation of calibration standards impracticable. This work describes the development of a methodology to estimate the activity of a 200 L radioactive waste drum, as well as a mapping of the waste distribution, using Artificial Neural Network. The neural network data set entry obtaining was based on the possible detection efficiency combination with 10 sources activities varying from 0 to 74 x 10 3 Bq. The set up consists of a 200 L drum divided in 5 layers. Ten detectors were positioned all the way through a parallel line to the drum axis, from 15 cm of its surface. The Cesium -137 radionuclide source was used. The 50 efficiency obtained values (10 detectors and 5 layers), combined with the 10 source intensities resulted in a 100,000 lines for 15 columns matrix, with all the possible combinations of source intensity and the Cs-137 position in the 5 layers of the drum. This archive was divided in 2 parts to compose the set of training: input and target files. The MatLab 7.0 module of neural networks was used for training. The net architecture has 10 neurons in the input layer, 18 in the hidden layer and 5 in the output layer. The training algorithm was the 'traincgb' and after 300 'epoch s' the medium square error was 0.00108172. This methodology allows knowing the detection positions answers in a heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides inside a 200 L waste drum; in consequence it is possible to estimate the total activity of the drum in the training neural network limits. The results accuracy depends

  17. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis of toxic elements in radioactive waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J.-L. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Carasco, C., E-mail: cedric.carasco@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Perot, B. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Mauerhofer, E.; Kettler, J.; Havenith, A. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) are conducting an R and D program to improve the characterization of long-lived and medium activity (LL-MA) radioactive waste packages. In particular, the amount of toxic elements present in radioactive waste packages must be assessed before they can be accepted in repository facilities in order to avoid pollution of underground water reserves. To this aim, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA-Cadarache has started to study the performances of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for elements showing large capture cross sections such as mercury, cadmium, boron, and chromium. This paper reports a comparison between Monte Carlo calculations performed with the MCNPX computer code using the ENDF/B-VII.0 library and experimental gamma rays measured in the REGAIN PGNAA cell with small samples of nickel, lead, cadmium, arsenic, antimony, chromium, magnesium, zinc, boron, and lithium to verify the validity of a numerical model and gamma-ray production data. The measurement of a {approx}20 kg test sample of concrete containing toxic elements has also been performed, in collaboration with Forschungszentrum Juelich, to validate the model in view of future performance studies for dense and large LL-MA waste packages. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between measurements and MCNP calculation has been performed for a PGNAA system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system aims at controlling the amount of toxic elements in nuclear waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple samples and a concrete cylinder in which impurities have been added are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculations agree within a factor 2 with measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system can be improved with a better neutron flux monitoring and the use of boron-free graphite.

  18. Research activities in the Radioactive Waste Management Department of IFIN-HH, Bucharest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, F.; Lungu, L.; Nicu, M.; Rotarescu, Gh. C. Turcanu

    2001-01-01

    The research activities developed in the frame of Radioactive Waste Management Department are focused on processing low activity liquid wastes obtained from chemical precipitation and their conditioning. In cementation procedure, the chemical composition and the mixing proportion of the sludge and concentrates affects both the cement components hydrolysis and the reactions of the metastable hydrating components, as well as, the mechanical and chemical withstand of the solidified cement matrix. Generally, the study of the precipitation products as well as of their behavior during cementation and long term disposal is extremely difficult due to the system complexity (composition and structure of the phases) and to the lack of non-destructive analytical methods. For a detailed characterization of the precipitates and cemented matrices a study was carried out concerning the X-ray diffraction method application (as a complementary method to the Moessbauer spectroscopy). The following systems were considered: - Fe precipitates obtained from low-level radioactive waste processing; - structure modification determined by the foreign cations in Fe oxo-hydroxides; precipitation processes with alternate or simultaneous presence of bi- and tri-valent Fe ions; - the influence of precipitation procedure upon decontamination factors; - dried and hydrated cement systems; - cementing the sludge chemical components; - the influence of organic complexation agents upon the structure and performances of cemented matrices; - the influence of mineral additives upon the concrete; - cemented waste stability in real and simulated disposal conditions. The Moessbauer investigation on ferrous species obtained by precipitation system showed that the Fe compound obtained by the rapid neutralization (as the case is of aqueous radioactive waste processing) have a structure slightly different as compared with the Fe oxo-hydroxides prepared by slow addition of reactants. Also, studies were conducted

  19. Removal of organics from radioactive waste. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Kitchin, J.; Burton, W.H.

    1989-05-01

    This report reviews the available literature concerning the removal of organic substances from radioactive waste streams. A substantial portion of low level wastes generated in the various parts of the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear laboratories and other places where radionuclides are used for research, industrial medical and defense related activities is organic (paper, wood, plastics, rubber etc.) and combustible. These combustible wastes can be processed by incineration. Incineration converts combustible wastes into radioactive ashes and residues that are non-flammable, chemically inert and more homogenous than the initial waste. (author)

  20. Solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluchet, J.; Desroches, J.

    1977-01-01

    The problems raised by the solid and liquid radioactive wastes from the CEA nuclear centres are briefly exposed. The processing methods developed at the Saclay centre are described together with the methods for the wastes from nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants. The different storage techniques used at the La Hague centre are presented. The production of radioactive wastes by laboratories, hospitals and private industry is studied for the sealed sources and the various radioactive substances used in these plants. The cost of the radioactive wastes is analysed: processing, transport, long term storage [fr

  1. Geological disposal of radioactive waste. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication is concerned with providing protection to people and the environment from the hazards associated with waste management activities related to disposal, i.e. hazards that could arise during the operating period and following closure. It sets out the protection objectives and criteria for geological disposal and establishes the requirements that must be met to ensure the safety of this disposal option, consistent with the established principles of safety for radioactive waste management. It is intended for use by those involved in radioactive waste management and in making decisions in relation to the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities, especially those concerned with the related regulatory aspects. This publication contains 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. The safety requirements for geological disposal; 4. Requirements for the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities; Appendix: Assurance of compliance with the safety objective and criteria; Annex I: Geological disposal and the principles of radioactive waste management; Annex II: Principles of radioactive waste management

  2. Radioactive wastes in Oklo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Flores R, J.H.; Pena, P.; Lopez, A.

    2006-01-01

    The acceptance of the Nuclear Energy as electric power supply implies to give answer to the population on the two main challenges to conquer in the public opinion: the nuclear accidents and the radioactive wastes. Several of the questions that are made on the radioactive wastes, its are the mobility migration of them, the geologic stability of the place where its are deposited and the possible migration toward the aquifer mantels. Since the half lives of the radioactive waste of a Nuclear Reactor are of several hundred of thousands of years, the technical explanations to the previous questions little convince to the public in general. In this work summary the results of the radioactive waste generated in a natural reactor, denominated Oklo effect that took place in Gabon, Africa, it makes several thousands of millions of years, a lot before the man appeared in the Earth. The identification of at least 17 reactors in Oklo it was carried out thanks to the difference in the concentrations of Uranium 235 and 238 prospective, and to the analysis of the non-mobility of the radioactive waste in the site. It was able by this way to determine that the reactors with sizes of hardly some decimeter and powers of around 100 kilowatts were operating in intermittent and spontaneous form for space of 150,000 years, with operation cycles of around 30 minutes. Recent studies have contributed information valuable on the natural confinement of the radioactive waste of the Oklo reactors in matrixes of minerals of aluminum phosphate that caught and immobilized them for thousands of millions of years. This extracted information from the nature contributes guides and it allows 'to verify' the validity of the current proposals on the immobilization of radioactive wastes of a nuclear reactor. This work presents in clear and accessible form to the public in general on the secure 'design', operation, 'decommissioning' and 'storage' of the radioactive waste of the reactors that the nature put

  3. Management of radioactive materials and wastes: status, stakes and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Didier; Devin, Patrick; Tanguy, Loic; Bernard, Herve; Minon, Jean-Paul; Leclaire, Arnaud; Gilli, Ludivine; Lheureux, Yves; Pescatore, Claudio; Barbey, Pierre; Schneider, Thierry; Gay, Didier; Forest, Isabelle; Hemidy, Pierre-Yves; Baglan, Nicolas; Desnoyers, Bruno; Pieraccini, Michel; Poncet, Philippe; Seguin, Bertille; Calvez, Marianne; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Bancelin, Estelle; Fillion, Eric; Segura, Yannick; Vernaz, Etienne; Granier, Guy; De Preter, Peter; Petitfrere, Michael; Laye, Frederic; Nakamura, Takashi; Gin, Stephane; Lebaron-Jacobs, Laurence; Dinant, Sophie; Vacquier, Blandine; Crochon, Philippe; Griffault, Lise; Smith, Graham

    2013-10-01

    These technical days were organized by the Environment section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP). Time was given to some exchange about the societal aspects of radioactive waste management as well as about the legal context but the most part of the debates delt with the actual management modalities of the different types of wastes, both in France and in foreign countries, and with the related stakes, in particular in terms of impact. This document brings together the presentations (slides) of the following talks: - Contributions of radiation protection to the long-term safety management of radioactive wastes (Jean-Paul MINON - ONDRAF); - The national inventory of radioactive materials and wastes (Arnaud LECLAIRE - ANDRA); - The high activity, medium activity-long living wastes in debate - a co-building approach (ANCCLI/Clis of Bure/IRSN) to share stakes, enlighten, and develop thought (Ludivine GILLI - IRSN, Yves LHEUREUX - ANCCLI); - Social aspects of Radioactive Waste Management - The International Learning (Claudio PESCATORE - AEN/OCDE); - Citizens involvement and ACRO's point of view on radioactive wastes management (Pierre BARBEY - ACRO); - New CIPR recommendations about the geologic disposal of long-living radioactive wastes (Thierry SCHNEIDER - CEPN); - Overview of processes under the views of radiation protection principles (Didier GAY - IRSN); - The national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management (Loic TANGUY - ASN); - Joint convention on spent fuel management safety and on radioactive waste management safety - status and main stakes (Isabelle FOREST - ASN); - Transport of radioactive wastes (Bruno DESNOYERS - AREVA); - Optimisation and limitation of the environmental impacts of very-low level wastes - valorisation and processes selection (Michel PIERACCINI - EDF), Philippe PONCET - AREVA); - Management of hospital wastes - Example of Montpellier's University Regional Hospital (Bertille SEGUIN - CHRU de Montpellier); - Waste

  4. The puzzle of nuclear wastes. Radioactive threat to your health..

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document, published by the French association 'Sortir du nucleaire' (Get out of nuclear), gives some information on what is radioactivity, the radioactive materials as a risk for living organisms, nuclear wastes all over France (list and map of the storage sites, power plants and fuel cycle centers), nuclear wastes at every step of the nuclear connection, the insolvable problem of high activity wastes, burying nuclear wastes in order to better forget them, radioactivity as a time bomb for our health, radioactive effluents as an under-estimated risk, artificial radioactivity already responsible for the death of 61 million people in the world, and so on

  5. Management situation and prospect of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Pil Jun

    1985-04-01

    This book tell US that management situation and prospect of radioactive waste matter, which includes importance of energy, independence, limitation of fossil fuel energy, density of nuclear energy, strategy of supply of energy resource in Korea, nuclear energy development and radioactive waste matter, summary of management of radioactive waste, statistics of radioactive waste, disposal principle of radioactive waste, management on radioactive waste after using, disposal of Trench, La Marche in French, and Asse salt mine in Germany.

  6. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  7. BN-350 decommissioning problems of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galkin, A.; Tkachenko, V.

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant of modern concept on radioactive waste management applied in IAEA Member States all radioactive wastes produced during the BN-350 operation and decommissioning are subject to processing in order to be transformed to a form suitable for long-term storage and final disposal. The first two priority objectives for BN-350 reactor are as follows: cesium cleaning from sodium followed by sodium drain, and processing; processing of liquid and solid radioactive waste accumulated during BN-350 operation. Cesium cleaning from sodium and sodium processing to NaOH will be implemented under USA engineering and financial support. However the outputted product might be only subject to temporary storage under special conditions. Currently the problem is being solved on selection of technology for sodium hydroxide conversion to final product incorporated into cement-like matrix ready for disposal pursuant to existing regulatory requirements. Industrial installation is being designed for liquid radioactive waste processing followed by incorporation to cement matrix subject to further disposal. The next general objective is management of radioactive waste expected from BN-350 decommissioning procedure. Complex of engineering-radiation investigation that is being conducted at BN-350 site will provide estimation of solid and liquid radioactive waste that will be produced during the course of the BN-350 decommission. Radioactive wastes that will be produced may be shared for primary (metal structures of both reactor and reactor plant main and auxiliary systems equipment as well as construction wastes of dismantled biological protection, buildings and structures) and secondary (deactivation solutions, tools, materials, cloth, special accessory, etc.). Processing of produced radioactive wastes (including high activity waste) requires the use of special industrial facilities and construction of special buildings and structures for arrangement of facilities mentioned as well as for

  8. Proceedings of the NEA Workshop on the Management of Non-Nuclear Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafiropoulos, Demetre; Dilday, Daniel; Siemann, Michael; Ciambrella, Massimo; Lazo, Edward; Sartori, Enrico; ); Dionisi, Mario; Long, Juliet; Nicholson, David; Chambers, Douglas; Garcia Alves, Joao Henrique; McMahon, Ciara; Bruno, Gerard; Fan, Zhiwen; ); Ripani, Marco; Nielsen, Mette; Solente, Nicolas; Templeton, John; Paratore, Angelo; Feinhals, Joerg; Pandolfi, Dana; Sarchiapone, Lucia; Picentino, Bruno; Simms, Helen; Beer, Hans-Frieder; Deryabin, Sergey; Ulrici, Luisa; Bergamaschi, Carlo; Nottestad, Stacy; Anagnostakis, Marios

    2017-05-01

    All NEA member countries, whether or not they have nuclear power plants, are faced with appropriately managing non-nuclear radioactive waste produced through industrial, research and medical activities. Sources of such waste can include national laboratory and university research activities, used and lost industrial gauges and radiography sources, hospital nuclear medicine activities and in some circumstances, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) activities. Although many of these wastes are not long-lived, the shear variety of sources makes it difficult to generically assess their physical (e.g. volume, chemical form, mixed waste) or radiological (e.g. activity, half-life, concentration) characteristics. Additionally, the source-specific nature of these wastes poses questions and challenges to their regulatory and practical management at a national level. This had generated interest from both the radiological protection and radioactive waste management communities, and prompted the Committee on Radiological Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) to organise, in collaboration with the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC), a workshop tackling some of the key issues of this challenging topic. The key objectives of the NEA Workshop on the Management of Non-Nuclear Radioactive Waste were to address the particularities of managing non-nuclear waste in all its sources and forms and to share and exchange national experiences. Presentations and discussions addressed both technical aspects and national frameworks. Technical aspects included: - the range of non-nuclear waste sources, activities, volumes and other relevant characteristics; - waste storage and repository capacities and life cycles; - safety considerations for mixed wastes management; - human resources and knowledge management; - legal, regulatory and financial assurance, and liability issues. Taking into account the entire non-nuclear waste life-cycle, the workshop covered planning and

  9. Radioactive waste management: Spanish experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive waste generation began in Spain during the 1950's, in association with the first applications of radioactive isotopes in industry, medicine and research. Spain's first nuclear power plant began its operations in 1968. At present, there are in operation some one thousand installations possessing the administrative authorization required to use radioactive isotopes (small producers), nine nuclear groups and a tenth is now entering the dismantling phase. There are also activities and installations pertaining to the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle (mining, milling and the manufacturing of fuel elements). Until 1985, the research center Junta de Energia Nuclear (now CIEMAT) rendered radioactive waste removal, and subsequent conditioning and temporary storage services to the small producers. Since the beginning of their operations the nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities have had the capacity to condition and temporarily store their own radioactive wastes. ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S. A.) began its operations in the second half of 1985. It is a state-owned company created by the Government in accordance with a previous parliamentary resolution and commissioned to establish a system for management of such wastes throughout Spain, being in charge also of the dismantling of nuclear power plants and other major installations at the end of their operating lifetimes. Possibly the most outstanding characteristic of ENRESA's evolution over these last seven years has been the need to bring about a compromise between solving the most immediate and pressing day-to-day problems of operation (the first wastes were removed at the beginning of 1986) and establishing the basic organization, resources, technology and installations required for ENRESA to operate efficiently in the long term. (author)

  10. Management of nontritium radioactive wastes from fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.

    1976-09-01

    This report identifies nontritium radioactive waste sources for current conceptual fusion reactor designs. Quantities and compositions of the radwaste are estimated for the tokamaks of the University of Wisconsin (UWMAK-I), the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); the Reference Theta Pinch Reactor of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL); and the Minimum Activation Blanket of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary for fusion reactors. Although the curie (Ci) level of the wastes is comparable to that of fission products in fission reactors, the isotopes are less hazardous, and have shorter half-lives. Therefore radioactivity from fusion power production should pose a smaller risk than radioactivity from fission reactors. Radioactive waste sources identified for the five reference plants are summarized. Specific radwaste treatments or systems had to be assumed to estimate these waste quantities. Future fusion power plant conceptual designs should include radwaste treatment system designs so that assumed designs do not have to be used to assess the environmental effects of the radioactive waste

  11. Disposal of radioactive wastes. Chapter 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skitt, J.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of the history and present position of legislation in the United Kingdom on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The sections are headed: introduction and definitions; history; the Radioactive Substances Act 1960; disposal of solid radioactive wastes through Local Authority services; function of Local Authorities; exemptions; national radioactive waste disposal service; incidents involving radioactivity. (U.K.)

  12. Storing solid radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.; Corey, J.C.

    1976-06-01

    The facilities and the operation of solid radioactive waste storage at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are discussed in the report. The procedures used to segregate and the methods used to store radioactive waste materials are described, and the monitoring results obtained from studies of the movement of radionuclides from buried wastes at SRP are summarized. The solid radioactive waste storage site, centrally located on the 192,000-acre SRP reservation, was established in 1952 to 1953, before any radioactivity was generated onsite. The site is used for storage and burial of solid radioactive waste, for storage of contaminated equipment, and for miscellaneous other operations. The solid radioactive waste storage site is divided into sections for burying waste materials of specified types and radioactivity levels, such as transuranium (TRU) alpha waste, low-level waste (primarily beta-gamma), and high-level waste (primarily beta-gamma). Detailed records are kept of the burial location of each shipment of waste. With the attention currently given to monitoring and controlling migration, the solid wastes can remain safely in their present location for as long as is necessary for a national policy to be established for their eventual disposal. Migration of transuranium, activation product, and fission product nuclides from the buried wastes has been negligible. However, monitoring data indicate that tritium is migrating from the solid waste emplacements. Because of the low movement rate of ground water, the dose-to-man projection is less than 0.02 man-rem for the inventory of tritium in the burial trenches. Limits are placed on the amounts of beta-gamma waste that can be stored so that the site will require minimum surveillance and control. The major portion (approximately 98 percent) of the transuranium alpha radioactivity in the waste is stored in durable containers, which are amenable to recovery for processing and restorage should national policy so dictate

  13. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government's system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government's program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

  14. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste; Metodo para determinar la concentracion de actividad y actividad total de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A

    2001-02-15

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients.

  15. Storage facilities for radioactive waste in tertiary education environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, G.; Benke, G.

    1994-01-01

    The research and teaching endeavors of the university environment generate an assortment of radioactive waste that is unique in the range of isotopes and activities present, although the physical quantities of the waste may not be large. Universities may also be subject to unexpected, close public scrutiny of their operations due to the diverse nature of the university campus. This is rarely the case for other generators of radioactive waste. The experience of Monash University in formulating solutions for long term storage of radioactive waste is examined with respect to design, location and administration of the waste stores that were finally constructed. 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  16. Radioactive waste problems in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, O.; Bridges, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The collapse of the former Soviet Union, with the consequent shift to a market driven economy and demilitarisation, has had a profound effect on the nuclear and associated industries. The introduction of tighter legislation to control the disposal of radioactive wastes has been delayed and the power and willingness of the various government bodies responsible for its regulation is in doubt. Previously secret information is becoming more accessible and it is apparent that substantial areas of Russian land and surface waters are contaminated with radioactive material. The main sources of radioactive pollution in Russia are similar to those in many western countries. The existing atomic power stations already face problems in the storage and safe disposal of their wastes. These arise because of limited on site capacity for storage and the paucity of waste processing facilities. Many Russian military nuclear facilities also have had a sequence of problems with their radioactive wastes. Attempts to ameliorate the impacts of discharges to important water sources have had variable success. Some of the procedures used have been technically unsound. The Russian navy has traditionally dealt with virtually all of its radioactive wastes by disposal to sea. Many areas of the Barents, Kola and the Sea of Japan are heavily contaminated. To deal with radioactive wastes 34 large and 257 small disposal sites are available. However, the controls at these sites are often inadequate and illegal dumps of radioactive waste abound. Substantial funding will be required to introduce the necessary technologies to achieve acceptable standards for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in Russia. (author)

  17. Classification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. To simplify their management, a number of schemes have evolved for classifying radioactive waste according to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of significance to those facilities managing this waste. These schemes have led to a variety of terminologies, differing from country to country and even between facilities in the same country. This situation makes it difficult for those concerned to communicate with one another regarding waste management practices. This document revises and updates earlier IAEA references on radioactive waste classification systems given in IAEA Technical Reports Series and Safety Series. Guidance regarding exemption of materials from regulatory control is consistent with IAEA Safety Series and the RADWASS documents published under IAEA Safety Series. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tab

  18. An integrated approach to the management of radioactive waste in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woollett, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper draws attention to the practices and progress in radioactive waste management in Australia. A National Repository for the disposal of low-level and short-lived intermediate- level radioactive waste and a National Store for the storage of long-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste are presently being established. This has necessitated considerable activity in addressing emerging issues in the management of radioactive waste. The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has a major role in developing an integrated approach to manage radioactive waste in Australia. This approach begins with the development of a radioactive waste management policy and identification of the issues in radioactive waste management requiring attention. ARPANSA is developing national standards and guidance documents for the safe and responsible management of waste prior to its acceptance at the National Repository or National Store. This contributes to the Agency's promotion of uniformity of radiation protection and nuclear safety policy and practices across Australia's Commonwealth, State and Territory jurisdictions. (author)

  19. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, C.

    1985-01-01

    The incineration process currently seems the most appropriate way to solve the problems encountered by the increasing quantities of low and medium active waste from nuclear power generation waste. Although a large number of incinerators operate in the industry, there is still scope for the improvement of safety, throughput capacity and reduction of secondary waste. This seminar intends to give opportunity to scientists working on the different aspects of incineration to present their most salient results and to discuss the possibilities of making headway in the management of LL/ML radioactive waste. These proceedings include 17 contributions ranging over the subjects: incineration of solid β-γ wastes; incineration of other radwastes; measurement and control of wastes; off-gas filtration and release. (orig./G.J.P.)

  20. Radioactive waste management in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ik Hwan

    1997-01-01

    In order to meet the increasing energy demand in Korea, continuous promotion of nuclear power program will be inevitable in the future. However, the use of nuclear energy eventually requires effective and reliable radioactive waste management. For the safe and economical management of radioactive waste, first of all, volume reduction is essentially required and hence the development of related technologies continuously be pursued. A site for overall radioactive waste management has to be secured in Korea. KEPCO-NETEC will improve public understanding by reinforcing PA and will maintain transparency of radioactive waste management. (author). 1 fig

  1. Radioactive waste management - a safe solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This booklet sets out current United Kingdom government policy regarding radioactive waste management and is aimed at reassuring members of the public concerned about the safety of radioactive wastes. The various disposal or, processing or storage options for low, intermediate and high-level radioactive wastes are explained and sites described, and the work of the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) is outlined. (UK)

  2. This is how we manage Sweden`s radioactive waste. Activities 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    SKB operates systems and facilities for the management and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste in Sweden. SKB has conducted extensive R, D and D work with regard to constructing a spent fuel encapsulation plant and a deep repository in crystalline bedrock. This annual report treats all the different activities without going into technical details.

  3. Processing method for discharged radioactive laundry water waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumida, Tatsuo; Kitsukawa, Ryozo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kiuchi, Yoshimasa; Hattori, Yasuo.

    1995-01-01

    In order to process discharged radioactive laundry water wastes safely and decrease radioactive wastes, bubbling of a surface active agent in a detergent which causes a problem upon its condensation is suppressed, so that the liquid condensate are continuously and easily dried into a powder. A nonionic surface active agent is used against the bubbling of the surface active agent. In addition, the bubbling in an the evaporation can is reduced, and the powderization is facilitated by adding an appropriate inorganic builder. (T.M.)

  4. Radioactive waste below regulatory concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuder, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published two notices in the Federal Register concerning radioactive waste below regulatory concern. The first, a Commission Policy Statement and Implementation Plan published August 29, 1986, concerns petition to exempt specific radioactive waste streams from the regulations. The second, an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking published Decemger 2, 1986, addresses the concept of generic rulemaking by the NRC on radioactive wastes that are below regulatory concern. Radioactive waste determined to be below regulatory concern would not be subject to regulatory control and would not need to go to a licensed low-level radioactive waste disposal site. The Policy Statement and Implementation Plan describe (1) the information a petitioner should file in support of a petition to exempt a specific waste stream, (2) the decision criteria the Commission intends to use for judging the petition, and (3) the internal administrative procedures to use be followed in order to permit the Commission to act upon the petition in an expedited manner

  5. Determination of Isotopes Types and Activities in Radioactive Waste of Kosovo A Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    , B Cena; , K Dollani; , G Hodolli

    2013-01-01

    The second nnportant event after the 1nventory of rad10act1ve waste 1n Kosovo, their location and the number of radioactive sources, is the determination of the type of radioisotope and their activities. This activity was conducted entirely in difŞcult terrain and was taken due to the absence in most cases of resource certiŞcates or any other document with the necessary information that will enable the identiŞcation of radioactive sources and their activity. In this way the activity was under...

  6. Radioactive waste management - the Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Kanwar

    2008-01-01

    In India, nuclear power generation programme and application of radioisotopes for health care and various other application is increasing steadily. With resultant increase in generation of radioactive waste, emphasis is on the minimization of generation of radioactive waste by deploying suitable processes and materials, segregation of waste streams at sources, recycle and re-use of useful components of waste and use of volume reduction techniques. The minimization of the radioactive waste is also essential to facilitate judicious use of the scarce land available for disposal, to reduce impact on the environment due to disposal and, finally to optimize the cost of radioactive waste management. This paper presents a bird's eye view of radioactive waste management programme in the country today

  7. Development of radiometric methods for radioactive waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessaro, Ana Paula Gimenes

    2015-01-01

    The admission of radioactive waste in a final repository depends among other things on the knowledge of the radioisotopic inventory of the waste. To obtain this information it is necessary make the primary characterization of the waste so that it is composition is known, to guide the next steps of radioactive waste management. Filter cartridges that are used in the water polishing system of IEA-R1 research reactor is one of these wastes. The IEA-R1 is a pool-type research reactor, operating between 2 and 5 MW that uses water as coolant, moderator and biological shield. Besides research, it is used for production of radioisotopes and irradiation of samples with neutron and gamma beams. It is located in the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute at the University of Sao Paulo campus. The filter cartridges are used to retain particles that are suspended in the cooling water. When filters become saturated and are unable to maintain the flow within the established limits, they are replaced and disposed of as radioactive waste. After a period of decay, they are sent to the Radioactive Waste Management Department. The aim of this work is to present the studies to determine the activity of gamma emitters present in the cartridge filters. The activities were calculated using the dose rates measured with hand held detectors, after the ratios of the emission rates of photons were evaluated by gamma spectrometry, by the Point Kernel method, which correlates the activity of a source with dose rates at various distances. The method described can be used to determine routinely the radioactive inventory of these filters, avoiding the necessity of destructive radiochemical analysis, or the necessity of calibrating the geometry of measurement. (author)

  8. Solidification method of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Tsutomu; Chino, Koichi; Sasahira, Akira; Ikeda, Takashi

    1992-07-24

    Metal solidification material can completely seal radioactive wastes and it has high sealing effect even if a trace amount of evaporation should be caused. In addition, the solidification operation can be conducted safely by using a metal having a melting point of lower than that of the decomposition temperature of the radioactive wastes. Further, the radioactive wastes having a possibility of evaporation and scattering along with oxidation can be solidified in a stable form by putting the solidification system under an inert gas atmosphere. Then in the present invention, a metal is selected as a solidification material for radioactive wastes, and a metal, for example, lead or tin having a melting point of lower than that of the decomposition temperature of the wastes is used in order to prevent the release of the wastes during the solidification operation. Radioactive wastes which are unstable in air and scatter easily, for example, Ru or the like can be converted into a stable solidification product by conducting the solidification processing under an inert gas atmosphere. (T.M.).

  9. Technological progress in the management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proost, J.; Frognet, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The expansion of industrial nuclear activities gives rise to increasing amounts of radioactive waste. In addition criticisms on nuclear energy are being focused on the management of radioactive waste. In this context the Commission of European Communities has set up major 'indirect' programmes for the promotion, financial support and coordination of various R and D activities for the period 1975-1979. For the definition of its future policies in this field, it is interesting to evaluate the state of the art and the impact of present and future development work. The study should help in selecting those areas where further research is necessary and in defining priorities for developing new waste disposal techniques. The present report, gives a review of the present situation in Europe. It covers: - general considerations on waste management and policies adopted or proposed in various countries; - major sources of radioactive waste with detailed analysis of the quantities and types of waste generated by reference facilities for the LWR fuel cycle; - evaluation of the techniques as applied at present on an industrial scale in Europe at reactor plants or waste handling centres

  10. Technical report from Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    As the only one Japanese organization specialized in radioactive waste, RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center) has been conducting the two major roles; R and D and the fund administration for radioactive waste management. The focus of its studies includes land disposal of LLW (Low-level radioactive wastes) and it has gradually extended to research on management and disposal techniques for high-level (HLW) and TRU wastes and studies on securing and managing the funds required for disposal of these wastes. The present document is the yearly progress report of 2006 and the main activities and research results are included on spent fuel disposal techniques including radon diffusion and emanation problem, performance studies on underground facilities for radioactive waste disposal and its management, technical assessment for geological environment, remote control techniques, artificial barrier systems proposed and its monitoring systems, and TRU disposals. (S. Ohno)

  11. Inventory of radioactive material entering the marine environment: Sea disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    Variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive waste have been disposed at more than 50 sites in the northern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The last known disposal operation was in 1982, at a site about 550 km off the European continental shelf in the Atlantic Ocean. Since 1957, the IAEA has provided specific guidance and recommendations for ensuring that disposal of radioactive wastes into the sea will not result in unacceptable hazards to human health and marine organisms, damage to amenities or interference with other legitimate uses of the sea. In 1972, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter designated the IAEA as the competent international authority in matters related to sea disposal of radioactive waste. The Contracting Parties requested the IAEA to develop an inventory of radioactive wastes entering the marine environment from all sources as an information base with which the impact of radioactive materials from disposal operations can be more adequately assessed. The continuous compilation of these data could ensure that the IAEA recommendations on the disposal rate in a single basin are not overstepped. The inventory shows that between 1946 to 1982 an estimated 46 PBq 1 (1.24 MCi) of radioactive waste coming from research, medicine, the nuclear industry and military activities were packaged, usually in metal drums lined with a concrete or bitumen matrix, and disposed of at sea. This inventory includes some unpackaged wastes and liquid wastes which were disposed of from 1950 to 1960. Beta-gamma emitters represent more than 98% of the total radioactivity of the waste and tritium alone represents one third of the total radioactivity disposed at the North East Atlantic sites. The other beta-gamma emitters radionuclides include 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 55 Fe, 58 Co, 60 Co, 125 I and 14 C. The wastes also contain low quantities of alpha-emitting nuclides with plutonium and americium isotopes representing

  12. Public acceptance in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, Stela; Covreag, Ilinca

    2008-01-01

    disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste. National programmes, must give increasing focus not only to the scientific and technical issues, but also to societal, political, legal and economic aspects that influence public perceptions of the safety and feasibility of implementing the disposal concepts. In Romania the National Agency for Radioactive Waste, ANDRAD, drawn-up a public communication strategy which pay an important stress to transparency, openness and accountability issues. This strategy includes an information component and a public involvement one. The public information campaigns will make use of the known communication tools, such as internet, mass-media co-operation, brochures and leaflets dissemination, seminars and conferences. The public involvement in the decision making process will be facilitated through public debates, presentation of the EIA reports, supporting the activity of Local Information Committees and by considering the socio-economic issues related with the repository development programme. Many of these actions have been already started, they are continuously assessed and improved/updated, aiming, together with technical solutions to robust, publicly acceptable projects

  13. Regulation on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A national calculator control system for the metropolitan radioactive waste banks was developed in 1999. The NNSA reviewed by the regulations the feasibility of some rectification projects for uranium ore decommissioning and conducted field inspections on waste treating systems and radioactive waste banks at the 821 plant. The NNSA realized in 1999 the calculator control for the disposal sites of low and medium radioactive waste. 3 routine inspections were organized on the reinforced concrete structures for disposal units and their pouring of concrete at waste disposal site and specific requirements were put forth

  14. Method and techniques of radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafar, M.; Aasi, N.

    2002-04-01

    This study illustrates the characterization of radioactive wastes produced by the application of radioisotopes in industry and research. The treatment methods of such radioactive wastes, chemical co-precipitation and ion exchange depending on the technical state of radioactive waste management facility in Syria were described. The disposal of conditioned radioactive wastes, in a safe way, has been discussed including the disposal of the radioactive sources. The characterizations of the repository to stock conditioned radioactive wastes were mentioned. (author)

  15. Prediction of radionuclide inventory for the low-and intermediated-level radioactive waste disposal facility the radioactive waste classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kang Il; Jeong, Noh Gyeom; Moon, Young Pyo; Jeong, Mi Seon; Park, Jin Beak

    2016-01-01

    To meet nuclear regulatory requirements, more than 95% individual radionuclides in the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste inventory have to be identified. In this study, the radionuclide inventory has been estimated by taking the long-term radioactive waste generation, the development plan of disposal facility, and the new radioactive waste classification into account. The state of radioactive waste cumulated from 2014 was analyzed for various radioactive sources and future prospects for predicting the long-term radioactive waste generation. The predicted radionuclide inventory results are expected to contribute to secure the development of waste disposal facility and to deploy the safety case for its long-term safety assessment

  16. Radioactive waste management in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzi, F.P.; Bundala, F.M.; Nyanda, A.M.; Msaki, P.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive waste, like many other hazardous wastes, is of great concern in Tanzania because of its undesirable health effects. The stochastic effects due to prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation produce cancer and hereditary effects. The deterministic effects due to higher doses cause vomiting, skin reddening, leukemia, and death to exposed victims. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the status of radioactive wastes in Tanzania, how they are generated and managed to protect humans and the environment. As Tanzania develops, it is bound to increase the use of ionizing radiation in research and teaching, industry, health and agriculture. Already there are more than 42 Centers which use one form of radioisotopes or another for these purposes: Teletherapy (Co-60), Brach-therapy (Cs-137, Sr-89), Nuclear Medicine (P-32, Tc-99m, 1-131, 1-125, Ga-67, In-111, Tl-206), Nuclear gauge (Am-241, Cs- 137, Sr-90, Kr-85), Industrial radiography (Am-241, C-137, Co-60, lr-92), Research and Teaching (1-125, Am241/Be, Co-60, Cs-137, H-3 etc). According to IAEA definition, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste if they meet the following criteria: if they have outlived their usefulness, if they have been abandoned, if they have been displaced without authorization, and if they contaminate other substances. Besides the origin of radioactive wastes, special emphasis will also be placed on the existing radiation regulations that guide disposal of radioactive waste, and the radioactive infrastructure Tanzania needs for ultimate radioactive waste management. Specific examples of incidences (theft, loss, abandonment and illegal possession) of radioactive waste that could have led to serious deterministic radiation effects to humans will also be presented. (author)

  17. Security of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, W.

    2003-01-01

    Measures to achieve radioactive waste security are discussed. Categorization of waste in order to implement adequate and consistent security measures based on potential consequences is made. The measures include appropriate treatment/storage/disposal of waste to minimize the potential and consequences of malicious acts; management of waste only within an authorised, regulated, legal framework; management of the security of personnel and information; measures to minimize the acquisition of radioactive waste by those with malicious intent. The specific measures are: deter unauthorized access to the waste; detect any such attempt or any loss or theft of waste; delay unauthorized access; provide timely response to counter any attempt to gain unauthorised access; measures to minimize acts of sabotage; efforts to recover any lost or stolen waste; mitigation and emergency plans in case of release of radioactivity. An approach to develop guidance, starting with the categorisation of sources and identification of dangerous sources, is presented. Dosimetric criteria for internal and external irradiation are set. Different exposure scenarios are considered. Waste categories and security categories based on the IAEA INFCIRC/225/Rev.4 are presented

  18. Treatment of Radioactive Gaseous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive waste, with widely varying characteristics, is generated from the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, research laboratories and medical facilities. The waste needs to be treated and conditioned as necessary to provide waste forms acceptable for safe storage and disposal. Although radioactive gaseous radioactive waste does not constitute the main waste flow stream at nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste processing facilities, it represents a major source for potential direct environmental impact. Effective control and management of gaseous waste in both normal and accidental conditions is therefore one of the main issues of nuclear fuel cycle and waste processing facility design and operation. One of the duties of an operator is to take measures to avoid or to optimize the generation and management of radioactive waste to minimize the overall environmental impact. This includes ensuring that gaseous and liquid radioactive releases to the environment are within authorized limits, and that doses to the public and the effects on the environment are reduced to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Responsibilities of the regulatory body include the removal of radioactive materials within authorized practices from any further regulatory control — known as clearance — and the control of discharges — releases of gaseous radioactive material that originate from regulated nuclear facilities during normal operation to the environment within authorized limits. These issues, and others, are addressed in IAEA Safety Standards Series Nos RS-G-1.7, WS-G-2.3 and NS-G-3.2. Special systems should be designed and constructed to ensure proper isolation of areas within nuclear facilities that contain gaseous radioactive substances. Such systems consist of two basic subsystems. The first subsystem is for the supply of clean air to the facility, and the second subsystem is for the collection, cleanup and

  19. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible

  1. Uncertainty quantification applied to the radiological characterization of radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffora, B; Magistris, M; Saporta, G; Chevalier, J-P

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the process adopted at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) to quantify uncertainties affecting the characterization of very-low-level radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is a by-product of the operation of high-energy particle accelerators. Radioactive waste must be characterized to ensure its safe disposal in final repositories. Characterizing radioactive waste means establishing the list of radionuclides together with their activities. The estimated activity levels are compared to the limits given by the national authority of the waste disposal. The quantification of the uncertainty affecting the concentration of the radionuclides is therefore essential to estimate the acceptability of the waste in the final repository but also to control the sorting, volume reduction and packaging phases of the characterization process. The characterization method consists of estimating the activity of produced radionuclides either by experimental methods or statistical approaches. The uncertainties are estimated using classical statistical methods and uncertainty propagation. A mixed multivariate random vector is built to generate random input parameters for the activity calculations. The random vector is a robust tool to account for the unknown radiological history of legacy waste. This analytical technique is also particularly useful to generate random chemical compositions of materials when the trace element concentrations are not available or cannot be measured. The methodology was validated using a waste population of legacy copper activated at CERN. The methodology introduced here represents a first approach for the uncertainty quantification (UQ) of the characterization process of waste produced at particle accelerators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of radioactive wastes from non-power applications. The Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, J.C.; Salgado, M.; Jova, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Origin of Radioactive Wastes. The wastes arisen from the applications of radioisotopes in medicine are mainly liquids and solid materials contaminated with short lived radionuclides and sealed sources used in radiotherapy and for sterilization of medical materials. Radioactive wastes from industrial applications are generally disused sealed sources used in level detection, quality control, smoke detection and non-destructive testing. The principal forms of wastes generated by research institutes are miscellaneous liquids, trash, biological wastes, and scintillation vials, sealed sources and targets. Solid radioactive wastes are mainly produced during research works, cleaning and decontamination activities and they consist of rags, paper, cellulose, plastics, gloves, clothing, overshoes, etc. Laboratory materials such as cans, polyethylene bags and glass bottles also contribute to the solid waste inventory. Small quantities of non-compactable wastes are also collected and received for treatment. They include wood pieces, metal scrap, defective components and tools. Radioactive Waste Management Policy and Infrastructure. Since 1994 the Cuban integral policy of nuclear development is entrusted to the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (CITMA). The National Center for Nuclear Safety (CNSN) is responsible for the licensing and supervision of radioactive and nuclear installations. The CPHR is in charge of waste management policy and therefore is responsible for centralized collection, transportation, treatment, conditioning, long term storage, and disposal of radioactive waste, as well as for developing new waste conditioning and containment methods. Radioactive Waste Management Facilities. Waste Treatment and Conditioning Plant (WTCP). The present facility is a building that includes a technological area of 100 m 2 and a laboratory area with a surface of around 30 m 2 . Other areas to be distinguished inside the

  3. National plan for the radioactive and recyclable wastes management of the national inventory of the radioactive and recyclable wastes to an account and a prospective outlook of the pathways of long dated management of radioactive wastes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The introduction recalls the context of the development of the national plan of radioactive and recyclable wastes management (PNGDR-MV), its objectives and its position in the today studies on radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to the description of existing radioactive wastes management solutions, or engaged by today activities. The second part concerns the radioactive materials of the nuclear industry, which are not considered as wastes, but which can be recyclable because of their high energy potential as fuels for reactors of the future. The third part examines the pathways coherence. The last part is a synthesis of the evaluation, with more attention on the identifies problems. (A.L.B.)

  4. Low-level radioactive waste treatment technology. Low-level radioactive waste management handbook series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Each generator of low-level radioactive waste must consider three sequential questions: (1) can the waste in its as-generated form be packaged and shipped to a disposal facility; (2) will the packaged waste be acceptable for disposal; and (3) if so, is it cost effective to dispose of the waste in its as-generated form. These questions are aimed at determining if the waste form, physical and chemical characteristics, and radionuclide content collectively are suitable for shipment and disposal in a cost-effective manner. If not, the waste management procedures will involve processing operations in addition to collection, segregation, packaging, shipment, and disposal. This handbook addresses methods of treating and conditioning low-level radioactive waste for shipment and disposal. A framework is provided for selection of cost-effective waste-processing options for generic categories of low-level radioactive waste. The handbook is intended as a decision-making guide that identifies types of information required to evaluate options, methods of evaluation, and limitations associated with selection of any of the processing options

  5. Disposal method of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetake, Naoto; Fukazawa, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of underground disposal of radioactive wastes for a long period of time by surrounding the periphery of the radioactive wastes with materials that can inhibit the migration of radioactive nuclides and are physically and chemically stable. Method: Hardening products prepared from a water-hardenable calcium silicate compound and an aqueous solution of alkali silicate have compression strength as comparable with that of concretes, high water tightness and adsorbing property to radioactive isotopes such as cobalt similar to that of concretes and they also show adsorption to cesium which is not adsorbed to concretes. Further, the kneaded slurry thereof is excellent in the workability and can be poured even into narrow gaps. Accordingly, by alternately charging granular radioactive wastes and this slurry before hardening into the ground, the radioactive wastes can be put to underground disposal stably with simple procedures. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Spanish experience in managing low and intermediate activity radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granero, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Spanish experience in management of low and intermediated level radioactive wastes is presented. The radioactive wastes stored come from research reactors, nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle, scientific research, radiodiagnostic and medical applications. The commonest method is incorporation in cement inside special drums, even though some facilities use processes based on urea formal dehyde and on asphalt. Transport of the wastes is carried out by private undertakings and the Nuclear Energy Board. The sites used for storing are temporary in nature. The wastes produced by nuclear power plants are stored on site, with those processed by the Nuclear Energy Board are taken to a province of Cordoba. The National Company ENRESA for managing of all kinds of wastes was created. The Spanish legislation on this subject and the research being carried out by Spain itself and in cooperation with other States, are described. (Author) [pt

  7. Occupational doses involved in a radioactive waste management laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Raquel dos Santos; Silva, Amanda J. da; Fernandes, Ivani M.; Mitake, Malvina Boni; Suzuki, Fabio Fumio

    2008-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Laboratory (RWL) of IPEN-CNEN/SP receives, treats, packs, characterizes and stores institutional radioactive wastes, in their physical forms solid, liquid or gaseous and sealed radioactive sources, with the objective to assure an adequate level of protection to the population and to future generations and the preservation of environment. Since its creation, RWL has already received and treated about one thousand cubic meter of solid waste, eight thousand spent sealed radioactive sources from practices in industry, medicine and research, totaling more than 100 TBq. In addition, fifteen thousand radioactive lightning rods and twenty two thousand radioactive smoke detectors were received. The activities accomplished in RWL, as dismantling of lightning rods, compaction of solid wastes, decontamination of objects, waste characterization, treated waste packages rearrangement, among others, cause risks of intake and/or external exposure of workers. Requirements of radiological safety established in the regulations of the nuclear authority and international recommendations are consolidated in the RWL radioprotection plan in order to ensure the safety and protection of workers. In this paper, it was evaluated if the procedures adopted were in accordance with the requirements established in the radioprotection plan. It was also studied which activities in the waste management had substantial contribution to the occupational doses of the RWL workers in the period from 2001 up to 2006. For that, the radioprotection plan, the operational and safety procedures, the records of workplace monitoring and the individual dose reports were analyzed. It was observed that the highest individual doses resulted from operations of treated waste packages rearrangement in the facility, and none of the workers received doses above the annual limit. (author)

  8. Radioactive waste management at Cernavoda NPP after 5 years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raducea, D.

    2002-01-01

    Many human activities generate waste but people are worried about those produced in nuclear power plants. Their concern is an unjustified fear toward the hazard from radioactive wastes because any country, which produces electrical power in this way, pays a lot of attention of all relevant parties involved in radioactive waste management. The same policy is applied for Cernavoda NPP. Our concept establishes the general approach required for the collection, handling, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste from Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 and will be ready for expansion when other units are brought into service. Among others, a major objective is to reduce the radioactive waste production and volume. In this regard we are trying to improve as much as possible our procedures and radioactive wastes management. Further, it will be presented the radioactive waste management, including the improvements in our program and the future plans.(author)

  9. Classification of Radioactive Waste. General Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    This publication is a revision of an earlier Safety Guide of the same title issued in 1994. It recommends revised waste management strategies that reflect changes in practices and approaches since then. It sets out a classification system for the management of waste prior to disposal and for disposal, driven by long term safety considerations. It includes a number of schemes for classifying radioactive waste that can be used to assist with planning overall national approaches to radioactive waste management and to assist with operational management at facilities. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. The radioactive waste classification scheme; Appendix: The classification of radioactive waste; Annex I: Evolution of IAEA standards on radioactive waste classification; Annex II: Methods of classification; Annex III: Origin and types of radioactive waste.

  10. Classification of Radioactive Waste. General Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This publication is a revision of an earlier Safety Guide of the same title issued in 1994. It recommends revised waste management strategies that reflect changes in practices and approaches since then. It sets out a classification system for the management of waste prior to disposal and for disposal, driven by long term safety considerations. It includes a number of schemes for classifying radioactive waste that can be used to assist with planning overall national approaches to radioactive waste management and to assist with operational management at facilities. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. The radioactive waste classification scheme; Appendix: The classification of radioactive waste; Annex I: Evolution of IAEA standards on radioactive waste classification; Annex II: Methods of classification; Annex III: Origin and types of radioactive waste

  11. Experience in radioactive waste management of research centre-CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2001-01-01

    China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is the birthplace of China nuclear science and technology and the important base for nuclear science and technology implementing pioneering, basic and comprehensive studies. The major tasks and activities of CIAE are: (1) Fundamental research of nuclear science and technology; (2) Research and development of advanced nuclear energy; and (3) Application of nuclear technology. CIAE is equipped with three research reactors (15MW heavy water reactor, 3.5MW light water swimming pool reactor, 27kW neutron source reactor), four zero-power facilities, eleven accelerators, hot cells and a lot of glove boxes which produce various kinds of radioactive wastes. CIAE pays great attention to the safe management of radioactive waste. Many measurements were and are adopted. CIAE carries out the national policy of radioactive waste management and the international fundamental principles of radioactive waste management. To protect human body and environment both now and future generation minimizes the releasing amounts and activity, minimizes the solidified wastes to be disposed of. The principles of 'controlled generation, categorized collection, volume-reduction immobilization, reliable package, in-situ storage, safe transportation and disposal' are followed in managing LLW and ILW. The liquid wastes are separately treated by precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange or adsorption by organic or inorganic materials. The spent organic solvents are treated by incineration at a special incinerator. The low level radioactive gases and liquids can be discharged into the environment only when they are clean-up and permissible level is achieved. Such discharge is controlled by two factors: total discharge amount and specific activity. The solid wastes are separately collected in site according to their physical properties and specific activity. The storage waste is retrievable designed. The spent/sealed radiation sources are collected and stored with

  12. Handling and disposing of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste has been separated by definition into six categories. These are: commercial spent fuel; high-level wastes; transuranium waste; low-level wastes; decommissioning and decontamination wastes; and mill tailings and mine wastes. Handling and disposing of these various types of radioactive wastes are discussed briefly

  13. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world`s largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  14. Radioactive liquid waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inakuma, Masahiko; Takahara, Nobuaki; Hara, Satomi.

    1996-01-01

    Laundry liquid wastes and shower drains containing radioactive materials generated in a nuclear power plant are removed with radioactive materials by a fiber filtration device and an activated carbon filtration device to satisfy standers of water quality described in the environmental effect investigation report. Spent activated carbon is dehydrated together with the back-wash liquid from the fiber filtration device and the activated carbon filtration device using a Nutsche-type filtration dryer. With such procedures, the scale of the facility is minimized, space for devices, maintenance for equipments and radiation dose rate are reduced. (T.M.)

  15. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hall, H. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-08-01

    testing. The granular ESTD and BSR products (radioactive and non-radioactive) were analyzed for total constituents and durability tested as a granular waste form. A subset of the granular material was stabilized in a clay based geopolymer matrix at 42% and 65% FBSR loadings and durability tested as a monolith waste form. The 65 wt% FBSR loaded monolith made with clay (radioactive) was more durable than the 67-68 wt% FBSR loaded monoliths made from fly ash (non-radioactive) based on short term PCT testing. Long term, 90 to 107 day, ASTM C1308 testing (similar to ANSI/ANS 16.1 testing) was only performed on two fly ash geopolymer monoliths at 67-68 wt% FBSR loading and three clay geopolymer monoliths at 42 wt% FBSR loading. More clay geopolymers need to be made and tested at longer times at higher FBSR loadings for comparison to the fly ash monoliths. Monoliths made with metakaolin (heat treated) clay are of a more constant composition and are very reactive as the heat treated clay is amorphous and alkali activated. The monoliths made with fly ash are subject to the inherent compositional variation found in fly ash as it is a waste product from burning coal and it contains unreactive components such as mullite. However, both the fly ash and the clay based monoliths perform well in long term ASTM C1308 testing.

  16. Mental Models of Radioactivity and Attitudes towards Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.

    2010-01-01

    radiation on people irrespective of the public which was involved in the survey. Among the most important factors which influence public acceptability of the construction of the LILW repository in the domestic location is perceived risk to the nuclear power plant. This factor is more important than knowledge on radioactivity and radioactive waste for different groups, also for the local public with experience of living beside nuclear power plant. Although it can be seen that the factor of knowledge has higher importance in the local community which means that communication activities among local citizens do influence the acceptability. Based on the analyses of the results, the starting points for improvement of communication plans were prepared, which should be used by the implementer of the site selection, and later during the repository construction. These communication starting points have a broader validity, since they could be suitable also for risk communications for other technologies.(author).

  17. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  18. Radioactive waste disposal in Slovakia: Current practice and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzer, P.; Hanusik, V.; Ehn, L.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes activities concerning the disposal of radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic. For disposal of the low and intermediate short-lived radioactive waste, the National radioactive waste repository Mochovce (near surface type) was put into operation in 1999. History and approaches to repository development, siting and construction are briefly described. Recent activities regarding the repository are concerning on the safety re-assessment and re-derivation of coherent waste acceptance criteria, studies of repository covering and possible enlargement. In the second part, attention is given to the Slovak deep geological repository development programme, which has been under way since 1996. Most of the results were obtained from the siting part of the programme, where four localities (six sites) were identified as prospective for next investigation. The paper also gives an overview on next two routes of deep repository development programme: studies resulted later in performance assessment and general activities, i.e. design studies, analysis of legislative and infrastructure conditions, planning and evaluation of works. (author)

  19. Disposal or radioactive wastes, tendencies and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, G.; Barcenas R, M.

    2013-10-01

    The administration of radioactive wastes is an important part of the uses of the nuclear energy, even not carrying out some application due to the natural radioisotopes. The result will be that to more radioactive wastes production major will be the expense in its administration. In this work the main activities in an item of selected countries are described and it concludes with the necessities that should be carried out in this field in Mexico. (Author)

  20. Deep-well injection of liquid radioactive waste in Russia. Present situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybalchenko, A.

    1998-01-01

    At present there are 3 facilities (polygons) for the deep-well injection of liquid radioactive waste in Russia, all of which were constructed in the mid60's. These facilities are operating successfully, and activities have started in preparation for decommissioning. Liquid radioactive waste is injected into deep porous horizons which act as 'collector-layers', isolated from the surface and from groundwaters by a relatively thick sequence of rock of low permeability. The collector-layers (also collector-horizons) contain salt waters or fresh waters of no practical application, lying beneath the main horizons containing potable waters. Construction of facilities for the deep-well injection of liquid radioactive waste was preceded by geological surveys and investigations which were able to substantiate the feasibility and safety of radioactive waste injection, and to obtain initial data for facility design. Operation of the facilities was accompanied by monitoring which confirmed that the main safety requirement was satisfied i.e. localisation of radioactive waste within specified boundaries of the geologic medium. The opinion of most specialists in the atomic power industry in Russia favours deep-well injection as a solution to the problem of liquid radioactive waste management; during the period of active operation of defence facilities (atomic power industry of the former U.S.S.R.), this disposal method prevented the impact of radioactive waste on man and the environment. The experience accumulated concerning the injection of liquid radioactive waste in Russia is of interest to scientists and engineers engaged in problems of protection and remediation of the environment in the vicinity of nuclear industry facilities; an example of the utilisation of the deep subsurface for solidified radioactive waste and the disposal of different types of nuclear materials. Information on the scientific principles and background for the development of facilities for the injection

  1. Monitoring of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houriet, J.Ph.

    1982-08-01

    The estimation of risks presented by final disposal of radioactive wastes depends, among other things, on what is known of their radioisotope content. The first aim of this report is to present the current state of possibilities for measuring (monitoring) radionuclides in wastes. The definition of a global monitoring system in the framework of radioactive waste disposal has to be realized, based on the information presented here, in accordance with the results of work to come and on the inventory of wastes to be stored. Designed for direct measurement of unpackaged wastes and for control of wastes ready to be stored, the system would ultimately make it possible to obtain all adaquate information about their radioisotope content with regard to the required disposal safety. The second aim of this report is to outline the definition of such a global system of monitoring. Designed as a workbase and reference source for future work by the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste on the topic of radioactive waste monitoring, this report describes the current situation in this field. It also makes it possible to draw some preliminary conclusions and to make several recommendations. Centered on the possibilities of current and developing techniques, it makes evident that a global monitoring system should be developed. However, it shows that the monitoring of packaged wastes will be difficult, and should be avoided as far as possible, except for control measurements

  2. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dody, A.; Klein, Ben; David, O.

    2014-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste imposes complicated constrains on the regulator to ensure the isolation of radioactive elements from the biosphere. The IAEA (1995) states that T he objective of radioactive waste management is to deal with radioactive waste in a manner that protects human health and the environment now and the future without imposing undue burdens on future generation . The meaning of this statement is that the operator of the waste disposal facilities must prove to the regulator that in routine time and in different scenarios the dose rate to the public will not exceed 0.3 mSv/y in the present and in the future up to 10,000 years

  3. Commercial low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The goals, objectives and activities of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management program are reviewed. The goal of the overall Program is to support development of an acceptable, nationwide, near surface waste disposal system by 1986. The commercial LLW program has two major functions: (1) application of the technology improvements for waste handling, treatment and disposal, and (2) assistance to states as they carry out their responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. The priorities for the commercial side of the Low-Level Waste Management Program have been established to meet one goal: to support development of an effective commercial management system by 1986. The first priority is being given to supporting state efforts in forming the institutional structures needed to manage the system. The second priority is the state and industry role in transferring and demonstrating treatment and disposal technologies

  4. Croatian radioactive waste management program: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanic, R.; Lebegner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Croatia has a responsibility to develop a radioactive waste management program partly due to co-ownership of Krsko nuclear power plant (Slovenia) and partly because of its own medical and industrial radioactive waste. The total amount of generated radioactive waste in Croatia is stored in temporary storages located at two national research institutes, while radioactive waste from Krsko remains in temporary storage on site. National power utility Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP) and Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) coordinate the work regarding decommissioning, spent fuel management and low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW) management in Croatia. Since the majority of work has been done in developing the LILRW management program, the paper focuses on this part of radioactive waste management. Issues of site selection, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance are being discussed. A short description of the national radioactive waste management infrastructure has also been presented. (author)

  5. Quality control in the radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzyski, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive waste management as in industrial activities must mantain in all steps a quality control programme. This control extended from materials acquisition, for waste treatment, to the package deposition is one of the most important activities because it aims to observe the waste acceptance criteria in repositories and allows to guarantee the security of the nuclear facilities. In this work basic knowledges about quality control in waste management and some examples of adopted procedures in other countries are given. (author) [pt

  6. Aube storage center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2010 activity report of the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety, security and radiation protection, environmental monitoring and effluents, public information and communication

  7. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management

  8. Radiological and hygienic aspects in radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, V.D.

    1978-01-01

    The present review of reports deals with radiation-hygienic aspects of treatment and bUrial of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants (NPP). The main principle of handling these wastes, which has been accepted in the USSR, is the treatment of the wastes directly at NPP with subsequent burial of the concentrates at the site. It is permissible to store wastes with mean specific activity in metal containers only temporarily. The most reliable method for fixing radioactive substances from wastes composition with mean specific activity is the method of consolidation by enclosing them in bitumen. Only excessive (disbalanced waters) that have been subjected to special water treatment may be discharged into NPP cooling ponds - if the content of radionuclides in this water is not in excess of the accepted standard at the point of discharge. An indirect radiological method has been developed for obtaining information on 90 Sr content in water; it may be further accepted for other radionuclides. An improved method is suggested for purification of salt-containing liquid wastes with low specific activity by using filters with ionexchange resins. Evaluation of safety at the Central Station of Radioactive Wastes Burial showed reliability of the methods used for treatment and burial of radioactive wastes. Measures for further decrease in the level of personnel irradiation and for environmental protection are enumerated

  9. Radiological and hygienic aspects in radioactive waste processing and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanova, V D

    1978-01-01

    The present review of reports deals with radiation-hygienic aspects of treatment and burial of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants (NPP). The main principle of handling these wastes, which has been accepted in the USSR, is the treatment of the wastes directly at NPP with subsequent burial of the concentrates at the site. It is permissible to store wastes with mean specific activity in metal containers only temporarily. The most reliable method for fixing radioactive substances from wastes composition with mean specific activity is the method of consolidation by enclosing them in bitumen. Only excessive (disbalanced waters) that have been subjected to special water treatment may be discharged into NPP cooling ponds - if the content of radionuclides in this water is not in excess of the accepted standard at the point of discharge. An indirect radiological method has been developed for obtaining information on /sup 90/Sr content in water; it may be further accepted for other radionuclides. An improved method is suggested for purification of salt-containing liquid wastes with low specific activity by using filters with ionexchange resins. Evaluation of safety at the Central Station of Radioactive Wastes Burial showed reliability of the methods used for treatment and burial of radioactive wastes. Measures for further decrease in the level of personnel irradiation and for environmental protection are enumerated.

  10. Actual situation of radioactive waste management in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez O, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on the actual radioactive waste management situation in Guatemala, as well as on the sources and facilities that have obtained the license, and the way to disposal them, when they are considered as radioactive waste. The Direccion General de Energia Nuclear is the entity responsible for the proper and normal performance of the regulatory activity in the country. (author). 3 refs

  11. Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste thermal treatment initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.; Riddelle, J.G.

    1993-03-01

    This paper is a progress report of current Westinghouse Hanford Company engineering activities related to the implementation of a program for the thermal treatment of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste. Topics discussed include a site-specific engineering study, the review of private sector capability in thermal treatment, and thermal treatment of some of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste at other US Department of Energy sites

  12. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marpaung

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS, due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed source. The reuse and recycle policy for spent and disused sealed sources are not already specified yet. The reuse of spent sealed sources can be applied only for the sources which had been used in the medical field for radiotherapy, namely the reuse of a teletherapy Co-60 source in a calibration facility. The recycle of a spent sealed source can be performed for radioactive sources with relatively high activities and long half-lives; however, the recycling activity may only be performed by the manufacturer. To avoid legal conflicts, in the amendment to the Government Regulation No.27 Year 2002 on Management of Radioactive Waste, there will be a recommendation for a new scheme in the management of radioactive waste to facilitate the application of the principles of reduce, reuse, and recycle

  13. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marpaung, T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS), due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed source. The reuse and recycle policy for spent and disused sealed sources are not already specified yet. The reuse of spent sealed sources can be applied only for the sources which had been used in the medical field for radiotherapy, namely the reuse of a teletherapy Co-60 source in a calibration facility. The recycle of a spent sealed source can be performed for radioactive sources with relatively high activities and long half-lives; however, the recycling activity may only be performed by the manufacturer. To avoid legal conflicts, in the amendment to the Government Regulation No.27 Year 2002 on Management of Radioactive Waste, there will be a recommendation for a new scheme in the management of radioactive waste to facilitate the application of the principles of reduce, reuse, and recycle (author)

  14. Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    The generation of low-level radioactive waste is a natural consequence of the societal uses of radioactive materials. These uses include the application of radioactive materials to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease and to research into the causes of human disease and their prevention. Currently, low level radioactive wastes are disposed of in one of three shallow land-burial disposal sites located in Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina. With the passage in December 1980 of Public Law 96-573, The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, the disposal of low-level wastes generated in each state was identified as a responsibility of the state. To fulfill this responsibility, states were encouraged to form interstate compacts for radioactive waste disposal. At the present time, only 37 states have entered into compact agreements, in spite of the clause in Public Law 96-573 that established January 1, 1986, as a target date for implementation of state responsibility for radioactive wastes. Recent action by Congress has resulted in postponement of the implementation date to January 1, 1993

  15. Historic low-level radioactive waste federal policies, programs and oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchette, M.; Kenney, J.; Zelmer, B.

    2011-01-01

    'Full text:' The management of radioactive waste is one of the most serious environmental problems facing Canadians. From the early industrial uses of radioactive material in the 1930s to the development of nuclear power reactors and the medical and experimental use of radio-isotopes today, there has been a steady accumulation of waste products. Historic waste is low-level radioactive waste for which the federal government has accepted responsibility for long-term management. This paper will outline the policy framework used to govern institutional and financial arrangements for the disposal of radioactive waste by waste producers and owners and the major radioactive projects in which the Government of Canada is currently involved. It will provide an overview of the organizations established for the management of historic radioactive waste and NRCan's oversight role. Finally, an overview of the historic waste program activities managed on behalf of the federal government through these organizations in the Port Hope area, the Greater Toronto Area, in Fort McMurray, Alberta and along the Northern Transportation Route is provided. Canada's Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste, sets out principles that govern the institutional and financial arrangements for disposal of radioactive waste by waste producers and owners. According to the Policy Framework: The federal government will ensure that radioactive waste disposal is carried out in a safe, environmentally sound, comprehensive, cost-effective and integrated manner; The federal government has the responsibility to develop policy, to regulate, and to oversee producers and owners; and, The waste producers and owners are responsible, in accordance with the principle of 'polluter pays', for the funding, organization, management and operation of disposal and other facilities required for their wastes. Arrangements may be different for nuclear fuel waste, low-level radioactive waste and

  16. Reduction of radioactive waste by improvement of conditioning facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radde, E.

    2014-07-01

    The NES (Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf) is the only radioactive waste conditions and storage facility in Austria. It manages waste originating from research, industry and medicine. Its main goal is, not only to treat and store waste safety, but also to optimize processes to further reduce the waste volume. To achieve this goal, the New Handling Facility was built. In this paper we will show how the waste volume can be easily reduced by optimizing the conditioning and waste stream process. The NES owns a water treatment plant for cleaning of active waste water, an incineration plant that is used to burn radioactive waste. (Author)

  17. Decommissioning standards: the radioactive waste impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.L.; Crofford, W.N.

    1979-01-01

    Several considerations are important in establishing standards for decommissioning nuclear facilities, sites and materials. The review includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions, and low-level radioactive waste. Decommissioning appears more closely related to radiation protection than to waste management, although it is often carried under waste management programs or activities. Basically, decommissioning is the removal of radioactive contamination from facilities, sites and materials so that they can be returned to unrestricted use or other actions designed to minimize radiation exposure of the public. It is the removed material that is the waste and, as such, it must be managed and disposed of in an environmentally safe manner. It is important to make this distinction even though, for programmatic purposes, decommissioning may be carried under waste management activities. It was concluded that the waste disposal problem from decommissioning activities is significant in that it may produce volumes comparable to volumes produced during the total operating life of a reactor. However, this volume does not appear to place an inordinate demand on shallow land burial capacity. It appears that the greater problems will be associated with occupational exposures and costs, both of which are sensitive to the timing of decommissioning actions

  18. National inventory of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.)

  19. Progress in radioactive graphite waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    Radioactive graphite constitutes a major waste stream which arises during the decommissioning of certain types of nuclear installations. Worldwide, a total of around 250 000 tonnes of radioactive graphite, comprising graphite moderators and reflectors, will require management solutions in the coming years. 14 C is the radionuclide of greatest concern in nuclear graphite; it arises principally through the interaction of reactor neutrons with nitrogen, which is present in graphite as an impurity or in the reactor coolant or cover gas. 3 H is created by the reactions of neutrons with 6 Li impurities in graphite as well as in fission of the fuel. 36 Cl is generated in the neutron activation of chlorine impurities in graphite. Problems in the radioactive waste management of graphite arise mainly because of the large volumes requiring disposal, the long half-lives of the main radionuclides involved and the specific properties of graphite - such as stored Wigner energy, graphite dust explosibility and the potential for radioactive gases to be released. Various options for the management of radioactive graphite have been studied but a generally accepted approach for its conditioning and disposal does not yet exist. Different solutions may be appropriate in different cases. In most of the countries with radioactive graphite to manage, little progress has been made to date in respect of the disposal of this material. Only in France has there been specific thinking about a dedicated graphite waste-disposal facility (within ANDRA): other major producers of graphite waste (UK and the countries of the former Soviet Union) are either thinking in terms of repository disposal or have no developed plans. A conference entitled 'Solutions for Graphite Waste: a Contribution to the Accelerated Decommissioning of Graphite Moderated Nuclear Reactors' was held at the University of Manchester 21-23 March 2007 in order to stimulate progress in radioactive graphite waste management

  20. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Melvin, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is part of the Annual Literature Review issue of Water Environment Research. The review attempts to provide a concise summary of important water-related environmental science and engineering literature of the past year, of which 40 separate topics are discussed. On the topic of radioactive wastes, the present paper deals with the following aspects: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; waste processing and decommissioning; environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides; and remedial actions and treatment. 178 refs

  1. Principles and objective of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in various nuclear applications, for example, in the use of radionuclides in medicine, industry and research or in the nuclear fuel cycle. It must be managed in a safe way independent of its very different characteristics. Establishing the basic safety philosophy is an important contribution to promoting and developing international consensus in radioactive waste management. The principles of radioactive waste management were developed with supporting text to provide such a safety philosophy. They cover the protection of human health and the environment now and in the future within and beyond national borders, the legal framework, the generation and management of radioactive wastes, and the safety of facilities. Details of the legal framework are provided by defining the roles and responsibilities of the Member State, the regulatory body and the waste generators and operators of radioactive waste management facilities. These principles and the responsibilities in radioactive waste management are contained in two recently published top level documents of the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme which is the IAEA's contribution to foster international consensus in radioactive waste management. As the two documents have to cover all aspects of radioactive waste management they have to be formulated in a generic way. Details will be provided in other, more specific documents of the RADWASS programme as outlined in the RADWASS publication plant. The RADWASS documents are published in the Agency's Safety Series, which provides recommendations to Member Sates. Using material from the top level RADWASS documents a convention on the safety of radioactive waste management is under development to provide internationally binding requirements for radioactive waste management. (author). 12 refs

  2. Supercompaction of radioactive waste at NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, K.; Sirola, P.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of radioactive waste management is both scientifically and technically complex and also deeply emotional issue. In the last twenty years the first two aspects have been mostly resolved up to the point of safe implementation. In the Republic of Slovenia, certain fundamentalist approaches in politics and the use of radioactive waste problem as a political tool, brought the final radioactive repository siting effort to a stop. Although small amounts of radioactive waste are produced in research institutes, hospitals and industry, major source of radioactive waste in Slovenia is the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko. When Krsko NPP was originally built, plans were made to construct a permanent radioactive waste disposal facility. This facility was supposed to be available to receive waste from the plant long before the on site storage facility was full. However, the permanent disposal facility is not yet available, and it became necessary to retain the wastes produced at the plant in the on-site storage facility for an extended period of time. Temporary radioactive storage capacity at the plant site has limited capacity and having no other options available NPP Krsko is undertaking major efforts to reduce waste volume generated to allow normal operation. This article describes the Radioactive Waste Compaction Campaign performed from November, 1994 through November, 1995 at Krsko NPP, to enhance the efficiency and safety of storage of radioactive waste. The campaign involved the retrieval, segmented gamma-spectrum measurement, dose rate measurement, compaction, re-packaging, and systematic storage of radioactive wastes which had been stored in the NPP radioactive waste storage building since plant commissioning. (author)

  3. Mixed radioactive and chemotoxic wastes (RMW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    During the first decades of development of nuclear energy, organizations involved in the management of nuclear wastes had their attention focused essentially on radioactive components. The impression may have prevailed that, considering the severe restrictions on radioactive materials, the protection measured applied for radioactive components of wastes would be more than adequate to cope with potential hazards from non radioactive components associated with radioactive wastes. More recently it was acknowledged that such interpretation is not necessarily justified in all cases since certain radioactive wastes also contain non-negligible amounts of heavy metals or hazardous organic components which, either, do not decay, or are subject to completely different decay (decomposition) mechanisms. The main purposes of the present study are to analyze whether mixed radioactive wastes are likely to occur in Europe and in what form, whether one needs a basis for integration for evaluating various forms of toxicity and by which practical interventions possible problems can be avoided or at least reduced. (au)

  4. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the sources and health effects of radioactive wastes. It reveals the techniques to concentrate and immobilize radioactivity and examines the merits of various disposal ideas. The book, which is designed for the lay reader, explains the basic science of atoms,nuclear particles,radioactivity, radiation and health effects

  5. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Mangement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This is the first quarterly update of Radioactive Waste Management: A Summary of State Laws and Administration. Because states have been very active on waste management issues, the whole report is being reissued in this update. It covers the administration, the legislature and the laws in the 50 states related to radioactive waste. The report for each state is divided into four sections: Cover Page; Administrative; Legislative; and Applicable Legislation. The cover page indicates whether or not it is an Agreement State, the low-level waste compacts in which the state is listed as an eligible state, and the high-level waste repository site screening regions in which the state or a portion of it is located. The administrative section provides information on the governor, lead agencies, other involved administrative agencies, relevant commissions, boards and councils and various contacts. The Legislative section provides general information on the legislature and lists legislative leaders, the relevant committees and their chairs and a legislative contact. In the section covering Applicable Legislation, laws related to radiation protection, low-level waste and high-level waste have been summarized. Hazardous waste siting laws are included for states that do not have a siting law covering radioactive waste. The section also contains summaries of relevant bills introduced in 1982 and 1983 legislative sessions and their disposition. In general, the information in this report is accurate as of 15 April 1983

  6. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  7. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs

  8. The transport of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.; Poulter, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Regulations have been developed to ensure the safe transport of all radioactive materials by all modes (road, rail, sea and air). There are no features of radioactive waste which set it aside from other radioactive materials for transport, and the same regulations control all radioactive material transport. These regulations and their underlying basis are described in this paper, and their application to waste transport is outlined. (author)

  9. Low-level radioactive biomedical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarett, G.W.

    A summary of the management and hazards of low-level radioactive biomedical wastes is presented. The volume, disposal methods, current problems, regulatory agencies, and possible solutions to disposal problems are discussed. The benefits derived from using radioactivity in medicine are briefly described. Potential health risks are discussed. The radioactivity in most of the radioactive biomedical waste is a small fraction of that contained naturally in the human body or in the natural environment. Benefit-risk-cost considerations are presented. The cost of managing these wastes is getting so high that a new perspective for comparison of radioactivity (facts, risks, costs, benefits and trade-offs) and alternate approaches to minimize the risk and cost and maximize the benefits is suggested

  10. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders

  11. Integrating the radioactive waste management system into other management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ana Cristina Lourenco da; Nunes Neto, Carlos Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is to be included in the Integrated Management System (IMS) which pursues the continuous improvement of the company's quality, occupational safety and health, and environment protection processes. Radioactive waste management is based on the following aspects: optimization of human and material resources for execution of tasks, including the provision of a radiation protection supervisor to watch over the management of radioactive waste; improved documentation (management plan and procedures); optimization of operational levels for waste classification and release; maintenance of generation records and history through a database that facilitates traceability of information; implementation of radioactive waste segregation at source (source identification, monitoring and decontamination) activities intended to reduce the amount of radioactive waste; licensing of initial storage site for radioactive waste control and storage; employee awareness training on radioactive waste generation; identification and evaluation of emergency situations and response planning; implementation of preventive maintenance program for safety related items; development and application of new, advanced treatment methodologies or systems. These aspects are inherent in the concepts underlying quality management (establishment of administrative controls and performance indicators), environment protection (establishment of operational levels and controls for release), occupational health and safety (establishment of operational controls for exposure in emergency and routine situations and compliance with strict legal requirements and standards). It is noted that optimizing the addressed aspects of a radioactive waste management system further enhances the efficiency of the Integrated Management System for Quality, Environment, and Occupational Safety and Health. (author)

  12. Low and intermediate radioactive waste characterization using MICROSHIELD 5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateescu, Silvia; Pantazi, Doina; Stanciu, Marcela

    2002-01-01

    Low and intermediate radioactive gaseous, liquid and solid waste produced at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant must be known from the point of view of contained radionuclide activity, during all steps of their processing, storage and transport, to ensure the nuclear safety of radioactive waste management. As the waste activity changes by radioactive decay and nuclear transmutation, the evolution in time of these sources is necessary to be assess, for the purpose of biological shielding determination at any time. On the other hand, during the transport of waste package at the repository, the external dose rates must meet the national and international requirements concerning radioactive materials transportation on public roads. In this paper, a calculation methodology for waste characterization based on external exposure rate measurement and on sample analysis results is presented. The time evolution of waste activity, as well as the corresponding shielding at different moments of management process, has been performed using MICROSHIELD-5 code. The spent resins proceeded from systems for clean-up and purification of cooling water and moderator, water from spent fuel storage bays, etc. have been analyzed. In this paper an example of spent ionic resins characterization, using the MICROSHIELD 5 code, is presented. (authors)

  13. Attention: no radioactive waste accepted on 7 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Anouncement by the RW section of the Radiation Protection Group: The Treatment Centre for Radioactive Waste will not be accepting waste on Friday, 7 September 2012. Thank you for adjusting your activities accordingly.

  14. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-3: Basis for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, A.; Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Woodberry, S.

    1994-09-01

    This study characterizes low-level radioactive waste types that may exceed Class C limits at light water reactors, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates radionuclide content and distribution within the waste. Waste types that may exceed Class C limits include metal components that become activated during operations, process wastes such as cartridge filters and decontamination resins, and activated metals from decommissioning activities. Operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants are reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of low-level waste exceeding Class C limits that is generated per fuel cycle, including amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste. Radionuclide content is calculated for specific activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste are used to estimate radionuclide content for process wastes. Volumes and activities are also estimated for decommissioning activated metals that exceed Class C limits. To estimate activation levels of decommissioning waste, six typical light water reactors are modeled and analyzed. This study does not consider concentration averaging

  15. Radioactive waste management - with evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The select committee was appointed to report on the present (1988) situation and future prospects in the field of radioactive waste management in the European Community. The report covers all aspects of the subject. After an introduction the parts of the report are concerned with the control of radiation hazards, the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste, the control of radioactive effluents, storage and disposal of solid radioactive wastes, research programmes, surface storage versus deep geological disposal of long-term wastes, the future of reprocessing and the public debate. Part 10 is a resume of the main conclusions and recommendations. It is recommended that the House of Lords debate the issue. The oral and written evidence presented to the committee is included in the report. (U.K.)

  16. Institutional radioactive waste management in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarik, P.; Svoboda, K.; Podlaha, J.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear research institute Rez, plc. (mentioned below as NRI) has had a dominant position in the area of the nuclear research and development in the Czech Republic, the Central and the Eastern Europe. Naturally, the radioactive waste management is an integral part of the nuclear industry, research and development. For that reason, there is Centre of the radioactive waste management (mentioned below as Centre) in the NRI. This Centre is engaged in the radioactive waste treatment, decontamination, characterisation, decommissioning and other relevant activities. This paper describes the system of technology and other information about institutional radioactive waste management in the NRI. (authors)

  17. Regulatory aspects and activities in the field of radioactive waste management in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastchiev, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bulgaria uses nuclear power for electricity generation and for a variety of nuclear applications in industry, research and medicine. Six WWER type Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) went into operation at Kozloduy between 1974 and 1991. Until 1988 spent fuel was transported back to the former Soviet Union, but since then has been stored on site. Operational low level waste is stored on site, but since 1993 a volume reduction strategy using supercompaction has been employed, which has reduced stored waste volumes by a factor of four. Institutional radioactive wastes are disposed at the Novi Han near surface repository, located 35 km from Sofia. It was commissioned in 1964 and is now about half full. Siting studies have begun for a new near surface repository that would accept both institutional and NPP waste. A legislative and regulatory framework, as well as organizational and institutional arrangements, are in place. A national strategy that includes provisions for compiling a national inventory of spent fuel and radioactive waste and provisions for funding spent fuel and radioactive waste management, has been developed. The paper elaborates on the current situation regarding radioactive waste management in Bulgaria. (author)

  18. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  19. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1985-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) attaches considerable importance to its cooperation with Japan. It was said in the annual conference in 1977 that the presentation of the acceptable policy regarding radioactive waste management is the largest single factor for gaining public confidence when nuclear power is adopted with assurance. The risk connected with radioactive wastes was often presented as the major obstacle to the development of nuclear energy, however, an overall impression of optimism and confidence prevailed by the technical appraisal of the situation in this field by the committee of the NEA. This evolution can be easily explained by the significant progress achieved in radioactive waste management both at the technical level and with respect to the implementation of special legislation and the establishment of specialized institutions and financing schemes. More research will focus on the optimization of the technical, safety and economic aspects of specific engineering designs at specific sites on the long term isolation of wastes, and the NEA contributes to this general effort. The implementation of disposal programs is also in progress. (Kako, I.)

  20. The radioactive waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareeduddin, S.; Hirling, J.

    1983-01-01

    The international conference on radioactive waste management was held in Seattle, Washington, from 16 to 20 May 1983. The response was gratifying, reflecting world-wide interest: it was attended by 528 participants from 29 Member States of the IAEA and eight international organizations. The conference programme was structured to permit reviews and presentation of up-to-date information on five major topics: - waste management policy and its implementation: national and international approaches; legal, economic, environmental, and social aspects (four sessions with 27 papers from 16 countries and four international organizations); - handling, treatment, and conditioning of wastes from nuclear facilities, nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants, including the handling and treatment of gaseous wastes and wastes of specific types (five sessions with 35 papers); - storage and underground disposal of radioactive wastes: general, national concepts, underground laboratories, and designs of repositories for high-level, and low- and intermediate-level waste disposal (five sessions with 35 papers); - environmental and safety assessment of waste management systems: goals methodologies, assessments for geological repositories, low- and intermediate-level wastes, and mill tailings (four sessions with 26 papers); - radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear operations: status and perspectives, environmental transport processes, and control of radioactive waste disposal into the environment (three sessions with 23 papers)

  1. Kansas State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Kansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kansas. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Kansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Kansas

  2. [Microbiological Aspects of Radioactive Waste Storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, A V; Gorbunova, O A; German, K E; Zakharova, E V; Tregubova, V E; Ershov, B G; Nazina, T N

    2015-01-01

    The article gives information about the microorganisms inhabiting in surface storages of solid radioactive waste and deep disposal sites of liquid radioactive waste. It was shown that intensification of microbial processes can lead to significant changes in the chemical composition and physical state of the radioactive waste. It was concluded that the biogeochemical processes can have both a positive effect on the safety of radioactive waste storages (immobilization of RW macrocomponents, a decreased migration ability of radionuclides) and a negative one (biogenic gas production in subterranean formations and destruction of cement matrix).

  3. Management of radioactive wastes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1994-01-01

    The policy and principles on management of radioactive wastes are stipulated. Cement solidification and bituminization unit has come into trial run. Solid radioactive waste is stored in tentative storage vault built in each of nuclear facilities. Seventeen storages associated with applications of nuclear technology and radioisotopes have been built for provinces. Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes pursues the policy of 'regional disposal'. Four repositories have been planned to be built in northwest, southwest, south and east China respectively. A program for treatment and disposal of high level radioactive waste has been made

  4. Development of Specifications for Radioactive Waste Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide guidelines for the development of waste package specifications that comply with waste acceptance requirements for storage and disposal of radioactive waste. It will assist waste generators and waste package producers in selecting the most significant parameters and in developing and implementing specifications for each individual type of waste and waste package. This publication also identifies and reviews the activities and technical provisions that are necessary to meet safety requirements; in particular, selection of the significant safety parameters and preparation of specifications for waste forms, waste containers and waste packages using proven approaches, methods and technologies. This report provides guidance using a systematic, stepwise approach, integrating the technical, organizational and administrative factors that need to be considered at each step of planning and implementing waste package design, fabrication, approval, quality assurance and control. The report reflects the considerable experience and knowledge that has been accumulated in the IAEA Member States and is consistent with the current international requirements, principles, standards and guidance for the safe management of radioactive waste

  5. Development of Specifications for Radioactive Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-15

    The main objective of this publication is to provide guidelines for the development of waste package specifications that comply with waste acceptance requirements for storage and disposal of radioactive waste. It will assist waste generators and waste package producers in selecting the most significant parameters and in developing and implementing specifications for each individual type of waste and waste package. This publication also identifies and reviews the activities and technical provisions that are necessary to meet safety requirements; in particular, selection of the significant safety parameters and preparation of specifications for waste forms, waste containers and waste packages using proven approaches, methods and technologies. This report provides guidance using a systematic, stepwise approach, integrating the technical, organizational and administrative factors that need to be considered at each step of planning and implementing waste package design, fabrication, approval, quality assurance and control. The report reflects the considerable experience and knowledge that has been accumulated in the IAEA Member States and is consistent with the current international requirements, principles, standards and guidance for the safe management of radioactive waste.

  6. Selecting device for processing method of radioactive gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Ryoichi; Komoda, Norihisa.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To extend the period of replacement of a filter for adsorbing radioactive material by discharging waste gas containing radioactive material produced from an atomic power equipment after treating it by a method selected on the basis of the results of measurement of wind direction. Structure: Exhaust gas containing radioactive material produced from atomic power equipment is discharged after it is treated by a method selected on the basis of the results of wind direction measurement. For Instance, in case of sea wind the waste gas passes through a route selected for this case and is discharged through the waste gas outlet. When the sea wind disappears (that is, when a land wind or calm sets in), the exhaust gas is switched to a route for the case other than that of the sea wind, so that it passes through a filter consisting of active carbon where the radioactive material is removed through adsorption. The waste gas now free from the radioactive material is discharged through the waste gas outlet. (Moriyama, K.)

  7. Submission of the national commission of the public debate on the options concerning the long life high and medium activity radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document deals with the presentation of a public debate on the radioactive wastes management and the opportunities of its organization. It presents successively the long life high and medium activity radioactive wastes, the today radioactive wastes management policy and some questions and topics which could be discussed during the debate. (A.L.B.)

  8. Current practice of incineration of low-level institutional radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L.R.; McCampbell, M.R.; Thompson, J.D.

    1981-02-01

    During 1972, 142 medical and academic institutions were surveyed to assess the current practice of incineration of low-level radioactive waste. This was one activity carried out by the University of Maryland as part of a contract with EG and G Idaho, Inc., to site a radioactive waste incineration system. Of those surveyed, 46 (approximately 32%) were presently incinerating some type of radioactive waste. All were using controlled-air, multistage incinerators. Incinerators were most often used to burn animal carcasses and other biological wastes (96%). The average size unit had a capacity of 113 kg/h. Disposal of liquid scintillation vials posed special problems; eight institutions incinerated full scintillation vials and five incinerated scintillation fluids in bulk form. Most institutions (87%) used the incinerator to dispose of other wastes in addition to radioactive wastes. About half (20) of the institutions incinerating radioactive wastes reported shortcomings in their incineration process; those most often mentioned were: problems with liquid scintillation wastes, ash removal, melting glass, and visible smoke. Frequently cited reasons for incinerating wastes were: less expensive than shipping for commercial shallow land burial, volume reduction, convenience, and closure of existing disposal sites

  9. Method of disposing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Kei.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To enable safety ocean disposal of radioactive wastes by decreasing the leaching rate of radioactive nucleides, improving the quick-curing nature and increasing the durability. Method : A mixture comprising 2 - 20 parts by weight of alkali metal hydroxide and 100 parts by weight of finely powdered aqueous slags from a blast furnace is added to radioactive wastes to solidify them. In the case of medium or low level radioactive wastes, the solidification agent is added by 200 parts by weight to 100 parts by weight of the wastes and, in the case of high level wastes, the solidification agent is added in such an amount that the wastes occupy about 20% by weight in the total of the wastes and the solidification agent. Sodium hydroxide used as the alkali metal hydroxide is partially replaced with sodium carbonate, a water-reducing agent such as lignin sulfonate is added to improve the fluidity and suppress the leaching rate and the wastes are solidified in a drum can. In this way, corrosions of the vessel can be suppressed by the alkaline nature and the compression strength, heat stability and the like of the product also become excellent. (Sekiya, K.)

  10. Storage drums for radio-active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knights, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    The lid of a storage drum for radioactive waste is secured by a series of clamps each of which has a hook for engaging the rim of the drum. Each clamp has an indicating means whereby a remote operator can check that the lid is secured to the drum. In a second embodiment, the position of an arm acts as a visual indication as to whether or not the clamp is in engagement with the container rim. (author)

  11. Concept and Planning of Site Preparation for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Jawa and Surrounding Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heru Sriwahyuni; Sastrowardoyo, Pratomo B.; Teddy Sumantri; Dewi Susilowati; Hendra Adhi Pratama; Syarmufni, A.

    2008-01-01

    Concept and planning for radioactive waste disposal in Jawa and surrounding area have been done. These activities were part of the investigation for preparation of repository location in Jawa. In this report, the summary of previous sitting activities, the waste inventory in Radioactive Waste Technology Centre, and list of important factors for sitting on radioactive waste disposal location. Several potential areas such as Karawang, Subang, Majalengka, Rembang, Tuban, Madura will be the focus for next activities. The result will be part of activities report regarding the preparation of repository location in Jawa and surrounding area, that will be used as recommendation prior to radioactive waste management policy. (author)

  12. Engineering materials for high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zhijian

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can arise from a wide range of human activities and have different physical and chemical forms with various radioactivity. The high level radioactive wastes (HLW)are characterized by nuclides of very high initial radioactivity, large thermal emissivity and the long life-term. The HLW disposal is highly concerned by the scientists and the public in the world. At present, the deep geological disposal is regarded as the most reasonable and effective way to safely dispose high-level radioactive wastes in the world. The conceptual model of HLW geological disposal in China is based on a multi-barrier system that combines an isolating geological environment with an engineering barrier system(EBS). The engineering materials in EBS include the vitrified HLW, canister, overpack, buffer materials and backfill materials. Referring to progress in the world, this paper presents the function, the requirement for material selection and design, and main scientific projects of R and D of engineering materials in HLW repository. (authors)

  13. Radioactive waste interim storage in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The short summary on the radioactive waste interim storage in Germany covers the following issues: importance of interim storage in the frame of radioactive waste management, responsibilities and regulations, waste forms, storage containers, transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing plants, central interim storage facilities (Gorleben, Ahaus, Nord/Lubmin), local interim storage facilities at nuclear power plant sites, federal state collecting facilities, safety, radiation exposure in Germany.

  14. Communication from the Radioactive Waste Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste service of the Radiation protection Group informs you that as of 15 April 2011 radioactive waste can be delivered to the waste treatment centre (Bldg. 573) only during the following hours: Mon- Thu: 08:00 – 11:30 / 13:30 – 16:00 Fri : 08:00 – 11:30 An electronic form must be filled in before the arrival of the waste at the treatment centre: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/General/RadioactiveWaste for further information, please call 73171.

  15. Radioactive wastes and their disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, L.

    1984-01-01

    The classification of radioactive wastes is given and the achievements evaluated in the disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. An experimental pilot unit was installed at the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant for the bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes. UJV has developed a mobile automated high-output unit for cementation. In 1985 the unit will be tested at the Jaslovske Bohunice and the Dukovany nuclear power plants. A prototype press for processing solid wastes was manufactured which is in operation at the Jaslovske Bohunice plant. A solidification process for atypical wastes from long-term storage of spent fuel elements has been developed to be used for the period of nuclear power plant decommissioning. (E.S.)

  16. Method of processing radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootaka, Hisashi; Aizu, Tadashi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the volume-reducing effect for the radioactive solids wastes by freezing and then pulverizing them. Method: Miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes produced from a nuclear power plant and packed in vinyl resin bags are filled in a drum can and nitrogen gas at low temperature (lower than 0 0 C) from a cylinder previously prepared by filling liquid nitrogen (at 15kg/cm 2 , -196 0 C) to freeze the radioactive solid wastes. Thereafter, a hydraulic press is inserted into the drum can to compress and pulverize the thus freezed miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes into powder. The powder thus formed does not expand even after removing the hydraulic press from the drum can, whereby the volume reduction of the radioactive solid wastes can be carried out effectively. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Gaseous radioactive waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizawa, Hideo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To prevent explosion of hydrogen gas within gaseous radioactive waste by removing the hydrogen gas by means of a hydrogen absorber. Structure: A coolant extracted from a reactor cooling system is sprayed by nozzle into a gaseous phase (hydrogen) portion within a tank, thus causing slipping of radioactive rare gas. The gaseous radioactive waste rich in hydrogen, which is purged in the tank, is forced by a waste gas compressor into a hydrogen occlusion device. The hydrogen occlusion device is filled with hydrogen occluding agents such as Mg, Mg-Ni alloy, V-Nb alloy, La-Ni alloy and so forth, and hydrogen in the waste gas is removed through reaction to produce hydrogen metal. The gaseous radioactive waste, which is deprived of hydrogen and reduced in volume, is stored in an attenuation tank. The hydrogen stored in the hydrogen absorber is released and used again as purge gas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Management of small quantities of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance primarily to developing Member States on the predisposal management of small quantities of radioactive waste arising from hospitals, laboratories, industries, institutions, research reactors and research centres.The publication covers the management of liquid, solid and gaseous radioactive wastes at the users' premises and gives general guidance on procedures at a centralized waste management facility. Predisposal management of radioactive waste includes handling, treatment, conditioning, storage and transportation. This publication provides information and guidance on the following topics: national waste management framework; origin and characteristics of radioactive waste arising from users generating small quantities of waste; radioactive waste management concepts appropriate for small quantities; local waste management; the documentation and approval necessary for the consignment of waste to a centralized waste management facility; centralized waste management; exemption of radionuclides from the regulatory body; transportation; environmental monitoring; quality assurance for the whole predisposal process; regional co-operation aspects

  19. Management and control of radioactive wastes in Ghana | Gbadago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is responsible for monitoring and tracking all radioactive materials imported, stored or exported. The profile of radioactive sources in active use are also presented, in addition to spent radioactive sources currently in the custody of the NRWMC as part of the inventory for creating databases on radioactive wastes in Ghana.

  20. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J.

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs

  1. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through

  3. The management of radioactive wastes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Lijun

    2001-01-01

    Full text: This paper wants to introduce the management of radioactive wastes in China. The Management System. The management system of radioactive waste consists of the institutional system and the regulatory system. During the recent 30 years, more than 50 national standards and trades standards have been issued, will be published, or are being prepared, covering essentially all the process of wastes management. State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) is in charge of not only the environmental protection view but also nuclear safety surveillance of radioactive waste management, especially in the aspect of HLW disposal. China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) is a centralized management of the government responsible. China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC) is responsible for the management work of radioactive wastes within its system, implementing national policies on wastes management, and siting, construction and operation of LILW repositories and HLW deep geological repository. The Policies of Radioactive Waste Management. The LILW for temporary storage shall be solidified as early as possible. Regional repository for disposal of low-and intermediate-level wastes shall be built. HLW is Centralized disposal in geological repository. The radioactive wastes and waste radioisotope sources must be collected to the signified place (facilities) for a relatively centralized management in each province, The Accompanying Mineral radioactive wastes can be stored in the tailing dumps or connected to the storage place for a temporal storage, then transported to the nearby tailing dumps of installation or tailing dumps of mineral-accompanying waste for an eventual storage. Activities in the Wastes Management Radioactive wastes treatment and conditioning Since 1970, the study on the HLLW vitrification has been initiated. In 1990, a cold test bench for the vitrification (BVPM), introduced from Germany, was completed in Sichuan Province. As for the LILW, the cementation

  4. Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    Current inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy radioactive wastes were compiled through December 31, 1982, based on the most reliable information available from government sources and the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Future waste and spent fuel to be generated over the next 40 years and characteristics of these materials are also presented, based on the latest DOE/EIA projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related and industrial and institutional activities. Materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter bases, are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, active uranium mill tailings, airborne waste, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated, based on reported or calculated isotopic compositions. One chapter gives broad, summary data on the costs of spent fuel and radioactive waste management and disposal to provide an economic perspective. This chapter is not intended as a definitive guide, but it is a source of reasonable, order-of-magnitude costs and also provides references to more-detailed and scenario-specific studies. An appendix on generic flowsheets and source terms used for the projections is also included

  5. The national approach to radioactive waste management: the Philippine experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Marcelo, E.A.; Junio, J.B.; Alamares, A.L.; Salom, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) is tasked, among others, with the legally-mandated twin function of advancing and regulating the beneficial uses of nuclear energy and radiation technology. The PNRI is also responsible, among others, for the safe management of radioactive wastes generated by all licensed users of radioisotopes, including about 100 medical and industrial users. This papers describes the efforts taken by the PNRI, with technical assistance provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency to establish a low level radioactive waste management facility in the country and the subsequent upgrading of its waste management infrastructure. The conceptual approach and sebsequent implementation of the work programme is presented. Problems attendant to these efforts are briefly outlined including treatment methodologies for specific wastes. The commissioning and operational experiences using a batch type chemical precipitation plant appropriate for the volume of liquid wastes generated in the country is also presented. Data on radioactive waste arisings from 1980 are also presented including anticipated or projected wastes arisings should the repair of the PRR-1 (Philippine Research Reactor-1) research reactor be completed. The government initiatives towards the organizational development of a centralized waste management facility for low level wastes are also discussed. The formulation and adoption of a waste acceptance criteria and the R and D activities on various treatment procedures are also described. The current activities of the PNRI, as the lead agency in two important areas, one of which is in radioactive waste management, will be reported. National, regional and international cooperation in radioactive waste management will also be presented

  6. Conflict, public communication, and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Of the technical, political, and social problems associated with radioactive waste management, least is known about the latter two. Lay persons tend to generalize negative attitudes about other nuclear activity to radioactive waste management. Thus, conflict appears inevitable between the general public, citizen action groups, and decision-makers on radioactive waste management. The basis of conflict can be found in the value orientation of certain groups and in differing perceptions of risk. The paper is in three parts. First the sources of conflict over radioactive waste management issues are reviewed. The negative attitudes and fears of the public toward different types of projects involving radioactivity, value conflicts, and differential perceptions of risk are cited as sources. Next are discussed the consequences of conflict in terms of sociological theory. Finally, discussed is how conflict can be directed and managed to produce an informed decision-making process. When the public is sensitized to an issue, when prevailing attitudes on the issue are negative, and when perceived risks are high - all of which are characteristic of waste management issues - specific steps should be taken to establish a legitimate process of communication and interaction between the public and the sponsor agency. When conflict is recognized as inevitable, the goal of a communications programs is no longer to avoid it. It is to use the increased awareness to increase knowledge about waste management issues and public participation in decisions so that the final solution is acceptable at some level to all parties. Other benefits, such as increased agency/group cohesion, can also be realized as consequence of conflict

  7. Prospects of nuclear waste management and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2015-01-01

    The policy of radioactive waste management in the Slovak Republic is based on the principles defined by law on the National Nuclear Fund (NJF) and sets basic objectives: 1 Safe and reliable nuclear decommissioning; 2 The minimization of radioactive waste; 3. Selection of a suitable fuel cycle; 4 Safe storage of radioactive waste (RAW) 5 Security chain management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel (SNF); 6 Nuclear safety; 7 The application of a graduated approach; 8 Respect of the principle 'a polluter pays'; 9 Objective decision-making process; 10 Responsibility. In connection with the above objectives, it appears necessary to build required facilities that are listed in this article.

  8. Predisposal management of high level radioactive waste. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in the generation of electricity in nuclear power plants and in the use of radioactive material in industry, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized. The principles and requirements that govern the safety of the management of radioactive waste are presented in 'The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management', 'Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety' and 'Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, Including Decommissioning'. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the principles and requirements established in Refs for the predisposal management of HLW. This Safety Guide applies to the predisposal management of HLW. For liquid HLW arising from the reprocessing of spent fuel the recommendations of this Safety Guide apply from when liquid waste from the first extraction process is collected for storage and subsequent processing. Recommendations and guidance on the storage of spent fuel, whether or not declared as waste, subsequent to its removal from the storage facility of a reactor are provided in Refs. For spent fuel declared as waste this Safety Guide applies to all activities subsequent to its removal from the storage facility of a reactor and prior to its disposal. Requirements pertaining to the transport of spent fuel, whether or not declared as waste, and of all forms of HLW are established. This Safety Guide provides recommendations on the safety aspects of managing HLW, including the planning, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of equipment or facilities for the predisposal management of HLW. It addresses the following elements: (a) The characterization and processing (i.e. pretreatment

  9. International intercomparison and harmonization projects for demonstrating the safety of radioactive waste management, decommissioning and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, Phil; O'Donnell, Patricio; Jova Sed, Luis; Batandjieva, Borislava; Rowat, John; Kinker, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and the safety of radioactive waste management and the international safety standards on radioactive waste management, decommissioning and radioactive waste disposal call for assessment and demonstration of the safety of facilities and activities; during siting, design and construction prior to operation, periodically during operation and at the end of lifetime or upon closure of a waste disposal facility. In addition, more recent revisions of the international safety standards require the development of a safety case for such facilities and activities, documentation presenting all the arguments supporting the safety of the facilities and activities covering site and engineering features, quantitative safety assessment and management systems. Guidance on meeting these safety requirements also indicates the need for a graded approach to safety assessment, with the extent and complexity of the assessment being proportional to the complexity of the activity or facility, and its propensity for radiation hazard. Safety assessment approaches and methodologies have evolved over several decades and international interest in these developments has been considerable as they can be complex and often subjective, which has led to international projects being established aimed at harmonization. The IAEA has sponsored a number of such initiatives, particularly in the area of disposal facility safety, but more recently in the areas of pre disposal waste management and decommissioning, including projects known as ISAM, ASAM, SADRWMS and DeSa. The projects have a number of common aspects including development of standardized methodological approaches, application on test cases and assessment review; they also have activity and facility specific elements. The paper presents an overview of the projects, the outcomes from the projects to date and their future direction aimed very much at practical application of

  10. Strategic areas in radioactive waste management. The viewpoint and work orientations of the Nea radioactive waste management committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) is a forum of senior operators, regulators, policy makers, and senior representatives of R and D institutions in the field of radioactive waste management. The Committee assists Member countries by providing objective guidance on the solution of radioactive waste problems, and promotes Safety in the short- and long-term management of radioactive waste. This report identifies some of the major challenges currently faced by national waste management programmes, and describes the strategic areas in which the RWMC should focus its efforts in future years. (author)

  11. Alternatives evaluation of high activity radioactive wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciallella, N.R.; Petraitis, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Different alternatives considered in the world to be used as barriers to isolate the high level radioactive from the environment wastes produced during the electric energy generation of nuclear origin are presented. Engineering and geologic barriers, are analyzed, considering nuclear fuel cycles with or without plutonium recycling; to that purpose the consideration of elements such as durability and resistance of the various engineering, availability of the fabrication processes, associated radiological impact, geological media apt to be used as geological barrier. Finally, the scopes of the Feasibility Study and Engineering draft are presented for the construction of a repository for high-level radioactive wastes, for the Argentine Nuclear Program needs, which contemplates the construction of six nuclear power plants with a potential installed towards the year 2000 GW( e ), with natural and/or lowly enriched uranium power plants and recycling of plutonium generated in the cycle. (Author) [es

  12. Radioactive waste management in West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    The technologies developed in West Germany for radioactive waste management are widely reviewed. The first topic in this review paper is the disposal of low- and middle-level radioactive liquid wastes. Almost all these liquid wastes are evaporated, and the typical decontamination factor attained is 10/sup 4/ -- 10/sup 6/. The second topic is the solidification of residuals. Short explanation is given to bituminization and some new processes. The third topic is high-level liquid wastes. Degradation of glass quality due to various radiation is discussed. Embedding of small glass particles containing radioactive wastes into metal is also explained. Disposals of low-level solid wastes and the special wastes produced from reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication are explained. Final disposal of radioactive wastes in halite is discussed as the last topic. Many photographs are used to illustrate the industrial or experimental use of those management methods.

  13. National policy for control of radioactive sources and radioactive waste from non-power applications in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevinskas, G.; Mastauskas, A.

    2001-01-01

    According to the Law on Radiation Protection of the Republic of Lithuania (passed in 1999), the Radiation Protection Centre of the Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for the radiation protection of public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. One of its responsibilities is the control of radioactive sources from the beginning of their 'life cycle', when they are imported in, used, transported and placed as spent into the radioactive waste storage facilities. For the effective control of sources there is national authorization system (notification- registration-licensing) based on the international requirements and recommendations introduced, which also includes keeping and maintaining the Register of Sources, controlling and investigating events while illegally carrying on or in possession of radioactive material, decision making and performing the state radiation protection supervision and control of users of radioactive sources, controlling, within the limits of competence, the radioactive waste management activities in nuclear and non-nuclear power applications. According to the requirements set out in the Law on Radiation Protection and the Government Resolution 'On Establishment of the State Register of the Sources of Ionizing Radiation and Exposure of Workers' (1999) and supplementary legal acts, all licence-holders conducting their activities with sources of ionizing radiation have to present all necessary data to the State Register after annual inventory of sources, after installation of new sources, after decommissioning of sources, after disposal of spent sources, after finishing the activities with the generators of ionizing radiation. The information to the Radiation Protection Centre has to be presented every week from the Customs Department of the Ministry of Finance about all sources of ionizing radiation imported to or exported from Lithuania and the information about the companies performed these

  14. Risk assessment and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Problems of radioactive waste management, both real and apparent, have provided a serious constraint in the development of nuclear power. Several studies have been conducted in an attempt to evaluate the actual (quantifiable) risks of radioactive waste management and place them in a reasonable perspective. These studies are reviewed and discussed. Generally, the studies indicate the risks to be of a level of seriousness which might normally be considered acceptable in current society. However, it is apparent that this acceptability has not been attained and public apprehension prevails. To understand the reasons for this apprehension requires an assessment of those factors of ''perceived'' risks which play a major role in determining public attitudes toward radioactive waste management programs and nuclear power, in general. Such factors might include the spector of legacies of harm to future generations, genetic effects, nuclear garbage dumps, proliferation of plutonium inventories, nuclear terrorism, etc. A major problem in development of acceptable waste management policies and programs requires not only the recognition of the importance of perceived risk factors but development of a methodology for their incorporation in planning and conduct of such activities. Some approaches to the development of this methodology are discussed

  15. Analysis of the Institutional Framework For Radioactive Waste Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Wisnubroto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the infrastructure for radioactive waste management in Indonesia has been studied using several parameters, i.e. policy, regulatory authorities and their regulations, implementing organizations and financial system. By considering the international trends and the Indonesian program to utilize nuclear power, the infrastructure of radioactive waste management needs to be improved. The Act No. 10/1997 on Nuclear Energy for the future beneficence will have to be amended to incorporate several missing key points on waste management, such as definition of radioactive waste, disposal of Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW, and classification of waste. Full involvement of some important stakeholders, especially the State Ministry of Environment, on the radioactive waste management infrastructure is required since some radioactive waste is generated from non nuclear waste. Assigning full authority to the State Ministry of Environment for regulating radioactive waste generated by non nuclear facilities may be more effective, whereas BAPETEN is still holding onto control over the waste generated from nuclear facilities. In the near future, several regulations on clearance level, classification of waste, NORM/TENORM, and financial system are expected to be set up for urgent need. By considering the high risk for handling of radioactivity, including for transportation and storage, the liability or assurance of the safety for such activities must be accounted for. Finally, establishment of financial system for long term waste management in Indonesia needs to be implemented to ensure that the radioactive waste will not be the burden on future generations.

  16. Analysis of the Institutional Framework For Radioactive Waste Management in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnubroto, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the infrastructure for radioactive waste management in Indonesia has been studied using several parameters, i.e. policy, regulatory authorities and their regulations, implementing organizations and financial system. By considering the international trends and the Indonesian program to utilize nuclear power, the infrastructure of radioactive waste management needs to be improved. The Act No. 10/1997 on Nuclear Energy for the future beneficence will have to be amended to incorporate several missing key points on waste management, such as definition of radioactive waste, disposal of Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW), and classification of waste. Full involvement of some important stakeholders, especially the State Ministry of Environment, on the radioactive waste management infrastructure is required since some radioactive waste is generated from non nuclear waste. Assigning full authority to the State Ministry of Environment for regulating radioactive waste generated by non nuclear facilities may be more effective, whereas BAPETEN is still holding onto control over the waste generated from nuclear facilities. In the near future, several regulations on clearance level, classification of waste, NORM/TENORM, and financial system are expected to be set up for urgent need. By considering the high risk for handling of radioactivity, including for transportation and storage, the liability or assurance of the safety for such activities must be accounted for. Finally, establishment of financial system for long term waste management in Indonesia needs to be implemented to ensure that the radioactive waste will not be the burden on future generations (author)

  17. Sea disposal of radioactive wastes: The London Convention 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.L.; Linsley, G.

    1994-01-01

    For many years the oceans were used for the disposal of industrial wastes, including radioactive wastes. In the 1970s, the practice became subject to an international convention which had the aim of regularizing procedures and preventing activities which could lead to marine pollution. This article traces the history of radioactive waste disposal at sea from the time when it first came within the view of international organizations up to the present. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Nuclear fuel cycle waste recycling technology deverlopment - Radioactive metal waste recycling technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Moon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Park, Sang Yoon

    1998-08-01

    With relation to recycling of the radioactive metal wastes which are generated during operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the following were described in this report. 1. Analysis of the state of the art on the radioactive metal waste recycling technologies. 2. Economical assessment on the radioactive metal waste recycling. 3. Process development for radioactive metal waste recycling, A. Decontamination technologies for radioactive metal waste recycling. B. Decontamination waste treatment technologies, C. Residual radioactivity evaluation technologies. (author). 238 refs., 60 tabs., 79 figs

  19. Proposed goals for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.P.; Hoos, I.R.; McGrath, P.E.; Metlay, D.S.; Stoneman, W.C.

    1978-05-01

    A special, seven member, interdisciplinary task group of consultants was established in January 1976 to propose goals for the national waste management program. This is the report of that group. The proposed goals are intended as a basis for the NRC to establish a policy by which to guide and coordinate the activities of government, business, and academic organizations whose responsibility it will be to manage radioactive wastes. The report is based on findings, interpretations and analysis by the authors who examined selected primary literature and interviewed many individuals concerned with waste management. The authors extended the scope of their inquiry and proposed goals to cover 'all technical and societal aspects necessary to an operating waste management system, rather than dealing with the regulatory process alone.' The waste management goals as developed are simple statements of principles which appear to the authors to be important conditions to insure the proper establishment and operation of a system to manage radioactive wastes.' In brief, the goals are designed to protect people and things of value in an equitable manner

  20. MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘自强

    1994-01-01

    The policy and principles on management of radioactive wastes are stipulated.Cement solidification and bituminization unit has come into trial run.Solid radioactive waste is stored in tentative storage vault built in each of nuclear facilities.Seventeen storages associated with applications of nuclear technology and radioisotopes have been built for provinces.Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes pursues the policy of “regional disposal”.Four repositories have been planned to be built in northwest.southwest,south and east China respectively.A program for treatment and disposal of high level radioactive waste has been made.

  1. The long-term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussat, A.

    1988-01-01

    After setting out the terms of reference of ANDRA (National agency for the management of radioactive waste), the author describes the current situation and the projects for the surface storage of waste of low and medium activity. He then discusses the work which has started on the construction of an underground laboratory for studying the storage of long life waste [fr

  2. The Radioactive Waste Management at Studsvik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, R; Lindskog, A

    1966-04-15

    The report was originally prepared as a contribution to the discussions in an IAEA panel on economics of radioactive waste management held in Vienna from 13 - 17 December 1965. It contains the answers and comments to the questions of a questionnaire for the panel concerning the various operations associated with the management (collection, transport, treatment, discharge, storage, and operational monitoring) of: - radioactive liquid wastes, except high-level effluents from reactor fuel recovering operations; - solid wastes, except those produced from treatment of high level wastes; - gaseous wastes produced from treatment of the foregoing liquid and solid wastes; - equipment decontamination facilities and radioactive laundries.

  3. The Radioactive Waste Management at Studsvik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedlund, R.; Lindskog, A.

    1966-04-01

    The report was originally prepared as a contribution to the discussions in an IAEA panel on economics of radioactive waste management held in Vienna from 13 - 17 December 1965. It contains the answers and comments to the questions of a questionnaire for the panel concerning the various operations associated with the management (collection, transport, treatment, discharge, storage, and operational monitoring) of: - radioactive liquid wastes, except high-level effluents from reactor fuel recovering operations; - solid wastes, except those produced from treatment of high level wastes; - gaseous wastes produced from treatment of the foregoing liquid and solid wastes; - equipment decontamination facilities and radioactive laundries

  4. Greater-than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste management concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 assigned to the Federal Government responsibility for the disposal of commercial greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW). In 1987, DOE committed to Congress to accept GTCC LLW and provide storage and other waste management as necessary until disposal capacity is available. Current estimates are that about 6,000 m 3 of unpackaged GTCC LLW will be generated to the year 2020. Generators estimate that 100 m 3 of raw GTCC LLW might exceed planned storage capacity to the year 2020. This paper reports the activities of the National Low-Level Waste Program to manage GTCC low-level radioactive waste

  5. Development of system for management of radioactive waste from non-nuclear application in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, A.

    2000-01-01

    The 'Radon' system serves for collecting, transporting, conditioning and disposal of radioactive waste with low and intermediate level activity and spent ionizing sources. The technical policy in this field is embodied most completely in the 'Concept of RF Minatom on radioactive waste management', which outlines the activities till 2025. The main organizational and technical measures in enhancing safety in the process of radioactive waste management as well as the organization of radiation control are described. The main statements of the quality assurance programme for the radioactive waste management are presented

  6. Development of system for management of radioactive waste from non-nuclear application in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barinov, A [SIA ' Radon' , Moskow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The 'Radon' system serves for collecting, transporting, conditioning and disposal of radioactive waste with low and intermediate level activity and spent ionizing sources. The technical policy in this field is embodied most completely in the 'Concept of RF Minatom on radioactive waste management', which outlines the activities till 2025. The main organizational and technical measures in enhancing safety in the process of radioactive waste management as well as the organization of radiation control are described. The main statements of the quality assurance programme for the radioactive waste management are presented.

  7. The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's report on radioactive waste management practices in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) is the independent body that advises the Secretary of State for the Environment, Transport and the Regions and the Secretaries of State for Scotland and for Wales on issues relating to radioactive waste management. The terms of reference of the RWMAC, and a list of its Members, are given in Annex 1 to this Report. A group of 16 RWMAC Members examined the management of radioactive waste in Switzerland during a study visit to that country made between 8 and 12 October 1996. The aim of the visit was to acquire first hand knowledge of a set of practices adopted outside the United Kingdom by visiting radioactive waste management facilities and holding discussions with those involved, whether as operators, regulators or advisors to Government. This Report describes what the group saw, records the information collected, and sets out its findings. Switzerland's political system, with the emphasis placed on referenda, encourages popular participation in the democratic process. This may appear to have slowed down the provision of management facilities for radioactive wastes. From a longer term perspective, however, it is clear that such facilities may only really be viable in locations where there is sufficient local support. The quality of the arguments, from both supporters and opponents of nuclear power, is clear evidence of the importance which needs to be attached to the views of those affected. In order to build on what has already been achieved, notably in storage and research, those concerned with radioactive waste management in Switzerland continue to recognise this underlying principle

  8. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BELGOWASTE was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: Purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste; centralization assumes the making of adequate arrangements for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of resiudal material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste; deep clay formations are at present preferred; disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol [fr

  9. Solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    A panel on waste solidification was formed at the request of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to study the scientific and technological problems associated with the conversion of liquid and semiliquid high-level radioactive wastes into a stable form suitable for transportation and disposition. Conclusions reached and recommendations made are as follows. Many solid forms described in this report could meet standards as stringent as those currently applied to the handling, storage, and transportation of spent fuel assemblies. Solid waste forms should be selected only in the context of the total radioactive waste management system. Many solid forms are likely to be satisfactory for use in an appropriately designed system, The current United States policy of deferring the reprocessing of commercial reactor fuel provides additional time for R and D solidification technology for this class of wastes. Defense wastes which are relatively low in radioactivity and thermal power density can best be solidified by low-temperature processes. For solidification of fresh commercial wastes that are high in specific activity and thermal power density, the Panel recommends that, in addition to glass, the use of fully-crystalline ceramics and metal-matrix forms be actively considered. Preliminary analysis of the characteristics of spent fuel pins indicates that they may be eligible for consideration as a waste form. Because the differences in potential health hazards to the public resulting from the use of various solid form and disposal options are likely to be small, the Panel concludes that cost, reliability, and health hazards to operating personnel will be major considerations in choosing among the options that can meet safety requiremens. The Panel recommends that responsibility for all radioactive waste management operations (including solidification R and D) should be centralized

  10. The management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This educative booklet describes the role and missions of the ANDRA, the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes, and the different aspects of the management of radioactive wastes: goal, national inventory, classification, transport (organisation, regulation, safety), drumming, labelling, surface storage of short life wastes, environmental control, management of long life wastes (composition, research, legal aspects) and the underground research laboratories (description, public information, projects, schedules). (J.S.)

  11. Method of solidifying radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Mihara, Shigeru; Yamashita, Koji; Sauda, Kenzo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain satisfactory plastic solidification products rapidly and more conveniently from radioactive wastes. Method: liquid wastes contain, in addition to sodium sulfate as the main ingredient, nitrates hindering the polymerizing curing reactions and various other unknown ingredients, while spent resins contain residual cationic exchange groups hindering the polymerizing reaction. Generally, as the acid value of unsaturated liquid polyester resins is lower, the number of terminal alkyd resins is small, formation of nitrates is reduced and the polymerizing curing reaction is taken place more smoothly. In view of the above, radioactive wastes obtained by dry powderization or dehydration of radioactive liquid wastes or spent resins are polymerized with unsaturated liquid polyester resins with the acid value of less than 13 to obtain plastic solidification. Thus, if the radioactive wastes contain a great amount of polymerization hindering material such as NaNO 2 , they can be solidified rapidly and conveniently with no requirement for pre-treatment. (Kamimura, Y.)

  12. Radioactive waste management in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, At; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A; Ajaz, M; Jan, Fa

    2010-01-01

    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance with the Atomic Energy (Safe disposal of radioactive waste) rules of 1987 promulgated by the Indian Central Government Atomic Energy Act 1962. Any prospective plan of a hospital that intends using radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures needs to have sufficient infrastructural and manpower resources to keep its ambient radiation levels within specified safe limits. Regular monitoring of hospital area and radiation workers is mandatory to assess the quality of radiation safety. Records should be maintained to identify the quality and quantity of radioactive waste generated and the mode of its disposal. Radiation Safety officer plays a key role in the waste disposal operations.

  13. Method of solidifying radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Fumio; Kikuchi, Makoto.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain solidification products of radioactive wastes satisfactorily and safely with no destruction even under a high pressure atmosphere by preventing the stress concentration by considering the relationships of the elastic module between the solidifying material and radioactive solid wastes. Method: Solidification products of radioactive wastes with safety and securing an aimed safety ratio are produced by conditioning the modules of elasticity of the solidifying material equal to or less than that of the radioactive wastes in a case where the elastic module of radioactive solid wastes to be solidified is smaller than that of the solidifying material (the elastic module of wastes having the minimum elastic module among various wastes). The method of decreasing the elastic module of the solidifying material usable herein includes the use of such a resin having a long distance between cross-linking points of a polymer in the case of plastic solidifying materials, and addition of rubber-like binders in the case of cement or like other inorganic solidifying materials. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. Radioactive Waste Management in A Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, AT; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A.; Ajaz, M; Jan, FA

    2010-01-01

    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance with the Atomic Energy (Safe disposal of radioactive waste) rules of 1987 promulgated by the Indian Central Government Atomic Energy Act 1962. Any prospective plan of a hospital that intends using radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures needs to have sufficient infrastructural and manpower resources to keep its ambient radiation levels within specified safe limits. Regular monitoring of hospital area and radiation workers is mandatory to assess the quality of radiation safety. Records should be maintained to identify the quality and quantity of radioactive waste generated and the mode of its disposal. Radiation Safety officer plays a key role in the waste disposal operations. PMID:21475524

  15. Sponsored research on radioactive waste management. Progress report January 1981 - March 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The report is in chapters entitled: introduction (background, responsibilities, options, structure of the programme); strategy development; disposal of accumulations; disposal of radioactive waste arisings; quality assurance for waste conditioning quality assurance related to radioactive waste disposal (effectiveness of different rock types as natural barriers to the movement of radioactivity, and non-site specific factors in the design of repositories; radiological assessment; environmental studies; research and development to meet requirements specific to UKAEA wastes; long term research (processes for the solidification of highly active liquid wastes); plutonium contamination waste minimisation.

  16. Developing radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gichana, Z.

    2012-04-01

    A policy for radioactive waste management with defined goals and requirements is needed as a basis for the preparation of legislation, review or revision of related legislation and to define roles and responsibilities for ensuring the safe management of radioactive waste. A well defined policy and associated strategies are useful in promoting consistency of emphasis and direction within all of the sectors involved in radioactive waste management. The absence of policy and strategy can lead to confusion or lack of coordination and direction. A policy and/or strategy may sometimes be needed to prevent inaction on a particular waste management issue or to resolve an impasse. (author)

  17. Low-level radioactive waste management in France: two decades of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marque, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Human activities generate wastes and these wastes have potential impacts on our environment and important implications for the twilight years of the twentieth century. Radioactive wastes, in particular, is a matter of considerable concern to the public, with emotional debate often clouding the legitimate need of the public for information for the subject. In France, the development of the nuclear power program and the widespread use of radioisotopes by the medical profession, industry and the research community called for a radioactive waste management program. In 1979, the French Government created ANDRA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, which has the complete responsibility for radioactive waste disposal, including design, siting, construction and operation of waste disposal facilities. In 1991, the Waste Law reaffirmed ANDRA's principle functions and created the National Waste Observatory within ANDRA, whose the mission is to establish and maintain a current inventory of all radioactive waste storage and disposal sites on French territory. The present paper describes the generation of short-lived waste in France, the french policy on short-lived waste disposal, operation and cancellation of Manche plant, design and construction of Aube plant

  18. Behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of radioactively contaminated wastes from decontamination activities in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Nomura, Kazutaka; Maeseto, Tomoharu; Osako, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Large volumes of decontamination wastes (DW) generated by off-site decontamination activities in Fukushima Prefecture have been incinerated since 2015. The behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of DW was investigated at a working incineration plant. The incineration discharged bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with similar levels of radiocesium, and the leachability of the radiocesium from both types of ash was very low (incineration of contaminated municipal solid waste (CMSW) reported in earlier studies. The source of radiocesium in DW-FA is chiefly small particles derived from DW and DW-BA blown into the flue gas, not the deposition of gaseous synthesized radiocesium compounds on the surfaces of ash particles in the flue gas as observed in CMSW incineration. This source difference causes the behavior of radiocesium during waste incineration to differ between DW and CMSW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural and artificial radioactivity in the area of the Mochovce regional radioactive waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, J.; Daniel, J.; Moravek, J.

    2000-01-01

    The results of monitoring of natural and artificial radioactivity in the area of the Mochovce regional radioactive waste store before commission are presented. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, potassium, and cesium, as well as radon volume activity were measured

  20. Overview of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The question of what to do with radioactive wastes is discussed. The need to resolve this issue promptly is pointed out. Two significant events which have occurred during the Carter administration are discussed. An Interagency Review Group (IRG) on waste management was formed to formulate recommendations leading to the establishment of a National policy for managing radioactive wastes. The technical findings in the IRG report are listed. The author points out some issues not addressed by the report. President Carter issued a national policy statement on Radioactive Waste Management in February 1980. The most significant elements of this statement are summarized. The cancellation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is currently meeting opposition in Congress. This and other items in the National Policy Statement are discussed

  1. Michigan State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Michigan State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Michigan. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Michigan. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Michigan

  2. Illinois State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Illinois State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Illinois. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Illinois. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Illinois

  3. The incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-03-01

    In this study, made on contract for the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, different methods for incineration of radioactive wastes are reviewed. Operation experiences and methods under development are also discussed. The aim of incineration of radioactive wastes is to reduce the volume and weight of the wastes. Waste categories most commonly treated by incineration are burnable solid low level wastes like trash wastes consisting of plastic, paper, protective clothing, isolating material etc. Primarily, techniques for the incineration of this type of waste are described but incineration of other types of low level wastes like oil or solvents and medium level wastes like ion-exchange resins is also briefly discussed. The report contains tables with condensed data on incineration plants in different countries. Problems encountered, experiences and new developments are reviewed. The most important problems in incineration of radioactive wastes have been plugging and corrosion of offgas systems, due to incomplete combustion of combustion of materials like rubber and PVC giving rise to corrosive gases, combined with inadequate materials of construction in heat-exchangers, channels and filter housings. (author)

  4. Session 1984-85. Radioactive waste. Minutes of evidence, Monday 17 June 1985. Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Environment Select Committee of the House of Commons received a memorandum from the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive, on the management and disposal of radioactive waste arising in the UK, under the headings: introduction; the structure of NIREX; the nature of radioactive waste; plans for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes. Representatives of NIREX were examined on the subject of the memorandum and the minutes of evidence are recorded. (U.K.)

  5. Disposal of Radioactive Wastes. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Scientific Conference on the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-07-01

    Almost every human activity creates some kind of waste. Whether it is harmful, inconvenient, neutral or even positively useful in some other activity depends largely on its nature, which can often be changed by some fairly simple chemical process so as to neutralize harmful wastes, render inconvenient wastes useful, and so on. Radioactive ''waste'' can be extremely harmful or useful, again depending on its form and the way it is handled; but its essential nature cannot be changed or destroyed by any means at present under the control of man. Furthermore, the harmful waste of today may well become the useful raw material of tomorrow. As more and more countries embark on programs of nuclear research and nuclear power, the quantities of radioactive material to be disposed of are rapidly increasing and the problems of safeguarding humanity on the one hand and of storing possibly useful material on the other are assuming great importance. It was for these reasons that the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization combined their forces in sponsoring and organizing, with the co-operation of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, a large scientific conference devoted to the subject of the disposal of radioactive wastes. The Conference was held from 16 to 21 November 1959 at the Oceanographic Museum in Monaco, in deference to the leading position of this institution in the field of oceanography, which is an extremely important discipline in relation to the disposal of wastes into the sea. A total of 283 scientists attended, representing 31 countries and 11 international organizations. It is with the consciousness of offering scientific information of great value to the future progress of an extremely important field of knowledge that I now commend these Proceedings to the earnest attention of all workers in that field.

  6. Disposal of Radioactive Wastes. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Scientific Conference on the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-07-01

    Almost every human activity creates some kind of waste. Whether it is harmful, inconvenient, neutral or even positively useful in some other activity depends largely on its nature, which can often be changed by some fairly simple chemical process so as to neutralize harmful wastes, render inconvenient wastes useful, and so on. Radioactive ''waste'' can be extremely harmful or useful, again depending on its form and the way it is handled; but its essential nature cannot be changed or destroyed by any means at present under the control of man. Furthermore, the harmful waste of today may well become the useful raw material of tomorrow. As more and more countries embark on programs of nuclear research and nuclear power, the quantities of radioactive material to be disposed of are rapidly increasing and the problems of safeguarding humanity on the one hand and of storing possibly useful material on the other are assuming great importance. It was for these reasons that the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization combined their forces in sponsoring and organizing, with the co-operation of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, a large scientific conference devoted to the subject of the disposal of radioactive wastes. The Conference was held from 16 to 21 November 1959 at the Oceanographic Museum in Monaco, in deference to the leading position of this institution in the field of oceanography, which is an extremely important discipline in relation to the disposal of wastes into the sea. A total of 283 scientists attended, representing 31 countries and 11 international organizations. It is with the consciousness of offering scientific information of great value to the future progress of an extremely important field of knowledge that I now commend these Proceedings to the earnest attention of all workers in that field.

  7. Disposal of Radioactive Wastes. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Scientific Conference on the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Almost every human activity creates some kind of waste. Whether it is harmful, inconvenient, neutral or even positively useful in some other activity depends largely on its nature, which can often be changed by some fairly simple chemical process so as to neutralize harmful wastes, render inconvenient wastes useful, and so on. Radioactive ''waste'' can be extremely harmful or useful, again depending on its form and the way it is handled; but its essential nature cannot be changed or destroyed by any means at present under the control of man. Furthermore, the harmful waste of today may well become the useful raw material of tomorrow. As more and more countries embark on programs of nuclear research and nuclear power, the quantities of radioactive material to be disposed of are rapidly increasing and the problems of safeguarding humanity on the one hand and of storing possibly useful material on the other are assuming great importance. It was for these reasons that the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization combined their forces in sponsoring and organizing, with the co-operation of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, a large scientific conference devoted to the subject of the disposal of radioactive wastes. The Conference was held from 16 to 21 November 1959 at the Oceanographic Museum in Monaco, in deference to the leading position of this institution in the field of oceanography, which is an extremely important discipline in relation to the disposal of wastes into the sea. A total of 283 scientists attended, representing 31 countries and 11 international organizations. It is with the consciousness of offering scientific information of great value to the future progress of an extremely important field of knowledge that I now commend these Proceedings to the earnest attention of all workers in that field

  8. Coal combustion ashes: A radioactive Waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michetti, F.P.; Tocci, M.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive substances naturally hold in fossil fuels, such as Uranium and Thorium, after the combustion, are subjected to an increase of concentration in the residual combustion products as flying ashes or as firebox ashes. A significant percentage of the waste should be classified as radioactive waste, while the political strategies seems to be setted to declassify it as non-radioactive waste. (Author)

  9. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Management of radioactive waste from nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive waste arises from the generation of nuclear energy and from the production of radioactive materials and their applications in industry, agriculture, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. Technical expertise is a prerequisite for safe and cost-effective management of radioactive waste. A training course is considered an effective tool for providing technical expertise in various aspects of waste management. The IAEA, in co-operation with national authorities concerned with radioactive waste management, has organized and conducted a number of radioactive waste management training courses. The results of the courses conducted by the IAEA in 1991-1995 have been evaluated at consultants meetings held in December 1995 and May 1996. This guidance document for use by Member States in arranging national training courses on the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear applications has been prepared as the result of that effort. The report outlines the various requirements for the organization, conduct and evaluation of training courses in radioactive waste management and proposes an annotated outline of a reference training course

  11. Radioactive hospital wastes. Radiations under control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeelle, A.; Delmotte, H.; Gauron, C.

    2006-07-01

    A set of articles proposes an overview of legal and regulatory evolutions regarding radioactive hospital wastes. These legal measures and evolutions are notably present in the Public Health code, in the Labour code. An article outlines the role of the radiation protection expert in the process of elimination of contaminated wastes (four major steps for this elimination are indicated; peculiarities of the hospital are outlined, as well as control procedures and the importance of training and information). An article describes the specific activity of the Creteil incinerator which comprises a unit for the incineration of care activity wastes under a very constraining regulation

  12. Conditioning of uranium-containing technological radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, B.; Tavcar, G.; Stepisnik, M.; Pucelj, B.

    2006-01-01

    Conditioning of mostly liquid uranium containing technological radioactive waste emerging from the past research activities at the Jozef Stefan Institute is described. The waste was first thoroughly characterised, then the radionuclides present solidified by appropriate chemical treatment, and the final product separated and prepared for storage in compliance with the legislation. The activities were carried out within the recently renewed Hot Cells Facility of the Jozef Stefan Institute and the overall process resulted in substantial volume reduction of the waste initially present. (author)

  13. The 2016-2018 National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes - Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazzo, Alexis; Robert, Jean-Gabriel; Abraham, Christophe; Benaze, Manon de

    2015-01-01

    A first document contains the project of the National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes (PNGMDR) for the period 2016-2018: principles and objectives (presentation of radioactive materials and wastes, principles to be taken into account to define pathways of management of radioactive wastes, legal and institutional framework, information transparency), the management of radioactive materials (context and challenges, management pathways, works on fast breeder reactors of fourth generation), assessment and perspectives of existing pathways of management of radioactive wastes (management of historical situations, management of residues of mining and sterile processing, management of waste with a high natural radioactivity, management of very short life waste, of very low activity wastes, and low and medium activity wastes), needs and perspectives regarding management processes to be implemented for the different types of radioactive wastes. Appendices to this document contain a recall of the content of previous PNGMDR since 2007, a synthesis of realisations and researches performed abroad, research orientations for the concerned period, and international agreement on spent fuel and radioactive waste management. A second document, released by the ASN, proposes an environmental and strategic assessment of the plan. A third one and a fourth one contain the opinion of the Environmental Authority, respectively on the plan preliminary focus, and on the plan itself. An answer to this last one is then proposed, followed by a synthesis of the plan project and the text of the corresponding decree

  14. Monitoring of covering model of the National radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezikova, M.

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this rigorous report is justification of cover model building at radioactive waste repository in Mochovce as a very important engineering barrier preventing significant release of radioactive substances into the environment and providing protection against ionizing radiation. This rigorous report includes a theoretical part, which describes radioactive waste characterization, radioactive waste management and summary of the preliminary activities prior to the building cover model, particularly involving the selection of appropriate variables and parameters and creation of monitoring plan during the long term monitoring for evaluation of this barrier in order to ensure minimization of any leak of radioactive substances from RAW. The next part includes evaluation of the values of parameters and variables to build cover model of RAW in Mochovce during 2006-2008 (author)

  15. The potential significance of microbial activity in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, A.M.

    1987-12-01

    The aim of this report is to assess the potential significance of microbial activity in radioactive waste disposal. It outlines the major factors which need to be considered in order to evaluate the importance of microbiological action. These include water and nutritional sources (particularly carbon) hostile conditions (particularly the effects of radiation and pH), the establishment of pH micro-environments and the degradative effect of microbial metabolic by-products on the disposed waste forms. Before an active microbial population can develop there are certain basic requirements for life. These are outlined and the possibility of colonisation occurring within the chemical, radiological and nutritional constraints of a repository are considered. Once colonisation is assumed, the effect of microbial activity is discussed under five headings, i.e. (i) direct attack, (ii) physical disruption (which includes consideration of fissuring processes and void formation), (iii) gas generation (which may be of particular importance), (iv) radionuclide uptake and finally (v) alteration of groundwater chemistry. Particular attention is paid to the possibility of environments becoming established both within the waste form itself (allowing microbes to attack from the inside of the repository outward) or attack on the encapsulant materials (microbes attacking from the outside inward). (author)

  16. Predisposal management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in the generation of electricity in nuclear power reactors and in the use of radioactive material in industry, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized. The principles and requirements that govern the safety of the management of radioactive waste are presented in 'The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management', 'Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety' and 'Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, Including Decommissioning'. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the principles and requirements established in Refs for the predisposal management of LLW. This Safety Guide deals with the safety issues associated with the predisposal management of LLW from nuclear fuel cycle facilities, large research and development installations and radioisotope production facilities. This includes all steps and activities in the management of waste, from its initial generation to its final acceptance at a waste disposal facility or the removal of regulatory control. The predisposal management of radioactive waste includes decommissioning. The term 'decommissioning' encompasses both the process of decommissioning a facility and the management of the waste that results (prior to its disposal). Recommendations on the process of decommissioning are provided in Refs. Recommendations on the management of the waste resulting from decommissioning are included in this Safety Guide. Although the mining and milling of uranium and thorium ores is part of the nuclear fuel cycle, the management of the operational waste (e.g. waste rock, tailings and effluent treatment waste) from these activities is not within the scope of this Safety Guide. The LLW that is

  17. Introduction to the problems of the radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, M.

    1990-01-01

    Small book intended to provide basic information to non-specialists about the nature and the risks of radioactive wastes. The subject is developed through five chapters: Ch. I underlines the idea that the XX Century nuclear reactors and 'artificial' radioactivity to that naturally occurring in the Earth since the last event of the nucleosynthesis of the elements in the Solar System, some 4500 millions of years ago; Ch. II describes the ordered universal set of atomic units (nucleidic chart) responsible for all the kinds of known matter, and their transformation rules by which radioactivity is created. Ch. III explains the properties of radioactive wastes as a result of their radionuclide content; Ch. IV puts into perspective the hazards of this kink of wastes by comparison to other common occurring wastes generated by human activity; and finally; Ch. V refers to the risks of the Earth (as a cosmic repository), in order to provide a natural reference level to assess the risk legacy that we will afford to future generations. (Author)

  18. Radioactive waste storage facility and underground disposal method for radioactive wastes using the facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Yoshihiro.

    1997-01-01

    A sealed container storage chamber is formed in underground rocks. A container storage pool is formed on the inner bottom of the sealed vessel storage chamber. A heat exchanger for cooling water and a recycling pump are disposed on an operation floor of the sealed vessel storage chamber. Radioactive wastes sealed vessels in which radioactive wastes are sealed are transferred from the ground to the sealed vessel storage chamber through a sealed vessel transferring shaft, and immersed in cooling water stored in the vessel storage pool. When after heat of the radioactive wastes is removed by the cooling water, the cooling water in the vessel storage pool is sucked up to the ground surface. After dismantling equipments, bentonite-type fillers are filled in the inside of the sealed vessel storage chamber, sealed vessel transferring shaft, air supplying shaft and air exhaustion shaft, and the radioactive waste-sealed vessels can be subjected stably to into underground disposal. (I.N.)

  19. Geological aspects of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobera, P.

    1985-01-01

    Geological formations suitable for burying various types of radioactive wastes are characterized applying criteria for the evaluation and selection of geological formations for building disposal sites for radioactive wastes issued in IAEA technical recommendations. They are surface disposal sites, disposal sites in medium depths and deep disposal sites. Attention is focused on geological formations usable for injecting self-hardening mixtures into cracks prepared by hydraulic decomposition and for injecting liquid radioactive wastes into permeable rocks. Briefly outlined are current trends of the disposal of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia and the possibilities are assessed from the geological point of view of building disposal sites for radioactive wastes on the sites of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, Mochovce, Dukovany, Temelin, Holice (eastern Bohemia), Blahoutovice (northern Moravia) and Zehna (eastern Slovakia). It is stated that in order to design an optimal method of the burial of radioactive waste it will be necessary to improve knowledge of geological conditions in the potential disposal sites at the said nuclear plants. There is usually no detailed knowledge of geological and hydrological conditions at greater depths than 100 m. (Z.M.)

  20. Economic analysis of radioactive waste storage and disposal projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinen, P.J.; Starnes, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive waste storage and disposal efforts present challenging issues for cost and economic analyses. In particular, legal requirements for states and compact areas to develop radioactive waste disposal sites, combined with closure of some sites, have placed urgency on planning, locating, and constructing storage and disposal sites. Cost analyses of potential projects are important to the decision processes. Principal objectives for cost analyses for projects are to identify all activities, covering the entire project life cycle, and to develop costs for those activities using methods that allow direct comparisons between competing project alternatives. For radioactive waste projects, long project lives ranging from tens of years to 100 or more years must be considered. Alternative, and competing, technologies, designs, and operating plans must be evaluated. Thorough base cost estimates must be made for all project phases: planning, development, licensing/permitting, construction, operations, and maintenance, closure, and post-closure/institutional care. Economic analysis procedures need to accommodate the specific features of each project alternative and facilitate cost comparisons between differing alternatives. Economic analysis assumptions must be developed to address the unusually long project lives involved in radioactive waste projects

  1. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  2. Characterization of radioactive organic liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez A, I.; Monroy G, F.; Quintero P, E.; Lopez A, E.; Duarte A, C.

    2014-10-01

    With the purpose of defining the treatment and more appropriate conditioning of radioactive organic liquid wastes, generated in medical establishments and research centers of the country (Mexico) and stored in drums of 208 L is necessary to characterize them. This work presents the physical-chemistry and radiological characterization of these wastes. The samples of 36 drums are presented, whose registrations report the presence of H-3, C-14 and S-35. The following physiochemical parameters of each sample were evaluated: ph, conductivity, density and viscosity; and analyzed by means of gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation, in order to determine those contained radionuclides in the same wastes and their activities. Our results show the presence of H-3 (61%), C-14 (13%) and Na-22 (11%) and in some drums low concentrations of Co-60 (5.5%). In the case of the registered drums with S-35 (8.3%) does not exist presence of radioactive material, so they can be liberated without restriction as conventional chemical wastes. The present activities in these wastes vary among 5.6 and 2312.6 B g/g, their ph between 2 and 13, the conductivities between 0.005 and 15 m S, the densities among 1.05 and 1.14, and the viscosities between 1.1 and 39 MPa. (Author)

  3. Television systems for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartly, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation-tolerant television cameras, widely used for the inspection of nuclear plants, are now used for monitoring radioactive waste management processes. Two systems are described in this paper that differ in the methods of maintaining the camera equipment. At the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield plant, a major capital investment program is under way that includes plants for spent-fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management. The Windscale vitrification plant (WVP) will convert highly active liquid waste to a solid glass-like form. The WVP television system was based on in-cell cameras designed to be removable by remote-handling equipment. The plant to encapsulate medium active solid waste, encapsulation plant 1 (EP1) used through-wall and through-roof viewing systems with a glass viewing dome as the biological shield, allowing the camera and optics to be withdrawn to a safe area for maintenance. Both systems used novel techniques to obtain a record of the waste-processing operations. The WVP system used a microcomputer to overlay reference information onto the television picture and a motion detector to automatically trigger the video recording. The television system for EP1 included automatic character recognition to generate a computer data record of drum serial numbers

  4. Shifting paradigms in managing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bars, Y.; Pescatore, C.

    2004-01-01

    The Stakeholder involvement in policy making of radioactive waste management, has received considerable attention within the OECD. The Nea forum on Stakeholder confidence (FSC) was set up in 2000. A Nea recent publication entitled ''Learning and adapting to societal requirements for radioactive waste management'' brings together the key FSC findings and experience covering four years of work. Six main areas are targeted in this publication and are briefly described in this document: favourable candidates for issuing radioactive waste management policy, the design of the decision-making process, the social and ethical dimension, trust in the actors, Stakeholder involvement and the local dimension of radioactive waste management. (A.L.B.)

  5. Assessing radioactive concentrates and waste vapor condensate in solidifying radioactive wastes by bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibensky, L.; Krejci, F.; Breza, M.; Timulak, J.; Hladky, E.

    1986-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of chemical and radiochemical methods used in the world for the analysis of the concentrate of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants destined for bituminization. Most methods are also suitable for an analysis of the condensate of waste vapors produced in bituminization. The methods of analysis of the radioactive concentrate from the V-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice and of the waste vapors condensate were developed and tested in practice. Gross gamma activity was measured using a well-type Na(Tl) scintillation detector, the content of radionuclides was determined using semiconductor Ge(Li) spectrometry. The concentration of boric acid in the concentrate was determined by titration with mannite; in the condensate, using spectrophotometry with curcumine. The content of nitrates in both the concentrate and the condensate was determined spectrophotometrically using salicylic acid, the content of nitrites was determined by spectrophotometry using sulfanilic acid and α-naphthylamine. Carbonates and chlorides were determined by titration, sodium and potassium by flame photometry. The content of organic acids was measured by gravimetry of extracted methyl esters, the content of surfactants by spectrophotometry. Infrared spectrophotometry was used in determining hydrocarbons in the waste vapor condensate. The measured value range and the measurement errors are shown for each method. (A.K.)

  6. Use plan for demonstration radioactive-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L.R.; McCampbell, M.R.; Thompson, J.D.

    1982-04-01

    The University of Maryland at Baltimore was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy to test a specially modified incinerator to burn biomedical radioactive waste. In preparation for the incinerator, the Radiation Safety Office devised a comprehensive plan for its safe and effective use. The incinerator plan includes a discussion of regulations regarding on-site incineration of radioactive waste, plans for optimum use in burning four principal waste forms, controlled air incineration technology, and standard health physics safety practices; a use plan, including waste categorization and segregation, processing, and ash disposition; safety procedures, including personnel and area monitoring; and methods to evaluate the incinerator's effectiveness by estimating its volume reduction factors, mass and activity balances, and by determining the cost effectiveness of incineration versus commercial shallow land burial

  7. Low-level radioactive waste management. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, R.

    1993-11-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the most serious environmental problems facing Canadians. From the early industrial uses of radioactive material in the 1930s to the development of nuclear power reactors and the medical and experimental use of radioisotopes today, there has been a steady accumulation of waste products. Although the difficulties involved in radioactive waste management are considerable, responsible solutions are possible. This paper will discuss low-level radioactive waste, including its production, the amounts in storage, the rate of waste accumulation and possible strategies for its management. (author). 2 figs

  8. Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Progress in Iraq - 13216

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Musawi, Fouad; Shamsaldin, Emad S.; Jasim, Hadi [Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Al-Jadraya, P.O. Box 0765, Baghdad (Iraq); Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Laboratories1, New Mexico, Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Iraqi Decommissioning Directorate (IDD) is responsible for decommissioning activities. The IDD and the RWTMD work together on decommissioning projects. The IDD has developed plans and has completed decommissioning of the GeoPilot Facility in Baghdad and the Active Metallurgical Testing Laboratory (LAMA) in Al-Tuwaitha. Given this experience, the IDD has initiated work on more dangerous facilities. Plans are being developed to characterize, decontaminate and decommission the Tamuz II Research Reactor. The Tammuz Reactor was destroyed by an Israeli air-strike in 1981 and the Tammuz II Reactor was destroyed during the First Gulf War in 1991. In addition to being responsible for managing the decommissioning wastes, the RWTMD is responsible for more than 950 disused sealed radioactive sources, contaminated debris from the first Gulf War and (approximately 900 tons) of naturally-occurring radioactive materials wastes from oil production in Iraq. The RWTMD has trained staff, rehabilitated the Building 39 Radioactive Waste Storage building, rehabilitated portions of the French-built Radioactive Waste Treatment Station, organized and secured thousands of drums of radioactive waste organized and secured the stores of disused sealed radioactive sources. Currently, the IDD and the RWTMD are finalizing plans for the decommissioning of the Tammuz II Research Reactor. (authors)

  9. Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Progress in Iraq - 13216

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Musawi, Fouad; Shamsaldin, Emad S.; Jasim, Hadi; Cochran, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Directorate (IDD) is responsible for decommissioning activities. The IDD and the RWTMD work together on decommissioning projects. The IDD has developed plans and has completed decommissioning of the GeoPilot Facility in Baghdad and the Active Metallurgical Testing Laboratory (LAMA) in Al-Tuwaitha. Given this experience, the IDD has initiated work on more dangerous facilities. Plans are being developed to characterize, decontaminate and decommission the Tamuz II Research Reactor. The Tammuz Reactor was destroyed by an Israeli air-strike in 1981 and the Tammuz II Reactor was destroyed during the First Gulf War in 1991. In addition to being responsible for managing the decommissioning wastes, the RWTMD is responsible for more than 950 disused sealed radioactive sources, contaminated debris from the first Gulf War and (approximately 900 tons) of naturally-occurring radioactive materials wastes from oil production in Iraq. The RWTMD has trained staff, rehabilitated the Building 39 Radioactive Waste Storage building, rehabilitated portions of the French-built Radioactive Waste Treatment Station, organized and secured thousands of drums of radioactive waste organized and secured the stores of disused sealed radioactive sources. Currently, the IDD and the RWTMD are finalizing plans for the decommissioning of the Tammuz II Research Reactor. (authors)

  10. Radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the French way to deal with nuclear wastes. 4 categories of radioactive wastes have been defined: 1) very low-level wastes (TFA), 2) low or medium-wastes with short or medium half-life (A), 3) low or medium-level wastes with long half-life (B), and 4) high-level wastes with long half-life (C). ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) manages 2 sites of definitive surface storage (La-Manche and Aube centers) for TFA-wastes. The Aube center allows the storage of A-wastes whose half-life is less than 30 years. This site will receive waste packages for 50 years and will require a regular monitoring for 300 years after its decommissioning. No definitive solutions have been taken for B and C wastes, they are temporarily stored at La Hague processing plant. Concerning these wastes the French parliament will have to take a decision by 2006. At this date and within the framework of the Bataille law (1991), scientific studies concerning the definitive or retrievable storage, the processing techniques (like transmutation) will have been achieved and solutions will be proposed. These studies are numerous, long and complex, they involve fresh knowledge in geology, chemistry, physics,.. and they have implied the setting of underground facilities in order to test and validate solutions in situ. This article presents also the transmutation technique. (A.C.)

  11. Treatment and conditioning of radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Radioactive materials are extensively used in industrial and research activities mainly related to medical, agricultural, environmental and other studies and applications. During the application and production of radioisotopes, significant amounts of radioactive wastes will inevitably arise, which must be managed (i.e. handled, treated, conditioned, intermediately stored and finally disposed of) with particular care. Serious efforts to minimize and appropriately segregate the waste arisings during the application of radioisotopes are the most important first step in waste management. The essential objective of the management of radioactive waste is the protection of mankind, the biosphere and the environment from the detrimental effects of nuclear radiation both now and in the future. This report deals with radioactive wastes outside the nuclear fuel cycle and it is directed primarily to countries without nuclear power programmes, e.g. countries belonging to the Groups A, B and C. Group A includes Member States which utilize radioisotopes at a few hospital locations, universities and industries. Group B includes Member States which have multi-use of radioisotopes in hospitals and other institutional areas and need a central collection and processing system. Group C includes Member States which have multi-use of radioisotopes and a nuclear research centre which is capable of indigenous production of several radioisotopes. When developing a waste management strategy, consideration should be given to the entire sequence of waste management operations from waste sources to disposal and all the related issues: every aspect of waste generation, processing, transportation, storage and disposal, including regulatory, socio-political and economic issues. The interaction of all these aspects must be analysed and understood before the entire waste management system can be properly built up and safely managed. 16 refs, 13 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Issues in radioactive waste management for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maninger, R.C.; Dorn, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of recent conceptual designs reveals that commercial fusion power systems will raise issues of occupational and public health and safety. This paper focuses on radioactive wastes from fusion reactor materials activated by neutrons. The analysis shows that different selections of materials and neutronic designs can make differences in orders-of magnitude of the kinds and amounts of radioactivity to be expected. By careful and early evaluation of the impacts of the selections on waste management, designers can produce fusion power systems with radiation from waste well below today's limits for occupational and public health and safety

  13. Issues in radioactive-waste management for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maninger, R.C.; Dorn, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of recent conceptual designs reveals that commercial fusion power systems will raise issues of occupational and public health and safety. This paper focuses on radioactive wastes from fusion reactor materials activated by neutrons. The analysis shows that different selections of materials and neutronic designs can make differences in orders-of-magnitude of the kinds and amounts of radioactivity to be expected. By careful and early evaluation of the impacts of the selections on waste management, designers can produce fusion power systems with radiation from waste well below today's limits for occupational and public health and safety

  14. Solid radioactive waste: evaluation of residual activity in nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabarse, Frederico G.; Xavier, Ana M.; Magalhaes, Maisa H.; Guerrero, Jesus S.P.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental programme to estimate, with a better degree of accuracy, the activity that remains adsorbed in flasks and syringes used in Nuclear Medicine Services for the administration of radionuclides to patients submitted to diagnostic or therapy is been conducted under the coordination of the Radioactive Waste Division of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, CNEN. The adopted recommendation in Brazil to allow an expedite solid waste management in nuclear medicine facilities, up to the present, is to consider that 2% of the initial activity remains adsorbed in the solid waste, which easily allows the calculation of the storage time to achieve regulatory clearance levels by decay. This research evaluates 17 different kinds of radiopharmaceuticals and three radioisotopes: 99m Tc, 67 Ga and 201 Tl. Results obtained by means of a weighting method to estimate the residual mass in flasks show that the ratio of the mass of the liquid that remains in the solid waste to the mass of the empty flask is constant. This suggests that the residual activity depends on the initial activity concentration of radiopharmaceutical contained in each flask, as assumed by the regulatory body. Additionally, results obtained by determining the remaining activity in flasks, shortly after the injection of its radionuclide contents in patients, indicate that an average value for the residual activity of the order of 10% of the initial activity contained in the flasks or syringes should be adopted to determine the decay storage time before the release of solid waste in the urban conventional land fill disposal system. The 'rule of thumb' of 10 half-lives for storage before clearance is also discussed in the present work. (author)

  15. Maine State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management