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  1. [Anti-Candida activity of aroma candy and its protective activity against murine oral candidiasis].

    Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Suzuki, Motofumi; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Sato, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    A daily eatable candy that has possible protective activity against oral candidiasis was experimentally produced. The candy was made from reduced-maltose as main constituent and from several natural products, such as oligonol (depolymerized polyphenols derived from lychee), cinnamon (cassia), citral, and capric acid, which are known to have anti-Candida activity in vitro and in vivo. The candy effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of C. albicans, even when it was diluted 1,000 times with culture media. We assessed the protective activity of the candy against murine candidiasis. When 50μl of candy dissolved and diluted 4 times with water was administered 3 times into the oral cavity of Candida infected mice, the score of lesions on the Candida-infected tongues improved on day 2. These findings suggest that this candy has potential as food that provides protective activity against oral candidiasis.

  2. Immune Adjuvant Activity of Pre-Resectional Radiofrequency Ablation Protects against Local and Systemic Recurrence in Aggressive Murine Colorectal Cancer.

    Fumito Ito

    Full Text Available While surgical resection is a cornerstone of cancer treatment, local and distant recurrences continue to adversely affect outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Evidence that an alternative debulking strategy involving radiofrequency ablation (RFA induces antitumor immunity prompted the current investigation of the efficacy of performing RFA prior to surgical resection (pre-resectional RFA in a preclinical mouse model.Therapeutic efficacy and systemic immune responses were assessed following pre-resectional RFA treatment of murine CT26 colon adenocarcinoma.Treatment with pre-resectional RFA significantly delayed tumor growth and improved overall survival compared to sham surgery, RFA, or resection alone. Mice in the pre-resectional RFA group that achieved a complete response demonstrated durable antitumor immunity upon tumor re-challenge. Failure to achieve a therapeutic benefit in immunodeficient mice confirmed that tumor control by pre-resectional RFA depends on an intact adaptive immune response rather than changes in physical parameters that make ablated tumors more amenable to a complete surgical excision. RFA causes a marked increase in intratumoral CD8+ T lymphocyte infiltration, thus substantially enhancing the ratio of CD8+ effector T cells: FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Importantly, pre-resectional RFA significantly increases the number of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells within the tumor microenvironment and tumor-draining lymph node but had no impact on infiltration by myeloid-derived suppressor cells, M1 macrophages or M2 macrophages at tumor sites or in peripheral lymphoid organs (i.e., spleen. Finally, pre-resectional RFA of primary tumors delayed growth of distant tumors through a mechanism that depends on systemic CD8+ T cell-mediated antitumor immunity.Improved survival and antitumor systemic immunity elicited by pre-resectional RFA support the translational potential of this neoadjuvant treatment for cancer patients with

  3. Protective effects of astaxanthin from Paracoccus carotinifaciens on murine gastric ulcer models.

    Murata, Kenta; Oyagi, Atsushi; Takahira, Dai; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Ishibashi, Takashi; Hara, Hideaki

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of astaxanthin extracted from Paracoccus carotinifaciens on gastric mucosal damage in murine gastric ulcer models. Mice were pretreated with astaxanthin for 1 h before ulcer induction. Gastric ulcers were induced in mice by oral administration of hydrochloride (HCl)/ethanol or acidified aspirin. The effect of astaxanthin on lipid peroxidation in murine stomach homogenates was also evaluated by measuring the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). The free radical scavenging activities of astaxanthin were also measured by electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. Astaxanthin significantly decreased the extent of HCl/ethanol- and acidified aspirin-induced gastric ulcers. Astaxanthin also decreased the level of TBARS. The ESR measurement showed that astaxanthin had radical scavenging activities against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and the superoxide anion radical. These results suggest that astaxanthin has antioxidant properties and exerts a protective effect against ulcer formation in murine models.

  4. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  5. [Protective activity of S-PT84, a heat-killed preparation of Lactobacillus pentosus, against oral and gastric candidiasis in an experimental murine model].

    Hayama, Kazumi; Ishijima, Sanae; Ono, Yoshiko; Izumo, Takayuki; Ida, Masayuki; Shibata, Hiroshi; Abe, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The effect of S-PT84, a heat-killed preparation of Lactobacillus pentosus on growth of Candida albicans was examined in vitro and in vivo. The mycelial growth was effectively inhibited by S-PT84 and seemed to bind to the hyphae. We assessed the potential of S-PT84 for treatment of oral and gastric candidiasis using a murine model. When 2 mg of S-PT84 was administered three times into the oral cavity of orally Candida infected mice, the score of lesions on the tongue was improved on day 2. When 50 μl and 200 μl of S-PT84 (10 mg/ml) were administered three times into the oral cavity (0.5 mg × 3) and the stomach (2 mg × 3) of the same mouse model, the number of viable Candida cells in the stomach was reduced significantly on day 2. These findings suggest the possibility that S-PT84 has potential as a food ingredient supporting anti-Candida treatment, especially for Candida infection in the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. Protective effects of imipramine in murine endotoxin-induced acute lung injury.

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Jie-ming; Summah, Hanssa; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Ying-gang; Jiang, Hong-ni

    2010-07-25

    The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine has recently emerged as a cytoprotective agent, exerting beneficial effects in inflammatory tissue injury. The present study aimed to investigate therapeutic effects of imipramine in murine model of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. Mice were administrated intraperitoneally with LPS (lipopolysaccharide) from Escherichia coli or vehicle. Imipramine was administrated intraperitoneally 30 min before LPS challenge. Pretreatment of mice with imipramine reduced lethality. Impramine also significantly attenuated lung inflammation, lung edema, MPO (myeloperoxidase) activity, lung tissue pathological changes and nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding activity. The results of this study suggest that imipramine can exert protective effects in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury by suppressing nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated expression of inflammatory genes. Thus, imipramine could be a potential novel therapeutic agent for the treatment for acute lung injury.

  7. Adiponectin and plant-derived mammalian adiponectin homolog exert a protective effect in murine colitis

    Arsenescu, Violeta

    2011-04-11

    Background: Hypoadiponectinemia has been associated with states of chronic inflammation in humans. Mesenteric fat hypertrophy and low adiponectin have been described in patients with Crohn\\'s disease. We investigated whether adiponectin and the plant-derived homolog, osmotin, are beneficial in a murine model of colitis. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were injected (i.v.) with an adenoviral construct encoding the full-length murine adiponectin gene (AN+DSS) or a reporter-LacZ (Ctr and V+DSS groups) prior to DSS colitis protocol. In another experiment, mice with DSS colitis received either osmotin (Osm+DSS) or saline (DSS) via osmotic pumps. Disease progression and severity were evaluated using body weight, stool consistency, rectal bleeding, colon lengths, and histology. In vitro experiments were carried out in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Results: Mice overexpressing adiponectin had lower expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1β), adipokines (angiotensin, osteopontin), and cellular stress and apoptosis markers. These mice had higher levels of IL-10, alternative macrophage marker, arginase 1, and leukoprotease inhibitor. The plant adiponectin homolog osmotin similarly improved colitis outcome and induced robust IL-10 secretion. LPS induced a state of adiponectin resistance in dendritic cells that was reversed by treatment with PPARγ agonist and retinoic acid. Conclusion: Adiponectin exerted protective effects during murine DSS colitis. It had a broad activity that encompassed cytokines, chemotactic factors as well as processes that assure cell viability during stressful conditions. Reducing adiponectin resistance or using plant-derived adiponectin homologs may become therapeutic options in inflammatory bowel disease. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  8. Expression of biologically active murine interleukin-18 in Lactococcus lactis.

    Feizollahzadeh, Sadegh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Rahimmanesh, Ilnaz; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Andalib, Alireza; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Rezaei, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    The food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis is increasingly used for heterologous protein expression in therapeutic and industrial applications. The ability of L. lactis to secrete biologically active cytokines may be used for the generation of therapeutic cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-18 enhances the immune response, especially on mucosal surfaces, emphasizing its therapeutic potential. However, it is produced as an inactive precursor and has to be enzymatically cleaved for maturation. We genetically manipulated L. lactis to secrete murine IL-18. The mature murine IL-18 gene was inserted downstream of a nisin promoter in pNZ8149 plasmid and the construct was used to transform L. lactis NZ3900. The transformants were selected on Elliker agar and confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. The expression and secretion of IL-18 protein was verified by SDS-PAGE, western blotting and ELISA. The biological activity of recombinant IL-18 was determined by its ability to induce interferon (IFN)-γ production in L. lactis co-cultured with murine splenic T cells. The amounts of IL-18 in bacterial lysates and supernatants were 3-4 μg mL(-1) and 0.6-0.7 ng mL(-1), respectively. The successfully generated L. lactis strain that expressed biologically active murine IL-18 can be used to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of IL-18 on mucosal surfaces.

  9. Antitumor Activity and Immune Enhancement of Murine Interleukin-23 Expressed in Murine Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Baoen Shan; Jingsheng Hao; Qiaoxia Li; Masatoshi Tagawa

    2006-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-23, a cytokine composed of p19 and the p40 subunit of IL-12, can enhance the proliferation of memory T cells and production of IFN-γ from activated T cells. It can also induce antitumor effects in murine model. To further evaluate the antitumor activity and immune enhancement of IL-23 in vivo, murine colon carcinoma cells retrovirally transduced with mIL-23 gene were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) into BALB/c mice.Survival time and tumor volume were observed. LDH release assay, [3H]-TdR incorporation assay and ELISA were used to determine CTL activity, proliferation of splenocytes and level of cytokines, respectively. Number of dendritic cells (DCs) was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). IL-23 secreted by Colon26/IL-23 cells suppressed the growth of tumor and prolonged the survival time of mice, enhanced proliferation of splenocytes, CTL activity, and number of DCs. IL-23 also promoted the production of Th1 cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-o. However,the level of IL-4 was not enhanced significantly. These data suggested that IL-23 secreted by tumor cells can induce antitumor activity by enhancing immune response.

  10. Protective Effect of Laminaria japonica with Probiotics on Murine Colitis

    Seok-Jae Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE at doses from 100 to 300 mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300 mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40, IL-12 (P70, IL-17, and TNF-α were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1β and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 (P40 but not IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-12 (P70. In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics.

  11. Protective effects of strawberry and mulberry fruit polysaccharides on inflammation and apoptosis in murine primary splenocytes

    Chieh-Jung Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study isolated polysaccharides from strawberry (SP and mulberry (MP fruit juice to compare their cytokine secretion regulatory and antiapoptotic activities using murine primary splenocytes. SP and MP in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS were administered to splenocytes for 48 hours. The culture supernatant was used for cytokine secretion assay using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The cell pellet was used for the determination of anti-/proapoptotic protein (B cell lymphoma 2/Bak levels in the cells using the Western blotting method. The results showed that SP and MP treatment at appropriate concentrations significantly increased the proliferation of splenocytes (p < 0.05. SP and MP treatments in the absence of LPS, and SP treatments in the presence of LPS significantly decreased T helper type 1/T helper type 2 (p < 0.05, and SP in the presence of LPS slightly decreased tumor necrosis factor-α/interleukin-10 (pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion ratios by splenocytes, suggesting that SP has strong and MP has mild anti-inflammation potential via modulating cytokine secretion profiles. However, MP treatment at an appropriate concentration in the absence of LPS exhibited an antiapoptotic activity via modulating pro- (Bak and antiapoptotic (B cell lymphoma 2 protein expression ratios, suggesting that MP may protect primary immune cells from apoptotic cell death. Overall, our findings suggest that SP has better anti-inflammation potential, whereas MP has better cell proliferation and antiapoptotic potential in vitro.

  12. Gene expression in IFN-g-activated murine macrophages

    Pereira C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are critical for natural immunity and play a central role in specific acquired immunity. The IFN-gamma activation of macrophages derived from A/J or BALB/c mice yielded two different patterns of antiviral state in murine hepatitis virus 3 infection, which were related to a down-regulation of the main virus receptor. Using cDNA hybridization to evaluate mRNA accumulation in the cells, we were able to identify several genes that are differently up- or down-regulated by IFN-gamma in A/J (267 and 266 genes, respectively, up- and down-regulated or BALB/c (297 and 58 genes, respectively, up- and down-regulated mouse macrophages. Macrophages from mice with different genetic backgrounds behave differently at the molecular level and comparison of the patterns of non-activated and IFN-gamma-activated A/J or BALB/c mouse macrophages revealed, for instance, an up-regulation and a down-regulation of genes coding for biological functions such as enzymatic reactions, nucleic acid synthesis and transport, protein synthesis, transport and metabolism, cytoskeleton arrangement and extracellular matrix, phagocytosis, resistance and susceptibility to infection and tumors, inflammation, and cell differentiation or activation. The present data are reported in order to facilitate future correlation of proteomic/transcriptomic findings as well as of results obtained from a classical approach for the understanding of biological phenomena. The possible implication of the role of some of the gene products relevant to macrophage biology can now be further scrutinized. In this respect, a down-regulation of the main murine hepatitis virus 3 receptor gene was detected only in IFN-gamma-activated macrophages of resistant mice.

  13. Cysteine protease activation and apoptosis in Murine norovirus infection

    Ettayebi Khalil

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis. Because a suitable in vitro culture system for the human virus has yet to be developed, many basic details of the infection process are unknown. Murine norovirus (MNV serves as a model system for the study of norovirus infection. Recently it was shown that infection of RAW 264.7 cells involved a novel apoptotic pathway involving survivin. Results Using a different set of approaches, the up-regulation of caspases, DNA condensation/fragmentation, and membrane blebbing, all of which are markers of apoptosis, were confirmed. Live cell imaging and activity-based protein profiling showed that activation of caspase-like proteases occurred within two hours of infection, followed by morphological changes to the cells. MNV infection in the presence of caspase inhibitors proceeded via a distinct pathway of rapid cellular necrosis and reduced viral production. Affinity purification of activity-based protein profiling targets and identification by peptide mass fingerprinting showed that the cysteine protease cathepsin B was activated early in infection, establishing this protein as an upstream activator of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conclusion This work adds cathepsin B to the noncanonical programmed cell death induced by MNV, and provides data suggesting that the virus may induce apoptosis to expand the window of time for viral replication. This work also highlights the significant power of activity-based protein profiling in the study of viral pathogenesis.

  14. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lacking hfq gene confers protective immunity against murine typhoid.

    Uday Shankar Allam

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is an important enteric pathogen and its various serovars are involved in causing both systemic and intestinal diseases in humans and domestic animals. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella leading to increased morbidity and mortality has further complicated its management. Live attenuated vaccines have been proven superior over killed or subunit vaccines due to their ability to induce protective immunity. Of the various strategies used for the generation of live attenuated vaccine strains, focus has gradually shifted towards manipulation of virulence regulator genes. Hfq is a RNA chaperon which mediates the binding of small RNAs to the mRNA and assists in post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacteria. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the Salmonella Typhimurium Δhfq strain as a candidate for live oral vaccine in murine model of typhoid fever. Salmonella hfq deletion mutant is highly attenuated in cell culture and animal model implying a significant role of Hfq in bacterial virulence. Oral immunization with the Salmonella hfq deletion mutant efficiently protects mice against subsequent oral challenge with virulent strain of Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, protection was induced upon both multiple as well as single dose of immunizations. The vaccine strain appears to be safe for use in pregnant mice and the protection is mediated by the increase in the number of CD4(+ T lymphocytes upon vaccination. The levels of serum IgG and secretory-IgA in intestinal washes specific to lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane protein were significantly increased upon vaccination. Furthermore, hfq deletion mutant showed enhanced antigen presentation by dendritic cells compared to the wild type strain. Taken together, the studies in murine immunization model suggest that the Salmonella hfq deletion mutant can be a novel live oral vaccine candidate.

  15. 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside protects murine hearts against ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating Notch1/Hes1 signaling and attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Zhang, Meng; Yu, Li-ming; Zhao, Hang; Zhou, Xuan-xuan; Yang, Qian; Song, Fan; Yan, Li; Zhai, Meng-en; Li, Bu-ying; Zhang, Bin; Jin, Zhen-xiao; Duan, Wei-xun; Wang, Si-wang

    2017-01-01

    2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) is a water-soluble active component extracted from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. A number of studies demonstrate that TSG exerts cardioprotective effects. Since endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a key role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R)-induced cell apoptosis, we sought to determine whether modulation of the ER stress during MI/R injury was involved in the cardioprotective action of TSG. Male mice were treated with TSG (60 mg·kg−1·d−1, ig) for 2 weeks and then were subjected to MI/R surgery. Pre-administration of TSG significantly improved post-operative cardiac function, and suppressed MI/R-induced myocardial apoptosis, evidenced by the reduction in the myocardial apoptotic index, serum levels of LDH and CK after 6 h of reperfusion. TSG (0.1–1000 μmol/L) did not affect the viability of cultured H9c2 cardiomyoblasts in vitro, but pretreatment with TSG dose-dependently decreased simulated ischemia/reperfusion (SIR)-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that TSG treatment activated the Notch1/Hes1 signaling pathway and suppressed ER stress, as evidenced by increasing Notch1, Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD), Hes1, and Bcl-2 expression levels and by decreasing p-PERK/PERK ratio, p-eIF2α/eIF2α ratio, and ATF4, CHOP, Bax, and caspase-3 expression levels. Moreover, the protective effects conferred by TSG on SIR-treated H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were abolished by co-administration of DAPT (the Notch1 signaling inhibitor). In summary, TSG ameliorates MI/R injury in vivo and in vitro by activating the Notch1/Hes1 signaling pathway and attenuating ER stress-induced apoptosis. PMID:28112174

  16. Inhaled Liposomal Ciprofloxacin Protects against a Lethal Infection in a Murine Model of Pneumonic Plague

    Hamblin, Karleigh A.; Armstrong, Stuart J.; Barnes, Kay B.; Davies, Carwyn; Laws, Thomas; Blanchard, James D.; Harding, Sarah V.; Atkins, Helen S.

    2017-01-01

    Inhalation of Yersinia pestis can lead to pneumonic plague, which without treatment is inevitably fatal. Two novel formulations of liposome-encapsulated ciprofloxacin, ‘ciprofloxacin for inhalation’ (CFI, Lipoquin®) and ‘dual release ciprofloxacin for inhalation’ (DRCFI, Pulmaquin®) containing CFI and ciprofloxacin solution, are in development. These were evaluated as potential therapies for infection with Y. pestis. In a murine model of pneumonic plague, human-like doses of aerosolized CFI, aerosolized DRCFI or intraperitoneal (i.p.) ciprofloxacin were administered at 24 h (representing prophylaxis) or 42 h (representing treatment) post-challenge. All three therapies provided a high level of protection when administered 24 h post-challenge. A single dose of CFI, but not DRCFI, significantly improved survival compared to a single dose of ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, single doses of CFI and DRCFI reduced bacterial burden in lungs and spleens to below the detectable limit at 60 h post-challenge. When therapy was delayed until 42 h post-challenge, a single dose of CFI or DRCFI offered minimal protection. However, single doses of CFI or DRCFI were able to significantly reduce the bacterial burden in the spleen compared to empty liposomes. A three-day treatment regimen of ciprofloxacin, CFI, or DRCFI resulted in high levels of protection (90–100% survival). This study suggests that CFI and DRCFI may be useful therapies for Y. pestis infection, both as prophylaxis and for the treatment of plague. PMID:28220110

  17. Immunogenic multistage recombinant protein vaccine confers partial protection against experimental toxoplasmosis mimicking natural infection in murine model

    Yaprak Gedik

    2016-01-01

    To generate a protective vaccine against toxoplasmosis, multistage vaccines and usage of challenging models mimicking natural route of infection are critical cornerstones. In this study, we generated a BAG1 and GRA1 multistage vaccine that induced strong immune response in which the protection was not at anticipated level. In addition, the murine model was orally challenged with tissue cysts to mimic natural route of infection.

  18. Polyclonal antibody cocktails generated using DNA vaccine technology protect in murine models of orthopoxvirus disease

    Ballantyne John

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we demonstrated that DNA vaccination of nonhuman primates (NHP with a small subset of vaccinia virus (VACV immunogens (L1, A27, A33, B5 protects against lethal monkeypox virus challenge. The L1 and A27 components of this vaccine target the mature virion (MV whereas A33 and B5 target the enveloped virion (EV. Results Here, we demonstrated that the antibodies produced in vaccinated NHPs were sufficient to confer protection in a murine model of lethal Orthopoxvirus infection. We further explored the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce immunogen-specific polyclonal antibodies that could then be combined into cocktails as potential immunoprophylactic/therapeutics. Specifically, we used DNA vaccines delivered by muscle electroporation to produce polyclonal antibodies against the L1, A27, A33, and B5 in New Zealand white rabbits. The polyclonal antibodies neutralized both MV and EV in cell culture. The ability of antibody cocktails consisting of anti-MV, anti-EV, or a combination of anti-MV/EV to protect BALB/c mice was evaluated as was the efficacy of the anti-MV/EV mixture in a mouse model of progressive vaccinia. In addition to evaluating weight loss and lethality, bioimaging technology was used to characterize the spread of the VACV infections in mice. We found that the anti-EV cocktail, but not the anti-MV cocktail, limited virus spread and lethality. Conclusions A combination of anti-MV/EV antibodies was significantly more protective than anti-EV antibodies alone. These data suggest that DNA vaccine technology could be used to produce a polyclonal antibody cocktail as a possible product to replace vaccinia immune globulin.

  19. Type I collagen gel protects murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells from TNFα-induced cell death

    Wang, Hong-Ju; He, Wen-Qi; Chen, Ling; Liu, Wei-Wei; Xu, Qian; Xia, Ming-Yu; Hayashi, Toshihiko [China-Japan Research Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016 (China); Fujisaki, Hitomi; Hattori, Shunji [Nippi Research Institute of Biomatrix, Toride, Ibaraki 302-0017 (Japan); Tashiro, Shin-ichi [Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, Kyoto 603-8072 (Japan); Onodera, Satoshi [Department of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo 194-8543 (Japan); Ikejima, Takashi, E-mail: ikejimat@vip.sina.com [China-Japan Research Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-02-20

    Murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells have been used to test efficacy of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα. In the present study, we reported on protective effect of type I collagen gel used as L929 cell culture. L929 cell grew and proliferated well on collagen gel. However, the L929 cells exhibited cobblestone-like morphology which was much different from the spread fusiform shape when cultured on conventional cell dishes as well as the cells tended to aggregate. On conventional cell culture dishes, the cells treated with TNFα became round in shape and eventually died in a necroptotic manner. The cells cultured on collagen gel, however, were completely unaffected. TNFα treatment was reported to induce autophagy in L929 cells on the plastic dish, and therefore we investigated the effect of collagen gel on induction of autophagy. The results indicated that autophagy induced by TNFα treatment was much reduced when the cells were cultured on collagen gel. In conclusion, type I collagen gel protected L929 cell from TNFα-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Collagen gel culture changed the morphology of L929 cells. • L929 cell cultured on collagen gel were resistant to TNFα-induced cell death. • Collagen gel culture inhibited TNFα-induced autophagy in L929 cells.

  20. Superior protection elicited by live-attenuated vaccines in the murine model of paratuberculosis.

    Ghosh, Pallab; Shippy, Daniel C; Talaat, Adel M

    2015-12-16

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteric infection in ruminants with severe economic impact on the dairy industry in the USA and worldwide. Currently, available vaccines have limited protective efficacy against disease progression and does not prevent spread of the infection among animals. Because of their ability to elicit wide-spectrum immune responses, we adopted a live-attenuated vaccine approach based on a sigH knock-out strain of M. paratuberculosis (ΔsigH). Earlier analysis of the ΔsigH mutant in mice indicated their inadequate ability to colonize host tissues, unlike the isogenic wild-type strain, validating the role of this sigma factor in M. paratuberculosis virulence. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of the ΔsigH mutant compared to inactivated vaccine constructs in a vaccine/challenge model of murine paratuberculosis. The presented analysis indicated that ΔsigH mutant with or without QuilA adjuvant is capable of eliciting strong immune responses (such as interferon gamma-γ, IFN-γ) suggesting their immunogenicity and ability to potentially initiate effective vaccine-induced immunity. Following a challenge with virulent strains of M. paratuberculosis, ΔsigH conferred protective immunity as indicated by the reduced bacterial burden accompanied with reduced lesions in main body organs (liver, spleen and intestine) usually infected with M. paratuberculosis. More importantly, our data indicated better ability of the ΔsigH vaccine to confer protection compared to the inactivated vaccine constructs even with the presence of oil-adjuvant. Overall, our approach provides a rational basis for using live-attenuated mutant strains to develop improved vaccines that elicit robust immunity against this chronic infection.

  1. Immunoenhancing activity of protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside-F3 in murine spleen cells

    Jun-li YU; De-qiang DOU; Xiao-hong CHEN; Hong-zhen YANG; Na GUO; Gui-fang CHENG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the immunoenhancing activity of ginsenoside-F3 in murine spleen cells and explore its mechanism.METHODS: The enhancing effect of ginsenoside-F3 on murine spleen cell proliferation was studied using [3H]thymidine incorporation assay. Effects of ginsenoside-F3 on the production of type 1 cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ, and type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 from murine spleen cells were detected by ELISA method. Effects of ginsenosideF3 on mRNA level of cytokines IL-4, IFN-γ, and transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 were evaluated by RTPCR analysis. Effect of ginsenoside-F3 on NF-κB DNA binding activity in murine spleen cells was investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). RESULTS: Ginsenoside-F3 at 0.1-100μmol/L not only promoted the murine spleen cell proliferation, but also increased the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ, while decreased the production of IL-4 and IL-10 from murine spleen cells with the maximal effect at 10μmol/L. RT-PCR analysis displayed that ginsenoside-F3 enhanced the IFN-γ and T-bet gene expression and decreased IL-4 and GATA-3 gene expression. EMSA experiment showed that ginsenoside-F3 10μmol/L enhanced the NF-κB DNA binding activity induced by ConA in murine spleen cells. CONCLUSION: Ginsenoside-F3 has immunoenhancing activity by regulating production and gene expression of type 1 cytokines and type 2 cytokines in murine spleen cells.

  2. Photodynamic therapy can induce a protective innate immune response against murine bacterial arthritis via neutrophil accumulation.

    Masamitsu Tanaka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Local microbial infections induced by multiple-drug-resistant bacteria in the orthopedic field can be intractable, therefore development of new therapeutic modalities is needed. Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a promising alternative modality to antibiotics for intractable microbial infections, and we recently reported that PDT has the potential to accumulate neutrophils into the infected site which leads to resolution of the infection. PDT for cancer has long been known to be able to stimulate the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, a murine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA arthritis model using bioluminescent MRSA and polystyrene microparticles was established, and both the therapeutic (Th-PDT and preventive (Pre-PDT effects of PDT using methylene blue as photosensitizer were examined. Although Th-PDT could not demonstrate direct bacterial killing, neutrophils were accumulated into the infectious joint space after PDT and MRSA arthritis was reduced. With the preconditioning Pre-PDT regimen, neutrophils were quickly accumulated into the joint immediately after bacterial inoculation and bacterial growth was suppressed and the establishment of infection was inhibited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration of a protective innate immune response against a bacterial pathogen produced by PDT.

  3. Focal radiation therapy combined with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade yields long-term survival and a protective antigen-specific memory response in a murine glioma model.

    Zineb Belcaid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and is associated with a poor prognosis. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen -4 (CTLA-4 blocking antibodies have demonstrated an ability to generate robust antitumor immune responses against a variety of solid tumors. 4-1BB (CD137 is expressed by activated T lymphocytes and served as a co-stimulatory signal, which promotes cytotoxic function. Here, we evaluate a combination immunotherapy regimen involving 4-1BB activation, CTLA-4 blockade, and focal radiation therapy in an immune-competent intracranial GBM model. METHODS: GL261-luciferace cells were stereotactically implanted in the striatum of C57BL/6 mice. Mice were treated with a triple therapy regimen consisted of 4-1BB agonist antibodies, CTLA-4 blocking antibodies, and focal radiation therapy using a small animal radiation research platform and mice were followed for survival. Numbers of brain-infiltrating lymphocytes were analyzed by FACS analysis. CD4 or CD8 depleting antibodies were administered to determine the relative contribution of T helper and cytotoxic T cells in this regimen. To evaluate the ability of this immunotherapy to generate an antigen-specific memory response, long-term survivors were re-challenged with GL261 glioma en B16 melanoma flank tumors. RESULTS: Mice treated with triple therapy had increased survival compared to mice treated with focal radiation therapy and immunotherapy with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade. Animals treated with triple therapy exhibited at least 50% long-term tumor free survival. Treatment with triple therapy resulted in a higher density of CD4+ and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Mechanistically, depletion of CD4+ T cells abrogated the antitumor efficacy of triple therapy, while depletion of CD8+ T cells had no effect on the treatment response. CONCLUSION: Combination therapy with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade in the setting of focal radiation therapy

  4. Two Epitopes Shared by Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium Confer Protection against Murine T. crassiceps Cysticercosis along with a Prominent T1 Response

    Toledo, Andrea; Fragoso, Gladis; Rosas, Gabriela; Hernández, Marisela; Gevorkian, Goar; López-Casillas, Fernando; Hernández, Beatriz; Acero, Gonzalo; Huerta, Mirna; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2001-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps recombinant antigens KETc1 and KETc12 have been shown to induce high level of protection against experimental murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis, an experimental model successfully used to test candidate antigens for use in vaccination against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, KETc1 and KETc12 were chemically synthesized in linear form. Immunization with KETc1 induced 66.7 to 100% protection against murine cysticercosis, and immun...

  5. Herpes Murine Model as a Biological Assay to Test Dialyzable Leukocyte Extracts Activity

    Nohemí Salinas-Jazmín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that are released on disruption of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy donors. DLEs improve clinical responses in infections, allergies, cancer, and immunodeficiencies. Transferon is a human DLE that has been registered as a hemoderivate by Mexican health authorities and commercialized nationally. To develop an animal model that could be used routinely as a quality control assay for Transferon, we standardized and validated a murine model of cutaneous HSV-1 infection. Using this model, we evaluated the activity of 27 Transferon batches. All batches improved the survival of HSV-1-infected mice, wherein average survival rose from 20.9% in control mice to 59.6% in Transferon-treated mice. The activity of Transferon correlated with increased serum levels of IFN-γ and reduced IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations. Our results demonstrate that (i this mouse model of cutaneous herpes can be used to examine the activity of DLEs, such as Transferon; (ii the assay can be used as a routine test for batch release; (iii Transferon is produced with high homogeneity between batches; (iv Transferon does not have direct virucidal, cytoprotective, or antireplicative effects; and (v the protective effect of Transferon in vivo correlates with changes in serum cytokines.

  6. Herpes Murine Model as a Biological Assay to Test Dialyzable Leukocyte Extracts Activity

    Salinas-Jazmín, Nohemí; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Becerril-García, Miguel Angel; Limón-Flores, Alberto Yairh; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pavón, Lenin; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2015-01-01

    Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs) are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that are released on disruption of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy donors. DLEs improve clinical responses in infections, allergies, cancer, and immunodeficiencies. Transferon is a human DLE that has been registered as a hemoderivate by Mexican health authorities and commercialized nationally. To develop an animal model that could be used routinely as a quality control assay for Transferon, we standardized and validated a murine model of cutaneous HSV-1 infection. Using this model, we evaluated the activity of 27 Transferon batches. All batches improved the survival of HSV-1-infected mice, wherein average survival rose from 20.9% in control mice to 59.6% in Transferon-treated mice. The activity of Transferon correlated with increased serum levels of IFN-γ and reduced IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations. Our results demonstrate that (i) this mouse model of cutaneous herpes can be used to examine the activity of DLEs, such as Transferon; (ii) the assay can be used as a routine test for batch release; (iii) Transferon is produced with high homogeneity between batches; (iv) Transferon does not have direct virucidal, cytoprotective, or antireplicative effects; and (v) the protective effect of Transferon in vivo correlates with changes in serum cytokines. PMID:25984538

  7. Increased Nucleosomes and Neutrophil Activation Link to Disease Progression in Patients with Scrub Typhus but Not Murine Typhus in Laos.

    Paris, Daniel H; Stephan, Femke; Bulder, Ingrid; Wouters, Diana; van der Poll, Tom; Newton, Paul N; Day, Nicholas P J; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is essential in protection against rickettsial illnesses, but the role of neutrophils in these intracellular vasculotropic infections remains unclear. This study analyzed the plasma levels of nucleosomes, FSAP-activation (nucleosome-releasing factor), and neutrophil activation, as evidenced by neutrophil-elastase (ELA) complexes, in sympatric Lao patients with scrub typhus and murine typhus. In acute scrub typhus elevated nucleosome levels correlated with lower GCS scores, raised respiratory rate, jaundice and impaired liver function, whereas neutrophil activation correlated with fibrinolysis and high IL-8 plasma levels, a recently identified predictor of severe disease and mortality. Nucleosome and ELA complex levels were associated with a 4.8-fold and 4-fold increased risk of developing severe scrub typhus, beyond cut off values of 1,040 U/ml for nucleosomes and 275 U/ml for ELA complexes respectively. In murine typhus, nucleosome levels associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and the duration of illness, while ELA complexes correlated strongly with inflammation markers, jaundice and increased respiratory rates. This study found strong correlations between circulating nucleosomes and neutrophil activation in patients with scrub typhus, but not murine typhus, providing indirect evidence that nucleosomes could originate from neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) degradation. High circulating plasma nucleosomes and ELA complexes represent independent risk factors for developing severe complications in scrub typhus. As nucleosomes and histones exposed on NETs are highly cytotoxic to endothelial cells and are strongly pro-coagulant, neutrophil-derived nucleosomes could contribute to vascular damage, the pro-coagulant state and exacerbation of disease in scrub typhus, thus indicating a detrimental role of neutrophil activation. The data suggest that increased neutrophil activation relates to disease progression and severe complications, and

  8. Membrane-dependent Activities of Human 15-LOX-2 and Its Murine Counterpart: IMPLICATIONS FOR MURINE MODELS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS.

    Bender, Gunes; Schexnaydre, Erin E; Murphy, Robert C; Uhlson, Charis; Newcomer, Marcia E

    2016-09-01

    The enzyme encoded by the ALOX15B gene has been linked to the development of atherosclerotic plaques in humans and in a mouse model of hypercholesterolemia. In vitro, these enzymes, which share 78% sequence identity, generate distinct products from their substrate arachidonic acid: the human enzyme, a 15-S-hydroperoxy product; and the murine enzyme, an 8-S-product. We probed the activities of these enzymes with nanodiscs as membrane mimics to determine whether they can access substrate esterified in a bilayer and characterized their activities at the membrane interface. We observed that both enzymes transform phospholipid-esterified arachidonic acid to a 15-S-product. Moreover, when expressed in transfected HEK cells, both enzymes result in significant increases in the amounts of 15-hydroxyderivatives of eicosanoids detected. In addition, we show that 15-LOX-2 is distributed at the plasma membrane when the HEK293 cells are stimulated by the addition Ca(2+) ionophore and that cellular localization is dependent upon the presence of a putative membrane insertion loop. We also report that sequence differences between the human and mouse enzymes in this loop appear to confer distinct mechanisms of enzyme-membrane interaction for the homologues.

  9. Fine mapping and functional activity of the adenosine deaminase origin in murine embryonic fibroblasts.

    Sibani, Sahar; Rampakakis, Emmanouil; Di Paola, Domenic; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2008-06-01

    DNA replication initiates at origins within the genome. The late-firing murine adenosine deaminase (mAdA) origin is located within a 2 kb fragment of DNA, making it difficult to examine by realtime technology. In this study, fine mapping of the mAdA region by measuring the abundance of nascent strand DNA identified two origins, mAdA-1 and mAdA-C, located 397 bp apart from each other. Both origins conferred autonomous replication to plasmids transfected in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and exhibited similar activities in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, both were able to recruit the DNA replication initiator proteins Cdc6 and Ku in vitro, similar to other bona fide replication origins. When tested in a murine Ku80(-/-) cell line, both origins exhibited replication activities comparable to those observed in wildtype cells, as did the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and c-myc origins. This contrasts with previously published studies using Ku80-deficient human cells lines and suggests differences in the mechanism of initiation of DNA replication between the murine and human systems.

  10. Viral and murine interleukin-10 are correctly processed and retain their biological activity when produced in tobacco

    Avesani Linda

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, with therapeutic applications in several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Oral administration of this cytokine alone, or in combination with disease-associated autoantigens could confer protection form the onset of a specific autoimmune disease through the induction of oral tolerance. Transgenic plants are attractive systems for production of therapeutic proteins because of the ability to do large scale-up at low cost, and the low maintenance requirements. They are highly amenable to oral administration and could become effective delivery systems without extensive protein purification. We investigated the ability of tobacco plants to produce high levels of biologically-active viral and murine IL-10. Results Three different subcellular targeting strategies were assessed in transient expression experiments, and stable transgenic tobacco plants were generated with the constructs that yielded the highest accumulation levels by targeting the recombinant proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum. The best yields using this strategy in T1 plants were 10.8 and 37.0 μg/g fresh leaf weight for viral and murine IL-10, respectively. The recombinant proteins were purified from transgenic leaf material and characterized in terms of their N-glycan composition, dimerization and biological activity in in vitro assays. Both molecules formed stable dimers, were able to activate the IL-10 signaling pathway and to induce specific anti-inflammatory responses in mouse J774 macrophage cells. Conclusion Tobacco plants are able to correctly process viral and murine IL-10 into biologically active dimers, therefore representing a suitable platform for the production for these cytokines. The accumulation levels obtained are high enough to allow delivery of an immunologically relevant dose of IL-10 in a reasonable amount of leaf material, without extensive purification. This study paves the

  11. Protective effects of vitamin B12, ginseng saponin, and folic acid against murine fetal deformities caused by hyperthermia

    李荷莲; 王博蔚; 赵丹; 韩丽英

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of vitamin B12, ginseng saponin, and folic acid on mouse embryos subjected to high heat.Methods Mice were used for the experiment.Results After exposure of pregnant mice to high heat, the rates of teratism, stillbirth, and fetal absorption were markedly lower in mice treated with ginseng saponin and folic acid following heat exposure than in untreated mice. There were no significant differences in these rates when comparing mice treated with vitamin B12 with the untreated mice.Conclusions Ginseng saponin and folic acid can lessen injuries to murine embryos caused by high heat, while vitamin B12 has little protective effect against high temperature except for promoting overall embryonic growth.

  12. Protective and Pathogenic Roles of CD8+ T Lymphocytes in Murine Orientia tsutsugamushi Infection

    Hauptmann, Matthias; Kolbaum, Julia; Lilla, Stefanie; Wozniak, David; Gharaibeh, Mohammad; Fleischer, Bernhard; Keller, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    T cells are known to contribute to immune protection against scrub typhus, a potentially fatal infection caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia (O.) tsutsugamushi. However, the contribution of CD8+ T cells to protection and pathogenesis during O. tsutsugamushi infection is still unknown. Using our recently developed BALB/c mouse model that is based on footpad inoculation of the human-pathogenic Karp strain, we show that activated CD8+ T cells infiltrate spleen and lung during the third week of infection. Depletion of CD8+ T cells with monoclonal antibodies resulted in uncontrolled pathogen growth and mortality. Adoptive transfer of CD8+ T cells from infected animals protected naïve BALB/c mice from lethal outcome of intraperitoneal challenge. In C57Bl/6 mice, the pulmonary lymphocyte compartment showed an increased percentage of CD8+ T cells for at least 135 days post O. tsutsugamushi infection. Depletion of CD8+ T cells at 84 days post infection caused reactivation of bacterial growth. In CD8+ T cell-deficient beta 2-microglobulin knockout mice, bacterial replication was uncontrolled, and all mice succumbed to the infection, despite higher serum IFN-γ levels and stronger macrophage responses in liver and lung. Moreover, we show that CD8+ T cells but not NKT cells were required for hepatocyte injury: elevated concentrations of serum alanine aminotransferase and infection-induced subcapsular necrotic liver lesions surrounded by macrophages were found in C57Bl/6 and CD1d-deficient mice, but not in beta 2-microglobulin knockout mice. In the lungs, peribronchial macrophage infiltrations also depended on CD8+ T cells. In summary, our results demonstrate that CD8+ T cells restrict growth of O. tsutsugamushi during acute and persistent infection, and are required to protect from lethal infections in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. However, they also elicit specific pathologic tissue lesions in liver and lung. PMID:27606708

  13. Activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2000

    Radiat. Prot. Cent. Vilnius

    2001-01-01

    Description of the activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2000 is presented. Radiation Protection Centre is responsible for radiation protection issues. Currently there are six departments at Radiation Protection Centre: two in Vilnius - Department of Radiation Protection Supervision and Control and Department of Programs and Expertise, and four in the districts. Brief information on subject controlled by each departments is provided focusing on main achievements and events.

  14. Passive Immunotherapy Protects against Enteric Invasion and Lethal Sepsis in a Murine Model of Gastrointestinal Anthrax.

    Huang, Bruce; Xie, Tao; Rotstein, David; Fang, Hui; Frucht, David M

    2015-09-29

    The principal portal for anthrax infection in natural animal outbreaks is the digestive tract. Enteric exposure to anthrax, which is difficult to detect or prevent in a timely manner, could be exploited as an act of terror through contamination of human or animal food. Our group has developed a novel animal model of gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax for evaluation of disease pathogenesis and experimental therapeutics, utilizing vegetative Bacillus anthracis (Sterne strain) administered to A/J mice (a complement-deficient strain) by oral gavage. We hypothesized that a humanized recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) * that neutralizes the protective antigen (PA) component of B. anthracis lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET) could be an effective treatment. Although the efficacy of this anti-anthrax PA mAb has been shown in animal models of inhalational anthrax, its activity in GI infection had not yet been ascertained. We hereby demonstrate that passive immunotherapy with anti-anthrax PA mAb, administered at the same time as gastrointestinal exposure to B. anthracis, prevents lethal sepsis in nearly all cases (>90%), while a delay of up to forty-eight hours in treatment still greatly reduces mortality following exposure (65%). Moreover, passive immunotherapy protects against enteric invasion, associated mucosal injury and subsequent dissemination by gastrointestinal B. anthracis, indicating that it acts to prevent the initial stages of infection. * Expired raxibacumab being cycled off the Strategic National Stockpile; biological activity confirmed by in vitro assay.

  15. Allicin enhances host pro-inflammatory immune responses and protects against acute murine malaria infection

    Feng Yonghui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During malaria infection, multiple pro-inflammatory mediators including IFN-γ, TNF and nitric oxide (NO play a crucial role in the protection against the parasites. Modulation of host immunity is an important strategy to improve the outcome of malaria infection. Allicin is the major biologically active component of garlic and shows anti-microbial activity. Allicin is also active against protozoan parasites including Plasmodium, which is thought to be mediated by inhibiting cysteine proteases. In this study, the immunomodulatory activities of allicin were assessed during acute malaria infection using a rodent malaria model Plasmodium yoelii 17XL. Methods To determine whether allicin modulates host immune responses against malaria infection, mice were treated with allicin after infection with P. yoelii 17XL. Mortality was checked daily and parasitaemia was determined every other day. Pro-inflammatory mediators and IL-4 were quantified by ELISA, while NO level was determined by the Griess method. The populations of dendritic cells (DCs, macrophages, CD4+ T and regulatory T cells (Treg were assessed by FACS. Results Allicin reduced parasitaemia and prolonged survival of the host in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is at least partially due to improved host immune responses. Results showed that allicin treatment enhanced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as IFN-γ, TNF, IL-12p70 and NO. The absolute numbers of CD4+ T cells, DCs and macrophages were significantly higher in allicin-treated mice. In addition, allicin promoted the maturation of CD11c+ DCs, whereas it did not cause major changes in IL-4 and the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Conclusions Allicin could partially protect host against P. yoelii 17XL through enhancement of the host innate and adaptive immune responses.

  16. Evaluation of the protective immunity of a novel subunit fusion vaccine in a murine model of systemic MRSA infection.

    Zuo, Qian-Fei; Yang, Liu-Yang; Feng, Qiang; Lu, Dong-Shui; Dong, Yan-Dong; Cai, Chang-Zhi; Wu, Yi; Guo, Ying; Gu, Jiang; Zeng, Hao; Zou, Quan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common commensal organism in humans and a major cause of bacteremia and hospital acquired infection. Because of the spread of strains resistant to antibiotics, these infections are becoming more difficult to treat. Therefore, exploration of anti-staphylococcal vaccines is currently a high priority. Iron surface determinant B (IsdB) is an iron-regulated cell wall-anchored surface protein of S. aureus. Alpha-toxin (Hla) is a secreted cytolytic pore-forming toxin. Previous studies reported that immunization with IsdB or Hla protected animals against S. aureus infection. To develop a broadly protective vaccine, we constructed chimeric vaccines based on IsdB and Hla. Immunization with the chimeric bivalent vaccine induced strong antibody and T cell responses. When the protective efficacy of the chimeric bivalent vaccine was compared to that of individual proteins in a murine model of systemic S. aureus infection, the bivalent vaccine showed a stronger protective immune response than the individual proteins (IsdB or Hla). Based on the results presented here, the chimeric bivalent vaccine affords higher levels of protection against S. aureus and has potential as a more effective candidate vaccine.

  17. Evaluation of the protective immunity of a novel subunit fusion vaccine in a murine model of systemic MRSA infection.

    Qian-Fei Zuo

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a common commensal organism in humans and a major cause of bacteremia and hospital acquired infection. Because of the spread of strains resistant to antibiotics, these infections are becoming more difficult to treat. Therefore, exploration of anti-staphylococcal vaccines is currently a high priority. Iron surface determinant B (IsdB is an iron-regulated cell wall-anchored surface protein of S. aureus. Alpha-toxin (Hla is a secreted cytolytic pore-forming toxin. Previous studies reported that immunization with IsdB or Hla protected animals against S. aureus infection. To develop a broadly protective vaccine, we constructed chimeric vaccines based on IsdB and Hla. Immunization with the chimeric bivalent vaccine induced strong antibody and T cell responses. When the protective efficacy of the chimeric bivalent vaccine was compared to that of individual proteins in a murine model of systemic S. aureus infection, the bivalent vaccine showed a stronger protective immune response than the individual proteins (IsdB or Hla. Based on the results presented here, the chimeric bivalent vaccine affords higher levels of protection against S. aureus and has potential as a more effective candidate vaccine.

  18. Notch1 regulated autophagy controls survival and suppressor activity of activated murine T-regulatory cells

    Marcel, Nimi; Sarin, Apurva

    2016-01-01

    Cell survival is one of several processes regulated by the Notch pathway in mammalian cells. Here we report functional outcomes of non-nuclear Notch signaling to activate autophagy, a conserved cellular response to nutrient stress, regulating survival in murine natural T-regulatory cells (Tregs), an immune subset controlling tolerance and inflammation. Induction of autophagy required ligand-dependent, Notch intracellular domain (NIC) activity, which controlled mitochondrial organization and survival of activated Tregs. Consistently, NIC immune-precipitated Beclin and Atg14, constituents of the autophagy initiation complex. Further, ectopic expression of an effector of autophagy (Atg3) or recombinant NIC tagged to a nuclear export signal (NIC-NES), restored autophagy and suppressor function in Notch1-/- Tregs. Furthermore, Notch1 deficiency in the Treg lineage resulted in immune hyperactivity, implicating Notch activity in Treg homeostasis. Notch1 integration with autophagy, revealed in these experiments, holds implications for Notch regulated cell-fate decisions governing differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14023.001 PMID:27267497

  19. The Immunomodulatory Activity of Jacaric Acid, a Conjugated Linolenic Acid Isomer, on Murine Peritoneal Macrophages.

    Wai Nam Liu

    Full Text Available This study aims at demonstrating the immunomodulatory property of jacaric acid, a conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA isomer that is present in jacaranda seed oil, on murine peritoneal macrophages. Our results showed that jacaric acid exhibited no significant cytotoxicity on the thioglycollate-elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as revealed by the neutral red uptake assay, but markedly increased their cytostatic activity on the T-cell lymphoma MBL-2 cells as measured by the fluorometric CyQuant® NF Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that jacaric acid could enhance the endocytic activity of macrophages and elevated their intracellular production of superoxide anion. Moreover, jacaric acid-treated macrophages showed an increase in the production of nitric oxide which was accompanied by an increase in the expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase protein. In addition, the secretion of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interferon-γ, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, was up-regulated. Collectively, our results indicated that the naturally-occurring CLNA isomer, jacaric acid, could exhibit immunomodulating activity on the murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro, suggesting that this CLNA isomer may act as an immunopotentiator which can be exploited for the treatment of some immunological disorders with minimal toxicity and fewer side effects.

  20. Activation of P2X7 receptors decreases the proliferation of murine luteal cells.

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Shuangmei; Nie, Yijun; Wu, Bing; Wu, Qin; Song, Miaomiao; Tang, Min; Xiao, Li; Xu, Ping; Tan, Ximin; Zhang, Luyin; Li, Gang; Liang, Shangdong; Zhang, Chunping

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular ATP regulates cellular function in an autocrine or paracrine manner through activating purinergic signalling. Studies have shown that purinergic receptors were expressed in mammalian ovaries and they have been proposed as an intra-ovarian regulatory mechanism. P2X7 was expressed in porcine ovarian theca cells and murine and human ovarian surface epithelium and is involved in ATP-induced apoptotic cell death. However, the role of P2X7 in corpus luteum is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ATP signalling in murine luteal cells and the possible mechanism(s) involved. We found that P2X7 was highly expressed in murine small luteal cells. The agonists of P2X7, ATP and BzATP, inhibited the proliferation of luteal cells. P2X7 antagonist BBG reversed the inhibition induced by ATP and BzATP. Further studies showed that ATP and BzATP inhibited the expression of cell cycle regulators cyclinD2 and cyclinE2. ATP and BzATP also inhibited the p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. These results reveal that P2X7 receptor activation is involved in corpus luteum formation and function.

  1. Recombinant Salmonella Expressing Burkholderia mallei LPS O Antigen Provides Protection in a Murine Model of Melioidosis and Glanders.

    Moustafa, Dina A; Scarff, Jennifer M; Garcia, Preston P; Cassidy, Sara K B; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Waag, David M; Inzana, Thomas J; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively. These bacteria are highly infectious via the respiratory route and can cause severe and often fatal diseases in humans and animals. Both species are considered potential agents of biological warfare; they are classified as category B priority pathogens. Currently there are no human or veterinary vaccines available against these pathogens. Consequently efforts are directed towards the development of an efficacious and safe vaccine. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an immunodominant antigen and potent stimulator of host immune responses. B. mallei express LPS that is structurally similar to that expressed by B. pseudomallei, suggesting the possibility of constructing a single protective vaccine against melioidosis and glanders. Previous studies of others have shown that antibodies against B. mallei or B. pseudomallei LPS partially protect mice against subsequent lethal virulent Burkholderia challenge. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen against lethal intranasal infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, a surrogate for biothreat Burkholderia spp. in a murine model that mimics melioidosis and glanders. All vaccine-immunized mice developed a specific antibody response to B. mallei and B. pseudomallei O antigen and to B. thailandensis and were significantly protected against challenge with a lethal dose of B. thailandensis. These results suggest that live-attenuated SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen is a promising platform for developing a safe and effective vaccine.

  2. Recombinant Salmonella Expressing Burkholderia mallei LPS O Antigen Provides Protection in a Murine Model of Melioidosis and Glanders.

    Dina A Moustafa

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively. These bacteria are highly infectious via the respiratory route and can cause severe and often fatal diseases in humans and animals. Both species are considered potential agents of biological warfare; they are classified as category B priority pathogens. Currently there are no human or veterinary vaccines available against these pathogens. Consequently efforts are directed towards the development of an efficacious and safe vaccine. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is an immunodominant antigen and potent stimulator of host immune responses. B. mallei express LPS that is structurally similar to that expressed by B. pseudomallei, suggesting the possibility of constructing a single protective vaccine against melioidosis and glanders. Previous studies of others have shown that antibodies against B. mallei or B. pseudomallei LPS partially protect mice against subsequent lethal virulent Burkholderia challenge. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen against lethal intranasal infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, a surrogate for biothreat Burkholderia spp. in a murine model that mimics melioidosis and glanders. All vaccine-immunized mice developed a specific antibody response to B. mallei and B. pseudomallei O antigen and to B. thailandensis and were significantly protected against challenge with a lethal dose of B. thailandensis. These results suggest that live-attenuated SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen is a promising platform for developing a safe and effective vaccine.

  3. [Murine peritoneal neutrophil activation upon tungsten nanoparticles exposure in vivo].

    Martinova, E A; Baranov, V I

    2014-01-01

    Two examples of tungsten carbide nanoparticles (d = 15 nm, 50 nm) and tungsten carbide nanoparticles with 8% cobalt (d = 50 nm) have been found to induce the neutrophil activation 3 h and 36 h after intraperitoneal administration in the doses 0.005; 0.025; 0.05; 0.25; 0.5; 1; 2.5 and 5 microgram per 1 gram body weight to FVB mice. Neutrophil activation was calculated based on the CD11b and S100 antigen expression. Effect of nanoparticles is bimodal for all tested examples.

  4. The Proteome of the Murine Presynaptic Active Zone

    Melanie Laßek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The proteome of the presynaptic active zone controls neurotransmitter release and the short- and long-term structural and functional dynamics of the nerve terminal. The proteinaceous inventory of the presynaptic active zone has recently been reported. This review will evaluate the subcellular fractionation protocols and the proteomic approaches employed. A breakthrough for the identification of the proteome of the presynaptic active zone was the successful employment of antibodies directed against a cytosolic epitope of membrane integral synaptic vesicle proteins for the immunopurification of synaptic vesicles docked to the presynaptic plasma membrane. Combining immunopurification and subsequent analytical mass spectrometry, hundreds of proteins, including synaptic vesicle proteins, components of the presynaptic fusion and retrieval machinery, proteins involved in intracellular and extracellular signaling and a large variety of adhesion molecules, were identified. Numerous proteins regulating the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton are indicative of the functional and structural dynamics of the presynapse. This review will critically discuss both the experimental approaches and prominent protein candidates identified. Many proteins have not previously been assigned to the presynaptic release sites and may be directly involved in the short- and long-term structural modulation of the presynaptic compartment. The identification of proteinaceous constituents of the presynaptic active zone provides the basis for further analyzing the interaction of presynaptic proteins with their targets and opens novel insights into the functional role of these proteins in neuronal communication.

  5. c-di-GMP enhances protective innate immunity in a murine model of pertussis.

    Shokrollah Elahi

    Full Text Available Innate immunity represents the first line of defense against invading pathogens in the respiratory tract. Innate immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, and granulocytes contain specific pathogen-recognition molecules which induce the production of cytokines and subsequently activate the adaptive immune response. c-di-GMP is a ubiquitous second messenger that stimulates innate immunity and regulates biofilm formation, motility and virulence in a diverse range of bacterial species with potent immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, c-di-GMP was used to enhance the innate immune response against pertussis, a respiratory infection mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. Intranasal treatment with c-di-GMP resulted in the induction of robust innate immune responses to infection with B. pertussis characterized by enhanced recruitment of neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells and dendritic cells. The immune responses were associated with an earlier and more vigorous expression of Th1-type cytokines, as well as an increase in the induction of nitric oxide in the lungs of treated animals, resulting in significant reduction of bacterial numbers in the lungs of infected mice. These results demonstrate that c-di-GMP is a potent innate immune stimulatory molecule that can be used to enhance protection against bacterial respiratory infections. In addition, our data suggest that priming of the innate immune system by c-di-GMP could further skew the immune response towards a Th1 type phenotype during subsequent infection. Thus, our data suggest that c-di-GMP might be useful as an adjuvant for the next generation of acellular pertussis vaccine to mount a more protective Th1 phenotype immune response, and also in other systems where a Th1 type immune response is required.

  6. Protective effect of hainosankyuto, a traditional Japanese medicine, on Streptococcus pyogenes infection in murine model.

    Masaaki Minami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes causes various serious diseases including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. One serious problem observed recently with S. pyogenes therapy is attenuation of the antibiotic effect, especially penicillin treatment failure and macrolide resistance. Hainosankyuto, a traditional Japanese medicine based on ancient Chinese medicine, has been used for treatment of infectious purulent diseases in Japan. In this study, we investigated the protective and therapeutic efficacy of Hainosankyuto against S. pyogenes-skin infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A broth microdilution method revealed that Hainosankyuto did not show a direct anti-bacterial effect against S. pyogenes. Force-feeding Hainosankyuto to infected mice for 4 consecutive days increased the survival rate and reduced the size of local skin lesions compared with mice fed PBS. Although we did not find the significant recovery of survival rate in Hainosankyuto administration only after S. pyogenes infection, the sizes of ulcer lesion were significant smaller after Hainosankyuto administration compared with mice fed PBS. No difference was observed in the anti-bacterial effect of Hainosankyuto between macrolide-susceptible and -resistant strains. Blood bactericidal assay showed that the survival rate of S. pyogenes using the blood from Hainosankyuto-treated mice was lower than that using the blood from untreated mice. We also found increased levels of IL-12, IFN-γ and a decreased level of TNF-α in the serum of S. pyogenes-infected mice treated with Hainosankyuto. Mouse peritoneal macrophage from Hainosankyuto-treated mice had significant phagocytic activity and increased mRNA levels of IL-12, IFN-γ and decreased mRNA level of TNF-α compared with control macrophage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hainosankyuto increased survival rate after S. pyogenes infection and up-regulated both blood bactericidal activity and

  7. Paclitaxel-induced activation of murine peritoneal macrophage in vitro

    Li Zhongxiang; Wang Fufeng; Qiao Yuhuan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of paclitaxel on macrophage activation. Methods:Mouse macrophages were isolated by peritoneal lavage and cultured in RPMI 1640 medium according to the following groups: paclitaxel (5μmol/L) group, IFN-γ (5U/L) group, paclitaxel (5μmol/L) and IFN-γ (5U/L) combination group, and control group(without paclitaxel and IFNγ) .24 hours later, supematants were collected for nitric oxide(NO) assessment using the Griess reagent, and ttanor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) assessment using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity(ADCC) of the macrophages was assessed using the method of hemoglobin-enzyme release assay (Hb-ERA). Results: Paclitaxel induced the production of higher levels of NO(8.86 ± 1.16μmol/L) and TNF-α(120.2 ± 10.2pg/ml) ,and enhanced the ADCC of macrophages[ (20.61 + 1.13)% ]. The differences were significant compared with the control group[no NO and TNF-α detected,ADCC (15.37 + 1.93)% ](P < 0.01). Paclitaxel and IFN-γ in combination induced the production of higher levels of NO(22.85 ± 0.91μmol/L) and TNF-α(358.6 ± 27 .5pg/ml), and enhanced the ADCC of macrophages[ (42.49 + 3.09) % ]. The differences were significant compared with paclitaxel or IFN-γ[NO 8.09 ± 1.13μmol/L, TNF-α1 24.8 + 9.6pg/ml, ADCC(23.32 ± 2.63) % ] alone (P<0.01). Conclusion: These findings indicate that paclitaxel can promote NO and TNF-α production,enhance ADCC of macrophages, and induce macrophage activation. The active effects are more significant with paclitaxel and IFN-γcombination.

  8. Evidence for a protective role of the gardos channel againsthemolysis in murine spherocytosis

    de Franceschi, Lucia; Rivera, Alicia; Fleming, Mark D.; Honczarenko, Marek; Peters, Luanne L.; Gascard, Philippe; Mohandas,Narla; Brugnara, Carlo

    2005-04-20

    It has been shown that mice with complete deficiency of all4.1R protein isoforms (4.1[-/-]) exhibit moderate hemolytic anemia, withabnormal erythrocyte morphology (spherocytosis) and decreased membranestability. Here, we characterized the Gardos channel function in vitroand in vivo In erythrocytes of 4.1[-/-]mice. Compared with wild-type,the Gardos channel of 4.1[-/-]erythrocytes showed an Increase in V[max](9.75 +- 1.06 vs 6.08 +- 0.09 mM cell x minute; P<.04) and adecrease in K[m](1.01 +- 0.06 vs 1.47 +- 1.02 mu M; P<.03),indicating an increased sensitivity to activation by intracellularcalcium. In vivo function of the Gardos channel was assessed by the oraladministration of clotrimazole, a well-characterized Gardos channelblocker. Clotrimazole treatment resulted in worsening of anemia andhemolysis, with decreased red cell survival and increased numbers ofcirculating hyperchromic spherocytes and microspherocytes. Clotrimazoleinduced similar changes in 4.2[-/-]and band 3[+/-]mice, indicating thatthese effects of the Gardos channel are shared in different models ofmurine spherocytosis. Thus, potassium and water loss through the Gardoschannelmay play an important protective role in compensating for thereduced surface-membrane area of hereditary spherocytosis (HS)erythrocytes and reducing hemolysis in erythrocytes with cytoskeletalimpairments.

  9. Cancer testis antigen vaccination affords long-term protection in a murine model of ovarian cancer.

    Maurizio Chiriva-Internati

    Full Text Available Sperm protein (Sp17 is an attractive target for ovarian cancer (OC vaccines because of its over-expression in primary as well as in metastatic lesions, at all stages of the disease. Our studies suggest that a Sp17-based vaccine can induce an enduring defense against OC development in C57BL/6 mice with ID8 cells, following prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. This is the first time that a mouse counterpart of a cancer testis antigen (Sp17 was shown to be expressed in an OC mouse model, and that vaccination against this antigen significantly controlled tumor growth. Our study shows that the CpG-adjuvated Sp17 vaccine overcomes the issue of immunologic tolerance, the major barrier to the development of effective immunotherapy for OC. Furthermore, this study provides a better understanding of OC biology by showing that Th-17 cells activation and contemporary immunosuppressive T-reg cells inhibition is required for vaccine efficacy. Taken together, these results indicate that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccinations can induce long-standing protection against OC and delay tumor growth, suggesting that this strategy may provide additional treatments of human OC and the prevention of disease onset in women with a family history of OC.

  10. ISOBUTYRAMIDE ACTIVATES TRANSCRIPTION OF HUMAN FETAL γ- AND MURINE EMBRYONIC εy-GLOBIN GENES

    张俊武; 张雪青; 陈平

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effect of isobutyramide synthesized in our laboratory on human and murine globingene expression and to test cell toxicity of the drug.Methods. ME L cells were transfected with the recombinant construct μLCRAγψβδβ3 and the stable transfor-mants were cultured in the medium with different concentrations of isobutyramide. The experimental mice and rab-bit were injected with different doses of isobutyramide. The globin mRNAs were analyzed by RNase protection as-say. The hematologdcal toxicity and electrolyte toxicity of the drug were tested.Results. An inducible and dose-dependent expression of the human γγ-, ββ- and mouse Aa-globin gene was ob-served in the transfected MEL cells. The induction of the human γ-globin gene is significant stronger than that ofthe ββ-globin gene. With 2.5 ~ 5 mmol/L isobutyramide, the induction of the human γ-globin gene is even moreeffective than that of mouse aa-globin gene. After a 15-day injection under the doses of 500 ~ 900mg * kg- 1 * d-1,the level of the mouse embryonic εy-globin mRNA could be significantly induced up to 3 ~ 4 fold of that of uninject-ed controls. The changes of hemoglobin(Hb), RBC, hematocrit(HCT), WBC, derived from mice injected withdifferent doses of isobutyramide at the interval of 24 hours for 2 ~4 weeks, were generally within the normalrange. In rabbits injected with isobutyramide in the same regiment for 2 weeks, the concentration of blood K+,Na +, C1- and CO.2 were all within normal range and serum ionic osmotic pressure remained stable as well.Conclusion. Our results suggested that isobutyramide is a weak inducer of cell differentiation, but it canselectively activate transcription of human γy-globin gene at a certain degree, and it can act on early stages of ery-throid progenitor differentiation in adult mice and activate transcription of embryonic εy-globin gene and have nohematological toxicity. Our results have further proved the potential value of

  11. Novel Approach for Evaluation of Bacteroides fragilis Protective Role against Bartonella henselae Liver Damage in Immunocompromised Murine Model

    Pagliuca, Chiara; Cicatiello, Annunziata G.; Colicchio, Roberta; Greco, Adelaide; Cerciello, Raimondo; Auletta, Luigi; Albanese, Sandra; Scaglione, Elena; Pagliarulo, Caterina; Pastore, Gabiria; Mansueto, Gelsomina; Brunetti, Arturo; Avallone, Bice; Salvatore, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium and is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease. Our previous data have established that Bacteroides fragilis colonization is able to prevent B. henselae damages through the polysaccharide A (PSA) in an experimental murine model. In order to determine whether the PSA is essential for the protection against pathogenic effects of B. henselae in immunocompromised hosts, SCID mice were co-infected with B. fragilis wild type or its mutant B. fragilis ΔPSA and the effects of infection on murine tissues have been observed by High-Frequency Ultrasound (HFUS), histopathological examination, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). For the first time, echostructure, hepatic lobes length, vascular alterations, and indirect signs of hepatic dysfunctions, routinely used as signs of disease in humans, have been analyzed in an immunocompromised murine model. Our findings showed echostructural alterations in all infected mice compared with the Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS) control group; further, those infected with B. henselae and co-infected with B. henselae/B. fragilis ΔPSA presented the major echostructural alterations. Half of the mice infected with B. henselae and all those co-infected with B. henselae/B. fragilis ΔPSA have showed an altered hepatic echogenicity compared with the renal cortex. The echogenicity score of co-infected mice with B. henselae/B. fragilis ΔPSA differed significantly compared with the PBS control group (p < 0.05). Moreover the inflammation score of the histopathological evaluation was fairly concordant with ultrasound findings. Ultrastructural analysis performed by TEM revealed no significant alterations in liver samples of SCID mice infected with B. fragilis wild type while those infected with B. fragilis ΔPSA showed the presence of collagen around the main vessels compared with the PBS control group. The liver samples of mice infected with B. henselae showed

  12. Rapamycin Inhibits ALDH Activity, Resistance to Oxidative Stress, and Metastatic Potential in Murine Osteosarcoma Cells

    Xiaodong Mu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common primary malignancy of bone. Mortality is determined by the presence of metastatic disease, but little is known regarding the biochemical events that drive metastases. Two murine OS cell lines, K7M2 and K12, are related but differ significantly in their metastatic potentials: K7M2 is highly metastatic whereas K12 displays much less metastatic potential. Using this experimental system, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway has been implicated in OS metastasis. We also discovered that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH, a stem cell marker activity is higher in K7M2 cells than K12 cells. Rapamycin treatment reduces the expression and enzymatic activity of ALDH in K7M2 cells. ALDH inhibition renders these cells more susceptible to apoptotic death when exposed to oxidative stress. Furthermore, rapamycin treatment reduces bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene expression and inhibits K7M2 proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. Inhibition of ALDH with disulfiram correlated with decreased mTOR expression and activity. In conclusion, we provide evidence for interaction between mTOR activity, ALDH activity, and metastatic potential in murine OS cells. Our work suggests that mTOR and ALDH are therapeutic targets for the treatment and prevention of OS metastasis.

  13. Immunization with the yersiniabactin receptor, FyuA, protects against pyelonephritis in a murine model of urinary tract infection.

    Brumbaugh, Ariel R; Smith, Sara N; Mobley, Harry L T

    2013-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common and represent a substantial economic and public health burden. Roughly 80% of these infections are caused by a heterogeneous group of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains. Antibiotics are standard therapy for UTI, but a rise in antibiotic resistance has complicated treatment, making the development of a UTI vaccine more urgent. Iron receptors are a promising new class of vaccine targets for UTI, as UPEC require iron to colonize the iron-limited host urinary tract and genes encoding iron acquisition systems are highly expressed during infection. Previously, three of six UPEC siderophore and heme receptors were identified as vaccine candidates by intranasal immunization in a murine model of ascending UTI. To complete the assessment of iron receptors as vaccine candidates, an additional six UPEC iron receptors were evaluated. Of the six vaccine candidates tested in this study (FyuA, FitA, IroN, the gene product of the CFT073 locus c0294, and two truncated derivatives of ChuA), only FyuA provided significant protection (P = 0.0018) against UPEC colonization. Intranasal immunization induced a robust and long-lived humoral immune response. In addition, the levels of FyuA-specific serum IgG correlated with bacterial loads in the kidneys [Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ρ(14) = -0.72, P = 0.0018], providing a surrogate of protection. FyuA is the fourth UPEC iron receptor to be identified from our screens, in addition to IutA, Hma, and IreA, which were previously demonstrated to elicit protection against UPEC challenge. Together, these iron receptor antigens will facilitate the development of a broadly protective, multivalent UTI vaccine to effectively target diverse strains of UPEC.

  14. Activation effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides liposomes on murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Liu, Zhenguang; Xing, Jie; Huang, Yee; Bo, Ruonan; Zheng, Sisi; Luo, Li; Niu, Yale; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun

    2016-01-01

    The activation of murine peritoneal macrophages by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides liposomes (GLPL) was investigated in vitro. After treatment with GLPL, the changes of the nitric oxide (NO) secretion and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) activity were evaluated. The results showed that NO production and iNOS activity of macrophages were enhanced compared to GLP and BL group. In addition, both the phagocytic activity and levels of cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ were enhanced in the peritoneal macrophages of mice by stimulation of GLPL. The expression of the major histocompatibility complex class II molecule (MHC II) on the surface of peritoneal macrophages significantly increased. These indicated that GLPL could enhance the activation of peritoneal macrophages and their potential for use as a delivery system of GLP.

  15. Bifidobacterium bifidum Actively Changes the Gene Expression Profile Induced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in Murine Dendritic Cells

    Weiss, Gudrun Margarethe; Rasmussen, Simon; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen;

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal regulatory role in activation of both the innate as well as the adaptive immune system by responding to environmental microorganisms. We have previously shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus induces a strong production of the pro-inflammatory and Th1 polarizing...... cytokine IL-12 in DC, whereas bifidobacteria do not induce IL-12 but inhibit the IL-12 production induced by lactobacilli. In the present study, genome-wide microarrays were used to investigate the gene expression pattern of murine DC stimulated with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium...

  16. Alternate radiolabeled markers for detecting metabolic activity of Mycobacterium leprae residing in murine macrophages

    Prasad, H.K.; Hastings, R.C.

    1985-05-01

    This study demonstrated the utility of using 4% NaOH as a murine macrophage cell-solubilizing agent to discriminate between host macrophage metabolism and that of intracellular Mycobacterium leprae. A 4% concentration of NaOH had no deleterious effect on labeled mycobacteria. Thereby, alternate radiolabeled indicators of the metabolic activity of intracellular M. leprae could be experimented with. Significant incorporation of /sup 14/C-amino acid mixture, (/sup 14/C)leucine, (/sup 14/C)uridine, and carrier-free /sup 32/P was observed in cultures containing freshly extracted (''live'') strains of M. leprae as compared with control cultures containing autoclaved bacilli.

  17. Vaccination with Leishmania histone H1-pulsed dendritic cells confers protection in murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Agallou, Maria; Smirlis, Despina; Soteriadou, Ketty P; Karagouni, Evdokia

    2012-07-20

    Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniases affecting millions of people worldwide often resulting in death despite optimal therapy. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of effective anti-infective vaccine(s). In the present study, we evaluated the prophylactic value of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) pulsed with the Leishmania (L.) infantum histone H1. We developed fully mature BM-DCs characterized by enhanced capacity of IL-12 production after ex vivo pulsing with GST-LeishH1. Intravenous administration of these BM-DCs in naive BALB/c mice resulted in antigen-specific spleenocyte proliferation and IgG1 isotype antibody production and conferred protection against experimental challenge with L. infantum independently of CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs) co-administration. Protection was associated with a pronounced enhancement of parasite-specific IFNγ-producing cells and reduction of cells producing IL-10, whereas IL-4 production was comparable in protected and non-protected mice. The polarization of immune responses to Th1 type was further confirmed by the elevation of parasite-specific IgG2a/IgG1 ratio in protected mice. The above data indicate the immunostimulatory capacity of Leishmania histone H1 and further support its exploitation as a candidate protein for vaccine development against leishmaniasis.

  18. Natural IgM switches the function of LPS activated murine bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDC) to a “regulatory” DC that suppresses innate inflammation1

    Lobo, Peter I.; Schlegel, Kailo H.; Bajwa, Amandeep; Huang, Liping; Kurmaeva, Elvira; Wang, Binru; Ye, Hong; Tedder, Thomas F.; Kinsey, Gilbert R.; Okusa, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that polyclonal natural IgM protects mice from renal IRI by inhibiting the reperfusion inflammatory response. We hypothesized that a potential mechanism involved IgM modulation of dendritic cells as we observed high IgM binding to splenic DC. To test this hypothesis, we pre-treated BMDC with polyclonal murine or human IgM prior to LPS activation and demonstrate that 0.5 × 106 IgM/LPS pretreated BMDC, when injected into WT-B6 mice, 24 hours before renal ischemia, prote...

  19. Mangiferin, a natural xanthone, protects murine liver in Pb(II induced hepatic damage and cell death via MAP kinase, NF-κB and mitochondria dependent pathways.

    Pabitra Bikash Pal

    Full Text Available One of the most well-known naturally occurring environmental heavy metals, lead (Pb has been reported to cause liver injury and cellular apoptosis by disturbing the prooxidant-antioxidant balance via oxidative stress. Several studies, on the other hand, reported that mangiferin, a naturally occurring xanthone, has been used for a broad range of therapeutic purposes. In the present study, we, therefore, investigated the molecular mechanisms of the protective action of mangiferin against lead-induced hepatic pathophysiology. Lead [Pb(II] in the form of Pb(NO32 (at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight, 6 days, orally induced oxidative stress, hepatic dysfunction and cell death in murine liver. Post treatment of mangiferin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight (6 days, orally, on the other hand, diminished the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reduced the levels of serum marker enzymes [alanine aminotranferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP]. Mangiferin also reduced Pb(II induced alterations in antioxidant machineries, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential as well as mutual regulation of Bcl-2/Bax. Furthermore, mangiferin inhibited Pb(II-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs (phospho-ERK 1/2, phosphor-JNK phospho- p38, nuclear translocation of NF-κB and apoptotic cell death as was evidenced by DNA fragmentation, FACS analysis and histological assessment. In vitro studies using hepatocytes as the working model also showed the protective effect of mangiferin in Pb(II induced cytotoxicity. All these beneficial effects of mangiferin contributes to the considerable reduction of apoptotic hepatic cell death induced by Pb(II. Overall results demonstrate that mangiferin exhibit both antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties and protects the organ in Pb(II induced hepatic dysfunction.

  20. Mangiferin, a Natural Xanthone, Protects Murine Liver in Pb(II) Induced Hepatic Damage and Cell Death via MAP Kinase, NF-κB and Mitochondria Dependent Pathways

    Pal, Pabitra Bikash; Sinha, Krishnendu; Sil, Parames C.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most well-known naturally occurring environmental heavy metals, lead (Pb) has been reported to cause liver injury and cellular apoptosis by disturbing the prooxidant-antioxidant balance via oxidative stress. Several studies, on the other hand, reported that mangiferin, a naturally occurring xanthone, has been used for a broad range of therapeutic purposes. In the present study, we, therefore, investigated the molecular mechanisms of the protective action of mangiferin against lead-induced hepatic pathophysiology. Lead [Pb(II)] in the form of Pb(NO3)2 (at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight, 6 days, orally) induced oxidative stress, hepatic dysfunction and cell death in murine liver. Post treatment of mangiferin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight (6 days, orally), on the other hand, diminished the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced the levels of serum marker enzymes [alanine aminotranferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)]. Mangiferin also reduced Pb(II) induced alterations in antioxidant machineries, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential as well as mutual regulation of Bcl-2/Bax. Furthermore, mangiferin inhibited Pb(II)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (phospho-ERK 1/2, phosphor-JNK phospho- p38), nuclear translocation of NF-κB and apoptotic cell death as was evidenced by DNA fragmentation, FACS analysis and histological assessment. In vitro studies using hepatocytes as the working model also showed the protective effect of mangiferin in Pb(II) induced cytotoxicity. All these beneficial effects of mangiferin contributes to the considerable reduction of apoptotic hepatic cell death induced by Pb(II). Overall results demonstrate that mangiferin exhibit both antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties and protects the organ in Pb(II) induced hepatic dysfunction. PMID:23451106

  1. TLR-7 agonist attenuates airway reactivity and inflammation through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant protection in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    Nadeem, Ahmed; Siddiqui, Nahid; Al-Harbi, Naif O; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Ahmad, Sheikh F

    2016-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) through innate immune system recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns and play an important role in host defense against bacteria, fungi and viruses. TLR-7 is responsible for sensing single stranded nucleic acids of viruses but its activation has been shown to be protective in mouse models of asthma. The NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes family mainly produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lung and is involved in regulation of airway inflammation in response to TLRs activation. However, NOX-4 mediated signaling in response to TLR-7 activation in a mouse model of allergic asthma has not been explored previously. Therefore, this study investigated the role TLR-7 activation and downstream oxidant-antioxidant signaling in a murine model of asthma. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) intraperitoneally and treated with TLR-7 agonist, resiquimod (RSQ) intranasally before each OVA challenge from days 14 to 16. Mice were then assessed for airway reactivity, inflammation, and NOX-4 and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) related signaling [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine, lipid peroxides and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD)]. Treatment with RSQ reduced allergen induced airway reactivity and inflammation. This was paralleled by a decrease in ROS which was due to induction of Nrf2 and Cu/Zn SOD in RSQ treated group. Inhibition of MyD88 reversed RSQ-mediated protective effects on airway reactivity/inflammation due to reduction in Nrf2 signaling. SOD inhibition produced effects similar to MyD88 inhibition. The current study suggests that TLR-7 agonist is beneficial and may be developed into a therapeutic option in allergic asthma.

  2. Epigenetic regulation in murine offspring as a novel mechanism for transmaternal asthma protection induced by microbes

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting from complex gene-environment interactions. Natural microbial exposure has been identified as an important environmental condition that provides asthma protection in a prenatal window of opportunity. Epigenetic regulation is an important m...

  3. Amphipathic DNA polymers exhibit antiviral activity against systemic Murine Cytomegalovirus infection

    Juteau Jean-Marc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorothioated oligonucleotides (PS-ONs have a sequence-independent, broad spectrum antiviral activity as amphipathic polymers (APs and exhibit potent in vitro antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of herpesviruses: HSV-1, HSV-2, HCMV, VZV, EBV, and HHV-6A/B, and in vivo activity in a murine microbiocide model of genital HSV-2 infection. The activity of these agents against animal cytomegalovirus (CMV infections in vitro and in vivo was therefore investigated. Results In vitro, a 40 mer degenerate AP (REP 9 inhibited both murine CMV (MCMV and guinea pig CMV (GPCMV with an IC50 of 0.045 μM and 0.16 μM, respectively, and a 40 mer poly C AP (REP 9C inhibited MCMV with an IC50 of 0.05 μM. Addition of REP 9 to plaque assays during the first two hours of infection inhibited 78% of plaque formation whereas addition of REP 9 after 10 hours of infection did not significantly reduce the number of plaques, indicating that REP 9 antiviral activity against MCMV occurs at early times after infection. In a murine model of CMV infection, systemic treatment for 5 days significantly reduced virus replication in the spleens and livers of infected mice compared to saline-treated control mice. REP 9 and REP 9C were administered intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days at 10 mg/kg, starting 2 days prior to MCMV infection. Splenomegaly was observed in infected mice treated with REP 9 but not in control mice or in REP 9 treated, uninfected mice, consistent with mild CpG-like activity. When REP 9C (which lacks CpG motifs was compared to REP 9, it exhibited comparable antiviral activity as REP 9 but was not associated with splenomegaly. This suggests that the direct antiviral activity of APs is the predominant therapeutic mechanism in vivo. Moreover, REP 9C, which is acid stable, was effective when administered orally in combination with known permeation enhancers. Conclusion These studies indicate that APs exhibit potent, well tolerated

  4. Mechanism of the melanogenesis stimulation activity of (-)-cubebin in murine B16 melanoma cells.

    Hirata, Noriko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Ohguchi, Kenji; Akao, Yukihiro; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2007-07-15

    (-)-Cubebin showed a melanogenesis stimulation activity in a concentration-dependent manner in murine B16 melanoma cells without any significant effects on cell proliferation. Tyrosinase activity was increased at 24-72 h after addition of cubebin to B16 cells, and then intracellular melanin amount was increased at 48-96 h after the treatment. The expression levels of tyrosinase were time-dependently enhanced after the treatment with cubebin. At the same time, the expression levels of tyrosinase mRNA were also increased after addition of cubebin. Furthermore Western blot analysis revealed that cubebin elevated the level of phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). SB203580, a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, completely blocked cubebin-induced expression of tyrosinase mRNA in B16 cells. These results suggested that cubebin increased melanogenesis in B16 cells through the enhancement of tyrosinase expression mediated by activation of p38 MAPK.

  5. Local IL-17 Production Exerts a Protective Role in Murine Experimental Glomerulonephritis.

    Sally Hamour

    Full Text Available IL-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis and IL-17 deficient mice are protected from nephrotoxic nephritis. However, a regulatory role for IL-17 has recently emerged. We describe a novel protective function for IL-17 in the kidney. Bone marrow chimeras were created using wild-type and IL-17 deficient mice and nephrotoxic nephritis was induced. IL-17 deficient hosts transplanted with wild-type bone marrow had worse disease by all indices compared to wild-type to wild-type bone marrow transplants (serum urea p<0.05; glomerular thrombosis p<0.05; tubular damage p<0.01, suggesting that in wild-type mice, IL-17 production by renal cells resistant to radiation is protective. IL-17 deficient mice transplanted with wild-type bone marrow also had a comparatively altered renal phenotype, with significant differences in renal cytokines (IL-10 p<0.01; IL-1β p<0.001; IL-23 p<0.01, and macrophage phenotype (expression of mannose receptor p<0.05; inducible nitric oxide synthase p<0.001. Finally we show that renal mast cells are resistant to radiation and produce IL-17, suggesting they are potential local mediators of disease protection. This is a novel role for intrinsic cells in the kidney that are radio-resistant and produce IL-17 to mediate protection in nephrotoxic nephritis. This has clinical significance as IL-17 blockade is being trialled as a therapeutic strategy in some autoimmune diseases.

  6. Testing the Role of p21-Activated Kinases in Schwannoma Formation Using a Novel Genetically Engineered Murine Model that Closely Phenocopies Human NF2 Disease

    2015-06-01

    Kinases in Schwannoma Formation Using a Novel Genetically Engineered Murine Model that Closely Phenocopies Human NF2 Disease The views, opinions and...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Testing the Role of p21-Activated Kinases in Schwannoma Formation Using a Novel Genetically Engineered Murine Model that Closely...1.20 calendar Testing the Role of p21 Activated Kinases in Schwannoma Formation Using a Novel Genetically Engineered Murine Model that Closely

  7. Safety and antidiarrheal activity of Priva adhaerens aqueous leaf extract in a murine model

    Nansunga, Miriam; Barasa, Ambrose; Abimana, Justus; Alele, Paul E.; Kasolo, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Priva adhaerens (Forssk.) Chiov., a wildly growing plant, is reported in central Uganda to be an effective traditional remedy for diarrhea. The objective of this study was to provide a scientific basis for the ethnopharmacological utility of this plant whose aqueous leaf and shoot extract was evaluated for acute toxicity and antidiarrheal activity using a murine model. Materials and methods Acute toxicity of the aqueous leaf and shoot extract was assessed after determining the major phytochemicals present in the extract. The aqueous leaf and shoot extract was assayed against castor oil-induced diarrhea, transit time, and enteropooling, in comparison to loperamide, a standard drug. Results The oral LD50 value obtained for Priva adhaerens aqueous extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg in rats; the aqueous leaf and shoot extract possessed several important phytochemicals. Furthermore, the aqueous extract significantly, and dose-dependently, reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, intestinal motility, and castor oil-induced enteropooling in rats. Conclusion This murine model shows that it is relatively safe to orally use the aqueous leaf and shoot extract of Priva adhaerens . The aqueous extract contains phytochemicals that are active for the treatment of diarrhea in a rat model. PMID:25304198

  8. Murine and human b locus pigmentation genes encode a glycoprotein (gp75) with catalase activity

    Halaban, R.; Moellmann, G. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Melanogenesis is regulated in large part by tyrosinase, and defective tyrosinase leads to albinism. The mechanisms for other pigmentation determinants (e.g., those operative in tyrosinase-positive albinism and in murine coat-color mutants) are not yet known. One murine pigmentation gene, the brown (b) locus, when mutated leads to a brown (b/b) or hypopigmentated (B{sup lt}/B{sup lt}) coat versus the wild-type black (B/B). The authors show that the b locus codes for a glycoprotein with the activity of a catalase (catalase B). Only the c locus protein is a tyrosinase. Because peroxides may be by-products of melanogenic activity and hydrogen peroxide in particular is known to destroy melanin precursors and melanin, they conclude that pigmentation is controlled not only by tyrosinase but also by a hydroperoxidase. The studies indicate that catalase B is identical with gp75, a known human melanosomal glycoprotein; that the b mutation is in a heme-associated domain; and that the B{sup lt} mutation renders the protein susceptible to rapid proteolytic degradation.

  9. Calprotectin Increases the Activity of the SaeRS Two Component System and Murine Mortality during Staphylococcus aureus Infections.

    Hoonsik Cho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Calprotectin, the most abundant cytoplasmic protein in neutrophils, suppresses the growth of Staphylococcus aureus by sequestering the nutrient metal ions Zn and Mn. Here we show that calprotectin can also enhance the activity of the SaeRS two component system (TCS, a signaling system essential for production of over 20 virulence factors in S. aureus. The activity of the SaeRS TCS is repressed by certain divalent ions found in blood or neutrophil granules; however, the Zn bound-form of calprotectin relieves this repression. During staphylococcal encounter with murine neutrophils or staphylococcal infection of the murine peritoneal cavity, calprotectin increases the activity of the SaeRS TCS as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α, resulting in higher murine mortality. These results suggest that, under certain conditions, calprotectin can be exploited by S. aureus to increase bacterial virulence and host mortality.

  10. Calprotectin Increases the Activity of the SaeRS Two Component System and Murine Mortality during Staphylococcus aureus Infections.

    Cho, Hoonsik; Jeong, Do-Won; Liu, Qian; Yeo, Won-Sik; Vogl, Thomas; Skaar, Eric P; Chazin, Walter J; Bae, Taeok

    2015-07-01

    Calprotectin, the most abundant cytoplasmic protein in neutrophils, suppresses the growth of Staphylococcus aureus by sequestering the nutrient metal ions Zn and Mn. Here we show that calprotectin can also enhance the activity of the SaeRS two component system (TCS), a signaling system essential for production of over 20 virulence factors in S. aureus. The activity of the SaeRS TCS is repressed by certain divalent ions found in blood or neutrophil granules; however, the Zn bound-form of calprotectin relieves this repression. During staphylococcal encounter with murine neutrophils or staphylococcal infection of the murine peritoneal cavity, calprotectin increases the activity of the SaeRS TCS as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α, resulting in higher murine mortality. These results suggest that, under certain conditions, calprotectin can be exploited by S. aureus to increase bacterial virulence and host mortality.

  11. Protective efficacy of antioxidants on cisplatin-induced tissue damage caused in Leishmania donovani infected BALB/c mice against murine visceral leishmaniasis

    Meenakshi Sharma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Therapeutic interventions against visceral leishmaniasis (VL are limited and facing serious concerns of toxicity, high cost and emerging resistance, there is a greater interest in new drug developments which are cost effective, efficient and easily available to people suffering from leishmaniasis. Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II; CDDP has been found to have antileishmanial activity in vitro and in vivo which lead towards an apoptosis like cell death of both promastigotes and amastigotes and a significant reduction in parasite load and enhanced DTH responses which suggested the generation of protective cell-mediated immune responses. But, at higher doses it causes nephrotoxicity-a major side effect. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of antioxidants on cisplatin induced tissue damage in Leishmania donovani infected BALB/c mice. Materials and methods: L. donovani infected and uninfected animals were treated with higher doses (5 and 2.5 mg/kg body weight of cisplatin alone and in combination with antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E and silibinin for 5 days. Mice were examined for the protective effects of antioxidants on cisplatin indiced tissue damage by DNA fragmentation and histological studies of kidneys, liver and spleen. Results: The damage caused by cisplatin was ameliorated after the supplementation of antioxidants showing a marked reduction in the extent of tubular damage, the focal reaction changes in liver were reversed and no signs of toxicity in the spleen were reported. Moreover, no DNA damage was observed in animals treated with cisplatin along with various antioxidants. Conclusion: The present results showed that antioxidants helped in the amelioration of drug induced toxic effects against murine visceral leishmaniasis, making the combination a potential anti-leishmanial therapy. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(3.000: 121-136

  12. Immunization with recombinant bivalent chimera r-Cpae confers protection against alpha toxin and enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens type A in murine model.

    Shreya, Das; Uppalapati, Siva R; Kingston, Joseph J; Sripathy, Murali H; Batra, Harsh V

    2015-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens type A, an anaerobic pathogen is the most potent cause of soft tissue infections like gas gangrene and enteric diseases like food poisoning and enteritis. The disease manifestations are mediated via two important exotoxins, viz. myonecrotic alpha toxin (αC) and enterotoxin (CPE). In the present study, we synthesized a bivalent chimeric protein r-Cpae comprising C-terminal binding regions of αC and CPE using structural vaccinology rationale and assessed its protective efficacy against both alpha toxin (αC) and enterotoxin (CPE) respectively, in murine model. Active immunization of mice with r-Cpae generated high circulating serum IgG (systemic), significantly increased intestinal mucosal s-IgA antibody titres and resulted in substantial protection to the immunized animals (100% and 75% survival) with reduced tissue morbidity when administered with 5×LD(100) doses of αC (intramuscular) and CPE (intra-gastric gavage) respectively. Mouse RBCs and Caco-2 cells incubated with a mixture of anti-r-Cpae antibodies and αC and CPE respectively, illustrated significantly higher protection against the respective toxins. Passive immunization of mice with a similar mixture resulted in 91-100% survival at the end of the 15 days observation period while mice immunized with a concoction of sham sera and respective toxins died within 2-3 days. This work demonstrates the efficacy of the rationally designed r-Cpae chimeric protein as a potential sub unit vaccine candidate against αC and CPE of C. perfringens type A toxemia.

  13. 76 FR 52241 - Activation of Ice Protection

    2011-08-22

    ... thought it not significant enough to require activating the ice protection system. This rule is meant to... access to information that will give them the knowledge and skills to safely and strategically fly in... that the commenter thinks automatic activation should be mandatory, but with features that allow...

  14. Administration of defined microbiota is protective in a murine Salmonella infection model.

    Martz, Sarah-Lynn E; McDonald, Julie A K; Sun, Jun; Zhang, Yong-Guo; Gloor, Gregory B; Noordhof, Curtis; He, Shu-Mei; Gerbaba, Teklu K; Blennerhassett, Michael; Hurlbut, David J; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Claud, Erika C; Petrof, Elaine O

    2015-11-04

    Salmonella typhimurium is a major cause of diarrhea and causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and perturbations of the gut microbiota are known to increase susceptibility to enteric infections. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a Microbial Ecosystem Therapeutic (MET-1) consisting of 33 bacterial strains, isolated from human stool and previously used to cure patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, could also protect against S. typhimurium disease. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with streptomycin prior to receiving MET-1 or control, then gavaged with S. typhimurium. Weight loss, serum cytokine levels, and S. typhimurium splenic translocation were measured. NF-κB nuclear staining, neutrophil accumulation, and localization of tight junction proteins (claudin-1, ZO-1) were visualized by immunofluorescence. Infected mice receiving MET-1 lost less weight, had reduced serum cytokines, reduced NF-κB nuclear staining, and decreased neutrophil infiltration in the cecum. MET-1 also preserved cecum tight junction protein expression, and reduced S. typhimurium translocation to the spleen. Notably, MET-1 did not decrease CFUs of Salmonella in the intestine. MET-1 may attenuate systemic infection by preserving tight junctions, thereby inhibiting S. typhimurium from gaining access to the systemic circulation. We conclude that MET-1 may be protective against enteric infections besides C. difficile infection.

  15. Oxytocin Protects against Stress-Induced Cell Death in Murine Pancreatic β-Cells

    Watanabe, Sayaka; Wei, Fan-Yan; Matsunaga, Tomomi; Matsunaga, Nanami; Kaitsuka, Taku; Tomizawa, Kazuhito

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) is a key neuropeptide that regulates maternal behaviors as well as social behaviors in mammals. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that the impairment of Oxt signaling is associated with the disturbance of metabolic homeostasis, resulting in obesity and diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism by which Oxt signaling controls metabolic responses is largely unknown. Here, we report that Oxt signaling attenuates the death of pancreatic beta cells in islets exposed to cytotoxic stresses. The protective effect of Oxt was diminished in islets isolated from oxytocin receptor knockout (Oxtr−/−) mice. Oxtr−/− mice developed normally, but exhibited impaired insulin secretion and showed glucose intolerance under a high-fat diet. Mechanistically, the deficiency of Oxtr impaired MAPK/ERK-CREB signaling, which exaggerated the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and ultimately increased the death of beta cells in pancreatic islets under stressed conditions. These results reveal that Oxt protects pancreatic beta cells against death caused by metabolic stress, and Oxt signaling may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27143105

  16. High cytokine production and effective antitumor activity of a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding murine interleukin 12.

    Meko, J B; Yim, J H; Tsung, K; Norton, J A

    1995-11-01

    We have constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus (recVV), vKT0334 mIL-12, containing the genes encoding the p35 and p40 subunits of murine interleukin-12 (mIL-12). In vitro experiments demonstrated that vKT0334 mIL-12 efficiently infected a variety of murine and human tumor cell lines and produced very high amounts (1.5 micrograms/10(6) cells/24 h) of biologically active mIL-12. Mice injected s.c. with 10(6) MCA 105 sarcoma cells, followed by injection at the same site with saline or a control recVV, vKT033, containing no mIL-12 genes, all developed progressively growing tumor, whereas 60% of animals injected with vKT0334 mIL-12 remained tumor free (P < 0.0005). Furthermore, tumor growth was significantly reduced in the remaining mice treated with vKT0334 mIL-12 that did develop tumor compared with mice treated with vKT033 (P < 0.03) or saline (P < 0.0001). We conclude that recVV expressing high levels of mIL-12 offers an effective in vivo method of cytokine gene delivery and expression in tumors with subsequent antitumor effect.

  17. Activity of an Intralipid formulation of nystatin in murine systemic candidiasis.

    Semis, R; Mendlovic, S; Polacheck, I; Segal, E

    2011-10-01

    Since nystatin (NYT) is used only topically owing to its toxicity upon systemic administration, a study was initiated aiming to develop a formulation of NYT that could be used systemically against invasive mycoses. The present research is a continuation of previous in vitro investigation of the antifungal effect of nystatin-Intralipid (NYT-IL) against Candida, exploring its in vivo activity. NYT-IL was tested in murine systemic candidiasis induced in naïve as well as cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed female ICR mice. The infection was assessed by survival rate (SR), mean survival time (MST) and qualitative and quantitative fungal organ colonisation. Mice were treated by intravenous administration of various doses of NYT-IL for 5 consecutive days starting either 24h or 48 h after the initiation of infection. The experiments showed that NYT-IL is therapeutically effective in the murine candidiasis model. NYT-IL was found to be less toxic in vivo than NYT and therefore higher doses of NYT-IL could be used. The efficacy of NYT-IL was expressed in treated naïve and immunosuppressed mice by increased SR, prolonged MST and reduced fungal organ colonisation. Early initiation of treatment increased efficacy. In summary, the Intralipid formulation of NYT can be administered parenterally and is effective against systemic experimental Candida infection.

  18. Neprilysin is a Mediator of Alternative Renin-Angiotensin-System Activation in the Murine and Human Kidney

    Domenig, Oliver; Manzel, Arndt; Grobe, Nadja; Königshausen, Eva; Kaltenecker, Christopher C.; Kovarik, Johannes J.; Stegbauer, Johannes; Gurley, Susan B.; van Oyen, Dunja; Antlanger, Marlies; Bader, Michael; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Santos, Robson A.; Elased, Khalid M.; Säemann, Marcus D.; Linker, Ralf A.; Poglitsch, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular and renal pathologies are frequently associated with an activated renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) and increased levels of its main effector and vasoconstrictor hormone angiotensin II (Ang II). Angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2 (ACE2) has been described as a crucial enzymatic player in shifting the RAS towards its so-called alternative vasodilative and reno-protective axis by enzymatically converting Ang II to angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)). Yet, the relative contribution of ACE2 to Ang-(1-7) formation in vivo has not been elucidated. Mass spectrometry based quantification of angiotensin metabolites in the kidney and plasma of ACE2 KO mice surprisingly revealed an increase in Ang-(1-7), suggesting additional pathways to be responsible for alternative RAS activation in vivo. Following assessment of angiotensin metabolism in kidney homogenates, we identified neprilysin (NEP) to be a major source of renal Ang-(1-7) in mice and humans. These findings were supported by MALDI imaging, showing NEP mediated Ang-(1-7) formation in whole kidney cryo-sections in mice. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of NEP resulted in strongly decreased Ang-(1-7) levels in murine kidneys. This unexpected new role of NEP may have implications for the combination therapy with NEP-inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor-blockade, which has been shown being a promising therapeutic approach for heart failure therapy. PMID:27649628

  19. Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Hydrolase Terminal Domains in Cross-Protective Immunotherapy Against Leishmania amazonensis Murine Infection

    Nico, Dirlei; Gomes, Daniele Crespo; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Iam; Morrot, Alexandre; Palatnik, Marcos; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Nucleoside hydrolases of the Leishmania genus are vital enzymes for the replication of the DNA and conserved phylogenetic markers of the parasites. Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase (NH36) induced a main CD4+ T cell driven protective response against L. chagasi infection in mice which is directed against its C-terminal domain. In this study, we used the three recombinant domains of NH36: N-terminal domain (F1, amino acids 1–103), central domain (F2 aminoacids 104–198), and C-terminal domain (F3 amino acids 199–314) in combination with saponin and assayed their immunotherapeutic effect on Balb/c mice previously infected with L. amazonensis. We identified that the F1 and F3 peptides determined strong cross-immunotherapeutic effects, reducing the size of footpad lesions to 48 and 64%, and the parasite load in footpads to 82.6 and 81%, respectively. The F3 peptide induced the strongest anti-NH36 antibody response and intradermal response (IDR) against L. amazonenis and a high secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α with reduced levels of IL-10. The F1 vaccine, induced similar increases of IgG2b antibodies and IFN-γ and TNF-α levels, but no IDR and no reduction of IL-10. The multiparameter flow cytometry analysis was used to assess the immune response after immunotherapy and disclosed that the degree of the immunotherapeutic effect is predicted by the frequencies of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IL-2 or TNF-α or both. Total frequencies and frequencies of double-cytokine CD4 T cell producers were enhanced by F1 and F3 vaccines. Collectively, our multifunctional analysis disclosed that immunotherapeutic protection improved as the CD4 responses progressed from 1+ to 2+, in the case of the F1 and F3 vaccines, and as the CD8 responses changed qualitatively from 1+ to 3+, mainly in the case of the F1 vaccine, providing new correlates of immunotherapeutic protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice based on T-helper TH1 and CD8+ mediated immune responses

  20. Therapeutic activity of two xanthones in a xenograft murine model of human chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Berthou Christian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that allanxanthone C and macluraxanthone, two xanthones purified from Guttiferae trees, display in vitro antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities in leukemic cells from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and leukemia B cell lines. Results Here, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic effects of the two xanthones in a xenograft murine model of human CLL, developed by engrafting CD5-transfected chronic leukemia B cells into SCID mice. Treatment of the animals with five daily injections of either allanxanthone C or macluraxanthone resulted in a significant prolongation of their survival as compared to control animals injected with the solvent alone (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.0141, respectively. The same treatment of mice which were not xenografted induced no mortality. Conclusion These data show for the first time the in vivo antileukemic activities of two plant-derived xanthones, and confirm their potential interest for CLL therapy.

  1. Activation of farnesoid X receptor downregulates monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in murine macrophage.

    Li, Liangpeng; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Jiahe; Jiang, Chanjui; Zhang, Yan; Shen, Lili; Dong, Jinyu; Wang, Yongchao; Jiang, Yu

    2015-11-27

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which plays important roles in bile acids/lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) contributes to macrophage infiltration into body tissues during inflammation. Here we investigated whether FXR can regulate MCP-1 expression in murine macrophage. FXR activation down regulate MCP-1 mRNA and protein levels in ANA-1 and Raw264.7 cells. Luciferase reporter assay, Gel shift and Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays have revealed that the activated FXR bind to the FXR element located in -738 bp ∼  -723 bp in MCP-1 promoter. These results suggested that FXR may serve as a novel target for regulating MCP-1 levels for the inflammation related diseases therapies.

  2. Sirt1 overexpression protects murine osteoblasts against TNF-α-induced injury in vitro by suppressing the NF-KB signaling pathway

    Wei HUANG; Wei-lin SHANG; Hua-dong WANG; Wen-wen WU; Shu-xun HOU

    2012-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is the class III histone/protein deacetylase that interferes with the NF-KB signaling pathway,thereby has antiinflammatory function.This study was undertaken to investigate whether Sirt1 could protect osteoblasts against TNF-α-induced injury in vitro.Methods:Murine osteoblastic cell line,MC3T3-E1,was used.Overexpress of Sirt1 protein in MC3T3-E1 cells was made by transfection the cells with Sirt1-overexpressing adenovirus.The levels of mRNAs and proteins were determined with qRT-PCR and Western blotting,respectively.The activity of NF-κB was examined using NF-κB luciferase assay.The NO concentration was measured using the Griess method.Results:Treatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with TNF-α (2.5-10 ng/mL) suppressed Sirt1 protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner.TNF-α (5 ng/mL) resulted in an increase in apoptosis and a reduction in ALP activity in the cells.Overexpression of Sirt1in the cells significantly attenuated TNF-α-induced injury through suppressing apoptosis,increasing ALP activity,and increasing the expression of Runx2 and osteocalcin mRNAs.Furthermore,overexpression of Sirt1 in the cells significantly suppressed TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation,followed by reducing the expression of iNOS and NO formation.Sirt1 activator resveratrol (10 μmol/L) mimicked the protection of the ceils by Sirt1 overexpression against TNF-α-induced injury,which was reversed by the Sirt1 inhibitor EX-527 (5μmol/L).Conclusion:Overexpression of Sirt1 protects MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts aganst TNF-α-induced cell injury in vitro,at least in part,via suppressing NF-KB signaling.Sirt1 may be a novel therapeutic target for treating rheumatoid arthritis-related bone loss.

  3. Protective potential ofα-tocopherol supplementation against ethanol-induced dysmorphogenesis in postimplantation murine embryos

    SiaAleli JillianL; RamosGliceriaB; deVeraMiriamP

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess the protective potential ofα-tocopherol on ethanol-induced dysmorphogenesis in 10.5 embryonic day (ED) mouse embryos.Methods: Forty female mice were randomly assigned into control (CON), positive control (ETOH), low-, medium and high-α-tocopherol-supplemented-Ethanol groups (LTOC, MTOC, HTOC respectively). CON received drinking water without ethanol, ETOH LTOC, MTOC and HTOC groups received 20% ethanol in drinking water. The supplemented groups were given respective dosages ofα-tocopherol, 0.410, 0.819 and 1.640 mg/g body weight, at 14 days before mating until the 9th day of gestation. The 10.5 ED embryos were assessed for embryo weight, head- and crown-rump length, and morphological scoring of brain and sensory vesicles, flexion and somites. The embryo yield was assessed by counting the number of full-term developed embryos from the bulging implantation sites while resorption was assessed by counting the bulging implantation sites but without formed embryos.Results:The weight and head- and crown-rump length of the embryos from theα-tocopherol supplemented groups were comparable to the control. These were significantly higher than that of positive control (P<0.05). Overall morphological scores of the hindbrain and sensory vesicles were significantly higher in the supplemented and control groups than that of the positive control (P<0.05). The number of full-term developed embryos was neither affected by ethanol alone nor with supplementation withα-tocopherol. Resorption was significantly lower in the supplemented groups than that of positive control (P<0.05).Conclusion:The medium and high dosages ofα-tocopherol exhibited a protective effect on ethanol-induced dysmorphogenesis.

  4. Prostaglandin E₂ protects murine lungs from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and lung dysfunction.

    Dackor, Ryan T; Cheng, Jennifer; Voltz, James W; Card, Jeffrey W; Ferguson, Catherine D; Garrett, Ryan C; Bradbury, J Alyce; DeGraff, Laura M; Lih, Fred B; Tomer, Kenneth B; Flake, Gordon P; Travlos, Gregory S; Ramsey, Randle W; Edin, Matthew L; Morgan, Daniel L; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2011-11-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is a lipid mediator that is produced via the metabolism of arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase enzymes. In the lung, PGE(2) acts as an anti-inflammatory factor and plays an important role in tissue repair processes. Although several studies have examined the role of PGE(2) in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in rodents, results have generally been conflicting, and few studies have examined the therapeutic effects of PGE(2) on the accompanying lung dysfunction. In this study, an established model of pulmonary fibrosis was used in which 10-12-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were administered a single dose (1.0 mg/kg) of bleomycin via oropharyngeal aspiration. To test the role of prostaglandins in this model, mice were dosed, via surgically implanted minipumps, with either vehicle, PGE(2) (1.32 μg/h), or the prostacyclin analog iloprost (0.33 μg/h) beginning 7 days before or 14 days after bleomycin administration. Endpoints assessed at 7 days after bleomycin administration included proinflammatory cytokine levels and measurement of cellular infiltration into the lung. Endpoints assessed at 21 days after bleomycin administration included lung function assessment via invasive (FlexiVent) analysis, cellular infiltration, lung collagen content, and semiquantitative histological analysis of the degree of lung fibrosis (Ashcroft method). Seven days after bleomycin administration, lymphocyte numbers and chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 expression were significantly lower in PGE(2)- and iloprost-treated animals compared with vehicle-treated controls (P fibrosis, and collagen production that is associated with 3 wk of bleomycin exposure. However, PGE(2) had no therapeutic effect on these parameters when administered 14 days after bleomycin challenge. In summary, PGE(2) prevented the decline in lung static compliance and protected against lung fibrosis when it was administered before bleomycin challenge but had no therapeutic effect when administered

  5. Rhesus rotavirus VP4 sequence-specific activation of mononuclear cells is associated with cholangiopathy in murine biliary atresia.

    Walther, Ashley; Mohanty, Sujit K; Donnelly, Bryan; Coots, Abigail; Lages, Celine S; Lobeck, Inna; Dupree, Phylicia; Meller, Jaroslaw; McNeal, Monica; Sestak, Karol; Tiao, Greg

    2015-09-15

    Biliary atresia (BA), a neonatal obstructive cholangiopathy, remains the most common indication for pediatric liver transplantation in the United States. In the murine model of BA, Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) VP4 surface protein determines biliary duct tropism. In this study, we investigated how VP4 governs induction of murine BA. Newborn mice were injected with 16 strains of rotavirus and observed for clinical symptoms of BA and mortality. Cholangiograms were performed to confirm bile duct obstruction. Livers and bile ducts were harvested 7 days postinfection for virus titers and histology. Flow cytometry assessed mononuclear cell activation in harvested cell populations from the liver. Cytotoxic NK cell activity was determined by the ability of NK cells to kill noninfected cholangiocytes. Of the 16 strains investigated, the 6 with the highest homology to the RRV VP4 (>87%) were capable of infecting bile ducts in vivo. Although the strain Ro1845 replicated to a titer similar to RRV in vivo, it caused no symptoms or mortality. A Ro1845 reassortant containing the RRV VP4 induced all BA symptoms, with a mortality rate of 89%. Flow cytometry revealed that NK cell activation was significantly increased in the disease-inducing strains and these NK cells demonstrated a significantly higher percentage of cytotoxicity against noninfected cholangiocytes. Rotavirus strains with >87% homology to RRV's VP4 were capable of infecting murine bile ducts in vivo. Development of murine BA was mediated by RRV VP4-specific activation of mononuclear cells, independent of viral titers.

  6. Evaluation of antithrombotic activity of thrombin DNA aptamers by a murine thrombosis model.

    Elena Zavyalova

    Full Text Available Aptamers are nucleic acid based molecular recognition elements with a high potential for the theranostics. Some of the aptamers are under development for therapeutic applications as promising antithrombotic agents; and G-quadruplex DNA aptamers, which directly inhibit the thrombin activity, are among them. RA-36, the 31-meric DNA aptamer, consists of two thrombin binding pharmacophores joined with the thymine linker. It has been shown earlier that RA-36 directly inhibits thrombin in the reaction of fibrinogen hydrolysis, and also it inhibits plasma and blood coagulation. Studies of both inhibitory and anticoagulation effects had indicated rather high species specificity of the aptamer. Further R&D of RA-36 requires exploring its efficiency in vivo. Therefore the development of a robust and adequate animal model for effective physiological studies of aptamers is in high current demand. This work is devoted to in vivo study of the antithrombotic effect of RA-36 aptamer. A murine model of thrombosis has been applied to reveal a lag and even prevention of thrombus formation when RA-36 was intravenous bolus injected in high doses of 1.4-7.1 µmol/kg (14-70 mg/kg. A comparative study of RA-36 aptamer and bivalirudin reveals that both direct thrombin inhibitors have similar antithrombotic effects for the murine model of thrombosis; though in vitro bivalirudin has anticoagulation activity several times higher compared to RA-36. The results indicate that both RA-36 aptamer and bivalirudin are direct thrombin inhibitors of different potency, but possible interactions of the thrombin-inhibitor complex with other components of blood coagulation cascade level the physiological effects for both inhibitors.

  7. Evaluation of antithrombotic activity of thrombin DNA aptamers by a murine thrombosis model.

    Zavyalova, Elena; Samoylenkova, Nadezhda; Revishchin, Alexander; Golovin, Andrey; Pavlova, Galina; Kopylov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are nucleic acid based molecular recognition elements with a high potential for the theranostics. Some of the aptamers are under development for therapeutic applications as promising antithrombotic agents; and G-quadruplex DNA aptamers, which directly inhibit the thrombin activity, are among them. RA-36, the 31-meric DNA aptamer, consists of two thrombin binding pharmacophores joined with the thymine linker. It has been shown earlier that RA-36 directly inhibits thrombin in the reaction of fibrinogen hydrolysis, and also it inhibits plasma and blood coagulation. Studies of both inhibitory and anticoagulation effects had indicated rather high species specificity of the aptamer. Further R&D of RA-36 requires exploring its efficiency in vivo. Therefore the development of a robust and adequate animal model for effective physiological studies of aptamers is in high current demand. This work is devoted to in vivo study of the antithrombotic effect of RA-36 aptamer. A murine model of thrombosis has been applied to reveal a lag and even prevention of thrombus formation when RA-36 was intravenous bolus injected in high doses of 1.4-7.1 µmol/kg (14-70 mg/kg). A comparative study of RA-36 aptamer and bivalirudin reveals that both direct thrombin inhibitors have similar antithrombotic effects for the murine model of thrombosis; though in vitro bivalirudin has anticoagulation activity several times higher compared to RA-36. The results indicate that both RA-36 aptamer and bivalirudin are direct thrombin inhibitors of different potency, but possible interactions of the thrombin-inhibitor complex with other components of blood coagulation cascade level the physiological effects for both inhibitors.

  8. Activation of AMPK inhibits cholera toxin stimulated chloride secretion in human and murine intestine.

    Ailín C Rogers

    Full Text Available Increased intestinal chloride secretion through chloride channels, such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, is one of the major molecular mechanisms underlying enterotoxigenic diarrhea. It has been demonstrated in the past that the intracellular energy sensing kinase, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, can inhibit CFTR opening. We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of AMPK can abrogate the increased chloride flux through CFTR occurring during cholera toxin (CTX mediated diarrhea. Chloride efflux was measured in isolated rat colonic crypts using real-time fluorescence imaging. AICAR and metformin were used to activate AMPK in the presence of the secretagogues CTX or forskolin (FSK. In order to substantiate our findings on the whole tissue level, short-circuit current (SCC was monitored in human and murine colonic mucosa using Ussing chambers. Furthermore, fluid accumulation was measured in excised intestinal loops. CTX and forskolin (FSK significantly increased chloride efflux in isolated colonic crypts. The increase in chloride efflux could be offset by using the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin. In human and mouse mucosal sheets, CTX and FSK increased SCC. AICAR and metformin inhibited the secretagogue induced rise in SCC, thereby confirming the findings made in isolated crypts. Moreover, AICAR decreased CTX stimulated fluid accumulation in excised intestinal segments. The present study suggests that pharmacological activation of AMPK effectively reduces CTX mediated increases in intestinal chloride secretion, which is a key factor for intestinal water accumulation. AMPK activators may therefore represent a supplemental treatment strategy for acute diarrheal illness.

  9. Dual activation of CFTR and CLCN2 by lubiprostone in murine nasal epithelia.

    Schiffhauer, Eric S; Vij, Neeraj; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Kang, Po Wei; Walker, Doug; Lee, Seakwoo; Zeitlin, Pamela L

    2013-03-01

    Multiple sodium and chloride channels on the apical surface of nasal epithelial cells contribute to periciliary fluid homeostasis, a function that is disrupted in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Among these channels is the chloride channel CLCN2, which has been studied as a potential alternative chloride efflux pathway in the absence of CFTR. The object of the present study was to use the nasal potential difference test (NPD) to quantify CLCN2 function in an epithelial-directed TetOn CLCN2 transgenic mouse model (TGN-K18rtTA-hCLCN2) by using the putative CLCN2 pharmacological agonist lubiprostone and peptide inhibitor GaTx2. Lubiprostone significantly increased chloride transport in the CLCN2-overexpressing mice following activation of the transgene by doxycycline. This response to lubiprostone was significantly inhibited by GaTx2 after CLCN2 activation in TGN-CLCN2 mice. Cftr(-/-) and Clc2(-/-) mice showed hyperpolarization indicative of chloride efflux in response to lubiprostone, which was fully inhibited by GaTx2 and CFTR inhibitor 172 + GlyH-101, respectively. Our study reveals lubiprostone as a pharmacological activator of both CFTR and CLCN2. Overexpression and activation of CLCN2 leads to improved mouse NPD readings, suggesting it is available as an alternative pathway for epithelial chloride secretion in murine airways. The utilization of CLCN2 as an alternative chloride efflux channel could provide clinical benefit to patients with CF, especially if the pharmacological activator is administered as an aerosol.

  10. Murine polyomavirus virus-like particles carrying full-length human PSA protect BALB/c mice from outgrowth of a PSA expressing tumor.

    Mathilda Eriksson

    Full Text Available Virus-like particles (VLPs consist of capsid proteins from viruses and have been shown to be usable as carriers of protein and peptide antigens for immune therapy. In this study, we have produced and assayed murine polyomavirus (MPyV VLPs carrying the entire human Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA (PSA-MPyVLPs for their potential use for immune therapy in a mouse model system. BALB/c mice immunized with PSA-MPyVLPs were only marginally protected against outgrowth of a PSA-expressing tumor. To improve protection, PSA-MPyVLPs were co-injected with adjuvant CpG, either alone or loaded onto murine dendritic cells (DCs. Immunization with PSA-MPyVLPs loaded onto DCs in the presence of CpG was shown to efficiently protect mice from tumor outgrowth. In addition, cellular and humoral immune responses after immunization were examined. PSA-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ cells were demonstrated, but no PSA-specific IgG antibodies. Vaccination with DCs loaded with PSA-MPyVLPs induced an eight-fold lower titre of anti-VLP antibodies than vaccination with PSA-MPyVLPs alone. In conclusion, immunization of BALB/c mice with PSA-MPyVLPs, loaded onto DCs and co-injected with CpG, induces an efficient PSA-specific tumor protective immune response, including both CD4(+ and CD8(+ cells with a low induction of anti-VLP antibodies.

  11. Activated complement classical pathway in a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy

    Xue-Ying; Tao; Shi-Jie; Zheng; Bo; Lei

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the complement system is involved in a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy(OIR).METHODS: Forty C57BL/6J newborn mice were divided randomly into OIR group and control group. OIR was induced by exposing mice to 75% ±2% oxygen from postnatal 7d(P7) to P12 and then recovered in room air.For the control group, the litters were raised in room air.At the postnatal 17d(P17), gene expressions of the complement components of the classical pathway(CP),the mannose-binding lectin(MBL) pathway and the alternative pathway(AP) in the retina were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). Retinal protein expressions of the key components in the CP were examined by Western blotting.· RESULTS: Whole mounted retina in the OIR mice showed area of central hypoperfusion in both superficial and deep layers and neovascular tufts in the periphery.The expressions of C1 qb and C4 b genes in the OIR retina were significantly higher than those of the controls. The expression of retinal complement factor B(CFB) gene in OIR mice was significantly lower than those of the controls. However, the expressions of C3 and complement factor H(CFH) genes were higher. The protein synthesis of the key components involved in the CP(C1q, C4 and C3) were also significantly higher in OIR mouse retina. Although MBL-associated serine protease 1(MASP1) and MASP2 were detected in both the OIR and the control groups, the expressions were weak and the difference between the two groups was not significant.CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the complement system CP is activated during the pathogenesis of murine model of OIR.

  12. Altered gut microbiota and activity in a murine model of autism spectrum disorders.

    de Theije, Caroline G M; Wopereis, Harm; Ramadan, Mohamed; van Eijndthoven, Tiemen; Lambert, Jolanda; Knol, Jan; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Oozeer, Raish

    2014-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders with evidence of genetic predisposition. Intestinal disturbances are reported in ASD patients and compositional changes in gut microbiota are described. However, the role of microbiota in brain disorders is poorly documented. Here, we used a murine model of ASD to investigate the relation between gut microbiota and autism-like behaviour. Using next generation sequencing technology, microbiota composition was investigated in mice in utero exposed to valproic acid (VPA). Moreover, levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid in caecal content were determined. Our data demonstrate a transgenerational impact of in utero VPA exposure on gut microbiota in the offspring. Prenatal VPA exposure affected operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to genera within the main phyla of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and the order of Desulfovibrionales, corroborating human ASD studies. In addition, OTUs assigned to genera of Alistipes, Enterorhabdus, Mollicutes and Erysipelotrichalis were especially associated with male VPA-exposed offspring. The microbial differences of VPA in utero-exposed males deviated from those observed in females and was (i) positively associated with increased levels of caecal butyrate as well as ileal neutrophil infiltration and (ii) inversely associated with intestinal levels of serotonin and social behaviour scores. These findings show that autism-like behaviour and its intestinal phenotype is associated with altered microbial colonization and activity in a murine model for ASD, with preponderance in male offspring. These results open new avenues in the scientific trajectory of managing neurodevelopmental disorders by gut microbiome modulation.

  13. Proteinase activity in human and murine saliva as a biomarker for proteinase inhibitor efficacy.

    Fingleton, Barbara; Menon, Ramkumar; Carter, Kathy J; Overstreet, P Dawn; Hachey, David L; Matrisian, Lynn M; McIntyre, J Oliver

    2004-12-01

    As molecularly targeted agents reach the clinic, there is a need for assays to detect their presence and effectiveness against target molecules in vivo. Proteinase inhibitors are one example of a class of therapeutic agent for which satisfactory methods of identifying successful target modulation in vivo are lacking. This is of particular importance while these drugs are in clinical trials because standard maximum-tolerated dose-finding studies often are not suitable due to lack of toxicity. Saliva represents a readily accessible bodily fluid that can be repeatedly sampled and used for assaying in vivo effects of systemic drugs. Here we show the development of a simple assay that can be used to measure proteinase activity in saliva and proteinase inhibition after systemic treatment with three different proteinase inhibitors. A variety of gelatinolytic activities present in human and murine saliva have been assayed with a fluorescent dye-labeled substrate and assigned to different proteinase categories by inclusion of specific classes of inhibitors. Treatment of mice with either matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors or a urokinase inhibitor for a period as short as 48 hours results in levels of the drugs that can be detected in saliva by mass spectrometry and concomitant decreases in salivary proteinase activity, thus demonstrating that these inhibitors successfully modulate their targets in vivo.

  14. Silica nanocontainers for active corrosion protection

    Maia, Frederico; Tedim, João; Lisenkov, Aleksey D.; Salak, Andrei N.; Zheludkevich, Mikhail L.; Ferreira, Mário G. S.

    2012-02-01

    Novel self-healing protective coatings with nanocontainers of corrosion inhibitors open new opportunities for long-term anticorrosion protection of different metallic materials. In this paper a new type of functional nanoreservoir based on silica nanocapsules (SiNC) synthesized and loaded with corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) in a one-stage process is reported for the first time. Unlike conventional mesoporous silica nanoparticles, SiNC possess an empty core and shell with gradual mesoporosity, arising from the particular conditions of the synthetic route adopted, which confers significant loading capacity and allows prolonged and stimuli-triggered release of the inhibiting species. The kinetics of inhibitor release was studied at different pH values and concentrations of NaCl. The results show a clear dependence of the release profiles on corrosion relevant triggers such as pH and Cl- concentration. When SiNC loaded with MBT are dispersed in NaCl solution, there is a significant decrease of the corrosion activity on aluminium alloy 2024. More importantly, when SiNC-MBT is added to a conventional water-based coating formulation, the modified coating hampers corrosion activity at the metal interface, better than in the case of direct addition of corrosion inhibitor. Furthermore, self-healing is observed before and after artificially inflicting defects in the modified coatings. As a result, the developed nanocontainers show high potential to be used in new generation of active protective coatings.

  15. Proteolytically modified human beta 2-microglobulin augments the specific cytotoxic activity in murine mixed lymphocyte culture

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Claësson, M H

    1987-01-01

    (M-beta 2-m) bind to murine lymphocytes expressing H-2 class I antigens; M-beta 2-m, when added at day 0 and 1 of culture in nanomolar concentrations to a one-way murine allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) augments the generation of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes; M-beta 2-m increases...... the endogenous production of interleukin 2 in the MLC culture; monoclonal antibody which reacts with both the native beta 2-m and M-beta 2-m molecule blocks the augmentation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte production induced by M-beta 2-m; murine as well as human MLC responder cells can proteolytically modify native...

  16. Effect of Tityus serrulatus venom on cytokine production and the activity of murine macrophages

    Vera L. Petricevich

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom (TSV on murine peritoneal macrophages evaluated in terms of activation. The effects of crude TSV were analysed by detection of cytokines, oxygen intermediate metabolites (H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO in supernatants of peritoneal macrophages. Several functional bioassays were employed including an in vitro model for envenomating: cytotoxicity of TSV was assessed using the lyses percentage. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF activity was assayed by measuring its cytotoxic activity on L-929 cells, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas NO levels were detected by Griess colorimetric reactions in culture supernatant of macrophages incubated with TSV and subsequently exposed to either lipopolysaccharide or IFN-γ. Incubation of macrophages with TSV increased production of IL-6 and IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. TNF production was not detected in supernatants treated with TSV at any concentration. The increase in IL-6 secretion was not associated with concentration-dependent cytoxicity of TSV on these cells. These data suggest that the cytotoxicity does not appear to be the main cause of an increased cytokine production by these cells. Although NO is an important effector molecule in macrophage microbicidal activity, the inducing potential of the test compounds for its release was found to be very moderate, ranging from 125 to 800 mM. Interestingly, NO levels of peritoneal macrophages were increased after IFN-γ. Moreover, NO production had an apparent effect on macrophage activity. The results obtained here also shown that the TSV induces an important elevation in H2O2 release. These results combined with NO production suggest that TSV possesses significant immunomodulatory activities capable of stimulating immune functions in vitro.

  17. Particle Size-Dependent Antibacterial Activity and Murine Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials

    Lin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that graphene and its derivative graphene oxide (GO engage in a wide range of antibacterial activities with limited toxicity to human cells. Here, we systematically evaluate the dependence of GO toxicity on the size of the nanoparticles used in treatments: we compare the cytotoxic effects of graphene quantum dots (GQDs, <15 nm, small GOs (SGOs, 50–200 nm, and large GOs (LGOs, 0.5–3 μm. We synthesize the results of bacterial colony count assays and SEM-based observations of morphological changes to assess the antibacterial properties that these GOs bring into effect against E. coli. We also use Live/Dead assays and morphological analysis to investigate changes to mammalian (Murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells induced by the presence of the various GO particle types. Our results demonstrate that LGOs, SGOs, and GQDs possess antibacterial activities and cause mammalian cell cytotoxicity at descending levels of potency. Placing our observations in the context of previous simulation results, we suggest that both the lateral size and surface area of GO particles contribute to cytotoxic effects. We hope that the size dependence elucidated here provides a useful schematic for tuning GO-cell interactions in biomedical applications.

  18. Reduced synaptic activity in neuronal networks derived from embryonic stem cells of murine Rett syndrome model.

    Barth, Lydia; Sütterlin, Rosmarie; Nenniger, Markus; Vogt, Kaspar E

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental diseases such as the Rett syndrome (RTT) have received renewed attention, since the mechanisms involved may underlie a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. In vertebrates early stages in the functional development of neurons and neuronal networks are difficult to study. Embryonic stem cell-derived neurons provide an easily accessible tool to investigate neuronal differentiation and early network formation. We used in vitro cultures of neurons derived from murine embryonic stem cells missing the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene (MeCP2-/y) and from wild type cells of the corresponding background. Cultures were assessed using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology and immunofluorescence. We studied the functional maturation of developing neurons and the activity of the synaptic connections they formed. Neurons exhibited minor differences in the developmental patterns for their intrinsic parameters, such as resting membrane potential and excitability; with the MeCP2-/y cells showing a slightly accelerated development, with shorter action potential half-widths at early stages. There was no difference in the early phase of synapse development, but as the cultures matured, significant deficits became apparent, particularly for inhibitory synaptic activity. MeCP2-/y embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal cultures show clear developmental deficits that match phenotypes observed in slice preparations and thus provide a compelling tool to further investigate the mechanisms behind RTT pathophysiology.

  19. Notch Signaling Is Associated With ALDH Activity And An Aggressive Metastatic Phenotype In Murine Osteosarcoma Cells

    Xiaodong eMu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common primary malignancy of bone, and pulmonary metastatic disease accounts for nearly all mortality. However, little is known about the biochemical signaling alterations that drive the progression of metastatic disease. Two murine OS cell populations, K7M2 and K12, are clonally related but differ significantly in their metastatic phenotypes and therefore represent excellent tools for studying metastatic OS molecular biology. K7M2 cells are highly metastatic, whereas K12 cells display limited metastatic potential. Here we report that the expression of Notch genes (Notch1, 2, 4 are up-regulated, including downstream targets Hes1 and Stat3, in the highly metastatic K7M2 cells compared to the less metastatic K12 cells, indicating that the Notch signaling pathway is more active in K7M2 cells. We have previously described that K7M2 cells exhibit higher levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity. Here we report that K7M2 cell ALDH activity is reduced with Notch inhibition, suggesting that ALDH activity may be regulated in part by the Notch pathway. Notch signaling is also associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress, migration, invasion, and VEGF expression in vitro. However, Notch inhibition did not significantly alter K7M2 cell proliferation. In conclusion, we provide evidence that Notch signaling is associated with ALDH activity and increased metastatic behavior in OS cells. Both Notch and ALDH are putative molecular targets for the treatment and prevention of OS metastasis.

  20. Stem cell factor (SCF) protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress through activating c-Kit-Akt signaling

    Yang, Lei [Department of Orthopedics, Changzhou Wujin People’s Hospital-South Division, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Changzhou (China); Wu, Zhong [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Yin, Gang; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang [Department of Orthopedics, Changzhou Wujin People’s Hospital-South Division, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Changzhou (China); Wang, Jianguang, E-mail: jianguangwang@163.com [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Jianguo, E-mail: gehujianguo68@163.com [Department of Orthopedics, Changzhou Wujin People’s Hospital-South Division, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Changzhou (China)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SCF receptor c-Kit is functionally expressed in primary and transformed osteoblasts. • SCF protects primary and transformed osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • SCF activation of c-Kit in osteoblasts, required for its cyto-protective effects. • c-Kit mediates SCF-induced Akt activation in cultured osteoblasts. • Akt activation is required for SCF-regulated cyto-protective effects in osteoblasts. - Abstract: Osteoblasts regulate bone formation and remodeling, and are main target cells of oxidative stress in the progression of osteonecrosis. The stem cell factor (SCF)-c-Kit pathway plays important roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of cell types, but little is known about its functions in osteoblasts. In this study, we found that c-Kit is functionally expressed in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Its ligand SCF exerted significant cyto-protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). SCF activated its receptor c-Kit in osteoblasts, which was required for its cyto-protective effects against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Pharmacological inhibition (by Imatinib and Dasatinib) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Kit thus inhibited SCF-mediated osteoblast protection. Further investigations showed that protection by SCF against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was mediated via activation of c-Kit-dependent Akt pathway. Inhibition of Akt activation, through pharmacological or genetic means, suppressed SCF-mediated anti-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activity in osteoblasts. In summary, we have identified a new SCF-c-Kit-Akt physiologic pathway that protects osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced damages, and might minimize the risk of osteonecrosis caused by oxidative stress.

  1. Asbestos Induces Oxidative Stress and Activation of Nrf2 Signaling in Murine Macrophages: Chemopreventive Role of the Synthetic Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (LGM2605

    Ralph A. Pietrofesa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of asbestos fibers with macrophages generates harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS and subsequent oxidative cell damage that are key processes linked to malignancy. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG is a non-toxic, flaxseed-derived pluripotent compound that has antioxidant properties and may thus function as a chemopreventive agent for asbestos-induced mesothelioma. We thus evaluated synthetic SDG (LGM2605 in asbestos-exposed, elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as an in vitro model of tissue phagocytic response to the presence of asbestos in the pleural space. Murine peritoneal macrophages (MFs were exposed to crocidolite asbestos fibers (20 µg/cm2 and evaluated at various times post exposure for cytotoxicity, ROS generation, malondialdehyde (MDA, and levels of 8-iso Prostaglandin F2α (8-isoP. We then evaluated the ability of LGM2605 to mitigate asbestos-induced oxidative stress by administering LGM2605 (50 µM 4-h prior to asbestos exposure. We observed a significant (p < 0.0001, time-dependent increase in asbestos-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and the release of MDA and 8-iso Prostaglandin F2α, markers of lipid peroxidation, which increased linearly over time. LGM2605 treatment significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced asbestos-induced cytotoxicity and ROS generation, while decreasing levels of MDA and 8-isoP by 71%–88% and 41%–73%, respectively. Importantly, exposure to asbestos fibers induced cell protective defenses, such as cellular Nrf2 activation and the expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes, HO-1 and Nqo1 that were further enhanced by LGM2605 treatment. LGM2605 boosted antioxidant defenses, as well as reduced asbestos-induced ROS generation and markers of oxidative stress in murine peritoneal macrophages, supporting its possible use as a chemoprevention agent in the development of asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma.

  2. Effects of oxaliplatin and oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor on murine and human microglia.

    Branca, Jacopo J V; Morucci, Gabriele; Malentacchi, Francesca; Gelmini, Stefania; Ruggiero, Marco; Pacini, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    The biological properties and characteristics of microglia in rodents have been widely described, but little is known about these features in human microglia. Several murine microglial cell lines are used to investigate neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions; however, the extrapolation of the results to human conditions is frequently met with criticism because of the possibility of species-specific differences. This study compares the effects of oxaliplatin and of oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (OA-GcMAF) on two microglial cell lines, murine BV-2 cells and human C13NJ cells. Cell viability, cAMP levels, microglial activation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were evaluated. Our data demonstrate that oxaliplatin induced a significant decrease in cell viability in BV-2 and in C13NJ cells and that this effect was not reversed with OA-GcMAF treatment. The signal transduction pathway involving cAMP/VEGF was activated after treatment with oxaliplatin and/or OA-GcMAF in both cell lines. OA-GcMAF induced a significant increase in microglia activation, as evidenced by the expression of the B7-2 protein, in BV-2 as well as in C13NJ cells that was not associated with a concomitant increase in cell number. Furthermore, the effects of oxaliplatin and OA-GcMAF on coculture morphology and apoptosis were evaluated. Oxaliplatin-induced cell damage and apoptosis were nearly completely reversed by OA-GcMAF treatment in both BV-2/SH-SY5Y and C13NJ/SH-SY5Y cocultures. Our data show that murine and human microglia share common signal transduction pathways and activation mechanisms, suggesting that the murine BV-2 cell line may represent an excellent model for studying human microglia.

  3. In vivo activity of ceftobiprole in murine skin infections due to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Fernandez, Jeffrey; Hilliard, Jamese J; Abbanat, Darren; Zhang, Wenyan; Melton, John L; Santoro, Colleen M; Flamm, Robert K; Bush, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Ceftobiprole, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (P. Hebeisen et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:825-836, 2001), was evaluated in a subcutaneous skin infection model with Staphylococcus aureus Smith OC 4172 (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA]), S. aureus OC 8525 (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa OC 4351 (having an inducible AmpC beta-lactamase), and P. aeruginosa OC 4354 (overproducing AmpC beta-lactamase). In the MSSA and MRSA infection models, ceftobiprole, administered as the prodrug ceftobiprole medocaril, was more effective in reducing CFU/g skin (P ceftobiprole were 19 to 29% lower than those for cefazolin-, vancomycin-, or linezolid-treated animals (P ceftobiprole-treated mice was 34% less than that with cefazolin or linezolid treatment (P ceftobiprole at similar doses was as effective as meropenem-cilastatin in reductions of CFU/g skin, despite 8- and 32-fold-lower MICs for meropenem; both treatments were more effective than was cefepime (P Ceftobiprole was similar to meropenem-cilastatin and 47 to 54% more effective than cefepime (P ceftobiprole is effective in reducing both bacterial load and lesion volume associated with infections due to MSSA, MRSA, and P. aeruginosa in this murine model of skin and soft tissue infection.

  4. Induction of ssDNA-binding autoantibody secreting B cell immunity during murine malaria infection is a critical part of the protective immune responses.

    Mannoor, Kaiissar; Li, Changchun; Inafuku, Masashi; Taniguchi, Tomoyo; Abo, Toru; Sato, Yoshiya; Watanabe, Hisami

    2013-01-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that autoimmune-like phenomena may play a critical role in the protective immune responses to both human and animal malaria, there are still no evidence-based data to support this view. In this study we demonstrate that the majority of anti-single stranded (ss) DNA autoantibody secreting B cells were confined to B220(+)CD21(+)CD23(-) cells and that these cells expanded significantly in the spleen of C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii 17X non-lethal (PyNL). To determine the role of ssDNA-binding autoantibody secreting B cell responses in murine malaria, we conjugated generation 6 (poly) amidoamine dendrimer nanoparticles with ssDNA to deplete ssDNA-binding autoreactive B cells in vivo. Our data revealed that 55.5% of mice died after DNA-coated nanoparticle-mediated in vivo depletion of ssDNA-specific autoreactive B cells and subsequent challenge using PyNL. Adoptive transfer of B cells with ssDNA specificity to mice, followed by PyNL infection, caused a later appearance and inhibition of parasitemia. The possible mechanism by which the ssDNA-binding autoantibody secreting B cells is involved in the protection against murine malaria has also been demonstrated.

  5. Activation of p53 in Human and Murine Cells by DNA-Damaging Agents Differentially Regulates Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Levels.

    Panchanathan, Ravichandran; Liu, Hongzhu; Choubey, Divaker

    2015-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates multiple cellular processes. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) can activate AhR-mediated transcription of target genes. Because DOX in cells activates a DNA damage response involving ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-mediated activation of p53, we investigated whether the activation of the p53 in cells by DNA-damaging agents such as DOX or bleomycin could regulate the AhR levels. Here we report that activation of p53 by DNA-damaging agents in human cells increased levels of AhR through a posttranscriptional mechanism. Accordingly, fibroblasts from ATM patients, which are defective in p53 activation, expressed reduced constitutive levels of AhR and treatment of cells with bleomycin did not appreciably increase the AhR levels. Further, activation of p53 in cells stimulated the expression of AhR target genes. In murine cells, activation of p53 reduced the levels of AhR messenger RNA and protein and reduced the expression of AhR target genes. Our observations revealed that activation of p53 in human and murine cells differentially regulates AhR levels.

  6. Macrophage activation associated with chronic murine cytomegalovirus infection results in more severe experimental choroidal neovascularization.

    Scott W Cousins

    Full Text Available The neovascular (wet form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV. Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV, laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF, an outcome that requires active virus replication.

  7. Secretion by stimulated murine macrophages of a heparin-binding fibroblast growth activity, distinct from basic FGE and IL-1

    Rappolee, D.A.; Banda, M.J.; Werb, Z.

    1986-03-01

    Wound healing requires granulation and formation of neovascularization tissue. These two events require increases in fibroblasts, vascular endothelial, and smooth muscle cells. Macrophages may produce several growth factors which participate in these would healing events. To test this hypothesis they have partially purified a fibroblast growth promoting activity from a murine macrophage cell line (P388 Dl). The activity causes growth in Balb/c and Swiss 3T3 cells as measured by thymidine uptake, nuclear labeling and increase in cell number. PDGF, Basic FGF, and EGF are also mitogenic by thymidine uptake, but purified human IL-1 and recombinant murine IL-1 are not. The activity is pH 2.5-, freeze/thaw-, and dialysis/lyphilyzation-stable. The activity elutes from heparin-Sepharose at 2.0M, but not 0.15m, 0.5M, or 3.0M NaCl. Basic FGF elutes from the same heparin-Sepharose batch at 3.0M, but not at the other three NaCl concentrations. The growth activity is secreted by viable murine macrophage line cells (P388D1, WEHI-3, RAW 264.7) at a 48 hour peak after activating (LPS) or phagocytic stimuli. Unstimulated P388D1 caused growth 1.7 times control whereas stimulation increases the growth 5.1 to 7.1 times control. The optimal activity concentration fails to complement insulin in an assay in which optimal basic FGF concentration complements insulin. These data suggest that the activity may contain a progression factor.

  8. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for active corrosion protection.

    Borisova, Dimitriya; Möhwald, Helmuth; Shchukin, Dmitry G

    2011-03-22

    This work presents the synthesis of monodisperse, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their application as nanocontainers loaded with corrosion inhibitor (1H-benzotriazole (BTA)) and embedded in hybrid SiOx/ZrOx sol-gel coating for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloy. The developed porous system of mechanically stable silica nanoparticles exhibits high surface area (∼1000 m2·g(-1)), narrow pore size distribution (d∼3 nm), and large pore volume (∼1 mL·g(-1)). As a result, a sufficiently high uptake and storage of the corrosion inhibitor in the mesoporous nanocontainers was achieved. The successful embedding and homogeneous distribution of the BTA-loaded monodisperse silica nanocontainers in the passive anticorrosive SiOx/ZrOx film improve the wet corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy AA2024 in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution. The enhanced corrosion protection of this newly developed active system in comparison to the passive sol-gel coating was observed during a simulated corrosion process by the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). These results, as well as the controlled pH-dependent release of BTA from the mesoporous silica nanocontainers without additional polyelectrolyte shell, suggest an inhibitor release triggered by the corrosion process leading to a self-healing effect.

  9. Blockade of murine T cell activation by antagonists of P2Y6 and P2X7 receptors.

    Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Tokunaga, Akihiro; Harada, Hitoshi; Kojima, Shuji

    2009-07-10

    Extracellular nucleotides and their metabolites activate ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors on the surface of various types of cells. Here, we investigated the involvement of P2X and P2Y receptor-mediated signaling in TCR-dependent T cell activation. Murine T cells were activated by stimulation of TCR, and both CD25 expression and interleukin (IL)-2 production were observed in activated T cells. Ecto-nucleotidase apyrase and P2Y6 antagonist MRS2578 significantly blocked the increases of both CD25 expression and IL-2 production, and P2X7 antagonists A438079 and oxidized ATP inhibited IL-2 production rather than CD25 expression, suggesting the involvement of P2Y6 and P2X7 receptors in different processes of T cell activation. MRS2578 also blocked TCR-dependent elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ in T cells. The P2X7 and P2Y6 receptors were expressed in murine CD4 T cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that activation of P2Y6 and P2X7 receptors contributes to T cell activation via TCR.

  10. Bifidobacterium bifidum Actively Changes the Gene Expression Profile Induced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in Murine Dendritic Cells

    Weiss, Gudrun Margarethe; Rasmussen, Simon; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    cytokine IL-12 in DC, whereas bifidobacteria do not induce IL-12 but inhibit the IL-12 production induced by lactobacilli. In the present study, genome-wide microarrays were used to investigate the gene expression pattern of murine DC stimulated with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium...

  11. In vitro activation of murine DRG neurons by CGRP-mediated mucosal mast cell degranulation

    De Jonge, F; De Laet, A; Van Nassauw, L; Miller, HRP; van Bogaert, PP; Timmermans, JP; Kroese, ABA

    2004-01-01

    Upregulation of CGRP-immunoreactive (IR) primary afferent nerve fibers accompanied by mastocytosis is characteristic for the Schistosoma mansoni-infected murine ileum. These mucosal mast cells (MMC) and CGRP-IR fibers, which originate from dorsal root (DRG) and nodose ganglia, are found in close app

  12. Immunization with Cytomegalovirus Envelope Glycoprotein M and Glycoprotein N DNA Vaccines can Provide Mice with Complete Protection against a Lethal Murine Cytomegalovirus Challenge

    Huadong Wang; Yanfeng Yao; Chaoyang Huang; Quanjiao Chen; Jianjun Chen; Ze Chen

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus virions contain three major glycoprotein complexes (gC Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ),all of which are required for CMV infectivity.These complexes also represent major antigenic targets for anti-viral immune responses.The gC Ⅱ complex consists of two glycoproteins,gM and gN.In the current study,DNA vaccines expressing the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) homologs of the gM and gN proteins were evaluated for protection against lethal MCMV infection in a mouse model.Humoral and cellular immune responses,spleen viral titers,and mice survival and body-weight changes were examined.The results showed that immunization with gM or gN DNA vaccine alone was not able to offer good protection,whereas co-immunization with both gM and gN induced an effective neutralizing antibody response and cellular immune response,and provided mice with complete protection against a lethal MCMV challenge.This study provides the first in vivo evidence that the gC Ⅱ (gM-gN) complex may be able to serve as a protective subunit antigen for future HCMV vaccine development.

  13. A novel telomerase activator suppresses lung damage in a murine model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Le Saux, Claude Jourdan; Davy, Philip; Brampton, Christopher; Ahuja, Seema S; Fauce, Steven; Shivshankar, Pooja; Nguyen, Hieu; Ramaseshan, Mahesh; Tressler, Robert; Pirot, Zhu; Harley, Calvin B; Allsopp, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of diseases associated with telomere dysfunction, including AIDS, aplastic anemia and pulmonary fibrosis, has bolstered interest in telomerase activators. We report identification of a new small molecule activator, GRN510, with activity ex vivo and in vivo. Using a novel mouse model, we tested the potential of GRN510 to limit fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mTERT heterozygous mice. Treatment with GRN510 at 10 mg/kg/day activated telomerase 2-4 fold both in hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo and in bone marrow and lung tissue in vivo, respectively. Telomerase activation was countered by co-treatment with Imetelstat (GRN163L), a potent telomerase inhibitor. In this model of bleomycin-induced fibrosis, treatment with GRN510 suppressed the development of fibrosis and accumulation of senescent cells in the lung via a mechanism dependent upon telomerase activation. Treatment of small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) or lung fibroblasts ex vivo with GRN510 revealed telomerase activating and replicative lifespan promoting effects only in the SAEC, suggesting that the mechanism accounting for the protective effects of GRN510 against induced lung fibrosis involves specific types of lung cells. Together, these results support the use of small molecule activators of telomerase in therapies to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  14. A novel telomerase activator suppresses lung damage in a murine model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Claude Jourdan Le Saux

    Full Text Available The emergence of diseases associated with telomere dysfunction, including AIDS, aplastic anemia and pulmonary fibrosis, has bolstered interest in telomerase activators. We report identification of a new small molecule activator, GRN510, with activity ex vivo and in vivo. Using a novel mouse model, we tested the potential of GRN510 to limit fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mTERT heterozygous mice. Treatment with GRN510 at 10 mg/kg/day activated telomerase 2-4 fold both in hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo and in bone marrow and lung tissue in vivo, respectively. Telomerase activation was countered by co-treatment with Imetelstat (GRN163L, a potent telomerase inhibitor. In this model of bleomycin-induced fibrosis, treatment with GRN510 suppressed the development of fibrosis and accumulation of senescent cells in the lung via a mechanism dependent upon telomerase activation. Treatment of small airway epithelial cells (SAEC or lung fibroblasts ex vivo with GRN510 revealed telomerase activating and replicative lifespan promoting effects only in the SAEC, suggesting that the mechanism accounting for the protective effects of GRN510 against induced lung fibrosis involves specific types of lung cells. Together, these results support the use of small molecule activators of telomerase in therapies to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  15. The leaf extract of Mallotus japonicus and its major active constituent, rutin,suppressed on melanin production in murine B16F1 melanoma简

    Junsei; Taira; Eito; Tsuchida; Masatsugu; Uehara; Natsuko; Ohhama; Wakana; Ohmine; Takayuki; Ogi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To find anti-melanogenesis materials used in whitening cosmetics.Methods: The ethanolic leaf extract of Mallotus japonicus(M. japonicus) having an anti-melanogenesis activity was separated by a sephadex LH-20 chromatography. Each fraction was measured for its tyrosinase inhibitory activity together with its polyphenol content using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The anti-melanogenesis activity of the active fractions was determined by the melanin content in the murine B16F1 melanoma. The active fractions were put together due to similar constituents, and then separated by high performance liquid chromatography using a C-18 ODS column. The major antimelanogenesis compound was identified using1 H and13C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.Results: The ethanolic leaf extract of M. japonicus showed an anti-tyrosinase activity with a high polyphenol content, resulting in suppression of melanin production in the B16F1 melanoma. The extract was separated and the active compound was identical as rutin based on the1 H,13C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis data. In addition, the rutin treatment with cells reduced the melanin content in a concentration dependent manner without any cell toxicity. The leaf extract of M. japonicus containing rutin would be useful in whitening cosmetics for protection from UV-light exposure to be limiting the accumulation of melanin in skin.Conclusions: The leaf extract of M. japonicus and/or rutin isolated from the extract as a key whitening agent would be useful as a whitening cosmetic material for protecting against disorder skin due to melanin accumulation.

  16. The leaf extract ofMallotus japonicus and its major active constituent, rutin, suppressed on melanin production in murine B16F1 melanoma

    Junsei Taira; Eito Tsuchida; Masatsugu Uehara; Natsuko Ohhama; Wakana Ohmine; Takayuki Ogi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To find anti-melanogenesis materials used in whitening cosmetics. Methods: The ethanolic leaf extract ofMallotus japonicus (M. japonicus) having an anti-melanogenesis activity was separated by a sephadexLH-20 chromatography. Each fraction was measured for its tyrosinase inhibitory activity together with its polyphenol content using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The anti-melanogenesis activity of the active fractions was determined by the melanin content in the murine B16F1 melanoma. The active fractions were put together due to similar constituents, and then separated by high performance liquid chromatography using a C-18 ODS column. The major anti-melanogenesis compound was identified using 1Hand13C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The ethanolic leaf extract ofM. japonicus showed an anti-tyrosinase activity with a high polyphenol content, resulting in suppression of melanin production in the B16F1 melanoma. The extract was separated and the active compound was identical as rutin based on the1H,13C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis data. In addition, the rutin treatment with cells reduced the melanin content in a concentration dependent manner without any cell toxicity. The leaf extract ofM. japonicus containing rutin would be useful in whitening cosmetics for protection from UV-light exposure to be limiting the accumulation of melanin in skin. Conclusions: The leaf extract ofM. japonicus and/or rutin isolated from the extract as a key whitening agent would be useful as a whitening cosmetic material for protecting against disorder skin due to melanin accumulation.

  17. Natural IgM Switches the Function of Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells to a Regulatory Dendritic Cell That Suppresses Innate Inflammation.

    Lobo, Peter I; Schlegel, Kailo H; Bajwa, Amandeep; Huang, Liping; Kurmaeva, Elvira; Wang, Binru; Ye, Hong; Tedder, Thomas F; Kinsey, Gilbert R; Okusa, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    We have previously shown that polyclonal natural IgM protects mice from renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) by inhibiting the reperfusion inflammatory response. We hypothesized that a potential mechanism involved IgM modulation of dendritic cells (DC), as we observed high IgM binding to splenic DC. To test this hypothesis, we pretreated bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) with polyclonal murine or human IgM prior to LPS activation and demonstrated that 0.5 × 10(6) IgM/LPS-pretreated BMDC, when injected into wild-type C57BL/6 mice 24 h before renal ischemia, protect mice from developing renal IRI. We show that this switching of LPS-activated BMDC to a regulatory phenotype requires modulation of BMDC function that is mediated by IgM binding to nonapoptotic BMDC receptors. Regulatory BMDC require IL-10 and programmed death 1 as well as downregulation of CD40 and p65 NF-κB phosphorylation to protect in renal IRI. Blocking the programmed death ligand 1 binding site just before i.v. injection of IgM/LPS-pretreated BMDC or using IL-10 knockout BMDC fails to induce protection. Similarly, IgM/LPS-pretreated BMDC are rendered nonprotective by increasing CD40 expression and phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB. How IgM/LPS regulatory BMDC suppress in vivo ischemia-induced innate inflammation remains to be determined. However, we show that suppression is dependent on other in vivo regulatory mechanisms in the host, that is, CD25(+) T cells, B cells, IL-10, and circulating IgM. There was no increase in Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in the spleen either before or after renal IRI. Collectively, these findings show that natural IgM anti-leukocyte Abs can switch BMDC to a regulatory phenotype despite the presence of LPS that ordinarily induces BMDC maturation.

  18. Incorporation of mouse APOBEC3 into murine leukemia virus virions decreases the activity and fidelity of reverse transcriptase.

    Boi, Stefano; Kolokithas, Angelo; Shepard, Joyce; Linwood, Rebecca; Rosenke, Kyle; Van Dis, Erik; Malik, Frank; Evans, Leonard H

    2014-07-01

    APOBEC3 proteins are restriction factors that induce G→A hypermutation in retroviruses during replication as a result of cytidine deamination of minus-strand DNA transcripts. However, the mechanism of APOBEC inhibition of murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) does not appear to be G→A hypermutation and is unclear. In this report, the incorporation of mA3 in virions resulted in a loss in virion reverse transcriptase (RT) activity and RT fidelity that correlated with the loss of virion-specific infectivity.

  19. Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin recognizes a moesin-like O-glycoprotein and costimulates murine CD3-activated CD4+ T cells

    Arenas-Del Ángel, Maria; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Garfias, Yonathan; Chávez, Raul; Zenteno, Edgar; Lascurain,Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galβ1,3GalNAcα1,O-Ser/Thr specific lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus (ALL) binds a ∼70 kDa glycoprotein on murine T cell surface. We show that in the absence of antigen presenting cells, murine CD4+ T cells activated by an anti-CD3 antibody plus ALL enhanced cell proliferation similar to those cells activated via CD3/CD28 at 48 h of culture. Moreover, ALL induced the production of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta in CD3-activated cells. Proteomic assay using two-dimensional electroph...

  20. Induction of protective immune responses against schistosomiasis using functionally active cysteine peptidases

    Rashika eEl Ridi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Each year schistosomiasis afflicts up to 600 million people in 74 tropical and sub-tropical countries, predominantly in the developing world. Yet we depend on a single drug, praziquantel, for its treatment and control. There is no vaccine available but one is urgently needed especially since praziquantel-resistant parasites are likely to emerge at some time in the future. The disease is caused by several worm species of the genus Schistosoma. These express several classes of papain-like cysteine peptidases, cathepsins B and L, in various tissues but particularly in their gastrodermis where they employ them as digestive enzymes. We have shown that sub-cutaneous injection of recombinant and functionally active S. mansoni cathepsin B1 (SmCB1, or a cathepsin L from a related parasite Fasciola hepatica (FhCL1, elicits highly significant protection (up to 73% against an experimental challenge worm infection in murine models of schistosomiasis. The immune modulating properties of this subcutaneous injection can boost protection levels (up to 83% when combined with other S. mansoni vaccine candidates, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (SG3PDH and peroxiredoxin (PRX-MAP. This cysteine-treatment can also protect mice from S. haematobium infection. Here, we discuss these data in the context of the parasite’s biology and development, and provide putative mechanism by which the native-like cysteine peptidase induce protective immune responses.

  1. Recombinant murine IL-12 promotes a protective Th1/cellular response in Mongolian gerbils infected with Sporothrix schenckii.

    Flores-García, Aurelio; Velarde-Félix, Jesús Salvador; Garibaldi-Becerra, Vicente; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Zepeda-Carrillo, Eloy Alfonso; Ruíz-Bernés, Salvador; Ochoa-Ramírez, Luis Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Sporotrichosis is a cutaneous fungal infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is known to be mainly contained by Th1 responses. As IL-12 is crucial for Th1 response, we investigated if treatment with recombinant murine IL-12 (rmIL-12) promoted Th1 immunity and/or clinical improvement in an experimental sporotrichosis gerbil model. Gerbils were inoculated with S. schenckii in the footpad and treated with rmIL-12. Seven days post infection there was a significant increase in macrophage phagocytosis and oxidative burst, and in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in rmIL-12 treated gerbils, as well as a ∼10-fold increase of serum IFN-gamma and a decrease of IL-4 and IL-10. Moreover, rmIL-12 substantially decreased (∼70%) S. schenckii burden in liver and spleen and improved the clinical outcome preventing footpad ulcer and tail nodules observed in untreated gerbils. Our study demonstrates that rmIL-12 promotes Th1 immune response against S. schenckii favouring its clearance and preventing clinical symptoms.

  2. Small Molecules that Protect Mitochondrial Function from Metabolic Stress Decelerate Loss of Photoreceptor Cells in Murine Retinal Degeneration Models.

    Beeson, Craig; Lindsey, Chris; Nasarre, Cecile; Bandyopadhyay, Mausumi; Perron, Nathan; Rohrer, Bärbel

    2016-01-01

    One feature common to many of the pathways implicated in retinal degeneration is increased metabolic stress leading to impaired mitochondrial function. We found that exposure of cells to calcium ionophores or oxidants as metabolic stressors diminish maximal mitochondrial capacity. A library of 50,000 structurally diverse "drug-like" molecules was screened for protection against loss of calcium-induced loss of mitochondrial capacity in 661W rod-derived cells and C6 glioblastomas. Initial protective hits were then tested for protection against IBMX-induced loss of mitochondrial capacity as measured via respirometry. Molecules that protected mitochondria were then evaluated for protection of rod photoreceptor cells in retinal explants from rd1 mice. Two of the molecules attenuated loss of photoreceptor cells in the rd1 model. In the 661W cells, exposure to calcium ionophore or tert-butylhydroperoxide caused mitochondrial fragmentation that was blocked with the both compounds. Our studies have identified molecules that protect mitochondria and attenuate loss of photoreceptors in models of retinal degeneration suggesting that they could be good leads for development of therapeutic drugs for treatment of a wide variety of retinal dystrophies.

  3. Oral Administration of Sitagliptin Activates CREB and Is Neuroprotective in Murine Model of Brain Trauma.

    DellaValle, Brian; Brix, Gitte S; Brock, Birgitte; Gejl, Michael; Rungby, Jørgen; Larsen, Agnete

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. We have previously shown that the injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, liraglutide, significantly improved the outcome in mice after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study we are interested in the effects of oral treatment of a different class of GLP-1 based therapy, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibition on mice after TBI. DPP-IV inhibitors reduce the degradation of endogenous GLP-1 and extend circulation of this protective peptide in the bloodstream. This class has yet to be investigated as a potential therapy for TBI. Methods: Mice were administrated once-daily 50 mg/kg of sitagliptin in a Nutella® ball or Nutella® alone throughout the study, beginning 2 days before severe trauma was induced with a stereotactic cryo-lesion. At 2 days post trauma, lesion size was determined. Brains were isolated for immunoblotting for assessment of selected biomarkers for pathology and protection. Results: Sitagliptin treatment reduced lesion size at day 2 post-injury by ~28% (p < 0.05). Calpain-driven necrotic tone was reduced ~2-fold in sitagliptin-treated brains (p < 0.001) and activation of the protective cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) system was significantly more pronounced (~1.5-fold, p < 0.05). The CREB-regulated, mitochondrial antioxidant protein manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was increased in sitagliptin-treated mice (p < 0.05). Conversely, apoptotic tone (alpha-spectrin fragmentation, Bcl-2 levels) and the neuroinflammatory markers IL-6, and Iba-1 were not affected by treatment. Conclusions: This study shows, for the first time, that DPP-IV inhibition ameliorates both anatomical and biochemical consequences of TBI and activates CREB in the brain. Moreover, this work supports previous studies suggesting that the effect of GLP-1 analogs in models of brain damage relates to GLP-1 receptor stimulation in a dose-dependent manner.

  4. Army and Marine Corps Active Protection System (APS) Efforts

    2016-08-30

    Summary Active Protection Systems (APSs) are subsystems integrated into or installed on a combat vehicle to automatically acquire, track, and respond...Protection System (APS) Efforts Congressional Research Service 1 Why This Issue Is Important for Congress Active Protection Systems (APSs) are...of these systems are highly susceptible to “soft kill” APS, which underlies the importance of both soft and hard kill capabilities. 20 In addition

  5. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel subtypes differentially modulate the excitability of murine small intestinal afferents

    Ying-Ping Wang; Bi-Ying Sun; Qian Li; Li Dong; Guo-Hua Zhang; David Grundy; Wei-Fang Rong

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the role of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels in regulating the excitability of vagal and spinal gut afferents.METHODS: The mechanosensory response of mesen-teric afferent activity was measured in an ex vivo murine jejunum preparation. HCN channel activity was recorded through voltage and current clamp in acutely dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and nodose ganglia (NG) neurons retrogradely labeled from the small intestine through injection of a fluorescent marker (DiI). The isoforms of HCN channels expressed in DRG and NG neurons were examined by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: Ramp distension of the small intestine evoked biphasic increases in the afferent nerve activity, reflecting the activation of low- and high-threshold fibers.HCN blocker CsCl (5 mmol/L) preferentially inhibited the responses of low-threshold fibers to distension and showed no significant effects on the high-threshold responses. The effect of CsCl was mimicked by the more selective HCN blocker ZD7288 (10 ?mol/L). In 71.4% of DiI labeled DRG neurons (n = 20) and 90.9% of DiI labeled NG neurons (n = 10), an inward current (Ih current) was evoked by hyperpolarization pulses which was fully eliminated by extracellular CsCl. In neurons expressing Ih current, a typical "sag" was observed upon injection of hyperpolarizing current pulses in current-clamp recordings. CsCl abolished the sag entirely. In some DiI labeled DRG neurons, the Ih current was potentiated by 8-Br-cAMP, which had no effect on the Ih current of DiI labeled NG neurons. Immunohistochemistry revealed differential expression of HCN isoforms in vagal and spinal afferents, and HCN2 and HCN3 seemed to be the dominant isoform in DRG and NG, respectively.CONCLUSION: HCNs differentially regulate the excitability of vagal and spinal afferent of murine small intestine.

  6. Study on the comparative activity of echinocandins on murine gut colonization by Candida albicans.

    Maraki, Sofia; Hamilos, George; Dimopoulou, Dimitra; Andrianaki, Angeliki M; Karageorgiadis, Alexander Steven; Kyvernitakis, Andreas; Lionakis, Stelios; Kofteridis, Diamantis P; Samonis, George

    2015-08-01

    Colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by Candida species is a principal pathogenetic event for development of invasive candidiasis. Importantly, the effect of echinocandins, the preferred antifungal agents for treatment of invasive candidiasis, on GI tract colonization by Candida spp. is currently unknown. Herein, we used an established model of persistent murine GI tract colonization by Candida albicans to test the ability of different echinocandins to eradicate the yeast from murine gut. Adult male Crl:CD1 (ICR) BR mice were fed with chow containing C. albicans and subsequently treated with different echinocandins or normal saline via daily intraperitoneal injections for 10 days. Quantitative stool cultures were performed immediately before (week one), and weekly for three months after discontinuation of treatment. Notably, treatment with all three echinocandins used (caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin) resulted in eradication of Candida albicans from the stools, as evidenced by the significant reduction of yeast cells from a mean of 4.2 log10 CFU/g of stool before treatment (week one of colonization) to undetectable (Candida yeast cells in the stools of control mice. Collectively, the ability of echinocandins to eradicate C. albicans from the stools could have important implications in prophylaxis of high-risk patients for development of invasive candidiasis originating from the GI tract.

  7. Protective effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitors on lung function and remodeling in a murine model of chronic asthma

    Campos H.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of a novel phosphodiesterase 4 and 5 inhibitor, LASSBio596, with that of dexamethasone in a murine model of chronic asthma. Lung mechanics (airway resistance, viscoelastic pressure, and static elastance, histology, and airway and lung parenchyma remodeling (quantitative analysis of collagen and elastic fiber were analyzed. Thirty-three BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to four groups. In the asthma group (N = 9, mice were immunized with 10 µg ovalbumin (OVA, ip on 7 alternate days, and after day 40 they were challenged with three intratracheal instillations of 20 µg OVA at 3-day intervals. Control mice (N = 8 received saline under the same protocol. In the dexamethasone (N = 8 and LASSBio596 (N = 8 groups, the animals of the asthma group were treated with 1 mg/kg dexamethasone disodium phosphate (0.1 mL, ip or 10 mg/kg LASSBio596 dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (0.2 mL, ip 24 h before the first intratracheal instillation of OVA, for 8 days. Airway resistance, viscoelastic pressure and static elastance increased significantly in the asthma group (77, 56, and 76%, respectively compared to the control group. The asthma group presented more intense alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction, and eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration than the control group. Both LASSBio596 and dexamethasone inhibited the changes in lung mechanics, tissue cellularity, bronchoconstriction, as well as airway and lung parenchyma remodeling. In conclusion, LASSBio596 at a dose of 10 mg/kg effectively prevented lung mechanical and morphometrical changes and had the potential to block fibroproliferation in a BALB/c mouse model of asthma.

  8. EGFR mediates astragaloside IV-induced Nrf2 activation to protect cortical neurons against in vitro ischemia/reperfusion damages

    Gu, Da-min [Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Yixing People' s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Yixing (China); Lu, Pei-Hua, E-mail: lphty1_1@163.com [Department of Medical Oncology, Wuxi People' s Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi (China); Zhang, Ke; Wang, Xiang [Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Yixing People' s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Yixing (China); Sun, Min [Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Yixing People' s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Yixing (China); Chen, Guo-Qian [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Wuxi People' s Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi (China); Wang, Qiong, E-mail: WangQiongprof1@126.com [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Wuxi People' s Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi (China)

    2015-02-13

    In this study, we tested the potential role of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) against oxygen and glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R)-induced damages in murine cortical neurons, and studied the associated signaling mechanisms. AS-IV exerted significant neuroprotective effects against OGD/R by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, thereby attenuating oxidative stress and neuronal cell death. We found that AS-IV treatment in cortical neurons resulted in NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling activation, evidenced by Nrf2 Ser-40 phosphorylation, and its nuclear localization, as well as transcription of antioxidant-responsive element (ARE)-regulated genes: heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1) and sulphiredoxin 1 (SRXN-1). Knockdown of Nrf2 through lentiviral shRNAs prevented AS-IV-induced ARE genes transcription, and abolished its anti-oxidant and neuroprotective activities. Further, we discovered that AS-IV stimulated heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) release to trans-activate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cortical neurons. Blockage or silencing EGFR prevented Nrf2 activation by AS-IV, thus inhibiting AS-IV-mediated anti-oxidant and neuroprotective activities against OGD/R. In summary, AS-IV protects cortical neurons against OGD/R damages through activating of EGFR-Nrf2 signaling. - Highlights: • Pre-treatment of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) protects murine cortical neurons from OGD/R. • AS-IV activates Nrf2-ARE signaling in murine cortical neurons. • Nrf2 is required for AS-IV-mediated anti-oxidant and neuroprotective activities. • AS-IV stimulates HB-EGF release to trans-activate EGFR in murine cortical neurons. • EGFR mediates AS-IV-induced Nrf2 activation and neuroprotection against OGD/R.

  9. Protective immunity against Trichinella spiralis infection induced by a multi-epitope vaccine in a murine model.

    Yuan Gu

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is one of the most important food-borne parasitic zoonoses throughout the world. Because infected pigs are the major source of human infections, and China is becoming the largest international producer of pork, the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine to prevent swine from being infected is urgently needed for trichinellosis control in China. Our previous studies have demonstrated that specific Trichinella spiralis paramyosin (Ts-Pmy and Ts-87 antigen could provide protective immunity against T. spiralis infection in immunized mice. Certain protective epitopes of Ts-Pmy and Ts-87 antigen have been identified. To identify more Ts-Pmy protective epitopes, a new monoclonal antibody, termed 8F12, was produced against the N-terminus of Ts-Pmy. This antibody elicited significant protective immunity in mice against T. spiralis infection by passive transfer and was subsequently used to screen a random phage display peptide library to identify recognized epitopes. Seven distinct positive phage clones were identified and their displayed peptides were sequenced. Synthesized epitope peptides conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin were used to immunize mice, four of which exhibited larval reduction (from 18.7% to 26.3%, respectively in vaccinated mice in comparison to the KLH control. To increase more effective protection, the epitope 8F7 that was found to induce the highest protection in this study was combined with two other previously identified epitopes (YX1 from Ts-Pmy and M7 from Ts-87 to formulate a multi-epitope vaccine. Mice immunized with this multi-epitope vaccine experienced a 35.0% reduction in muscle larvae burden after being challenged with T. spiralis larvae. This protection is significantly higher than that induced by individual-epitope peptides and is associated with high levels of subclasses IgG and IgG1. These results showed that a multi-epitope vaccine induced better protective immunity than an individual

  10. Oral administration of sitagliptin activates CREB and is neuroprotective in murine model of brain trauma

    Brian Dellavalle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. We have previously shown that the injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide, significantly improved the outcome in mice after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI. In this study we are interested in the effects of oral treatment of a different class of GLP-1 based therapy, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV inhibition on mice after TBI. DPP-IV inhibitors reduce the degradation of endogenous GLP-1 and extend circulation of this protective peptide in the bloodstream. This class has yet to be investigated as a potential therapy for TBI. Methods: Mice were administrated once-daily 50 mg/kg of sitagliptin in a Nutella® ball or Nutella® alone throughout the study, beginning two days before severe trauma was induced with a stereotactic cryo-lesion. At two days post trauma, lesion size was determined. Brains were isolated for immunoblotting for assessment of selected biomarkers for pathology and protection.Results: Sitagliptin treatment reduced lesion size at day 2 post-injury by ~28% (p0.05. Conversely, apoptotic tone (alpha-spectrin fragmentation, Bcl-2 levels and the neuroinflammatory markers IL-6, and Iba-1 were not affected by treatment.Conclusions: This study shows, for the first time, that DPP-IV inhibition ameliorates both anatomical and biochemical consequences of TBI and activates CREB in the brain. Moreover, this work supports previous studies suggesting that the effect of GLP-1 analogues in models of brain damage relates to GLP-1 receptor stimulation in a dose-dependent manner.Keywords: GLP-1, Traumatic Brain Injury, TBI, sitagliptin, liraglutide, CREB, Oxidative Stress, GIP, DPP-IV, DPP-4

  11. Characterization of human and murine PMP20 peroxisomal proteins that exhibit antioxidant activity in vitro.

    Yamashita, H; Avraham, S; Jiang, S; London, R; Van Veldhoven, P P; Subramani, S; Rogers, R A; Avraham, H

    1999-10-15

    We have isolated the cDNAs encoding human and mouse homologues of a yeast protein, termed peroxisomal membrane protein 20 (PMP20). Comparison of the amino acid sequences of human (HsPMP20) and mouse (MmPMP20) PMP20 proteins revealed a high degree of identity (93%), whereas resemblance to the yeast Candida boidinii PMP20A and PMP20B (CbPMP20A and CbPMP20B) was less (30% identity). Both HsPMP20 and MmPMP20 lack transmembrane regions, as do CbPMP20A and CbPMP20B. HsPMP20 mRNA expression was low in human fetal tissues, especially in the brain. In adult tissues, HsPMP20 mRNA was expressed in the majority of tissues tested. HsPMP20 and MmPMP20 contained the C-terminal tripeptide sequence Ser-Gln-Leu (SQL), which is similar to the peroxisomal targeting signal 1 utilized for protein import into peroxisomes. HsPMP20 bound directly to the human peroxisomal targeting signal 1 receptor, HsPEX5. Mutagenesis analysis showed that the C-terminal tripeptide sequence, SQL, of HsPMP20 is necessary for its binding to HsPEX5. Subcellular fractionation of HeLa cells, expressing epitope-tagged PMP20, revealed that HsPMP20 is localized in the cytoplasm and in a particulate fraction containing peroxisomes. Double-staining immunofluorescence studies showed colocalization of HsPMP20 and thiolase, a bona fide peroxisomal protein. The amino acid sequence alignment of HsPMP20, MmPMP20, CbPMP20A, and CbPMP20B displayed high similarity to thiol-specific antioxidant proteins. HsPMP20 exerted an inhibitory effect on the inactivation of glutamine synthetase in the thiol metal-catalyzed oxidation system but not in the nonthiol metal-catalyzed oxidation system, suggesting that HsPMP20 possesses thiol-specific antioxidant activity. In addition, HsPMP20 removed hydrogen peroxide by its thiol-peroxidase activity. These results indicate that HsPMP20 is imported into the peroxisomal matrix via PEX5p and may work to protect peroxisomal proteins against oxidative stress. Because some portion of PMP20 might

  12. Cationic liposomes containing soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) plus CpG ODNs induce protection against murine model of leishmaniasis.

    Heravi Shargh, Vahid; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Firouzmand, Hengameh; Abbasi, Azam; Badiee, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Development of an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis is possible due to the fact that individuals cured from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are protected from further infection. First generation Leishmania vaccines consisting of whole killed parasites reached to phase 3 clinical trials but failed to show enough efficacies mainly due to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant. In this study, an efficient liposomal protein-based vaccine against Leishmania major infection was developed using soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) as a first generation vaccine and cytidine phosphate guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) as an immunostimulatory adjuvant. 1, 2-Dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane was used as a cationic lipid to prepare the liposomes due to its intrinsic adjuvanticity. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously (SC), three times in 2-week intervals, with Lip-SLA-CpG, Lip-SLA, SLA + CpG, SLA, or HEPES buffer. As criteria for protection, footpad swelling at the site of challenge and spleen parasite loads were assessed, and the immune responses were evaluated by determination of IFN-γ and IL-4 levels of cultured splenocytes, and IgG subtypes. The group of mice that received Lip-SLA-CpG showed a significantly smaller footpad swelling, lower spleen parasite burden, higher IgG2a antibody, and lower IL-4 level compared to the control groups. It is concluded that cationic liposomes containing SLA and CpG ODNs are appropriate to induce Th1 type of immune response and protection against leishmaniasis.

  13. Oral administration of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis JCM5805 enhances lung immune response resulting in protection from murine parainfluenza virus infection.

    Kenta Jounai

    Full Text Available When activated by viral infection, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs play a primary role in the immune response through secretion of IFN-α. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis JCM5805 (JCM5805 is a strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB that activates murine and human pDCs to express type I and type III interferons (IFNs. JCM5805 has also been shown to activate pDCs via a Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 dependent pathway. In this study, we investigated the anti-viral effects of oral administration of JCM5805 using a mouse model of murine parainfluenza virus (mPIV1 infection. JCM5805-fed mice showed a drastic improvement in survival rate, prevention of weight loss, and reduction in lung histopathology scores compared to control mice. We further examined the mechanism of anti-viral effects elicited by JCM5805 administration using naive mice. Microscopic observations showed that JCM5805 was incorporated into CD11c+ immune cells in Peyer's patches (PP and PP pDCs were significantly activated and the expression levels of IFNs were significantly increased. Interestingly, nevertheless resident pDCs at lung were not activated and expressions levels of IFNs at whole lung tissue were not influenced, the expressions of anti-viral factors induced by IFNs, such as Isg15, Oasl2, and Viperin, at lung were up-regulated in JCM5805-fed mice compared to control mice. Therefore expressed IFNs from intestine might be delivered to lung and IFN stimulated genes might be induced. Furthermore, elevated expressions of type I IFNs from lung lymphocytes were observed in response to mPIV1 ex vivo stimulation in JCM5805-fed mice compared to control. This might be due to increased ratio of pDCs located in lung were significantly increased in JCM5805 group. Taken together, a specific LAB strain might be able to affect anti-viral immunological profile in lung via activation of intestinal pDC leading to enhanced anti-viral phenotype in vivo.

  14. Cloning, expression and purification of binding domains of lethal factor and protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis in Escherichia coli and evaluation of their related murine antibody.

    Rezaee, Mehdi; Honari, Hossein; Kooshk, Mohammad Reza Ashrafi

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is common disease between human and animals caused by Bacillus anthracis. The cell binding domain of protective antigen (PAD4) and the binding domain of lethal factor (LFD1) have high immunogenicity potential and always were considered as a vaccine candidate against anthrax. The aims of this study are cloning and expressing of PAD4 and LFD1 in Escherichia coli, purification of the recombinant proteins and determination of their immunogenicity through evaluating of the relative produced polyclonal antibodies in mice. PAD4 and LFD1 genes were cloned in pET28a(+) vector and expressed in E. coli Bl21(DE3)PlysS. Expression and purification of the two recombinant proteins were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. The PAD4 and LFD1 were purified using Ni(+)-NTA affinity chromatography (95-98 %), yielding 37.5 and 45 mg/l of culture, respectively. The antigens were injected three times into mice and production of relative antibodies was evaluated by ELISA test. The results showed that both PAD4 and LFD1 are immunogenic, but LFD1 has higher potential to stimulate Murine immune system. With regard to the high level of LFD1 and PAD4 expression and also significant increment in produced polyclonal antibodies, these recombinant proteins can be considered as a recombinant vaccine candidate against anthrax.

  15. Axl tyrosine kinase protects against tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and progression of renal failure in a murine model of chronic kidney disease and hyperphosphataemia.

    Gareth D Hyde

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is defined as the progressive loss of renal function often involving glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and vascular pathology. CKD is associated with vascular calcification; the extent of which predicts morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular regulation of these events and the progression of chronic kidney disease are not fully elucidated. To investigate the function of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in CKD we performed a sub-total nephrectomy and fed high phosphate (1% diet to Axl+/+ and Axl-/- mice. Plasma Gas6 (Axl' ligand, renal Axl expression and downstream Akt signalling were all significantly up-regulated in Axl+/+ mice following renal mass reduction and high phosphate diet, compared to age-matched controls. Axl-/- mice had significantly enhanced uraemia, reduced bodyweight and significantly reduced survival following sub-total nephrectomy and high phosphate diet compared to Axl+/+ mice; only 45% of Axl-/- mice survived to 14 weeks post-surgery compared to 87% of Axl+/+ mice. Histological analysis of kidney remnants revealed no effect of loss of Axl on glomerular hypertrophy, calcification or renal sclerosis but identified significantly increased tubulo-interstitial apoptosis in Axl-/- mice. Vascular calcification was not induced in Axl+/+ or Axl-/- mice in the time frame we were able to examine. In conclusion, we identify the up-regulation of Gas6/Axl signalling as a protective mechanism which reduces tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and slows progression to end-stage renal failure in the murine nephrectomy and high phosphate diet model of CKD.

  16. Axl tyrosine kinase protects against tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and progression of renal failure in a murine model of chronic kidney disease and hyperphosphataemia.

    Hyde, Gareth D; Taylor, Rebecca F; Ashton, Nick; Borland, Samantha J; Wu, Hon Sing Geoffrey; Gilmore, Andrew P; Canfield, Ann E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the progressive loss of renal function often involving glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and vascular pathology. CKD is associated with vascular calcification; the extent of which predicts morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular regulation of these events and the progression of chronic kidney disease are not fully elucidated. To investigate the function of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in CKD we performed a sub-total nephrectomy and fed high phosphate (1%) diet to Axl+/+ and Axl-/- mice. Plasma Gas6 (Axl' ligand), renal Axl expression and downstream Akt signalling were all significantly up-regulated in Axl+/+ mice following renal mass reduction and high phosphate diet, compared to age-matched controls. Axl-/- mice had significantly enhanced uraemia, reduced bodyweight and significantly reduced survival following sub-total nephrectomy and high phosphate diet compared to Axl+/+ mice; only 45% of Axl-/- mice survived to 14 weeks post-surgery compared to 87% of Axl+/+ mice. Histological analysis of kidney remnants revealed no effect of loss of Axl on glomerular hypertrophy, calcification or renal sclerosis but identified significantly increased tubulo-interstitial apoptosis in Axl-/- mice. Vascular calcification was not induced in Axl+/+ or Axl-/- mice in the time frame we were able to examine. In conclusion, we identify the up-regulation of Gas6/Axl signalling as a protective mechanism which reduces tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and slows progression to end-stage renal failure in the murine nephrectomy and high phosphate diet model of CKD.

  17. Oral treatment with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 modulates immune responses and interferes with signal pathways involved in the activation of inflammation in a murine model of typhoid fever.

    Martins, Flaviano S; Elian, Samir D A; Vieira, Angélica T; Tiago, Fabiana C P; Martins, Ariane K S; Silva, Flávia C P; Souza, Ericka L S; Sousa, Lirlândia P; Araújo, Helena R C; Pimenta, Paulo F; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Arantes, Rosa M E; Teixeira, Mauro M; Nicoli, Jacques R

    2011-04-01

    Salmonella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative, intracellular pathogens that cause several diarrheal diseases ranging from self-limiting gastroenteritis to typhoid fever. Previous results from our laboratory showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 isolated from 'cachaça' production presented probiotic properties due to its ability to protect against experimental infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In this study, the effects of oral treatment with S. cerevisiae 905 were evaluated at the immunological level in a murine model of typhoid fever. Treatment with S. cerevisiae 905 inhibited weight loss and increased survival rate after Salmonella challenge. Immunological data demonstrated that S. cerevisiae 905 decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and modulated the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 and JNK, but not ERK1/2), NF-κB and AP-1, signaling pathways which are involved in the transcriptional activation of proinflammatory mediators. Experiments in germ-free mice revealed that probiotic effects were due, at least in part, to the binding of Salmonella to the yeast. In conclusion, S. cerevisiae 905 acts as a potential new biotherapy against S. Typhimurium infection due to its ability to bind bacteria and modulate signaling pathways involved in the activation of inflammation in a murine model of typhoid fever.

  18. Absence of activated murine leukaemia virus in X-irradiated CBA/H-T6Crc mice

    Holmes, H.C.; Tuffrey, M.; Wilson, L.; Barnes, R.D. (Medical Research Council, Harrow (UK). Clinical Research Centre)

    1981-04-01

    CBA/H-T6Crc mice, a substrain that does not normally express demonstrable levels of murine leukaemia virus (MuLV) and has a low natural incidence of leukaemia, were examined for evidence of virus activation at various times following X-irradiation. Although X-irradiation caused a high incidence of leukaemia, no ecotropic, xenotropic or recombinant MuLV was detected by in vitro co-cultivation of bone marrow, spleen and thymus cells from pre-leukaemic and leukaemic animals with selectively permissive cell lines followed by indirect immunofluorescence for MuLV group-specific (gs) antigen. These results therefore, are not consistent with the hypothesis that endogenous viruses are the universal aetiological agents of leukaemia.

  19. Involvement of transient receptor potential melastatin type 7 channels on Poncirus fructus-induced depolarizations of pacemaking activity in interstitial cells of Cajal from murine small intestine

    Byung Joo Kim

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that the PTE-induced depolarization of pacemaking activity occurs in a G-protein-, phospholipase C-, and 1,4,5-inositol triphosphate-dependent manner via TRPM7 channels in cultured ICCs from murine small intestine, which indicates that ICCs are PTE targets and that their interactions affect intestinal motility.

  20. Murine T cell activation is regulated by surfen (bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide)

    Warford, Jordan, E-mail: jordan.warford@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Doucette, Carolyn D., E-mail: carolyn.doucette@dal.ca [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Hoskin, David W., E-mail: d.w.hoskin@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Easton, Alexander S., E-mail: alexander.easton@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Surgery (Neurosurgery), Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Surfen is the first inhibitor of glycosaminoglycan function to be studied in murine T cells. •Surfen reduces T cell proliferation stimulated in vitro and in vivo. •Surfen reduces CD25 expression in T cells activated in vivo but not in vitro. •Surfen increases T cell proliferation when T cell receptor activation is bypassed. •Surfen’s effects are blocked by co-administration of heparin sulfate. -- Abstract: Surfen (bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide) binds to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and has been shown to influence their function, and the function of proteoglycans (complexes of GAGs linked to a core protein). T cells synthesize, secrete and express GAGs and proteoglycans which are involved in several aspects of T cell function. However, there are as yet no studies on the effect of GAG-binding agents such as surfen on T cell function. In this study, surfen was found to influence murine T cell activation. Doses between 2.5 and 20 μM produced a graduated reduction in the proliferation of T cells activated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibody-coated T cell expander beads. Surfen (20 mg/kg) was also administered to mice treated with anti-CD3 antibody to activate T cells in vivo. Lymphocytes from surfen-treated mice also showed reduced proliferation and lymph node cell counts were reduced. Surfen reduced labeling with a cell viability marker (7-ADD) but to a much lower extent than its effect on proliferation. Surfen also reduced CD25 (the α-subunit of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor) expression with no effect on CD69 expression in T cells treated in vivo but not in vitro. When receptor activation was bypassed by treating T cells in vitro with phorbyl myristate acetate (10 ng/ml) and ionomycin (100 ng/ml), surfen treatment either increased proliferation (10 μM) or had no effect (2.5, 5 and 20 μM). In vitro treatment of T cells with surfen had no effect on IL-2 or interferon-γ synthesis and did not alter proliferation of the IL-2 dependent cell

  1. Schistosoma co-infection protects against brain pathology but does not prevent severe disease and death in a murine model of cerebral malaria.

    Bucher, Kirsten; Dietz, Klaus; Lackner, Peter; Pasche, Bastian; Fendel, Rolf; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ben-Smith, Anne; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H

    2011-01-01

    Co-infections of helminths and malaria parasites are common in human populations in most endemic areas. It has been suggested that concomitant helminth infections inhibit the control of malaria parasitemia but down-modulate severe malarial disease. We tested this hypothesis using a murine co-infection model of schistosomiasis and cerebral malaria. C57BL/6 mice were infected with Schistosoma mansoni and 8-9 weeks later, when Schistosoma infection was patent, mice were co-infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain. We found that a concomitant Schistosoma infection increased parasitemia at the beginning of the P. berghei infection. It did not protect against P. berghei-induced weight loss and hypothermia, and P. berghei-mono-infected as well as S. mansoni-P. berghei-co-infected animals showed a high case fatality between days 6 and 8 of malarial infection. However, co-infection significantly reduced P. berghei-induced brain pathology. Over 40% of the S. mansoni-P. berghei-co-infected animals that died during this period were completely protected against haemorrhaging, plugging of blood vessels and infiltration, indicating that mortality in these animals was not related to cerebral disease. Schistosoma mansoni-P. berghei-co-infected mice had elevated plasma concentrations of IL-5 and IL-13 and on day 6 lower levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) than P. berghei-mono-infected mice. We conclude that in P. berghei infections, disease and early death are caused by distinct pathogenic mechanisms, which develop in parallel and are differentially influenced by the immune response to S. mansoni. This might explain why, in co-infected mice, death could be induced in the absence of brain pathology.

  2. Activation of calpains, calpastatin and spectrin cleavage in the brain during the pathology of fatal murine cerebral malaria.

    Shukla, Meena; Rajgopal, Yadavalli; Babu, Phanithi Prakash

    2006-01-01

    Neuronal calpains appear to be activated uncontrollably by sustained elevation of cytosolic calcium levels under pathological conditions as well as neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we have characterized calpain activation in cytosolic extract of mice cerebral cortex and cerebellum using an experimental model of fatal murine cerebral malaria (FMCM). Pathology of FMCM resulted in the increase in activity of calpains in both cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Western blot analysis revealed an increase in the levels of mu-calpain (calpain-1) in the cytosolic fraction of infected cerebral cortex and cerebellum although a decrease in the level of m-calpain was observed in the cytosolic fraction of infected cerebellum and cerebral cortex. Calpain activation was further confirmed by monitoring the formation of calpain-specific spectrin breakdown products (SBDP). Protease-specific SBDP revealed the formation of calpain-generated 150kDa product in the infected cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The specific signature fragment of calpain activation and spectrin breakdown after Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection provide a strong evidence of the role of calpains during the cell death in cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Given the role of calpains in neurodegeneration and cell death, our results strongly suggest that calpains are important mediators of cell injury and neurological sequelae associated with FMCM.

  3. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways contribute to hypercontractility and increased Ca2+ sensitization in murine experimental colitis.

    Ihara, Eikichi; Beck, Paul L; Chappellaz, Mona; Wong, Josee; Medlicott, Shaun A; MacDonald, Justin A

    2009-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with intestinal smooth muscle dysfunction. Many smooth muscle contractile events are associated with alterations in Ca(2+)-sensitizing pathways. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of colitis on Ca(2+) sensitization and the signaling pathways responsible for contractile dysfunction in murine experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in BALB/c mice by providing 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days. Contractile responses of colonic circular smooth muscle strips to 118 mM K(+) and carbachol (CCh) were assessed. DSS induced a T(H)2 colitis [increased interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6] with no changes in T(H)1 cytokines. Animals exposed to DSS had increased CCh-induced contraction (3.5-fold) and CCh-induced Ca(2+)-sensitization (2.2-fold) responses in intact and alpha-toxin permeabilized colonic smooth muscle, respectively. The contributions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) to CCh-induced contractions were significantly increased during colitis. Ca(2+)-independent contraction induced by microcystin was potentiated (1.5-fold) in mice with colitis. ERK and p38MAPK (but not Rho-associated kinase) contributed to this potentiation. ERK1/2 and p38MAPK expression were increased in the muscularis propria of colonic tissue from both DSS-treated mice and patients with IBD (ulcerative colitis > Crohn's disease). Murine T(H)2 colitis resulted in colonic smooth muscle hypercontractility with increased Ca(2+) sensitization. Both ERK and p38MAPK pathways contributed to this contractile dysfunction, and expression of these molecules was altered in patients with IBD.

  4. Intraventricular injections of mesenchymal stem cells activate endogenous functional remyelination in a chronic demyelinating murine model

    Cruz-Martinez, P; González-Granero, S; Molina-Navarro, M M; Pacheco-Torres, J; García-Verdugo, J M; Geijo-Barrientos, E; Jones, J; Martinez, S

    2016-01-01

    Current treatments for demyelinating diseases are generally only capable of ameliorating the symptoms, with little to no effect in decreasing myelin loss nor promoting functional recovery. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown by many researchers to be a potential therapeutic tool in treating various neurodegenerative diseases, including demyelinating disorders. However, in the majority of the cases, the effect was only observed locally, in the area surrounding the graft. Thus, in order to achieve general remyelination in various brain structures simultaneously, bone marrow-derived MSCs were transplanted into the lateral ventricles (LVs) of the cuprizone murine model. In this manner, the cells may secrete soluble factors into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and boost the endogenous oligodendrogenic potential of the subventricular zone (SVZ). As a result, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) were recruited within the corpus callosum (CC) over time, correlating with an increased myelin content. Electrophysiological studies, together with electron microscopy (EM) analysis, indicated that the newly formed myelin correctly enveloped the demyelinated axons and increased signal transduction through the CC. Moreover, increased neural stem progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation was observed in the SVZ, possibly due to the tropic factors released by the MSCs. In conclusion, the findings of this study revealed that intraventricular injections of MSCs is a feasible method to elicit a paracrine effect in the oligodendrogenic niche of the SVZ, which is prone to respond to the factors secreted into the CSF and therefore promoting oligodendrogenesis and functional remyelination. PMID:27171265

  5. Active immunotherapy of allergic asthma with a recombinant human interleukin-5 protein as vaccine in a murine model

    TAN Guang-hong; WANG Cai-chun; HUANG Feng-ying; WANG Hua; HUANG Yong-hao; LIN Ying-ying

    2007-01-01

    Background Eosinophils are highly related to allergic asthma inflammation. Interleukin (IL)-5 is the major chemokine of eosinophils, inhibition of the activity of IL-5 thus seems to be a potential approach to asthma therapy. The current study was performed to determine whether a recombinant human IL-5 protein as a xenogeneic vaccine has the capability of inducing anti-asthma activities.Methods Recombinant human IL-5 was used as a protein vaccine. Mouse asthma model was established to observe the anti-asthma activities. Lung histology was observed; eosinophils in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage were stained and counted. Airway hyperresponsiveness was determined by whole body plethysmograph. Antibody characters and cytokines were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot assay.Results Vaccination with recombinant human IL-5 protein as vaccine significantly reduced airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness, and shifted the cytokine production from Th2 (IL-4) to Th1 (INF-γ) in mice allergic-asthma model. Immunization with recombinant human IL-5 protein vaccine bypassed the immunological tolerance and induced production of polyclonal antibodies that were cross-reactive with murine IL-5.Conclusions Active immunization with xenogeneic homologous IL-5 may be a possible therapeutic approach to the treatment of asthma and potentially of other eosinophilic disorders.

  6. Th2-polarised PrP-specific transgenic T-cells confer partial protection against murine scrapie.

    Saci Iken

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several hurdles must be overcome in order to achieve efficient and safe immunotherapy against conformational neurodegenerative diseases. In prion diseases, the main difficulty is that the prion protein is tolerated as a self protein, which prevents powerful immune responses. Passive antibody therapy is effective only during early, asymptomatic disease, well before diagnosis is made. If efficient immunotherapy of prion diseases is to be achieved, it is crucial to understand precisely how immune tolerance against the prion protein can be overcome and which effector pathways may delay disease progression. To this end, we generated a transgenic mouse that expresses the ß-chain of a T cell receptor recognizing a PrP epitope presented by the class II major histocompatibility complex. The fact that the constraint is applied to only one TCR chain allows adaptation of the other chain according to the presence or absence of tolerogenic PrP. We first show that transgene-bearing T cells, pairing with rearranged α-chains conferring anti-PrP specificity, are systematically eliminated during ontogeny in PrP+ mice, suggesting that precursors with good functional avidity are rare in a normal individual. Second, we show that transgene-bearing T cells with anti-PrP specificity are not suppressed when transferred into PrP+ recipients and proliferate more extensively in a prion-infected host. Finally, such T cells provide protection through a cell-mediated pathway involving IL-4 production. These findings support the idea that cell-mediated immunity in neurodegenerative conditions may not be necessarily detrimental and may even contribute, when properly controlled, to the resolution of pathological processes.

  7. Therapeutic immunization with radio-attenuated Leishmania parasites through i.m. route revealed protection against the experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Datta, Sanchita; Manna, Madhumita; Khanra, Supriya; Ghosh, Moumita; Bhar, Radhaballav; Chakraborty, Anindita; Roy, Syamal

    2012-07-01

    After our promising results from prophylactic and therapeutic study (i.p. route) with the radio-attenuated Leishmania donovani parasites against experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis, we prompted to check their therapeutic efficacy through i.m route. BALB/c mice were infected with highly virulent L. donovani parasites. After 75 days, mice were treated with gamma (γ)-irradiated parasites. A second therapeutic immunization was given after 15 days of first immunization. The protection against kala-azar was estimated with the reduction of Leishman-Donovan unit from spleen and liver that scored up to 80% and 93%, respectively, while a twofold increase in nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) productions has been observed in the immunized groups of animals. These groups of mice also showed disease regression by skewing Th2 cytokines (IL-10) towards Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ) bias along with the increased generation of NO and ROS, while the infected control group of mice without such treatment surrendered to the disease. Establishment of Th1 ambience in the treated groups has also been supported from the measured antileishmanial antibody IgG subsets (IgG2a and IgG1) with higher anti-soluble Leishmania antigen-specific IgG2a titer. As seen in our previous studies, doses of attenuation by γ-radiation should be taken into serious consideration. Attenuation of parasites at 50 Gy of absorbed dose of gamma rays has not worked well. Thus, therapeutic use of L. donovani parasites radio-attenuated at particular doses can be exploited as a promising vaccine agent. Absence of any adjuvant may increase its acceptability as vaccine candidate further.

  8. Pomalidomide shows significant therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma with a major impact on the tumor microenvironment in murine models.

    Li, Zhimin; Qiu, Yushi; Personett, David; Huang, Peng; Edenfield, Brandy; Katz, Jason; Babusis, Darius; Tang, Yang; Shirely, Michael A; Moghaddam, Mehran F; Copland, John A; Tun, Han W

    2013-01-01

    Primary CNS lymphoma carries a poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Pomalidomide (POM) is a novel immunomodulatory drug with anti-lymphoma activity. CNS pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in rats to assess the CNS penetration of POM. Preclinical evaluation of POM was performed in two murine models to assess its therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma. The impact of POM on the CNS lymphoma immune microenvironment was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. In vitro cell culture experiments were carried out to further investigate the impact of POM on the biology of macrophages. POM crosses the blood brain barrier with CNS penetration of ~ 39%. Preclinical evaluations showed that it had significant therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma with significant reduction in tumor growth rate and prolongation of survival, that it had a major impact on the tumor microenvironment with an increase in macrophages and natural killer cells, and that it decreased M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages and increased M1-polarized macrophages when macrophages were evaluated based on polarization status. In vitro studies using various macrophage models showed that POM converted the polarization status of IL4-stimulated macrophages from M2 to M1, that M2 to M1 conversion by POM in the polarization status of lymphoma-associated macrophages is dependent on the presence of NK cells, that POM induced M2 to M1 conversion in the polarization of macrophages by inactivating STAT6 signaling and activating STAT1 signaling, and that POM functionally increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Based on our findings, POM is a promising therapeutic agent for CNS lymphoma with excellent CNS penetration, significant preclinical therapeutic activity, and a major impact on the tumor microenvironment. It can induce significant biological changes in tumor-associated macrophages, which likely play a major role in its therapeutic activity against CNS

  9. Oral Administration of Polymyxin B Modulates the Activity of Lipooligosaccharide E. coli B against Lung Metastases in Murine Tumor Models.

    Jagoda Kicielińska

    Full Text Available Polymyxin B (PmB belongs to the group of cyclic peptide antibiotics, which neutralize the activity of LPS by binding to lipid A. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of PmB on the biological activity of lipooligosaccharide (LOS E. coli B,rough form of LPS in vitro and in experimental metastasis models.Cultures of murine macrophage J774A.1 cells and murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DC stimulated in vitro with LOS and supplemented with PmB demonstrated a decrease in inflammatory cytokine production (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and down-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86 and MHC class II molecule expression. Additionally, PmB suspended in drinking water was given to the C57BL/6 mice seven or five days prior to the intravenous injection of B16 or LLC cells and intraperitoneal application of LOS. This strategy of PmB administration was continued throughout the duration of the experiments (29 or 21 days. In B16 model, statistically significant decrease in the number of metastases in mice treated with PmB and LOS (p<0.01 was found on the 14th day of the experiments, whereas the most intensive changes in surface-antigen expression and ex vivo production of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α by peritoneal cells were observed 7 days earlier. By contrast, antigen expression and ex vivo production of IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ by splenocytes remained relatively high and stable. Statistically significant decrease in LLC metastases number was observed after the application of LOS (p<0.01 and in the group of mice preconditioned by PmB and subsequently treated with LOS (LOS + PmB, p<0.01.In conclusion, prolonged in vivo application of PmB was not able to neutralize the LOS-induced immune cell activity but its presence in the organism of treated mice was important in modulation of the LOS-mediated response against the development of metastases.

  10. Oral Administration of Sitagliptin Activates CREB and Is Neuroprotective in Murine Model of Brain Trauma

    DellaValle, Brian; Brix, Gitte S; Brock, Birgitte;

    2016-01-01

    for immunoblotting for assessment of selected biomarkers for pathology and protection. Results: Sitagliptin treatment reduced lesion size at day 2 post-injury by ~28% (p Calpain-driven necrotic tone was reduced ~2-fold in sitagliptin-treated brains (p

  11. Murine Typhus

    Dzul-Rosado, Karla R; Zavala Velázquez, Jorge Ernesto; Zavala-Castro, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsia typhi: is an intracellular bacteria who causes murine typhus. His importance is reflected in the high frequency founding specific antibodies against Rickettsia typhi in several worldwide seroepidemiological studies, the seroprevalence ranging between 3-36%. Natural reservoirs of R. typhi are rats (some species belonging the Rattus Genus) and fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) are his vector. This infection is associated with overcrowding, pollution and poor hygiene. Typically presents fever, headache, rash on trunk and extremities, in some cases may occur organ-specific complications, affecting liver, kidney, lung or brain. Initially the disease is very similar to other diseases, is very common to confuse the murine typhus with Dengue fever, therefore, ignorance of the disease is a factor related to complications or non-specific treatments for the resolution of this infection. This paper presents the most relevant information to consider about the rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia typhi. PMID:24893060

  12. Hemorrhage induces rapid in vivo activation of CREB and NF-kappaB in murine intraparenchymal lung mononuclear cells.

    Shenkar, R; Abraham, E

    1997-02-01

    Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines appears to be an important factor contributing to the development of acute lung injury. In murine models, mRNA levels of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines, including IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, TGF-beta1, and TNF-alpha, are increased in intraparenchymal lung mononuclear cells 1 h after hemorrhage. Binding elements for the nuclear transcriptional regulatory factors, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta), serum protein 1 (Sp1), activator protein 1 (AP-1), and the cyclic AMP response-element binding protein (CREB) are present in the promoter regions of numerous cytokine genes, including those whose expression is increased after blood loss. To investigate early transcriptional mechanisms which may be involved in regulating pulmonary cytokine expression after hemorrhage, we examined in vivo activation of these five nuclear transcriptional factors among intraparenchymal lung mononuclear cells obtained in the immediate post-hemorrhage period. Activation of NF-kappaB and CREB, but not C/EBPbeta, Sp1, or AP-1, was present in lung mononuclear cells isolated from mice 15 min after hemorrhage. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by prior feeding with either an allopurinol-supplemented or a tungsten-enriched diet prevented hemorrhage-induced activation of CREB, but not NF-kappaB. These results demonstrate that hemorrhage leads to rapid in vivo activation in the lung of CREB through a xanthine oxidase-dependent mechanism and of NF-kappaB through other pathways, and suggest that the activation of these transcriptional factors may have an important role in regulating pulmonary cytokine expression and the development of acute lung injury after blood loss.

  13. Oral Administration of Sitagliptin Activates CREB and Is Neuroprotective in Murine Model of Brain Trauma

    DellaValle, Brian; Brix, Gitte S; Brock, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    for immunoblotting for assessment of selected biomarkers for pathology and protection. Results: Sitagliptin treatment reduced lesion size at day 2 post-injury by ~28% (p ... in the effects of oral treatment of a different class of GLP-1 based therapy, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibition on mice after TBI. DPP-IV inhibitors reduce the degradation of endogenous GLP-1 and extend circulation of this protective peptide in the bloodstream. This class has yet to be investigated...... as a potential therapy for TBI. Methods: Mice were administrated once-daily 50 mg/kg of sitagliptin in a Nutella® ball or Nutella® alone throughout the study, beginning 2 days before severe trauma was induced with a stereotactic cryo-lesion. At 2 days post trauma, lesion size was determined. Brains were isolated...

  14. Antitumor Activity of Human Hydatid Cyst Fluid in a Murine Model of Colon Cancer

    Edgardo Berriel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the antitumor immune response induced by human hydatic cyst fluid (HCF in an animal model of colon carcinoma. We found that anti-HCF antibodies were able to identify cell surface and intracellular antigens in CT26 colon cancer cells. In prophylactic tumor challenge experiments, HCF vaccination was found to be protective against tumor formation for 40% of the mice (P=0.01. In the therapeutic setting, HCF vaccination induced tumor regression in 40% of vaccinated mice (P=0.05. This vaccination generated memory immune responses that protected surviving mice from tumor rechallenge, implicating the development of an adaptive immune response in this process. We performed a proteomic analysis of CT26 antigens recognized by anti-HCF antibodies to analyze the immune cross-reactivity between E. granulosus (HCF and CT26 colon cancer cells. We identified two proteins: mortalin and creatine kinase M-type. Interestingly, CT26 mortalin displays 60% homology with E. granulosus hsp70. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the capacity of HCF vaccination to induce antitumor immunity which protects from tumor growth in an animal model. This new antitumor strategy could open new horizons in the development of highly immunogenic anticancer vaccines.

  15. Antitumor Activity of Human Hydatid Cyst Fluid in a Murine Model of Colon Cancer

    Russo, Sofía; Berois, Nora; Fernández, Gabriel; Freire, Teresa; Osinaga, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the antitumor immune response induced by human hydatic cyst fluid (HCF) in an animal model of colon carcinoma. We found that anti-HCF antibodies were able to identify cell surface and intracellular antigens in CT26 colon cancer cells. In prophylactic tumor challenge experiments, HCF vaccination was found to be protective against tumor formation for 40% of the mice (P = 0.01). In the therapeutic setting, HCF vaccination induced tumor regression in 40% of vaccinated mice (P = 0.05). This vaccination generated memory immune responses that protected surviving mice from tumor rechallenge, implicating the development of an adaptive immune response in this process. We performed a proteomic analysis of CT26 antigens recognized by anti-HCF antibodies to analyze the immune cross-reactivity between E. granulosus (HCF) and CT26 colon cancer cells. We identified two proteins: mortalin and creatine kinase M-type. Interestingly, CT26 mortalin displays 60% homology with E. granulosus hsp70. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the capacity of HCF vaccination to induce antitumor immunity which protects from tumor growth in an animal model. This new antitumor strategy could open new horizons in the development of highly immunogenic anticancer vaccines. PMID:24023528

  16. Evaluation of antiviral activities of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. extract, quercetin, quercetrin and cinanserin on murine coronavirus and dengue virus infection

    K. H. Chiow; M. C. Phoon; Thomas Putti; Benny K. H. Tan; Vincent T. Chow

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro activities of the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata) Thunb. (Saururaceae) and three of its constituent flavonoids (quercetin, quercitrin and rutin) against murine coronavirus and dengue virus (DENV). Methods: The antiviral activities of various concentrations of the EA fraction of H. cordata and flavonoids were assessed using virus neutralization tests against mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and DENV type 2 (DENV-2). Cinanserin hydrochloride was also tested against MHV. The EA fraction of H. cordata was tested for acute oral toxicity in C57BL/6 mice. Results: The EA fraction of H. cordata inhibited viral infectivity up to 6 d. Cinanserin hydrochloride was able to inhibit MHV for only 2 d. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the EA fraction of H. cordata added before the viral adsorption stage were 0.98 μg/mL for MHV and 7.50 μg/mL for DENV-2 with absence of cytotoxicity. The mice fed with the EA fraction up to 2 000 mg/kg did not induce any signs of acute toxicity, with normal histological features of major organs. Certain flavonoids exhibited comparatively weaker antiviral activity, notably quercetin which could inhibit both MHV and DENV-2. This was followed by quercitrin which could inhibit DENV-2 but not MHV, whereas rutin did not exert any inhibitory effect on either virus. When quercetin was combined with quercitrin, enhancement of anti-DENV-2 activity and reduced cytotoxicity were observed. However, the synergistic efficacy of the flavonoid combination was still less than that of the EA fraction. Conclusions: The compounds in H. cordata contribute to the superior antiviral efficacy of the EA fraction which lacked cytotoxicity in vitro and acute toxicity in vivo. H. cordata has much potential for the development of antiviral agents against coronavirus and dengue infections.

  17. Slit-Robo GTPase-activating proteins are differentially expressed in murine dorsal root ganglia: modulation by peripheral nerve injury.

    Chen, Zhi-Bing; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Zhao, Jiu-Hong; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Dan; Zheng, Lin-Feng; Zhang, Xian-Fang; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Yi, Xi-Nan

    2012-04-01

    The Slit-Robo GTPase-activating proteins (srGAPs) play an important role in neurite outgrowth and axon guidance; however, little is known about its role in nerve regeneration after injury. Here, we studied the expression of srGAPs in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) following sciatic nerve transection (SNT) using morphometric and immunohistochemical techniques. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis indicated that srGAP1 and srGAP3, but not srGAP2, were expressed in normal adult DRG. Following unilateral SNT, elevated mRNA and protein levels of srGAP1 and srGAP3 were detected in the ipsilateral relative to contralateral L(3-4) DRGs from day 3 to day 14. Immunohistochemical results showed that srGAP1 and srGAP3 were largely expressed in subpopulations of DRG neurons in naïve DRGs. However, after SNT, srGAP3 in neurons was significantly increased in the ipsilateral relative to contralateral DRGs, which peaked at day 7 to day 14. Interestingly, DRG neurons with strong srGAP3 labeling also coexpressed Robo2 after peripheral nerve injury. These results suggest that srGAPs are differentially expressed in murine DRG and srGAP3 are the predominant form. Moreover, srGAP3 may participate in Slit-Robo signaling in response to peripheral nerve injury or the course of nerve regeneration.

  18. Levamisole promotes murine bone marrow derived dendritic cell activation and drives Th1 immune response in vitro and in vivo.

    Fu, Yubing; Wang, Ting; Xiu, Lei; Shi, Xiaojie; Bian, Ziyao; Zhang, Yongli; Ruhan, A; Wang, Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Our lab previously found that levamisole (LMS) as an adjuvant enhanced the efficacy of vaccine against infectious pathogens. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain to be defined. In this study, we showed that BALB/c bone marrow-derived DC stimulated with LMS resulted in enhanced cell-surface expression of CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHC class II, as well as enhanced production of IL-12p70, TNF-α and IL-1β. Interestingly, the LMS activated DCs were able to stimulate CD4(+) T cell proliferation and facilitated Th1 differentiation by increasing the secretion of IFN-γ in an allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction. Furthermore, to confirm the in vitro data, we investigated the effect of LMS on antigen-specific antibody and cytokine production in BALB/c mice. Immunization with LMS plus OVA showed that anti-OVA IgG2a and IFN-γ were increased significantly compared with OVA alone in BALB/c mice. In conclusion, our results suggested that murine bone marrow-derived DC, played a crucial role in the effect of LMS on the induction of Th1 responses, which probably was due to its ability to promote DC maturation and secrete proinflammatory cytokines.

  19. Activation of murine microglial N9 cells is attenuated through cannabinoid receptor CB2 signaling.

    Ma, Lei; Jia, Ji; Liu, Xiangyu; Bai, Fuhai; Wang, Qiang; Xiong, Lize

    2015-02-27

    Inhibition of microglial activation is effective in treating various neurological disorders. Activation of microglial cannabinoid CB2 receptor induces anti-inflammatory effects, and the mechanism, however, is still elusive. Microglia could be activated into the classic activated state (M1 state) or the alternative activated state (M2 state), the former is cytotoxic, and the latter is neurotrophic. In this study, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-γ (IFNγ) to activate N9 microglia and hypothesized the pretreatment with cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist AM1241 attenuates microglial activation by shifting microglial M1 to M2 state. We found that pretreatment with 5 μM AM1241 at 1 h before microglia were exposed to LPS plus IFNγ decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the release of pro-inflammatory factors, increased the expression of arginase 1 (Arg-1) and the release of anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic factors in microglia. However, these effects induced by AM1241 pretreatment were significantly reversed in the presence of 10 μM cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist AM630 or 10 μM protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine. These findings indicated that AM1241 pretreatment attenuates microglial activation by shifting M1 to M2 activated state via CB2 receptor, and the AM1241-induced anti-inflammatory effects may be mediated by PKC.

  20. Differential activation of spinal cord glial cells in murine models of neuropathic and cancer pain

    Hald, Andreas; Nedergaard, S; Hansen, RR;

    2009-01-01

    Activation of spinal cord microglia and astrocytes is a common phenomenon in nerve injury pain models and is thought to exacerbate pain perception. Following a nerve injury, a transient increase in the presence of microglia takes place while the increased numbers of astrocytes stay elevated for a....... In contrast, sciatic nerve injury led to a transient activation of microglia and sustained astrogliosis. These results show that development of hypersensitivity and astrocyte activation in pain models can take place independent of microglial activation. Udgivelsesdato: 2009 Feb...

  1. Leader (L and L* proteins of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV and their regulation of the virus' biological activities

    Asakura Kunihiko

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV is divided into two subgroups on the basis of their different biological activities. GDVII subgroup strains produce fatal poliomyelitis in mice without virus persistence or demyelination. In contrast, TO subgroup strains induce demyelinating disease with virus persistence in the spinal cords of weanling mice. Two proteins, whose open reading frames are located in the N-terminus of the polyprotein, recently have been reported to be important for TMEV biological activities. One is leader (L protein and is processed from the most N-terminus of the polyprotein; its function is still unknown. Although the homology of capsid proteins between DA (a representative strain of TO subgroup and GDVII strains is over 94% at the amino acid level, that of L shows only 85%. Therefore, L is thought to be a key protein for the subgroup-specific biological activities of TMEV. Various studies have demonstrated that L plays important roles in the escape of virus from host immune defenses in the early stage of infection. The second protein is a 17–18 kDa protein, L*, which is synthesized out-of-frame with the polyprotein. Only TO subgroup strains produce L* since GDVII subgroup strains have an ACG rather than AUG at the initiation site and therefore do not synthesize L*. 'Loss and gain of function' experiments demonstrate that L* is essential for virus growth in macrophages, a target cell for TMEV persistence. L* also has been demonstrated to be necessary for TMEV persistence and demyelination. Further analysis of L and L* will help elucidate the pathomechanism(s of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease.

  2. Maleylated-BSA suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6 production by activating the ERK-signaling pathway in murine RAW264.7 cells.

    Tada, Rui; Koide, Yusuke; Yamamuro, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Riki; Hidaka, Akira; Nagao, Koichiro; Aramaki, Yukihiko

    2014-03-01

    Macrophages are well known for their ability to induce diverse beneficial immune responses, especially in the defense against pathogens. However, an excessive activation of macrophages may cause harmful inflammation. In this context, the suppression of excessive macrophage activation would be a promising therapeutic strategy for treating inflammatory diseases. We have previously found that maleylated-bovine serum albumin (maleylated-BSA) suppresses the production of inflammatory mediators in murine macrophages. However, the immunosuppressive effects and underlying mechanism(s) of maleylated-BSA remain unclear. Here, we report that pretreatment with maleylated-BSA strongly inhibited the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine RAW264.7 cells. This inhibitory effect of maleylated-BSA on LPS-induced IL-6 production was eliminated by treatment with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, U0126, indicating the involvement of ERK pathways. Taken together, we have shown that maleylated-BSA suppresses LPS-induced production of IL-6 via the activation of an ERK signaling pathway in murine macrophages. The findings of this study imply the possibility of a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammatory diseases.

  3. Immunomodulatory activity of a novel, synthetic beta-glucan (β-glu6 in murine macrophages and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Xiaofei Li

    Full Text Available Natural β-glucans extracted from plants and fungi have been used in clinical therapies since the late 20th century. However, the heterogeneity of natural β-glucans limits their clinical applicability. We have synthesized β-glu6, which is an analog of the lentinan basic unit, β-(1→6-branched β-(1→3 glucohexaose, that contains an α-(1→3-linked bond. We have demonstrated the stimulatory effect of this molecule on the immune response, but the mechanisms by which β-glu6 activates innate immunity have not been elucidated. In this study, murine macrophages and human PBMCs were used to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of β-glu6. We showed that β-glu6 activated ERK and c-Raf phosphorylation but suppressed the AKT signaling pathway in murine macrophages. Additionally, β-glu6 enhanced the secretion of large levels of cytokines and chemokines, including CD54, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-16, IL-17, IL-23, IFN-γ, CCL1, CCL3, CCL4, CCL12, CXCL10, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 and G-CSF in murine macrophages as well as IL-6, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL1 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in human PBMCs. In summary, it demonstrates the immunomodulatory activity of β-glu6 in innate immunity.

  4. Tumoricidal activation of murine resident peritoneal macrophages on pancreatic carcinoma by interleukin-2 and monoclonal antibodies

    Qi Kui Chen; Shi Zhen Yuan; Zhi Yong Zeng; Zhi Qing Huang

    2000-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION Macrophages play an important role in tumor lysis and growth inhibition. They can be activated to a tumoricidal state by a variety of agents such as IFNr, TNFa or IL2. The killing machanisms of activated macrophages have been extensively investigated[1,2]. Recently, it has been proved that antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is one of the potent arms to lyse tumor cells resistant to cytotoxic macrophages,and that the antitumorous effect of a macrophage activator is significantly augmented by the combined use of mAbs capable of inducing ADCC to tumor cells[3].

  5. Antitumor activity of platinum(II) complexes with histamine and radioiodinated histamine in a transplantable murine adenocarcinoma model

    Garnuszek, Piotr [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, National Medicines Institute, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: pgarnuszek@il.waw.pl; Karczmarczyk, Urszula; Maurin, Michal [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, National Medicines Institute, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: Antitumor activity of the dichloroplatinum(II)-histamine complexes labeled with I-125 or I-131 was investigated in a transplantable murine adenocarcinoma (MA) model. Methods: The tumor model was obtained in C3H/W female mice after subcutaneous inoculation of the tumor cells derived from the mice bearing a mammary tumor of spontaneous origin. Antitumor activities of the platinum-histamine complexes were investigated in three independent experiments, which differed in applied doses of preparations (PtCl{sub 2}Hist, PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 125}I]Hist, PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 131}I]Hist, PtCl{sub 2}Hist/PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 125}I]Hist and PtCl{sub 2}Hist/PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 131}I]Hist), treatment schedules as well as stages of the disease progress in the animals used. Experiment 1 included long-term, multidose treatment with low single doses (treatment duration 31-32 days; 8-10 doses of ca. 0.25{center_dot}MTD{sub Pt} each). Experiment 2 included short-term, multidose treatment with higher single doses (4xca. 0.5{center_dot}MTD{sub Pt} up to Day 13 of the treatment). Experiment 3 included long-term concomitant multidose treatment with higher single doses (9x0.9-0.4{center_dot}MTD{sub Pt} up to Day 33). Results: The long-term treatment with the platinum-histamine preparations revealed inhibiting activity on the tumor growth and size in comparison to control groups. The most intensive and significant antitumor effects were observed for the radioactive complexes. The tumor growth delay factors (GDFs) observed in Experiment 1 were 0.4, 0.7, and 1.2 for PtCl{sub 2}Hist, PtCl{sub 2}Hist/PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 131}I]Hist, and PtCl{sub 2}Hist/PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 125}I]Hist, respectively. Significant (P<.05) prolongations of median survivals (MS) were found in Experiment 2 following the treatment with higher single doses of PtCl{sub 2}Hist and PtCl{sub 2}His/PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 125}I]Hist (Ratio MS{sub tr}/MS{sub con} ca. 1.4). A slightly less potent activity was observed for PtCl{sub 2}Hist

  6. Tempol, an intracellular antioxidant, inhibits tissue factor expression, attenuates dendritic cell function, and is partially protective in a murine model of cerebral malaria.

    Ivo M B Francischetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS in pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM remains incompletely understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook testing Tempol--a superoxide dismutase (SOD mimetic and pleiotropic intracellular antioxidant--in cells relevant to malaria pathogenesis in the context of coagulation and inflammation. Tempol was also tested in a murine model of CM induced by Plasmodium berghei Anka infection. Tempol was found to prevent transcription and functional expression of procoagulant tissue factor in endothelial cells (ECs stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. This effect was accompanied by inhibition of IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 production. Tempol also attenuated platelet aggregation and human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells oxidative burst. In dendritic cells, Tempol inhibited LPS-induced production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12p70, downregulated expression of co-stimulatory molecules, and prevented antigen-dependent lymphocyte proliferation. Notably, Tempol (20 mg/kg partially increased the survival of mice with CM. Mechanistically, treated mice had lowered plasma levels of MCP-1, suggesting that Tempol downmodulates EC function and vascular inflammation. Tempol also diminished blood brain barrier permeability associated with CM when started at day 4 post infection but not at day 1, suggesting that ROS production is tightly regulated. Other antioxidants-such as α-phenyl N-tertiary-butyl nitrone (PBN; a spin trap, MnTe-2-PyP and MnTBAP (Mn-phorphyrin, Mitoquinone (MitoQ and Mitotempo (mitochondrial antioxidants, M30 (an iron chelator, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG; polyphenol from green tea did not improve survival. By contrast, these compounds (except PBN inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in culture with different IC50s. Knockout mice for SOD1 or phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase (gp91(phox-/- or mice treated with

  7. Hemorrhage activates NF-kappa B in murine lung mononuclear cells in vivo.

    Shenkar, R; Schwartz, M D; Terada, L S; Repine, J E; McCord, J; Abraham, E

    1996-05-01

    Hemorrhage rapidly increases the expression of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines in the lungs. Binding elements for the nuclear transcriptional regulatory factors (NF)-kappa B and NF-IL6 (C/EBP beta) are present in the promoter regions of multiple cytokine genes, including those whose expression is increased after blood loss. In the present experiments, we found increased activation in vivo of NF-kappa B in lung mononuclear cells, but not in splenocytes, taken from mice 1 h after hemorrhage. In contrast, hemorrhage did not activate NF-IL6 in lung cells or splenocytes. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by prior feeding of a tungsten-enriched diet prevented hemorrhage-induced activation in lung cells of NF-kappa B. Incubating splenocytes in vitro with xanthine oxidase activated NF-kappa B but not NF-IL6. Xanthine oxidase-induced activation of NF-kappa B was inhibited by manganese superoxide dismutase, but not by catalase. These results suggest that xanthine oxidase-mediated superoxide anion-dependent activation of NF-kappa B occurs in vivo and in vitro. This mechanism may contribute to increased lung cytokine responses after hemorrhage.

  8. Tea and coronary heart disease : protection through estrogenlike activity?

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Witteman, J.C.; Launer, L.J.; Lamberts, S.J.; Pols, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Tea drinking appears to be protective against coronary heart disease in a number of epidemiologic studies. It has been suggested that tea flavonols with antioxidative activity, including quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin,1 could account for the favorable effect on cardiovascular health. In the ol

  9. Genetic vaccination with Flt3-L and GM-CSF as adjuvants:Enhancement of cellular and humoral immune responses that results in protective immunity in a murine model of hepatitis C virus infection

    Jens Encke; Jomo Bernardin; Jasmin Geib; Gocha Barbakadze; Raymond Bujdoso; Wolfgang Stremmel

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether transfection of plasmid DNA encoding these cytokines enhances both humoral and cellular immune responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a murine model.METHODS: We established a tumor model of HCV infection using syngenic mouse myeloma cells stably transfected with NS5. Co-vaccination of DNA encoding granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) and Fit-3 ligand together with a plasmid encoding for the HCV NS5 protein was carried out. Mice were sacrificed 14 d after the last immunization event with collection of spleen cells and serum to determine humoral and cellular immune responses.RESULTS: Co-vaccination of DNA encoding GM-CSF and Flt-3 ligand together with a plasmid encoding for the HCV NS5 protein induced increased antibody responses and CD4+ T cell proliferation to this protein. Vaccination with DNA encoding GM-CSF and Flt-3L promoted protection against tumor formation and/or reduction in mice coimmunized with cytokine-encoding DNA constructs. This suggests this strategy is capable of generating cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in vivo. Following inoculation with plasmid DNA encoding Flt-3L, no increase in spleen size or in dendritic cell (DC) and natural killer cell numbers was observed. This was in contrast to a dramatic increase of both cell types after administration of recombinant Flt3-L in vivo. This suggests that vaccination with plasmid DNA encoding cytokines that regulate DC generation and mobilization may not promote unwanted side effects, such as autoimmunity, splenic fibrosis or hematopoietic malignancies that may occur with administration of recombinant forms of these proteins.CONCLUSION: Our data support the view that plasmid DNA vaccination is a promising approach for HCV immunization, and may provide a general adjuvant vaccination strategy against malignancies and other pathogens.

  10. PC-PLC/sphingomyelin synthase activity plays a central role in the development of myogenic tone in murine resistance arteries.

    Mauban, Joseph R H; Zacharia, Joseph; Fairfax, Seth; Wier, Withrow Gil

    2015-06-15

    Myogenic tone is an intrinsic property of the vasculature that contributes to blood pressure control and tissue perfusion. Earlier investigations assigned a key role in myogenic tone to phospholipase C (PLC) and its products, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Here, we used the PLC inhibitor, U-73122, and two other, specific inhibitors of PLC subtypes (PI-PLC and PC-PLC) to delineate the role of PLC in myogenic tone of pressurized murine mesenteric arteries. U-73122 inhibited depolarization-induced contractions (high external K(+) concentration), thus confirming reports of nonspecific actions of U-73122 and its limited utility for studies of myogenic tone. Edelfosine, a specific inhibitor of PI-PLC, did not affect depolarization-induced contractions but modulated myogenic tone. Because PI-PLC produces IP3, we investigated the effect of blocking IP3 receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release on myogenic tone. Incubation of arteries with xestospongin C did not affect tone, consistent with the virtual absence of Ca(2+) waves in arteries with myogenic tone. D-609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC and sphingomyelin synthase, strongly inhibited myogenic tone and had no effect on depolarization-induced contraction. D-609 appeared to act by lowering cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration to levels below those that activate contraction. Importantly, incubation of pressurized arteries with a membrane-permeable analog of DAG induced vasoconstriction. The results therefore mandate a reexamination of the signaling pathways activated by the Bayliss mechanism. Our results suggest that PI-PLC and IP3 are not required in maintaining myogenic tone, but DAG, produced by PC-PLC and/or SM synthase, is likely through multiple mechanisms to increase Ca(2+) entry and promote vasoconstriction.

  11. Endomicroscopic Imaging of COX-2 Activity in Murine Sporadic and Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer.

    Foersch, Sebastian; Neufert, Clemens; Neurath, Markus F; Waldner, Maximilian J

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies propose a chemopreventive effect of aspirin for colorectal cancer (CRC) development, the general use of aspirin cannot be recommended due to its adverse side effects. As the protective effect of aspirin has been associated with an increased expression of COX-2, molecular imaging of COX-2, for instance, during confocal endomicroscopy could enable the identification of patients who would possibly benefit from aspirin treatment. In this pilot trial, we used a COX-2-specific fluorescent probe for detection of colitis-associated and sporadic CRC in mice using confocal microscopy. Following the injection of the COX-2 probe into tumor-bearing APCmin mice or mice exposed to the AOM + DSS model of colitis-associated cancer, the tumor-specific upregulation of COX-2 could be validated with in vivo fluorescence imaging. Subsequent confocal imaging of tumor tissue showed an increased number of COX-2 expressing cells when compared to the normal mucosa of healthy controls. COX-2-expression was detectable with subcellular resolution in tumor cells and infiltrating stroma cells. These findings pose a proof of concept and suggest the use of CLE for the detection of COX-2 expression during colorectal cancer surveillance endoscopy. This could improve early detection and stratification of chemoprevention in patients with CRC.

  12. Endomicroscopic Imaging of COX-2 Activity in Murine Sporadic and Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer

    Sebastian Foersch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies propose a chemopreventive effect of aspirin for colorectal cancer (CRC development, the general use of aspirin cannot be recommended due to its adverse side effects. As the protective effect of aspirin has been associated with an increased expression of COX-2, molecular imaging of COX-2, for instance, during confocal endomicroscopy could enable the identification of patients who would possibly benefit from aspirin treatment. In this pilot trial, we used a COX-2-specific fluorescent probe for detection of colitis-associated and sporadic CRC in mice using confocal microscopy. Following the injection of the COX-2 probe into tumor-bearing APCmin mice or mice exposed to the AOM + DSS model of colitis-associated cancer, the tumor-specific upregulation of COX-2 could be validated with in vivo fluorescence imaging. Subsequent confocal imaging of tumor tissue showed an increased number of COX-2 expressing cells when compared to the normal mucosa of healthy controls. COX-2-expression was detectable with subcellular resolution in tumor cells and infiltrating stroma cells. These findings pose a proof of concept and suggest the use of CLE for the detection of COX-2 expression during colorectal cancer surveillance endoscopy. This could improve early detection and stratification of chemoprevention in patients with CRC.

  13. Early induction of cytokines/cytokine receptors and Cox2, and activation of NF-κB in 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced murine oral cancer model.

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Ho, Heng-Chien; Lee, Miau-Rong; Lai, Kuang-Chi; Yeh, Chung-Min; Lin, Yueh-Min; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify the genes induced early in murine oral carcinogenesis. Murine tongue tumors induced by the carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO), and paired non-tumor tissues were subjected to microarray analysis. Hierarchical clustering of upregulated genes in the tumor tissues revealed an association of induced genes with inflammation. Cytokines/cytokine receptors induced early were subsequently identified, clearly indicating their involvement in oral carcinogenesis. Hierarchical clustering also showed that cytokine-mediated inflammation was possibly linked with Mapk6. Cox2 exhibited the greatest extent (9-18 fold) of induction in the microarray data, and its early induction was observed in a 2h painting experiment by RT-PCR. MetaCore analysis showed that overexpressed Cox2 may interact with p53 and transcriptionally inhibit expression of several downstream genes. A painting experiment in transgenic mice also demonstrated that NF-κB activates early independently of Cox2 induction. MetaCore analysis revealed the most striking metabolic alterations in tumor tissues, especially in lipid metabolism resulting from the reduction of Pparα and Rxrg. Reduced expression of Mapk12 was noted, and MetaCore analysis established its relationship with decreased efficiency of Pparα phosphorylation. In conclusion, in addition to cytokines/cytokine receptors, the early induction of Cox2 and NF-κB activation is involved in murine oral carcinogenesis.

  14. Early induction of cytokines/cytokine receptors and Cox2, and activation of NF-κB in 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced murine oral cancer model

    Liu, Yu-Ching [Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Ho, Heng-Chien; Lee, Miau-Rong [Department of Biochemistry, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Lai, Kuang-Chi [Department of Surgery, China Medical University Beigang Hospital, Yunlin 651, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Chung-Min; Lin, Yueh-Min [Department of Pathology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Ho, Tin-Yun [School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Hsiang, Chien-Yun, E-mail: cyhsiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Microbiology, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Chung, Jing-Gung, E-mail: jgchung@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify the genes induced early in murine oral carcinogenesis. Murine tongue tumors induced by the carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO), and paired non-tumor tissues were subjected to microarray analysis. Hierarchical clustering of upregulated genes in the tumor tissues revealed an association of induced genes with inflammation. Cytokines/cytokine receptors induced early were subsequently identified, clearly indicating their involvement in oral carcinogenesis. Hierarchical clustering also showed that cytokine-mediated inflammation was possibly linked with Mapk6. Cox2 exhibited the greatest extent (9–18 fold) of induction in the microarray data, and its early induction was observed in a 2 h painting experiment by RT-PCR. MetaCore analysis showed that overexpressed Cox2 may interact with p53 and transcriptionally inhibit expression of several downstream genes. A painting experiment in transgenic mice also demonstrated that NF-κB activates early independently of Cox2 induction. MetaCore analysis revealed the most striking metabolic alterations in tumor tissues, especially in lipid metabolism resulting from the reduction of Pparα and Rxrg. Reduced expression of Mapk12 was noted, and MetaCore analysis established its relationship with decreased efficiency of Pparα phosphorylation. In conclusion, in addition to cytokines/cytokine receptors, the early induction of Cox2 and NF-κB activation is involved in murine oral carcinogenesis.

  15. Analysis of the transcriptional networks underpinning the activation of murine macrophages by inflammatory mediators.

    Raza, Sobia; Barnett, Mark W; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Amit, Ido; Hume, David A; Freeman, Tom C

    2014-08-01

    Macrophages respond to the TLR4 agonist LPS with a sequential transcriptional cascade controlled by a complex regulatory network of signaling pathways and transcription factors. At least two distinct pathways are currently known to be engaged by TLR4 and are distinguished by their dependence on the adaptor molecule MyD88. We have used gene expression microarrays to define the effects of each of three variables--LPS dose, LPS versus IFN-β and -γ, and genetic background--on the transcriptional response of mouse BMDMs. Analysis of correlation networks generated from the data has identified subnetworks or modules within the macrophage transcriptional network that are activated selectively by these variables. We have identified mouse strain-specific signatures, including a module enriched for SLE susceptibility candidates. In the modules of genes unique to different treatments, we found a module of genes induced by type-I IFN but not by LPS treatment, suggesting another layer of complexity in the LPS-TLR4 signaling feedback control. We also observe that the activation of the complement system, in common with the known activation of MHC class 2 genes, is reliant on IFN-γ signaling. Taken together, these data further highlight the exquisite nature of the regulatory systems that control macrophage activation, their likely relevance to disease resistance/susceptibility, and the appropriate response of these cells to proinflammatory stimuli.

  16. Analysis of the transcriptional networks underpinning the activation of murine macrophages by inflammatory mediators

    Raza, Sobia; Barnett, Mark W.; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Amit, Ido; Hume, David A.; Freeman, Tom C.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages respond to the TLR4 agonist LPS with a sequential transcriptional cascade controlled by a complex regulatory network of signaling pathways and transcription factors. At least two distinct pathways are currently known to be engaged by TLR4 and are distinguished by their dependence on the adaptor molecule MyD88. We have used gene expression microarrays to define the effects of each of three variables—LPS dose, LPS versus IFN-β and -γ, and genetic background—on the transcriptional response of mouse BMDMs. Analysis of correlation networks generated from the data has identified subnetworks or modules within the macrophage transcriptional network that are activated selectively by these variables. We have identified mouse strain-specific signatures, including a module enriched for SLE susceptibility candidates. In the modules of genes unique to different treatments, we found a module of genes induced by type-I IFN but not by LPS treatment, suggesting another layer of complexity in the LPS-TLR4 signaling feedback control. We also observe that the activation of the complement system, in common with the known activation of MHC class 2 genes, is reliant on IFN-γ signaling. Taken together, these data further highlight the exquisite nature of the regulatory systems that control macrophage activation, their likely relevance to disease resistance/susceptibility, and the appropriate response of these cells to proinflammatory stimuli. PMID:24721704

  17. Abrogation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-vitronectin interaction ameliorates acute kidney injury in murine endotoxemia.

    Kamlesh K Gupta

    Full Text Available Sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI contributes to the high mortality and morbidity in patients. Although the pathogenesis of AKI during sepsis is poorly understood, it is well accepted that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and vitronectin (Vn are involved in AKI. However, the functional cooperation between PAI-1 and Vn in septic AKI has not been completely elucidated. To address this issue, mice were utilized lacking either PAI-1 (PAI-1-/- or expressing a PAI-1-mutant (PAI-1R101A/Q123K in which the interaction between PAI-1 and Vn is abrogated, while other functions of PAI-1 are retained. It was found that both PAI-1-/- and PAI-1R101A/Q123K mice are associated with decreased renal dysfunction, apoptosis, inflammation, and ERK activation as compared to wild-type (WT mice after LPS challenge. Also, PAI-1-/- mice showed attenuated fibrin deposition in the kidneys. Furthermore, a lack of PAI-1 or PAI-1-Vn interaction was found to be associated with an increase in activated Protein C (aPC in plasma. These results demonstrate that PAI-1, through its interaction with Vn, exerts multiple deleterious mechanisms to induce AKI. Therefore, targeting of the PAI-1-Vn interaction in kidney represents an appealing therapeutic strategy for the treatment of septic AKI by not only altering the fibrinolytic capacity but also regulating PC activity.

  18. Evaluation of potential antidepressant-like activity of chalcone-1203 in various murine experimental depressant models.

    Guan, Li-Ping; Tang, Li-Ming; Pan, Cheng-Yan; Zhao, Shui-Lian; Wang, Si-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Two classic animal behavior despair tests-the forced swimming test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST) were used to evaluate antidepressant-like activity of a new chalcone compound, chalcone-1203 in mice. It was observed that chalcone-1203 at dose of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg significantly reduced the immobility time in the FST and TST in mice 30 min after treatment. In addition, chalcone-1203 was found to exhibit significant oral activity in the FST in mice. It also produced a reduction in the ambulation in the open-field test in mice not previously habituated to the arena, but no effect in the locomotor activity in mice previously habituated to the open-field. The main monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in mouse brain regions were also simultaneously determined by HPLC-ECD. It was found that chalcone-1203 significantly increased the concentrations of the main neurotransmitters 5-HT and NE in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and cortex. Chalcone-1203 also significantly reduced the ratio of 5-HIAA/5-HT in the hippocampus and cortex, shown down 5-HT metabolism compared with mice treated with stress vehicle. In conclusion, chalcone-1203 produced significant antidepressant-like activity, and the mechanism of action may be due to increased 5-HT and NE in the mouse hippocampus and cortex.

  19. Phytosterols isolated from Clinacanthus nutans induce immunosuppressive activity in murine cells.

    Le, Cheng-Foh; Kailaivasan, Thina Hareesh; Chow, Sek-Chuen; Abdullah, Zunoliza; Ling, Sui-Kiong; Fang, Chee-Mun

    2017-03-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau is a traditional medicinal plant belonging to the Acanthaceae family. Its therapeutic potentials have been increasingly documented particularly the antiviral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. However, majority of these studies used crude or fractionated extracts and not much is known about individual compounds from these extracts and their biological activities. In the present study, we have isolated four compounds (CN1, CN2, CN3 and CN4) from the hexane fractions of C. nutans leaves. Using NMR spectroscopic analysis, these compounds were identified to be shaftoside (CN1), stigmasterol (CN2), β-sitosterol (CN3) and a triterpenoid lupeol (CN4). To determine the immunosuppressive potential of these compounds, their effects on mitogens induced T and B lymphocyte proliferation and the secretion of helper T cell cytokines were examined. Among the four compounds, stigmasterol (CN2) and β-sitosterol (CN3) were shown to readily inhibit T cell proliferation mediated by Concanavalin A (ConA). However, only β-sitosterol (CN3) and not stigmasterol (CN2) blocks the secretion of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Both compounds have no effect on the secretion of Th1 cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-γ), suggesting that β-sitosterol treatment selectively suppresses Th2 activity and promotes a Th1 bias. CN3 was also found to significantly reduce the proliferation of both T helper cells (CD4(+)CD25(+)) and cytotoxic T cells (CD8(+)CD25(+)) following T cell activation induced by ConA. These results suggested that phytosterols isolated from C. nutans possess immunomodulatory effects with potential development as immunotherapeutics.

  20. Intracellular mechanisms coupled to NPY Y2 and Y5 receptor activation and lipid accumulation in murine adipocytes.

    Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Cortez, Vera; Estrada, Marta; Santana, Magda M; Gonçalves, Alexandra; Marques, Ana Patrícia; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2012-12-01

    The formation of adipose tissue is a process that includes the pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation to adipocytes that are cells specialized in lipid accumulation. The adipocyte differentiation is a process driven by the coordinated expression of various transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ). Neuropeptide Y (NPY) induces adipocyte proliferation and differentiation but the NPY receptors and the intracellular pathways involved in these processes are still not clear. In the present work we studied the role of NPY receptors and the intracellular pathways involved in the stimulatory effect of NPY on lipid accumulation. The murine pre-adipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1, was used as a cell model. Adipogenesis was evaluated by quantifying lipid accumulation by Oil red-O assay and by analyzing PPAR-γ expression using the Western blotting assay. Adipocytes were incubated with NPY (100nM) and a decrease on lipid accumulation and PPAR-γ expression was observed in the presence of NPY Y(2) receptor antagonist (BIIE0246, 1μM) or NPY Y(5) antagonist. Furthermore, NPY Y(2) (NPY(3-36), 100nM) or NPY Y(5) (NPY(19-23)(GLY(1), Ser(3), Gln(4), Thr(6), Ala(31), Aib(32), Gln(34)) PP, 100nM) receptor agonists increased lipid accumulation and PPAR-γ expression. We further investigate the intracellular pathways associated with NPY Y(2) and NPY Y(5) receptor activation. Our results show NPY induces PPAR-γ expression and lipid accumulation through NPY Y(2) and NPY Y(5) receptors activation. PKC and PLC inhibitors inhibit lipid accumulation induced by NPY Y(5) receptor agonist. Moreover, our results suggest that lipid accumulation induced by NPY Y(2) receptor activation occurs through PKA, MAPK and PI3K pathways. In conclusion, this study contributes to a step forward on the knowledge of intracellular mechanisms associated with NPY receptors activation on adipocytes and contributes to a better understanding and the development of new

  1. TWEAK activates the non-canonical NFkappaB pathway in murine renal tubular cells: modulation of CCL21.

    Ana B Sanz

    Full Text Available TWEAK is a member of the TNF superfamily of cytokines that contribute to kidney tubulointerstitial injury. It has previously been reported that TWEAK induces transient nuclear translocation of RelA and expression of RelA-dependent cytokines in renal tubular cells. Additionally, TWEAK induced long-lasting NFkappaB activation suggestive of engagement of the non-canonical NFkappaB pathway. We now explore TWEAK-induced activation of NFkappaB2 and RelB, as well as expression of CCL21, a T-cell chemotactic factor, in cultured murine tubular epithelial cells and in healthy kidneys in vivo. In cultured tubular cells, TWEAK and TNFalpha activated different DNA-binding NFkappaB complexes. TWEAK-induced sustained NFkappaB activation was associated with NFkappaB2 p100 processing to p52 via proteasome and nuclear translocation and DNA-binding of p52 and RelB. TWEAK, but not TNFalpha used as control, induced a delayed increase in CCL21a mRNA (3.5+/-1.22-fold over control and CCL21 protein (2.5+/-0.8-fold over control, which was prevented by inhibition of the proteasome, or siRNA targeting of NIK or RelB, but not by RelA inhibition with parthenolide. A second NFkappaB2-dependent chemokine, CCL19, was upregulates by TWEAK, but not by TNFalpha. However, both cytokines promoted chemokine RANTES expression (3-fold mRNA at 24 h. In vivo, TWEAK induced nuclear NFkappaB2 and RelB translocation and CCL21a mRNA (1.5+/-0.3-fold over control and CCL21 protein (1.6+/-0.5-fold over control expression in normal kidney. Increased tubular nuclear RelB and tubular CCL21 expression in acute kidney injury were decreased by neutralization (2+/-0.9 vs 1.3+/-0.6-fold over healthy control or deficiency of TWEAK (2+/-0.9 vs 0.8+/-0.6-fold over healthy control. Moreover, anti-TWEAK treatment prevented the recruitment of T cells to the kidney in this model (4.1+/-1.4 vs 1.8+/-1-fold over healthy control. Our results thus identify TWEAK as a regulator of non-canonical NFkappa

  2. Kaurenic acid: Evaluation of the in vivo and in vitro antitumor activity on murine melanoma

    Miriam C Sosa-Sequera

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : The data suggest that KA is active in animal melanoma models, both in vitro and in vivo, being its cytotoxic effects stronger than those exhibited by Tx. Further trials should be conducted to elucidate its mechanism of action in melanoma with respect to necrosis or apoptotic processes. Our results support other evidences indicating that KA is a potential chemotherapeutic agent against cancer that has to be widely explored.

  3. Antioxidant activity of capsaicin on radiation-induced oxidation of murine hepatic mitochondrial membrane preparation

    Gangabhagirathi R

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ramachandran Gangabhagirathi,1 Ravi Joshi,2 1Bioorganic Division, 2Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai, India Abstract: Capsaicin is the major capsaicinoid in chili peppers and is widely used as a spice. It is also used for topical applications in cases of peripheral neuropathy. The present study deals with its role in modulation of gamma radiation-induced damages of the biochemical constituents of rat liver mitochondrial membrane (RLM preparation. The extent of lipid hydroperoxide formation, depletion in protein thiols, and formation of protein carbonyls have been biochemically assessed in the presence of varying concentrations of capsaicin in RLM. Decrease in the activities of the important antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, which is involved in the scavenging of free radicals, and the mitochondrial marker enzyme succinate dehydrogenase have been also looked into. Capsaicin has been found to efficiently inhibit radiation-induced biochemical alterations, namely lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. It also significantly prevented radiation-induced loss in the activity of antioxidant enzyme and the important endogenous antioxidant glutathione. The study suggests that capsaicin can act as an antioxidant and radioprotector in physiological systems. Keywords: capsaicin, gamma radiation, radioprotection, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, enzyme activity

  4. Convergence of inhibitory neural inputs regulate motor activity in the murine and monkey stomach.

    Shaylor, Lara A; Hwang, Sung Jin; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

    2016-11-01

    Inhibitory motor neurons regulate several gastric motility patterns including receptive relaxation, gastric peristaltic motor patterns, and pyloric sphincter opening. Nitric oxide (NO) and purines have been identified as likely candidates that mediate inhibitory neural responses. However, the contribution from each neurotransmitter has received little attention in the distal stomach. The aims of this study were to identify the roles played by NO and purines in inhibitory motor responses in the antrums of mice and monkeys. By using wild-type mice and mutants with genetically deleted neural nitric oxide synthase (Nos1(-/-)) and P2Y1 receptors (P2ry1(-/-)) we examined the roles of NO and purines in postjunctional inhibitory responses in the distal stomach and compared these responses to those in primate stomach. Activation of inhibitory motor nerves using electrical field stimulation (EFS) produced frequency-dependent inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) that produced muscle relaxations in both species. Stimulation of inhibitory nerves during slow waves terminated pacemaker events and associated contractions. In Nos1(-/-) mice IJPs and relaxations persisted whereas in P2ry1(-/-) mice IJPs were absent but relaxations persisted. In the gastric antrum of the non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis, similar NO and purine neural components contributed to inhibition of gastric motor activity. These data support a role of convergent inhibitory neural responses in the regulation of gastric motor activity across diverse species.

  5. Enhancement of Lytic Activity by Leptin Is Independent From Lipid Rafts in Murine Primary Splenocytes.

    Collin, Aurore; Noacco, Audrey; Talvas, Jérémie; Caldefie-Chézet, Florence; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Farges, Marie-Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Leptin, a pleiotropic adipokine, is known as a regulator of food intake, but it is also involved in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation, and survival. Leptin receptor is integrated inside cholesterol-rich microdomains called lipid rafts, which, if disrupted or destroyed, could lead to a perturbation of lytic mechanism. Previous studies also reported that leptin could induce membrane remodeling. In this context, we studied the effect of membrane remodeling in lytic activity modulation induced by leptin. Thus, primary mouse splenocytes were incubated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (β-MCD), a lipid rafts disrupting agent, cholesterol, a major component of cell membranes, or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a membrane stabilizer agent for 1 h. These treatments were followed by splenocyte incubation with leptin (absence, 10 and 100 ng/ml). Unlike β-MCD or cholesterol, UDCA was able to block leptin lytic induction. This result suggests that leptin increased the lytic activity of primary spleen cells against syngenic EO771 mammary cancer cells independently from lipid rafts but may involve membrane fluidity. Furthermore, natural killer cells were shown to be involved in the splenocyte lytic activity. To our knowledge it is the first publication in primary culture that provides the link between leptin lytic modulation and membrane remodeling. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 101-109, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Disease modifying and antiangiogenic activity of 2-Methoxyestradiol in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis

    Moore Elizabeth G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A critical component of disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA involves neovascularization associated with pannus formation. 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2 is a naturally occurring molecule with no known physiologic function, although at pharmacologic concentrations it has antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activities. We investigated the impact of orally administered 2ME2 on the initiation and development of proliferative synovitis using the anti-collagen monoclonal antibodies (CAIA model. Methods Severe polyarticular arthritis was induced in Balb/c female mice by administration of 2 mg of a monoclonal antibody cocktail intravenously into the tail vein of mice. Twenty-four hours following monoclonal antibody administration, mice were injected with 25 μg of LPS (E. coli strain 0111:B4 via the intraperitoneal route. Treatment with 2ME2 (100, 75, 50, 25, 10, 1 mg/kg, p.o., daily, or vehicle control began 24 hrs following LPS challenge and continued to day 21. Hind limbs were harvested, sectioned and evaluated for DMARD activity and general histopathology by histomorphometric analysis and immunohistochemistry (vWF staining. In a separate study, different dosing regimens of 2ME2 (100 mg/kg; q.d. vs q.w. vs q.w. × 2 were evaluated. The effect of treatment with 2ME2 on gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic growth factors in the joint space was evaluated 5 and 14 days after the induction of arthritis. Results Mice treated with 2ME2 beginning 24 hours post anti-collagen monoclonal antibody injection, showed a dose-dependent inhibition in mean arthritic scores. At study termination (day 21, blinded histomorphometric assessments of sectioned hind limbs demonstrated decreases in synovial inflammation, articular cartilage degradation, pannus formation, osteoclast activity and bone resorption. At the maximal efficacious dosing regimen (100 mg/kg/day, administration of 2ME2 resulted in total inhibition of the

  7. Ammonium glycyrrhizinate-loaded niosomes as a potential nanotherapeutic system for anti-inflammatory activity in murine models

    Marianecci C

    2014-01-01

    exclusion assay (for cell mortality and an MTT assay (for cell viability. Release profiles for the AG-loaded NSVs were studied in vitro using cellulose membranes. NSVs showing the most desirable physicochemical properties were selected to test for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in murine models. The anti-inflammatory activity of the NSVs was investigated by measuring edema and nociception in mice stimulated with chemical agents.Results: NSVs showed favorable physicochemical properties for in vitro and in vivo administration. In addition, they demonstrated long-term stability based on Turbiscan Lab Expert analysis. The membrane fluidity of the NSVs was not affected by self-assembling of the surfactants into colloidal structures. Fluorescence anisotropy was found to be independent of the molar ratios of cholesteryl hemisuccinate and/or cholesterol during preparation of the NSVs. The anti-inflammatory AG drug showed no effect on the stability of the NSVs. In vivo experiments demonstrated that AG-loaded NSVs decreased edema and nociceptive responses when compared with AG alone and empty NSVs. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that pH sensitive and neutral NSVs show no statistical significant difference.Conclusion: NSVs were nontoxic and showed features favorable for potential administration in vivo. In addition, neutral NSVs showed signs of increased anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive responses when compared with AG.Keywords: niosomes, ammonium glycyrrhizinate, pH sensitivity, cytotoxicity, inflammation

  8. Bisphenol A differentially activates protein kinase C isoforms in murine placental tissue

    Tan, Wenjuan; Huang, Hui; Wang, Yanfei [Biochemistry Programme, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Wong, Tsz Yan [Food and Nutritional Sciences Programme, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Wang, C.C. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Leung, Lai K., E-mail: laikleung@cuhk.edu.hk [Biochemistry Programme, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Food and Nutritional Sciences Programme, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong)

    2013-06-01

    Bisphenol A is utilized to make polycarbonate plastics and is an environmental pollutant. Recent research has indicated that it is an endocrine disruptor and may interfere with reproductive processes. Our lab has previously shown that bisphenol A could regulate corticotrophin releasing hormone and aromatase in cultured placental cells. In the present study, the effect of bisphenol A on these two genes in the placenta was investigated in mice. Pregnant ICR mice were gavaged with bisphenol A at 2, 20 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day from E13 to E16 and were euthanized at E17. Compared to the control mice, increased plasma estrogen and corticotrophin releasing hormone were observed in bisphenol A-treated mice. Messenger RNA quantification indicated that placental crh but not cyp19 was induced in mice treated with bisphenol A. Tracking the related signaling pathway, we found that protein kinase C ζ/λ and δ were activated in the placentas of bisphenol A-treated mice. As the gene promoter of crh contains CRE and the half site of ERE, either phospho-PKC or estrogen could stimulate the gene transactivation. These results indicate that bisphenol A might increase plasma concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, corticotrophin releasing hormone and placental phospho-PKC ζ/λ and δ in mice. Ultimately, the incidence of premature birth in these mice could increase. - Highlights: • The pollutant bisphenol A differentially activated PKC isoforms in the placenta. • CRE-binding activity in the nuclear protein of placenta was increased. • Bisphenol A induces CRH mRNA expression in mice.

  9. Long noncoding RNA-mediated anti-apoptotic activity in murine erythroid terminal differentiation.

    Hu, Wenqian; Yuan, Bingbing; Flygare, Johan; Lodish, Harvey F

    2011-12-15

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are differentially expressed under both normal and pathological conditions, implying that they may play important biological functions. Here we examined the expression of lncRNAs during erythropoiesis and identified an erythroid-specific lncRNA with anti-apoptotic activity. Inhibition of this lncRNA blocks erythroid differentiation and promotes apoptosis. Conversely, ectopic expression of this lncRNA can inhibit apoptosis in mouse erythroid cells. This lncRNA represses expression of Pycard, a proapoptotic gene, explaining in part the inhibition of programmed cell death. These findings reveal a novel layer of regulation of cell differentiation and apoptosis by a lncRNA.

  10. Antibody SPC-54 provides acute in vivo blockage of the murine protein C system.

    Burnier, Laurent; Fernández, José A; Griffin, John H

    2013-04-01

    Multiple protective effects of pharmacological activated protein C (APC) are reported in several organ pathologies. To help evaluate the endogenous murine PC system, we characterized a rat monoclonal anti-mouse PC antibody, SPC-54, which inhibited the amidolytic and anticoagulant activities of murine APC by>95%. SPC-54 blocked active site titration of purified APC using the active site titrant, biotinylated FPR-chloromethylketone, showing that SPC-54 blocks access to APC's active site to inhibit all enzymatic activity. A single injection of SPC-54 (10mg/kg) neutralized circulating PC in mice for at least 7days, and immunoblotting and immuno-precipitation with protein G-agarose confirmed that SPC-54 in vivo was bound to PC in plasma. Pre-infusion of SPC-54 in tissue factor-induced murine acute thromboembolism experiments caused a major decrease in mean survival time compared to controls (7min vs. 42.5min, P=0.0016). SPC-54 decreased lung perfusion in this model by 54% when monitored by vascular perfusion methodologies using infrared fluorescence of Evans blue dye. In LD50 endotoxemia murine models, SPC-54 infused at 7hr after endotoxin administration increased mortality from 42% to 100% (PSPC-54 ablates in vitro and in vivo APC protective functions and enzymatic activity. The ability of SPC-54 to block the endogenous PC/APC system provides a powerful tool to understand better the role of the endogenous PC system in murine injury models and in cell bioassays and also to neutralize the enzymatic activities of murine APC in any assay system.

  11. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide induces ABCA1 expression by LXRα activation in murine macrophages

    Ohara, Kazuaki, E-mail: Kazuaki_Ohara@kirin.co.jp [Research Laboratories for Health Science and Food Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Hideyuki [Laboratory for New Product Development, Kirin Beverage Company Limited, 1-17-1 Namamugi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-8628 (Japan); Taniguchi, Yoshimasa [Research Laboratories for Health Science and Food Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Shindo, Kazutoshi [Department of Food and Nutrition, Japan Women’s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8681 (Japan); Yajima, Hiroaki [Research Laboratories for Health Science and Food Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Yoshida, Aruto [Central Laboratories for Key Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •The major circulating quercetin metabolite (Q3GA) activated LXRα. •Q3GA induced ABCA1 via LXRα activation in macrophages. •Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts contained quercetin glycosides. •N. nucifera leaf extract feeding elevated HDLC in mice. -- Abstract: Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) removes excess cholesterol from macrophages to prevent atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) is a crucial cholesterol transporter involved in RCT to produce high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC), and is transcriptionally regulated by liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), a nuclear receptor. Quercetin is a widely distributed flavonoid in edible plants which prevented atherosclerosis in an animal model. We found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), a major quercetin metabolite after absorption from the digestive tract, enhanced ABCA1 expression, in vitro, via LXRα in macrophages. In addition, leaf extracts of a traditional Asian edible plant, Nelumbo nucifera (NNE), which contained abundant amounts of quercetin glycosides, significantly elevated plasma HDLC in mice. We are the first to present experimental evidence that Q3GA induced ABCA1 in macrophages, and to provide an alternative explanation to previous studies on arteriosclerosis prevention by quercetin.

  12. Characteristics of the Cholecystokinin-Induced Depolarization of Pacemaking Activity in Cultured Interstitial Cells of Cajal from Murine Small Intestine

    Jae Hwa Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In this study, we studied the effects of cholecystokinin (CCK on pacemaker potentials in cultured interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs from mouse small intestine using the whole cell patch clamp technique. Methods: ICCs are pacemaker cells that exhibit periodic spontaneous depolarization, which is responsible for the production of slow waves in gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and generate periodic pacemaker potentials in current-clamp mode. Results: Exposure to CCK (100 nM-5 µM decreased the amplitudes of pacemaker potentials and depolarized resting membrane potentials. To identify the type of CCK receptors involved in ICCs, we examined the effects of CCK agonists and found that the addition of CCK1 agonist (A-71323, 1 µM depolarized resting membrane potentials, whereas exposure to CCK2 agonist (gastrin , 1 µM had no effect on pacemaker potentials. To confirm these results, we examined the effects of CCK antagonists and found that pretreatment with CCK1 antagonist (SR 27897, 1 µM blocked CCK-induced effects. However, pretreatment with CCK2 antagonist (LY 225910, 1 µM did not. Furthermore, intracellular GDPβS suppressed CCK-induced effects. To investigate the involvements of phospholipase C (PLC, protein kinase C (PKC, and protein kinase A (PKA in the effects of CCK in cultured ICCs, we used U-73122 (an active PLC inhibitor, chelerythrine (a PKC inhibitor, SQ-22536 (an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, or mPKAI (an inhibitor of myristoylated PKA. All inhibitors blocked the CCK-mediated effects on pacemaker potentials. In addition, we found that transient receptor potential classical 5 (TRPC5 channel was involved in CCK-activated currents in cultured ICCs. Conclusion: These results suggest that the CCK induced depolarization of pacemaking activity occurs in a G-protein-, PLC-, PKC-, and PKA-dependent manner via CCK1 receptor and TRPC5 channel is a candidate for CCK-activated currents in cultured ICCs in murine small intestine

  13. Mitochondrial DNA Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome and Predisposes to Type 1 Diabetes in Murine Model

    Carlos, Daniela; Costa, Frederico R. C.; Pereira, Camila A.; Rocha, Fernanda A.; Yaochite, Juliana N. U.; Oliveira, Gabriela G.; Carneiro, Fernando S.; Tostes, Rita C.; Ramos, Simone G.; Zamboni, Dario S.; Camara, Niels O. S.; Ryffel, Bernhard; Silva, João S.

    2017-01-01

    Although a correlation between polymorphisms of NOD-like receptor family-pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) and predisposition to type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been identified, the potential function and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in T1D have not been clarified. The present study shows that non-obese diabetic mice exhibited increased NLRP3, and pro-IL-1β gene expression in pancreatic lymph nodes (PLNs). Similar increases in gene expression of NLRP3, apoptosis associated speck like protein (ASC) and pro-IL-1β were induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, diabetic C57BL/6 mice also exhibited increased IL-1β protein expression in the pancreatic tissue at day 7, which remained elevated until day 15. Diabetic mice also showed increased positive caspase-1 macrophages in the PLNs, which were decreased in NLRP3−/− mice, but not in ASC−/− mice, after STZ treatment. NLRP3- and IL-1R-deficient mice, but not ASC-deficient mice, showed reduced incidence of diabetes, less insulitis, lower hyperglycemia, and normal insulin levels compared to wild-type (WT) diabetic mice. Notably, these mice also displayed a decrease in IL-17-producing CD4 and CD8 T cells (Th17 and Tc17) and IFN-γ-producing CD4 and CD8 T cells (Th1 and Tc1) in the PLNs. Following STZ treatment to induce T1D, NLRP3-deficient mice also exhibited an increase in myeloid-derived suppressor cell and mast cell numbers in the PLNs along with a significant increase in IL-6, IL-10, and IL-4 expression in the pancreatic tissue. Interestingly, diabetic mice revealed increased circulating expression of genes related to mitochondrial DNA, such as cytochrome b and cytochrome c, but not NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (NADH). Mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) from diabetic mice, but not from non-diabetic mice, induced significant IL-1β production and caspase-1 activation by WT macrophages, which was reduced in NLRP3−/− macrophages. Finally, mDNA administration in vivo increased

  14. Galectin-3 is upregulated in activated glia during Junin virus-induced murine encephalitis.

    Jaquenod De Giusti, Carolina; Alberdi, Lucrecia; Frik, Jesica; Ferrer, María F; Scharrig, Emilia; Schattner, Mirta; Gomez, Ricardo M

    2011-09-01

    Argentine haemorrhagic fever (AHF) is a systemic febrile syndrome characterized by several haematological and neurological alterations caused by Junín virus (JUNV), a member of the Arenaviridae family. Newborn mice are highly susceptible to JUNV and the course of infection has been associated with the viral strain used. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is an animal lectin that has been proposed to play an important role in some central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In this study, we analysed Gal-3 expression at the transcriptional and translational expression levels during JUNV-induced CNS disease. We found that Candid 1 strain induced, with relatively low mortality, a subacute/chronic CNS disease with significant glia activation and upregulation of Gal-3 in microglia cells as well as in reactive astrocytes that correlated with viral levels. Our results suggest an important role for Gal-3 in viral-induced CNS disease.

  15. Murine cardiac images obtained with focusing pinhole SPECT are barely influenced by extra-cardiac activity

    Branderhorst, Woutjan; van der Have, Frans; Vastenhouw, Brendan; Viergever, Max A.; Beekman, Freek J.

    2012-02-01

    Ultra-high-resolution SPECT images can be obtained with focused multipinhole collimators. Here we investigate the influence of unwanted high tracer uptake outside the scan volume on reconstructed tracer distributions inside the scan volume, for 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion scanning in mice. Simulated projections of a digital mouse phantom (MOBY) in a focusing multipinhole SPECT system (U-SPECT-II, MILabs, The Netherlands) were generated. With this system differently sized user-defined scan volumes can be selected, by translating the animal in 3D through the focusing collimators. Scan volume selections were set to (i) a minimal volume containing just the heart, acquired without translating the animal during scanning, (ii) a slightly larger scan volume as is typically applied for the heart, requiring only small XYZ translations during scanning, (iii) same as (ii), but extended further transaxially, and (iv) same as (ii), but extended transaxially to cover the full thorax width (gold standard). Despite an overall negative bias that is significant for the minimal scan volume, all selected volumes resulted in visually similar images. Quantitative differences in the reconstructed myocardium between gold standard and the results from the smaller scan volume selections were small; the 17 standardized myocardial segments of a bull's eye plot, normalized to the myocardial mean of the gold standard, deviated on average 6.0%, 2.5% and 1.9% for respectively the minimal, the typical and the extended scan volume, while maximum absolute deviations were respectively 18.6%, 9.0% and 5.2%. Averaged over ten low-count noisy simulations, the mean absolute deviations were respectively 7.9%, 3.2% and 1.9%. In low-count noisy simulations, the mean and maximum absolute deviations for the minimal scan volume could be reduced to respectively 4.2% and 12.5% by performing a short survey scan of the exterior activity and focusing the remaining scan time at the organ of interest. We

  16. In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Activity of Scutellaria Barbate Extract on Murine Liver Cancer

    Bao-Feng Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of crude extract of Scutellaria Barbate (CE-SB on mouse hepatoma H22 cells. The MTT assay was used to determine the growth inhibition of H22 cells in vitro. The in vivo therapeutic effects of CE-SB were determined using H22 tumor bearing mice. Besides, the body weight, tumor weight, thymus index and spleen index of H22 bearing mice were also measured. The tumor inhibitory rate (IR was calculated according to the mean weight of tumor (MWT. The phagocytotic function of macrophages was examined by observing peritoneal macrophages phagocytize chicken RBC. The results showed that CE-SB could inhibit the growth of hepatoma H22 Cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, CE-SB could improve immune function of H22 tumor bearing mice. Together these results indicate that CE-SB has antitumor activity and seems to be safe and effective for the use of anti-tumor therapy.

  17. Bisphenol A differentially activates protein kinase C isoforms in murine placental tissue.

    Tan, Wenjuan; Huang, Hui; Wang, Yanfei; Wong, Tsz Yan; Wang, C C; Leung, Lai K

    2013-06-01

    Bisphenol A is utilized to make polycarbonate plastics and is an environmental pollutant. Recent research has indicated that it is an endocrine disruptor and may interfere with reproductive processes. Our lab has previously shown that bisphenol A could regulate corticotrophin releasing hormone and aromatase in cultured placental cells. In the present study, the effect of bisphenol A on these two genes in the placenta was investigated in mice. Pregnant ICR mice were gavaged with bisphenol A at 2, 20 and 200mg/kg body weight/day from E13 to E16 and were euthanized at E17. Compared to the control mice, increased plasma estrogen and corticotrophin releasing hormone were observed in bisphenol A-treated mice. Messenger RNA quantification indicated that placental crh but not cyp19 was induced in mice treated with bisphenol A. Tracking the related signaling pathway, we found that protein kinase C ζ/λ and δ were activated in the placentas of bisphenol A-treated mice. As the gene promoter of crh contains CRE and the half site of ERE, either phospho-PKC or estrogen could stimulate the gene transactivation. These results indicate that bisphenol A might increase plasma concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, corticotrophin releasing hormone and placental phospho-PKC ζ/λ and δ in mice. Ultimately, the incidence of premature birth in these mice could increase.

  18. Activation and function of murine primary microglia in the absence of the prion protein.

    Pinheiro, Lívia P; Linden, Rafael; Mariante, Rafael M

    2015-09-15

    The prion protein (PrP(C)) is predominantly expressed in the nervous and immune systems and is involved in relevant cell signaling. Microglia participate in neuroimmune interactions, and their regulatory mechanisms are critical for both health and disease. Despite recent reports with a microglial cell line, little is known about the relevance of PrP(C) in brain microglia. We investigated the role of PrP(C) in mouse primary microglia, and found no differences between wild type and Prnp-null cells in cell morphology or the expression of a microglial marker. Translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus also did not differ, nor did cytokine production. The levels of iNOS were also similar and, finally, microglia of either genotype showed no differences in either rates of phagocytosis or migration, even following activation. Thus, functional roles of PrP(C) in primary microglial cells are - if present - much more subtle than in transformed microglial cell lines.

  19. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara exerts potent immune modulatory activities in a murine model.

    Miriam Nörder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA, a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus, has been used as vaccine delivery vector in preclinical and clinical studies against infectious diseases and malignancies. Here, we investigated whether an MVA which does not encode any antigen (Ag could be exploited as adjuvant per se. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We showed that dendritic cells infected in vitro with non-recombinant (nr MVA expressed maturation and activation markers and were able to efficiently present exogenously pulsed Ag to T cells. In contrast to the dominant T helper (Th 1 biased responses elicited against Ags produced by recombinant MVA vectors, the use of nrMVA as adjuvant for the co-administered soluble Ags resulted in a long lasting mixed Th1/Th2 responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings open new ways to potentiate and modulate the immune responses to vaccine Ags depending on whether they are co-administered with MVA or encoded by recombinant viruses.

  20. Modulation of biochemical parameters by Hemidesmus indicus in cumene hydroperoxide-induced murine skin: possible role in protection against free radicals-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and tumor promotion.

    Sultana, Sarwat; Khan, Naghma; Sharma, Sonia; Alam, Aftab

    2003-03-01

    Hemidesmus indicus has been shown to possess significant activity against immunotoxicity and other pharmacological and physiological disorders. In this communication, we have shown the modulating effect of H. indicus on cumene hydroperoxide-mediated cutaneous oxidative stress and tumor promotion response in murine skin. Cumene hydroperoxide treatment (30 mg per animal) increased cutaneous microsomal lipid peroxidation and induction of xanthine oxidase activity which are accompanied by decrease in the activities of cutaneous antioxidant enzymes and depletion in the level of glutathione. Parallel to these changes a sharp decrease in the activities of phase II metabolizing enzymes was observed. Cumene hydroperoxide treatment also induced the ornithine decarboxylase activity and enhanced the [3H]-thymidine uptake in DNA synthesis in murine skin. Application of ethanolic extract of H. indicus at a dose level of 1.5 and 3.0mg/kg body weight in acetone prior to that of cumene hydroperoxide treatment resulted in significant inhibition of cumene hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress, epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity and enhanced DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Enhanced susceptibility of cutaneous microsomal membrane for lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity were significantly reduced (P<0.01). In addition the depleted level of glutathione, inhibited activities of antioxidants and phase II metabolizing enzymes were recovered to significant level (P<0.05). In summary, our data suggest that H. indicus is an effective chemopreventive agent in skin and capable of ameliorating hydroperoxide-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and tumor promotion.

  1. Active Anti-erosion Protection Strategy in Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla)

    Han, Zhiwu; Yin, Wei; Zhang, Junqiu; Niu, Shichao; Ren, Luquan

    2013-12-01

    Plants have numerous active protection strategies for adapting to complex and severe environments. These strategies provide endless inspiration for extending the service life of materials and machines. Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla), a tree that thrives in raging sandstorm regions, has adapted to blustery conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust erosion resistant characteristics. However, the relationships among its surface cracks, internal histology and biomechanics, such as cracks, rings, cells, elasticity modulus and growth stress, which account for its erosion resistance, remain unclear. This present study reveals that the directionally eccentric growth rings of tamarisk, which are attributed to reduced stress and accelerated cell division, promote the formation of surface cracks. The windward rings are more extensive than the leeward side rings. The windward surfaces are more prone to cracks, which improves erosion resistance. Our data provide insight into the active protection strategy of the tamarisk against wind-sand erosion.

  2. Significance of AT1 receptor independent activation of mineralocorticoid receptor in murine diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Yuji Nagatomo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM has deleterious influence on cardiac performance independent of coronary artery disease and hypertension. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, especially angiotensin II type 1a receptor (AT1aR and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR signaling, in left ventricular (LV dysfunction induced by diabetes mellitus (DM. METHODS AND RESULTS: DM was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg BW in wild-type (WT or AT1aR knockout (KO male mice, and they were bred during 6 or 12 weeks. Some KO mice were administered the MR antagonist eplerenone (100 mg/kg body weight. At 6 weeks, LV diastolic function was impaired in WT-DM, but preserved in KO-DM. At that time point MR mRNA expression was upregulated, NADPH oxidase subunit (p47phox and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1 mRNA expression were upregulated, the staining intensities of LV tissue for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal was stronger in immunohistochemistry, the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL positive cells was increased, Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly downregulated, and the expression of SERCA2a and phosphorylated phospholamban was depressed in WT-DM, while these changes were not seen in KO-DM. At 12 weeks, however, these changes were also noted in KO-DM. Eplerenone arrested those changes. The plasma aldosterone concentration was elevated in WT-DM but not in KO-DM at 6 weeks. It showed 3.7-fold elevation at 12 weeks even in KO-DM, which suggests "aldosterone breakthrough" phenomenon. However, the aldosterone content in LV tissue was unchanged in KO-DM. CONCLUSIONS: DM induced diastolic dysfunction was observed even in KO at 12 weeks, which was ameliorated by minelarocorticoid receptor antagonist, eplerenone. AT1-independent MR activation in the LV might be responsible for the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  3. Army and Marine Corps Active Protection System (APS) Efforts

    2016-08-23

    Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC), “Active Protection Systems have been in the design and development...traditional steel armor, which detonates when struck by a projectile in order to disrupt the armor-piercing jet produced by RPG, ATGM, and main gun-shaped...sensors and guidance to attack the tops or engine compartments of vehicles, 16 which are usually less armored than the front, sides, and underside of

  4. Evaluation of the proliferative activity of methanol extracts from six medicinal plants in murine spleen cells

    Rodrigo Hermes Zandonai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of natural compounds have been used as immunomodulatory agents, enabling the function of the immune system to be modified by stimulating or suppressing it. There has been increasing interest in the study of therapeutic action of plant extracts regarding their immunomodulatory activity. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the action of extracts of the medicinal plants Calophyllum brasiliense, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Matayba elaeagnoides, Maytenus robusta, Rubus imperialis and Vernonia scorpioides on the development of spleen cells from mice, using the in vitro cellular proliferation assay. The cells, obtained by mechanical rupture of mice spleen (5x10(4 cells/mL, were incubated with methanol extracts (10, 50, 100 and 200 µg/mL and phytohemagglutinin (PHA, 5 µg/mL. The basal control for proliferation consisted of cells alone, while the positive control consisted of cells and PHA. The cell culture was kept at 37 ºC in 5% CO2 for 72 hours, and cell proliferation was revealed by the blue tetrazolium reduction assay (MTT. The results were expressed as percentage of growth and were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The C. brasiliense, I. pes-caprae and M. elaeagnoides extracts showed dose-dependent induction of cell proliferation, with a significant increase in cell proliferation (pVárias substâncias de origem natural têm sido utilizadas como agentes imunomoduladores, permitindo modificar a função do sistema imune e propiciando o estudo de atividades terapêuticas de extratos de plantas. Este trabalho objetivou identificar a atividade imunomodulatória dos extratos de seis plantas medicinais da flora brasileira, Calophyllum brasiliense, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Matayba elaeagnoides, Maytenus robusta, Rubus imperialis e Vernonia scorpioides, sobre a proliferação de células esplênicas de camundongos. As células esplênicas murinas obtidas por ruptura mecânica do baço (5x14³ células/mL foram

  5. Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin recognizes a moesin-like O-glycoprotein and costimulates murine CD3-activated CD4+ T cells

    Arenas-Del Ángel, Maria; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Garfias, Yonathan; Chávez, Raul; Zenteno, Edgar; Lascurain, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galβ1,3GalNAcα1,O-Ser/Thr specific lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus (ALL) binds a ∼70 kDa glycoprotein on murine T cell surface. We show that in the absence of antigen presenting cells, murine CD4+ T cells activated by an anti-CD3 antibody plus ALL enhanced cell proliferation similar to those cells activated via CD3/CD28 at 48 h of culture. Moreover, ALL induced the production of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta in CD3-activated cells. Proteomic assay using two-dimensional electrophoresis and far-Western blotting, ALL recognized two prominent proteins associated to the lipid raft microdomains in CD3/CD28-activated CD4+ T cells. By mass spectrometry, the peptide fragments from ALL-recognized proteins showed sequences with 33% homology to matricin (gi|347839 NCBInr) and 41% identity to an unnamed protein related to moesin (gi|74186081 NCBInr). Confocal microscopy analysis of CD3/CD28-activated CD4+ T cells confirmed that staining by ALL colocalized with anti-moesin FERM domain antibody along the plasma membrane and in the intercellular contact sites. Our findings suggest that a moesin-like O-glycoprotein is the ALL-recognized molecule in lipid rats, which induces costimulatory signals on CD4+ T cells. PMID:26417436

  6. Colchicum autumnale agglutinin activates all murine T-lymphocytes but does not induce the proliferation of all activated cells.

    Bemer, V; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Perret, R; Truffa-Bachi, P

    1996-08-25

    Plant lectins with mitogenic properties for T-lymphocytes have been particularly useful for the study of T-cell activation and effector functions. In the search for mitogenic lectins possessing activation features different from the ones associated with the already known mitogens, we found that an agglutinin isolated from Colchicum autumnale tubers, Colchicum autumnale agglutinin (CAA), possesses interesting properties. First, contrasting with the classical mitogens, CAA induces the proliferation of a fraction of the CD4+ and CD8+ mouse T-lymphocytes. Second, the CAA-induced proliferation requires MHC class II and CD4 molecules. Third, although only a fraction of T-cells enters into the cell cycle, all T-lymphocytes are activated and express high levels of the activation markers CD69 and CD44. Finally, CAA-stimulation is characterized by a particular pattern of the cytokine gene expression, reflected by the transcription of the IL2, IL5, and IFN-gamma genes, while the IL4 and IL10 genes remained silent. Taken together these data demonstrate that CAA activation does not conform to the pathway of T-cell triggering observed with classical mitogenes and represents a new tool for the analysis of T-cell activation.

  7. An Engineered Herpesvirus Activates Dendritic Cells and Induces Protective Immunity

    Ma, Yijie; Chen, Min; Jin, Huali; Prabhakar, Bellur S.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; He, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are human pathogens that switch between lytic and latent infection. While attenuated HSV is explored for vaccine, the underlying event remains poorly defined. Here we report that recombinant HSV-1 with a mutation in the γ134.5 protein, a virulence factor, stimulates dendritic cell (DC) maturation which is dependent on TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). When exposed to CD11+ DCs, the mutant virus that lacks the amino terminus of γ134.5 undergoes temporal replication without production of infectious virus. Mechanistically, this leads to sequential phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and p65/RelA. In correlation, DCs up-regulate the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines. However, selective inhibition of TBK1 precludes phosphorylation of IRF3 and subsequent DC activation by the γ134.5 mutant. Herein, the γ134.5 mutant is immune-stimulatory and non-destructive to DCs. Remarkably, upon immunization the γ134.5 mutant induces protection against lethal challenge by the wild type virus, indicative of its vaccine potential. Furthermore, CD11+ DCs primed by the γ134.5 mutant in vivo mediate protection upon adoptive transfer. These results suggest that activation of TBK1 by engineered HSV is crucial for DC maturation, which may contribute to protective immunity. PMID:28150813

  8. Genes encoding critical transcriptional activators for murine neural tube development and human spina bifida: a case-control study

    Pisano M Michele

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spina bifida is a malformation of the neural tube and is the most common of neural tube defects (NTDs. The etiology of spina bifida is largely unknown, although it is thought to be multi-factorial, involving multiple interacting genes and environmental factors. Mutations in transcriptional co-activator genes-Cited2, p300, Cbp, Tfap2α, Carm1 and Cart1 result in NTDs in murine models, thus prompt us to investigate whether homologues of these genes are associated with NTDs in humans. Methods Data and biological samples from 297 spina bifida cases and 300 controls were derived from a population-based case-control study conducted in California. 37 SNPs within CITED2, EP300, CREBBP, TFAP2A, CARM1 and ALX1 were genotyped using an ABI SNPlex assay. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for alleles, genotypes and haplotypes to evaluate the risk for spina bifida. Results Several SNPs showed increased or decreased risk, including CITED2 rs1131431 (OR = 5.32, 1.04~27.30, EP300 rs4820428 (OR = 1.30, 1.01~1.67, EP300 rs4820429 (OR = 0.50, 0.26~0.50, in whites, OR = 0.7, 0.49~0.99 in all subjects, EP300 rs17002284 (OR = 0.43, 0.22~0.84, TFAP2A rs3798691 (OR = 1.78, 1.13~2.87 in Hispanics, CREBBP rs129986 (OR = 0.27, 0.11~0.69, CARM1 rs17616105 (OR = 0.41, 0.22~0.72 in whites. In addition, one haplotype block in EP300 and one in TFAP2A appeared to be associated with increased risk. Conclusions Modest associations were observed in CITED2, EP300, CREBBP, TFAP2A and CARM1 but not ALX1. However, these modest associations were not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Searching for potential functional variants and rare causal mutations is warranted in these genes.

  9. Murine calcium-activated chloride channel family member 3 induces asthmatic airway inflammation independently of allergen exposure

    MEI Li; HE Li; WU Si-si; ZHANG Bo; XU Yong-jian; ZHANG Zhen-xiang; ZHAO Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Expression of murine calcium-activated chloride channel family member 3 (mCLCA3) has been reported to be increased in the airway epithelium of asthmatic mice challenged with ovalbumin (OVA).However,its role in asthmatic airway inflammation under no OVA exposure has not yet been clarified.Methods mCLCA3 plasmids were transfected into the airways of normal BALB/c mice.mCLCA3 expression and airway inflammation in mouse lung tissue were evaluated.Cell differentials and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed.The expression of mCLCA3 protein and mucus protein mucin-5 subtype AC (MUC5AC) were analyzed by Western blotting.The mRNA levels of mCLCA3,MUC5AC and interleukin-13 (IL-13) were determined quantitatively.Results mCLCA3 expression was not detected in the control group while strong immunoreactivity was detected in the OVA and mCLCA3 plasmid groups,and was strictly localized to the airway epithelium.The numbers of inflammatory cells in lung tissue and BALF were increased in both mCLCA3 plasmid and OVA groups.The protein and mRNA levels of mCLCA3 and MUC5AC in the lung tissue were significantly increased in the mCLCA3 plasmid and OVA groups compared to the control group.The level of IL-13,but not IL-4,IL-5,IFN-γ,CCL2,CCL5 or CCL11,was significantly increased compared with control group in BALF in the mCLCA3 plasmid and OVA groups.The level of IL-13 in the BALF in the mCLCA3 plasmid group was much higher than that in the OVA group (P <0.05).The level of mCLCA3 mRNA in lung tissue was positively correlated with the levels of MUC5AC mRNA in lung tissue,IL-13 mRNA in lung tissue,the number of eosinophils in BALF,and the content of IL-13 protein in BALF.The level of IL-13 mRNA in lung tissue was positively correlated with the number of eosinophils in BALF and the level of MUC5AC mRNA in lung tissue.Conclusion These findings suggest that increased expression of a single-gene,mCLCA3,could simulate an asthma attack,and its mechanism may

  10. Local IGF-1 isoform protects cardiomyocytes from hypertrophic and oxidative stresses via SirT1 activity.

    Vinciguerra, Manlio; Santini, Maria Paola; Claycomb, William C; Ladurner, Andreas G; Rosenthal, Nadia

    2009-12-10

    Oxidative and hypertrophic stresses contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a peptide hormone with a complex post-transcriptional regulation, generating distinct isoforms. Locally acting IGF-1 isoform (mIGF-1) helps the heart to recover from toxic injury and from infarct. In the murine heart, moderate overexpression of the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SirT1 was reported to mitigate oxidative stress. SirT1 is known to promote lifespan extension and to protect from metabolic challenges. Circulating IGF-1 and SirT1 play antagonizing biological roles and share molecular targets in the heart, in turn affecting cardiomyocyte physiology. However, how different IGF-1 isoforms may impact SirT1 and affect cardiomyocyte function is unknown. Here we show that locally acting mIGF-1 increases SirT1 expression/activity, whereas circulating IGF-1 isoform does not affect it, in cultured HL-1 and neonatal cardiomyocytes. mIGF-1-induced SirT1 activity exerts protection against angiotensin II (Ang II)-triggered hypertrophy and against paraquat (PQ) and Ang II-induced oxidative stress. Conversely, circulating IGF-1 triggered itself oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Interestingly, potent cardio-protective genes (adiponectin, UCP-1 and MT-2) were increased specifically in mIGF-1-overexpressing cardiomyocytes, in a SirT1-dependent fashion. Thus, mIGF-1 protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative and hypertrophic stresses via SirT1 activity, and may represent a promising cardiac therapeutic.

  11. ICAM-1-based rabies virus vaccine shows increased infection and activation of primary murine B cells in vitro and enhanced antibody titers in-vivo.

    James E Norton

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that live-attenuated rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines infect and directly activate murine and human primary B cells in-vitro, which we propose can be exploited to help develop a single-dose RABV-based vaccine. Here we report on a novel approach to utilize the binding of Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1 to its binding partner, Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1, on B cells to enhance B cell activation and RABV-specific antibody responses. We used a reverse genetics approach to clone, recover, and characterize a live-attenuated recombinant RABV-based vaccine expressing the murine Icam1 gene (rRABV-mICAM-1. We show that the murine ICAM-1 gene product is incorporated into virus particles, potentially exposing ICAM-1 to extracellular binding partners. While rRABV-mICAM-1 showed 10-100-fold decrease in viral titers on baby hamster kidney cells compared to the parental virus (rRABV, rRABV-mICAM-1 infected and activated primary murine B cells in-vitro more efficiently than rRABV, as indicated by significant upregulation of CD69, CD40, and MHCII on the surface of infected B cells. ICAM-1 expression on the virus surface was responsible for enhanced B cell infection since pre-treating rRABV-mICAM-1 with a neutralizing anti-ICAM-1 antibody reduced B cell infection to levels observed with rRABV alone. Furthermore, 100-fold less rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce antibody titers in immunized mice equivalent to antibody titers observed in rRABV-immunized mice. Of note, only 10(3 focus forming units (ffu/mouse of rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce significant anti-RABV antibody titers as early as five days post-immunization. As both speed and potency of antibody responses are important in controlling human RABV infection in a post-exposure setting, these data show that expression of Icam1 from the RABV genome, which is then incorporated into the virus particle, is a promising strategy for the development of a

  12. Activation of the molecular chaperone, sigma 1 receptor, preserves cone function in a murine model of inherited retinal degeneration.

    Wang, Jing; Saul, Alan; Roon, Penny; Smith, Sylvia B

    2016-06-28

    Retinal degenerative diseases are major causes of untreatable blindness, and novel approaches to treatment are being sought actively. Here we explored the activation of a unique protein, sigma 1 receptor (Sig1R), in the treatment of PRC loss because of its multifaceted role in cellular survival. We used Pde6β(rd10) (rd10) mice, which harbor a mutation in the rod-specific phosphodiesterase gene Pde6β and lose rod and cone photoreceptor cells (PRC) within the first 6 wk of life, as a model for severe retinal degeneration. Systemic administration of the high-affinity Sig1R ligand (+)-pentazocine [(+)-PTZ] to rd10 mice over several weeks led to the rescue of cone function as indicated by electroretinographic recordings using natural noise stimuli and preservation of cone cells upon spectral domain optical coherence tomography and retinal histological examination. The protective effect appears to result from the activation of Sig1R, because rd10/Sig1R(-/-) mice administered (+)-PTZ exhibited no cone preservation. (+)-PTZ treatment was associated with several beneficial cellular phenomena including attenuated reactive gliosis, reduced microglial activation, and decreased oxidative stress in mutant retinas. To our knowledge, this is the first report that activation of Sig1R attenuates inherited PRC loss. The findings may have far-reaching therapeutic implications for retinal neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. 42 CFR 51.31 - Conduct of protection and advocacy activities.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of protection and advocacy activities. 51... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PROTECTION AND ADVOCACY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH MENTAL ILLNESS PROGRAM Protection and Advocacy Services § 51.31 Conduct of protection and advocacy activities. (a) Consistent with...

  14. Bactericidal activity does not predict sterilizing activity: the case of rifapentine in the murine model of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease.

    Deepak V Almeida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2004, treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, or Buruli ulcer, has shifted from surgery to daily treatment with streptomycin (STR + rifampin (RIF for 8 weeks. For shortening treatment duration, we tested the potential of daily rifapentine (RPT, a long-acting rifamycin derivative, as a substitute for RIF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BALB/c mice were infected with M. ulcerans in the right hind footpad and treated either daily (7/7 with STR+RIF or five days/week (5/7 with STR+RIF or STR+RPT for 4 weeks, beginning 28 days after infection when CFU counts were 4.88±0.51. The relative efficacy of the drug treatments was compared by footpad CFU counts during treatment and median time to footpad swelling after treatment cessation as measure of sterilizing activity. All drug treatments were bactericidal. After 1 week of treatment, the decline in CFU counts was significantly greater in treated mice but not different between the three treated groups. After 2 weeks of treatment, the decline in CFU was greater in mice treated with STR+RPT 5/7 than in mice treated with STR+RIF 7/7 and STR+RIF 5/7. After 3 and 4 weeks of treatment, CFU counts were nil in mice treated with STR+RPT and reduced by more than 3 and 4 logs in mice treated with STR+RIF 5/7 and STR+RIF 7/7, respectively. In sharp contrast to the bactericidal activity, the sterilizing activity was not different between all drug regimens although it was in proportion to the treatment duration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The better bactericidal activity of daily STR+RIF and especially of STR+RPT did not translate into better prevention of relapse, possibly because relapse-freecure after treatment of Buruli ulcer is more related to the reversal of mycolactone-induced local immunodeficiency by drug treatment rather than to the bactericidal potency of drugs.

  15. Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M.; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A.; Davenport, Tim R. B.; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A.; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C.; Holbech, Lars H.; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K.; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G.; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J.; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M.; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  16. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

  17. A survey of Chinese herbal ingredients with liver protection activities

    Lien Linda

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A literature survey was conducted on herbs, their preparations and ingredients with reported liver protection activities, in which a total of 274 different species and hundreds of active ingredients have been examined. These ingredients can be roughly classified into two categories according to their activities: (1 the main ingredients, such as silybin, osthole, coumarin, glycyrrhizin, saikosaponin A, schisandrin A, flavonoids; and (2 supporting substances, such as sugars, amino acids, resins, tannins and volatile oil. Among them, some active ingredients have hepatoprotective activities (e.g. anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulating and liver cirrhosis-regulating effects. Calculation of physicochemical parameters indicates that the main ingredients with negative and positive Elumo values possibly display their hepatoprotective effects through different mechanisms, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects. As the combination of herbs may achieve some treatment effects synergistically and/or additively, it is common in Chinese medicine to use mixtures of various medicinal herbs with pharmacologically active compounds to have synergistic and/or additive effects, or to reduce harmful effects of some pharmacologically active compounds. In particular, the active compounds with Clog P around 2 are suitable for passive transport across membranes and accessible to the target sites. Thus, Elumo and Clog P values are good indicators among the calculated parameters. Seven different physicochemical parameters (MW, Clog P, CMR, μ, Ehomo, Elumo and Hf and four major biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral/antitumor and immunomodulating are discussed in this review. It is hoped that the discussion may provide some leads in the development of new hepatoprotective drugs.

  18. Daphnetin inhibits inflammation in the NZB/W F1 systemic lupus erythematosus murine model via inhibition of NF-κB activity

    Li, Min; Shi, Xiaowei; Chen, Fangru; Hao, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Daphnetin is a compound extracted from Chinese medicinal herbs, which exerts analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of daphnetin on inflammation in the NZB/W F1 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) murine model. Female NZB/WF1 mice (age, 16–18 weeks) were intraperitoneally injected with daphnetin once a day for 12 weeks. It was revealed that daphnetin treatment significantly increased animal survival rates, reduced renal damage and blood urea nitrogen levels, and suppressed serum autoantibody production in the SLE-prone NZB/W F1 mice. In addition, daphnetin treatment significantly decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, inhibited nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, suppressed the protein expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells and promoted A20 protein expression in SLE-prone NZB/W F1 mice. In conclusion, daphnetin inhibited inflammation in the NZB/W F1 murine SLE model via inhibition of NF-κB mediated by upregulation of A20.

  19. Food protection activities of the Pan American Health Organization.

    1994-03-01

    One of the most widespread health problems in the Caribbean and Latin America is contaminated food and foodborne illness. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has been a major force in activities to strengthen food protection. The program within the regional Program of Technical Cooperation is administered by the Veterinary Public Health program and under the guidance of the Pan American Institute for Food protection and Zoonoses in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A food action plan for 1986-90 was established at the 1986 Pan American Sanitary Conference, and extended to cover 1991-95. Program activities during the 1990s covered cholera, epidemiologic surveillance, street food vendors, shellfish poisoning, meat, national programs, information systems, air catering, food irradiation, and tourism. The action plan for 1991-95 promoted greater political support and cooperation within and between related sectors and institutions, management, and education. The aims were to organize national integrated programs, to strengthen laboratory services, to strengthen inspection services, to establish epidemiologic surveillance systems, and to promote food protection through community participation. Program activities included the initiatives of the Veterinary Public Health Program in 1991 to distribute literature on the transmission of cholera by foods. Studies were conducted in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru on food contamination. Microbiologists received training on standard methods for detecting Vibrio cholerae in foods. A working group of experts from 10 countries examined the issues and produced a guide for investigating the incidence of foodborne disease. PAHO has contributed to the formation of an Inter-American Network for Epidemiologic Surveillance of Foodborne Diseases. PAHO has worked to improve hygienic practices among street food vendors. Seminars on paralytic shellfish poisoning were conducted in 1990; the outcome was a network working to strengthen national

  20. Biological Activities of Phosphocitrate: A Potential Meniscal Protective Agent

    Yubo Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphocitrate (PC inhibited meniscal calcification and the development of calcium crystal-associated osteoarthritis (OA in Hartley guinea pigs. However, the mechanisms remain elusive. This study sought to examine the biological activities of PC in the absence of calcium crystals and test the hypothesis that PC is potentially a meniscal protective agent. We found that PC downregulated the expression of many genes classified in cell proliferation, ossification, prostaglandin metabolic process, and wound healing, including bloom syndrome RecQ helicase-like, cell division cycle 7 homolog, cell division cycle 25 homolog C, ankylosis progressive homolog, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases-1/cyclooxygenase-1, and plasminogen activator urokinase receptor. In contrast, PC stimulated the expression of many genes classified in fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway, collagen fibril organization, and extracellular structure organization, including fibroblast growth factor 7, collagen type I, alpha 1, and collagen type XI, alpha 1. Consistent with its effect on the expression of genes classified in cell proliferation, collagen fibril organization, and ossification, PC inhibited the proliferation of OA meniscal cells and meniscal cell-mediated calcification while stimulating the production of collagens. These findings indicate that PC is potentially a meniscal-protective agent and a disease-modifying drug for arthritis associated with severe meniscal degeneration.

  1. Protective effects of green and white tea against benzo(a)pyrene induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in murine model.

    Kumar, Manoj; Sharma, V L; Sehgal, Amit; Jain, Mridula

    2012-01-01

    In the current investigation, the ameliorative effect of green tea (GT) and white tea (WT) against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced oxidative stress and DNA damage has been studied in the livers and lungs of Balb/c mice. A single dose of BaP (125 mg/kg, b.w. orally) increased the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutahione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) significantly. Pretreatment with GT and WT for 35 days before a single dose of BaP elevated the decreased activity of GR, SOD, and CAT in liver tissue and also tended to normalize the levels of GSH and LPO in both hepatic and pulmonary tissues. The percentage of DNA in comet tail and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels reflected the decreasing pattern of DNA damage from the BaP-treated group to the groups that received pretreatment with GT and WT. Our study concludes that both GT and WT are effective in combating BaP induced oxidative insult and DNA damage. However, WT was found to be more protective than GT with respect to CAT (only in the liver), percentage of DNA in comet tail (only in the lungs), GST activity, and GSH content in both the tissues.

  2. Impacts of Individual Protective Equipment on Active Range of Motion and Respiratory Protection

    2008-04-01

    consists of a shirt , trousers, and boots. Some missions may also include wear of ballistic protective helmets and vests. During operations in a...respirator (APR) similar to the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy MCU-2/P gas mask. The active wear clothing conditions involved wear of T- shirts , shorts, socks...FGoN C)) LL 04 C. 6 00 C 0 Fn~ CD X 3 0 L) ? 0)F cn a) 0- Z C.L6L C) . (D (1 tEE 6- 6- r 6- 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 E E E co co CO E E 0 o 00 0_ 11)I< 21

  3. Nitroxide delivery system for Nrf2 activation and skin protection.

    Ben Yehuda Greenwald, Maya; Frušić-Zlotkin, Marina; Soroka, Yoram; Sasson, Shmuel Ben; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet; Bitton, Ronit; Kohen, Ron

    2015-08-01

    Cyclic nitroxides are a large group of compounds composed of diverse stable radicals also known as synthetic antioxidants. Although nitroxides are valuable for use in several skin conditions, in in vivo conditions they have several drawbacks, such as nonspecific dispersion in normal tissue, preferential renal clearance and rapid reduction of the nitroxide to the corresponding hydroxylamine. However, these drawbacks can be easily addressed by encapsulating the nitroxides within microemulsions. This approach would allow nitroxide activity and therefore their valuable effects (e.g. activation of the Keap1-Nrf2-EpRE pathway) to continue. In this work, nitroxides were encapsulated in a microemulsion composed of biocompatible ingredients. The nanometric size and shape of the vehicle microemulsion and nitroxide microemulsion displayed high similarity, indicating that the stability of the microemulsions was preserved. Our studies demonstrated that nitroxide microemulsions were more potent inducers of the Keap1-Nrf2-EpRE pathway than the free nitroxides, causing the activation of phase II enzymes. Moreover, microemulsions containing nitroxides significantly reduced UVB-induced cytotoxicity in the skin. Understanding the mechanism of this improved activity may expand the usage of many other Nrf2 modulating molecules in encapsulated form, as a skin protection strategy against oxidative stress-related conditions.

  4. Protective

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  5. Multi-axial active isolation for seismic protection of buildings

    Chang, Chia-Ming

    Structural control technology has been widely accepted as an effective means for the protection of structures against seismic hazards. Passive base isolation is one of the common structural control techniques used to enhance the performance of structures subjected to severe earthquake excitations. Isolation bearings employed at the base of a structure naturally increase its flexibility, but concurrently result in large base displacements. The combination of base isolation with active control, i.e., active base isolation, creates the possibility of achieving a balanced level of control performance, reducing both floor accelerations as well as base displacements. Many theoretical papers have been written by researchers regarding active base isolation, and a few experiments have been performed to verify these theories; however, challenges in appropriately scaling the structural system and modeling the complex nature of control-structure interaction have limited the applicability of these results. Moreover, most experiments only focus on the implementation of active base isolation under unidirectional excitations. Earthquakes are intrinsically multi-dimensional, resulting in out-of-plane responses, including torsional responses. Therefore, an active isolation system for buildings using multi-axial active control devices against multi-directional excitations must be considered. The focus of this dissertation is the development and experimental verification of active isolation strategies for multi-story buildings subjected to bi-directional earthquake loadings. First, a model building is designed to match the characteristics of a representative full-scale structure. The selected isolation bearings feature low friction and high vertical stiffness, providing stable behavior. In the context of the multi-dimensional response control, three, custom-manufactured actuators are employed to mitigate both in-plane and out-of-plane responses. To obtain a high-fidelity model of the

  6. The antimicrobial molecule trappin-2/elafin has anti-parasitic properties and is protective in vivo in a murine model of cerebral malaria

    Roussilhon, Christian; Bang, Gilles; Bastaert, Fabien; Solhonne, Brigitte; Garcia-Verdugo, Ignacio; Peronet, Roger; Druilhe, Pierre; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Mecheri, Salaheddine; Sallenave, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    According to the WHO, and despite reduction in mortality rates, there were an estimated 438 000 malaria deaths in 2015. Therefore new antimalarials capable of limiting organ damage are still required. We show that systemic and lung adenovirus (Ad)-mediated over-expression of trappin-2 (T-2) an antibacterial molecule with anti-inflammatory activity, increased mice survival following infection with the cerebral malaria-inducing Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbANKA) strain. Systemically, T-2 reduced PbANKA sequestration in spleen, lung, liver and brain, associated with a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines (eg TNF-α in spleen and lung) and an increase in IL-10 production in the lung. Similarly, local lung instillation of Ad-T-2 resulted in a reduced organ parasite sequestration and a shift towards an anti-inflammatory/repair response, potentially implicating monocytes in the protective phenotype. Relatedly, we demonstrated in vitro that human monocytes incubated with Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (Pf-iRBCs) and IgGs from hyper-immune African human sera produced T-2 and that the latter colocalized with merozoites and inhibited Pf multiplication. This array of data argues for the first time for the potential therapeutic usefulness of this host defense peptide in human malaria patients, with the aim to limit acute lung injury and respiratory distress syndrom often observed during malaria episodes. PMID:28181563

  7. Murine leukemia provirus-mediated activation of the Notch1 gene leads to induction of HES-1 in a mouse T lymphoma cell line, DL-3.

    Lee, J S; Ishimoto, A; Honjo, T; Yanagawa, S

    1999-07-23

    Constitutive activation of Notch signaling is known to be associated with tumorigenesis. In a mouse T lymphoma cell line, DL-3, we found that a murine leukemia provirus was inserted in the Notch1 locus, which led to marked expression of a virus-Notch1 fusion mRNA encoding an intracellular portion of the Notch1 protein. Furthermore, expression and nuclear localization of this constitutively active form of Notch1 protein were confirmed. Corresponding to this finding, the transcription of the hairy/enhancer of split (HES-1) gene, a known target of Notch1 signaling, was elevated in this cell line. A potential role for overexpressed HES-1 in the development of the lymphoma was discussed.

  8. Beneficial effect of brewers' yeast extract on daily activity in a murine model of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Takahashi, Takashi; Yu, Fei; Zhu, Shi-Jie; Moriya, Junji; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Shigeto; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Brewers' yeast extract (BYE) on daily activity in a mouse model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). CFS was induced by repeated injection of Brucella abortus (BA) antigen every 2 weeks. BYE was orally administered to mice in a dose of 2 g per kg per day for 2 weeks before injecting BA and for 4 weeks thereafter. We evaluated daily running activity in mice receiving BYE as compared with that in untreated mice. Weekly variation of body weight (BW) and survival in both groups was monitored during the observation period. Spleen weight (SW), SW/BW ratio, percent splenic follicular area and expression levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA in spleen were determined in both groups at the time of sacrifice. The daily activity during 2 weeks after the second BA injection was significantly higher in the treated group than in the control. There was no difference in BW between both groups through the experimental course. Two mice in the control died 2 and 7 days after the second injection, whereas no mice in the treated group died. Significantly decreased SW and SW/BW ratio were observed in the treated mice together with elevation of splenic follicular area. There were suppressed IFN-gamma and IL-10 mRNA levels in spleens from the treated mice. Our results suggest that BYE might have a protective effect on the marked reduction in activity following repeated BA injection via normalization of host immune responses.

  9. Beneficial Effect of Brewers' Yeast Extract on Daily Activity in a Murine Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Takashi Takahashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Brewers' yeast extract (BYE on daily activity in a mouse model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. CFS was induced by repeated injection of Brucella abortus (BA antigen every 2 weeks. BYE was orally administered to mice in a dose of 2 g per kg per day for 2 weeks before injecting BA and for 4 weeks thereafter. We evaluated daily running activity in mice receiving BYE as compared with that in untreated mice. Weekly variation of body weight (BW and survival in both groups was monitored during the observation period. Spleen weight (SW, SW/BW ratio, percent splenic follicular area and expression levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-10 (IL-10 mRNA in spleen were determined in both groups at the time of sacrifice. The daily activity during 2 weeks after the second BA injection was significantly higher in the treated group than in the control. There was no difference in BW between both groups through the experimental course. Two mice in the control died 2 and 7 days after the second injection, whereas no mice in the treated group died. Significantly decreased SW and SW/BW ratio were observed in the treated mice together with elevation of splenic follicular area. There were suppressed IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA levels in spleens from the treated mice. Our results suggest that BYE might have a protective effect on the marked reduction in activity following repeated BA injection via normalization of host immune responses.

  10. Sulforaphane Protects against Cardiovascular Disease via Nrf2 Activation

    Yang Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD causes an unparalleled proportion of the global burden of disease and will remain the main cause of mortality for the near future. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of cardiac disorders. Several studies have highlighted the cardinal role played by the overproduction of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species in the pathogenesis of ischemic myocardial damage and consequent cardiac dysfunction. Isothiocyanates (ITC are sulfur-containing compounds that are broadly distributed among cruciferous vegetables. Sulforaphane (SFN is an ITC shown to possess anticancer activities by both in vivo and epidemiological studies. Recent data have indicated that the beneficial effects of SFN in CVD are due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. SFN activates NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that serves as a defense mechanism against oxidative stress and electrophilic toxicants by inducing more than a hundred cytoprotective proteins, including antioxidants and phase II detoxifying enzymes. This review will summarize the evidence from clinical studies and animal experiments relating to the potential mechanisms by which SFN modulates Nrf2 activation and protects against CVD.

  11. Activity of Colistin in Combination with Meropenem, Tigecycline, Fosfomycin, Fusidic Acid, Rifampin or Sulbactam against Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Murine Thigh-Infection Model.

    Bing Fan

    Full Text Available Few effective therapeutic options are available for treating severe infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB. Using a murine thigh-infection model, we examined the in vivo efficacy of colistin in combination with meropenem, tigecycline, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, rifampin, or sulbactam against 12 XDR-AB strains. Colistin, tigecycline, rifampin, and sulbactam monotherapy significantly decreased bacterial counts in murine thigh infections compared with those observed in control mice receiving no treatment. Colistin was the most effective agent tested, displaying bactericidal activity against 91.7% of strains at 48 h post-treatment. With strains showing a relatively low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for meropenem (MIC ≤ 32 mg/L, combination therapy with colistin plus meropenem caused synergistic inhibition at both 24 h and 48 h post-treatment. However, when the meropenem MIC was ≥64 mg/L, meropenem did not significantly alter the efficacy of colistin. The addition of rifampin and fusidic acid significantly improved the efficacy of colistin, showing a synergistic effect in 100% and 58.3% of strains after 24 h of treatment, respectively, while the addition of tigecycline, fosfomycin, or sulbactam did not show obvious synergistic activity. No clear differences in activities were observed between colistin-rifampin and colistin-fusidic acid combination therapy with most strains. Overall, our in vivo study showed that administering colistin in combination with rifampin or fusidic acid is more efficacious in treating XDR-AB infections than other combinations. The colistin-meropenem combination may be another appropriate option if the MIC is ≤32 mg/L. Further clinical studies are urgently needed to confirm the relevance of these findings.

  12. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Activation and IFN-α Production Are Prominent Features of Murine Autoimmune Pancreatitis and Human IgG4-Related Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    Arai, Yasuyuki; Yamashita, Kouhei; Kuriyama, Katsutoshi; Shiokawa, Masahiro; Kodama, Yuzo; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Mizugishi, Kiyomi; Uchida, Kazushige; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Kudo, Masatoshi; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Strober, Warren; Chiba, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Tomohiro

    2015-10-01

    The abnormal immune response accompanying IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is presently unclear. In this study, we examined the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) activation and IFN-α production in this disease as well as in a murine model of AIP (MRL/Mp mice treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid). We found that the development of AIP in treated MRL/Mp mice occurred in parallel with pancreatic accumulation of pDCs producing IFN-α, and with pDC depletion and IFN-α-blocking studies, we showed that such accumulation was necessary for AIP induction. In addition, we found that the pancreas of treated MRL/Mp mice contained neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) shown previously to stimulate pDCs to produce IFN-α. Consistent with these findings, we found that patients with IgG4-related AIP also exhibited pancreatic tissue localization of IFN-α-expressing pDCs and had significantly higher serum IFN-α levels than healthy controls. In addition, the inflamed pancreas of these patients but not controls also contained NETs that were shown to be capable of pDC activation. More importantly, patient pDCs cultured in the presence of NETs produced greatly increased levels of IFN-α and induced control B cells to produce IgG4 (but not IgG1) as compared with control pDCs. These data suggest that pDC activation and production of IFN-α is a major cause of murine AIP; in addition, the increased pDC production of IFN-α and its relation to IgG4 production observed in IgG4-related AIP suggest that this mechanism also plays a role in the human disease.

  13. Commensal-induced regulatory T cells mediate protection against pathogen-stimulated NF-kappaB activation.

    Caitlin O'Mahony

    Full Text Available Host defence against infection requires a range of innate and adaptive immune responses that may lead to tissue damage. Such immune-mediated pathologies can be controlled with appropriate T regulatory (Treg activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of gut microbiota composition on Treg cellular activity and NF-kappaB activation associated with infection. Mice consumed the commensal microbe Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 followed by infection with Salmonella typhimurium or injection with LPS. In vivo NF-kappaB activation was quantified using biophotonic imaging. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cell phenotypes and cytokine levels were assessed using flow cytometry while CD4+ T cells were isolated using magnetic beads for adoptive transfer to naïve animals. In vivo imaging revealed profound inhibition of infection and LPS induced NF-kappaB activity that preceded a reduction in S. typhimurium numbers and murine sickness behaviour scores in B. infantis-fed mice. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, T cell proliferation, and dendritic cell co-stimulatory molecule expression were significantly reduced. In contrast, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cell numbers were significantly increased in the mucosa and spleen of mice fed B. infantis. Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells transferred the NF-kappaB inhibitory activity. Consumption of a single commensal micro-organism drives the generation and function of Treg cells which control excessive NF-kappaB activation in vivo. These cellular interactions provide the basis for a more complete understanding of the commensal-host-pathogen trilogue that contribute to host homeostatic mechanisms underpinning protection against aberrant activation of the innate immune system in response to a translocating pathogen or systemic LPS.

  14. Murine monoclonal antibody to platelet factor 4/heparin complexes as a potential reference standard for platelet activation assays in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    Asada, Reiko; Wanaka, Keiko; Walenga, Jeanine; Prechel, Margaret; Miyashita, Kumiko; Escalante, Vicki; Kaneko, Chieko; Hoshino, Nobuhiro; Oosawa, Mitsuru; Matsuo, Miyako

    2013-01-01

    Quality control of the platelet activation assays to diagnose heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), (14)C-serotonin release assay (SRA) and platelet aggregation test (PAT) has yet to be established due to lack of reference standards and the difficulty of obtaining significant amounts of HIT antibodies from patients with HIT. We prepared a murine monoclonal antibody to human platelet factor 4 (hPF4)/heparin complexes (HIT-MoAb) and investigated the platelet activating action of HIT-MoAb by using SRA and PAT. The HIT-MoAb activated human platelets at low heparin concentration and the platelet activations were inhibited at high heparin concentration in both SRA and PAT. The HIT-MoAb produced a concentration-dependent effect. Moreover, the platelet activation at low heparin concentration was inhibited by anti-FcγRIIa antibody. These results indicated that HIT-MoAb has characteristics similar to human HIT antibodies regarding heparin-dependent platelet activation. Therefore, it is suggested that HIT-MoAb has the potential to be a positive control or reference standard in platelet activation assays.

  15. Restoration of adenylate cyclase responsiveness in murine myeloid leukemia permits inhibition of proliferation by hormone. Butyrate augments catalytic activity of adenylate cyclase.

    Inhorn, L; Fleming, J W; Klingberg, D; Gabig, T G; Boswell, H S

    1988-04-01

    Mechanisms of leukemic cell clonal dominance may include aberrations of transmembrane signaling. In particular, neoplastic transformation has been associated with reduced capacity for hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. In the present study, prostaglandin E, a hormonal activator of adenylate cyclase that has antiproliferative activity in myeloid cells, and cholera toxin, an adenylate cyclase agonist that functions at a postreceptor site by activating the adenylate cyclase stimulatory GTP-binding protein (Gs), were studied for antiproliferative activity in two murine myeloid cell lines. FDC-P1, an interleukin 3 (IL 3)-dependent myeloid cell line and a tumorigenic IL 3-independent subline, FI, were resistant to these antiproliferative agents. The in vitro ability of the "differentiation" agent, sodium butyrate, to reverse their resistance to adenylate cyclase agonists was studied. The antiproliferative action of butyrate involved augmentation of transmembrane adenylate cyclase activity. Increased adenylate cyclase catalyst activity was the primary alteration of this transmembrane signaling group leading to the functional inhibitory effects on leukemia cells, although alterations in regulatory G-proteins appear to play a secondary role.

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 protects against bacterial translocation, preserves gut barrier integrity and stimulates the immune system in a murine intestinal obstruction model.

    Generoso, Simone V; Viana, Mirelle; Santos, Rosana; Martins, Flaviano S; Machado, José A N; Arantes, Rosa M E; Nicoli, Jacques R; Correia, Maria I T D; Cardoso, Valbert N

    2010-06-01

    Probiotic is a preparation containing microorganisms that confers beneficial effect to the host. This work assessed whether oral treatment with viable or heat-killed yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 prevents bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal barrier integrity, and stimulates the immunity, in a murine intestinal obstruction (IO) model. Four groups of mice were used: mice undergoing only laparotomy (CTL), undergoing intestinal obstruction (IO) and undergoing intestinal obstruction after previous treatment with viable or heat-killed yeast. BT, determined as uptake of (99m)Tc-E. coli in blood, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lungs, was significantly higher in IO group than in CTL group. Treatments with both yeasts reduced BT in blood and all organs investigated. The treatment with both yeasts also reduced intestinal permeability as determined by blood uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA. Immunological data demonstrated that both treatments were able to significantly increase IL-10 levels, but only viable yeast had the same effect on sIgA levels. Intestinal lesions were more severe in IO group when compared to CTL and yeasts groups. Concluding, both viable and heat-killed cells of yeast prevent BT, probably by immunomodulation and by maintaining gut barrier integrity. Only the stimulation of IgA production seems to depend on the yeast viability.

  17. Metformin Inhibits Glutaminase Activity and Protects against Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Ampuero, Javier; Ranchal, Isidora; Nuñez, David; Díaz-Herrero, María del Mar; Maraver, Marta; del Campo, José Antonio; Rojas, Ángela; Camacho, Inés; Figueruela, Blanca; Bautista, Juan D.; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    inhibits glutaminase activity in vitro. Therefore, metformin use seems to be protective against hepatic encephalopathy in diabetic cirrhotic patients. PMID:23166628

  18. Metformin inhibits glutaminase activity and protects against hepatic encephalopathy.

    Javier Ampuero

    activity in vitro. Therefore, metformin use seems to be protective against hepatic encephalopathy in diabetic cirrhotic patients.

  19. Evaluation of inhibitory activities of plant extracts on production of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory mediators in J774 murine macrophages.

    Verma, Nandini; Tripathi, Subhash K; Sahu, Debasis; Das, Hasi R; Das, Rakha H

    2010-03-01

    Whole plant methanolic extracts of 14 traditionally used medicinal herbs were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity. Extracts of Grindelia robusta, Salix nigra, Arnica montana, and Quassia amara showed up to 4.5-fold inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in the J774 murine macrophage cells challenged with LPS without cytotoxicity. These four selected extracts significantly reduced the protein levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as observed by Western blot analysis. Culture supernatants from cells treated with these extracts indicated 3-5-fold reduction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). However, only G. robusta and Q. amara extracts significantly inhibited (by 50%) IL-1beta and IL-12 secretions. Furthermore, all these plant extracts were shown to prevent the LPS-mediated nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). All the above observations indicate the anti-inflammatory potential of these plant extracts.

  20. Critical role of perforin-dependent CD8+ T cell immunity for rapid protective vaccination in a murine model for human smallpox.

    Melanie Kremer

    Full Text Available Vaccination is highly effective in preventing various infectious diseases, whereas the constant threat of new emerging pathogens necessitates the development of innovative vaccination principles that also confer rapid protection in a case of emergency. Although increasing evidence points to T cell immunity playing a critical role in vaccination against viral diseases, vaccine efficacy is mostly associated with the induction of antibody responses. Here we analyze the immunological mechanism(s of rapidly protective vaccinia virus immunization using mousepox as surrogate model for human smallpox. We found that fast protection against lethal systemic poxvirus disease solely depended on CD4 and CD8 T cell responses induced by vaccination with highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA or conventional vaccinia virus. Of note, CD4 T cells were critically required to allow for MVA induced CD8 T cell expansion and perforin-mediated cytotoxicity was a key mechanism of MVA induced protection. In contrast, selected components of the innate immune system and B cell-mediated responses were fully dispensable for prevention of fatal disease by immunization given two days before challenge. In conclusion, our data clearly demonstrate that perforin-dependent CD8 T cell immunity plays a key role in MVA conferred short term protection against lethal mousepox. Rapid induction of T cell immunity might serve as a new paradigm for treatments that need to fit into a scenario of protective emergency vaccination.

  1. Continuous activation of the CD122/STAT-5 signaling pathway during selection of antigen-specific regulatory T cells in the murine thymus.

    Jérémie D Goldstein

    Full Text Available Signaling events affecting thymic selection of un-manipulated polyclonal natural CD25(+foxp3(+ regulatory T cells (nTreg have not been established ex vivo. Here, we report a higher frequency of phosphorylated STAT-5 (pSTAT-5 in nTreg cells in the adult murine thymus and to a lesser extent in the periphery, compared to other CD4(+CD8(- subsets. In the neonatal thymus, the numbers of pSTAT-5(+ cells in CD25(+foxp3(- and nTreg cells increased in parallel, suggesting that pSTAT-5(+CD25(+foxp3(- cells might represent the precursors of foxp3(+ regulatory T cells. This "specific" pSTAT-5 expression detected in nTreg cells ex vivo was likely due to a very recent signal given by IL-2/IL-15 cytokines in vivo since (i it disappeared rapidly if cells were left unstimulated in vitro and (ii was also observed if total thymocytes were stimulated in vitro with saturating amounts of IL-2 and/or IL-15 but not IL-7. Interestingly, STAT-5 activation upon IL-2 stimulation correlated better with foxp3 and CD122 than with CD25 expression. Finally, we show that expression of an endogenous superantigen strongly affected the early Treg cell repertoire but not the proportion of pSTAT-5(+ cells within this repertoire. Our results reveal that continuous activation of the CD122/STAT-5 signaling pathway characterize regulatory lineage differentiation in the murine thymus.

  2. 1-Bromopropane up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression via NF-κB and C/EBP activation in murine macrophages.

    Han, Eun Hee; Yang, Ji Hye; Kim, Hyung-Kyun; Choi, Jae Ho; Khanal, Tilak; Do, Minh Truong; Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Kwang Youl; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2012-05-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been used in industry as an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents. In the present study, we examined the effect of 1-BP on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression and analyzed the molecular mechanism of its activity in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. 1-BP dose-dependently increased COX-2 protein and mRNA levels, as well as COX-2 promoter-driven luciferase activity in macrophages. Additionally, exposure to 1-BP markedly enhanced the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a major COX-2 metabolite, in macrophages. Transfection experiments with several human COX-2 promoter constructs revealed that 1-BP activated the transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP), but not AP-1 or the cyclic AMP response element binding protein. Furthermore, Akt and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases were significantly activated by 1-BP. These results demonstrated that 1-BP induced COX-2 expression via NF-κB and C/EBP activation through the Akt/ERK and p38 MAP kinase pathways. These findings provide further insight into the signal transduction pathways involved in the inflammatory effects of 1-BP.

  3. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells by the norsesterterpene peroxide, epimuqubilin A.

    Cheenpracha, Sarot; Park, Eun-Jung; Rostama, Bahman; Pezzuto, John M; Chang, Leng Chee

    2010-03-01

    Seven norsesterterpene peroxides: epimuqubilin A (1), muqubilone B (2), unnamed cyclic peroxide ester (3), epimuqubilin B (4), sigmosceptrellin A methyl ester (5), sigmosceptrellin A (6), and sigmosceptrellin B methyl ester (7), isolated from the marine sponge Latrunculia sp., were examined with regard to their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The results indicated epimuqubilin A (1) possessed potent NO inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide release with an IC(50) value of 7.4 microM, a level three times greater than the positive control, L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine citrate, followed by 6 (sigmosceptrellin A, IC(50) = 9.9 microM), whereas other compounds exhibited only modest activity (Table 1). These compounds did not show appreciable cytotoxicity at their IC(50) values for NO-inhibitory activity. The structure-activity upon NO inhibition could be summarized as follows: (1) a monocyclic carbon skeleton framework was essential for activity, (2) free acids gave higher activity, (3) the orientation of H3-22 with an equatorial position increased activity, and (4) a bicyclic structure reduced activity. This is the first report of a norsesterterpene peroxide with NO-inhibitory activity. In addition, compounds 1-7 were also evaluated for their inhibitory activities in the yeast glycogen synthase kinase-3beta assay. In summary, several norsesterterpene peroxides showed novel biological activities of inhibition in NO production, suggesting that these might provide leads for anti-inflammatory or cancer chemopreventive agents.

  4. Snake venoms components with antitumor activity in murine melanoma cells; Componentes derivados de venenos de serpentes com acao antitumoral em celulas de melanoma murino

    Queiroz, Rodrigo Guimaraes

    2012-07-01

    Despite the constant advances in the treatment of cancer, this disease remains one of the main causes of mortality worldwide. So, the development of new treatment modalities is imperative. Snake venom causes a variety of biological effects because they constitute a complex mixture of substances as disintegrins, proteases (serine and metalo), phospholipases A2, L-amino acid oxidases and others. The goal of the present work is to evaluate a anti-tumor activity of some snake venoms fractions. There are several studies of components derived from snake venoms with this kind of activity. After fractionation of snake venoms of the families Viperidae and Elapidae, the fractions were assayed towards murine melanoma cell line B16-F10 and fibroblasts L929. The results showed that the fractions of venom of the snake Notechis ater niger had higher specificity and potential antitumor activity on B16-F10 cell line than the other studied venoms. Since the components of this venom are not explored yet coupled with the potential activity showed in this work, we decided to choose this venom to develop further studies. The cytotoxic fractions were evaluated to identify and characterize the components that showed antitumoral activity. Western blot assays and zymography suggests that these proteins do not belong to the class of metallo and serine proteinases. (author)

  5. Increased in vitro glial fibrillary acidic protein expression, telomerase activity, and telomere length after productive human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in murine astrocytes.

    Ojeda, Diego; López-Costa, Juan José; Sede, Mariano; López, Ester María; Berria, María Isabel; Quarleri, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Although HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) result from injury and loss of neurons, productive infection routinely takes place in cells of macrophage lineage. In such a complex context, astrocytosis induced by local chemokines/cytokines is one of the hallmarks of HIV neuropathology. Whether this sustained astrocyte activation is able to alter telomere-aging process is unknown. We hypothesized that interaction of HIV with astrocytes may impact astrocyte telomerase activity (TA) and telomere length in a scenario of astrocytic activation measured by expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). To test this hypothesis, cultured murine astrocytes were challenged with pseudotyped HIV/vesicular stomatitis virus (HIV/VSV) to circumvent the absence of viral receptors; and GFAP, telomerase activity, and telomere length were quantified. As an early and transient event after HIV infection, both TA activity and telomere length were significantly augmented (P telomere length, that may attenuate cell proliferation and enhance the astrocyte dysregulation, contributing to HIV neuropathogenesis. Understanding the mechanisms involved in HIV-mediated persistence by altering the telomere-related aging processes could aid in the development of therapeutic modalities for neurological complications of HIV infection.

  6. Effects of anti-IgM suppression on polyclonally activated murine B cells: analysis of immunoglobulin mRNA, gene specific nuclear factors and cell cycle distribution.

    Marcuzzi, A; Van Ness, B; Rouse, T; Lafrenz, D

    1989-01-01

    Polyclonal activation of murine B cells with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dextran sulfate (DxS) results in cell proliferation as well as increased immunoglobulin gene transcription and antibody secretion. When added to B cell cultures during mitogen activation, anti-mu antibody suppresses the rate of proliferation and immunoglobulin gene expression. Using this model system we show that co-cultures of B cells with LPS/DxS and anti-mu resulted in a decrease of both mu and kappa chain mRNA. Suppression did not prevent B cell entry into cycle nor a significant alteration in the distribution of cells in phases of cell cycle, although it did prolong the cycle transit time in a dose dependent fashion as determined by bromodeoxyuridine pulse labelling. Analysis of B cell specific nuclear binding factors, which previously have been shown to be important in regulating immunoglobulin gene transcription were examined. Results show that the kappa-specific enhancer binding activity of NF-kappa B was induced in activated as well as suppressed cultures. The lymphoid specific factor NF-A2, which recognizes the octamer sequence motif in the promoters of immunoglobulin genes, was induced by the polyclonal activation but was selectively lost in extracts from suppressed cells. Thus, specific regulation of the nuclear factor which plays a critical role in both heavy and light chain immunoglobulin gene expression may contribute to the transcriptional suppression observed in anti-mu treated B cells. Images PMID:2481271

  7. Activity of tedizolid phosphate (TR-701) in murine models of infection with penicillin-resistant and penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Choi, Sunghak; Im, Weonbin; Bartizal, Ken

    2012-09-01

    The in vitro activity of tedizolid (previously known as torezolid, TR-700) against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) clinical isolates and the in vivo efficacy of tedizolid phosphate (torezolid phosphate, TR-701) in murine models of PRSP systemic infection and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP) pneumonia were examined using linezolid as a comparator. The MIC(90) against 28 PRSP isolates was 0.25 μg/ml for tedizolid, whereas it was 1 μg/ml for linezolid. In mice infected systemically with a lethal inoculum of PRSP 1 h prior to a single administration of either antimicrobial, oral tedizolid phosphate was equipotent to linezolid (1 isolate) to 2-fold more potent than linezolid (3 isolates) for survival at day 7, with tedizolid phosphate 50% effective dose (ED(50)) values ranging from 3.19 to 11.53 mg/kg of body weight/day. In the PSSP pneumonia model, the ED(50) for survival at day 15 was 2.80 mg/kg/day for oral tedizolid phosphate, whereas it was 8.09 mg/kg/day for oral linezolid following 48 h of treatment with either agent. At equivalent doses (10 mg/kg once daily tedizolid phosphate or 5 mg/kg twice daily linezolid), pneumococcal titers in the lungs at 52 h postinfection were approximately 3 orders of magnitude lower with tedizolid phosphate treatment than with linezolid treatment or no treatment. Lung histopathology showed less inflammatory cell invasion into alveolar spaces in mice treated with tedizolid phosphate than in untreated or linezolid-treated mice. These results demonstrate that tedizolid phosphate is effective in murine models of PRSP systemic infection and PSSP pneumonia.

  8. A Murine Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Receptor Expressed in CHO Cells is Activated by Basic FGF and Kaposi FGF

    Mansukhani, Alka; Moscatelli, David; Talarico, Daniela; Levytska, Vera; Basilico, Claudio

    1990-06-01

    We have cloned a murine cDNA encoding a tyrosine kinase receptor with about 90% similarity to the chicken fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor and the human fms-like gene (FLG) tyrosine kinase. This mouse receptor lacks 88 amino acids in the extracellular portion, leaving only two immunoglobulin-like domains compared to three in the chicken FGF receptor. The cDNA was cloned into an expression vector and transfected into receptor-negative CHO cells. We show that cells expressing the receptor can bind both basic FGF and Kaposi FGF. Although the receptor binds basic FGF with a 15- to 20-fold higher affinity, Kaposi FGF is able to induce down-regulation of the receptor to the same extent as basic FGF. The receptor is phosphorylated upon stimulation with both FGFs, DNA synthesis is stimulated, and a proliferative response is produced in cells expressing the receptor, whereas cells expressing the cDNA in the antisense orientation show none of these responses to basic FGF or Kaposi FGF. Thus this receptor can functionally interact with two growth factors of the FGF family.

  9. Liposomal SLA co-incorporated with PO CpG ODNs or PS CpG ODNs induce the same protection against the murine model of leishmaniasis.

    Shargh, Vahid Heravi; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Jaafari, Iman; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Abbasi, Azam; Badiee, Ali

    2012-06-06

    First generation Leishmania vaccines consisting of whole killed parasites with or without adjuvants have reached phase 3 trial and failed to show enough efficacy mainly due to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant. In this study, the nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (PS CpG) or nuclease-sensitive phosphodiester CpG ODNs (PO CpG) were used as adjuvants to enhance immunogenicity and rate of protection against leishmaniasis. Due to the susceptibility of PO CpG to nuclease degradation, an efficient liposomal delivery system was developed to protect them from degradation. 1, 2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as a cationic lipid was used because of its unique adjuvanticity and electrostatic interaction with negatively charged CpG ODNs. To evaluate the role of liposomal formulation in protection rate and enhanced immune response, BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with liposomal soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) co-incorporated with PO CpG (Lip-SLA-PO CpG), Lip-SLA-PS CpG, SLA+PO CpG, SLA+PS CpG, SLA or buffer. As criteria for protection, footpad swelling at the site of challenge, parasite loads, the levels of IFN-γ and IL-4, and the IgG subtypes were evaluated. The groups of mice receiving Lip-SLA-PO CpG or Lip-SLA-PS CpG showed a high protection rate compared with the control groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in immune response generation between mice immunized with PS CpG and the group receiving PO CpG when incorporated into the liposomes. The results suggested that liposomal form of PO CpG might be used instead of PS CpG in future vaccine formulations as an efficient adjuvant.

  10. In Vitro Activity of Miltefosine against Candida albicans under Planktonic and Biofilm Growth Conditions and In Vivo Efficacy in a Murine Model of Oral Candidiasis.

    Vila, Taissa Vieira Machado; Chaturvedi, Ashok K; Rozental, Sonia; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

    2015-12-01

    The generation of a new antifungal against Candida albicans biofilms has become a major priority, since biofilm formation by this opportunistic pathogenic fungus is usually associated with an increased resistance to azole antifungal drugs and treatment failures. Miltefosine is an alkyl phospholipid with promising antifungal activity. Here, we report that, when tested under planktonic conditions, miltefosine displays potent in vitro activity against multiple fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant C. albicans clinical isolates, including isolates overexpressing efflux pumps and/or with well-characterized Erg11 mutations. Moreover, miltefosine inhibits C. albicans biofilm formation and displays activity against preformed biofilms. Serial passage experiments confirmed that miltefosine has a reduced potential to elicit resistance, and screening of a library of C. albicans transcription factor mutants provided additional insight into the activity of miltefosine against C. albicans growing under planktonic and biofilm conditions. Finally, we demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of topical treatment with miltefosine in the murine model of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Overall, our results confirm the potential of miltefosine as a promising antifungal drug candidate, in particular for the treatment of azole-resistant and biofilm-associated superficial candidiasis.

  11. Fluence Rate Differences in Photodynamic Therapy Efficacy and Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor after Treatment of the Tumor-Involved Murine Thoracic Cavity

    Craig E. Grossman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT of the thoracic cavity can be performed in conjunction with surgery to treat cancers of the lung and its pleura. However, illumination of the cavity results in tissue exposure to a broad range of fluence rates. In a murine model of intrathoracic PDT, we studied the efficacy of 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH; Photochlor®-mediated PDT in reducing the burden of non-small cell lung cancer for treatments performed at different incident fluence rates (75 versus 150 mW/cm. To better understand a role for growth factor signaling in disease progression after intrathoracic PDT, the expression and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR was evaluated in areas of post-treatment proliferation. The low fluence rate of 75 mW/cm produced the largest reductions in tumor burden. Bioluminescent imaging and histological staining for cell proliferation (anti-Ki-67 identified areas of disease progression at both fluence rates after PDT. However, increased EGFR activation in proliferative areas was detected only after treatment at the higher fluence rate of 150 mW/cm. These data suggest that fluence rate may affect the activation of survival factors, such as EGFR, and weaker activation at lower fluence rate could contribute to a smaller tumor burden after PDT at 75 mW/cm.

  12. Direct interaction of Sox10 with the promoter of murine Dopachrome Tautomerase (Dct) and synergistic activation of Dct expression with Mitf.

    Jiao, Zhongxian; Mollaaghababa, Ramin; Pavan, William J; Antonellis, Anthony; Green, Eric D; Hornyak, Thomas J

    2004-08-01

    The murine dopachrome tautomerase (Dct) gene is expressed early in melanocyte development during embryogenesis, prior to other members of the tyrosinase gene family important for regulating pigmentation. We have used deletion mutants of the Dct promoter, transfections with developmentally relevant transcription factors, and gel shift assays to define transcriptional determinants of Dct expression. Deletion mutagenesis studies show that sequences within the proximal 459 nucleotides are critical for high level expression in melanocytic cells. This region of the promoter contains candidate binding sites for the transcription factors Sox10 and Mitf. Transfections into 293T and NIH3T3 cells show that Sox10 and Mitf independently activate Dct expression, and, when co-transfected, synergistically activate Dct expression. To support the notion that Sox10 acts directly upon the Dct promoter to activate gene expression, direct interaction of Sox10 was demonstrated using gel shifts of oligonucleotide probes derived from promoter sequences within the region required for Sox10-dependent induction. These results suggest that a combinatorial transcription factor interaction is important for expression of Dct in neural crest-derived melanocytes, and support a model for sequential gene activation in melanocyte development whereby Mitf, a Sox10-dependent transcription factor, is expressed initially before an early melanocyte differentiation gene, Dct, is expressed.

  13. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  14. Functional characterization and evaluation of in vitro protective efficacy of murine monoclonal antibodies BURK24 and BURK37 against Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Bhavani V Peddayelachagiri

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis has been recognized by CDC as a category B select agent. Although substantial efforts have been made for development of vaccine molecules against the pathogen, significant hurdles still remain. With no licensed vaccines available and high relapse rate of the disease, there is a pressing need for development of alternate protection strategies. Antibody-mediated passive protection is promising in this regard and our primary interest was to unravel this frontier of specific mAbs against Burkholderia pseudomallei infections, as functional characterization of antibodies is a pre-requisite to demonstrate them as protective molecules. To achieve this, we designed our study on in vitro-based approach and assessed two mAbs, namely BURK24 and BURK37, reactive with outer membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharide of the pathogen respectively, for their ability to manifest inhibitory effects on the pathogenesis mechanisms of B. pseudomallei including biofilm formation, invasion and induction of apoptosis. The experiments were performed using B. pseudomallei standard strain NCTC 10274 and a clinical isolate, B. pseudomallei 621 recovered from a septicemia patient with diabetic ailment. The growth kinetic studies of the pathogen in presence of various concentrations of each individual mAb revealed their anti-bacterial properties. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of both the mAbs were determined by using standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI and experiments were performed using individual mAbs at their respective bacteriostatic concentration. As an outcome, both mAbs exhibited significant anti-Burkholderia pseudomallei properties. They limited the formation of biofilm by the bacterium and completely crippled its invasion into human alveolar adenocarcinoma epithelial cells. Also, the mAbs were appreciably successful in preventing the

  15. Passive administration of purified secretory IgA from human colostrum induces protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a murine model of progressive pulmonary infection

    Alvarez Nadine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunoglobulin A is the most abundant isotype in secretions from mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and genitourinary tracts and in external secretions such as colostrum, breast milk, tears and saliva. The high concentration of human secretory IgA (hsIgA in human colostrum strongly suggests that it should play an important role in the passive immune protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. Materials and methods Human secretory IgA was purified from colostrum. The reactivity of hsIgA against mycobacterial antigens and its protective capacity against mycobacterial infection was evaluated. Results The passive administration of hsIgA reduces the pneumonic area before challenge with M. tuberculosis. The intratracheal administration of M. tuberculosis preincubated with hsIgA to mice greatly reduced the bacterial load in the lungs and diminished lung tissue injury. Conclusions HsIgA purified from colostrum protects against M. tuberculosis infection in an experimental mouse model.

  16. A defense in depth approach to radiation protection for 125I production activities.

    Culp, T; Potter, C A

    2001-08-01

    Not all operational radiation protection situations lend themselves to simple solutions. Often a Radiation Protection Program must be developed and implemented for difficult situations. A defense in depth approach to radiation protection was developed for 125I production activities. Defense in depth relies on key radiation protection elements that tend to be mutually supportive and in combination provide reasonable assurance that the overall desired level of protection has been provided. For difficult situations, defense in depth can provide both a reasonable and appropriate approach to radiation protection.

  17. Infection with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus directly induces proinflammatory cytokines in primary astrocytes via NF-kappaB activation: potential role for the initiation of demyelinating disease.

    Palma, JoAnn P; Kwon, Daeho; Clipstone, Neil A; Kim, Byung S

    2003-06-01

    Theiler's virus infection in the central nervous system (CNS) induces a demyelinating disease very similar to human multiple sclerosis. We have assessed cytokine gene activation upon Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection and potential mechanisms in order to delineate the early events in viral infection that lead to immune-mediated demyelinating disease. Infection of SJL/J primary astrocyte cultures induces selective proinflammatory cytokine genes (interleukin-12p40 [IL-12p40], IL-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and beta interferon [IFN-beta]) important in the innate immune response to infection. We find that TMEV-induced cytokine gene expression is mediated by the NF-kappaB pathway based on the early nuclear NF-kappaB translocation and suppression of cytokine activation in the presence of specific inhibitors of the NF-kappaB pathway. Further studies show this to be partly independent of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and IFN-alpha/beta pathways. Altogether, these results demonstrate that infection of astrocytes and other CNS-resident cells by TMEV provides the early NF-kappaB-mediated signals that directly activate various proinflammatory cytokine genes involved in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory responses in the CNS known to be critical for the development of immune-mediated demyelination.

  18. Antiangiogenesis, Loss of Cell Adhesion and Apoptosis Are Involved in the Antitumoral Activity of Proteases from V. cundinamarcensis (C. candamarcensis in Murine Melanoma B16F1

    Dalton Dittz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The proteolytic enzymes from V. cundinamarcensis latex, (P1G10, display healing activity in animal models following various types of lesions. P1G10 or the purified isoforms act as mitogens on fibroblast and epithelial cells by stimulating angiogenesis and wound healing in gastric and cutaneous ulcers models. Based on evidence that plant proteinases act as antitumorals, we verified this effect on a murine melanoma model. The antitumoral effect analyzed mice survival and tumor development after subcutaneous administration of P1G10 into C57BL/6J mice bearing B16F1 low metastatic melanoma. Possible factors involved in the antitumoral action were assessed, i.e., cytotoxicity, cell adhesion and apoptosis in vitro, haemoglobin (Hb, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α content and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG activity. We observed that P1G10 inhibited angiogenesis measured by the decline of Hb and VEGF within the tumor, and TGF-β displayed a non-significant increase and TNF-α showed a minor non-significant reduction. On the other hand, there was an increase in NAG activity. In treated B16F1 cells, apoptosis was induced along with decreased cell binding to extracellular matrix components (ECM and anchorage, without impairing viability.

  19. Protection against murine leukemia virus-induced spongiform myeloencephalopathy in mice overexpressing Bcl-2 but not in mice deficient for interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthetase, ICE, Fas, Fas ligand, or TNF-R1 genes.

    Jolicoeur, Paul; Hu, Chunyan; Mak, Tak W; Martinou, Jean-Claude; Kay, Denis G

    2003-12-01

    Some murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs), among them Cas-Br-E and ts-1 MuLVs, are neurovirulent, inducing spongiform myeloencephalopathy and hind limb paralysis in susceptible mice. It has been shown that the env gene of these viruses harbors the determinant of neurovirulence. It appears that neuronal loss occurs by an indirect mechanism, since the target motor neurons have not been found to be infected. However, the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear. Several lymphokines, cytokines, and other cellular effectors have been found to be aberrantly expressed in the brains of infected mice, but whether these are required for the development of the neurodegenerative lesions is not known. In an effort to identify the specific effectors which are indeed required for the initiation and/or development of spongiform myeloencephalopathy, we inoculated gene-deficient (knockout [KO]) mice with ts-1 MuLV. We show here that interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS), ICE, Fas, Fas ligand (FasL), and TNF-R1 KO mice still develop signs of disease. However, transgenic mice overexpressing Bcl-2 in neurons (NSE/Bcl-2) were largely protected from hind limb paralysis and had less-severe spongiform lesions. These results indicate that motor neuron death occurs in this disease at least in part by a Bcl-2-inhibitable pathway not requiring the ICE, iNOS, Fas/FasL, TNF-R1, and IL-6 gene products.

  20. Simultaneous Overexpression of Functional Human HO-1, E5NT and ENTPD1 Protects Murine Fibroblasts against TNF-α-Induced Injury In Vitro.

    Alessandro Cinti

    Full Text Available Several biomedical applications, such as xenotransplantation, require multiple genes simultaneously expressed in eukaryotic cells. Advances in genetic engineering technologies have led to the development of efficient polycistronic vectors based on the use of the 2A self-processing oligopeptide. The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effects of the simultaneous expression of a novel combination of anti-inflammatory human genes, ENTPD1, E5NT and HO-1, in eukaryotic cells. We produced an F2A system-based multicistronic construct to express three human proteins in NIH3T3 cells exposed to an inflammatory stimulus represented by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine which plays an important role during inflammation, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis and in the inflammatory response during ischemia/reperfusion injury in several organ transplantation settings. The protective effects against TNF-α-induced cytotoxicity and cell death, mediated by HO-1, ENTPD1 and E5NT genes were better observed in cells expressing the combination of genes as compared to cells expressing each single gene and the effect was further improved by administrating enzymatic substrates of the human genes to the cells. Moreover, a gene expression analyses demonstrated that the expression of the three genes has a role in modulating key regulators of TNF-α signalling pathway, namely Nemo and Tnfaip3, that promoted pro-survival phenotype in TNF-α injured cells. These results could provide new insights in the research of protective mechanisms in transplantation settings.

  1. RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing Suggests Allobaculum spp. as Particularly Active Glucose Assimilators in a Complex Murine Microbiota Cultured In Vitro

    Herrmann, Elena; Young, Wayne; Rosendale, Douglas; Reichert-Grimm, Verena; Conrad, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    RNA-based stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) and metabolic profiling were used to detect actively glucose-consuming bacteria in a complex microbial community obtained from a murine model system. A faeces-derived microbiota was incubated under anaerobic conditions for 0, 2, and 4 h with 40 mM [U13C]glucose. Isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation and fractionation of isolated RNA into labeled and unlabeled fractions followed by 16S rRNA sequencing showed a quick adaptation of the bacterial community in response to the added sugar, which was dominated by unclassified Lachnospiraceae species. Inspection of distinct fractions of isotope-labeled RNA revealed Allobaculum spp. as particularly active glucose utilizers in the system, as the corresponding RNA showed significantly higher proportions among the labeled RNA. With time, the labeled sugar was used by a wider spectrum of faecal bacteria. Metabolic profiling indicated rapid fermentation of [U13C]glucose, with lactate, acetate, and propionate being the principal 13C-labeled fermentation products, and suggested that “cross-feeding” occurred in the system. RNA-SIP combined with metabolic profiling of 13C-labeled products allowed insights into the microbial assimilation of a general model substrate, demonstrating the appropriateness of this technology to study assimilation processes of nutritionally more relevant substrates, for example, prebiotic carbohydrates, in the gut microbiota of mice as a model system. PMID:28299315

  2. Mefloquine and its oxazolidine derivative compound are active against drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and in a murine model of tuberculosis infection.

    Rodrigues-Junior, Valnês S; Villela, Anne D; Gonçalves, Raoni S B; Abbadi, Bruno Lopes; Trindade, Rogério Valim; López-Gavín, Alexandre; Tudó, Griselda; González-Martín, Julian; Basso, Luiz Augusto; de Souza, Marcus V N; Campos, Maria Martha; Santos, Diógenes Santiago

    2016-08-01

    Repurposing of drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB) has been considered an alternative to overcome the global TB epidemic, especially to combat drug-resistant forms of the disease. Mefloquine has been reported as a potent drug to kill drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, mefloquine-derived molecules have been synthesised and their effectiveness against mycobacteria has been assessed. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the activities of mefloquine and its oxazolidine derivative compound 1E in a murine model of TB infection following administration of both drugs by the oral route. The effects of associations between mefloquine or 1E with the clinically used antituberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, moxifloxacin and streptomycin were also investigated. Importantly, combination of mefloquine with isoniazid and of 1E with streptomycin showed a two-fold decrease in their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Moreover, no tested combinations demonstrated antagonist interactions. Here we describe novel evidence on the activity of mefloquine and 1E against a series of quinolone-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. These data show MICs against quinolone-resistant strains (0.5-8 µg/mL) similar to or lower than those previously reported for multidrug-resistant strains. Taking these results together, we can suggest the use of mefloquine or 1E in combination with clinically available drugs, especially in the case of resistant forms of TB.

  3. Anti-allergic cromones inhibit histamine and eicosanoid release from activated human and murine mast cells by releasing Annexin A1.

    Samia Yazid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although the 'cromones' (di-sodium cromoglycate and sodium nedocromil are used to treat allergy and asthma, their 'mast cell stabilising' mechanism of pharmacological action has never been convincingly explained. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that these drugs act by stimulating the release of the anti-inflammatory protein Annexin-A1 (Anx-A1 from mast cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used biochemical and immuno-neutralisation techniques to investigate the mechanism by which cromones suppress histamine and eicosanoid release from cord-derived human mast cells (CDMCs or murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMDMCs from wild type and Anx-A1 null mice. KEY RESULTS: CDMCs activated by IgE-FcRε1 crosslinking, released histamine and prostaglandin (PG D2, which were inhibited (30-65% by 5 min pre-treatment with cromoglycate (10 nM or nedocromil (10 nM, as well as dexamethasone (2 nM and human recombinant Anx-A1 (1-10 nM. In CDMCs cromones potentiated (2-5 fold protein kinase C (PKC phosphorylation and Anx-A1 phosphorylation and secretion (3-5 fold. Incubation of CDMCs with a neutralising anti-Anx-A1 monoclonal antibody reversed the cromone inhibitory effect. Nedocromil (10 nM also inhibited (40-60% the release of mediators from murine bone marrow derived-mast cells from wild type mice activated by compound 48/80 and IgE-FcRε1 cross-linking, but were inactive in such cells when these were prepared from Anx-A1 null mice or when the neutralising anti-Anx-A1 antibody was present. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We conclude that stimulation of phosphorylation and secretion of Anx-A1 is an important component of inhibitory cromone actions on mast cells, which could explain their acute pharmacological actions in allergy. These findings also highlight a new pathway for reducing mediator release from these cells.

  4. Down-modulation of antigen-induced activation of murine cultured mast cells sensitized with a highly cytokinergic IgE clone.

    Sakanaka, Mariko; Kurimune, Yuki; Yamada, Keiko; Hyodo, Nao; Natsuhara, Mayuko; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Furuta, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that several IgE clones can activate mast cells during the sensitization phase even in the absence of antigen. They were found to induce pro-inflammatory cytokine release, histamine synthesis, chemotaxis, adhesion, and accelerated maturation of mast cells, although it remains unknown whether antigen-induced responses can be affected by differences of IgE clones. We compared two IgE clones, which were different in the capacity to activate mast cells during sensitization, in terms of potentials to affect antigen-induced degranulation and cytokine releases using IL-3-dependent murine bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMMCs). Antigen-induced degranulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release were augmented, when BMMCs were sensitized with elevated concentrations of a clone IgE-3, which did not induce phosphorylation of JNK and cytokine release in the absence of antigen, whereas those were significantly rather decreased, when BMMCs were sensitized with elevated concentrations of a clone SPE-7, one of the most potent cytokinergic IgE clones, which intensively induced phosphorylation of JNK. This attenuated response with SPE-7 was accompanied by decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of the cellular proteins including Syk upon antigen stimulation. SP600125, which is known to inhibit JNK, restored the levels of antigen-induced degranulation and phosphorylation of Syk in BMMCs sensitized with higher concentrations of a clone SPE-7 when it was added before sensitization. Treatment with anisomycin, a potent activator of JNK, before IgE sensitization significantly suppressed antigen-induced degranulation. These findings suggest that differences of sensitizing IgE clones can affect antigen-induced responses and activation of JNK during sensitization might suppress antigen-induced activation of mast cells.

  5. Managing Human Activities in Antarctica : Should Wilderness Protection Count?

    Bastmeijer, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Antarctica is often described as one of the world's last wildernesses. In harmony with this general perception, the wilderness values of Antarctica received legal status with the adoption of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Article 3(1) of the Protocol obliges each C

  6. Therapeutic effect of the YH6 phage in a murine hemorrhagic pneumonia model.

    Yang, Mei; Du, Chongtao; Gong, Pengjuan; Xia, Feifei; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Lei, Liancheng; Song, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Bin; Xiao, Feng; Yan, Xinwu; Cui, Ziyin; Li, Xinwei; Gu, Jingmin; Han, Wenyu

    2015-10-01

    The treatment, in farmed mink, of hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains has become increasingly difficult. This study investigated the potential use of phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa in a murine hemorrhagic pneumonia model. An N4-like phage designated YH6 was isolated using P. aeruginosa strain D9. YH6 is a virulent phage with efficient and broad host lytic activity against P. aeruginosa. No bacterial virulence- or lysogenesis-related ORF is present in the YH6 genome, making it eligible for use in phage therapy. In our murine experiments, a single intranasal administration of YH6 (2 × 10(7) PFU) 2 h after D9 intranasal injections at double minimum lethal dose was sufficient to protect mice against hemorrhagic pneumonia. The bacterial load in the lungs of YH6-protected mice was less than 10(3) CFU/g within 24 h after challenge and ultimately became undetectable, whereas the amount of bacteria in the lung tissue derived from unprotected mice was more than 10(8) CFU/g within 24 h after challenge. In view of its protective efficacy in this murine hemorrhagic pneumonia model, YH6 may serve as an alternative treatment strategy for infections caused by multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa.

  7. Activation of MITF by Argan Oil Leads to the Inhibition of the Tyrosinase and Dopachrome Tautomerase Expressions in B16 Murine Melanoma Cells

    Myra O. Villareal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Argan (Argania spinosa L. oil has been used for centuries in Morocco as cosmetic oil to maintain a fair complexion and to cure skin pimples and chicken pox pustules scars. Although it is popular, the scientific basis for its effect on the skin has not yet been established. Here, the melanogenesis regulatory effect of argan oil was evaluated using B16 murine melanoma cells. Results of melanin assay using B16 cells treated with different concentrations of argan oil showed a dose-dependent decrease in melanin content. Western blot results showed that the expression levels of tyrosinase (TYR, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1, and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT proteins were decreased. In addition, there was an increase in the activation of MITF and ERK1/2. Real-time PCR results revealed a downregulation of Tyr, Trp1, Dct, and Mitf mRNA expressions. Argan oil treatment causes MITF phosphorylation which subsequently inhibited the transcription of melanogenic enzymes, TYR and DCT. The inhibitory effect of argan oil on melanin biosynthesis may be attributed to tocopherols as well as the synergistic effect of its components. The results of this study provide the scientific basis for the traditionally established benefits of argan oil and present its therapeutic potential against hyperpigmentation disorders.

  8. p21-Activated kinase 6 (PAK6) inhibits prostate cancer growth via phosphorylation of androgen receptor and tumorigenic E3 ligase murine double minute-2 (Mdm2).

    Liu, Tong; Li, Yang; Gu, Hui; Zhu, Ge; Li, Jiabin; Cao, Liu; Li, Feng

    2013-02-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the development and growth of prostate malignancies. Regulation of AR homeostasis in prostate tumorigenesis has not yet been fully characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6) inhibits prostate tumorigenesis by regulating AR homeostasis. First, we demonstrated that in normal prostate epithelium, AR co-localizes with PAK6 in the cytoplasm and translocates into the nucleus in malignant prostate. Furthermore, AR phosphorylation at Ser-578 by PAK6 promotes AR-E3 ligase murine double minute-2 (Mdm2) association, causing AR degradation upon androgen stimuli. We also showed that PAK6 phosphorylates Mdm2 on Thr-158 and Ser-186, which is critical for AR ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Moreover, we found that Thr-158 collaborates with Ser-186 for AR-Mdm2 association and AR ubiquitin-mediated degradation as it facilitates PAK6-mediated AR homeostasis. PAK6 knockdown promotes prostate tumor growth in vivo. Interestingly, we found a strong inverse correlation between PAK6 and AR expression in the cytoplasm of prostate cancer cells. These observations indicate that PAK6 may be important for the maintenance of androgen-induced AR signaling homeostasis and in prostate malignancy, as well as being a possible new therapeutic target for AR-positive and hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

  9. Activation of MITF by Argan Oil Leads to the Inhibition of the Tyrosinase and Dopachrome Tautomerase Expressions in B16 Murine Melanoma Cells.

    Villareal, Myra O; Kume, Sayuri; Bourhim, Thouria; Bakhtaoui, Fatima Zahra; Kashiwagi, Kenichi; Han, Junkyu; Gadhi, Chemseddoha; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Argan (Argania spinosa L.) oil has been used for centuries in Morocco as cosmetic oil to maintain a fair complexion and to cure skin pimples and chicken pox pustules scars. Although it is popular, the scientific basis for its effect on the skin has not yet been established. Here, the melanogenesis regulatory effect of argan oil was evaluated using B16 murine melanoma cells. Results of melanin assay using B16 cells treated with different concentrations of argan oil showed a dose-dependent decrease in melanin content. Western blot results showed that the expression levels of tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) proteins were decreased. In addition, there was an increase in the activation of MITF and ERK1/2. Real-time PCR results revealed a downregulation of Tyr, Trp1, Dct, and Mitf mRNA expressions. Argan oil treatment causes MITF phosphorylation which subsequently inhibited the transcription of melanogenic enzymes, TYR and DCT. The inhibitory effect of argan oil on melanin biosynthesis may be attributed to tocopherols as well as the synergistic effect of its components. The results of this study provide the scientific basis for the traditionally established benefits of argan oil and present its therapeutic potential against hyperpigmentation disorders.

  10. Salvianolic Acid A Attenuates Cell Apoptosis, Oxidative Stress, Akt and NF-κB Activation in Angiotensin-II Induced Murine Peritoneal Macrophages.

    Li, Ling; Xu, Tongda; Du, Yinping; Pan, Defeng; Wu, Wanling; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Yanbin; Li, Dongye

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the role of Salvianolic acid A(SAA), one of the main effective components in Salvia Miltiorrhiza (known as 'Danshen' in traditional Chinese medicine), in apoptotic factors, the production of oxidative products, and the expression of Akt and NF-κB in angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated murine macrophages. In the present study, Ang II was added to mice abdominal macrophages with or without addition of SAA. After cell identification, apoptosis was measured by DNA strand break level with TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax. Intracellular concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also measured. Western blotting determined the expression of Akt, p-Akt, NF-κB and p-NF-κB. Ly294002 (the inhibitor of PI3K) was used to determine the mechanism of SAA. Ang II (1 µM) significantly increased the number of TUNEL-positive cells and Bax expression, but reduced Bcl-2 expression. These effects were antagonized when the cells were pretreated with SAA. SAA decreased MDA, but increased SOD in the cell lysis solution treated with Ang II. It markedly reduced the level of p-NF-κB, as also p-Akt, which was partly blocked by Ly294002. SAA prevents Ang IIinduced apoptosis, oxidative stress and related protein expression in the macrophages. It also inhibits the activation of Akt.

  11. Comparative study of the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of black tea theaflavins and green tea catechin on murine myeloid leukemia cells.

    Lung, Hong-Lok; Ip, Wai-Ki; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Mak, Nai-Ki; Leung, Kwok-Nam

    2004-03-01

    Among the black tea polyphenols, theaflavins are generally considered to be the more effective components for the inhibition of carcinogenesis. In this study, we attempted to compare the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of the four black tea theaflavins (TF-1, TF-2A, TF-2B and TF-3) with the major green tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the murine myeloid leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells. All the four black tea theaflavins were shown to exert potent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects on the leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells in a dose-dependent manner. The observed anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects were in the following order of potency: EGCG > TF-2B > TF-3 > TF-2A > TF-1. In addition, all theaflavins were capable of inducing apoptosis in the leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells. Among the four theaflavins tested, TF-2B and TF-3 were found to be slightly more potent in inducing apoptosis of the WEHI-3B JCS cells than that of TF-2A and TF-1 but were comparable to the major green tea epicatechin EGCG. More interestingly, both TF-2B and TF-3 were found to be much more effective than TF-1 and TF-2B in reducing both the in vitro clonogenicity and in vivo tumorigenicity of the WEHI-3B JCS cells, suggesting that these two black tea theaflavins might represent potential candidates for the treatment of some forms of leukemia.

  12. Development of an Active Topical Skin Protectant (aTSP)

    2016-02-01

    Stevenson, biologist  Robin Deckert, technician  SSG Christopher Maturey, technician  SSG James Mitchell, technician  Elizabeth Miller...detectable by touch. The first priority for skin application was to cover those areas adjacent to the closures of the individual protective ensemble (neck...negative results, the above procedure was repeated. Following the second round of testing for Nikolsky’s sign, results were recorded. Two modifications

  13. Protective activity of Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever.

    Klugman, K P; Gilbertson, I T; Koornhof, H J; Robbins, J B; Schneerson, R; Schulz, D; Cadoz, M; Armand, J

    1987-11-21

    The protective efficacy against typhoid fever of a single intramuscular injection of 25 micrograms of the Vi capsular polysaccharide (CPS) was assessed in a randomised double-blind controlled trial. Vaccination of 11,384 children was followed by 21 months' surveillance. 47 blood-culture-proven cases of typhoid occurred in children who received meningococcal A + C CPS vaccine and 19 cases in those vaccinated with Vi CPS. Protective efficacy was 60% calculated from the day of vaccination and 64% from 6 weeks after vaccination. Surveillance also included 11,691 unvaccinated children; 173 cases occurred in this group. Protective efficacy in relation to the unvaccinated group was 77.4% and 81.0% after 21 months, calculated immediately and 6 weeks after vaccination, respectively. Vaccination was associated with minimum local side-effects, and an increase in anti-Vi antibodies occurred, as measured by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody levels remained significantly raised at 6 and 12 months post vaccination. Vi CPS is thus a safe and effective means of typhoid vaccination.

  14. Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of con A-activated T lymphocytes induced by asiatic acid for preventing murine fulminant hepatitis.

    Guo, Wenjie; Liu, Wen; Hong, Shaocheng; Liu, Hailiang; Qian, Cheng; Shen, Yan; Wu, Xuefeng; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Selectively facilitating apoptosis of activated T cells is essential for the clearance of pathogenic injurious cells and subsequent efficient resolution of inflammation. However, few chemicals have been reported to trigger apoptosis of activated T cells for the treatment of hepatitis without affecting quiescent T cells. In the present study, we found that asiatic acid, a natural triterpenoid, selectively triggered apoptosis of concanavalin A (Con A)-activated T cells in a mitochondria-dependent manner indicated by the disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, caspases activation, and cleavage of PARP. In addition, asiatic acid also induced the cleavage of caspase 8 and Bid and augmented Fas expression in Con A-activated T cells. However, following activation of T cells from MRL(lpr/lpr) mice with mutation of Fas demonstrated a similar susceptibility to asiatic acid-induced apoptosis compared with normal T cells, suggesting that Fas-mediated death-receptor apoptotic pathway does not mainly contribute to asiatic acid-induced cell death. Furthermore, asiatic acid significantly alleviated Con A-induced T cell-dependent fulminant hepatitis in mice, as assessed by reduced serum transaminases, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and pathologic parameters. Consistent with the in vitro results, asiatic acid also induced apoptosis of activated CD4(+) T cells in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the ability of asiatic acid to induce apoptosis of activated T cells and its potential use in the treatment of T-cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  15. Site-specific bioconjugation of a murine dihydrofolate reductase enzyme by copper(I-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition with retained activity.

    Sung In Lim

    Full Text Available Cu(I-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC is an efficient reaction linking an azido and an alkynyl group in the presence of copper catalyst. Incorporation of a non-natural amino acid (NAA containing either an azido or an alkynyl group into a protein allows site-specific bioconjugation in mild conditions via CuAAC. Despite its great potential, bioconjugation of an enzyme has been hampered by several issues including low yield, poor solubility of a ligand, and protein structural/functional perturbation by CuAAC components. In the present study, we incorporated an alkyne-bearing NAA into an enzyme, murine dihydrofolate reductase (mDHFR, in high cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli, and performed CuAAC conjugation with fluorescent azide dyes to evaluate enzyme compatibility of various CuAAC conditions comprising combination of commercially available Cu(I-chelating ligands and reductants. The condensed culture improves the protein yield 19-fold based on the same amount of non-natural amino acid, and the enzyme incubation under the optimized reaction condition did not lead to any activity loss but allowed a fast and high-yield bioconjugation. Using the established conditions, a biotin-azide spacer was efficiently conjugated to mDHFR with retained activity leading to the site-specific immobilization of the biotin-conjugated mDHFR on a streptavidin-coated plate. These results demonstrate that the combination of reactive non-natural amino acid incorporation and the optimized CuAAC can be used to bioconjugate enzymes with retained enzymatic activity.

  16. Anti-interleukin-10R1 monoclonal antibody in combination with bacillus Calmette--Guérin is protective against bladder cancer metastasis in a murine orthotopic tumour model and demonstrates systemic specific anti-tumour immunity.

    Newton, M R; Askeland, E J; Andresen, E D; Chehval, V A; Wang, X; Askeland, R W; O'Donnell, M A; Luo, Y

    2014-07-01

    Effective treatment of bladder cancer with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) depends on the induction of a T helper type (Th) 1 immune response. Interleukin (IL)-10 down-regulates the Th1 response and is associated with BCG failure. In this study, we investigated whether blocking IL-10 signalling could enhance the BCG-induced Th1 response and anti-tumour immunity in a murine orthotopic tumour model. Treatment with BCG and anti-IL-10 receptor 1 monoclonal antibody (anti-IL-10R1 mAb) increased the interferon (IFN)-γ to IL-10 ratio in both splenocyte cultures and urine. Mice bearing luciferase-expressing MB49 (MB49-Luc) tumours were treated and followed for tumour growth by bioluminescent imaging, bladder weight and histology. Mice treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (group 1), BCG plus control immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 (group 2) or BCG plus anti-IL-10R1 mAb (group 3) showed 0, 6 and 22% tumour regression, respectively. The mean bladder weight of group 3 mice was substantially lower than those of groups 1 and 2 mice. Remarkably, 36% of group 1 and 53% of group 2 mice but no group 3 mice developed lung metastasis (P = 0·02). To investigate the mechanisms underlying the effect of combination therapy, splenocytes were stimulated with S12 peptide (serine mutation at codon 12 of the K-ras oncogene) known to be expressed in MB49-Luc cells. Induction of ras mutation-specific IFN-γ and cytotoxicity was observed in mice treated with combination therapy. These observations indicate that BCG, in combination with anti-IL-10R1 mAb, induces enhanced anti-tumour immunity that is protective against lung metastasis. Anti-IL-10R1 mAb demonstrates systemic effects and may prove useful in clinical practice for treating bladder cancer in high-risk patients.

  17. Anti-interleukin-10R1 monoclonal antibody in combination with bacillus Calmette–Guérin is protective against bladder cancer metastasis in a murine orthotopic tumour model and demonstrates systemic specific anti-tumour immunity

    Newton, M R; Askeland, E J; Andresen, E D; Chehval, V A; Wang, X; Askeland, R W; O'Donnell, M A; Luo, Y

    2014-01-01

    Effective treatment of bladder cancer with bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) depends on the induction of a T helper type (Th) 1 immune response. Interleukin (IL)-10 down-regulates the Th1 response and is associated with BCG failure. In this study, we investigated whether blocking IL-10 signalling could enhance the BCG-induced Th1 response and anti-tumour immunity in a murine orthotopic tumour model. Treatment with BCG and anti-IL-10 receptor 1 monoclonal antibody (anti-IL-10R1 mAb) increased the interferon (IFN)-γ to IL-10 ratio in both splenocyte cultures and urine. Mice bearing luciferase-expressing MB49 (MB49-Luc) tumours were treated and followed for tumour growth by bioluminescent imaging, bladder weight and histology. Mice treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (group 1), BCG plus control immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 (group 2) or BCG plus anti-IL-10R1 mAb (group 3) showed 0, 6 and 22% tumour regression, respectively. The mean bladder weight of group 3 mice was substantially lower than those of groups 1 and 2 mice. Remarkably, 36% of group 1 and 53% of group 2 mice but no group 3 mice developed lung metastasis (P = 0·02). To investigate the mechanisms underlying the effect of combination therapy, splenocytes were stimulated with S12 peptide (serine mutation at codon 12 of the K-ras oncogene) known to be expressed in MB49-Luc cells. Induction of ras mutation-specific IFN-γ and cytotoxicity was observed in mice treated with combination therapy. These observations indicate that BCG, in combination with anti-IL-10R1 mAb, induces enhanced anti-tumour immunity that is protective against lung metastasis. Anti-IL-10R1 mAb demonstrates systemic effects and may prove useful in clinical practice for treating bladder cancer in high-risk patients. PMID:24593764

  18. Protective effect of the DNA vaccine encoding the major house dust mite allergens on allergic inflammation in the murine model of house dust mite allergy

    Lee Jaechun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination with naked DNA encoding antigen induces cellular and humoral immunity characterized by the activation of specific Th1 cells. Objective To evaluate the effects of vaccination with mixed naked DNA plasmids encoding Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 3, Der f 1, Der f 2, and Der f 3, the major house dust mite allergens on the allergic inflammation to the whole house dust mites (HDM crude extract. Methods Three hundred micrograms of these gene mixtures were injected into muscle of BALB/c mice. Control mice were injected with the pcDNA 3.1 blank vector. After 3 weeks, the mice were actively sensitized and inhaled with the whole house dust mite extract intranasally. Results The vaccinated mice showed a significantly decreased synthesis of total and HDM-specific IgE compared with controls. Analysis of the cytokine profile of lymphocytes after challenge with HDM crude extract revealed that mRNA expression of interferon-γ was higher in the vaccinated mice than in the controls. Reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells and the prominent infiltration of CD8+ T cells were observed in histology of lung tissue from the vaccinated mice. Conclusion Vaccination with DNA encoding the major house dust mite allergens provides a promising approach for treating allergic responses to whole house dust mite allergens.

  19. Activated Natural Zeolites on Textiles: Protection from Radioactive Contamination

    Grancaric, A. M.; Prlic, I.; Tarbuk, A.; Marovic, G.

    Clothing designed to protect against radioactive contamination was based on a simple principle. It was important not to inhale contaminated dust and air and to ensure that contaminated particles could not reach the skin. Therefore, the density of the textile was crucial. New developments, keeping in mind that textile should be lightweight, are focused on textiles which can chemically bind the contamination particles and not allow them either to diffuse to the skin or spread back into the environment. A great success would be if the clothing were made reusable (e.g., for use in the space station). Therefore, new methods (or chemical preparations) are being proposed for developing intelligent textiles.

  20. Rhamnolipids as active protective agents for microorganisms against toxic substances

    Marta Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of microbial biosurfactants decreases the toxicity of chlorophenols towards Pseudomonas putida 2A cells. The rhamnolipid-originating micelles selectively entrapped chlorophenol molecules, which resulted in their lower bioavailability to microbial cells. It was observed that the effective concentrations causing 50% growth inhibition increased by 0.5, 0.35 and 0.15 for phenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2.4-dichlorophenol, accordingly. The application of surfactants as protective agents for microorganisms brings about new possibilities of using this phenomenon in bioremediation techniques.

  1. Alternative activation and increase of Trypanosoma cruzi survival in murine macrophages stimulated by cruzipain, a parasite antigen.

    Stempin, Cinthia; Giordanengo, Laura; Gea, Susana; Cerbán, Fabio

    2002-10-01

    We studied the macrophage (Mo) activation pathways through Mo interaction with immunogenic Trypanosoma cruzi antigens as cruzipain (Cz) and R13. J774 cells, peritoneal and spleen Mo from normal mice, were used. Although Mo classic activation was observed in the presence of lipopolysaccharide, evaluated through nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-12 production, Cz and R13 did not activate Mo in this way. To study the alternative pathway, we examined the arginase activity in Mo cultured with Cz. An increase of arginase activity was detected in all Mo sources assayed. An increase of IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta in culture supernatants from Mo stimulated with Cz was observed. The study of expression of B7.1 and B7.2 in spleen Mo revealed that Cz induces preferential expression of B7.2. In vitro studies revealed that Cz stimulated J774 cells and then, infected with trypomastigotes of T. cruzi, developed a higher number of intracellular parasites than unstimulated infected Mo. Thus, Cz favors the perpetuation of T. cruzi infection. In addition, a down-regulation of inducible NO synthase was observed in J774 cells stimulated with Cz. These results suggest that Cz interaction with Mo could modulate the immune response generated against T. cruzi through the induction of a preferential metabolic pathway in Mo.

  2. Novel Principles of Gamma-Retroviral Insertional Transcription Activation in Murine Leukemia Virus-induced End-stage Tumors

    Sokol, Martin; Wabl, Matthias; Rius Ruiz, Irene;

    2014-01-01

    Background Insertional mutagenesis screens of retrovirus-induced mouse tumors have proven valuable in human cancer research and for understanding adverse effects of retroviral-based gene therapies. In previous studies, the assignment of mouse genes to individual retroviral integration sites has...... been based on close proximity and expression patterns of annotated genes at target positions in the genome. We here employed next-generation RNA sequencing to map retroviral-mouse chimeric junctions genome-wide, and to identify local patterns of transcription activation in T-lymphomas induced...... than 2,000 mice was examined. Results We detected several novel mechanisms of retroviral insertional mutagenesis: bidirectional activation of mouse transcripts on opposite sides of a provirus including transcription of unannotated mouse sequence; sense/antisense-type activation of genes located...

  3. Active lifestyle protects against incident low back pain in seniors

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of twins. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between physical activity, physical function, and incident low back pain (LBP) in an elderly population. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The relationship between an active lifestyle and LBP in seniors is unknown...

  4. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    2010-01-01

    ... loss of primary power. (f) Testing and maintenance. Each licensee shall test and maintain intrusion... activities. 73.50 Section 73.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.50 Requirements for...

  5. Natural features of the Polimske Prokletije mountains from the point of their active protection

    Knežević Marko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with basic natural values and features of the Prokletije range and points out the need for their active protection. Their value is that of natural treasure according to all criteria. They are a priceless contribution to science, culture, education, art and tourism. Therefore, it is important to preserve them and protect them as a national park.

  6. Enhanced Hippocampal Neurogenesis in the Absence of Microglia T Cell Interaction and Microglia Activation in the Murine Running Wheel Model

    Olah, Marta; Ping, Gao; De Haas, Alexander H.; Brouwer, Niesike; Meerlo, Peter; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.; Biber, Knut; Boddeike, Hendrikus W. G. M.; Brouwer, Nieske; Boddeke, Hendrikus W.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, activated microglia have been shown to be involved in the regulation of several aspects of neurogenesis under certain experimental conditions both in vitro and in vivo. A neurogenesis supportive microglia phenotype has been suggested to arise from the interaction of microglia with homing e

  7. Secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (CCL21) activates CXCR3 to trigger a Cl- current and chemotaxis in murine microglial

    Rappert, A; Biber, K; Nolte, C; Lipp, M; Schubel, A; Lu, B; Gerard, NP; Gerard, C; Boddeke, HWGM; Kettenmann, H

    2002-01-01

    Microglial cells represent the major immunocompetent element of the CNS and are activated by any type of brain injury or disease. A candidate for signaling neuronal injury to microglial cells is the CC chemokine ligand CCL21, given that damaged neurons express CCL21. Investigating microglia in acute

  8. Activation of PI3K signaling prevents aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death in the murine cochlea

    Azadeh Jadali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss of sensory hair cells of the inner ear due to aminoglycoside exposure is a major cause of hearing loss. Using an immortalized multipotent otic progenitor (iMOP cell line, specific signaling pathways that promote otic cell survival were identified. Of the signaling pathways identified, the PI3K pathway emerged as a strong candidate for promoting hair cell survival. In aging animals, components for active PI3K signaling are present but decrease in hair cells. In this study, we determined whether activated PI3K signaling in hair cells promotes survival. To activate PI3K signaling in hair cells, we used a small molecule inhibitor of PTEN or genetically ablated PTEN using a conditional knockout animal. Hair cell survival was challenged by addition of gentamicin to cochlear cultures. Hair cells with activated PI3K signaling were more resistant to aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. These results indicate that increased PI3K signaling in hair cells promote survival and the PI3K signaling pathway is a target for preventing aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss.

  9. Rescue of Murine F508del CFTR Activity in Native Intestine by Low Temperature and Proteasome Inhibitors

    M. Wilke (Martina); A.G. Bot (Alice); H. Jorna (Huub); B.J. Scholte (Bob); H.R. de Jonge (Hugo)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMost patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) carry at least one allele with the F508del mutation, resulting in a CFTR chloride channel protein with a processing, gating and stability defect, but with substantial residual activity when correctly sorted to the apical membranes of epithelial cel

  10. Does lycopene offer human LDL any protection against myeloperoxidase activity?

    Chew, Poh Yeong; Riley, Lucy; Graham, Daniel L; Rahman, Khalid; Lowe, Gordon M

    2012-02-01

    Lycopene is a lipophilic antioxidant that is largely transported in human blood by Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL). One of the early events in the aetiology of atherosclerosis is thought to be the oxidation of LDL. Myeloperoxidase an enzyme secreted by neutrophils and macrophages is thought to oxidise human LDL particles. In this study, isolated human LDL was challenged with myeloperoxidase or copper, and the LDL was screened for lipoperoxidation and oxidation of apolipoprotein B100, depletion of lycopene and oxidation of cholesterol. Myeloperoxidase induced oxidation of LDL through direct interaction with apolipoprotein B100. No lipoperoxidation was observed following myeloperoxidase treatment; however, 7-ketocholesterol was detected indicating the products of myeloperoxidase interact with the surface of the LDL particles. Lycopene does react with the products of myeloperoxidase in solvent, but played no role in protecting against enzyme derived oxidation of human LDL.

  11. Contamination monitoring in radiation protection activities in Myanmar

    Thin, K.T.; Htoon, S. [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    The radioactive contamination in rainwater, seawater, air, milk powder and other eatables were measured with low level counter assembly. The measured activities are found to be very low and well within the maximum permissible level. (author)

  12. A murine monoclonal antibody that binds N-terminal extracellular segment of human protease-activated receptor-4.

    Sangawa, Takeshi; Nogi, Terukazu; Takagi, Junichi

    2008-10-01

    Abstract A monoclonal antibody that recognizes native G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) is generally difficult to obtain. Protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR4) is a GPCR that plays an important role in platelet activation as a low-affinity thrombin receptor. By immunizing peptide corresponding to the N-terminal segment of human PAR4, we obtained a monoclonal antibody that recognizes cell surface expressed PAR4. Epitope mapping using a series of artificial fusion proteins that carry PAR4-derived peptide revealed that the recognition motif is fully contained within the 6-residue portion adjacent to the thrombin cleavage site. The antibody blocked PAR4 peptide cleavage by thrombin, suggesting its utility in the functional study of PAR4 signaling.

  13. Homing of radiolabelled recombinant interleukin-2 activated natural killer cells and their efficacy in adoptive immunotherapy against murine fibrosarcoma

    Anuradha Rai; Ashim K Chakravarty

    2007-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are spontaneously cytotoxic against tumour target cells. Their number was found to be four times more in the spleen of tumour-bearing Swiss albino mice. After activation with recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2), NK cells were tested and found to seek out the tumour site when injected intravenously in tumour-bearing mice. Their potential for fighting tumours in vivo was further seen following adoptive transfer of rIL-2 activated NK (A-NK) cells in tumour-bearing mice. After surgical removal of tumour load, adoptive transfer of A-NK cells inhibited tumour recurrence in 92.3% cases, thereby suggesting the use of this protocol for therapeutic purposes to obtain a better outcome.

  14. The co-stimulatory effects of MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling on activation of murine γδ T cells.

    Jinping Zhang

    Full Text Available γδ T cells express several different toll-like receptor (TLRs. The role of MyD88- dependent TLR signaling in TCR activation of murine γδ T cells is incompletely defined. Here, we report that Pam3CSK4 (PAM, TLR2 agonist and CL097 (TLR7 agonist, but not lipopolysaccharide (TLR4 agonist, increased CD69 expression and Th1-type cytokine production upon anti-CD3 stimulation of γδ T cells from young adult mice (6-to 10-week-old. However, these agonists alone did not induce γδ T cell activation. Additionally, we noted that neither PAM nor CL097 synergized with anti-CD3 in inducing CD69 expression on γδ T cells of aged mice (21-to 22-month-old. Compared to young γδ T cells, PAM and CL097 increased Th-1 type cytokine production with a lower magnitude from anti-CD3- stimulated, aged γδ T cells. Vγ1+ and Vγ4+ cells are two subpopulations of splenic γδ T cells. PAM had similar effects in anti-CD3-activated control and Vγ4+ subset- depleted γδ T cells; whereas CL097 induced more IFN-γ production from Vγ4+ subset-depleted γδ T cells than from the control group. Finally, we studied the role of MyD88-dependent TLRs in γδ T cell activation during West Nile virus (WNV infection. γδ T cell, in particular, Vγ1+ subset expansion was significantly reduced in both MyD88- and TLR7- deficient mice. Treatment with TLR7 agonist induced more Vγ1+ cell expansion in wild-type mice during WNV infection. In summary, these results suggest that MyD88-dependent TLRs provide co-stimulatory signals during TCR activation of γδ T cells and these have differential effects on distinct subsets.

  15. Activation of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R promotes neurogenesis in murine subventricular zone cell cultures.

    Sara Xapelli

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the modulation of adult neurogenesis. Here, we describe the effect of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R activation on self-renewal, proliferation and neuronal differentiation in mouse neonatal subventricular zone (SVZ stem/progenitor cell cultures. Expression of CB1R was detected in SVZ-derived immature cells (Nestin-positive, neurons and astrocytes. Stimulation of the CB1R by (R-(+-Methanandamide (R-m-AEA increased self-renewal of SVZ cells, as assessed by counting the number of secondary neurospheres and the number of Sox2+/+ cell pairs, an effect blocked by Notch pathway inhibition. Moreover, R-m-AEA treatment for 48 h, increased proliferation as assessed by BrdU incorporation assay, an effect mediated by activation of MAPK-ERK and AKT pathways. Surprisingly, stimulation of CB1R by R-m-AEA also promoted neuronal differentiation (without affecting glial differentiation, at 7 days, as shown by counting the number of NeuN-positive neurons in the cultures. Moreover, by monitoring intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+]i in single cells following KCl and histamine stimuli, a method that allows the functional evaluation of neuronal differentiation, we observed an increase in neuronal-like cells. This proneurogenic effect was blocked when SVZ cells were co-incubated with R-m-AEA and the CB1R antagonist AM 251, for 7 days, thus indicating that this effect involves CB1R activation. In accordance with an effect on neuronal differentiation and maturation, R-m-AEA also increased neurite growth, as evaluated by quantifying and measuring the number of MAP2-positive processes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CB1R activation induces proliferation, self-renewal and neuronal differentiation from mouse neonatal SVZ cell cultures.

  16. Modulation of expression and activity of cytochrome P450s and alteration of praziquantel kinetics during murine schistosomiasis

    Mara A Gotardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the expression and activity of liver cytochrome P450s (CYPs and praziquantel (PZQ kinetics in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Swiss Webster (SW mice of both genders were infected (100 cercariae on postnatal day 10 and killed on post-infection days (PIDs 30 or 55. Non-infected mice of the same age and sex served as controls. Regardless of mouse sex, infection depressed the activities of CYP1A [ethoxy/methoxy-resorufin-O-dealkylases (EROD/MROD], 2B9/10 [pentoxy/benzyloxy-resorufin-O-dealkylases (PROD, BROD], 2E1 [p-nitrophenol-hydroxylase (PNPH] and 3A11 [erythromycin N-demethylase (END] on PID 55 but not on PID 30. On PID 55, infection decreased liver CYP mRNA levels (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. On PID 30, whereas mRNA levels remained unaltered in males, they were depressed in females. Plasma PZQ (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally levels were measured (high-performance liquid chromatography at different post-treatment intervals. In males and females, infection delayed the PZQ clearance on PID 55, but not on PID 30. Therefore, it can be concluded that schistosomiasis down-modulated CYP expression and activity and delayed PZQ clearance on PID 55, when a great number of parasite eggs were lodged in the liver. On PID 30, when egg-laying was initiated by the worms, no change of CYP expression and activity was found, except for a depression of CYP1A2 and 3A11 mRNAs in female mice.

  17. Synthesis and murine antineoplastic activity of bis[(carbamoyloxy)methyl] derivatives of pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinoline.

    Anderson, W K; McPherson, H L; New, J S; Rick, A C

    1984-10-01

    The synthesis of 4,5-dihydropyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinolines is reported. A key intermediate in the synthesis of 8-methoxy-4,5-dihydropyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinolines, 6-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-1-carboxylic acid (6), was prepared by using a regiospecific phenolic cyclization reaction. The P388 lymphocytic activity is reported for 1,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-5,6-dihydro-8-methoxy-3-methylpyrrolo [2,1-a]isoquinoline bis(isopropylcarbamate) (11a), 1,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-5,6-dihydro-8-methoxy-3-methylpyrrolo[2,1-a ]isoquinoline bis(cyclohexylcarbamate) (11b), 1,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-5,6-dihydro-3-methylpyrrolo[2,1-a]isoqui nol ine bis(methylcarbamate) (13a), 1,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-5,6-dihydro-3-methylpyrrolo [2,1-a]isoquinoline bis(ethylcarbamate) (13b), and 1,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-5,6-dihydroxy-3-methylpyrrolo[2,1-a]isoq uin oline bis(cyclohexylcarbamate) (13c); all of the compounds were active. Compound 11a was tested in an expanded tumor panel and was shown to be active against B16 melanocarcinoma, CD8F1 mammary, L1210 lymphoid leukemia, colon 38, and MX-1 human tumor breast xenograft systems.

  18. Screening on the Pharmacodynemic Active Parts of Protecting Liver of Peristrope japonica (thunb.)Bremek

    杨希雄; 皮慧芳; 张国欣; 庞雪冰; 吴继洲

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacodynamic active parts of protecting liver of Peristrope japonica (thunb.)Bremek were identified. Rat acute liver injury model was induced by D-galactosamine (D-GlaN).The active parts were identified on the whole extraction and 4 fractions. The results showed that the pharmacodynamic active parts of Peristrope japonica were the n-BuOH fraction.

  19. In vivo activation of toll-like receptor-9 induces an age-dependent abortive lytic cycle reactivation of murine gammaherpesvirus-68.

    Ptaschinski, Catherine; Wilmore, Joel; Fiore, Nancy; Rochford, Rosemary

    2010-12-01

    Infection of mice with murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (γHV-68) serves as a model to understand the pathogenesis of persistent viral infections, including the potential for co-infections to modulate viral latency. We have previously found that infection of neonates (8-day-old mice) with γHV-68 resulted in a high level of persistence of the virus in the lungs as well as the spleen, in contrast to infection of adult mice, for which long-term latency was only readily detected in the spleen. In this study we investigated whether stimulation of toll-like receptor (TLR)9 would modulate viral latency in mice infected with γHV-68 in an age-dependent manner. Pups and adult mice were injected with the synthetic TLR9 ligand CpG ODN at 30 dpi, at which time long-term latency has been established. Three days after CpG injection, the lungs and spleens were removed, and a limiting dilution assay was done to determine the frequency of latently infected cells. RNA was extracted to measure viral transcripts using a ribonuclease protection assay. We observed that CpG injection resulted in an increase in the frequency of latently-infected cells in both the lungs and spleens of infected pups, but only in the spleens of infected adult mice. No preformed virus was detected, suggesting that TLR9 stimulation did not trigger complete viral reactivation. When we examined viral gene expression in these same tissues, we observed expression only of the immediate early lytic genes, rta and K3, but not the early DNA polymerase gene or late gB transcript indicative of an abortive reactivation in the spleen. Additionally, mice infected as pups had greater numbers of germinal center B cells in the spleen following CpG injection, whereas CpG stimulated the expansion of follicular zone B cells in adult mice. These data suggest that stimulation of TLR9 differentially modulates gammaherpesvirus latency via an age-dependent mechanism.

  20. Activities of fenbendazole in comparison with albendazole against Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes in vitro and in a murine infection model.

    Küster, Tatiana; Stadelmann, Britta; Aeschbacher, Denise; Hemphill, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    The current chemotherapeutic treatment of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in humans is based on albendazole and/or mebendazole. However, the costs of treatment, life-long consumption of drugs, parasitostatic rather than parasiticidal activity of chemotherapy, and high recurrence rates after treatment interruption warrant more efficient treatment options. Experimental treatment of mice infected with Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes with fenbendazole revealed similar efficacy to albendazole. Inspection of parasite tissue from infected and benzimidazole-treated mice by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated drug-induced alterations within the germinal layer of the parasites, and most notably an almost complete absence of microtriches. On the other hand, upon in vitro exposure of metacestodes to benzimidazoles, no phosphoglucose isomerase activity could be detected in medium supernatants during treatment with any of these drugs, indicating that in vitro treatment did not severely affect the viability of metacestode tissue. Corresponding TEM analysis also revealed a dramatic shortening/retraction of microtriches as a hallmark of benzimidazole action, and as a consequence separation of the acellular laminated layer from the cellular germinal layer. Since TEM did not reveal any microtubule-based structures within Echinococcus microtriches, this effect cannot be explained by the previously described mechanism of action of benzimidazoles targeting β-tubulin, thus benzimidazoles must interact with additional targets that have not been yet identified. In addition, these results indicate the potential usefulness of fenbendazole for the chemotherapy of AE.

  1. Antitumor and antimetastatic activities of a novel benzothiazole-2-thiol derivative in a murine model of breast cancer.

    Hu, XiaoLin; Li, Sen; He, Yan; Ai, Ping; Wu, Shaoyong; Su, Yonglin; Li, Xiaolin; Cai, Lei; Peng, Xingchen

    2017-01-02

    The prognosis of metastatic breast cancer is always very poor. Thus, it is urgent to develop novel drugs with less toxicity against metastatic breast cancer. A new drug (XC-591) derived from benzothiazole-2-thiol was designed and synthesized in our lab. In this study, we tried to assess effects of XC-591 treatment on primary breast cancer and pulmonary metastasis in 4T1 mice model. Furthermore, we tried to discover its possible molecular mechanism of action. MTT experiment showed XC-591 had significant anti-cancer activity on diverse cancer cells. Furthermore, XC-591 significantly suppressed the proliferation of 4T1 cells by colony formation assay. The in vivo results displayed that XC-591 could inhibit the growth and metastasis in 4T1 model. Moreover, histological analysis revealed that XC-591 treatment increased apoptosis, inhibited proliferation and angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, XC-591 did not contribute to obvious drug associated toxicity during the whole study. Molecular mechanism showed XC-591 could inhibit RhoGDI, activate caspase-3 and decrease phosphorylated Akt. The present data may be important to further explore this kind of new small-molecule inhibitor.

  2. Ras dependent paracrine secretion of osteopontin by Nf1+/- osteoblasts promote osteoclast activation in a neurofibromatosis type I murine model.

    Li, Huijie; Liu, Yaling; Zhang, Qi; Jing, Yongmin; Chen, Shi; Song, Zhaohui; Yan, Jincheng; Li, Yan; Wu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xianghong; Zhang, Yingze; Case, Jamie; Yu, Menggang; Ingram, David A; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2009-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a pandemic genetic disorder characterized by malignant and nonmalignant manifestations, including skeletal abnormalities, such as osteoporosis, scoliosis, short stature, and pseudarthrosis. Recent studies in genetically inbred mice and from human patients with NF1 have identified multiple gains in osteoclast (OCL) functions both in vitro and in vivo. Given that osteoblasts secrete cytokines that promote OCL maturation/activation, we sought to identify whether haploinsufficiency of Nf1 (Nf1+/-) osteoblasts and their precursors secrete cytokines that have a central role in this process. Osteoblast conditioned media (OBCM) from Nf1+/- osteoblasts promoted OCL migration and bone resorption compared with WT OBCM. Osteopontin (OPN), a matrix protein found in mineralized tissues and pivotal in modulating OCL functions, was present in increased concentrations in Nf1+/- osteoblasts. Addition of OPN neutralizing antibody to Nf1+/- OBCM diminished the gain in bioactivity on OCL functions, including OCL migration and bone resorption. Our study identifies an important paracrine loop whereby elevated secretion of OPN by osteoblasts activate Nf1+/- OCLs that already have an intrinsic propensity for bone resorption leading to osteopenia and osteoporosis.

  3. IL-10 distinguishes a unique population of activated, effector-like CD8(+) T cells in murine acute liver inflammation.

    Rood, Julia E; Canna, Scott W; Weaver, Lehn K; Tobias, John W; Behrens, Edward M

    2017-04-01

    Immune-mediated liver injury is a central feature of hyperinflammatory diseases, such as hemophagocytic syndromes, yet the immunologic mechanisms underlying those processes are incompletely understood. In this study, we used the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated model of a hemophagocytic syndrome known as macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) to dissect the predominant immune cell populations infiltrating the liver during inflammation. We identified CD8(+) T cells that unexpectedly produce interleukin-10 (IL-10) in addition to interferon-γ (IFN-γ) as a major hepatic population induced by TLR9 stimulation. Despite their ability to produce this anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10(+) hepatic CD8(+) T cells in TLR9-MAS mice did not resemble CD8(+) T suppressor cells. Instead, the induction of these cells occurred independently of antigen stimulation and was partially dependent on IFN-γ. IL-10(+) hepatic CD8(+) T cells demonstrated an activated phenotype and high turnover rate, consistent with an effector-like identity. Transcriptional analysis of this population confirmed a gene signature of effector CD8(+) T cells yet suggested responsiveness to liver injury-associated growth factors. Together, these findings suggest that IL-10(+) CD8(+) T cells induced by systemic inflammation to infiltrate the liver have initiated an inflammatory, rather than regulatory, program and may thus have a pathogenic role in severe, acute hepatitis.

  4. Antitumor activity of SAHA, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, against murine B cell lymphoma A20 cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Yang, Bohan; Yu, Dandan; Liu, Jingwen; Yang, Kunyu; Wu, Gang; Liu, Hongli

    2015-07-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat), the second generation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of cutaneous manifestations of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). It has also shown its anticancer activity over a large range of other hematological and solid malignancies, but few studies have been reported in B cell lymphoma. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antitumor activity of SAHA on murine B cell lymphoma cell line A20 cells. We treated A20 cells with different concentrations of SAHA. The effect of SAHA on the proliferation of A20 cells was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT) assay in vitro; the anti-proliferation activity in vivo was evaluated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) of xenograft tumor tissues through immunocytochemical staining. Apoptosis were detected by Hoechst 33258 staining and Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double-labeled cytometry in vitro. The effect of SAHA on cell cycle of A20 cells was studied by a propidium iodide method. Autophagic cell death induced by SAHA was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Angiogenesis marker (CD31) was measured by immunocytochemical staining to investigate the anti-angiogenic effect of SAHA. Western blot was used to detect the expression of signaling pathway factors (phospho-AKT, phospho-ERK, AKT, ERK, Nur77, HIF-1α, and VEGF). Our results showed that SAHA inhibited the proliferation of A20 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, induced cell apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest of cell cycle, promoted autophagic cell death, and suppressed tumor progress in NCI-A20 cells nude mice xenograft model in vivo. SAHA decreased the activation of AKT (phospho-AKT: p-AKT) and ERK1/2 (phospho-ERK: p-ERK) proteins and inhibited the expression of pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF and HIF-1α), downregulated its downstream signaling factor (Nur77), which might be contributed to the antitumor mechanisms

  5. Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri infection activates colonic FoxP3+ T cells enhancing their capacity to prevent colitis

    Helminthic infections protect mice from colitis in murine models of inflammatory bowel disease and also may protect people. Helminths like Heligmosomoides bakeri (Hpb) can induce Tregs. Experiments explored if Hpb infection could protect mice from colitis through activation of colonic Treg and exam...

  6. Orally administered Salacia reticulata extract reduces H1N1 influenza clinical symptoms in murine lung tissues putatively due to enhanced natural killer cell activity

    Gustavo Adolfo Romero-Pérez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major cause of respiratory tract infection. Although most cases do not require further hospitalization, influenza periodically causes epidemics in humans that can potentially infect and kill millions of people. To countermeasure this threat, new vaccines need to be developed annually to match emerging influenza viral strains with increased resistance to existing vaccines. Thus, there is a need for finding and developing new anti-influenza viral agents as alternatives to current treatments. Here, we tested the antiviral effects of an extract from the stems and roots of Salacia reticulata (SSRE, a plant rich in phytochemicals such as salacinol, kotalanol and catechins, on H1N1 influenza virus-infected mice. Following oral administration of 0.6 mg/day of SSRE, the incidence of coughing decreased in 80% of mice, and only one case of severe pulmonary inflammation was detected. Moreover, when compared with mice given Lactobacillus casei JCM1134, a strain previously shown to help increase in vitro NK cell activity, SSRE-administered mice showed greater and equal NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells, respectively, at high effector cell:target cell ratios. Next, to test whether or not SSRE would exert protective effects against influenza in the absence of gut microbiota, mice were given antibiotics before being inoculated influenza virus and subsequently administered SSRE. SSRE administration induced an increase in NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells at levels similar to those detected in mice not treated with antibiotics. Based on our results, it can be concluded that phytochemicals in the SSRE exerted protective effects against influenza infection putatively via modulation of the immune response including enhancement of NK cell activity, although some protective effects were not necessarily through modulation of gut microbiota. Further investigation is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanisms

  7. Orally Administered Salacia reticulata Extract Reduces H1N1 Influenza Clinical Symptoms in Murine Lung Tissues Putatively Due to Enhanced Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A.; Egashira, Masayo; Harada, Yuri; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Tsukamoto, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is a major cause of respiratory tract infection. Although most cases do not require further hospitalization, influenza periodically causes epidemics in humans that can potentially infect and kill millions of people. To countermeasure this threat, new vaccines need to be developed annually to match emerging influenza viral strains with increased resistance to existing vaccines. Thus, there is a need for finding and developing new anti-influenza viral agents as alternatives to current treatments. Here, we tested the antiviral effects of an extract from the stems and roots of Salacia reticulata (SSRE), a plant rich in phytochemicals, such as salacinol, kotalanol, and catechins, on H1N1 influenza virus-infected mice. Following oral administration of 0.6 mg/day of SSRE, the incidence of coughing decreased in 80% of mice, and only one case of severe pulmonary inflammation was detected. Moreover, when compared with mice given Lactobacillus casei JCM1134, a strain previously shown to help increase in vitro natural killer (NK) cell activity, SSRE-administered mice showed greater and equal NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells, respectively, at high effector cell:target cell ratios. Next, to test whether or not SSRE would exert protective effects against influenza in the absence of gut microbiota, mice were given antibiotics before being inoculated influenza virus and subsequently administered SSRE. SSRE administration induced an increase in NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells at levels similar to those detected in mice not treated with antibiotics. Based on our results, it can be concluded that phytochemicals in the SSRE exerted protective effects against influenza infection putatively via modulation of the immune response, including enhancement of NK cell activity, although some protective effects were not necessarily through modulation of gut microbiota. Further investigation is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanisms

  8. Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development

    Berbeé, J.F.P.; Boon, M.R.; Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Bartelt, A.; Schlein, C.; Worthmann, A.; Kooijman, S.; Hoeke, G.; Mol, I.M.; John, C.; Jung, C.; Vazirpanah, N.; Brouwers, L.P.J.; Gordts, P.L.S.M.; Esko, J.D.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Havekes, L.M.; Scheja, L.; Heeren, J.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts high amounts of fatty acids, thereby lowering plasma triglyceride levels and reducing obesity. However, the precise role of BAT in plasma cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis development remains unclear. Here we show that BAT activation by b3-adrenergic rece

  9. Follicle-stimulating hormone regulates expression and activity of epidermal growth factor receptor in the murine ovarian follicle.

    El-Hayek, Stephany; Demeestere, Isabelle; Clarke, Hugh J

    2014-11-25

    Fertility depends on the precise coordination of multiple events within the ovarian follicle to ensure ovulation of a fertilizable egg. FSH promotes late follicular development, including expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor by the granulosa cells. Expression of its receptor permits the subsequent LH surge to trigger the release of ligands that activate EGF receptors (EGFR) on the granulosa, thereby initiating the ovulatory events. Here we identify a previously unknown role for FSH in this signaling cascade. We show that follicles of Fshb(-/-) mice, which cannot produce FSH, have a severely impaired ability to support two essential EGFR-regulated events: expansion of the cumulus granulosa cell layer that encloses the oocyte and meiotic maturation of the oocyte. These defects are not caused by an inability of Fshb(-/-) oocytes to produce essential oocyte-secreted factors or of Fshb(-/-) cumulus cells to respond. In contrast, although expression of both Egfr and EGFR increases during late folliculogenesis in Fshb(+/-) females, these increases fail to occur in Fshb(-/-) females. Remarkably, supplying a single dose of exogenous FSH activity to Fshb(-/-) females is sufficient to increase Egfr and EGFR expression and to restore EGFR-dependent cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation. These studies show that FSH induces an increase in EGFR expression during late folliculogenesis and provide evidence that the FSH-dependent increase is necessary for EGFR physiological function. Our results demonstrate an unanticipated role for FSH in establishing the signaling axis that coordinates ovulatory events and may contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of some types of human infertility.

  10. The Isothiocyanate Isolated from Moringa oleifera Shows Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity in the Treatment of Murine Subacute Parkinson's Disease.

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Rollin, Patrick; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2017-02-01

    The present study was aimed at estimating a possible neuroprotective effect of glucomoringin (GMG) [4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate] bioactivated with the enzyme myrosinase to form the corresponding isothiocyanate [4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl C; moringin] in the treatment or prevention of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, the beneficial effects of moringin were compared with those of pure GMG, not enzymatically activated, in an in vivo experimental mouse model of subacute PD. Subacute PD was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Mice were pretreated daily for 1 week with moringin (10 mg/kg +5 μL myrosinase/mouse) and with GMG (10 mg/kg). Behavioral evaluations were also performed to assess motor deficits and bradykinesia in MPTP mice. Besides, assuming that pretreatment with moringin could modulate the triggering of inflammatory cascade with a correlated response, we tested its in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by using a model of RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Achieved results in vivo showed a higher efficacy of moringin compared with GMG not only to modulate the inflammatory pathway but also oxidative stress and apoptotic pathways. In addition, the greater effectiveness of moringin in countering mainly the inflammatory pathway has been corroborated by the results obtained in vitro. The relevance and innovation of the present study lie in the possible use of a safe formulation of a bioactive compound, resulting from exogenous myrosinase hydrolysis of the natural phytochemical GMG, which can be used in clinical practice as a useful drug for the treatment or prevention of PD.

  11. Follicle-stimulating hormone regulates expression and activity of epidermal growth factor receptor in the murine ovarian follicle

    El-Hayek, Stephany; Demeestere, Isabelle; Clarke, Hugh J.

    2014-01-01

    Fertility depends on the precise coordination of multiple events within the ovarian follicle to ensure ovulation of a fertilizable egg. FSH promotes late follicular development, including expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor by the granulosa cells. Expression of its receptor permits the subsequent LH surge to trigger the release of ligands that activate EGF receptors (EGFR) on the granulosa, thereby initiating the ovulatory events. Here we identify a previously unknown role for FSH in this signaling cascade. We show that follicles of Fshb−/− mice, which cannot produce FSH, have a severely impaired ability to support two essential EGFR-regulated events: expansion of the cumulus granulosa cell layer that encloses the oocyte and meiotic maturation of the oocyte. These defects are not caused by an inability of Fshb−/− oocytes to produce essential oocyte-secreted factors or of Fshb−/− cumulus cells to respond. In contrast, although expression of both Egfr and EGFR increases during late folliculogenesis in Fshb+/− females, these increases fail to occur in Fshb−/− females. Remarkably, supplying a single dose of exogenous FSH activity to Fshb−/− females is sufficient to increase Egfr and EGFR expression and to restore EGFR-dependent cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation. These studies show that FSH induces an increase in EGFR expression during late folliculogenesis and provide evidence that the FSH-dependent increase is necessary for EGFR physiological function. Our results demonstrate an unanticipated role for FSH in establishing the signaling axis that coordinates ovulatory events and may contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of some types of human infertility. PMID:25385589

  12. UP states protect ongoing cortical activity from thalamic inputs.

    Brendon O Watson

    Full Text Available Cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo fluctuate spontaneously between two stable membrane potentials: a depolarized UP state and a hyperpolarized DOWN state. UP states temporally correspond with multineuronal firing sequences which may be important for information processing. To examine how thalamic inputs interact with ongoing cortical UP state activity, we used calcium imaging and targeted whole-cell recordings of activated neurons in thalamocortical slices of mouse somatosensory cortex. Whereas thalamic stimulation during DOWN states generated multineuronal, synchronized UP states, identical stimulation during UP states had no effect on the subthreshold membrane dynamics of the vast majority of cells or on ongoing multineuronal temporal patterns. Both thalamocortical and corticocortical PSPs were significantly reduced and neuronal input resistance was significantly decreased during cortical UP states -- mechanistically consistent with UP state insensitivity. Our results demonstrate that cortical dynamics during UP states are insensitive to thalamic inputs.

  13. Intradermal Infection Model for Pathogenesis and Vaccine Studies of Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    2003-01-01

    The levels of protection found in vaccine studies of murine visceral leishmaniasis are significantly lower than for cutaneous leishmaniasis; whether this is due to the high-challenge murine model employed and/or is a consequence of differences required in tissue-specific local immune responses is not understood. Consequently, an intradermal murine model of visceral leishmaniasis has been explored. Intradermal inoculation established a chronic infection in susceptible mice which was associated...

  14. Expression of recombinant murine pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and a novel variant (PAPP-Ai) with differential proteolytic activity

    Søe, Rikke; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Thomsen, Anni R

    2002-01-01

    Murine pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) cDNA encoding a 1545 amino-acid protein has been cloned. We have also identified and cloned cDNA that encodes a novel variant of PAPP-A, PAPP-Ai, carrying a 29-residue highly basic insert. The point of insertion corresponds to a junction between...

  15. Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting of EGFP-Labeled Neural Crest Cells From Murine Embryonic Craniofacial Tissue

    Saurabh Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the early stages of embryogenesis, pluripotent neural crest cells (NCC are known to migrate from the neural folds to populate multiple target sites in the embryo where they differentiate into various derivatives, including cartilage, bone, connective tissue, melanocytes, glia, and neurons of the peripheral nervous system. The ability to obtain pure NCC populations is essential to enable molecular analyses of neural crest induction, migration, and/or differentiation. Crossing Wnt1-Cre and Z/EG transgenic mouse lines resulted in offspring in which the Wnt1-Cre transgene activated permanent EGFP expression only in NCC. The present report demonstrates a flow cytometric method to sort and isolate populations of EGFP-labeled NCC. The identity of the sorted neural crest cells was confirmed by assaying expression of known marker genes by TaqMan Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (QRT-PCR. The molecular strategy described in this report provides a means to extract intact RNA from a pure population of NCC thus enabling analysis of gene expression in a defined population of embryonic precursor cells critical to development.

  16. Imbalanced Macrophage and Dendritic Cell Activations in Response to Candida albicans in a Murine Model of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Venturini, James; Fraga-Silva, Thais Fernanda Campos; Marchetti, Camila Martins; Mimura, Luiza Ayumi Nishiyama; Conti, Bruno José; Golim, Márjorie de Assis; Mendes, Rinaldo Poncio; de Arruda, Maria Sueli Parreira

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are responsible for high morbidity and mortality, and diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important underlying disease in candidemia episodes. Although DM patients show an enhanced proinflammatory profile, they are highly susceptible to mycobacterial and mycotic infections. Attempting to understand this paradox, we investigated if imbalanced macrophage and dendritic cell (DC) activations could be associated to high incidence and/or severity of Candida albicans infection in the hypoinsulinemia-hyperglycemia (HH) milieu. HH alloxan-induced mice were infected with C. albicans and peritoneal aderent phagocytes were co-cultured with or without lipopolyssaccharide or heat-killed C. albicans, and the production of cytotoxic metabolites, cytokines, and chemokines was evaluated. We also evaluated the surface expression of MHC-II and CD86 in splenic DCs. Our findings showed that both uninfected and C. albicans-infected HH mice showed less production of CCL2 and reduced expression of CD86 by peritoneal phagocytes and splenic DCs, respectively.

  17. The Intranasal Application of Zanamivir and Carrageenan Is Synergistically Active against Influenza A Virus in the Murine Model.

    Martina Morokutti-Kurz

    Full Text Available Carrageenan is a clinically proven and marketed compound for the treatment of viral upper respiratory tract infections. As infections caused by influenza virus are often accompanied by infections with other respiratory viruses the combination of a specific anti-influenza compound with the broadly active antiviral polymer has huge potential for the treatment of respiratory infections. Thus, the combination of the specific anti-influenza drug Zanamivir together with carrageenan in a formulation suitable for intranasal application was evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo.We show in-vitro that carrageenan and Zanamivir act synergistically against several influenza A virus strains (H1N1(09pdm, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7. Moreover, we demonstrate in a lethal influenza model with a low pathogenic H7N7 virus (HA closely related to the avian influenza A(H7N9 virus and a H1N1(09pdm influenza virus in C57BL/6 mice that the combined use of both compounds significantly increases survival of infected animals in comparison with both mono-therapies or placebo. Remarkably, this benefit is maintained even when the treatment starts up to 72 hours post infection.A nasal spray containing carrageenan and Zanamivir should therefore be tested for prevention and treatment of uncomplicated influenza in clinical trials.

  18. Pathogenicity and protective activity in pregnant goats of a Brucella melitensis Deltaomp25 deletion mutant.

    Edmonds, M D; Cloeckaert, A; Hagius, S D; Samartino, L E; Fulton, W T; Walker, J V; Enright, F M; Booth, N J; Elzer, P H

    2002-06-01

    The Brucella melitensis mutant BM 25, which lacks the major 25 kDa outer membrane protein Omp25, has previously been found to be attenuated in the murine brucellosis model. In the present study, the capacity of the Deltaomp25 mutant to colonise and cause abortions in the caprine host was evaluated. The vaccine potential of BM 25 was also investigated in goats. Inoculation of nine pregnant goats in late gestation with the B. melitensis mutant resulted in 0/9 abortions, while the virulent parental strain, B. melitensis 16M, induced 6/6 dams to abort (Pgoats for two weeks post-infection. Owing to the ability of BM 25 to colonise both non-pregnant and pregnant adults without inducing abortions, a vaccine efficacy study was performed. Vaccination of goats prior to breeding with either BM 25 or the current caprine vaccine B. melitensis strain Rev. 1 resulted in 100 per cent protection against abortion following challenge in late gestation with virulent strain 16M (Pmelitensis Deltaomp25 mutant, BM 25, may be a safe and efficacious alternative to strain Rev. 1 when dealing with goat herds of mixed age and pregnancy status.

  19. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    Škrovánková, Soňa; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important.

  20. Structural and functional characterization of human and murine C5a anaphylatoxins

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Janus Asbjørn; Yatime, Laure, E-mail: lay@mb.au.dk; Larsen, Casper [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Petersen, Steen Vang [Aarhus University, Bartholin Building, Wilhelm Meyers Allé 4, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Klos, Andreas [Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Andersen, Gregers Rom, E-mail: lay@mb.au.dk [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2014-06-01

    The structure of the human C5aR antagonist, C5a-A8, reveals a three-helix bundle conformation similar to that observed for human C5a-desArg, whereas murine C5a and C5a-desArg both form the canonical four-helix bundle. These conformational differences are discussed in light of the differential C5aR activation properties observed for the human and murine complement anaphylatoxins across species. Complement is an ancient part of the innate immune system that plays a pivotal role in protection against invading pathogens and helps to clear apoptotic and necrotic cells. Upon complement activation, a cascade of proteolytic events generates the complement effectors, including the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Signalling through their cognate G-protein coupled receptors, C3aR and C5aR, leads to a wide range of biological events promoting inflammation at the site of complement activation. The function of anaphylatoxins is regulated by circulating carboxypeptidases that remove their C-terminal arginine residue, yielding C3a-desArg and C5a-desArg. Whereas human C3a and C3a-desArg adopt a canonical four-helix bundle fold, the conformation of human C5a-desArg has recently been described as a three-helix bundle. Here, the crystal structures of an antagonist version of human C5a, A8{sup Δ71–73}, and of murine C5a and C5a-desArg are reported. Whereas A8{sup Δ71–73} adopts a three-helix bundle conformation similar to human C5a-desArg, the two murine proteins form a four-helix bundle. A cell-based functional assay reveals that murine C5a-desArg, in contrast to its human counterpart, exerts the same level of activition as murine C5a on its cognate receptor. The role of the different C5a conformations is discussed in relation to the differential activation of C5a receptors across species.

  1. Loss of the TGFβ-activating integrin αvβ8 on dendritic cells protects mice from chronic intestinal parasitic infection via control of type 2 immunity.

    John J Worthington

    Full Text Available Chronic intestinal parasite infection is a major global health problem, but mechanisms that promote chronicity are poorly understood. Here we describe a novel cellular and molecular pathway involved in the development of chronic intestinal parasite infection. We show that, early during development of chronic infection with the murine intestinal parasite Trichuris muris, TGFβ signalling in CD4+ T-cells is induced and that antibody-mediated inhibition of TGFβ function results in protection from infection. Mechanistically, we find that enhanced TGFβ signalling in CD4+ T-cells during infection involves expression of the TGFβ-activating integrin αvβ8 by dendritic cells (DCs, which we have previously shown is highly expressed by a subset of DCs in the intestine. Importantly, mice lacking integrin αvβ8 on DCs were completely resistant to chronic infection with T. muris, indicating an important functional role for integrin αvβ8-mediated TGFβ activation in promoting chronic infection. Protection from infection was dependent on CD4+ T-cells, but appeared independent of Foxp3+ Tregs. Instead, mice lacking integrin αvβ8 expression on DCs displayed an early increase in production of the protective type 2 cytokine IL-13 by CD4+ T-cells, and inhibition of this increase by crossing mice to IL-4 knockout mice restored parasite infection. Our results therefore provide novel insights into how type 2 immunity is controlled in the intestine, and may help contribute to development of new therapies aimed at promoting expulsion of gut helminths.

  2. Asbestos Induces Oxidative Stress and Activation of Nrf2 Signaling in Murine Macrophages: Chemopreventive Role of the Synthetic Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (LGM2605)

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Anastasia Velalopoulou; Albelda, Steven M.; Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of asbestos fibers with macrophages generates harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative cell damage that are key processes linked to malignancy. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is a non-toxic, flaxseed-derived pluripotent compound that has antioxidant properties and may thus function as a chemopreventive agent for asbestos-induced mesothelioma. We thus evaluated synthetic SDG (LGM2605) in asbestos-exposed, elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as a...

  3. Activation of big conductance Ca(2+)-activated K (+) channels (BK) protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Osadchii, Oleg; Jespersen, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    complexes, while producing no effect on cardiac K(ATP) channels. The cardioprotective effects of NS11021-induced BK channel activation were studied in isolated, perfused rat hearts subjected to 35 min of global ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. 3 microM NS11021 applied prior to ischemia...... (3 microM) antagonized the protective effect. These findings suggest that tissue damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion can be reduced by activation of cardiac BK channels.......Activation of the large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK) in the cardiac inner mitochondrial membrane has been suggested to protect the heart against ischemic injury. However, these findings are limited by the low selectivity profile and potency of the BK channel activator (NS1619...

  4. Naphthazarin protects against glutamate-induced neuronal death via activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway

    Son, Tae Gen; Kawamoto, Elisa M.; Yu, Qian-Sheng; Greig, Nigel H. [Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd., Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Mattson, Mark P. [Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd., Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Camandola, Simonetta, E-mail: camandolasi@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd., Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Naphthazarin activates the Nrf2/ARE pathway. •Naphthazarin induces Nrf2-driven genes in neurons and astrocytes. •Naphthazarin protects neurons against excitotoxicity. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is an important cellular stress response pathway involved in neuroprotection. We previously screened several natural phytochemicals and identified plumbagin as a novel activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway that can protect neurons against ischemic injury. Here we extended our studies to natural and synthetic derivatives of plumbagin. We found that 5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin) is a potent activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, up-regulates the expression of Nrf2-driven genes in primary neuronal and glial cultures, and protects neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity.

  5. Characteristics of teacher's health protecting activities in the modern secondary school environment

    Yefimova V.M.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers general approaches to the definition of the notion of anomia. It analyzes different aspects of the term's modern interpretation and discusses the main problems connected with the formation of the social context of the future teacher professional training for health protecting activities. The features of health protecting activity are exposed in the conditions of anomia. Certainly its influences on the social, psychical and physical health of young people. It is well-proven that introduction to maintenance of professional preparation of future teachers of presentations about anomia and its intercommunications with the different aspects of vital functions are necessity in connection with actualization of health protecting activity of teachers.

  6. Enhancement of active corrosion protection via combination of inhibitor-loaded nanocontainers.

    Tedim, J; Poznyak, S K; Kuznetsova, A; Raps, D; Hack, T; Zheludkevich, M L; Ferreira, M G S

    2010-05-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanocontainers loaded with different corrosion inhibitors (vanadate, phosphate, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazolate) and the characterization of the resulting pigments by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The anticorrosion activity of these nanocontainers with respect to aluminum alloy AA2024 was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The bare metallic substrates were immersed in dispersions of nanocontainers in sodium chloride solution and tested to understand the inhibition mechanisms and efficiency. The nanocontainers were also incorporated into commercial coatings used for aeronautical applications to study the active corrosion protection properties in systems of industrial relevance. The results show that an enhancement of the active protection effect can be reached when nanocontainers loaded with different inhibitors are combined in the same protective coating system.

  7. A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Velappan, Nileena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

  8. Beneficial effects of the activation of the angiotensin-(1-7) MAS receptor in a murine model of adriamycin-induced nephropathy.

    Silveira, Kátia Daniela; Barroso, Lívia Corrêa; Vieira, Angélica Thomáz; Cisalpino, Daniel; Lima, Cristiano Xavier; Bader, Michael; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Simões-E-Silva, Ana Cristina; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] is a biologically active heptapeptide that may counterbalance the physiological actions of angiotensin II (Ang II) within the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Here, we evaluated whether activation of the Mas receptor with the oral agonist, AVE 0991, would have renoprotective effects in a model of adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy. We also evaluated whether the Mas receptor contributed for the protective effects of treatment with AT1 receptor blockers. ADR (10 mg/kg) induced significant renal injury and dysfunction that was maximal at day 14 after injection. Treatment with the Mas receptor agonist AVE 0991 improved renal function parameters, reduced urinary protein loss and attenuated histological changes. Renoprotection was associated with reduction in urinary levels of TGF-β. Similar renoprotection was observed after treatment with the AT1 receptor antagonist, Losartan. AT1 and Mas receptor mRNA levels dropped after ADR administration and treatment with losartan reestablished the expression of Mas receptor and increased the expression of ACE2. ADR-induced nephropathy was similar in wild type (Mas(+/+) ) and Mas knockout (Mas (-/-)) mice, suggesting there was no endogenous role for Mas receptor activation. However, treatment with Losartan was able to reduce renal injury only in Mas(+/+) , but not in Mas (-/-) mice. Therefore, these findings suggest that exogenous activation of the Mas receptor protects from ADR-induced nephropathy and contributes to the beneficial effects of AT1 receptor blockade. Medications which target specifically the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis may offer new therapeutic opportunities to treat human nephropathies.

  9. Passive and Active Protective Clothing against High-Power Laser Radiation

    Hennigs, C.; Hustedt, M.; Kaierle, S.; Wenzel, D.; Markstein, S.; Hutter, A.

    The main objective of the work described in this paper was the development of passive and active protective clothing for the protection of the human skin against accidental laser irradiation and of active protective curtains. Here, the passive systems consist of functional multi-layer textiles, providing a high level of passive laser resistance. In addition, the active functional multi-layer textiles incorporate sensors that detect laser exposure and are, by means of a safety control, able to deactivate the laser beam automatically.Due to the lack of regulations for testing and qualifying textiles to be used as laser PPE, test methods were defined and validated. Additionally, corresponding testing set-ups were developed.Finally, the gap with respect to standardization was bridged by the definition of a test procedure and the requirements with respect to laser PPE.The developments were demonstrated by a set of tailored functional passive and active laser-protective clothing prototypes (gloves, jackets, aprons, trousers) and active curtains as well as by a prototype testing rig, providing the possibility to perform the specified low-power and high-power textile test procedure.

  10. Enteric salmonellosis disrupts the microbial ecology of the murine gastrointestinal tract

    Barman, Melissa; Unold, David; Shifley, Kathleen; Amir, Elad; Hung, Kueichun; Bos, Nicolaas; Salzman, Nita

    2008-01-01

    The commensal microbiota protects the murine host from enteric pathogens. Nevertheless, specific pathogens are able to colonize the intestinal tract and invade, despite the presence of an intact biota. Possibly, effective pathogens disrupt the indigenous microbiota, either directly through pathogen-

  11. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...

  12. Protection motivation theory: is this a worthwhile theory for physical activity promotion?

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Trinh, Linda

    2010-04-01

    This article reviews the published studies in the physical activity domain, which include novel hypothesis from our laboratory, that have tested Rogers' Protection Motivation Theory. Across the various population groups, the theory's coping appraisal is generally supported; however, there is limited support for the theory's threat components. Implications of these findings are discussed from both theoretical and practical perspectives.

  13. 50 CFR 224.104 - Special requirements for fishing activities to protect endangered sea turtles.

    2010-10-01

    ... activities to protect endangered sea turtles. 224.104 Section 224.104 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... endangered sea turtles. (a) Shrimp fishermen in the southeastern United States and the Gulf of Mexico who comply with rules for threatened sea turtles specified in § 223.206 of this chapter will not be...

  14. An Overview of R&D Activities in Europe on Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP)

    Bologna, S.; Di Costanzo, G.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Setola, R.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing R&D interest in critical infrastructures and their protection. However, this represents a still very immature field of research with very fuzzy and confused boundaries. This paper reports an initial overview of R&D activities in Europe on this topic to il

  15. Ascofuranone stimulates expression of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor through the modulation of mitogen activated protein kinase family members in 3T3-L1, murine pre-adipocyte cell line

    Chang, Young-Chae, E-mail: ycchang@cu.ac.kr [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyun-Ji, E-mail: hjcho.dr@gmail.com [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascofuranone increases expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibitors for MEK and JNK increased the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascofuranone significantly suppressed phosho-ERK, while increasing phospho-p38. -- Abstract: Ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic, was originally isolated as a hypolipidemic substance from a culture broth of the phytopathogenic fungus, Ascochyta visiae. Adiponectin is mainly synthesized by adipocytes. It relieves insulin resistance by decreasing the plasma triglycerides and improving glucose uptake, and has anti-atherogenic properties. Here, we found that ascofuranone increases expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}, a major transcription factor for adiponectin, in 3T3-L1, murine pre-adipocytes cell line, without promoting accumulation of lipid droplets. Ascofuranone induced expression of adiponectin, and increases the promoter activity of adiponectin and PPRE, PPAR response element, as comparably as a PPAR{gamma} agonist, rosiglitazone, that stimulates lipid accumulation in the preadipocyte cell line. Moreover, inhibitors for MEK and JNK, like ascofuranone, considerably increased the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma}, while a p38 inhibitor significantly suppressed. Ascofuranone significantly suppressed ERK phosphorylation, while increasing p38 phosphorylation, during adipocyte differentiation program. These results suggest that ascofuranone regulates the expression of adiponectin and PPAR{gamma} through the modulation of MAP kinase family members.

  16. Weapons in disguise--activating mechanisms and protecting group chemistry in nature.

    Kwan, Jason C; Luesch, Hendrik

    2010-11-22

    Bioactive natural products often possess uniquely functionalized structures with unusual modes of action; however, the natural product itself is not always the active species. We discuss molecules that draw on protecting group chemistry or else require activation to unmask reactive centers, illustrating that nature is not only a source of complex structures but also a guide for elegant chemical transformations which provides ingenious chemical solutions for drug delivery.

  17. The immunostimulating activity of quercetin 3-O-xyloside in murine macrophages via activation of the ASK1/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Lee, Jisun; Choi, Ji Won; Sohng, Jae Kyung; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Park, Yong Il

    2016-02-01

    Quercetin is a natural plant flavonoid that has been reported to possess a wide range of beneficial health effects, including anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Glycosylation of natural flavonoids with various sugar moieties can affect their physical, chemical, and biological properties. In this study, quercetin 3-O-xyloside (Quer-xyl) was enzymatically synthesized, and the immunomodulatory activities of quercetin and Quer-xyl were evaluated and compared. The results showed that Quer-xyl more effectively induced the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 than quercetin by 2.5 and 1.5-fold, respectively. Quer-xyl dose-dependently induced the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and increased the production of nitric oxide (NO) 1.3-fold more than quercetin. Quer-xyl also increased the phosphorylation of ASK1 and MAPKs (JNK and p38). Treatment with NQDI-1 (an inhibitor of ASK1) significantly attenuated the Quer-xyl-induced up-regulation of TNF-α secretion. The activation and subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-κB were substantially enhanced upon treatment with Quer-xyl (2.5-20 μM), while NQDI-1 treatment blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. These results demonstrated that Quer-xyl can enhance the early innate immunity more effectively than quercetin by activating macrophages to secrete TNF-α and IL-6 through up-regulation of the redox-dependent ASK1/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway, suggesting for the first time that Quer-xyl may represent a new immunostimulator.

  18. Antiosteoclastogenesis activity of a CO2 laser antagonizing receptor activator for nuclear factor kappaB ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation of murine macrophages

    Kuo, Chun-Liang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Wen; Shie, Ming-You

    2015-03-01

    Macrophage cells are the important effector cells in the immune reaction which are indispensable for osteoclastogenesis; their heterogeneity and plasticity renders macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. In recent years, there have been very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteoclastogenesis. In this study, RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were treated with RANKL to regulate osteoclastogenesis. We used a CO2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of osteoclastogenic. We also evaluated cell viability, cell death and cathepsin K expression. The CO2 laser inhibited a receptor activator of the NF-ĸB ligand (RANKL)-induced formation of osteoclasts during the osteoclast differentiation process. It was also found that irradiation for two times reduced RANKL-enhanced TRAP activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CO2 laser-treatment diminished the expression and secretion of cathepsin K elevated by RANKL and was concurrent with the inhibition of TRAF6 induction and NF-ĸB activation. The current report demonstrates that CO2 laser abrogated RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by retarding osteoclast differentiation. The CO2 laser can modulate every cell through dose-dependent in vitro RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, such as the proliferation and fusion of preosteoclasts and the maturation of osteoclasts. Therefore, the current results serve as an improved explanation of the cellular roles of macrophage cell populations in osteoclastogenesis as well as in alveolar bone remodeling by CO2 laser-treatment.

  19. Biological activities of Schottenol and Spinasterol, two natural phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, on murine miroglial BV2 cells

    El Kharrassi, Youssef [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000 (France); Laboratoire de Biochimie et Neurosciences, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Hassan I, BP 577, 26000 Settat (Morocco); Samadi, Mohammad [LCPMC-A2, ICPM, Department of Chemistry, Université de Lorraine, Metz (France); Lopez, Tatiana [CRINSERM 866, Dijon (France); Nury, Thomas [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000 (France); El Kebbaj, Riad [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000 (France); Laboratoire de Biochimie et Neurosciences, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Hassan I, BP 577, 26000 Settat (Morocco); Andreoletti, Pierre; El Hajj, Hammam I. [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000 (France); Vamecq, Joseph [INSERM and HMNO, CBP, CHRU Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Moustaid, Khadija [Laboratoire de Biochimie et Neurosciences, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Hassan I, BP 577, 26000 Settat (Morocco); Latruffe, Norbert [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000 (France); El Kebbaj, M’Hammed Saïd [Laboratoire de recherche sur les Lipoprotéines et l’Athérosclérose, Faculté des Sciences Ben M’sik, Avenue Cdt Driss El Harti BP. 7955, Université Hassan II-Mohammedia-Casablanca (Morocco); Masson, David [CRINSERM 866, Dijon (France); and others

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Sterol composition in argan oil and in cactus seed oil. • Chemical synthesis of two sterols: Schottenol and Spinasterol. • Sterols from argan oil or from cactus seed oil show no toxicity on BV2 cells. • Schottenol and Spinasterol modulate the activation and the expression of two nuclear receptors, LXRα and LXRβ. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activities of the major phytosterols present in argan oil (AO) and in cactus seed oil (CSO) in BV2 microglial cells. Accordingly, we first determined the sterol composition of AO and CSO, showing the presence of Schottenol and Spinasterol as major sterols in AO. While in CSO, in addition to these two sterols, we found mainly another sterol, the Sitosterol. The chemical synthesis of Schottenol and Spinasterol was performed. Our results showed that these two phytosterols, as well as sterol extracts from AO or CSO, are not toxic to microglial BV2 cells. However, treatments by these phytosterols impact the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, both Schottenol and Spinasterol can modulate the gene expression of two nuclear receptors, liver X receptor (LXR)-α and LXRβ, their target genes ABCA1 and ABCG1. Nonetheless, only Schottenol exhibited a differential activation vis-à-vis the nuclear receptor LXRβ. Thus Schottenol and Spinasterol can be considered as new LXR agonists, which may play protective roles by the modulation of cholesterol metabolism.

  20. Cysteine protease antigens cleave CD123, the α subunit of murine IL-3 receptor, on basophils and suppress IL-3-mediated basophil expansion

    Nishikado, Hideto [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Fujimura, Tsutomu; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko [Laboratory of Proteomics and Biomolecular Science, BioMedical Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Takai, Toshiro, E-mail: t-takai@juntendo.ac.jp [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Th2 type immune responses are essential for protective immunity against parasites and play crucial roles in allergic disorders. Helminth parasites secrete a variety of proteases for their infectious cycles including for host entry, tissue migration, and suppression of host immune effector cell function. Furthermore, a number of pathogen-derived antigens, as well as allergens such as papain, belong to the family of cysteine proteases. Although the link between protease activity and Th2 type immunity is well documented, the mechanisms by which proteases regulate host immune responses are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the cysteine proteases papain and bromelain selectively cleave the α subunit of the IL-3 receptor (IL-3Rα/CD123) on the surface of murine basophils. The decrease in CD123 expression on the cell surface, and the degradation of the extracellular domain of recombinant CD123 were dependent on the protease activity of papain and bromelain. Pre-treatment of murine basophils with papain resulted in inhibition of IL-3-IL-3R signaling and suppressed IL-3- but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin-induced expansion of basophils in vitro. Our unexpected findings illuminate a novel mechanism for the regulation of basophil functions by protease antigens. Because IL-3 plays pivotal roles in the activation and proliferation of basophils and in protective immunity against helminth parasites, pathogen-derived proteases might contribute to the pathogenesis of infections by regulating IL-3-mediated functions in basophils. - Highlights: • We identified the murine IL3R as a novel target of papain-family cysteine proteases. • Papain-family cysteine proteases cleaved IL3Rα/CD123 on murine basophils. • Papain suppressed IL3- but not TSLP-induced expansion of murine basophils. • The inactivation of IL3R might be a strategy for pathogens to suppress host immunity.

  1. HIV-1 Tat activates indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase in murine organotypic hippocampal slice cultures in a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent manner

    Kelley Keith W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have established that activation of the tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO mediates the switch from cytokine-induced sickness behavior to depressive-like behavior. Because human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Tat protein causes depressive-like behavior in mice, we investigated its ability to activate IDO in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs derived from neonatal C57BL/6 mice. Methods Depressive-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice was assessed by the forced swim test. Expression of cytokines and IDO mRNA in OHSCs was measured by real-time RT-PCR and cytokine protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs. p38 MAPK phosphorylation was analyzed by western blot. Results Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. administration of Tat (40 ng induced depressive-like behavior in the absence of sickness. Addition of Tat (40 ng/slice to the medium of OHSCs induced IDO steady-state mRNA that peaked at 6 h. This effect was potentiated by pretreatment with IFNγ. Tat also induced the synthesis and release of TNFα and IL-6 protein in the supernatant of the slices and increased expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and the serotonin transporter (SERT. Tat had no effect on endogenous synthesis of IFNγ. To explore the mechanisms of Tat-induced IDO expression, slices were pretreated with the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitor SB 202190 for 30 min before Tat treatment. SB 202190 significantly decreased IDO expression induced by Tat, and this effect was accompanied by a reduction of Tat-induced expression of TNFα, IL-6, iNOS and SERT. Conclusion These data establish that Tat induces IDO expression via an IFNγ-independent mechanism that depends upon activation of p38 MAPK. Targeting IDO itself or the p38 MAPK signaling pathway could provide a novel therapy for comorbid depressive disorders in HIV-1-infected patients.

  2. Distribution and protective function of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP in the retina

    Tomoya eNakamachi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, which is found in 27- or 38-amino acid forms, belongs to the VIP/glucagon/secretin family. PACAP and its three receptor subtypes are expressed in neural tissues, with PACAP known to exert a protective effect against several types of neural damage. The retina is considered to be part of the central nervous system, and retinopathy is a common cause of profound and intractable loss of vision. This review will examine the expression and morphological distribution of PACAP and its receptors in the retina, and will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the protective effect of PACAP against different kinds of retinal damage, such as that identified in association with diabetes, ultraviolet light, hypoxia, optic nerve transection, and toxins. This article will also address PACAP-mediated protective pathways involving retinal glial cells.

  3. Appraisal of Passive and Active Fire Protection Systems in Student’s Accommodation

    Ismail I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire protection systems are very important systems that must be included in buildings. They have a great significance in reducing or preventing the occurrences of fire. This paper presents an assessment of fire protection systems in student’s accommodation. Student accommodation is a particular type of building that provides shelter for students at University. In addition, it is also supposed to be an attractive environment, conducive to learning, and importantly, safe for occupation. The fire safety of occupants in a building, must be in accordance with the requirements of the building’s code. Therefore, the design of the building must comply with the Uniform Building By-Law (UBBL 1984 of Malaysia, and provide all of the required safety features. This paper describes the findings from investigations of passive and active fire protection systems installed in buildings, based on fire safety requirements, UBBL (1984.

  4. Aspects of UN Activities on the International Protection of Women's Rights

    Jana Maftei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human rights and their protection represent the regulation object of a major part of all the legal rules encompassing the international public law. The Members’ efforts to protect women's rights and to promote gender equality have resulted in the adoption of important documents, fundamental to all mankind. In the light of these international regulations, States have assumed obligations and they have created mechanisms to achieve them. Through the analytical approach we have highlighted the activities of the United Nations and international bodies for protecting women's rights and gender equality in all sectors of public and private life. In preparing this article we used as research methods the analysis of problems generated by the subject in question with reference to the doctrinal views expressed in the Treaties and specialized articles, documentary research, interpretation of legal norms in the field.

  5. Child Protection in Sport: Reflections on Thirty Years of Science and Activism

    Celia H. Brackenridge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the responses of state and third sector agencies to the emergence of child abuse in sport since the mid-1980s. As with other social institutions such as the church, health and education, sport has both initiated its own child protection interventions and also responded to wider social and political influences. Sport has exemplified many of the changes identified in the brief for this special issue, such as the widening of definitional focus, increasing geographic scope and broadening of concerns to encompass health and welfare. The child protection agenda in sport was initially driven by sexual abuse scandals and has since embraced a range of additional harms to children, such as physical and psychological abuse, neglect and damaging hazing (initiation rituals. Whereas in the 1990s, only a few sport organisations acknowledged or addressed child abuse and protection (notably, UK, Canada and Australia, there has since been rapid growth in interest in the issue internationally, with many agencies now taking an active role in prevention work. These agencies adopt different foci related to their overall mission and may be characterised broadly as sport-specific (focussing on abuse prevention in sport, children’s rights organisations (focussing on child protection around sport events and humanitarian organisations (focussing on child development and protection through sport. This article examines how these differences in organisational focus lead to very different child protection approaches and “solutions”. It critiques the scientific approaches used thus far to inform activism and policy changes and ends by considering future challenges for athlete safeguarding and welfare.

  6. MART-1 adenovirus-transduced dendritic cell immunization in a murine model of metastatic central nervous system tumor.

    Broder, Howard; Anderson, Andrea; Kremen, Thomas J; Odesa, Sylvia K; Liau, Linda M

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that have been shown to play a critical role in the initiation of host immune responses against tumor antigens. In this study, a recombinant adenovirus vector encoding the melanoma-associated antigen, MART-1, was used to transduce murine DCs, which were then tested for their ability to activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and induce protective immunity against B16 melanoma tumor cells implanted intracranially. Genetic modifications of murine bone marrow-derived DCs to express MART-1 was achieved through the use of an E1-deficient, recombinant adenovirus vector. Sixty-two C57BL/6 mice were immunized subcutaneously with AdVMART-1-transduced DCs (n = 23), untransduced DCs (n = 17), or sterile saline (n = 22). Using the B16 murine melanoma, which naturally expresses the MART-1 antigen, all the mice were then challenged intracranially with viable, unmodified syngeneic B16 tumor cells 7 days later. Splenocytes from representative animals in each group were harvested for standard cytotoxicity (CTL) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. The remaining mice were followed for survival. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with DCs transduced with an adenoviral vector encoding the MART-1 antigen elicited the development of antigen-specific CTL responses. As evidenced by a prolonged survival curve when compared to control-immunized mice with intracranial B16 tumors, AdMART-1-DC vaccination was able to elicit partial protection against central nervous system tumor challenge in vivo.

  7. Biological activities of Schottenol and Spinasterol, two natural phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, on murine miroglial BV2 cells.

    El Kharrassi, Youssef; Samadi, Mohammad; Lopez, Tatiana; Nury, Thomas; El Kebbaj, Riad; Andreoletti, Pierre; El Hajj, Hammam I; Vamecq, Joseph; Moustaid, Khadija; Latruffe, Norbert; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Masson, David; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2014-04-11

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activities of the major phytosterols present in argan oil (AO) and in cactus seed oil (CSO) in BV2 microglial cells. Accordingly, we first determined the sterol composition of AO and CSO, showing the presence of Schottenol and Spinasterol as major sterols in AO. While in CSO, in addition to these two sterols, we found mainly another sterol, the Sitosterol. The chemical synthesis of Schottenol and Spinasterol was performed. Our results showed that these two phytosterols, as well as sterol extracts from AO or CSO, are not toxic to microglial BV2 cells. However, treatments by these phytosterols impact the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, both Schottenol and Spinasterol can modulate the gene expression of two nuclear receptors, liver X receptor (LXR)-α and LXRβ, their target genes ABCA1 and ABCG1. Nonetheless, only Schottenol exhibited a differential activation vis-à-vis the nuclear receptor LXRβ. Thus Schottenol and Spinasterol can be considered as new LXR agonists, which may play protective roles by the modulation of cholesterol metabolism.

  8. Eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside activates Nrf2 and protects against cerebral ischemic injury

    Jing, Xu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Ren, Dongmei [Department of Natural Product Chemistry, Key Lab of Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Wei, Xinbing; Shi, Huanying; Zhang, Xiumei [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Perez, Ruth G. [Health Science Center, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University, El Paso, TX, 79905 (United States); Lou, Haiyan, E-mail: louhaiyan@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Lou, Hongxiang [Department of Natural Product Chemistry, Key Lab of Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Stroke is a complex disease that may involve oxidative stress-related pathways in its pathogenesis. The nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) pathway plays an important role in inducing phase II detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant proteins and thus has been considered a potential target for neuroprotection in stroke. The aim of the present study was to determine whether eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside (E7G), a novel Nrf2 activator, can protect against cerebral ischemic injury and to understand the role of the Nrf2/ARE pathway in neuroprotection. In primary cultured astrocytes, E7G increased the nuclear localization of Nrf2 and induced the expression of the Nrf2/ARE-dependent genes. Exposure of astrocytes to E7G provided protection against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced oxidative insult. The protective effect of E7G was abolished by RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Nrf2 expression. In vivo administration of E7G in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia significantly reduced the amount of brain damage and ameliorated neurological deficits. These data demonstrate that activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling by E7G is directly associated with its neuroprotection against oxidative stress-induced ischemic injury and suggest that targeting the Nrf2/ARE pathway may be a promising approach for therapeutic intervention in stroke. - Highlights: • E7G activates Nrf2 in astrocytes. • E7G stimulates expression of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective proteins in astrocytes. • E7G protects astrocytes against OGD-induced cell death and apoptosis. • The neuroprotective effect of E7G involves the Nrf2/ARE pathway. • E7G protects rats against cerebral ischemic injury.

  9. Oral vaccination with heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis activates the complement system to protect against tuberculosis.

    Beatriz Beltrán-Beck

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new vaccines. Defining the correlates of vaccine protection is essential to achieve this goal. In this study, we used the wild boar model for mycobacterial infection and TB to characterize the protective mechanisms elicited by a new heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV. Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special impact on the prevention of pulmonary disease, which is one of the limitations of current vaccines. Oral vaccination with the IV induced an adaptive antibody response and activation of the innate immune response including the complement component C3 and inflammasome. Mycobacterial DNA/RNA was not involved in inflammasome activation but increased C3 production by a still unknown mechanism. The results also suggested a protective mechanism mediated by the activation of IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells by MHC I antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs in response to vaccination with the IV, without a clear role for Th1 CD4+ T cells. These results support a role for DCs in triggering the immune response to the IV through a mechanism similar to the phagocyte response to PAMPs with a central role for C3 in protection against mycobacterial infection. Higher C3 levels may allow increased opsonophagocytosis and effective bacterial clearance, while interfering with CR3-mediated opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis of mycobacteria, a process that could be enhanced by specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins induced by vaccination with the IV. These results suggest that the IV acts through novel mechanisms to protect against TB in wild boar.

  10. Nanoliposomal artemisinin for the treatment of murine visceral leishmaniasis

    Want MY

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Muzamil Y Want,1 Mohammad Islammudin,1 Garima Chouhan,1 Hani A Ozbak,2 Hassan A Hemeg,2 Asoke P Chattopadhyay,3 Farhat Afrin2 1Parasite Immunology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India; 2Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, India Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a fatal, vector-borne disease caused by the intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Most of the therapeutics for VL are toxic, expensive, or ineffective. Sesquiterpenes are a new class of drugs with proven antimicrobial and antiviral activities. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone with potent antileishmanial activity, but with limited access to infected cells, being a highly lipophilic molecule. Association of artemisinin with liposome is a desirable strategy to circumvent the problem of poor accessibility, thereby improving its efficacy, as demonstrated in a murine model of experimental VL. Nanoliposomal artemisinin (NLA was prepared by thin-film hydration method and optimized using Box–Behnken design with a mean particle diameter of 83±16 nm, polydispersity index of 0.2±0.03, zeta potential of -27.4±5.7 mV, and drug loading of 33.2%±2.1%. Morphological study of these nanoliposomes by microscopy showed a smooth and spherical surface. The mechanism of release of artemisinin from the liposomes followed the Higuchi model in vitro. NLA was free from concomitant signs of toxicity, both ex vivo in murine macrophages and in vivo in healthy BALB/c mice. NLA significantly denigrated the intracellular infection of Leishmania donovani amastigotes and the number of infected macrophages ex vivo with an IC50 of 6.0±1.4 µg/mL and 5.1±0.9 µg/mL, respectively. Following treatment in a murine model of VL, NLA demonstrated superior efficacy compared to artemisinin with a

  11. Sound conditioning protects hearing by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Tahera, Yeasmin; Meltser, Inna; Johansson, Peter; Salman, Hazim; Canlon, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sound conditioning primes the auditory system to low levels of acoustic stimuli and reduces damage caused by a subsequent acoustic trauma. This priming activates the HPA axis resulting in the elevation of plasma corticosterone with a consequent upregulation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the cochlea and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in the mouse. This protective effect is blocked by adrenalectomy or pharmacological treatment with RU486 + metyrapone. Sound conditioning prevents GR down-regulation induced by acoustic trauma and subsequently enhances GR activity in spiral ganglion neurons. Increased SRC-1 expression, triggered by sound conditioning, positively correlates with the upregulation of GR in the cochlea. These findings will help to define the cellular mechanisms responsible for protecting the auditory system from hearing loss by sound conditioning.

  12. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Kruger, A. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peeler, D. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, D. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, J. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, G. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, M. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule.

  13. Participation in Organized Activities Protects Against Adolescents' Risky Substance Use, Even Beyond Development in Conscientiousness.

    McCabe, Kira O; Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L

    2016-11-01

    Adolescents are at a significant risk for binge drinking and illicit drug use. One way to protect against these behaviors is through participation in extracurricular activities. However, there is a debate about whether highly conscientious adolescents are more likely to participate in activities, which raises the concern of a confound. To disentangle these relationships, we tested the latent trajectories of substance use and personality across 3 years, with participation in activities and sports as time-varying predictors. We surveyed 687 adolescents (55 % female, 85.4 % Caucasian) in Western Australia schools across 3 years. At Time 1, the students were in Year 10 1 (mean age 15 years). The results showed that participation in activities and conscientiousness are related, but each uniquely predicts slower growth in substance use. Across waves, participation in activities predicted less risky substance use a year later, over and above conscientiousness development. These results suggest that there may be unique benefits of participation in activities that protect against risky substance use.

  14. Activated protein C protection from lung inflammation in endotoxin-induced injury.

    Pirrone, Federica; Mazzola, Silvia M; Pastore, Camilla; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Sironi, Giuseppe; Riccaboni, Pietro; Viola, Manuela; Passi, Alberto; Clement, Maria G; Albertini, Mariangela

    2008-11-01

    We studied the protection of recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) in endotoxin-induced lung inflammation and injury and whether this effect is correlated with modulation of lung matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. We randomly assigned 12 Large White pigs to receive intravenous Escher-ichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 40 mu g/kg/hr), rhAPC (24 mu g/ kg/hr), or both. We monitored respiratory mechanics and function, cell counts, and cytokine concentrations in bron-choalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Lung samples were collected for the zymography of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and for histology. In septic pigs, rhAPC decreased proMMP-9 release as well as MMP-9 activation, and increased proMMP-2 presence without any evident activation compared with specimens that were given LPS alone. In addition, lung injury in rhAPC-treated animals was significantly attenuated, as shown by higher respiratory compliance, delayed increase in tumor necrosis alfa and interleukin-1beta as well as neutrophil recruitment in the BALF, reduced lung edema, and histologic changes. In conclusion, rhAPC is beneficial in acute lung injury, and the protection may depend, at least in part, on modulation of MMP-2/9 activity.

  15. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...... in SPF decreases between an organic and an inorganic sunscreen, assuming that the sunscreens are stable, and that the SPF decrease is time dependent if caused by absorption....

  16. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the

  17. Oxidative modification and poor protective activity of HDL on LDL oxidation in thalassemia.

    Unchern, Supeenun; Laohareungpanya, Narumon; Sanvarinda, Yupin; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Tanratana, Pansakorn; Chantharaksri, Udom; Sibmooh, Nathawut

    2010-07-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been reported in thalassemia, which is a consequence of oxidative stress. However, the levels of oxidized high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in thalassemia have not been evaluated and it is unclear whether HDL oxidation may be linked to LDL oxidation. In this study, the levels of total cholesterol, iron, protein, conjugated diene (CD), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) were determined in HDL from healthy volunteers and patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia with hemoglobin E (beta-thal/Hb E). The protective activity of thalassemic HDL on LDL oxidation was also investigated. The iron content of HDL(2) and HDL(3) from beta-thal/HbE patients was higher while the cholesterol content was lower than those in healthy volunteers. Thalassemic HDL(2) and HDL(3) had increased levels of lipid peroxidation markers i.e., conjugated diene, LOOH, and TBARs. Thalassemic HDL had lower peroxidase activity than control HDL and was unable to protect LDL from oxidation induced by CuSO(4). Our findings highlight the oxidative modification and poor protective activity of thalassemic HDL on LDL oxidation which may contribute to cardiovascular complications in thalassemia.

  18. Tissue plasminogen activator-mediated fibrinolysis protects against axonal degeneration and demyelination after sciatic nerve injury.

    Akassoglou, K; Kombrinck, K W; Degen, J L; Strickland, S

    2000-05-29

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease that converts plasminogen to plasmin and can trigger the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins. In the nervous system, under noninflammatory conditions, tPA contributes to excitotoxic neuronal death, probably through degradation of laminin. To evaluate the contribution of extracellular proteolysis in inflammatory neuronal degeneration, we performed sciatic nerve injury in mice. Proteolytic activity was increased in the nerve after injury, and this activity was primarily because of Schwann cell-produced tPA. To identify whether tPA release after nerve damage played a beneficial or deleterious role, we crushed the sciatic nerve of mice deficient for tPA. Axonal demyelination was exacerbated in the absence of tPA or plasminogen, indicating that tPA has a protective role in nerve injury, and that this protective effect is due to its proteolytic action on plasminogen. Axonal damage was correlated with increased fibrin(ogen) deposition, suggesting that this protein might play a role in neuronal injury. Consistent with this idea, the increased axonal degeneration phenotype in tPA- or plasminogen-deficient mice was ameliorated by genetic or pharmacological depletion of fibrinogen, identifying fibrin as the plasmin substrate in the nervous system under inflammatory axonal damage. This study shows that fibrin deposition exacerbates axonal injury, and that induction of an extracellular proteolytic cascade is a beneficial response of the tissue to remove fibrin. tPA/plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis may be a widespread protective mechanism in neuroinflammatory pathologies.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of mixed monolayer protected gold nanorods and their Raman activities

    Mlambo, Mbuso [Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, Advanced Materials Division, Mintek, Private Bag X3015, Randburg 2125 (South Africa); Mdluli, Phumlani S.; Shumbula, Poslet; Mpelane, Siyasanga [Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, Advanced Materials Division, Mintek, Private Bag X3015, Randburg 2125 (South Africa); Moloto, Nosipho, E-mail: Nosipho.Moloto@wits.ac.za [Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Skepu, Amanda; Tshikhudo, Robert [Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, Advanced Materials Division, Mintek, Private Bag X3015, Randburg 2125 (South Africa)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanorods surface functionalization. - Highlights: • Mixed monolayer protected gold nanorods. • Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. • HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin as a Raman active compound. - Abstract: The cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) gold nanorods (AuNRs) were prepared by seed-mediated route followed by the addition of a Raman active compound (HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin) on the gold nanorods surfaces. Different stoichiometric mixtures of HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin and HS-PEG-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}COOH were evaluated for their Raman activities. The lowest stoichiometric ratio HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin adsorbed on gold nanorods surface was detected and enhanced by Raman spectroscopy. The produced mixed monolayer protected gold nanorods were characterized by UV-vis spectrometer for optical properties, transmission electron microscope (TEM) for structural properties (shape and aspect ratio) and their zeta potentials (charges) were obtained from ZetaSizer to determine the stability of the produced mixed monolayer protected gold nanorods. The Raman results showed a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement at the lowest stoichiometric ratio of 1% HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin compared to high ratio of 50% HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin on the surface of gold nanorods.

  20. Protective Activity of Dendropanax Morbifera Against Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    Eun-Sun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Drug-induced acute kidney injury (AKI has been a severe threat to hospitalized patients, raising the urgent needs to develop strategies to reduce AKI. We investigated the protective activity of Dendropanax morbifera (DP, a medicinal plant which has been widely used to treat infectious and pain diseases, on acute kidney injury (AKI using cisplatin-induced nephropathic models. Methods: Both in vitro renal tubular cells (NRK-52E and in vivo rat models were used to demonstrate the nephroprotective effect of DP. Results: Methanolic extract from DP significantly reduced cisplatin-induced toxicity in renal tubular cells. Through successive liquid extraction, the extract of DP was separated into n-hexane, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O fractions. Among these, the CHCl3 fraction (DPCF was found to be most potent. The protective activity of DPCF was found to be mediated through anti-oxidant, mitochondrial protective, and anti-apoptotic activities. In in vivo rat models of AKI, treatment with DPCF significantly reversed the cisplatin-induced increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine and histopathologic damage, recovered the level of anti-oxidant enzymes, and inhibited renal apoptosis. Conclusion: We demonstrated that DP extracts decreased cisplatin-induced renal toxicity, indicating its potential to ameliorate drug-associated acute kidney damage.

  1. Preliminary characterization of a murine model for 1-bromopropane neurotoxicity: Role of cytochrome P450.

    Zong, Cai; Garner, C Edwin; Huang, Chinyen; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Lingyi; Chang, Jie; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ito, Hidenori; Kato, Masashi; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Ichihara, Sahoko; Ichihara, Gaku

    2016-09-06

    Neurotoxicity of 1-bromopropane (1-BP) has been reported in both human cases and animal studies. To date, neurotoxicity of 1-BP has been induced in rats but not in mice due to the lethal hepatotoxicity of 1-BP. Oxidization by cytochromes P450 and conjugation with glutathione (GSH) are two critical metabolism pathways of 1-BP and play important roles in toxicity of 1-BP. The aim of the present study was to establish a murine model of 1-BP neurotoxicity, by reducing the hepatotoxicity of 1-BP with 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT); a commonly used nonspecific P450s inhibitor. The results showed that subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 1-ABT at 50mg/kg body weight BID (100mg/kg BW/day) for 3days, inhibited about 92-96% of hepatic microsomal CYP2E1 activity, but only inhibited about 62-64% of CYP2E1 activity in brain microsomes. Mice treated with 1-ABT survived even after exposure to 1200ppm 1-BP for 4 weeks and histopathological studies showed that treatment with 1-ABT protected mice from 1-BP-induced hepatic necrosis, hepatocyte degeneration, and hemorrhage. After 4-week exposure to 1-BP, the brain weight of 1-ABT(+)/1200ppm 1-BP group was decreased significantly. In 1-ABT-treated groups, expression of hippocampal Ran protein and cerebral cortical GRP78 was dose-dependently increased by exposure to 1-BP. We conclude that the control of hepatic P450 activity allows the observation of effects of 1-BP on the murine brain at a higher concentration by reduction of hepatotoxicity. The study suggests that further experiments with liver-specific control of P450 activity using gene technology might provide better murine models for 1-bromopropane-induced neurotoxicity.

  2. Apoptosis in irradiated murine tumors.

    Stephens, L C; Ang, K K; Schultheiss, T E; Milas, L; Meyn, R E

    1991-09-01

    Early radiation responses of transplantable murine ovarian (OCaI) and hepatocellular (HCaI) carcinomas were examined at 6, 24, 48, 96, and 144 h after single photon doses of 25, 35, or 45 Gy. Previous studies using tumor growth delay and tumor radiocurability assays had shown OCaI tumors to be relatively radiosensitive and HCaI tumors to be radioresistant. At 6 h, approximately 20% of nuclei in OCaI tumors showed aberrations characteristic of cell death by apoptosis. This contrasted to an incidence of 3% in HCaI tumors. Mitotic activity was eliminated in OCaI tumors but was only transiently suppressed in HCaI tumors. At 24-96 h, OCaI tumors continued to display apoptosis and progressive necrosis, whereas HCaI tumors responded by exhibiting marked pleomorphism. Factors other than mitotic activity may influence tumor radiosensitivity, and one of these may be susceptibility to induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death), because this was a prominent early radiation response by the radiosensitive OCaI tumors.

  3. Effects of Phenolic Acids on Growth and Activities of Membrane Protective Enzymes of Cucumber Seedlings

    WU Feng-zhi; HUANG Cai-hong; ZHAO Feng-yan

    2002-01-01

    Two phenolic acids P-hydroxy benzoic acid and cinnamic acid were designated as four concentrations (0, 50μmol/L, 100μmol/L, 150μmol/L) to investigate the effects of phenoic acids on the growth and the activities of membrane protective enzymes of cucumber seedlings. The results showed that both phenolic acids inhibited the seedlings growth. The inhibitory effects were increased with the concentration of phenolic acids increasing and the time of treatment prolonging. Seedlings treated with A150 (P-hydroxy benzoic acid, 150μmol/L), B50 (cinnamic acid, 50 μmol/L), B100 (cinnamic acid,100μmol/L), B150 (cinnamic acid, 150μmol/L) showed significantly shorter in plant height , smaller in leaf area. and lighter in fresh weight. The inhibitory effect of cinnamic acid was comparatively stronger than that of P-hydroxy benzoic acid. For protective enzymes system, compared to control, the POD activity increased at all concentrations of P-hydroxy benzoic acid during the treatment but increased at first then decreased before increased again at last at all concentrations of cinnamic acid . In the case of CAT, its activity increased at first, then decreased, and increased again at lower concentrations of phenolic acids. However, at higher concentrations the activities decreased at first, then increased a little, decreased continuously at last. In addition, the treatments of phenolic acids led to an increase then a decreaseof SOD activity and an increase of MDA content in the seedlings. All above indicated the accumulating of free radicalsand destruction of protective enzymes at higher concentrations of phenolic acids.

  4. Mitochondrial Protection and Anti-aging Activity of Astragalus Polysaccharides and Their Potential Mechanism

    Xiao-Juan Xin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study was performed to investigate mitochondrial protection and anti-aging activity of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS and the potential underlying mechanism. Lipid peroxidation of liver and brain mitochondria was induced by Fe2+–Vit C in vitro. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA colorimetry was used to measure the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. Mouse liver mitochondrial permeability transition (PT was induced by calcium overload in vitro and spectrophotometry was used to measure it. The scavenging activities of APS on superoxide anion (O2•- and hydroxyl radical (•OH, which were produced by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH—N-Methylphenazonium methyl sulfate (PMS and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2–Fe2+ system respectively, were measured by 4-nitrobluetetrazolium chloride (NBT reduction and Fenton reaction colorimetry respectively. The Na2S2O3 titration method was used to measure the scavenging activities of APS on H2O2. APS could inhibit TBARS production, protect mitochondria from PT, and scavenge O2•-, •OH and H2O2 significantly in a concentration-dependent manner respectively. The back of the neck of mice was injected subcutaneously with D-galactose to induce aging at a dose of 100 mg/kg/d for seven weeks. Moreover, the activities of catalase (CAT, surperoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and anti-hydroxyl radical which were assayed by using commercial monitoring kits were increased significantly in vivo by APS. According to this research, APS protects mitochondria by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS, inhibiting mitochondrial PT and increasing the activities of antioxidases. Therefore, APS has the effect of promoting health.

  5. Protection motivation theory and physical activity in the general population: a systematic literature review.

    Bui, Linh; Mullan, Barbara; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    An appropriate theoretical framework may be useful for guiding the development of physical activity interventions. This review investigates the effectiveness of the protection motivation theory (PMT), a model based on the cognitive mediation processes of behavioral change, in the prediction and promotion of physical activity participation. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science, and a manual search was conducted on relevant reference lists. Studies were included if they tested or applied the PMT, measured physical activity, and sampled from healthy populations. A total of 20 studies were reviewed, grouped into four design categories: prediction, stage discrimination, experimental manipulation, and intervention. The results indicated that the PMT's coping appraisal construct of self-efficacy generally appears to be the most effective in predicting and promoting physical activity participation. In conclusion, the PMT shows some promise, however, there are still substantial gaps in the evidence.

  6. Protective and harmful effects of physical activity for low back pain

    Pinheiro, Marina B.; Ferreira, Manuela L; Refshauge, Kathryn M;

    2016-01-01

    questionnaires and an objective measure (accelerometer) at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Twins will also complete an additional physical activity questionnaire monthly. Data on LBP (outcome) will be collected at baseline and weekly. Data will be collected using short message service (SMS) and email. We......Low back pain (LBP) is a major health problem globally, but approaches to prevention are not yet clearly identified because modifiable risk factors are not well established. Although physical activity is one promising modifiable risk factor, it is still not known what types and doses of physical...... activity are protective or harmful for LBP. The aim of this study is to establish the feasibility of a definitive cohort study that will investigate the effects of different types and doses of physical activity on the risk of developing recurrent LBP while accounting for genetic factors...

  7. Planetary protection R&D activities in the ESA exploration programme

    Kminek, G.

    Since the begin of the Aurora exploration programme in 2001 the Human Spaceflight Microgravity and Exploration Directorate HME of ESA has invested in research and development activities related to planetary protection Some of these activities are focused on the recently approved ExoMars mission others are applicable to Mars missions in general including MSR the technology development of the latter one being part of the exploration core programme The proposed activities have been approved and initiated An overview of the activities and first results will be presented The main activities are begin itemize item Bioburden and Biodiversity evaluation in S C Facilities this activity will cover a period of almost two years and include the standard assay extension of the standard assay culture conditions identification of isolates using 16S rDNA via PCR and test of a rapid spore assay Protocols are developed in coordination with NASA-JPL item Extension of dry heat microbial reduction process to higher temperatures this activity will include a detailed study of the humidity effect on the inactivation kinetics This activity is in coordination with efforts at NASA-JPL item Validation of a dry heat sterilization process item Development of a low-temperature sterilization method the focus of this activity is on vapor hydrogen peroxide item Robotic capabilities for clean AIV AIT item Decontamination of man-rated systems item Definition of functional requirements for a Mars Sample Return Biological Containment Facility end itemize In

  8. Sexual activity among Malaysian school-going adolescents: what are the risk and protective factors?

    Ahmad, NoorAni; Awaluddin, S Maria; Ismail, Hasimah; Samad, Rahama; NikAbdRashid, NikRubiah

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to identify risk and protective factors associated with sexual activity among Malaysian adolescents. Data from the World Health Organization Global School-based Student Health Survey 2012 were analyzed. A total of 23 645 students aged 12 to 17 years responded using self-administered validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of reported ever-had sex was 8.3%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that ever-had sex was positively significantly associated with ever-used drugs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.51-9.13), and to a lesser extent, ever-smoked (aOR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.62-2.07) and ever-consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.15-2.53). Protective factors against ever-had sex were having a close friend (aOR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.50-0.81), parental bonding (aOR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.65-0.81), supportive peers (aOR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.69-0.86), and parental connectedness (aOR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.78-0.99). Although the prevalence of sexual activity among school-going adolescents in Malaysia is relatively low, identifying the risk and protective factors is crucial toward developing an integrated multiple approach to preventing sexual-related problems.

  9. Radiation Protection in Medical Physics : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Radiation Protection in Medical Physics Activities

    Lemoigne, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental aspects of Radiation Protection in Medical Physics and covers three main themes: General Radiation Protection Principles; Radiobiology Principles; Radiation Protection in Hospital Medical Physics. Each of these topics is developed by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, quality and safety aspects, clinical performance and recent advances in the field. Some issues specific to the individual techniques are also treated, e.g. calculation of patient dose as well as that of workers in hospital, optimisation of equipment used, shielding design of radiation facilities, radiation in oncology such as use of brachytherapy in gynecology or interventional procedures. All topics are presented with didactical language and style, making this book an appropriate reference for students and professionals seeking a comprehensive introduction to the field as well as a reliable overview of the most recent developments.

  10. Optimization of the active absorber scheme for the protection of the Dispersion Suppressor

    Magistris, M; Assmann, R; Bracco, C; Brugger, M; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Redaelli, S; Vlachoudis, V

    2009-01-01

    There are two main types of cold elements in IR7: quadrupole and dipole magnets (MQ and MB). According to predictions, these objects are to lose their superconducting properties if the spurious power densities reach about 1 and 5 mW/cm3, respectively. In order to protect these fragile components, 5 active absorbers (TCLA) were designed and a systematic study was launched to maximize the shielding efficiency of the absorber system for different configurations (locations and orientations). The TCLA's are identical to the secondary collimators (TCS), the only difference is found in the material of the jaw, which, initially, was set integrally to Cu (instead of C) and later included a small W insertion. This report summarizes the survey of cold element protection through TCLA insertion optimization.

  11. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) activates Stat3 and protects hematopoietic cells from cell death.

    Zamo, Alberto; Chiarle, Roberto; Piva, Roberto; Howes, Jennifer; Fan, Yan; Chilosi, Marco; Levy, David E; Inghirami, Giorgio

    2002-02-07

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene is characteristically translocated in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas (ALCL) and the juxtaposition of the ALK gene to multiple partners results in its constitutive protein tyrosine kinase activity. We show here that expression of activated ALK induces the constitutive phosphorylation of Stat3 in transfected cells as well as in primary human ALCLs. Furthermore, immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that among distinct human B and T cell lymphomas, activation of Stat3 nuclear translocation is uniquely associated with ALK expression. NPM-ALK also binds and activates Jak3; however, Jak3 is not required for Stat3 activation or for cell transformation in vitro. Moreover, src family kinases are not necessary for NPM-ALK-mediated Stat3 activation or transformation, suggesting that Stat3 may be phosphorylated directly by ALK. To evaluate relevant targets of ALK-activated Stat3, we investigated the regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-x(L) and its role in cell survival in NPM-ALK positive cells. NPM-ALK expression caused enhanced Bcl-x(L) transcription, largely mediated by Stat3. Increased expression of Bcl-x(L) provided sufficient anti-apoptotic signals to protect cells from treatment with specific inhibitors of the Jaks/Stat pathway or the Brc-Abl kinase. These studies support a pathogenic mechanism whereby stimulation of anti-apoptotic signals through activation of Stat3 contributes to the successful outgrowth of ALK positive tumor cells.

  12. Antioxidant activity and protective effect against oxidative hemolysis of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f Lindau.

    Chantana Aromdee

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative damage to cell components has an important pathophysiological role in many human diseases. The free radicals formed in cells can readily attack protein, DNA and unsaturated lipids resulting in their loss of function and damage. Red blood cells are highly susceptibleto oxidative damage which results in cell lysis. A natural antioxidant could be a potential therapeutic intervention. Thus, we examined the antioxidant activity of Clinacanthus nutans (CN. An ethanolic extract of dried leaves of CN was used in this study. The free radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; DPPH scavengingactivity, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and the intracellularly antioxidant activity of the extract were determined. The protective effect of the extract against 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride(AAPH-induced rat red blood cell lysis was also evaluated. It was found that the extract could scavenge DPPH with the maximum scavenging activity of 67.65±6.59% and with an IC50 of 110.4±6.59 μg/ml. The FRAP value was 17 mg ascorbate equivalent to one gram of the extract. The extract demonstrated a significant inhibition of peroxide production in rat macrophages stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA and protected red blood cell against AAPH-induced hemolysis with an IC50 of 359.38±14.02 mg/ml. In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of CN had an antioxidant activity and protective effect against freeradical-induced hemolysis.

  13. Effects of human activities on rivers located in protected areas of the Atlantic Forest

    Mônica Luisa Kuhlmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the impacts of anthropogenic activities upstream of conservation areas on the Paraibuna river and its implications for freshwater biodiversity. METHODS: The study was carried out in two units, Cunha and Santa Virginia, of the Serra do Mar State Park (SP, located in the Atlantic Rain Forest. Five sampling sites were defined, four along the Paraibuna river and one in the Ipiranga river, the latter fully inserted into the protected area. Physical, chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological data were obtained from surface water as well as aquatic macroinvertebrates. RESULTS: The results showed that the waters of the Paraibuna river have low anthropogenic interference. However, conductivity, turbidity, coliforms, iron, total phosphorus and nitrate showed a gradient improving its water quality from upstream to downstream, indicating the existence of erosion and introduction of organic debris in the basin. The BMWP index, varying from 58 to 190, also showed the good condition of the river to aquatic biota, with predominant Excellent quality diagnosis. The values of this index and the richness index (S outlined a similar gradient but with the lowest values recorded in P3. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the upstream activities alter the natural condition of the Paraibuna river and its biota and that the protected areas provides environmental services reducing these impacts. The ideal situation in order to ensure the conservation of the freshwater biota of the Paraibuna river would be the incorporation of parts of the upstream area into the protected area and convert occupied areas into Sustainable Use Area, that guarantee the adoption of sustainable techniques to the existing land uses and the application of aquatic life protection indicators for monitoring the water quality of the river.

  14. Role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 in murine allergen-induced airway remodeling and exacerbation by carbon nanotubes.

    Thompson, Elizabeth A; Sayers, Brian C; Glista-Baker, Ellen E; Shipkowski, Kelly A; Ihrie, Mark D; Duke, Katherine S; Taylor, Alexia J; Bonner, James C

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is characterized by a T helper type 2 phenotype and by chronic allergen-induced airway inflammation (AAI). Environmental exposure to air pollution ultrafine particles (i.e., nanoparticles) exacerbates AAI, and a concern is possible exacerbation posed by engineered nanoparticles generated by emerging nanotechnologies. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 is a transcription factor that maintains T helper type 1 cell development. However, the role of STAT1 in regulating AAI or exacerbation by nanoparticles has not been explored. In this study, mice with whole-body knockout of the Stat1 gene (Stat1(-/-)) or wild-type (WT) mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) allergen and then exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by oropharygneal aspiration. In Stat1(-/-) and WT mice, OVA increased eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, whereas MWCNTs increased neutrophils. Interestingly, OVA sensitization prevented MWCNT-induced neutrophilia and caused only eosinophilic inflammation. Stat1(-/-) mice displayed increased IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 1 day compared with WT mice after treatment with OVA or OVA and MWCNTs. At 21 days, the lungs of OVA-sensitized Stat1(-/-) mice displayed increased eosinophilia, goblet cell hyperplasia, airway fibrosis, and subepithelial apoptosis. MWCNTs further increased OVA-induced goblet cell hyperplasia, airway fibrosis, and apoptosis in Stat1(-/-) mice at 21 days. These changes corresponded to increased levels of profibrogenic mediators (transforming growth factor-β1, TNF-α, osteopontin) but decreased IL-10 in Stat1(-/-) mice. Finally, fibroblasts isolated from the lungs of Stat1(-/-) mice produced significantly more collagen mRNA and protein in response to transforming growth factor-β1 compared with WT lung fibroblasts. Our results support a protective role for STAT1 in chronic AAI and exacerbation of remodeling caused by MWCNTs.

  15. Extracellular proteolysis in the adult murine brain.

    Sappino, A P; Madani, R; Huarte, J; Belin, D; Kiss, J Z; Wohlwend, A; Vassalli, J D

    1993-08-01

    Plasminogen activators are important mediators of extracellular metabolism. In the nervous system, plasminogen activators are thought to be involved in the remodeling events required for cell migration during development and regeneration. We have now explored the expression of the plasminogen activator/plasmin system in the adult murine central nervous system. Tissue-type plasminogen activator is synthesized by neurons of most brain regions, while prominent tissue-type plasminogen activator-catalyzed proteolysis is restricted to discrete areas, in particular within the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Our observations indicate that tissue-type plasminogen activator-catalyzed proteolysis in neural tissues is not limited to ontogeny, but may also contribute to adult central nervous system physiology, for instance by influencing neuronal plasticity and synaptic reorganization. The identification of an extracellular proteolytic system active in the adult central nervous system may also help gain insights into the pathogeny of neurodegenerative disorders associated with extracellular protein deposition.

  16. Analysis of Active Components in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Injection Based on Vascular Endothelial Cell Protection

    Shen Jie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation analysis based on chromatograms and pharmacological activities is essential for understanding the effective components in complex herbal medicines. In this report, HPLC and measurement of antioxidant properties were used to describe the active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection (SMI. HPLC results showed that tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic acid and their metabolites in rat serum may contribute to the efficacy of SMI. Assessment of antioxidant properties indicated that differences in the composition of serum powder of SMI caused differences in vascular endothelial cell protection. When bivariate correlation was carried out it was found that salvianolic acid B, tanshinol and protocatechuic aldehyde were active components of SMI because they were correlated to antioxidant properties.

  17. Analysis of active components in Salvia miltiorrhiza injection based on vascular endothelial cell protection.

    Shen, Jie; Yang, Kai; Sun, Caihua; Zheng, Minxia

    2014-09-01

    Correlation analysis based on chromatograms and pharmacological activities is essential for understanding the effective components in complex herbal medicines. In this report, HPLC and measurement of antioxidant properties were used to describe the active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection (SMI). HPLC results showed that tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic acid and their metabolites in rat serum may contribute to the efficacy of SMI. Assessment of antioxidant properties indicated that differences in the composition of serum powder of SMI caused differences in vascular endothelial cell protection. When bivariate correlation was carried out it was found that salvianolic acid B, tanshinol and protocatechuic aldehyde were active components of SMI because they were correlated to antioxidant properties.

  18. Adaptive Immune Response to Model Antigens Is Impaired in Murine Leukocyte-Adhesion Deficiency-1 Revealing Elevated Activation Thresholds In Vivo

    Thorsten Peters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Absence of β2 integrins (CD11/CD18 leads to leukocyte-adhesion deficiency-1 (LAD1, a rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome. Although extensive in vitro work has established an essential function of β2 integrins in adhesive and signaling properties for cells of the innate and adaptive immune system, their respective participation in an altered adaptive immunity in LAD1 patients are complex and only partly understood in vivo. Therefore, we investigated adaptive immune responses towards different T-dependent antigens in a murine LAD1 model of β2 integrin-deficiency (CD18−/−. CD18−/− mice generated only weak IgG responses after immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT. In contrast, robust hapten- and protein-specific immune responses were observed after immunization with highly haptenated antigens such as (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl21 acetyl chicken γ globulin (NP21-CG, even though regularly structured germinal centers with specificity for the defined antigens/haptens in CD18−/− mice remained absent. However, a decrease in the hapten/protein ratio lowered the efficacy of immune responses in CD18−/− mice, whereas a mere reduction of the antigen dose was less crucial. Importantly, haptenation of TT with NP (NP-TT efficiently restored a robust IgG response also to TT. Our findings may stimulate further studies on a modification of vaccination strategies using highly haptenated antigens in individuals suffering from LAD1.

  19. Alcohol enhances Acinetobacter baumannii-associated pneumonia and systemic dissemination by impairing neutrophil antimicrobial activity in a murine model of infection.

    Jay A Gandhi

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii (Ab is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP in chronic alcoholics in tropical and sub-tropical climates and associated with a >50% mortality rate. Using a murine model of alcohol (EtOH administration, we demonstrated that EtOH enhances Ab-mediated pneumonia leading to systemic infection. Although EtOH did not affect neutrophil recruitment to the lungs of treated mice, it decreased phagocytosis and killing of bacteria by these leukocytes leading to increased microbial burden and severity of disease. Moreover, we determined that mice that received EtOH prior to Ab infection were immunologically impaired, which was reflected in increased pulmonary inflammation, sequential dissemination to the liver and kidneys, and decreased survival. Furthermore, immunosuppression by EtOH was associated with deregulation of cytokine production in the organs of infected mice. This study establishes that EtOH impairs immunity in vivo exacerbating Ab infection and disease progression. The ability of Ab to cause disease in alcoholics warrants the study of its virulence mechanisms and host interactions.

  20. A trifunctional dextran-based nanovaccine targets and activates murine dendritic cells, and induces potent cellular and humoral immune responses in vivo.

    Limei Shen

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs constitute an attractive target for specific delivery of nanovaccines for immunotherapeutic applications. Here we tested nano-sized dextran (DEX particles to serve as a DC-addressing nanocarrier platform. Non-functionalized DEX particles had no immunomodulatory effect on bone marrow (BM-derived murine DCs in vitro. However, when adsorbed with ovalbumine (OVA, DEX particles were efficiently engulfed by BM-DCs in a mannose receptor-dependent manner. A DEX-based nanovaccine containing OVA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a DC stimulus induced strong OVA peptide-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell proliferation both in vitro and upon systemic application in mice, as well as a robust OVA-specific humoral immune response (IgG1>IgG2a in vivo. Accordingly, this nanovaccine also raised both a more pronounced delayed-type hypersensitivity response and a stronger induction of cytotoxic CD8(+ T cells than obtained upon administration of OVA and LPS in soluble form. Therefore, DEX-based nanoparticles constitute a potent, versatile and easy to prepare nanovaccine platform for immunotherapeutic approaches.

  1. Fault Tolerant Operation of ISOP Multicell Dc-Dc Converter Using Active Gate Controlled SiC Protection Switch

    Yusuke Hayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An active gate controlled semiconductor protection switch using SiC-MOSFET is proposed to achieve the fault tolerant operation of ISOP (Input Series and Output Parallel connected multicell dc-dc converter. The SiC-MOSFET with high temperature capability simplifies the configuration of the protection circuit, and its on-resistance control by the active gate controller realizes the smooth protection without the voltage and the current surges. The first laboratory prototype of the protection switch is fabricated by using a SiC-MOSFET with a high frequency buck chopper for the active gate controller. The effectiveness of the proposed protection switch is verified, taking the impact of the volume reduction into account.

  2. Analytic estimation and numerical modeling of actively cooled thermal protection systems with nickel alloys

    Wang Xinzhi; He Yurong; Zheng Yan; Ma Junju; H. Inaki Schlaberg

    2014-01-01

    Actively cooled thermal protection system has great influence on the engine of a hyper-sonic vehicle, and it is significant to obtain the thermal and stress distribution in the system. So an analytic estimation and numerical modeling are performed in this paper to investigate the behavior of an actively cooled thermal protection system. The analytic estimation is based on the electric analogy method and finite element analysis (FEA) is applied to the numerical simulation. Temper-ature and stress distributions are obtained for the actively cooled channel walls with three kinds of nickel alloys with or with no thermal barrier coating (TBC). The temperature of the channel wall with coating has no obvious difference from the one with no coating, but the stress with coating on the channel wall is much smaller than that with no coating. Inconel X-750 has the best charac-teristics among the three Ni-based materials due to its higher thermal conductivity, lower elasticity module and greater allowable stress. Analytic estimation and numerical modeling results are com-pared with each other and a reasonable agreement is obtained.

  3. Analytic estimation and numerical modeling of actively cooled thermal protection systems with nickel alloys

    Wang Xinzhi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Actively cooled thermal protection system has great influence on the engine of a hypersonic vehicle, and it is significant to obtain the thermal and stress distribution in the system. So an analytic estimation and numerical modeling are performed in this paper to investigate the behavior of an actively cooled thermal protection system. The analytic estimation is based on the electric analogy method and finite element analysis (FEA is applied to the numerical simulation. Temperature and stress distributions are obtained for the actively cooled channel walls with three kinds of nickel alloys with or with no thermal barrier coating (TBC. The temperature of the channel wall with coating has no obvious difference from the one with no coating, but the stress with coating on the channel wall is much smaller than that with no coating. Inconel X-750 has the best characteristics among the three Ni-based materials due to its higher thermal conductivity, lower elasticity module and greater allowable stress. Analytic estimation and numerical modeling results are compared with each other and a reasonable agreement is obtained.

  4. Antioxidant and DNA Damage Protecting Activity of Exopolysaccharides from the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus cereus SZ1

    Li Ping Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An endophytic bacterium was isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. The phylogenetic and physiological characterization indicated that the isolate, strain SZ-1, was Bacillus cereus. The endophyte could produce an exopolysaccharide (EPS at 46 mg/L. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydracyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of the EPS reached more than 50% at 3–5 mg/mL. The EPS was also effective in scavenging superoxide radical in a concentration dependent fashion with an EC50 value of 2.6 mg/mL. The corresponding EC50 for scavenging hydroxyl radical was 3.1 mg/mL. Moreover, phenanthroline-copper complex-mediated chemiluminescent emission of DNA damage was both inhibited and delayed by EPS. The EPS at 0.7–1.7 mg/mL also protected supercoiled DNA strands in plasmid pBR322 against scission induced by Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radical. The preincubation of PC12 cells with the EPS prior to H2O2 exposure increased the cell survival and glutathione (GSH level and catalase (CAT activities, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a pronounced protective effect against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Our study indicated that the EPS could be useful for preventing oxidative DNA damage and cellular oxidation in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  5. Intracellular ROS protection efficiency and free radical-scavenging activity of curcumin.

    Abolfazl Barzegar

    Full Text Available Curcumin has many pharmaceutical applications, many of which arise from its potent antioxidant properties. The present research examined the antioxidant activities of curcumin in polar solvents by a comparative study using ESR, reduction of ferric iron in aqueous medium and intracellular ROS/toxicity assays. ESR data indicated that the steric hindrance among adjacent big size groups within a galvinoxyl molecule limited the curcumin to scavenge galvinoxyl radicals effectively, while curcumin showed a powerful capacity for scavenging intracellular smaller oxidative molecules such as H₂O₂, HO•, ROO•. Cell viability and ROS assays demonstrated that curcumin was able to penetrate into the polar medium inside the cells and to protect them against the highly toxic and lethal effects of cumene hydroperoxide. Curcumin also showed good electron-transfer capability, with greater activity than trolox in aqueous solution. Curcumin can readily transfer electron or easily donate H-atom from two phenolic sites to scavenge free radicals. The excellent electron transfer capability of curcumin is because of its unique structure and different functional groups, including a β-diketone and several π electrons that have the capacity to conjugate between two phenyl rings. Therfore, since curcumin is inherently a lipophilic compound, because of its superb intracellular ROS scavenging activity, it can be used as an effective antioxidant for ROS protection within the polar cytoplasm.

  6. LPS—induced activation of phospholipase A2 phospholipase C and protein kinase C of murine macrophage—like cell lines (J774 and P388D1)

    CHANGZHONGLIANG; MICHAELNOVOTNEY; 等

    1992-01-01

    A murine macrophage-like cell line J774,acquired,in response to LPS,an ability to kill tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-insensitive target P815 mastocytoma cells whereas another cell line,P388D1 did not ,LPS triggered signaling mechanisms between the two cell lines were compared with an aim to inquire about the possible nature of the above-mentioned difference,The results whowed that two cell lines respond to LPS-treatment by parallel activation of both phospholipases C and A2 (PLC and PLA2) to approximately the same extent.The maximum response of toth enzymes of J774 cells was noted within 10 min the treatment whereas that of P388D1 cells required more than 20 min,The other properties of LPS-responsive enzymes studied were similar between two cell lines,including Activation of PLC and PLA2 and PKC in macrophages by LPS. Ca2+ augmentation of enzyme activation,participation of guanine nucleotide binding(G) proteins in the initial activation preocesses,and inhibition of enzyme activation by the prior treatment of cells with choleraor pertussis toxinsetc.Moreover,LPS-triggered activation of PLC and PLA2 was found to be followed by the increase of PKC activities in both cell lines.Inspite of these similarities.J774 cells possessed both basic and acidicforms of PKC activities,while P 388 D1 cells owned only PKC of basic form,Nevertheless,the question why J774 cells but not P388D1 cells,can acquire the tumoricidal activity,aganist P815,cells following LPStreatment rematins to be answered.

  7. 75 FR 19654 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs-Trade...

    2010-04-15

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-8632] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs...; extension of an existing information collection: 1651-0077. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection...

  8. 32 CFR 643.30 - Policy-Construction projects and activities; protection of historical and archeological data.

    2010-07-01

    ...; protection of historical and archeological data. 643.30 Section 643.30 National Defense Department of Defense... projects and activities; protection of historical and archeological data. The Archeological and Historical... data on all Federal or Federally-assisted construction projects or in connection with any...

  9. 30 CFR 285.801 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect marine mammals, threatened and endangered...

    2010-07-01

    ... protect marine mammals, threatened and endangered species, and designated critical habitat? 285.801... GAPs § 285.801 How must I conduct my approved activities to protect marine mammals, threatened and... taking of marine mammals until the appropriate authorization has been issued under the Marine...

  10. Applications of organoboron compounds in carbohydrate chemistry and glycobiology: analysis, separation, protection, and activation.

    McClary, Corey A; Taylor, Mark S

    2013-11-15

    The reversible covalent interactions between organoboron compounds and diols have been applied for many years in carbohydrate chemistry. They form the basis of efficient methods for the detection of carbohydrates, and applications in cellular imaging and glycoprotein analysis are beginning to emerge. The interactions are also of widespread utility in carbohydrate synthesis: depending upon the coordination geometry at boron, either protection or activation of a bound diol motif may be achieved. This review article uses recent examples to illustrate the breadth of applications of organoboron compounds in carbohydrate chemistry.

  11. Oxidative modification of rat liver 5'-nucleotidase: the mechanisms for protection and re-activation.

    Kocic, G; Pavlovic, D; Jevtovic, T; Kocic, R; Bojic, A; Vlahovic, P; Djordjevic, V; Sokolovic, D; Djindjic, B

    2001-10-01

    The effect of oxidative stress catalysed by transition metals appears to have a critical relevance for the structure and function not only of membrane lipids but also of integral membrane proteins in a complex lipid-protein assembling, and membrane-dependent function. The integral membrane enzyme 5'-nucleotidase is susceptible to Fe((2+))-ion catalysed oxidative modification, and the extent of enzyme inhibition is in inverse relationship (r = -0.820) with lipid peroxidation (MDA) level. This work is also a comparative study about possible effectiveness of different Fe-ion chelators (deferoxamine, Na-citrate, Na-salicylate, ammonium oxalate and EDTA), antioxidants (GSH, GSH/GSH-Px system, Cu, Zn-SOD and mannitol) and metal cations (Mg(2+) and Mn(2+)) to protect or restore Fe(2+)-ion induced 5'-nucleotidase inhibition and to suppress Fe(2+)-ion enhanced lipid peroxidation. Among the examined chelators it was only deferoxamine and Na-citrate that exerted a fully protective and reactivating ability; among the antioxidants it was only GSH; among the metal cations it was only Mn(2+). The ability to protect or restore 5'-nucleotidase activity and to diminish chain-induced lipid peroxidation is explicable in terms of: metal-binding ability, capacity of taking iron away from a biological molecule, or ability of transferring the damage to itself. After a short incubation period, the iron associated with enzyme or lipid hydroperoxides could be in a labile coordinative linkage, still able to interact with possible ligands or metal cations.

  12. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  13. Antioxidant Activity and Protection from DNA Damage by Water Extract from Pine (Pinus densiflora) Bark.

    Jiang, Yunyao; Han, Woong; Shen, Ting; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

    2012-06-01

    Water extract from Pinus densiflora (WPD) was investigated for its antioxidant activity and its ability to provide protection from DNA damage. A series of antioxidant assays, including a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay, a reducing power assay, a metal-chelating assay, a superoxide radical scavenging assay, and a nitrite scavenging ability, as well as a DNA damage protection assay were performed. Total phenolic content was found to be 211.32 mg Tan/g WPD. The extract scavenged 50% DPPH free radical at a concentration of 21.35 μg/mL. At that same concentration, the reducing power ability of WPD was higher than that of α-tocopherol. The extract chelated 68.9% ferrous ion at the concentration of 4 mg/mL. WPD showed better nitrite scavenging effect at the lower pH. Meanwhile, WPD exhibited a strong capability for DNA damage protection at 1 mg/mL concentration. Taken together, these data suggest water extract from Pinus densiflora could be used as a suitable natural antioxidant.

  14. Sulphation can enhance the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides produced by Enterobacter cloacae Z0206.

    Jin, Mingliang; Wang, Youming; Huang, Ming; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2014-01-01

    The protective effects of sulfated polysaccharide derivatives produced by Enterobacter cloacae Z0206 against H₂O₂-induced oxidative damage in RAW264.7 murine macrophages as well as the possible mechanisms governing the protective effects were studied. Sulfated polysaccharides protected RAW264.7 cells from oxidative damage and apoptosis induced by H₂O₂ by protecting the cellular structure; improving the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px); and inhibiting caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. In addition, the sulfated polysaccharides conferred higher levels of protection from H₂O₂-induced oxidative damage in RAW264.7 murine macrophages compared to the native polysaccharide lacking sulfation. These results indicated that sulfated modifications might be an effective approach to enhance the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides produced by E. cloacae Z0206, and the sulfated derivatives of these polysaccharides may act as potent antioxidant agents.

  15. Activity of two different triazoles in a murine model of paracoccidioidomycosis Actividad de dos triazoles diferentes en un modelo murino de paracoccidioidomicosis

    Susana Restrepo

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A new orally absorbable triazole (Schering 39304 with a long serum half-life in man (60 hours, was tried in a murine model of progressive paracoccidioidomycosis and compared with itraconazole, another triazole which has proven effective in this mycosis. Only 15% of the infected, untreated mice survived while 53 to 75% of the animals receiving itraconazole survived. Mice treated with Schering 39304 exhibited higher (86 - 100% survival rates. Statistically, the 5 mg/kg Sch 39304 was superior to the 50 mg/kg itraconazole dose. Lung cultures showed that 20 mg/kg/day of Sch achieved sterilization of the infectious foci. These results indicate that the new triazole will have a place in the treatment of paracoccidioidomycosisUn nuevo derivado triazólico Schering 39304 que tiene una vida promedio prolongada (60 horas, asi como otro triazol (itraconazole de eficacia comprobada en la paracoccidioidomicosis, fueron ensayados en un modelo murino. Se encontró que solo sobrevivían el 15% de los animales infectados no tratados; del grupo tratado con Itrazonazol sobrevivieron el 53% de los que recibieron 20 mg/kg/dia y el 86% de aquellos con 50 mg/kg/dia. De los ratones que recibieron Sch 39304 sobrevivieron el 86% de los tratados con la dosis baja (5 mg/kg y el 100% con la dosis mayor (20 mg/kg. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre esta última droga y el itraconazol. Además, los cultivos de pulmón mostraron que solo Sch 39304 a la dosis alta, era capaz de erradicar el hongo de los tejidos. Estos resultados indican que tal triazol tendrá importancia en el tratamiento de la paracoccidioidomicosis humana

  16. Styrene maleic acid-encapsulated paclitaxel micelles: antitumor activity and toxicity studies following oral administration in a murine orthotopic colon cancer model

    Parayath NN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neha N Parayath,1 Hayley Nehoff,1 Samuel E Norton,2 Andrew J Highton,2 Sebastien Taurin,1,3 Roslyn A Kemp,2 Khaled Greish1,4 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 4Princess Al-Jawhara Centre for Molecular Medicine, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Abstract: Oral administration of paclitaxel (PTX, a broad spectrum anticancer agent, is challenged by its low uptake due to its poor bioavailability, efflux through P-glycoprotein, and gastrointestinal toxicity. We synthesized PTX nanomicelles using poly(styrene-co-maleic acid (SMA. Oral administration of SMA-PTX micelles doubled the maximum tolerated dose (60 mg/kg vs 30 mg/kg compared to the commercially available PTX formulation (PTX [Ebewe]. In a murine orthotopic colon cancer model, oral administration of SMA-PTX micelles at doses 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg reduced tumor weight by 54% and 69%, respectively, as compared to the control group, while no significant reduction in tumor weight was observed with 30 mg/kg of PTX (Ebewe. In addition, toxicity of PTX was largely reduced by its encapsulation into SMA. Furthermore, examination of the tumors demonstrated a decrease in the number of blood vessels. Thus, oral delivery of SMA-PTX micelles may provide a safe and effective strategy for the treatment of colon cancer. Keywords: oral delivery, anticancer nanomedicine, CT-26, enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect, HUVEC, antiangiogenic

  17. Effects of ginkgolide B on activation, proliferation and apoptosis of murine T lymphocytes in vitro%银杏内酯B对小鼠T淋巴细胞体外活化、增殖与凋亡的影响

    王晓东; 曾耀英; 宋兵

    2011-01-01

    To explore the potential immunomodulatory effects and related mechanisms of ginkgolide B (GB), a known potent antagonist of platelet-activating factor receptor, we investigated the behaviors of T lymphocytes, including activation, proliferation and apoptosis. T lymphocytes were prepared from murine lymph nodes, and then treated with different concentrations of GB before cultivation. Activation and proliferation of T cells were induced by polyclonal activator concanavalin (Con A). Fluorescence conjugated monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry were used to detect the expression of CD3/CD69 and CD3/CD25; CFDA-SE labeling and flow cytometry were used to trace the proliferation of T lymphocytes and an MTT assay was taken to re-prove. Apoptosis of T cells were induced by dexamethasone (Dex), while [DiOC6(3)/PI] staining and flow cytometry were used to distinguish apoptotic, dead and living cell populations. In a dose-dependent manner, GB (5, 10, and 20 (xmol/L) significantly suppressed the expression of CD69 at 6th h and CD25 at 24th h, as well as inhibited cell proliferation at 48th h after Con A stimulation. To some extent, GB also exhibited protective effect on T lymphocytes from Dex-induced apoptosis. According to these interesting effects of GB on T lymphocytes behaving and functioning, it's quite reasonable to do further studies of GB as a nature occurring immunomodulator candidate.%目的 银杏内酯B (6B)是已知的天然而强效的血小板激活因子(PAF)受体(PAFR)拈抗剂,本文研究GB对小鼠T淋巴细胞活化、增殖及凋亡3大体外行为的影响,初步探讨其潜在的免疫调节作用与机制,从而为临床应用提供可靠的实验依据.方法 分离小鼠淋巴细胞,培养前以不同浓度的GB预孵;以刀豆蛋白A(Con A)诱导细胞的活化与增殖,以荧光抗体双色标记(anti-CD3 mAb-PE/anti-CD69 mAb-FITC、anti-CD3 mAb-PE/anti-CD25 mAb-FITC)结合流式细胞术分别检测T淋巴细胞早、中

  18. Molecular cloning of a Poria cocos protein that activates Th1 immune response and allays Th2 cytokine and IgE production in a murine atopic dermatitis model.

    Lu, Ya-Ting; Kuan, Yen-Chou; Chang, Hui-Hsin; Sheu, Fuu

    2014-04-02

    Edible fungus Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf is a cooking material that has myriad health benefits. However, its active constituents have not been well-defined. We previously purified an immunomodulatory protein, PCP, from P. cocos and described its biochemical features and its ability to activate primary macrophage via TLR4. In this study, we cloned the gene of PCP and demonstrated its ability to activate Th1 response in cell cultures and in mice. The complete cDNA sequence of PCP consisted of 807 bp, which included a 579 bp coding sequence that encoded 194 amino acids. With the addition of co-stimulatory CD3/CD28 signals, PCP significantly increased the surface expression of CD44 and CD69 on effector T cells. PCP could also up-regulate T-bet and STAT4 expressions and IFN-γ and IL-2 secretions. Oral administration of PCP suppressed the production of both total and OVA-specific IgG1 in serum and enhanced the amounts of serum and OVA-specific IgG2a and Th1-related cytokine production in BALB/c splenocytes. In addition, oral administration of PCP significantly reduced IL-4 and IgE expressions in a murine model of atopic dermatitis. In conclusion, these results provide evidence that PCP could regulate mammalian immune cells and reveal their pharmaceutical potential in developing therapeutic strategies against Th2-mediated immune disorders.

  19. Na-noparticles of activated natural zeolite on textiles for protection and therapy

    Ivančica Kovaček

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Activated natural zeolite clinoptilolite is microporous hydrated aluminosilicates crystals with well-defined structures containing AlO4 and SiO4 tetrahedral linked through the common oxygen atoms. It is to point out that zeolites act as strong adsorbents and ion-exchangers but having many other useful properties. Due to its cationexchange ability, zeolites have catalytic properties and, for that, multiple uses in medicine and industry, agriculture, water purification and detergents. Zeolites are nontoxic substance, excellent for UVR and microbes protection, for proteins and small molecules such as glucose adsorption. In this paper its positive effect on the metabolism of living organisms and its anticancerogenic, antiviral, antimetastatic and antioxidant effect. The activity of natural zeolite as natural immunostimulator was presented as well as its help in healing wounds. Therefore, the present paper is an attempt to modify cotton (by mercerization and polyester (by alkaline hydrolysis fabrics for summer clothing with addition of natural zeolite nanoparticles for achieving UV and antibacterial protective textiles

  20. Lack of cross-protection against invasive pneumonia caused by heterologous strains following murine Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonisation despite whole cell ELISAs showing significant cross-reactive IgG.

    Cohen, Jonathan M; Wilson, Robert; Shah, Pranali; Baxendale, Helen E; Brown, Jeremy S

    2013-05-01

    Prior exposure to intact Streptococcus pneumoniae can induce a protective antibody response to proteins antigens, which prevents subsequent invasive disease. This may be achieved either by colonisation with live bacteria or by immunisation with killed cells. Such approaches could provide novel vaccine strategies that overcome the serotype restriction of conjugate vaccines, and would aim to prevent disease caused by all strains of S. pneumoniae. Serum antibody is required to prevent invasive disease, but which in vitro measure of antibody response correlates best with protective immunity has not been established for protein antigens. Using a model of homologous protection induced through D39 colonisation of CD1 mice, we investigate the potential for heterologous protection against two distinct serotype strains and its serological correlates. Serum IgG from colonised mice bound to heterologous strains in whole cell ELISA at titres similar to the homologous D39. However, no cross-protection was observed, correlating with lack of surface binding of IgG to whole bacteria as measured by flow cytometry. Serum antibody binding to pre-lysed and untreated bacteria in the whole cell ELISA was similar suggesting that ELISA does not discriminate between surface and subcapsular antigens, unlike the flow cytometric approach. Thus, flow cytometric binding to whole bacteria maybe a more reliable correlate of cross-protection for novel species-wide vaccines than whole cell ELISA.

  1. The bright side of plasmonic gold nanoparticles; activation of Nrf2, the cellular protective pathway

    Goldstein, Alona; Soroka, Yoram; Frušić-Zlotkin, Marina; Lewis, Aaron; Kohen, Ron

    2016-06-01

    Plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are widely investigated for cancer therapy, due to their ability to strongly absorb light and convert it to heat and thus selectively destroy tumor cells. In this study we shed light on a new aspect of AuNPs and their plasmonic excitation, wherein they can provide anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory protection by stimulating the cellular protective Nrf2 pathway. Our study was carried out on cells of the immune system, macrophages, and on skin cells, keratinocytes. A different response to AuNPs was noted in the two types of cells, explained by their distinct uptake profiles. In keratinocytes, the exposure to AuNPs, even at low concentrations, was sufficient to activate the Nrf2 pathway, without any irradiation, due to the presence of free AuNPs inside the cytosol. In contrast, in macrophages, the plasmonic excitation of the AuNPs by a low, non-lethal irradiation dose was required for their release from the constraining vesicles. The mechanism by which AuNPs activate the Nrf2 pathway was studied. Direct and indirect activation were suggested, based on the inherent ability of the AuNPs to react with thiol groups and to generate reactive oxygen species, in particular, under plasmonic excitation. The ability of AuNPs to directly activate the Nrf2 pathway renders them good candidates for treatment of disorders in which the up-regulation of Nrf2 is beneficial, specifically for topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.

  2. Breastfeeding and Active Bonding Protects against Children’s Internalizing Behavior Problems

    Jianghong Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is associated with numerous health benefits to offspring and mothers and may improve maternal-infant bonding. Ample evidence suggests breastfeeding can improve child neurodevelopment, but more research is needed to establish whether breastfeeding is linked to the development of child psychopathology. This paper aims to explore the effects of both breastfeeding and mother-child interactions on child behavioral outcomes at a later age. Children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study (N = 1267, at age six years old were assessed, along with their parents. Children who were breastfed exclusively for a period of time in the presence of active bonding were compared to those who were breastfed in the absence of active bonding as well as to children who were not exclusively breastfed, with or without active bonding. Results from ANOVA and GLM, using SPSS20, indicate that children who were breastfed and whose mothers actively engaged with them displayed the lowest risk of internalizing problems (mean = 10.01, SD = 7.21, while those who were neither exclusively breastfed nor exposed to active bonding had the least protection against later internalizing problems (mean = 12.79, SD = 8.14. The effect of breastfeeding on internalizing pathology likely represents a biosocial and holistic effect of physiological, and nutritive, and maternal-infant bonding benefits.

  3. Agonist antibodies activating the Met receptor protect cardiomyoblasts from cobalt chloride-induced apoptosis and autophagy

    Gallo, S; Gatti, S; Sala, V; Albano, R; Costelli, P; Casanova, E; Comoglio, P M; Crepaldi, T

    2014-01-01

    Met, the tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), mainly activates prosurvival pathways, including protection from apoptosis. In this work, we investigated the cardioprotective mechanisms of Met activation by agonist monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a chemical mimetic of hypoxia, was used to induce cardiac damage in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, which resulted in reduction of cell viability by (i) caspase-dependent apoptosis and (ii) – surprisingly – autophagy. Blocking either apoptosis with the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethylketone or autophagosome formation with 3-methyladenine prevented loss of cell viability, which suggests that both processes contribute to cardiomyoblast injury. Concomitant treatment with Met-activating antibodies or HGF prevented apoptosis and autophagy. Pro-autophagic Redd1, Bnip3 and phospho-AMPK proteins, which are known to promote autophagy through inactivation of the mTOR pathway, were induced by CoCl2. Mechanistically, Met agonist antibodies or HGF prevented the inhibition of mTOR and reduced the flux of autophagosome formation. Accordingly, their anti-autophagic function was completely blunted by Temsirolimus, a specific mTOR inhibitor. Targeted Met activation was successful also in the setting of low oxygen conditions, in which Met agonist antibodies or HGF demonstrated anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic effects. Activation of the Met pathway is thus a promising novel therapeutic tool for ischaemic injury. PMID:24743740

  4. Inducible DNA - protein interactions of the murine kappa immunoglobulin enhancer in intact cells: comparison with in vitro interactions

    Hromas, R.; Pauli, U.; Marcuzzi, A.; Lafrenz, D.; Nick, H.; Stein, J.; Stein, G.; Ness, B.V.

    1988-02-11

    The large intron of the kappa immunoglobulin gene contains a cis-acting enhancer element, which is important in the tissue-specific expressions of the gene. The authors have confirmed the binding activity of a sequence-specific factor present in lymphoid extracts derived from cell lines expressing, or induced to express, the kappa gene. They have extended these studies to show the binding activity is present in normal activated splenic B cells as well as lambda producing cells, and have demonstrated by DNAse footprint analysis full, protection of a sequence containing the 11 bp homology to the SV-40 core enhancer. They have compared these in vitro binding studies with an analysis of protein-DNA interactions in intact murine cell lines using genomic sequencing techniques. They demonstrate significant alterations in DMS reactivity of DNA in the murine 70Z/3 cell line after it is induced to kappa expression. These alterations occur at guanine residues which are part of the 11 bp core sequence, and are identical to those observed in cells constitutively expressing kappa. This provides direct evidence for the induced binding of the tissue specific factor to intact chromatin. In intact chromatin they also observed significant alteration in the reactivity of a guanine, 3' of the core sequence, which is part of a potential secondary DNA structure, and protection of four residues that are part of a region homologous to the heavy chain enhancer.

  5. Inducible DNA-protein interactions of the murine kappa immunoglobulin enhancer in intact cells: comparison with in vitro interactions.

    Hromas, R; Pauli, U; Marcuzzi, A; Lafrenz, D; Nick, H; Stein, J; Stein, G; Van Ness, B

    1988-01-01

    The large intron of the kappa immunoglobulin gene contains a cis-acting enhancer element, which is important in the tissue-specific expression of the gene. We have confirmed the binding activity of a sequence-specific factor present in lymphoid extracts derived from cell lines expressing, or induced to express, the kappa gene. We have extended these studies to show the binding activity is present in normal activated splenic B cells as well as lambda producing cells, and have demonstrated by DNAse footprint analysis full protection of a sequence containing the 11 bp homology to the SV-40 core enhancer. We have compared these in vitro binding studies with an analysis of protein-DNA interactions in intact murine cell lines using genomic sequencing techniques. We demonstrate significant alterations in DMS reactivity of DNA in the murine 70Z/3 cell line after it is induced to kappa expression. These alterations occur at guanine residues which are part of the the 11 bp core sequence, and are identical to those observed in cells constitutively expressing kappa. This provides direct evidence for the induced binding of the tissue specific factor to intact chromatin. In intact chromatin we also observed significant alteration in the reactivity of a guanine, 3' of the core sequence, which is part of a potential secondary DNA structure, and protection of four residues that are part of a region homologous to the heavy chain enhancer. Images PMID:2830597

  6. Oroxylin A Inhibits Allergic Airway Inflammation in Ovalbumin (OVA)-Induced Asthma Murine Model.

    Zhou, De-Gang; Diao, Bao-Zhong; Zhou, Wen; Feng, Jia-Long

    2016-04-01

    Oroxylin A, a natural flavonoid isolated from the medicinal herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory property. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of oroxylin A on allergic inflammation in OVA-induced asthma murine model. BABL/c mice were sensitized and airway-challenged with OVA to induce asthma. Oroxylin A (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage 1 h before the OVA treatment on day 21 to 23. The results showed that oroxylin A attenuated OVA-induced lung histopathologic changes, airway hyperresponsiveness, and the number of inflammatory cells. Oroxylin A also inhibited the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and OVA-specific IgE in BALF. Furthermore, oroxylin A significantly inhibited OVA-induced NF-κB activation. In conclusion, these results suggested that oroxylin A inhibited airway inflammation in OVA-induced asthma murine model by inhibiting NF-κB activation. These results suggested that oroxylin A was a potential therapeutic drug for treating allergic asthma.

  7. Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 protects against pathogen-induced NF-kappaB activation in vivo

    O'Mahony, David

    2010-12-22

    Abstract Background Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are among the early and important colonizers of the gastrointestinal tract and are generally considered to be part of a normal, healthy microbiota. It is believed that specific strains within the microbiota can influence host immune-reactivity and may play a role in protection from infection and aberrant inflammatory activity. One such strain, Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7, has been previously shown to protect against Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice and helps resolve acute idiopathic diarrhea in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning the Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 protective effect. Results Following 4 hours of infection with Salmonella typhimurium, NF-κB activation was significantly elevated in vivo in placebo and Enterococcus faecium-fed animals while Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 consumption significantly attenuated the NF-κB response. In vitro anti-CD3\\/CD28 stimulated Peyer\\'s patch cells secreted significantly less TNF-α and IFN-γ following Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 consumption. Stimulated cells released more IL-12p70 but this difference did not reach statistical significance. No alteration in mucosal IL-6, IL-10 or MCP-1 levels were observed. No statistically significant change in the cytokine profile of mesenteric lymph node cells was noted. In vitro, Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 was bound by dendritic cells and induced secretion of both IL-10 and IL-12p70. In addition, co-culture of CD4+ T cells with Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7-stimulated dendritic cells resulted in a significant increase in CD25+Foxp3+ T cell numbers. Conclusion Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect via the attenuation of pro-inflammatory transcription factor activation in response to an infectious insult associated with modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production within the mucosa. The cellular mechanism

  8. Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 protects against pathogen-induced NF-κB activation in vivo

    Scully Paul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are among the early and important colonizers of the gastrointestinal tract and are generally considered to be part of a normal, healthy microbiota. It is believed that specific strains within the microbiota can influence host immune-reactivity and may play a role in protection from infection and aberrant inflammatory activity. One such strain, Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7, has been previously shown to protect against Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice and helps resolve acute idiopathic diarrhea in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning the Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 protective effect. Results Following 4 hours of infection with Salmonella typhimurium, NF-κB activation was significantly elevated in vivo in placebo and Enterococcus faecium-fed animals while Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 consumption significantly attenuated the NF-κB response. In vitro anti-CD3/CD28 stimulated Peyer's patch cells secreted significantly less TNF-α and IFN-γ following Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 consumption. Stimulated cells released more IL-12p70 but this difference did not reach statistical significance. No alteration in mucosal IL-6, IL-10 or MCP-1 levels were observed. No statistically significant change in the cytokine profile of mesenteric lymph node cells was noted. In vitro, Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 was bound by dendritic cells and induced secretion of both IL-10 and IL-12p70. In addition, co-culture of CD4+ T cells with Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7-stimulated dendritic cells resulted in a significant increase in CD25+Foxp3+ T cell numbers. Conclusion Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect via the attenuation of pro-inflammatory transcription factor activation in response to an infectious insult associated with modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production within the mucosa. The cellular

  9. Comparative assessment of a DNA and protein Leishmania donovani gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase vaccine to cross-protect against murine cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major or L. mexicana infection.

    Campbell, S A; Alawa, J; Doro, B; Henriquez, F L; Roberts, C W; Nok, A; Alawa, C B I; Alsaadi, M; Mullen, A B; Carter, K C

    2012-02-08

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem and it is estimated that 12 million people are currently infected. A vaccine which could cross-protect people against different Leishmania spp. would facilitate control of this disease as more than one species of Leishmania may be present. In this study the ability of a DNA vaccine, using the full gene sequence for L. donovani gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γGCS) incorporated in the pVAX vector (pVAXγGCS), and a protein vaccine, using the corresponding recombinant L. donovani γGCS protein (LdγGCS), to protect against L. major or L. mexicana infection was evaluated. DNA vaccination gave transient protection against L. major and no protection against L. mexicana despite significantly enhancing specific antibody titres in vaccinated infected mice compared to infected controls. Vaccination with the LdγGCS protected against both species but only if the protein was incorporated into non-ionic surfactant vesicles for L. mexicana. The results of this study indicate that a L. donovani γGCS vaccine could be used to vaccinate against more than one Leishmania species but only if the recombinant protein is used.

  10. Species difference of CD137 ligand signaling in human and murine monocytes.

    Qianqiao Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stimulation of CD137 ligand on human monocytes has been shown to induce DC differentiation, and these CD137L-DCs are more potent than classical DCs, in stimulating T cell responses in vitro. To allow an in vivo evaluation of the potency of CD137L-DCs in murine models we aimed at generating murine CD137L-DCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When stimulated through CD137 ligand murine monocytes responded just as human monocytes with an increased adherence, morphological changes, proliferation and an increase in viable cell numbers. But CD137 ligand signaling did not induce expression of inflammatory cytokines and costimulatory molecules in murine monocytes and these cells had no T cell stimulatory activity. Murine monocytes did not differentiate to inflammatory DCs upon CD137 ligand signaling. Furthermore, while CD137 ligand signaling induces maturation of human immature classical DCs it failed to do so with murine immature classical DCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that both human and murine monocytes become activated by CD137 ligand signaling but only human and not murine monocytes differentiate to inflammatory DCs.

  11. Blockade or deletion of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4 is not protective in a murine model of sepsis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/57n

    Claire A. Sand

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response triggered by microbial infection that can cause cardiovascular collapse, insufficient tissue perfusion and multi-organ failure. The cation channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4 is expressed in vascular endothelium and causes vasodilatation, but excessive TRPV4 activation leads to profound hypotension and circulatory collapse - key features of sepsis pathogenesis. We hypothesised that loss of TRPV4 signaling would protect against cardiovascular dysfunction in a mouse model of sepsis (endotoxaemia. Multi-parameter monitoring of conscious systemic haemodynamics (by radiotelemetry probe, mesenteric microvascular blood flow (laser speckle contrast imaging and blood biochemistry (iSTAT blood gas analysis was carried out in wild type (WT and TRPV4 knockout (KO mice. Endotoxaemia was induced by a single intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 12.5 mg/kg and systemic haemodynamics monitored for 24 h. Blood flow recording was then conducted under terminal anaesthesia after which blood was obtained for haematological/biochemical analysis. No significant differences were observed in baseline haemodynamics or mesenteric blood flow. Naïve TRPV4 KO mice were significantly acidotic relative to WT counterparts. Following induction of sepsis, all mice became significantly hypotensive, though there was no significant difference in the degree of hypotension between TRPV4 WT and KO mice. TRPV4 KO mice exhibited a higher sepsis severity score. While septic WT mice became significantly hypernatraemic relative to the naïve state, this was not observed in septic KO mice. Mesenteric blood flow was inhibited by topical application of the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A in naïve WT mice, but enhanced 24 h following LPS injection. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, loss of TRPV4 signaling (either through gene deletion or pharmacological antagonism did not attenuate sepsis-induced cardiovascular dysfunction

  12. AMPK activation by isorhamnetin protects hepatocytes against oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Dong, Guang-Zhi; Lee, Ju-Hee; Ki, Sung Hwan; Yang, Ji Hye; Cho, Il Je; Kang, Seung Ho; Zhao, Rong Jie; Kim, Sang Chan; Kim, Young Woo

    2014-10-05

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found in the phospholipids of membranes and released from the cellular membrane lipid bilayer by phospholipase A2. During this process, AA could produce excess reactive oxygen species and induce apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction by selectively inhibiting complexes I and III. Isorhamnetin, an O-methylated flavonol aglycone, has been shown to have cardio-protective, anti-adipogenic, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of isorhamnetin on hepatotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms involved. Our in vitro experiments showed that isorhamnetin dose-dependently blocked the hepatotoxicity induced by treatment with AA plus iron in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, isorhamnetin inhibited the AA+iron induced generation of reactive oxygen species and reduction of glutathione, and subsequently maintained mitochondria membrane potential in AA+iron treated HepG2 cells. In addition, isorhamnetin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by Thr-172 phosphorylation of AMPKα, and this was mediated with Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-2 (CaMKK2), but not liver kinase B1. Experiments using CaMKK2 siRNA or its selective inhibitor, STO-609, revealed the role of CaMKK2 in the isorhamnetin-induced activation of AMPK in HepG2 cells. These results indicate isorhamnetin protects against the hepatotoxic effect of AA plus iron, and suggest that the AMPK pathway is involved in the mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of isorhamnetin in the liver.

  13. Activation of Akt protects alveoli from neonatal oxygen-induced lung injury.

    Alphonse, Rajesh S; Vadivel, Arul; Coltan, Lavinia; Eaton, Farah; Barr, Amy J; Dyck, Jason R B; Thébaud, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the main complication of extreme prematurity, resulting in part from mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. Currently, no specific treatment exists for BPD. BPD is characterized by an arrest in alveolar development and increased apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). Type 2 AECs are putative distal lung progenitor cells, capable of regenerating alveolar homeostasis after injury. We hypothesized that the protection of AEC2 death via the activation of the prosurvival Akt pathway prevents arrested alveolar development in experimental BPD. We show that the pharmacologic inhibition of the prosurvival factor Akt pathway with wortmannin during the critical period of alveolar development impairs alveolar development in newborn rats, resulting in larger and fewer alveoli, reminiscent of BPD. Conversely, in an experimental model of BPD induced by oxygen exposure of newborn rats, alveolar simplification is associated with a decreased activation of lung Akt. In vitro studies with rat lung epithelial (RLE) cells cultured in hyperoxia (95% O(2)) showed decreased apoptosis and improved cell survival after the forced expression of active Akt by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. In vivo, adenovirus-mediated Akt gene transfer preserves alveolar architecture in the newborn rat model of hyperoxia-induced BPD. We conclude that inhibition of the prosurvival factor Akt disrupts normal lung development, whereas the expression of active Akt in experimental BPD preserves alveolar development. We speculate that the modulation of apoptosis may have therapeutic potential in lung diseases characterized by alveolar damage.

  14. Suppression of inflammatory reactions by terpinen-4-ol, a main constituent of tea tree oil, in a murine model of oral candidiasis and its suppressive activity to cytokine production of macrophages in vitro.

    Ninomiya, Kentaro; Hayama, Kazumi; Ishijima, Sanae A; Maruyama, Naho; Irie, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Junichi; Abe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The onset of oral candidiasis is accompanied by inflammatory symptoms such as pain in the tongue, edema or tissue damage and lowers the quality of life (QOL) of the patient. In a murine oral candidiasis model, the effects were studied of terpinen-4-ol (T-4-ol), one of the main constituents of tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia, on inflammatory reactions. When immunosuppressed mice were orally infected with Candida albicans, their tongues showed inflammatory symptoms within 24 h after the infection, which was monitored by an increase of myeloperoxidase activity and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in their tongue homogenates. Oral treatment with 50 µL of 40 mg/mL terpinen-4-ol 3h after the Candida infection clearly suppressed the increase of these inflammatory parameters. In vitro analysis of the effects of terpinen-4-ol on cytokine secretion of macrophages indicated that 800 µg/mL of this substance significantly inhibited the cytokine production of the macrophages cultured in the presence of heat-killed C. albicans cells. Based on these findings, the role of the anti-inflammatory action of T-4-ol in its therapeutic activity against oral candidiasis was discussed.

  15. Expression of val-12 mutant ras p21 in an IL-3-dependent murine myeloid cell line is associated with loss of serum-dependence and increases in membrane PIP2-specific phospholipase C activity.

    Rizzo, M T; Boswell, H S; English, D; Gabig, T G

    1991-01-01

    We previously showed that the proliferative response of a serum- and interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent murine myeloid cell line, NFS/N1-H7, was partially inhibited by pertussis toxin as a result of toxin-induced increased adenylate cyclase activity. In the present studies, we examined the role of the phosphoinositide cycle in the proliferative response of these cells and demonstrated that there was no change in PIP (phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate)-specific phospholipase C activity in response to IL-3 alone. However, serum caused a pertussis toxin-insensitive increase in PIP2-specific phospholipase C activity as reflected by decreased cellular levels of 32P-labelled PIP2. Proliferation of a subline selected from val-12-mutant H-ras-transfected NFS-H7 cells, clone E5, was insensitive to pertussis toxin, occurred in the absence of serum but remained serum-stimulatable and absolutely dependent on IL-3. This val-12 mutant ras-expressing cell line showed an increase in 32P-labelled PIP (phosphatidylinositol phosphate) in response to serum whereas the parent cell line did not. Membrane fractions from 32P-labelled ras-transfected cells displayed higher GTP gamma S-, GTP-, or F(-)-stimulated PIP2-specific phospholipase C activity compared to membranes from the parent cell line. Thus serum-dependence and adenylate cyclase-mediated pertussis toxin-sensitivity of the parent cell line was bypassed by val-12 mutant ras p21, possibly as a result of increased PIP2-specific phospholipase C activity.

  16. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Protects Vascular Endothelial Cells from Oxidative Stress by Apoptosis Inhibition, Cell Survival Signalling Activation and Mitochondrial Function Protection

    Daniela Surico

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Previous reports have made it hypothetically possible that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG could protect against the onset of pregnancy-related pathological conditions by acting as an antioxidant. In the present study we planned to examine the effects of hCG against oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. Methods: HUVEC were subjected to peroxidation by hydrogen peroxide. The modulation of nitric oxide (NO release by hCG and its effects on cell viability, glutathione (GSH levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial transition pore opening (MPTP were examined by specific dyes. Endothelial and inducible NO synthase (eNOS and iNOS, Akt and extracellular -signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 activation and markers of apoptosis were analyzed by Western Blot. Results: In HUVEC, hCG reduced NO release by modulating eNOS and iNOS. Moreover, hCG protected HUVEC against oxidative stress by preventing GSH reduction and apoptosis, by maintaining Akt and ERK1/2 activation and by keeping mitochondrial function. Conclusion: The present results have for the first time shown protective effects exerted by hCG on vascular endothelial function, which would be achieved by modulation of NO release, antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions and activation of cell survival signalling. These findings could have clinical implications in the management of pregnancy-related disorders.

  17. Antigen pulsed CpG-ODN activated dendritic cells induce host-protective immune response by regulating the T regulatory cell functioning in Leishmania donovani-infected mice: critical role of CXCL10

    Saikat eMajumder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, caused by Leishmania donovani, is a systemic infection of reticulo-endothelial system. There is currently no protective vaccine against VL and chemotherapy is increasingly limited due to appearance of drug resistance to first line drugs such as antimonials and amphotericin B. In the present study, by using a murine model of leishmaniasis we evaluated the function played by soluble leishmanial antigen (SLA pulsed-CpG-ODN stimulated dendritic cells (SLA-CpG-DCs in restricting the intracellular parasitic growth. We establish that a single dose of SLA-CpG-DCs vaccination is sufficient in rendering complete protection against Leishmania donovani infection. In probing the possible mechanism, we observed that SLA-CpG-DCs vaccination results in the significant decrease in Foxp3+GITR+CTLA4+CD4+CD25+ Treg cell population in Leishmania-infected mice. Vaccination with these antigen stimulated dendritic cells results in the decrease in the secretion of TGF-β by these Treg cells by possible regulation of the SMAD signalling. Moreover, we demonstrated that a CXC chemokine, IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10, has a direct role in the regulation of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells in SLA-CpG-DCs vaccinated parasitized mice as Treg cells isolated from IP-10 depleted vaccinated mice showed significantly increased TGF-β production and suppressive activity.

  18. Assessing the Protective Activity of a Recently Discovered Phenolic Compound against Oxidative Stress Using Computational Chemistry.

    Villuendas-Rey, Yenny; Alvarez-Idaboy, Juan Raul; Galano, Annia

    2015-12-28

    The protection exerted by 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (DHMBA), a phenolic compound recently isolated from the Pacific oyster, against oxidative stress (OS) is investigated using the density functional theory. Our results indicate that DHMBA is an outstanding peroxyl radical scavenger, being about 15 times and 4 orders of magnitude better than Trolox for that purpose in lipid and aqueous media, respectively. It was also found to react faster with HOO(•) than other known antioxidants such as resveratrol and ascorbic acid. DHMBA is also predicted to be able to sequester Cu(II) ions, consequently inhibiting the OS induced by Cu(II)-ascorbate mixtures and downgrading the (•)OH production via the Haber-Weiss reaction. However, it is proposed that DHMBA is more efficient as a primary antioxidant (free radical scavenger), than as a secondary antioxidant (metal ion chelator). In addition, it was found that DHMBA can be efficiently regenerated in aqueous solution, at physiological pH. Such regeneration is expected to contribute to increase the antioxidant protection exerted by DHMBA. These results suggest that probably synthetic routes for this compound should be pursued, because albeit its abundance in nature is rather low, its antioxidant activity is exceptional.

  19. Barrier-protective effects of activated protein C in human alveolar epithelial cells.

    Ferranda Puig

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is a clinical manifestation of respiratory failure, caused by lung inflammation and the disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Preservation of the physical integrity of the alveolar epithelial monolayer is of critical importance to prevent alveolar edema. Barrier integrity depends largely on the balance between physical forces on cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts, and this balance might be affected by alterations in the coagulation cascade in patients with ALI. We aimed to study the effects of activated protein C (APC on mechanical tension and barrier integrity in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549 exposed to thrombin. Cells were pretreated for 3 h with APC (50 µg/ml or vehicle (control. Subsequently, thrombin (50 nM or medium was added to the cell culture. APC significantly reduced thrombin-induced cell monolayer permeability, cell stiffening, and cell contraction, measured by electrical impedance, optical magnetic twisting cytometry, and traction microscopy, respectively, suggesting a barrier-protective response. The dynamics of the barrier integrity was also assessed by western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis of the tight junction ZO-1. Thrombin resulted in more elongated ZO-1 aggregates at cell-cell interface areas and induced an increase in ZO-1 membrane protein content. APC attenuated the length of these ZO-1 aggregates and reduced the ZO-1 membrane protein levels induced by thrombin. In conclusion, pretreatment with APC reduced the disruption of barrier integrity induced by thrombin, thus contributing to alveolar epithelial barrier protection.

  20. Study of magnetic field expansion using a plasma generator for space radiation active protection

    JIA Xiang-Hong; JIA Shao-Xia; XU Feng; BAI Yan-Qiang; WAN Jun; LIU Hong-Tao; JIANG Rui

    2013-01-01

    There are many active protecting methods including Electrostatic Fields,Confined Magnetic Field,Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc.for defending the high-energy solar particle events (SPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) in deep space exploration.The concept of using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field is the best one of all possible methods so far.The magnetic field expansion caused by plasma can improve its protective efficiency of space particles.One kind of plasma generator has been developed and installed into the cylindrical permanent magnet in the eccentric.A plasma stream is produced using a helical-shaped antenna driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power supply of 13.56 MHz,which exits from both sides of the magnet and makes the magnetic field expand on one side.The discharging belts phenomenon is similar to the Earth's radiation belt,but the mechanism has yet to be understood.A magnetic probe is used to measure the magnetic field expansion distributions,and the results indicate that the magnetic field intensity increases under higher increments of the discharge power.

  1. A whole virus pandemic influenza H1N1 vaccine is highly immunogenic and protective in active immunization and passive protection mouse models.

    Otfried Kistner

    Full Text Available The recent emergence and rapid spread of a novel swine-derived H1N1 influenza virus has resulted in the first influenza pandemic of this century. Monovalent vaccines have undergone preclinical and clinical development prior to initiation of mass immunization campaigns. We have carried out a series of immunogenicity and protection studies following active immunization of mice, which indicate that a whole virus, nonadjuvanted vaccine is immunogenic at low doses and protects against live virus challenge. The immunogenicity in this model was comparable to that of a whole virus H5N1 vaccine, which had previously been demonstrated to induce high levels of seroprotection in clinical studies. The efficacy of the H1N1 pandemic vaccine in protecting against live virus challenge was also seen to be equivalent to that of the H5N1 vaccine. The protective efficacy of the H1N1 vaccine was also confirmed using a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mouse model. It was demonstrated that mouse and guinea pig immune sera elicited following active H1N1 vaccination resulted in 100% protection of SCID mice following passive transfer of immune sera and lethal challenge. The immune responses to a whole virus pandemic H1N1 and a split seasonal H1N1 vaccine were also compared in this study. It was demonstrated that the whole virus vaccine induced a balanced Th-1 and Th-2 response in mice, whereas the split vaccine induced mainly a Th-2 response and only minimal levels of Th-1 responses. These data supported the initiation of clinical studies with the same low doses of whole virus vaccine that had previously been demonstrated to be immunogenic in clinical studies with a whole virus H5N1 vaccine.

  2. BCMA deficiency exacerbates lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity in murine lupus1

    Jiang, Chao; Loo, William M.; Greenley, Erin J.; Tung, Kenneth S.; Erickson, Loren D.

    2011-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its preclinical lupus-prone mouse models are autoimmune disorders involving the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Genetic predisposition to SLE results in B cell hyperactivity, survival of self-reactive B cells, and differentiation to autoantibody-secreting plasma cells (PC). These corrupt B cell responses are, in part, controlled by excess levels of the cytokine B cell activation factor from the TNF family (BAFF) that normally maintains B cell homeostasis and self-tolerance through limited production. B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a receptor for BAFF that, under nonautoimmune conditions, is important for sustaining enduring antibody protection by mediating survival of long-lived PCs, but is not required for B cell maturation and homeostasis. Through analysis of two different lupus-prone mouse models deficient in BCMA, we identify BCMA as an important factor in regulating peripheral B cell expansion, differentiation, and survival. We demonstrate that a BCMA deficiency combined with the lpr mutation or the murine lupus susceptibility locus Nba2 cause dramatic B cell and PC lymphoproliferation, accelerated autoantibody production, and early lethality. This study unexpectedly reveals that BCMA works to control B cell homeostasis and self-tolerance in systemic autoimmunity. PMID:21536804

  3. TALEN-mediated somatic mutagenesis in murine models of cancer.

    Zhang, Shuyuan; Li, Lin; Kendrick, Sara L; Gerard, Robert D; Zhu, Hao

    2014-09-15

    Cancer genome sequencing has identified numerous somatic mutations whose biologic relevance is uncertain. In this study, we used genome-editing tools to create and analyze targeted somatic mutations in murine models of liver cancer. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) were designed against β-catenin (Ctnnb1) and adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc), two commonly mutated genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), to generate isogenic HCC cell lines. Both mutant cell lines exhibited evidence of Wnt pathway dysregulation. We asked whether these TALENs could create targeted somatic mutations after hydrodynamic transfection into mouse liver. TALENs targeting β-catenin promoted endogenous HCC carrying the intended gain-of-function mutations. However, TALENs targeting Apc were not as efficient in inducing in vivo homozygous loss-of-function mutations. We hypothesized that hepatocyte polyploidy might be protective against TALEN-induced loss of heterozygosity, and indeed Apc gene editing was less efficient in tetraploid than in diploid hepatocytes. To increase efficiency, we administered adenoviral Apc TALENs and found that we could achieve a higher mutagenesis rate in vivo. Our results demonstrate that genome-editing tools can enable the in vivo study of cancer genes and faithfully recapitulate the mosaic nature of mutagenesis in mouse cancer models. Cancer Res; 74(18); 5311-21. ©2014 AACR.

  4. Immunization with the cysteine proteinase Ldccys1 gene from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and the recombinant Ldccys1 protein elicits protective immune responses in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Ferreira, Josie Haydée L; Gentil, Luciana Girotto; Dias, Suzana Souza; Fedeli, Carlos Eduardo C; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia

    2008-01-30

    The gene Ldccys1 encoding a cysteine proteinase of 30 kDa from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, as well as the recombinant cysteine proteinase rLdccys1, obtained by cloning and expression of the Ldccys1 gene in the pHIS vector, were used to evaluate their ability to induce immune protective responses in BALB/c mice against L. (L.) chagasi infection. Mice were immunized subcutaneously with rLdccys1 plus Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) or Propionibacterium acnes as adjuvants or intramuscularly with a plasmid carrying the Ldccys1 gene (Ldccys1/pcDNA3) and CpG ODN as the adjuvant, followed by a booster with rLdccys1 plus CpG ODN. Two weeks after immunization the animals were challenged with 1 x 10(7) amastigotes of L. (L.) chagasi. Both immunization protocols induced significant protection against L. (L.) chagasi infection as shown by a very low parasite load in the spleen of immunized mice compared to the non-immunized controls. However, DNA immunization was 10-fold more protective than immunization with the recombinant protein. Whereas rLdccys1 induced a significant secretion of IFN-gamma and nitric oxide (NO), animals immunized with the Ldccys1 gene increased the production of IgG2a antibodies, IFN-gamma and NO. These results indicated that protection triggered by the two immunization protocols was correlated to a predominant Th1 response.

  5. Prednisone inhibits the IL-1β-induced expression of COX-2 in HEI-OC1 murine auditory cells through the inhibition of ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and AP-1 activity.

    Hong, Hua; Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2014-12-01

    Hearing loss can be induced by multiple causes, including cochlear inflammation. Prednisone (PDN) is a well-known steroid clinically used in the treatment of hearing loss. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects and the mechanisms of action of PDN on the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, an inflammatory enzyme involved in the production of prostaglandins (PGs), in House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells (a murine auditory cell line) treated with the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1β. The exposure of HEI-OC1 cells to IL-1β increased COX-2 protein and mRNA expression, COX-2 promoter-driven luciferase activity and COX-2 enzymatic activity [as indicated by the increased production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major COX-2 metabolite]. However, PDN markedly inhibited the IL-1β-induced COX-2 protein and mRNA expression, COX-2 promoter activity and PGE2 production in the HEI-OC1 cells without affecting COX-2 protein and mRNA stability. PDN further inhibited the IL-1β-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-1, but had no effect on the cytokine-induced activation of p38 MAPK and proteolysis of IκB-α, a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitory protein. PDN also partially suppressed the IL-1β‑induced activation of activator protein (AP)-1 (but not that of NF-κB) promoter-driven luciferase activity. Of note, the inhibitory effects of PDN on the IL-1β-induced expression of COX-2 and the activation of ERK-1/2 and JNK-1 in the HEI-OC1 cells were significantly diminished by RU486, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, suggesting that PDN exerts its inhibitory effects through GR. To the best of our knowledge, our study demonstrates for the first time that PDN inhibits the IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression and activity in HEI-OC1 cells by COX-2 transcriptional repression, which is partly associated with the inhibition of ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and AP-1 activation.

  6. Purification and growth of melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r)- defective primary murine melanocytes is dependent on stem cell factor (SFC) from keratinocyte-conditioned media.

    Scott, Timothy L; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; D'Orazio, John A

    2009-12-01

    The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a transmembrane G(s)-coupled surface protein found on melanocytes that binds melanocyte-stimulating hormone and mediates activation of adenylyl cyclase and generation of the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP). MC1R regulates growth and differentiation of melanocytes and protects against carcinogenesis. Persons with loss-offunction polymorphisms of MC1R tend to be UV-sensitive (fair-skinned and with a poor tanning response) and are at high risk for melanoma. Mechanistic studies of the role of MC1R in melanocytic UV responses, however, have been hindered in part because Mc1r-defective primary murine melanocytes have been difficult to culture in vitro. Until now, effective growth of murine melanocytes has depended on cAMP stimulation with adenylyl cyclase-activating or phosphodiesterase-inhibiting agents. However, rescuing cAMP in the setting of defective MC1R signaling would be expected to confound experiments directly testing MC1R function on melanocytic UV responses. In this paper, we report a novel method of culturing primary murine melanocytes in the absence of pharmacologic cAMP stimulation by incorporating conditioned supernatants containing stem cell factor derived from primary keratinocytes. Importantly, this method seems to permit similar pigment expression by cultured melanocytes as that found in the skin of their parental murine strains. This novel approach will allow mechanistic investigation into MC1R's role in the protection against UV-mediated carcinogenesis and determination of the role of melanin pigment subtypes on UV-mediated melanocyte responses.

  7. Silver deposition on polypyrrole films electrosynthesised onto Nitinol alloy. Corrosion protection and antibacterial activity.

    Saugo, M; Flamini, D O; Brugnoni, L I; Saidman, S B

    2015-11-01

    The electrosynthesis of polypyrrole films onto Nitinol from sodium salicylate solutions of different concentrations is reported. The morphology and corrosion protection properties of the resulting coatings were examined and they both depend on the sodium salicylate concentration. The immobilisation of silver species in PPy films constituted by hollow rectangular microtubes was studied as a function of the polymer oxidation degree. The highest amount of silver was deposited when the coated electrode was prepolarised at -1.00V (SCE) before silver deposition, suggesting an increase in the amount of non-oxidised segments in the polymer. Finally, the antibacterial activity of the coating against the Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria was evaluated. Both strains resulted sensitive to the modified coatings, obtaining a slightly better result against S. aureus.

  8. Chemical Composition and Hepato-protective activity of Imperata cylindrica Beauv

    Gamal A Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical study of the aerial parts of Imperata cylindrica Beauv. (Graminae, growing in Egypt afforded four methoxylated flavonoids 1-4 , β-sitosterol-3-0-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6 ′ -tetradecanoate 5 , 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzaldehyde 6 , together with daucosterol, β-sitosterol and α-amyrin 7-9. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first isolation of compounds 1-5 from the genus Imperata. A significant hepato-protective activity had been observed upon co-administration of the methanolic extracts of I. cylindrica with CCl 4 . The structures were determined using spectroscopic data; 1D ( 1 H and 13 C, 2D (HSQC, and HMBC NMR; MS; UV and IR.

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha induction of uncoupling protein 2 protects against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity.

    Patterson, Andrew D; Shah, Yatrik M; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Krausz, Kristopher W; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2012-07-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes acute liver failure in humans and rodents due in part to the destruction of mitochondria as a result of increased oxidative stress followed by hepatocellular necrosis. Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that controls the expression of genes encoding peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation enzymes, with the experimental ligand Wy-14,643 or the clinically used fibrate drug fenofibrate, fully protects mice from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. PPARα-humanized mice were also protected, whereas Ppara-null mice were not, thus indicating that the protection extends to human PPARα and is PPARα-dependent. This protection is due in part to induction of the PPARα target gene encoding mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). Forced overexpression of UCP2 protected wildtype mice against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in the absence of PPARα activation. Ucp2-null mice, however, were sensitive to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity despite activation of PPARα with Wy-14,643. Protection against hepatotoxicity by UCP2-induction through activation of PPARα is associated with decreased APAP-induced c-jun and c-fos expression, decreased phosphorylation of JNK and c-jun, lower mitochondrial H(2)O(2) levels, increased mitochondrial glutathione in liver, and decreased levels of circulating fatty acyl-carnitines. These studies indicate that the PPARα target gene UCP2 protects against elevated reactive oxygen species generated during drug-induced hepatotoxicity and suggest that induction of UCP2 may also be a general mechanism for protection of mitochondria during fatty acid β-oxidation.

  10. Nrf2 Activation Protects against Solar-Simulated Ultraviolet Radiation in Mice and Humans.

    Knatko, Elena V; Ibbotson, Sally H; Zhang, Ying; Higgins, Maureen; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Dawe, Robert S; Ferguson, James; Huang, Jeffrey T-J; Clarke, Rosemary; Zheng, Suqing; Saito, Akira; Kalra, Sukirti; Benedict, Andrea L; Honda, Tadashi; Proby, Charlotte M; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

    2015-06-01

    The transcription factor Nrf2 determines the ability to adapt and survive under conditions of electrophilic, oxidative, and inflammatory stress by regulating the expression of elaborate networks comprising nearly 500 genes encoding proteins with versatile cytoprotective functions. In mice, disruption of Nrf2 increases susceptibility to carcinogens and accelerates disease pathogenesis. Paradoxically, Nrf2 is upregulated in established human tumors, but whether this upregulation drives carcinogenesis is not known. Here we show that the incidence, multiplicity, and burden of solar-simulated UV radiation-mediated cutaneous tumors that form in SKH-1 hairless mice in which Nrf2 is genetically constitutively activated are lower than those that arise in their wild-type counterparts. Pharmacologic Nrf2 activation by topical biweekly applications of small (40 nmol) quantities of the potent bis(cyano enone) inducer TBE-31 has a similar protective effect against solar-simulated UV radiation in animals receiving long-term treatment with the immunosuppressive agent azathioprine. Genetic or pharmacologic Nrf2 activation lowers the expression of the pro-inflammatory factors IL6 and IL1β, and COX2 after acute exposure of mice to UV radiation. In healthy human subjects, topical applications of extracts delivering the Nrf2 activator sulforaphane reduced the degree of solar-simulated UV radiation-induced skin erythema, a quantifiable surrogate endpoint for cutaneous damage and skin cancer risk. Collectively, these data show that Nrf2 is not a driver for tumorigenesis even upon exposure to a very potent and complete carcinogen and strongly suggest that the frequent activation of Nrf2 in established human tumors is a marker of metabolic adaptation.

  11. In vitro and in vivo studies of the antineoplastic activity of copper (II) compounds against human leukemia THP-1 and murine melanoma B16-F10 cell lines.

    Borges, Layla J H; Bull, Érika S; Fernandes, Christiane; Horn, Adolfo; Azeredo, Nathalia F; Resende, Jackson A L C; Freitas, William R; Carvalho, Eulógio C Q; Lemos, Luciana S; Jerdy, Hassan; Kanashiro, Milton M

    2016-11-10

    We investigated the antineoplastic activities of a previously reported copper (II) coordination compound, [Cu(BMPA)Cl2]CH3OH (1), and a new compound, [Cu(HBPA)Cl2]H2O (2), where BMPA is bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amine and HBPA is (2-hydroxybenzyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, using various cellular models of human leukemia (THP-1, U937, HL60, Molt-4, JURKAT) and human colon cancer (COLO 205), as well as a murine highly metastatic melanoma (B16-F10) cell line. Compound (2) was characterized using several physical and chemical techniques, including X-ray diffraction studies. The IC50 values of the copper coordination complexes in the human leukemia cell lines ranged from 87.63 ± 1.02 to ≥400 μM at high cell concentrations and from 19.17 ± 1.06 to 97.67 ± 1.23 μM at low cell concentrations. Both compounds induced cell death, which was determined by cell cycle analyses and phosphatidylserine exposure studies. THP-1 cells released cytochrome c to the cytoplasm 12 h after treatment with 400 μM of compound (2). To evaluate the apoptosis pathway induced by compound (2), we measured the activities of initiator caspases 8 and 9 and executioner caspases 3 and 6. The results were suggestive of the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. To investigate the activities of the compounds in vivo, we selected two sensitive cell lines from leukemia (THP-1) and solid tumor (B16-F10) lineages. BALB/c nude bearing THP-1 tumors treated with 12 mg·kg(-1) of compound (2) showed a 92.4% inhibition of tumor growth compared with the control group.

  12. In vitro and invivo evaluation of hepato protection and anti ulcer activities of piperine gastro retentive micropspheres

    Bindu Madhavi Boddupalli; Ramalingam Ramani; Bala Subramaniam; Ravinder Nath Anisetti

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In the recent years of research, the interest on herbal medicine is continuously increasing. Piperine is an alkaloid extracted from ripen fruits of Piper nigram and was proved in literature for its hepato protective and anti ulcer properties majorly through anti oxidant capability. Methods: In the present investigation gastro retentive, both floating and mucoadhessive microspheres are evaluated for the hepato protection in paracetamol induced model and gastric protection in rats and a comparison was done with conventional microspheres and pure form of piperine. Results: The results clearly showed the significant decrease in the serum levels of the marker enzymes in hepato protective study supported by histopathology along with reduced ulcer index in anti ulcer activity. Conclusion: This clearly indicates that there is an increase in both activities of floating microspheres, mucoadhessive microspheres when compared with the PP and conventional microspheres.

  13. GENERAL ACTIVITY AND PROTECTIVE BEHAVIOUR OF THE EUROPEAN GROUND SQUIRREL (SPERMOPHILUS CITELLUS IN CAPTIVITY

    Sandra Franova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We decided to focus our research on two of the basic forms of ground squirrel s behaviour in the semi natural conditions of zoological gardens general activity and protective behavior. Our main goal was to perform a complex analysis of the ground squirrel s behaviour living in captivity and to compare the various categories of behaviour on a set timeline. We performed our research throughout the span of two years 2011 2012, during which we observed two separate ground squirrel colonies A, B. We took our compiled information and subjected these to a thorough statistical analysis and main tools of comparison. Based on a long term observation and analysis of the results, we were able to gather very detailed information about the two categories of the ground squirrel s behavior as well as the various periods on the timeline, which were worked into the ethogram of the ground squirrels living in captivity. The results from 2011 confirmed that the behavior of the ground squirrel bred in captivity both observed categories in the same way as was observed in the wild reaches two peaks with raised frequencies in manifestation of given behavior, mostly in the daily time periods, the first from 9am to 11am and the second from 2.30pm to 5pm. We also noted a change in 2012, when there was a reconstruction nearby the aviaries. These reconstructive activities influenced the behavior significant decrease of activity of the ground squirrels in the presence of the assigned workers approximately until 3pm, from which time also in connection with the lessening of the worker s presence the ground squirrels activity in their aviaries begun to rapidly rise, which held on until 5pm. The peak of protective behavior in 2012 has reached higher levels than the peak in 2011, which we attribute to their vigilance after the previous presence of people. Our results may serve as a basis for improvement of the life conditions of the ground squirrels bred in captivity as well as

  14. Antibodies to lipooligosaccharide of a Brazilian purpuric fever isolate of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius lack bactericidal and protective activity.

    Peters, V B; Rubin, L G

    1992-08-01

    The immunological basis for protection against Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF), a fulminant infection of young children associated with bacteremia with Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius, is unknown. Candidate antigens to which protective antibodies may be directed include cell surface proteins and lipooligosaccharide (LOS). We studied the activity of antisera to LOS purified from a BPF H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius isolate. Anti-LOS antisera contained anti-LOS antibody by enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot and no detectable anti-outer membrane protein antibodies by immunoblot. Anti-LOS antisera had minimal bactericidal activity and were not protective against the homologous strain in an infant rat model of bacteremia. Antiserum to whole bacterial cells had a titer of anti-LOS antibody similar to that of anti-LOS antisera and was bactericidal and protective. Removal of anti-LOS antibodies from anti-whole cell antiserum by affinity chromatography did not result in a loss of bactericidal activity. Serum from a normal adult contained anti-LOS antibodies and had bactericidal activity. However, anti-LOS antibodies purified from this serum did not have detectable bactericidal activity. These studies suggest that anti-LOS antibodies produced in rats are not bactericidal and do not contribute to protection against experimental bacteremia with BPF strains of H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius.

  15. Vaccination with a Streptococcus pneumoniae trivalent recombinant PcpA, PhtD and PlyD1 protein vaccine candidate protects against lethal pneumonia in an infant murine model.

    Verhoeven, David; Xu, Qingfu; Pichichero, Michael E

    2014-05-30

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections continue to cause significant worldwide morbidity and mortality despite the availability of efficacious serotype-dependent vaccines. The need to incorporate emergent strains expressing additional serotypes into pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines has led to an identified need for a pneumococcal protein-based vaccine effective against a broad scope of serotypes. A vaccine consisting of several conserved proteins with different functions during pathogenesis would be preferred. Here, we investigated the efficacy of a trivalent recombinant protein vaccine containing pneumococcal choline-binding protein A (PcpA), pneumococcal histidine triad D (PhtD), and genetically detoxified pneumolysin (PlyD1) in an infant mouse model. We found the trivalent vaccine conferred protection from lethal pneumonia challenges using serotypes 6A and 3. The observed protection with trivalent PcpA, PhtD, and PlyD1 vaccine in infant mice supports the ongoing study of this candidate vaccine in human infant clinical trials.

  16. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Peeler, David K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Dong-Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule. The purpose of this advanced LAW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-term, mid-term, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced LAW glasses, property-composition models and their uncertainties, and an advanced glass algorithm to support WTP facility operations, including both Direct Feed LAW and full pretreatment flowsheets. Data are needed to develop, validate, and implement 1) new glass property-composition models and 2) a new glass formulation algorithm. Hence, this plan integrates specific studies associated with increasing the Na2O and SO3/halide concentrations in glass, because these components will ultimately dictate waste loadings for LAW vitrification. Of equal importance is the development of an efficient and economic strategy for 99Tc management. Specific and detailed studies are being implemented to understand the fate of Tc throughout

  17. Sol-gel prepared active ternary oxide coating on titanium in cathodic protection

    VLADIMIR V. PANIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of a ternary oxide coating, on titanium, which consisted of TiO2, RuO2 and IrO2 in the molar ratio 0.6:0.3:0.1, calculated on the metal atom, were investigated for potential application for cathodic protection in a seawater environment. The oxide coatings on titanium were prepared by the sol gel procedure from a mixture of inorganic oxide sols, which were obtained by forced hydrolysis of metal chlorides. The morphology of the coating was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of activated titanium anodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and polarization measurements in a H2SO4- and NaCl-containing electrolyte, as well as in seawater sampled on the Adriatic coast in Tivat, Montenegro. The anode stability during operation in seawater was investigated by the galvanostatic accelerated corrosion stability test. The morphology and electrochemical characteristics of the ternary coating are compared to that of a sol-gel-prepared binary Ti0.6Ru0.4O2 coating. The activity of the ternary coating was similar to that of the binary Ti0.6Ru0.4O2 coating in the investigated solutions. However, the corrosion stability in seawater is found to be considerably greater for the ternary coating.

  18. Ganoderma lucidum Protects Dopaminergic Neuron Degeneration through Inhibition of Microglial Activation

    Ruiping Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abundant evidence has suggested that neuroinflammation participates in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD. The emerging evidence has supported that microglia may play key roles in the progressive neurodegeneration in PD and might be a promising therapeutic target. Ganoderma lucidum (GL, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has been shown potential neuroprotective effects in our clinical trials that make us to speculate that it might possess potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effect of GL and possible underlying mechanism of action through protecting microglial activation using co-cultures of dopaminergic neurons and microglia. The microglia is activated by LPS and MPP+-treated MES 23.5 cell membranes. Meanwhile, GL extracts significantly prevent the production of microglia-derived proinflammatory and cytotoxic factors [nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interlukin 1β (IL-1β] in a dose-dependent manner and down-regulate the TNF-α and IL-1β expressions on mRNA level as well. In conclusion, our results support that GL may be a promising agent for the treatment of PD through anti-inflammation.

  19. Seismic protection of frame structures via semi-active control: modeling and implementation issues

    Gattulli, Vincenzo; Lepidi, Marco; Potenza, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Theoretical and practical issues concerning the multi-faceted task of mitigating the latero-torsional seismic response of a prototypal frame structure with asymmetric mass distribution are approached. Chevron braces with embedded magnetorheological dampers acting on the interstory drift are used to ensure additional energy dissipation. The semi-active control strategy employed to govern the modification of the damper characteristics via feedback is based on the selection of optimal forces according to a H2/LQG criterion, with respect to which the actual forces are regulated by a clipped-optimal logic. A dynamic observer is used to estimate the state through a non-collocated placement of the acceleration sensors. Several aspects to be addressed throughout the complex process including the design, modelization, and implementation phases of semi-active protection systems are discussed. Finally, experimental results obtained to mitigate the motion induced by ground excitation in a large-scale laboratory prototype, simulating the seismic response of a two-story building, are summarized.

  20. A noncognate interaction with anti-receptor antibody-activated helper T cells induces small resting murine B cells to proliferate and to secrete antibody

    Owens, T

    1988-01-01

    on resting B cells (even in the presence of intact F23.1 antibody), but could induce antibody secretion by anti-Ig-preactivated B cells. Both F23.1+ clones (E9.D4 and 4.35F2) and one F23.1- clone (D2.2) could synergize with supernatants from activated E9.D4 T cells to induce B cell activation. F(ab')2......Culture of small resting allogeneic B cells (of an irrelevant haplotype) with two clones of T helper (Th) cells that were activated by the F23.1 anti-T cell receptor antibody led to the activation of B cells to proliferate and to secrete antibody. Th cell supernatants by themselves had no effect...... fragments of F23.1 induced E9.D4 to activate B cells as efficiently as intact F23.1 and B cell populations that had been incubated with F23.1 were not activated when cultured with E9.D4, although T cells recognized cell-presented F23.1 and were weakly activated. Reduction of the density of F23.1 adsorbed...

  1. Cholesterol synthesis inhibitors protect against platelet-activating factor-induced neuronal damage

    Williams Alun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet-activating factor (PAF is implicated in the neuronal damage that accompanies ischemia, prion disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Since some epidemiological studies demonstrate that statins, drugs that reduce cholesterol synthesis, have a beneficial effect on mild AD, we examined the effects of two cholesterol synthesis inhibitors on neuronal responses to PAF. Methods Primary cortical neurons were treated with cholesterol synthesis inhibitors (simvastatin or squalestatin prior to incubation with different neurotoxins. The effects of these drugs on neuronal cholesterol levels and neuronal survival were measured. Immunoblots were used to determine the effects of simvastatin or squalestatin on the distribution of the PAF receptor and an enzyme linked immunoassay was used to quantify the amounts of PAF receptor. Results PAF killed primary neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with simvastatin or squalestatin reduced neuronal cholesterol and increased the survival of PAF-treated neurons. Neuronal survival was increased 50% by 100 nM simvastatin, or 20 nM squalestatin. The addition of mevalonate restored cholesterol levels, and reversed the protective effect of simvastatin. Simvastatin or squalestatin did not affect the amounts of the PAF receptor but did cause it to disperse from within lipid rafts. Conclusion Treatment of neurons with cholesterol synthesis inhibitors including simvastatin and squalestatin protected neurons against PAF. Treatment caused a percentage of the PAF receptors to disperse from cholesterol-sensitive domains. These results raise the possibility that the effects of statins on neurodegenerative disease are, at least in part, due to desensitisation of neurons to PAF.

  2. Breakthrough curves for toluene adsorption on different types of activated carbon fibers: application in respiratory protection.

    Balanay, Jo Anne G; Floyd, Evan L; Lungu, Claudiu T

    2015-05-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACF) are considered viable alternative adsorbent materials in respirators because of their larger surface area, lighter weight, and fabric form. The purpose of this study was to characterize the breakthrough curves of toluene for different types of commercially available ACFs to understand their potential service lives in respirators. Two forms of ACF, cloth (AC) and felt (AF), with three surface areas each were tested. ACFs were challenged with six toluene concentrations (50-500 p.p.m.) at constant air temperature (23°C), relative humidity (50%), and air flow (16 l min-1) at different bed depths. Breakthrough data were obtained using continuous monitoring by gas chromatography using a gas sampling valve. The ACF specific surface areas were measured by an automatic physisorption analyzer. Results showed unique shapes of breakthrough curves for each ACF form: AC demonstrated a gradual increase in breakthrough concentration, whereas AF showed abrupt increase in concentration from the breakpoint, which was attributed to the difference in fiber density between the forms. AF has steeper breakthrough curves compared with AC with similar specific surface area. AC exhibits higher 10% breakthrough times for a given bed depth due to higher mass per bed depth compared with AF, indicating more adsorption per bed depth with AC. ACF in respirators may be appropriate for use as protection in environments with toluene concentration at the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Limit, or during emergency escape for higher toluene concentrations. ACF has shown great potential for application in respiratory protection against toluene and in the development of thinner, lighter, and more efficient respirators.

  3. Renal Protective Activity of Hsian-tsao Extracts in Diabetic Rats

    MIN YANG; ZHENG-PING XU; CAI-JU XU; JIA MENG; GANG-QIANG DING; XIAO-MING ZHANG; YAN WENG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the renal protective activity of Hsian-tsao Mesona procumbens Hemsl. water extracts in diabetic rats. Methods Thirty Sprague-dawley female rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 each), "control group" with intraperitoneal saline injection, "diabetic group" with 60 mg of intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection per kg of body weight and "Hsian-tsao group" with intragastric administration of Hsian-tsao extraction everyday for 4 weeks after intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection. The body weight and blood sugar were measured before and after model induction in the three groups. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) expressions in the kidney were monitored by immunohistochemistry. Kidney ultrastructural changes were also analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy. Results Before diabetic model induction, there were no significant differences among the three groups in body weight and blood sugar. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, the differences became statistically significant. Electron microscopy also revealed disruption of the foot processes of the podocytes and other damages in diabetic group. These damages were significantly less severe in Hsian-tsao group when compared with the diabetic group. TSP-1 expressions in the kidney were significantly increased in both the diabetic group and Hsian-tsao group, but it was relatively lower in Hsian-tsao group than in diabetic group. Conclusion Our results showed that Hsian-tsao treatment in the diabetic rats effectively prevented the pathological alterations in the kidney and decreased the TSP-1 expression. It was suggested that Hsian-tsao had protective effect on the kidneys of the diabetic rats.

  4. Novel curcumin analogue 14p protects against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury through Nrf2-activating anti-oxidative activity

    Li, Weixin [Department of Cardiology, The 5th Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui, Zhejiang (China); Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wu, Mingchai [Department of Pharmacy, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzou, Zhejiang (China); Tang, Longguang; Pan, Yong; Liu, Zhiguo [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zeng, Chunlai [Department of Cardiology, The 5th Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Jingying [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wei, Tiemin, E-mail: lswtm@sina.com [Department of Cardiology, The 5th Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui, Zhejiang (China); Liang, Guang, E-mail: wzmcliangguang@163.com [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Alleviating the oxidant stress associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion has been demonstrated as a potential therapeutic approach to limit ischemia reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiac damage. Curcumin, a natural compound with anti-oxidative activity, exerts beneficial effect against cardiac I/R injury, but poor chemical and metabolic stability. Previously, we have designed and synthesized a series of mono-carbonyl analogues of curcumin (MACs) with high stability. This study aims to find new anti-oxidant MACs and to demonstrate their effects and mechanisms against I/R-induced heart injury. Methods: H9c2 cells challenged with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or TBHP were used for in vitro bio-screening and mechanistic studies. The MDA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and SOD levels in H9C2 cells were determined, and the cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Myocardial I/R mouse models administrated with or without the compound were used for in vivo studies. Results: The in vitro cell-based screening showed that curcumin analogues 8d and 14p exhibited strong anti-oxidative effects. Pre-treatment of H9c2 cells with 14p activated Nrf2 signaling pathway, attenuated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-increased MDA and SOD level, followed by the inhibition of TBHP-induced cell death and Bax/Bcl-2–caspase-3 pathway activation. Silencing Nrf2 significantly reversed the protective effects of 14p. In in vivo animal model of myocardial I/R, administration of low dose 14p (10 mg/kg) reduced infarct size and myocardial apoptosis to the same extent as the high dose curcumin (100 mg/kg). Conclusion: These data support the novel curcumin analogue 14p as a promising antioxidant to decrease oxidative stress and limit myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury via activating Nrf2. - Highlights: • Mono-carbonyl analogue of curcumin, 14p, exhibited better chemical stability. • Compound 14p inhibited TBHP-induced apoptosis through activating Nrf2 in vitro. • Compound 14p limited myocardial ischemia

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-melanogenic activities of different extracts from aerial parts of Nepeta binaludensis Jamzad in murine melanoma B16F10 cells

    Zahra Tayarani-Najaran

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Taken together the data indicate that N. binaludensis has inhibitory activity on melanin synthesis with no cytotoxic effects in B16 melanoma cells. Therefore, it merits future investigations to apply as whitening agent in hyperpigmentation.

  6. Dynamic activity of NF-κ B in multiple trauma patients and protective effects of ulinastain

    LI Jun; WANG Hu; LI Neng-ping; GU Yong-feng; YANG Xin; LU Xiao-bing; CONG Jian-nong; LING Yun; TANG Jiang-an; YUAN Xiao-yan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the dynamic activity of NF-κ B at the early stage of injury in multiple trauma patients and the protective effects of ulinastain.Methods:From January 2008 to May 2010,patients with multiple traumas admitted to our emergency department were enrolled in this study.Their age varied from 20-55 years.All enrolled patients were assigned randomly into control group (26 cases of multiple injury without ulinastain treatment),ulinastain group (25 cases of multiple injury with ulinastain treatment),and mild injury group (20 cases) for basic control.The inclusion criteria for mild injury group were AIS-2005 ≤ 3,single wound,previously healthy inhospital patients without the history of surgical intervention.In addition to routine treatment,patients in ulinastain group were intravenously injected 200 000 IU of ulinastain dissolved in 100 ml of normal saline within 12hours after injury and subsequently injected at the interval of every 8 hours for 7 days.NF- κ B activity in monocytes and the level of TNF- α,IL-1,IL-6 in serum on admission (day 0),day 1,2,3,4,and 7 were measured.Data were compared and analyzed between different groups.Results:NF-κB activity in monocytes and TNF- αIL-1 and IL-6 of these patients reached peak levels at 24hour after trauma,with gradual decrease to normal at 72hour after trauma.NF-κ B activity and levels of TNF- a,IL-l and IL-6 were lower in ulinastain group than control one,without any significant difference between the two groups.The mean duration for systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome was 7 d±3.1 d and 10 d±3.5 d in ulinastain group and control group respectively,and showed a significant difference.Conclusions:NF-κB activity in monocytes and the levels of inflammatory cytokines in multiply injured patients increased transiently at the early stage of trauma.Ulinastain may shorten the duration of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction

  7. Dynamic activity of NF-κB in multiple trauma patients and protective effects of ulinastain

    LI Jun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the dynamic activity of NF-κB at the early stage of injury in multiple trauma patients and the protective effects of ulinastain. Methods: From January 2008 to May 2010, patients with multiple traumas admitted to our emergency department were enrolled in this study. Their age varied from 20-55 years. All enrolled patients were assigned randomly into control group (26 cases of multiple injury without ulinastain treatment, ulinastain group (25 cases of multiple injury with ulinastain treatment, and mild injury group (20 cases for basic control. The inclusion criteria for mild injury group were AIS-2005≤3, single wound, previously healthy inhospital patients without the history of surgical intervention. In addition to routine treatment, patients in ulinastain group were intravenously injected 200 000 IU of ulinastain dissolved in 100 ml of normal saline within 12 hours after injury and subsequently injected at the interval of every 8 hours for 7 days. NF-κB activity in monocytes and the level of TNF? IL-1, IL? in serum on admission (day 0, day 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 were measured. Data were compared and analyzed between different groups. Results: NF-κB activity in monocytes and TNF? IL-1 and IL? of these patients reached peak levels at 24 hour after trauma, with gradual decrease to normal at 72 hour after trauma. NF-κB activity and levels of TNF? IL-1 and IL? were lower in ulinastain group than control one, without any significant difference between the two groups. The mean duration for systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome was 7 d?.1 d and 10 d?.5 d in ulinastain group and control group respectively, and showed a significant difference. Conclusions: NF-κB activity in monocytes and the levels of inflammatory cytokines in multiply injured patients increased transiently at the early stage of trauma. Ulinastain may shorten the duration of systemic inflammatory

  8. Primary murine CD4+ T cells fail to acquire the ability to produce effector cytokines when active Ras is present during Th1/Th2 differentiation.

    Sujit V Janardhan

    Full Text Available Constitutive Ras signaling has been shown to augment IL-2 production, reverse anergy, and functionally replace many aspects of CD28 co-stimulation in CD4+ T cells. These data raise the possibility that introduction of active Ras into primary T cells might result in improved functionality in pathologic situations of T cell dysfunction, such as cancer or chronic viral infection. To test the biologic effects of active Ras in primary T cells, CD4+ T cells from Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor Transgenic mice were transduced with an adenovirus encoding active Ras. As expected, active Ras augmented IL-2 production in naive CD4+ T cells. However, when cells were cultured for 4 days under conditions to promote effector cell differentiation, active Ras inhibited the ability of CD4+ T cells to acquire a Th1 or Th2 effector cytokine profile. This differentiation defect was not due to deficient STAT4 or STAT6 activation by IL-12 or IL-4, respectively, nor was it associated with deficient induction of T-bet and GATA-3 expression. Impaired effector cytokine production in active Ras-transduced cells was associated with deficient demethylation of the IL-4 gene locus. Our results indicate that, despite augmenting acute activation of naïve T cells, constitutive Ras signaling inhibits the ability of CD4+ T cells to properly differentiate into Th1/Th2 effector cytokine-producing cells, in part by interfering with epigenetic modification of effector gene loci. Alternative strategies to potentiate Ras pathway signaling in T cells in a more regulated fashion should be considered as a therapeutic approach to improve immune responses in vivo.

  9. Systemic and cerebral vascular endothelial growth factor levels increase in murine cerebral malaria along with increased Calpain and caspase activity and can be reduced by erythropoietin treatment

    Hempel, Casper; Hoyer, Nils; Kildemoes, Anna;

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore, we noticed increased caspase-3 and calpain activity in terminally ill mice, as measured by protease-specific cleavage of α-spectrin and p35. In conclusion, we detected increased cerebral and systemic VEGF as well as HIF-1α, which in the brain were reduced to normal in EPO-treated mice. Also...... caspase and calpain activity was reduced markedly in EPO-treated mice....

  10. Telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications in a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, partially through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma}-dependent activity

    Toyama, Kensuke; Nakamura, Taishi; Kataoka, Keiichiro [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Yasuda, Osamu [Department of Cardiovascular Clinical and Translational Research, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto (Japan); Fukuda, Masaya; Tokutomi, Yoshiko; Dong, Yi-Fei [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Ogawa, Hisao [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei, E-mail: kimmitsu@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, acts as a partial PPAR{gamma} agonist. {yields} The protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular injury were associated with attenuation of vascular NF{kappa}B activation and TNF {alpha}. {yields} PPAR{gamma} activity of telmisartan was involved in the normalization of vascular PPAR{gamma} downregulation in diabetic mice. {yields} We provided the first evidence indicating that PPAR{gamma} activity of telmisartan contributed to the protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular complication. -- Abstract: Experimental and clinical data support the notion that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) activation is associated with anti-atherosclerosis as well as anti-diabetic effect. Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), acts as a partial PPAR{gamma} agonist. We hypothesized that telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications, through PPAR{gamma} activation. We compared the effects of telmisartan, telmisartan combined with GW9662 (a PPAR{gamma} antagonist), and losartan with no PPAR{gamma} activity on vascular injury in obese type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Compared to losartan, telmisartan significantly ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction, downregulation of phospho-eNOS, and coronary arterial remodeling in db/db mice. More vascular protective effects of telmisartan than losartan were associated with greater anti-inflammatory effects of telmisartan, as shown by attenuation of vascular nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) activation and tumor necrosis factor {alpha}. Coadministration of GW9662 with telmisartan abolished the above mentioned greater protective effects of telmisartan against vascular injury than losartan in db/db mice. Thus, PPAR{gamma} activity appears to be involved in the vascular protective effects of telmisartan in db/db mice. Moreover, telmisartan, but not losartan, prevented the downregulation of

  11. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Protects against Palmitic Acid-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction via Activation of the AMPK/eNOS Pathway

    Che-Hsin Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that free fatty acids are associated with chronic inflammation, which may be involved in vascular injury. The intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA can decrease cardiovascular disease risks, but the protective mechanisms of EPA on endothelial cells remain unclear. In this study, primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs treated with palmitic acid (PA were used to explore the protective effects of EPA. The results revealed that EPA attenuated PA-induced cell death and activation of apoptosis-related proteins, such as caspase-3, p53 and Bax. Additionally, EPA reduced the PA-induced increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species, the activation of NADPH oxidase, and the upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. EPA also restored the PA-mediated reduction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation. Using AMPK siRNA and the specific inhibitor compound C, we found that EPA restored the PA-mediated inhibitions of eNOS and AKT activities via activation of AMPK. Furthermore, the NF-κB signals that are mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK were involved in protective effects of EPA. In summary, these results provide new insight into the possible molecular mechanisms by which EPA protects against atherogenesis via the AMPK/eNOS-related pathway.

  12. Posttraumatic Chondrocyte Apoptosis in the Murine Xiphoid

    Davis, Christopher G.; Eisner, Eric; McGlynn, Margaret; Shelton, John M.; Richardson, James

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To demonstrate posttraumatic chondrocyte apoptosis in the murine xiphoid after a crush-type injury and to ultimately determine the pathway (i.e., intrinsic or extrinsic) by which chondrocytes undergo apoptosis in response to mechanical injury. Design. The xiphoids of adult female wild-type mice were injured with the use of a modified Kelly clamp. Postinjury xiphoid cartilage was analyzed via 3 well-described independent means of assessing apoptosis in chondrocytes: hematoxylin and eosin staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay, and activated caspase-3 staining. Results. Injured specimens contained many chondrocytes with evidence of apoptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, and the liberation of apoptotic bodies. There was a statistically significant increase in the number of chondrocytes undergoing apoptosis in the injured specimens as compared with the uninjured specimens. Conclusions. Chondrocytes can be stimulated to undergo apoptosis as a result of mechanical injury. These experiments involving predominantly cartilaginous murine xiphoid in vivo establish a baseline for future investigations that employ the genetic and therapeutic modulation of chondrocyte apoptosis in response to mechanical injury. PMID:26069679

  13. Splenectomy normalizes hematocrit in murine polycythemia vera.

    Jan-Rung Mo

    Full Text Available Splenic enlargement (splenomegaly develops in numerous disease states, although a specific pathogenic role for the spleen has rarely been described. In polycythemia vera (PV, an activating mutation in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2(V617 induces splenomegaly and an increase in hematocrit. Splenectomy is sparingly performed in patients with PV, however, due to surgical complications. Thus, the role of the spleen in the pathogenesis of human PV remains unknown. We specifically tested the role of the spleen in the pathogenesis of PV by performing either sham (SH or splenectomy (SPL surgeries in a murine model of JAK2(V617F-driven PV. Compared to SH-operated mice, which rapidly develop high hematocrits after JAK2(V617F transplantation, SPL mice completely fail to develop this phenotype. Disease burden (JAK2(V617 is equivalent in the bone marrow of SH and SPL mice, however, and both groups develop fibrosis and osteosclerosis. If SPL is performed after PV is established, hematocrit rapidly declines to normal even though myelofibrosis and osteosclerosis again develop independently in the bone marrow. In contrast, SPL only blunts hematocrit elevation in secondary, erythropoietin-induced polycythemia. We conclude that the spleen is required for an elevated hematocrit in murine, JAK2(V617F-driven PV, and propose that this phenotype of PV may require a specific interaction between mutant cells and the spleen.

  14. Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry (SOCE) and Purinergic Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ Homeostasis in Murine bv2 Microglia Cells: Early Cellular Responses to ATP-Mediated Microglia Activation

    Gilbert, Daniel F.; Stebbing, Martin J.; Kuenzel, Katharina; Murphy, Robyn M.; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Buttgereit, Andreas; Stokes, Leanne; Adams, David J.; Friedrich, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Microglia activation is a neuroinflammatory response to parenchymal damage with release of intracellular metabolites, e.g., purines, and signaling molecules from damaged cells. Extracellular purines can elicit Ca2+-mediated microglia activation involving P2X/P2Y receptors with metabotropic (P2Y) and ionotropic (P2X) cell signaling in target cells. Such microglia activation results in increased phagocytic activity, activation of their inflammasome and release of cytokines to sustain neuroinflammatory (so-called M1/M2 polarization). ATP-induced activation of ionotropic P2X4 and P2X7 receptors differentially induces receptor-operated Ca2+ entry (ROCE). Although store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) was identified to modulate ROCE in primary microglia, its existence and role in one of the most common murine microglia cell line, BV2, is unknown. To dissect SOCE from ROCE in BV2 cells, we applied high-resolution multiphoton Ca2+ imaging. After depleting internal Ca2+ stores, SOCE was clearly detectable. High ATP concentrations (1 mM) elicited sustained increases in intracellular [Ca2+]i whereas lower concentrations (≤100 μM) also induced Ca2+ oscillations. These differential responses were assigned to P2X7 and P2X4 activation, respectively. Pharmacologically inhibiting P2Y and P2X responses did not affect SOCE, and in fact, P2Y-responses were barely detectable in BV2 cells. STIM1S content was significantly upregulated by 1 mM ATP. As P2X-mediated Ca2+ oscillations were rare events in single cells, we implemented a high-content screening approach that allows to record Ca2+ signal patterns from a large number of individual cells at lower optical resolution. Using automated classifier analysis, several drugs (minocycline, U73122, U73343, wortmannin, LY294002, AZ10606120) were tested on their profile to act on Ca2+ oscillations (P2X4) and sustained [Ca2+]i increases. We demonstrate specific drug effects on purinergic Ca2+ pathways and provide new pharmacological insights into

  15. STORE-OPERATED CA2+ ENTRY (SOCE AND PURINERGIC RECEPTOR-MEDIATED CA2+ HOMEOSTASIS IN MURINE BV2 MICROGLIA CELLS: EARLY CELLULAR RESPONSES TO ATP-MEDIATED MICROGLIA ACTIVATION

    Daniel F. Gilbert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Microglia activation is a neuro-inflammatory response to parenchymal damage with release of intracellular metabolites, e.g. purines, and signaling molecules from damaged cells. Extracellular purines can elicit Ca2+-mediated microglia activation involving P2X/P2Y receptors with metabotropic (P2Y and ionotropic (P2X cell signaling in target cells. Such microglia activation results in increased phagocytic activity, activation of their inflammasome and release of cytokines to sustain neuro-inflammation (so-called M1/M2 polarization. ATP-induced activation of ionotropic P2X4 and P2X7 receptors differentially induce receptor-operated Ca2+ entry (ROCE. Although store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE was identified to modulate ROCE in primary microglia, its existence and role in one of the most common murine microglia cell line, BV2, is unknown. To dissect SOCE from ROCE in BV2 cells, we applied high-resolution multiphoton Ca2+ imaging. After depleting internal Ca2+ stores, SOCE was clearly detectable. High ATP concentrations (1 mM elicited sustained increases in intracellular [Ca2+]i whereas lower concentrations (≤100 µM also induced Ca2+ oscillations. These differential responses were assigned to P2X7 and P2X4 activation, respectively. Pharmacologically inhibiting P2Y and P2X responses did not affect SOCE, and in fact, P2Y-responses were barely detectable in BV2 cells. STIM1S content was significantly upregulated by 1 mM ATP. As P2X-mediated Ca2+ oscillations were rare events in single cells, we implemented a high-content screening approach that allows to record Ca2+ signal patterns from a large number of individual cells at lower optical resolution. Using automated classifier analysis, several drugs (minocycline, U73122, U73343, wortmannin, LY294002, AZ10606120 were tested on their profile to act on Ca2+ oscillations (P2X4 and sustained [Ca2+]i increases. We demonstrate specific drug effects on purinergic Ca2+ pathways and provide new pharmacological

  16. Genetic activation of Nrf2 protects against fasting-induced oxidative stress in livers of mice.

    Yu-Kun Jennifer Zhang

    Full Text Available Acute fasting causes elevated oxidative stress. The current study investigated the effects of the nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, the sensor of oxidative stress in cells, on energy homeostasis and liver pathophysiology during fasting. Feed was removed from mice possessing none (Nrf2-null, normal (wild-type, WT, enhanced (Keap1-knockdown, K1-KD, and maximum (hepatocyte-specific Keap1-knockout, K1-HKO Nrf2 activity in liver for 24 h. Body weight, blood glucose, and blood lipid profiles were similar among mice with graded Nrf2 activity under either fed or fasted conditions. Fasting reduced liver size in mice expressing Nrf2, but not in Nrf2-null mice. Nrf2-null mice accumulated more non-esterified free fatty acids and triglycerides in liver after fasting than the other genotypes of mice. Fatty acids are mainly catabolized in mitochondria, and Nrf2-null mice had lower mitochondrial content in liver under control feeding conditions, which was further reduced by fasting. In contrast, mitochondrial contents in mice with enhanced Nrf2 activity were not affected by fasting. Oxidative stress, determined by staining of free radicals and quantification of malondialdehyde equivalents, was highest in Nrf2-null and lowest in K1-HKO mice after fasting. The exacerbated oxidative stress in livers of Nrf2-null mice is predicted to lead to damages to mitochondria, and therefore diminished oxidation and increased accumulation of lipids in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In summary, the Nrf2-regulated signaling pathway is critical in protecting mitochondria from oxidative stress during feed deprivation, which ensures efficient utilization of fatty acids in livers of mice.

  17. Pituitary Adenlylate Cyclase Activating Peptide Protects Adult Neural Stem Cells from a Hypoglycaemic milieu.

    Shiva Mansouri

    Full Text Available Hypoglycaemia is a common side-effect of glucose-lowering therapies for type-2 diabetic patients, which may cause cognitive/neurological impairment. Although the effects of hypoglycaemia in the brain have been extensively studied in neurons, how hypoglycaemia impacts the viability of adult neural stem cells (NSCs has been poorly investigated. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how hypoglycaemia regulates NSCs survival have not been characterized. Recent work others and us have shown that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R agonist Exendin-4 stimulate NSCs survival against glucolipoapoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro system where to study the effects of hypoglycaemia on NSC survival. Furthermore, we determine the potential role of PACAP and Exendin-4 in counteracting the effect of hypoglycaemia. A hypoglycaemic in vitro milieu was mimicked by exposing subventricular zone-derived NSC to low levels of glucose. Moreover, we studied the potential involvement of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress by quantifying protein levels of Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and mRNA levels of CHOP. We show that PACAP via PAC-1 receptor and PKA activation counteracts impaired NSC viability induced by hypoglycaemia. The protective effect induced by PACAP correlated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, Exendin-4 was ineffective. The results show that hypoglycaemia decreases NSC viability and that this effect can be substantially counteracted by PACAP via PAC-1 receptor activation. The data supports a potential therapeutic role of PAC-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of neurological complications, based on neurogenesis impairment by hypoglycaemia.

  18. Central Administration of Lipopolysaccharide Induces Depressive-like Behavior in Vivo and Activates Brain Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase In Murine Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures

    Kavelaars Annemieke

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient stimulation of the innate immune system by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS activates peripheral and central expression of the tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO which mediates depressive-like behavior. It is unknown whether direct activation of the brain with LPS is sufficient to activate IDO and induce depressive-like behavior. Methods Sickness and depressive-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice were assessed by social exploration and the forced swim test, respectively. Expression of cytokines and IDO mRNA was measured by real-time RT-PCR and cytokine protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs. Enzymatic activity of IDO was estimated as the amount of kynurenine produced from tryptophan as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC with electrochemical detection. Results Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. administration of LPS (100 ng increased steady-state transcripts of TNFα, IL-6 and the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in the hippocampus in the absence of any change in IFNγ mRNA. LPS also increased IDO expression and induced depressive-like behavior, as measured by increased duration of immobility in the forced swim test. The regulation of IDO expression was investigated using in situ organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs derived from brains of newborn C57BL/6J mice. In accordance with the in vivo data, addition of LPS (10 ng/ml to the medium of OHSCs induced steady-state expression of mRNA transcripts for IDO that peaked at 6 h and translated into increased IDO enzymatic activity within 8 h post-LPS. This activation of IDO by direct application of LPS was preceded by synthesis and secretion of TNFα and IL-6 protein and activation of iNOS while IFNγ expression was undetectable. Conclusion These data establish that activation of the innate immune system in the brain is sufficient to activate IDO and induce

  19. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG as an Effective Probiotic for Murine Giardiasis

    Nisha Goyal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The gut microflora is an important constituent in the intestinal mucosal barrier and has been introduced as the concept of probiotic therapy that beneficially affects the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Therefore, the main objective of the study was to explore the protective potential of various lactobacilli strains for murine giardiasis. By experimentation, it was found that the probiotic supplementation of either Lactobacillus casei, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, or L. rhamnosus GG, 7 days prior to inoculation with G. lamblia trophozoites, reduced the rate of cyst excretion compared with Giardia-infected mice. Interestingly, L. GG was found to be the most effective probiotic in reducing the duration of giardia cycle and acts as an effective prophylactic probiotic for murine giardiasis but needs to be clinically correlated due to entirely different human microflora.

  20. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Brucella abortus recombinant protein cocktail (rOmp19+rP39) against B. abortus 544 and B. melitensis 16M infection in murine model.

    Tadepalli, Ganesh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Balakrishna, Konduru; Murali, Harishchandra Sripathy; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant proteins Omp19 (rO) and P39 (rP) from Brucella abortus were evaluated individually and compared with the cocktail protein (rO+rP) against B. abortus 544 and Brucella melitensis 16M infection in BALB/c mouse model. Intra-peritoneal (I.P.) immunization with rO+rP cocktail developed substantially higher antibody titers predominant with Th1 mediated isotypes (IgG2a/2b). Western blot analysis using anti-rO+rP antibodies showed specific reactivity with native Omp19 (19 kDa) and P39 (39 kDa) among whole cell proteins of B. abortus and B. melitensis. Splenocytes extracted from rO+rP immunized mice induced significantly (Pabortus 544 (72.27%) and B. melitensis 16M (68.57%). On the other hand, individual anti-rO and anti-rP polysera resulted in relatively lesser protection against the pathogens (64.79%, 54.45% and 47.13%, 45.11%, respectively). Immunized group of mice when I.P. challenged with 5 × 10(4) CFU of B. abortus 544 and B. melitensis 16M were found significantly (PBrucella vaccine.

  1. Corrosion-Activated Micro-Containers for Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Protective Coatings

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, J. W.; Zhang, X.; Johnsey, M. N.; Pearman, B. P.; Jolley, S. T.; Calle, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry. The NASA Kennedy Space Centers Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion

  2. Active immunizations with peptide-DC vaccines and passive transfer with antibodies protect neutropenic mice against disseminated candidiasis.

    Xin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We previously report that peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, which targeting two peptides (Fba and Met6) expressed on the cell surface of Candida albicans, can induce high degree of protection against disseminated candidiasis in immunocompetent mice. Passive transfer of immune sera from the peptide immunized mice or peptide-related monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that protection was medicated by peptide-specific antibodies. In this study the efficacy of active and passive immunization against disseminated candidiasis was tested in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia. Peptide-DC vaccines were given to mice prior to induction of neutropenia. We show active immunization with either Fba or Met6 peptide-DC vaccine significantly improved the survival and reduced the fungal burden of disseminated candidiasis in those immunocompromised mice. Impo