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Sample records for activity predicts responsiveness

  1. Resting lateralized activity predicts the cortical response and appraisal of emotions: an fNIRS study.

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    Balconi, Michela; Grippa, Elisabetta; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the effect of lateralized left-right resting brain activity on prefrontal cortical responsiveness to emotional cues and on the explicit appraisal (stimulus evaluation) of emotions based on their valence. Indeed subjective responses to different emotional stimuli should be predicted by brain resting activity and should be lateralized and valence-related (positive vs negative valence). A hemodynamic measure was considered (functional near-infrared spectroscopy). Indeed hemodynamic resting activity and brain response to emotional cues were registered when subjects (N = 19) viewed emotional positive vs negative stimuli (IAPS). Lateralized index response during resting state, LI (lateralized index) during emotional processing and self-assessment manikin rating were considered. Regression analysis showed the significant predictive effect of resting activity (more left or right lateralized) on both brain response and appraisal of emotional cues based on stimuli valence. Moreover, significant effects were found as a function of valence (more right response to negative stimuli; more left response to positive stimuli) during emotion processing. Therefore, resting state may be considered a predictive marker of the successive cortical responsiveness to emotions. The significance of resting condition for emotional behavior was discussed. PMID:25862673

  2. Predictions of Unbalanced Response of Turbo Compressor Equipped with Active Magnetic Bearings through System Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, SeongKi; NOh, Myounggyu; Park, Young Woo [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kiwook; Lee, Nam Soo; Jeog, Jinhee [LG Electronics, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Since vibrations in rotating machinery is a direct cause of performance degradation and failures, it is very important to predict the level of vibrations as well as have a method to lower the vibrations to an acceptable level. However, the changes in balancing during installation and the vibrational modes of the support structure are difficult to predict. This paper presents a method for predicting the unbalanced response of a turbo-compressor supported by active magnetic bearings (AMBs). Transfer functions of the rotor are obtained through system identification using AMBs. These transfer functions contain not only the dynamics of the rotor but also the vibrational modes of the support structure. Using these transfer functions, the unbalanced response is calculated and compared with the run-up data obtained from a compressor prototype. The predictions revealed the effects of the support structure, validating the efficacy of the method.

  3. Lateral prefrontal cortex activity during cognitive control of emotion predicts response to social stress in schizophrenia

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    Laura M. Tully, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LPFC dysfunction is a well-established neural impairment in schizophrenia and is associated with worse symptoms. However, how LPFC activation influences symptoms is unclear. Previous findings in healthy individuals demonstrate that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC activation during cognitive control of emotional information predicts mood and behavior in response to interpersonal conflict, thus impairments in these processes may contribute to symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia. We investigated whether schizophrenia participants show LPFC deficits during cognitive control of emotional information, and whether these LPFC deficits prospectively predict changes in mood and symptoms following real-world interpersonal conflict. During fMRI, 23 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 24 healthy controls completed the Multi-Source Interference Task superimposed on neutral and negative pictures. Afterwards, schizophrenia participants completed a 21-day online daily-diary in which they rated the extent to which they experienced mood and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, as well as the occurrence and response to interpersonal conflict. Schizophrenia participants had lower dorsal LPFC activity (BA9 during cognitive control of task-irrelevant negative emotional information. Within schizophrenia participants, DLPFC activity during cognitive control of emotional information predicted changes in positive and negative mood on days following highly distressing interpersonal conflicts. Results have implications for understanding the specific role of LPFC in response to social stress in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatments targeting LPFC-mediated cognitive control of emotion could promote adaptive response to social stress in schizophrenia.

  4. Lateral prefrontal cortex activity during cognitive control of emotion predicts response to social stress in schizophrenia.

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    Tully, Laura M; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Hooker, Christine I

    2014-01-01

    LPFC dysfunction is a well-established neural impairment in schizophrenia and is associated with worse symptoms. However, how LPFC activation influences symptoms is unclear. Previous findings in healthy individuals demonstrate that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) activation during cognitive control of emotional information predicts mood and behavior in response to interpersonal conflict, thus impairments in these processes may contribute to symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia. We investigated whether schizophrenia participants show LPFC deficits during cognitive control of emotional information, and whether these LPFC deficits prospectively predict changes in mood and symptoms following real-world interpersonal conflict. During fMRI, 23 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 24 healthy controls completed the Multi-Source Interference Task superimposed on neutral and negative pictures. Afterwards, schizophrenia participants completed a 21-day online daily-diary in which they rated the extent to which they experienced mood and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, as well as the occurrence and response to interpersonal conflict. Schizophrenia participants had lower dorsal LPFC activity (BA9) during cognitive control of task-irrelevant negative emotional information. Within schizophrenia participants, DLPFC activity during cognitive control of emotional information predicted changes in positive and negative mood on days following highly distressing interpersonal conflicts. Results have implications for understanding the specific role of LPFC in response to social stress in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatments targeting LPFC-mediated cognitive control of emotion could promote adaptive response to social stress in schizophrenia.

  5. Prediction of the antiglycation activity of polysaccharides from Benincasa hispida using a response surface methodology.

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    Jiang, Xiang; Kuang, Fei; Kong, Fansheng; Yan, Chunyan

    2016-10-20

    Benincasa hispida is a popular vegetable in China. Our previous experiments suggested that polysaccharides isolated from B. hispida fruits (PBH) have antiglycation effect and DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Ultrasonic treatments can be used to extract polysaccharides from Benincasa hispida (PBH). The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the ultrasonic treatment conditions and the antiglycation activity of PBH. A mathematical model was generated with an artificial neural network (ANN) toolbox from MATLAB to analyze the effects of ultrasonic treatment conditions on antiglycation activity. The response surface plots showed relationships between ultrasonic extraction conditions and bioactivity. The R(2) value of the model was 0.9919, which suggested good fitness of the neural network. The application of genetic algorithms showed that the optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions resulted in the highest antiglycation activity for PBH. These were 150W, 46°C, and 35min. These conditions produced a predicted antiglycation activity of 41.2%; the actual activity was 40.9% under optimal conditions. This is very close to the predicted value. The experimental data indicated that the PBH possessed both antiglycation and antioxidant activities. The maximum actual value of antiglycation was 101.7% that of the positive control, and the PBH inhibited the DPPH free radicals with an EC50 value of 0.98mg/mL. This is 66.2% that of ascorbic acid. These results explained the observations that B. hispida can decrease glucose levels in diabetic patients. The experimental results also showed that the ANN could be used for optimization and prediction. PMID:27474577

  6. Unsupervised feature learning improves prediction of human brain activity in response to natural images.

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    Umut Güçlü

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Encoding and decoding in functional magnetic resonance imaging has recently emerged as an area of research to noninvasively characterize the relationship between stimulus features and human brain activity. To overcome the challenge of formalizing what stimulus features should modulate single voxel responses, we introduce a general approach for making directly testable predictions of single voxel responses to statistically adapted representations of ecologically valid stimuli. These representations are learned from unlabeled data without supervision. Our approach is validated using a parsimonious computational model of (i how early visual cortical representations are adapted to statistical regularities in natural images and (ii how populations of these representations are pooled by single voxels. This computational model is used to predict single voxel responses to natural images and identify natural images from stimulus-evoked multiple voxel responses. We show that statistically adapted low-level sparse and invariant representations of natural images better span the space of early visual cortical representations and can be more effectively exploited in stimulus identification than hand-designed Gabor wavelets. Our results demonstrate the potential of our approach to better probe unknown cortical representations.

  7. Prediction of Pathway Activation by Xenobiotic-Responsive Transcription Factors in the Mouse Liver

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    Many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals activate xenobioticresponsive transcription factors (TF). Identification of target genes of these factors would be useful in predicting pathway activation in in vitro chemical screening. Starting with a large compendium of Affymet...

  8. A Global Genomic and Genetic Strategy to Predict Pathway Activation of Xenobiotic Responsive Transcription Factors in the Mouse Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals activate xenobiotic-responsive transcription factors(TF). Identification of target genes of these factors would be useful in predicting pathway activation in in vitro chemical screening. Starting with a large compendium of Affymet...

  9. Factors Predicting Behavioral Response to a Physical Activity Intervention among Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Schneider, Margaret; Cooper, Dan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether individual factors influenced rates of physical activity change in response to a school-based intervention. Methods: Sedentary adolescent females (N = 63) participated in a 9-month physical activity program. Weekly levels of leisure-time physical activity were reported using an interactive website. Results: Change…

  10. Do Cardiovascular Responses to Active and Passive Coping Tasks predict Future Blood Pressure over a 10-Month Later?

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    Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong; Baker, Ian; Maratos, Frankie; Sheffield, David

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether cardiovascular responses to active or passive coping tasks and single or multiple tasks predicted changes in resting blood pressure (BP) over a ten-month period. Heart rate (HR), BP, cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were measured at rest, and during mental stress tests (mental arithmetic, speech, and cold pressor tasks). A total of 104 eligible participants participated in the initial study, and 77 (74.04%) normotensive adult participants' resting BP were re-evaluated at ten-month follow-up. Regression analyses indicated that after adjustment for baseline BP, initial age, gender, body mass index, family history of cardiovascular disease, and current cigarette smoking, heighted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and HR responses to an active coping task (mental arithmetic) were associated with increased future SBP (ΔR2 = .060, ΔR2 = .045, respectively). Further, aggregated SBP responsivity (over the three tasks) to the predictor models resulted in significant, but smaller increases in ΔR2 accounting for .040 of the variance of follow-up SBP. These findings suggest that cardiovascular responses to active coping tasks predict future SBP. Further, compared with single tasks, the findings revealed that SBP responses to three tasks were less predictive compared to an individual task (i.e., mental arithmetic). Of importance, hemodynamic reactivity (namely CO and TPR) did not predict future BP suggesting that more general psychophysiological processes (e.g., inflammation, platelet aggregation) may be implicated, or that BP, but not hemodynamic reactivity may be a marker of hypertension. PMID:26972632

  11. Ongoing activity in temporally coherent networks predicts intra-subject fluctuation of response time to sporadic executive control demands.

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    Takayuki Nozawa

    Full Text Available Can ongoing fMRI BOLD signals predict fluctuations in swiftness of a person's response to sporadic cognitive demands? This is an important issue because it clarifies whether intrinsic brain dynamics, for which spatio-temporal patterns are expressed as temporally coherent networks (TCNs, have effects not only on sensory or motor processes, but also on cognitive processes. Predictivity has been affirmed, although to a limited extent. Expecting a predictive effect on executive performance for a wider range of TCNs constituting the cingulo-opercular, fronto-parietal, and default mode networks, we conducted an fMRI study using a version of the color-word Stroop task that was specifically designed to put a higher load on executive control, with the aim of making its fluctuations more detectable. We explored the relationships between the fluctuations in ongoing pre-trial activity in TCNs and the task response time (RT. The results revealed the existence of TCNs in which fluctuations in activity several seconds before the onset of the trial predicted RT fluctuations for the subsequent trial. These TCNs were distributed in the cingulo-opercular and fronto-parietal networks, as well as in perceptual and motor networks. Our results suggest that intrinsic brain dynamics in these networks constitute "cognitive readiness," which plays an active role especially in situations where information for anticipatory attention control is unavailable. Fluctuations in these networks lead to fluctuations in executive control performance.

  12. Cortical Network Models of Firing Rates in the Resting and Active States Predict BOLD Responses.

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    Bennett, Maxwell R; Farnell, Les; Gibson, William G; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals have produced some surprising observations. One is that their amplitude is proportional to the entire activity in a region of interest and not just the fluctuations in this activity. Another is that during sleep and anesthesia the average BOLD correlations between regions of interest decline as the activity declines. Mechanistic explanations of these phenomena are described here using a cortical network model consisting of modules with excitatory and inhibitory neurons, taken as regions of cortical interest, each receiving excitatory inputs from outside the network, taken as subcortical driving inputs in addition to extrinsic (intermodular) connections, such as provided by associational fibers. The model shows that the standard deviation of the firing rate is proportional to the mean frequency of the firing when the extrinsic connections are decreased, so that the mean BOLD signal is proportional to both as is observed experimentally. The model also shows that if these extrinsic connections are decreased or the frequency of firing reaching the network from the subcortical driving inputs is decreased, or both decline, there is a decrease in the mean firing rate in the modules accompanied by decreases in the mean BOLD correlations between the modules, consistent with the observed changes during NREM sleep and under anesthesia. Finally, the model explains why a transient increase in the BOLD signal in a cortical area, due to a transient subcortical input, gives rises to responses throughout the cortex as observed, with these responses mediated by the extrinsic (intermodular) connections.

  13. Cortical Network Models of Firing Rates in the Resting and Active States Predict BOLD Responses.

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    Maxwell R Bennett

    Full Text Available Measurements of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signals have produced some surprising observations. One is that their amplitude is proportional to the entire activity in a region of interest and not just the fluctuations in this activity. Another is that during sleep and anesthesia the average BOLD correlations between regions of interest decline as the activity declines. Mechanistic explanations of these phenomena are described here using a cortical network model consisting of modules with excitatory and inhibitory neurons, taken as regions of cortical interest, each receiving excitatory inputs from outside the network, taken as subcortical driving inputs in addition to extrinsic (intermodular connections, such as provided by associational fibers. The model shows that the standard deviation of the firing rate is proportional to the mean frequency of the firing when the extrinsic connections are decreased, so that the mean BOLD signal is proportional to both as is observed experimentally. The model also shows that if these extrinsic connections are decreased or the frequency of firing reaching the network from the subcortical driving inputs is decreased, or both decline, there is a decrease in the mean firing rate in the modules accompanied by decreases in the mean BOLD correlations between the modules, consistent with the observed changes during NREM sleep and under anesthesia. Finally, the model explains why a transient increase in the BOLD signal in a cortical area, due to a transient subcortical input, gives rises to responses throughout the cortex as observed, with these responses mediated by the extrinsic (intermodular connections.

  14. A Global Genomic and Genetic Strategy to Identify, Validate and Use Gene Signatures of Xenobiotic-Responsive Transcription Factors in Prediction of Pathway Activation in the Mouse Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals activate xenobiotic-responsive transcription factors. Identification of target genes of these factors would be useful in predicting pathway activation in in vitro chemical screening as well as their involvement in disease states. ...

  15. Sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia.

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    Roberts, Janet; Desai, Nisha; McCoy, John; Goren, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Two percent topical minoxidil is the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Its success has been limited by the low percentage of responders. Meta-analysis of several studies reporting the number of responders to 2% minoxidil monotherapy indicates moderate hair regrowth in only 13-20% of female patients. Five percent minoxidil solution, when used off-label, may increase the percentage of responders to as much as 40%. As such, a biomarker for predicting treatment response would have significant clinical utility. In a previous study, Goren et al. reported an association between sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles and minoxidil response in a mixed cohort of male and female patients. The aim of this study was to replicate these findings in a well-defined cohort of female patients with AGA treated with 5% minoxidil daily for a period of 6 months. Consistent with the prior study, we found that sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts treatment response with 93% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Our study further supports the importance of minoxidil sulfation in eliciting a therapeutic response and provides further insight into novel targets for increasing minoxidil efficacy. PMID:24773771

  16. Vital Signs Predict Rapid-Response Team Activation within Twelve Hours of Emergency Department Admission

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    James M. Walston

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rapid-response teams (RRTs are interdisciplinary groups created to rapidly assess and treat patients with unexpected clinical deterioration marked by decline in vital signs. Traditionally emergency department (ED disposition is partially based on the patients’ vital signs (VS at the time of hospital admission. We aimed to identify which patients will have RRT activation within 12 hours of admission based on their ED VS, and if their outcomes differed. Methods: We conducted a case-control study of patients presenting from January 2009 to December 2012 to a tertiary ED who subsequently had RRT activations within 12 hours of admission (early RRT activations. The medical records of patients 18 years and older admitted to a non-intensive care unit (ICU setting were reviewed to obtain VS at the time of ED arrival and departure, age, gender and diagnoses. Controls were matched 1:1 on age, gender, and diagnosis. We evaluated VS using cut points (lowest 10%, middle 80% and highest 10% based on the distribution of VS for all patients. Our study adheres to the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines for reporting observational studies. Results: A total of 948 patients were included (474 cases and 474 controls. Patients who had RRT activations were more likely to be tachycardic (odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 95% CI [1.25-3.27], tachypneic (OR 2.92, 95% CI [1.73-4.92], and had lower oxygen saturations (OR 2.25, 95% CI [1.42-3.56] upon arrival to the ED. Patients who had RRT activations were more likely to be tachycardic at the time of disposition from the ED (OR 2.76, 95% CI [1.65-4.60], more likely to have extremes of systolic blood pressure (BP (OR 1.72, 95% CI [1.08-2.72] for low BP and OR 1.82, 95% CI [1.19-2.80] for high BP, higher respiratory rate (OR 4.15, 95% CI [2.44-7.07] and lower oxygen saturation (OR 2.29, 95% CI [1.43-3.67]. Early RRT activation was associated with increased healthcare

  17. Childhood Poverty Predicts Adult Amygdala and Frontal Activity and Connectivity in Response to Emotional Faces

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    Javanbakht, Arash; King, Anthony P.; Evans, Gary W.; Swain, James E.; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K. Luan; Liberzon, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Childhood poverty negatively impacts physical and mental health in adulthood. Altered brain development in response to social and environmental factors associated with poverty likely contributes to this effect, engendering maladaptive patterns of social attribution and/or elevated physiological stress. In this fMRI study, we examined the association between childhood poverty and neural processing of social signals (i.e., emotional faces) in adulthood. Fifty-two subjects from a longitudinal prospective study recruited as children, participated in a brain imaging study at 23–25 years of age using the Emotional Faces Assessment Task. Childhood poverty, independent of concurrent adult income, was associated with higher amygdala and medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) responses to threat vs. happy faces. Also, childhood poverty was associated with decreased functional connectivity between left amygdala and mPFC. This study is unique, because it prospectively links childhood poverty to emotional processing during adulthood, suggesting a candidate neural mechanism for negative social-emotional bias. Adults who grew up poor appear to be more sensitive to social threat cues and less sensitive to positive social cues. PMID:26124712

  18. Childhood Poverty Predicts Adult Amygdala and Frontal Activity and Connectivity in Response to Emotional Faces

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    Arash eJavanbakht

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood poverty negatively impacts physical and mental health in adulthood. Altered brain development in response to social and environmental factors associated with poverty likely contributes to this effect, engendering maladaptive patterns of social attribution and/or elevated physiological stress. In this fMRI study, we examined the association between childhood poverty and neural processing of social signals (i.e., emotional faces in adulthood. 52 subjects from a longitudinal prospective study recruited as children, participated in a brain imaging study at 23-25 years of age using the Emotional Faces Assessment Task (EFAT. Childhood poverty, independent of concurrent adult income, was associated with higher amygdala and mPFC responses to threat vs. happy faces. Also, childhood poverty was associated with decreased functional connectivity between left amygdala and mPFC. This study is unique because it prospectively links childhood poverty to emotional processing during adulthood, suggesting a candidate neural mechanism for negative social-emotional bias. Adults who grew up poor appear to be more sensitive to social threat cues and less sensitive to positive social cues.

  19. Childhood Poverty Predicts Adult Amygdala and Frontal Activity and Connectivity in Response to Emotional Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Arash; King, Anthony P; Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Liberzon, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Childhood poverty negatively impacts physical and mental health in adulthood. Altered brain development in response to social and environmental factors associated with poverty likely contributes to this effect, engendering maladaptive patterns of social attribution and/or elevated physiological stress. In this fMRI study, we examined the association between childhood poverty and neural processing of social signals (i.e., emotional faces) in adulthood. Fifty-two subjects from a longitudinal prospective study recruited as children, participated in a brain imaging study at 23-25 years of age using the Emotional Faces Assessment Task. Childhood poverty, independent of concurrent adult income, was associated with higher amygdala and medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) responses to threat vs. happy faces. Also, childhood poverty was associated with decreased functional connectivity between left amygdala and mPFC. This study is unique, because it prospectively links childhood poverty to emotional processing during adulthood, suggesting a candidate neural mechanism for negative social-emotional bias. Adults who grew up poor appear to be more sensitive to social threat cues and less sensitive to positive social cues.

  20. Frontal responses during learning predict vulnerability to the psychotogenic effects of ketamine - Linking cognition, brain activity, and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corlett, Philip R.; Honey, Garry D.; Aitken, Michael R. F.; Dickinson, Anthony; Shanks, David R.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Lee, Michael; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Murray, Graham K.; McKenna, Peter J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Establishing a neurobiological account of delusion formation that links cognitive processes, brain activity, and symptoms is important to furthering our understanding of psychosis. Objective: To explore a theoretical model of delusion formation that implicates prediction error - dependent a

  1. The Brain Activity in Brodmann Area 17: A Potential Bio-Marker to Predict Patient Responses to Antiepileptic Drugs.

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    Yida Hu

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to predict newly diagnosed patient responses to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging tools to explore changes in spontaneous brain activity. We recruited 21 newly diagnosed epileptic patients, 8 drug-resistant (DR patients, 11 well-healed (WH patients, and 13 healthy controls. After a 12-month follow-up, 11 newly diagnosed epileptic patients who showed a poor response to AEDs were placed into the seizures uncontrolled (SUC group, while 10 patients were enrolled in the seizure-controlled (SC group. By calculating the amplitude of fractional low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF of blood oxygen level-dependent signals to measure brain activity during rest, we found that the SUC patients showed increased activity in the bilateral occipital lobe, particularly in the cuneus and lingual gyrus compared with the SC group and healthy controls. Interestingly, DR patients also showed increased activity in the identical cuneus and lingual gyrus regions, which comprise Brodmann's area 17 (BA17, compared with the SUC patients; however, these abnormalities were not observed in SC and WH patients. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves indicated that the fALFF value of BA17 could differentiate SUC patients from SC patients and healthy controls with sufficient sensitivity and specificity prior to the administration of medication. Functional connectivity analysis was subsequently performed to evaluate the difference in connectivity between BA17 and other brain regions in the SUC, SC and control groups. Regions nearby the cuneus and lingual gyrus were found positive connectivity increased changes or positive connectivity changes with BA17 in the SUC patients, while remarkably negative connectivity increased changes or positive connectivity decreased changes were found in the SC patients. Additionally, default mode network (DMN regions showed negative connectivity increased changes or

  2. Utility of the whole-kidney and parenchymal time-activity curves for a prediction of diuretic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In a retrospective study, MAG3 dynamic renal data (90 kidneys in 57 children) have been analyzed with the aim to test a prediction of diuretic response. Whole-kidney (WK) and parenchymal (PA) curves were extracted from 20 min pre-diuretic phase using standard and fuzzy ROIs. Peak time (PT), half time (HT), ratio of the curve value in 20th min to the curve maximum (RM), mean transit time (TT), and output efficiency (OE) were calculated for each curve. With PA curves, also the transit time index (PI) was calculated. The curve parameters were compared with the maximum elimination rate of urine after diuretic (EM) using paired correlation and Fisher's linear discriminate function. The highest correlation was found between ln EM and OE-PA (0.61), RM-PA (-0.58), TT-PA (-0.57), and PI (-0.57). Best diagnostic accuracy in prediction of EM ≤ 7 % (a sign of obstruction) was obtained with OE-PA (87 %), PI (87 %), and both PT-PA and RM-PA (83 %). Parameters of WK curves had higher sensitivity, those of PA curves higher specificity. Most parameters had a high predictive value of negative result (NPV > 90 %) but low predictive value of positive result (PPV < 50 %). Best discrimination of low EM was obtained with a combination of both WK and PA parameters (diagnostic accuracy of 90 %). Using PA curves in kidneys with late PT-WK made possible to increase the diagnostic accuracy from 70 - 80 % (with WK parameters only) to 95 %. Our results demonstrate that PA curves carry additional clinical information and may help to predict and Interpret a diuretic response especially in kidneys with late peak of the WK curves. (author)

  3. Can neural activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex predict responsiveness to information? An application to egg production systems and campaign advertising.

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    Brandon R McFadden

    Full Text Available Consumers prefer to pay low prices and increase animal welfare; however consumers are typically forced to make tradeoffs between price and animal welfare. Campaign advertising (i.e., advertising used during the 2008 vote on Proposition 2 in California may affect how consumers make tradeoffs between price and animal welfare. Neuroimaging data was used to determine the effects of brain activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC on choices making a tradeoff between price and animal welfare and responsiveness to campaign advertising. Results indicated that activation in the dlPFC was greater when making choices that forced a tradeoff between price and animal welfare, compared to choices that varied only by price or animal welfare. Furthermore, greater activation differences in right dlPFC between choices that forced a tradeoff and choices that did not, indicated greater responsiveness to campaign advertising.

  4. A paradigm shift in predicting stormflow responses in an active tectonic region through a similarity analysis of pressure propagation in a hydraulic continuum

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    Makoto Tani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil layers on hillslopes acts as systems in quasi-steady states generating rainfall-stormflow responses that are controlled by pressure propagation in a hydraulic continuum established when the rainfall volume is sufficiently large. A similarity analysis for quantifying the sensitivity of the stormflow response and recession limb to topographic and soil properties in a sloping permeable domain showed that the deviation of stormflow responses in the hydraulic continuum decreases due to the macropore effect. The rapid responses seem to be naturally derived from the evolution of the soil layer with the assistance of the vegetation-root system and effective drainage systems in zero-order catchments in active tectonic regions with heavy storms. To predict stormflow responses using distributed runoff models, a paradigm shift to consider this evolution process is needed because the simple stormflow responses and complex and heterogeneous catchment properties are poorly related, but may be mainly determined by soil evolution processes.

  5. Predictable response from MCR operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating Philosophy in a nuclear power plant is the driving influence that leads to obtaining a predictable response to any operating challenge in the Main Control Room. This means that for any event or abnormal situation in the plant, every operator will take the unit to the required state, every time. This is a must in our industry. This can be achieved by clearly identifying the challenges that face the operating staff. It is essential that a balanced review be done so that there is not over emphasis on any aspect of the operator's ability to respond. The major areas discussed in this presentation are Plant, Procedures and People. Discussion will bring focus to the use of procedures and how to identify good practices that require reinforcement at the simulator, and how to identify potential vulnerabilities. The three overheads will be reviewed to illustrate the systematic approach used at Darlington Nuclear. (author)

  6. Solar regeneration of powdered activated carbon impregnated with visible-light responsive photocatalyst: factors affecting performances and predictive model.

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    Yap, Pow-Seng; Lim, Teik-Thye

    2012-06-01

    This study demonstrated a green technique to regenerate spent powdered activated carbon (AC) using solar photocatalysis. The AC was impregnated with a photocatalyst photoexcitable under visible-light irradiation to yield a solar regenerable composite, namely nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO(2)/AC). This composite exhibited bifunctional adsorptive-photocatalytic characteristics. Contaminants of emerging environmental concern, i.e. bisphenol-A (BPA), sulfamethazine (SMZ) and clofibric acid (CFA) which exhibited varying affinities for AC were chosen as target pollutants. The adsorption of BPA and SMZ by the N-TiO(2)/AC was significantly higher than that of CFA. The performance of solar photocatalytic regeneration (SPR) of the spent N-TiO(2)/AC composite generally increased with light intensity, N-TiO(2) loading and temperature. The regeneration efficiency (RE) for CFA-loaded spent composite was the highest compared to the other pollutant-loaded spent composites, achieving 77% within 8h of solar irradiation (765 W m(-2)). The rate-limiting process was pollutant desorption from the interior AC sorption sites. A kinetic model was developed to predict the transient concentration of the sorbate remaining in the spent composite during SPR. Comparison studies using solvent extraction technique indicated a different order of RE for the three pollutants, attributable to their varying solubilities in the aqueous and organic solvents. PMID:22464146

  7. Caregiver Responsiveness to the Family Bereavement Program: What predicts responsiveness? What does responsiveness predict?

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfelder, Erin N.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Berkel, Cady; Ayers, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    The study developed a multi-dimensional measure to assess participant responsiveness to a preventive intervention, and applied this measure to study how participant baseline characteristics predict responsiveness and how responsiveness predicts program outcomes. The study was conducted with caregivers who participated in the parenting-focused component of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a prevention program for families that have experienced parental death. The sample consisted of 89 ca...

  8. Predicting responses in multiple environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malosetti Zunin, Marcos; Bustos-Korts, Daniela; Boer, Martin P.; Eeuwijk, van Fred A.

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of the phenotypes for a set of genotypes across multiple environments is a fundamental task in any plant breeding program. Genomic prediction (GP) can assist selection decisions by combining incomplete phenotypic information over multiple environments (MEs) with dense sets of markers.

  9. In vivo and protease-activated receptor-1-mediated platelet activation but not response to antiplatelet therapy predict two-year outcomes after peripheral angioplasty with stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremmel, T; Steiner, S; Seidinger, D; Koppensteiner, R; Panzer, S; Kopp, C W

    2014-03-01

    Data linking the response to antiplatelet therapy with clinical outcomes after angioplasty and stenting for lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) are scarce. Moreover, associations of in vivo and thrombin-inducible platelet activation with the occurrence of adverse events have not been investigated in these patients, so far. We therefore assessed clinical outcomes and on-treatment platelet reactivity by four test systems in 108 patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy after infrainguinal angioplasty and stenting for LEAD. Further, in vivo and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP)-6-inducible glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa activation and P-selectin expression were measured as sensitive parameters of platelet activation. The primary endpoint was defined as the composite of atherothrombotic events and target vessel restenosis or reocclusion. Residual platelet reactivity to adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid was similar between patients without and with adverse outcomes within two-year follow-up (all p>0.05). Further, the occurrence of clinical endpoints did not differ significantly between patients without and with high on-treatment residual platelet reactivity by all test systems (all p>0.05). In contrast, in vivo and TRAP-6-inducible platelet activation were significantly more pronounced in patients with subsequent adverse events (all pangioplasty and stenting for LEAD.

  10. Suprathreshold heat pain response predicts activity-related pain, but not rest-related pain, in an exercise-induced injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio A Coronado

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced injury models are advantageous for studying pain since the onset of pain is controlled and both pre-injury and post-injury factors can be utilized as explanatory variables or predictors. In these studies, rest-related pain is often considered the primary dependent variable or outcome, as opposed to a measure of activity-related pain. Additionally, few studies include pain sensitivity measures as predictors. In this study, we examined the influence of pre-injury and post-injury factors, including pain sensitivity, for induced rest and activity-related pain following exercise induced muscle injury. The overall goal of this investigation was to determine if there were convergent or divergent predictors of rest and activity-related pain. One hundred forty-three participants provided demographic, psychological, and pain sensitivity information and underwent a standard fatigue trial of resistance exercise to induce injury of the dominant shoulder. Pain at rest and during active and resisted shoulder motion were measured at 48- and 96-hours post-injury. Separate hierarchical models were generated for assessing the influence of pre-injury and post-injury factors on 48- and 96-hour rest-related and activity-related pain. Overall, we did not find a universal predictor of pain across all models. However, pre-injury and post-injury suprathreshold heat pain response (SHPR, a pain sensitivity measure, was a consistent predictor of activity-related pain, even after controlling for known psychological factors. These results suggest there is differential prediction of pain. A measure of pain sensitivity such as SHPR appears more influential for activity-related pain, but not rest-related pain, and may reflect different underlying processes involved during pain appraisal.

  11. Predicting responses from Rasch measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linacre, John M

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing family of Rasch models for polytomous observations. Selecting a suitable model for an existing dataset, estimating its parameters and evaluating its fit is now routine. Problems arise when the model parameters are to be estimated from the current data, but used to predict future data. In particular, ambiguities in the nature of the current data, or overfit of the model to the current dataset, may mean that better fit to the current data may lead to worse fit to future data. The predictive power of several Rasch and Rasch-related models are discussed in the context of the Netflix Prize. Rasch-related models are proposed based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Boltzmann Machines.

  12. Predicting response to epigenetic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treppendahl, Marianne B; Sommer Kristensen, Lasse; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Drugs targeting the epigenome are new promising cancer treatment modalities; however, not all patients receive the same benefit from these drugs. In contrast to conventional chemotherapy, responses may take several months after the initiation of treatment to occur. Accordingly, identification of ......-approved epigenetic drugs....

  13. Prediction of psilocybin response in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Studerus

    Full Text Available Responses to hallucinogenic drugs, such as psilocybin, are believed to be critically dependent on the user's personality, current mood state, drug pre-experiences, expectancies, and social and environmental variables. However, little is known about the order of importance of these variables and their effect sizes in comparison to drug dose. Hence, this study investigated the effects of 24 predictor variables, including age, sex, education, personality traits, drug pre-experience, mental state before drug intake, experimental setting, and drug dose on the acute response to psilocybin. The analysis was based on the pooled data of 23 controlled experimental studies involving 409 psilocybin administrations to 261 healthy volunteers. Multiple linear mixed effects models were fitted for each of 15 response variables. Although drug dose was clearly the most important predictor for all measured response variables, several non-pharmacological variables significantly contributed to the effects of psilocybin. Specifically, having a high score in the personality trait of Absorption, being in an emotionally excitable and active state immediately before drug intake, and having experienced few psychological problems in past weeks were most strongly associated with pleasant and mystical-type experiences, whereas high Emotional Excitability, low age, and an experimental setting involving positron emission tomography most strongly predicted unpleasant and/or anxious reactions to psilocybin. The results confirm that non-pharmacological variables play an important role in the effects of psilocybin.

  14. Prediction of psilocybin response in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Erich; Gamma, Alex; Kometer, Michael; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-01-01

    Responses to hallucinogenic drugs, such as psilocybin, are believed to be critically dependent on the user's personality, current mood state, drug pre-experiences, expectancies, and social and environmental variables. However, little is known about the order of importance of these variables and their effect sizes in comparison to drug dose. Hence, this study investigated the effects of 24 predictor variables, including age, sex, education, personality traits, drug pre-experience, mental state before drug intake, experimental setting, and drug dose on the acute response to psilocybin. The analysis was based on the pooled data of 23 controlled experimental studies involving 409 psilocybin administrations to 261 healthy volunteers. Multiple linear mixed effects models were fitted for each of 15 response variables. Although drug dose was clearly the most important predictor for all measured response variables, several non-pharmacological variables significantly contributed to the effects of psilocybin. Specifically, having a high score in the personality trait of Absorption, being in an emotionally excitable and active state immediately before drug intake, and having experienced few psychological problems in past weeks were most strongly associated with pleasant and mystical-type experiences, whereas high Emotional Excitability, low age, and an experimental setting involving positron emission tomography most strongly predicted unpleasant and/or anxious reactions to psilocybin. The results confirm that non-pharmacological variables play an important role in the effects of psilocybin.

  15. Prediction of treatment response to adalimumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krintel, Sophine B; Dehlendorff, C; Hetland, M L;

    2016-01-01

    At least 30% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not respond to biologic agents, which emphasizes the need of predictive biomarkers. We aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) predictive of response to adalimumab in 180 treatment-naïve RA patients enrolled in the OPtimized treatment...

  16. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data from a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) demonstrating using predictive computational...

  17. Computational model of the fathead minnow hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis: Incorporating protein synthesis in improving predictability of responses to endocrine active chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Miyuki; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Bencic, David; Breen, Michael S; Watanabe, Karen H; Lloyd, Alun L; Conolly, Rory B

    2016-01-01

    There is international concern about chemicals that alter endocrine system function in humans and/or wildlife and subsequently cause adverse effects. We previously developed a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows exposed to a model aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole (FAD), to predict dose-response and time-course behaviors for apical reproductive endpoints. Initial efforts to develop a computational model describing adaptive responses to endocrine stress providing good fits to empirical plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) data in exposed fish were only partially successful, which suggests that additional regulatory biology processes need to be considered. In this study, we addressed short-comings of the previous model by incorporating additional details concerning CYP19A (aromatase) protein synthesis. Predictions based on the revised model were evaluated using plasma E2 concentrations and ovarian cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19A aromatase mRNA data from two fathead minnow time-course experiments with FAD, as well as from a third 4-day study. The extended model provides better fits to measured E2 time-course concentrations, and the model accurately predicts CYP19A mRNA fold changes and plasma E2 dose-response from the 4-d concentration-response study. This study suggests that aromatase protein synthesis is an important process in the biological system to model the effects of FAD exposure. PMID:26875912

  18. Predicting and measuring fluid responsiveness with echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiography is ideally suited to guide fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. It can be used to assess fluid responsiveness by looking at the left ventricle, aortic outflow, inferior vena cava and right ventricle. Static measurements and dynamic variables based on heart–lung interactions all combine to predict and measure fluid responsiveness and assess response to intravenous fluid esuscitation. Thorough knowledge of these variables, the physiology behind them and the pitfalls in their use allows the echocardiographer to confidently assess these patients and in combination with clinical judgement manage them appropriately.

  19. Brain Connectivity Predicts Placebo Response across Chronic Pain Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tétreault, Pascal; Mansour, Ali; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Schnitzer, Thomas J.; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2016-01-01

    Placebo response in the clinical trial setting is poorly understood and alleged to be driven by statistical confounds, and its biological underpinnings are questioned. Here we identified and validated that clinical placebo response is predictable from resting-state functional magnetic-resonance-imaging (fMRI) brain connectivity. This also led to discovering a brain region predicting active drug response and demonstrating the adverse effect of active drug interfering with placebo analgesia. Chronic knee osteoarthritis (OA) pain patients (n = 56) underwent pretreatment brain scans in two clinical trials. Study 1 (n = 17) was a 2-wk single-blinded placebo pill trial. Study 2 (n = 39) was a 3-mo double-blinded randomized trial comparing placebo pill to duloxetine. Study 3, which was conducted in additional knee OA pain patients (n = 42), was observational. fMRI-derived brain connectivity maps in study 1 were contrasted between placebo responders and nonresponders and compared to healthy controls (n = 20). Study 2 validated the primary biomarker and identified a brain region predicting drug response. In both studies, approximately half of the participants exhibited analgesia with placebo treatment. In study 1, right midfrontal gyrus connectivity best identified placebo responders. In study 2, the same measure identified placebo responders (95% correct) and predicted the magnitude of placebo’s effectiveness. By subtracting away linearly modeled placebo analgesia from duloxetine response, we uncovered in 6/19 participants a tendency of duloxetine enhancing predicted placebo response, while in another 6/19, we uncovered a tendency for duloxetine to diminish it. Moreover, the approach led to discovering that right parahippocampus gyrus connectivity predicts drug analgesia after correcting for modeled placebo-related analgesia. Our evidence is consistent with clinical placebo response having biological underpinnings and shows that the method can also reveal that active

  20. How much striving is too much? John Henryism active coping predicts worse daily cortisol responses for African-American but not White female dementia family caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Merritt, Marcellus M.; McCallum, T. J.; Fritsch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The John Henryism active coping (JHAC) hypothesis suggests that striving with life challenges predicts increased risk for cardiovascular disease for those with scarce coping resources. This study examined the moderating role of JHAC in the associations of 1) caregiver status and 2) care recipient functional status with diurnal salivary cortisol patterns among 30 African-American (AA) and 24 White female dementia caregivers and 63 noncaregivers (48 AAs).

  1. Predicting unprotected reactor upset response using the maximum likelihood method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of advanced reactor concepts incorporate intrinsic design features that act to safely limit reactor response during upsets. In the integral fast reactor (IFR) concept, for example, metallic fuel is used to provide sufficient negative reactivity feedback to achieve a safe response for a number of unprotected upsets. In reactors such as the IFR that rely on passive features for part of their safety, the licensing of these systems will probably require that they be periodically tested to verify proper operation. Commercial light water plants have similar requirements for active safety systems. The approach to testing considered in this paper involves determining during normal operation the values of key reactor parameters that govern the unprotected reactor response and then using these values to predict upset response. The values are determined using the maximum likelihood method. If the predicted reactor response is within safe limits, then one concludes that the intrinsic safety features are operating correctly

  2. Clinical predictive factors of pathologic tumor response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chi Hwan; Kim, Won Dong; Lee, Sang Jeon; Park, Woo Yoon [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical predictive factors for tumor response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in rectal cancer. The study involved 51 patients who underwent preoperative CRT followed by surgery between January 2005 and February 2012. Radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis at a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions, followed by a boost of 5.4 Gy in 3 fractions to the primary tumor with 5 fractions per week. Three different chemotherapy regimens were used. Tumor responses to preoperative CRT were assessed in terms of tumor downstaging and pathologic complete response (ypCR). Statistical analyses were performed to identify clinical factors associated with pathologic tumor response. Tumor downstaging was observed in 28 patients (54.9%), whereas ypCR was observed in 6 patients (11.8%). Multivariate analysis found that predictors of downstaging was pretreatment relative lymphocyte count (p = 0.023) and that none of clinical factors was significantly associated with ypCR. Pretreatment relative lymphocyte count (%) has a significant impact on the pathologic tumor response (tumor downstaging) after preoperative CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer. Enhancement of lymphocyte-mediated immune reactions may improve the effect of preoperative CRT for rectal cancer.

  3. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  4. Towards prediction and modulation of treatment response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate new predictive assays and their potential to modulate treatment response. Their impact is presented in the context of three EORTC clinical trials in head and neck, lung and breast cancer, showing an improvement in survival by accelerated fractionation, concomitant use of cisplatin and radiotherapy and adjuvant hormonal treatment, respectively. Assays have been developed to predict the response to treatment by measuring tumor characteristics, such as the growth potential by the labeling index after i.v. injection of IdUrd, the extent of radiation-induced stable and unstable chromosome aberrations and the induction of apoptosis. These assays could guide us in the adaptation of the individual radiation doses and fractionation schedules. The measurement of the effect of cisplatin on DNA has become feasible with the development of antibodies against DNA adducts. In a recently completed phase II dose escalation trial with concomitant radiotherapy and daily cisplatin in lung cancer, we found that patients with high DNA adduct levels measured in the buccal mucosa, had a much better survival rate than patients with a low or undetectable amount of cisplatin DNA adducts. A better understanding of the signal transduction pathways involved in radiation-induced apoptosis may help to design studies aimed at modulating the apoptotic response. We and others have recently shown that alkylphospholipids, which inhibit mitogenic signaling, induce apoptosis in a variety of tumor cell lines. In combination with ionizing radiation, these compounds cause an enhancement of apoptotic cell kill. This type of signaling-based intervention study may form the basis for new therapeutic strategies. Pretreatment levels of apoptosis may be helpful in predicting treatment outcome, although the data so far show inconsistent results. The importance of evaluating other tumor-biological parameters, including cell kinetics should be stressed. Based on assays

  5. Predicting Flutter and Forced Response in Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZante, Dale E.; Adamczyk, John J.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Bakhle, Milind A.; Shabbir, Aamir; Chen, Jen-Ping; Janus, J. Mark; To, Wai-Ming; Barter, John

    2005-01-01

    TURBO-AE is a computer code that enables detailed, high-fidelity modeling of aeroelastic and unsteady aerodynamic characteristics for prediction of flutter, forced response, and blade-row interaction effects in turbomachinery. Flow regimes that can be modeled include subsonic, transonic, and supersonic, with attached and/or separated flow fields. The three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically to obtain extremely accurate descriptions of unsteady flow fields in multistage turbomachinery configurations. Blade vibration is simulated by use of a dynamic-grid-deformation technique to calculate the energy exchange for determining the aerodynamic damping of vibrations of blades. The aerodynamic damping can be used to assess the stability of a blade row. TURBO-AE also calculates the unsteady blade loading attributable to such external sources of excitation as incoming gusts and blade-row interactions. These blade loadings, along with aerodynamic damping, are used to calculate the forced responses of blades to predict their fatigue lives. Phase-lagged boundary conditions based on the direct-store method are used to calculate nonzero interblade phase-angle oscillations; this practice eliminates the need to model multiple blade passages, and, hence, enables large savings in computational resources.

  6. PREDICTION OF FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern society has posed several threats to the public. Public security is declining with increasing anti-social behaviour. Cases of rape and terrorist attacks have become increasingly common and there is a strong demand for a security system to control such modalities. Anti-social behaviour is a key issue of public concern. Public perceptions, however, have been improving recently. The vital response to physical and emotional danger is called fight or flight response. It is a basic survival mechanism occurring in response to a specific stimulus, such as pain or the threat of danger. Predicting the flight and fight response is an important aspect to identify possible areas susceptible to such events and provide emergency assistance to the victims involved. This study analyses various physiological changes associated with fight or flight response and proposes an approach to predict measures that determines whether an individual is under fear caused due the perceived threat. The proposed approach uses feed forward neural networks with back propagation algorithm. With the physiological changes such as blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate as inputs, the optimal configuration of neural network was configured and the proposed system is able to predict the measure of fight or flight response with minimal error. By monitoring and identifying the fear measure it is possible to prevent or reduce the damage to the society by activities such as rape and terrorist attacks.

  7. Mood Predicts Response to Placebo CPAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Stepnowsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy is efficacious for treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, but recent studies with placebo CPAP (CPAP administered at subtherapeutic pressure have revealed nonspecific (or placebo responses to CPAP treatment. This study examined baseline psychological factors associated with beneficial effects from placebo CPAP treatment. Participants. Twenty-five participants were studied with polysomnography at baseline and after treatment with placebo CPAP. Design. Participants were randomized to either CPAP treatment or placebo CPAP. Baseline mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS. Total mood disturbance (POMS-Total was obtained by summing the six POMS subscale scores, with Vigor weighted negatively. The dependent variable was changed in apnea-hypopnea index (ΔAHI, calculated by subtracting pre- from post-CPAP AHI. Negative values implied improvement. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed, with pre-CPAP AHI added as a covariate to control for baseline OSA severity. Results. Baseline emotional distress predicted the drop in AHI in response to placebo CPAP. Highly distressed patients showed greater placebo response, with a 34% drop (i.e., improvement in AHI. Conclusion. These findings underscore the importance of placebo-controlled studies of CPAP treatment. Whereas such trials are routinely included in drug trials, this paper argues for their importance even in mechanical-oriented sleep interventions.

  8. Predictability of Biogeochemical Responses in Engineered Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Voepel, H. E.; Basu, N. B.; Rao, P. C.; Donner, S. D.; Packman, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    Examining the impacts of large-scale human modifications of watersheds (e.g., land-use intensification for food production; hydrologic modification through extensive tile-drainage, etc.) on the hydrologic and biogeochemical responses, and ecological impacts at various scales has been the focus of monitoring and modeling studies over the past two decades. Complex interactions between hydrology and biogeochemistry and the need to predict responses across scales has led to the development of detailed process-based models that are computationally intensive and calibration-dependent. Our overall hypothesis is that human modifications and intensive management of these watersheds have led to more predictable responses, which are typical of engineered, less-complex systems rather than natural, complex systems. We examined monitoring data for nitrogen, phosphorous, silica and chloride in 25 large watersheds (10,000 km2 to 500,000 km2) in the Mississippi River Basin. This sparse dataset was complemented with nitrogen cycling and hydrology output from a whole-basin terrestrial and aquatic modeling system (IBIS-THMB). These sub-basins have diverse land uses, although agriculture still dominates (from ~30% to ~80%). Despite diversity in soils, geology, rainfall patterns, and land use, a linear relationship was observed between the annual cumulative discharge (Q; m3/yr) and the measured nitrate load (L; kg/yr). The slopes of these linear L-Q plots represent the flow-weighted annual average concentrations (Cf), and a linear L-Q relationship indicates an apparent “chemostatic” response of these large watersheds. Analysis of Mississippi River monitoring data for nitrate and IBIS-THMB simulations revealed that Cf is a strong function of land-use (eg, percent corn) that defines the chemical input function. The scatter around the L-Q plots was small for “endogenous” (generated from internal sources) solutes (eg, silica), intermediate for “hybrid” (contributions from both

  9. Activity Prediction: A Twitter-based Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Weerkamp, W.; Rijke, de, M.

    2012-01-01

    Social media platforms allow users to share their messages with everyone else. In microblogs, e.g., Twitter, people mostly report on what they did, they talk about current activities, and mention things they plan to do in the near future. In this paper, we propose the task of activity prediction, that is, trying to establish a set of activities that are likely to become popular at a later time. We perform a small-scale initial experiment, in which we try to predict popular activities for the ...

  10. Dynamo theory prediction of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    The dynamo theory technique to predict decadal time scale solar activity variations is introduced. The technique was developed following puzzling correlations involved with geomagnetic precursors of solar activity. Based upon this, a dynamo theory method was developed to predict solar activity. The method was used successfully in solar cycle 21 by Schatten, Scherrer, Svalgaard, and Wilcox, after testing with 8 prior solar cycles. Schatten and Sofia used the technique to predict an exceptionally large cycle, peaking early (in 1990) with a sunspot value near 170, likely the second largest on record. Sunspot numbers are increasing, suggesting that: (1) a large cycle is developing, and (2) that the cycle may even surpass the largest cycle (19). A Sporer Butterfly method shows that the cycle can now be expected to peak in the latter half of 1989, consistent with an amplitude comparable to the value predicted near the last solar minimum.

  11. Response to mTOR inhibition: activity of eIF4E predicts sensitivity in cell lines and acquired changes in eIF4E regulation in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett John MS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitors of the kinase mTOR, such as rapamycin and everolimus, have been used as cancer therapeutics with limited success since some tumours are resistant. Efforts to establish predictive markers to allow selection of patients with tumours likely to respond have centred on determining phosphorylation states of mTOR or its targets 4E-BP1 and S6K in cancer cells. In an alternative approach we estimated eIF4E activity, a key effector of mTOR function, and tested the hypothesis that eIF4E activity predicts sensitivity to mTOR inhibition in cell lines and in breast tumours. Results We found a greater than three fold difference in sensitivity of representative colon, lung and breast cell lines to rapamycin. Using an assay to quantify influences of eIF4E on the translational efficiency specified by structured 5'UTRs, we showed that this estimate of eIF4E activity was a significant predictor of rapamycin sensitivity, with higher eIF4E activities indicative of enhanced sensitivity. Surprisingly, non-transformed cell lines were not less sensitive to rapamycin and did not have lower eIF4E activities than cancer lines, suggesting the mTOR/4E-BP1/eIF4E axis is deregulated in these non-transformed cells. In the context of clinical breast cancers, we estimated eIF4E activity by analysing expression of eIF4E and its functional regulators within tumour cells and combining these scores to reflect inhibitory and activating influences on eIF4E. Estimates of eIF4E activity in cancer biopsies taken at diagnosis did not predict sensitivity to 11-14 days of pre-operative everolimus treatment, as assessed by change in tumour cell proliferation from diagnosis to surgical excision. However, higher pre-treatment eIF4E activity was significantly associated with dramatic post-treatment changes in expression of eIF4E and 4E-binding proteins, suggesting that eIF4E is further deregulated in these tumours in response to mTOR inhibition. Conclusions

  12. Response Predicting LTCC Firing Shrinkage: A Response Surface Analysis Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardi, Michael; Barner, Gregg; Lopez, Cristie; Duncan, Brent; Zawicki, Larry

    2009-02-25

    The Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) technology is used in a variety of applications including military/space electronics, wireless communication, MEMS, medical and automotive electronics. The use of LTCC is growing due to the low cost of investment, short development time, good electrical and mechanical properties, high reliability, and flexibility in design integration (3 dimensional (3D) microstructures with cavities are possible)). The dimensional accuracy of the resulting x/y shrinkage of LTCC substrates is responsible for component assembly problems with the tolerance effect that increases in relation to the substrate size. Response Surface Analysis was used to predict product shrinkage based on specific process inputs (metal loading, layer count, lamination pressure, and tape thickness) with the ultimate goal to optimize manufacturing outputs (NC files, stencils, and screens) in achieving the final product design the first time. Three (3) regression models were developed for the DuPont 951 tape system with DuPont 5734 gold metallization based on green tape thickness.

  13. Method discussion for quick response grey prediction of stronger aftershocks of an earthquake sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we take occurrence process of early strong aftershocks of a main-after shock type′s earthquake sequence as a complex grey system, and introduce predicting method for its stronger aftershocks by grey predicting theory. Through inspection prediction for 1998 Zhangbei MS=6.2 earthquake sequence, it shows that the grey predicting method maybe has active significance for the investigation of quick response prediction problems of stronger aftershocks of an earthquake sequence.

  14. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and activated EGFR predict poor response to (chemo)radiation and survival in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuis, M.G.; Eijsink, J.J.H.; ten Hoor, K.A.; Roossink, F.; Hollema, H.; Arts, H.J.G.; Pras, Elisabeth; Maduro, John; Reyners, A.K.L.; de Bock, G.H.; Wisman, G.B.A.; Schuuring, E.; van der Zee, A.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway has been reported to induce resistance to (chemo)radiation in cancers, such as head and neck cancer, whereas EGFR-targeted agents in combination with (chemo)radiation seem to improve treatment efficacy. The aim of t

  15. CERAPP: Collaborative estrogen receptor activity prediction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Kamel; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Rybacka, Aleksandra;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these chemicals have never been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER......). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for evaluation in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. oBjectives: We describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project......) and demonstrate the efficacy of using predictive computational models trained on high-throughput screening data to evaluate thousands of chemicals for ER-related activity and prioritize them for further testing. Methods: CERAPP combined multiple models developed in collaboration with 17 groups in the United...

  16. Extreme wave and wind response predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Olsen, Anders S.; Mansour, Alaa E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to advocate effective stochastic procedures, based on the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and Monte Carlo simulations (MCS), for extreme value predictions related to wave and wind-induced loads.Due to the efficient optimization procedures implemented in standard FORM...

  17. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne;

    2013-01-01

    Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time......) on slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder....... This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...

  18. Resting state functional connectivity predicts neurofeedback response

    OpenAIRE

    Scheinost, Dustin; Stoica, Teodora; Wasylink, Suzanne; Gruner, Patricia; Saksa, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Hampson, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Tailoring treatments to the specific needs and biology of individual patients—personalized medicine—requires delineation of reliable predictors of response. Unfortunately, these have been slow to emerge, especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. We have recently described a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback protocol that can reduce contamination-related anxiety, a prominent symptom of many cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Individual response ...

  19. Prediction of nuclear hormone receptor response elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelin, Albin; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2005-03-01

    The nuclear receptor (NR) class of transcription factors controls critical regulatory events in key developmental processes, homeostasis maintenance, and medically important diseases and conditions. Identification of the members of a regulon controlled by a NR could provide an accelerated understanding of development and disease. New bioinformatics methods for the analysis of regulatory sequences are required to address the complex properties associated with known regulatory elements targeted by the receptors because the standard methods for binding site prediction fail to reflect the diverse target site configurations. We have constructed a flexible Hidden Markov Model framework capable of predicting NHR binding sites. The model allows for variable spacing and orientation of half-sites. In a genome-scale analysis enabled by the model, we show that NRs in Fugu rubripes have a significant cross-regulatory potential. The model is implemented in a web interface, freely available for academic researchers, available at http://mordor.cgb.ki.se/NHR-scan. PMID:15563547

  20. Human arm posture prediction in response to isometric endpoint forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudabadi Farahani, Saeed; Andersen, Michael Skipper; de Zee, Mark; Rasmussen, John

    2015-11-26

    The ability to predict the musculoskeletal response to external loads has multiple applications for the design of machines with a human interface and for the prediction of outcomes of musculoskeletal interventions. In this study, we applied an inverse-inverse dynamics technique to investigate its ability to predict arm posture in response to isometric hand forces. For each subject, we made a three-dimensional musculoskeletal model using the AnyBody Modelling System (AMS). Then, we had each subject-specific model hold a weight anteriorly to the right shoulder joint at a distance of half of the arm length. We selected the glenohumeral abduction angle (GHAA) as the only free parameter. Subsequently, we used inverse-inverse dynamics to find the optimal GHAA that minimised a performance criterion with physiological constraints. In this study, we investigated the performance of two different objective functions: summation of squared muscle activity (SSMA) and summation of squared normalised joint torques (SSNJT). To validate the simulation results, arm posture responses to different isometric downward hand forces were measured for six healthy male subjects. Five trials were performed for each loading condition. The results showed that, with an increase in hand load, there was a reduced GHAA in all subjects. Another interesting finding was that self-selected postures for lighter tasks varied more than postures for heavier tasks for all subjects. To understand this, we investigated the curvature of the objective function as a function of the load and observed an increased curvature with increased load. This may explain the reduced intra-subject variations observed for increasing loads.

  1. Human arm posture prediction in response to isometric endpoint forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudabadi Farahani, Saeed; Andersen, Michael Skipper; de Zee, Mark; Rasmussen, John

    2015-11-26

    The ability to predict the musculoskeletal response to external loads has multiple applications for the design of machines with a human interface and for the prediction of outcomes of musculoskeletal interventions. In this study, we applied an inverse-inverse dynamics technique to investigate its ability to predict arm posture in response to isometric hand forces. For each subject, we made a three-dimensional musculoskeletal model using the AnyBody Modelling System (AMS). Then, we had each subject-specific model hold a weight anteriorly to the right shoulder joint at a distance of half of the arm length. We selected the glenohumeral abduction angle (GHAA) as the only free parameter. Subsequently, we used inverse-inverse dynamics to find the optimal GHAA that minimised a performance criterion with physiological constraints. In this study, we investigated the performance of two different objective functions: summation of squared muscle activity (SSMA) and summation of squared normalised joint torques (SSNJT). To validate the simulation results, arm posture responses to different isometric downward hand forces were measured for six healthy male subjects. Five trials were performed for each loading condition. The results showed that, with an increase in hand load, there was a reduced GHAA in all subjects. Another interesting finding was that self-selected postures for lighter tasks varied more than postures for heavier tasks for all subjects. To understand this, we investigated the curvature of the objective function as a function of the load and observed an increased curvature with increased load. This may explain the reduced intra-subject variations observed for increasing loads. PMID:26482735

  2. Mood Predicts Response to Placebo CPAP

    OpenAIRE

    Stepnowsky, Carl J.; Wei-Chung Mao; Bardwell, Wayne A; José S. Loredo; Joel E Dimsdale

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is efficacious for treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but recent studies with placebo CPAP (CPAP administered at subtherapeutic pressure) have revealed nonspecific (or placebo) responses to CPAP treatment. This study examined baseline psychological factors associated with beneficial effects from placebo CPAP treatment. Participants. Twenty-five participants were studied with polysomnography at baseline and after treatme...

  3. Assays for predicting and monitoring responses to lung cancer immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristina Teixid; Niki Karachaliou; Maria Gonzlez-Cao; Daniela Morales-Espinosa; Rafael Rosell

    2015-01-01

    AbstrAct Immunotherapy has become a key strategy for cancer treatment, and two immune checkpoints, namely, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), have recently emerged as important targets. hTe interaction blockade of PD-1 and PD-L1 demonstrated promising activity and antitumor effcacy in early phase clinical trials for advanced solid tumors such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Many cell types in multiple tissues express PD-L1 as well as several tumor types, thereby suggesting that the ligand may play important roles in inhibiting immune responses throughout the body. hTerefore, PD-L1 is a critical immunomodulating component within the lung microenvironment, but the correlation between PD-L1 expression and prognosis is controversial. More evidence is required to support the use of PD-L1 as a potential predictive biomarker. Clinical trials have measured PD-L1 in tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with different antibodies, but the assessment of PD-L1 is not yet standardized. Some commercial antibodies lack speciifcity and their reproducibility has not been fully evaluated. Further studies are required to clarify the optimal IHC assay as well as to predict and monitor the immune responses of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway.

  4. Prediction control of active power filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉娜; 罗安

    2003-01-01

    A prediction method to obtain harmonic reference for active power filter is presented. It is a new use ofthe adaptive predictive filter based on FIR. The delay inherent in digital controller is successfully compensated by u-sing the proposed method, and the computing load is not very large compared with the conventional method. Moreo-ver, no additional hardware is needed. Its DSP-based realization is also presented, which is characterized by time-va-riant rate sampling, quasi synchronous sampling, and synchronous operation among the line frequency, PWM gener-ating and sampling in A/D unit. Synchronous operation releases the limitation on PWM modulation ratio and guar-antees that the electrical noises resulting from the switching operation of IGBTs do not interfere with the sampledcurrent. The simulation and experimental results verify the satisfactory performance of the proposed method.

  5. Mass Law Predicts Hyperbolic Hypoxic Ventilatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinghaus, John W.

    The hyperbolic hypoxic ventilatory response vs PaO2, HVRp, is interpreted as relecting a mass hyperbolic relationship of cytochrome PcO2 to cytochrome potential Ec, offset 32 torr by the constant diffusion gradient between arterial blood and cytochrome in CB at its constant metabolic rate dot VO_2 . Ec is taken to be a linear function of redox reduction and CB ventilatory drive. As Ec rises in hypoxia, the absolute potentials of each step in the citric acid cycle rises equally while the potential drop across each step remains constant because flux rate remains constant. A hypothetic HVRs ( dot VE vs SaO2) response curve computed from these assumptions is strikingly non linear. A hypothetic HVRp calculated from an assumed linear HVRs cannot be fit to the observed hyperbolic increase of ventilation in response to isocapnic hypoxia at PO2 less than 40 torr. The incompatibility of these results suggest that in future studies HVRs will not be found to be linear, especially below 80% SaO2 and HVRp will fail to be accurately hyperbolic.

  6. Dynamics of active cellular response under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Rumi; Zemel, Assaf; Safran, Samuel

    2008-03-01

    Forces exerted by and on adherent cells are important for many physiological processes such as wound healing and tissue formation. In addition, recent experiments have shown that stem cell differentiation is controlled, at least in part, by the elasticity of the surrounding matrix. Using a simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to both the mechanosensitive nature of cells and the elastic response of the matrix, we predict the dynamics of orientation of cells. The model predicts many features observed in measurements of cellular forces and orientation including the increase with time of the forces generated by cells in the absence of applied stress and the consequent decrease of the force in the presence of quasi-static stresses. We also explain the puzzling observation of parallel alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency. The dependence of the cell orientation angle on the Poisson ratio of the surrounding material can be used to distinguish systems in which cell activity is controlled by stress from those where cell activity is controlled by strain. Reference: Nature Physics, vol. 3, pp 655 (2007).

  7. Predicting Footbridge Response using Stochastic Load Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Walking parameters such as step frequency, pedestrian mass, dynamic load factor, etc. are basically stochastic, although it is quite common to adapt deterministic models for these parameters. The present paper considers a stochastic approach to modeling the action of pedestrians, but when doing so...... decisions need to be made in terms of statistical distributions of walking parameters and in terms of the parameters describing the statistical distributions. The paper explores how sensitive computations of bridge response are to some of the decisions to be made in this respect. This is useful...

  8. Model for Predicting End User Web Page Response Time

    CERN Document Server

    Nagarajan, Sathya Narayanan

    2012-01-01

    Perceived responsiveness of a web page is one of the most important and least understood metrics of web page design, and is critical for attracting and maintaining a large audience. Web pages can be designed to meet performance SLAs early in the product lifecycle if there is a way to predict the apparent responsiveness of a particular page layout. Response time of a web page is largely influenced by page layout and various network characteristics. Since the network characteristics vary widely from country to country, accurately modeling and predicting the perceived responsiveness of a web page from the end user's perspective has traditionally proven very difficult. We propose a model for predicting end user web page response time based on web page, network, browser download and browser rendering characteristics. We start by understanding the key parameters that affect perceived response time. We then model each of these parameters individually using experimental tests and statistical techniques. Finally, we d...

  9. Dopamine neurons share common response function for reward prediction error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Neir; Tian, Ju; Bukwich, Michael; Uchida, Naoshige

    2016-03-01

    Dopamine neurons are thought to signal reward prediction error, or the difference between actual and predicted reward. How dopamine neurons jointly encode this information, however, remains unclear. One possibility is that different neurons specialize in different aspects of prediction error; another is that each neuron calculates prediction error in the same way. We recorded from optogenetically identified dopamine neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area (VTA) while mice performed classical conditioning tasks. Our tasks allowed us to determine the full prediction error functions of dopamine neurons and compare them to each other. We found marked homogeneity among individual dopamine neurons: their responses to both unexpected and expected rewards followed the same function, just scaled up or down. As a result, we were able to describe both individual and population responses using just two parameters. Such uniformity ensures robust information coding, allowing each dopamine neuron to contribute fully to the prediction error signal.

  10. The multiform motor cortical output: Kinematic, predictive and response coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia; Chinellato, Eris; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-09-01

    Observing actions performed by others entails a subliminal activation of primary motor cortex reflecting the components encoded in the observed action. One of the most debated issues concerns the role of this output: Is it a mere replica of the incoming flow of information (kinematic coding), is it oriented to anticipate the forthcoming events (predictive coding) or is it aimed at responding in a suitable fashion to the actions of others (response coding)? The aim of the present study was to disentangle the relative contribution of these three levels and unify them into an integrated view of cortical motor coding. We combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electromyography recordings at different timings to probe the excitability of corticospinal projections to upper and lower limb muscles of participants observing a soccer player performing: (i) a penalty kick straight in their direction and then coming to a full stop, (ii) a penalty kick straight in their direction and then continuing to run, (iii) a penalty kick to the side and then continuing to run. The results show a modulation of the observer's corticospinal excitability in different effectors at different times reflecting a multiplicity of motor coding. The internal replica of the observed action, the predictive activation, and the adaptive integration of congruent and non-congruent responses to the actions of others can coexist in a not mutually exclusive way. Such a view offers reconciliation among different (and apparently divergent) frameworks in action observation literature, and will promote a more complete and integrated understanding of recent findings on motor simulation, motor resonance and automatic imitation. PMID:25727547

  11. Prestimulation phase predicts the TMS-evoked response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bornali; Johnson, Jeffrey S; Postle, Bradley R

    2014-10-15

    Prestimulation oscillatory phase and power in particular frequency bands predict perception of at-threshold visual stimuli and of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced phosphenes. These effects may be due to changes in cortical excitability, such that certain ranges of power and/or phase values result in a state in which a particular brain area is more receptive to input, thereby biasing behavior. However, the effects of trial-by-trial fluctuations in phase and power of ongoing oscillations on the brain's electrical response to TMS itself have thus far not been addressed. The present study adopts a combined TMS and electroencepalography (EEG) approach to determine whether the TMS-evoked response is sensitive to momentary fluctuations in prestimulation phase and/or power in different frequency bands. Specifically, TMS was applied to superior parietal lobule while subjects performed a short-term memory task. Results showed that the prestimulation phase, particularly within the beta (15-25 Hz) band, predicted pulse-by-pulse variations in the global mean field amplitude. No such relationship was observed between prestimulation power and the global mean field amplitude. Furthermore, TMS-evoked power in the beta band fluctuated with prestimulation phase in the beta band in a manner that differed from spontaneous brain activity. These effects were observed in areas at and distal to the stimulation site. Together, these results confirm the idea that fluctuating phase of ongoing neuronal oscillations create "windows of excitability" in the brain, and they give insight into how TMS interacts with ongoing brain activity on a pulse-by-pulse basis.

  12. Model Predictive Control based on Finite Impulse Response Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasath, Guru; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2008-01-01

    We develop a regularized l2 finite impulse response (FIR) predictive controller with input and input-rate constraints. Feedback is based on a simple constant output disturbance filter. The performance of the predictive controller in the face of plant-model mismatch is investigated by simulations ...

  13. Modeling of Cancer Stem Cell State Transitions Predicts Therapeutic Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Sehl

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs possess capacity to both self-renew and generate all cells within a tumor, and are thought to drive tumor recurrence. Targeting the stem cell niche to eradicate CSCs represents an important area of therapeutic development. The complex nature of many interacting elements of the stem cell niche, including both intracellular signals and microenvironmental growth factors and cytokines, creates a challenge in choosing which elements to target, alone or in combination. Stochastic stimulation techniques allow for the careful study of complex systems in biology and medicine and are ideal for the investigation of strategies aimed at CSC eradication. We present a mathematical model of the breast cancer stem cell (BCSC niche to predict population dynamics during carcinogenesis and in response to treatment. Using data from cell line and mouse xenograft experiments, we estimate rates of interconversion between mesenchymal and epithelial states in BCSCs and find that EMT/MET transitions occur frequently. We examine bulk tumor growth dynamics in response to alterations in the rate of symmetric self-renewal of BCSCs and find that small changes in BCSC behavior can give rise to the Gompertzian growth pattern observed in breast tumors. Finally, we examine stochastic reaction kinetic simulations in which elements of the breast cancer stem cell niche are inhibited individually and in combination. We find that slowing self-renewal and disrupting the positive feedback loop between IL-6, Stat3 activation, and NF-κB signaling by simultaneous inhibition of IL-6 and HER2 is the most effective combination to eliminate both mesenchymal and epithelial populations of BCSCs. Predictions from our model and simulations show excellent agreement with experimental data showing the efficacy of combined HER2 and Il-6 blockade in reducing BCSC populations. Our findings will be directly examined in a planned clinical trial of combined HER2 and IL-6 targeted

  14. Predicting Performance Under Stressful Conditions Using Galvanic Skin Response

    OpenAIRE

    Mundell, Carter; Vielma, Juan Pablo; Zaman, Tauhid

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of the availability of wearable biosensors has created the opportunity for using biological signals to measure worker performance. An important question is how to use such signals to not just measure, but actually predict worker performance on a task under stressful and potentially high risk conditions. Here we show that the biological signal known as galvanic skin response (GSR) allows such a prediction. We conduct an experiment where subjects answer arithmetic questions und...

  15. Fluid responsiveness is predicted by analysis of extra systoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Simon Tilma

    surrounding sinus beats and that the magnitude of the SBP change (DSBP) could predict fluid responsiveness. OBJECTIVES. To study the hypothesis in post-cardiac surgery patients. METHODS. Patients scheduled for a 500 ml volume expansion were observed. In the time frame, 0-30 min prior to volume expansion, ECG...... predict fluid responsiveness in post-cardiac surgery patients. The method needs to be validated in other patient groups. REFERENCE. [1] Mahjoub Y, et al., Evaluation of pulse pressure variation validity criteria in critically ill patients: a prospective observational multicentre point-prevalence study. Br...

  16. Outcome Prediction in Mathematical Models of Immune Response to Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mai

    Full Text Available Clinicians need to predict patient outcomes with high accuracy as early as possible after disease inception. In this manuscript, we show that patient-to-patient variability sets a fundamental limit on outcome prediction accuracy for a general class of mathematical models for the immune response to infection. However, accuracy can be increased at the expense of delayed prognosis. We investigate several systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs that model the host immune response to a pathogen load. Advantages of systems of ODEs for investigating the immune response to infection include the ability to collect data on large numbers of 'virtual patients', each with a given set of model parameters, and obtain many time points during the course of the infection. We implement patient-to-patient variability v in the ODE models by randomly selecting the model parameters from distributions with coefficients of variation v that are centered on physiological values. We use logistic regression with one-versus-all classification to predict the discrete steady-state outcomes of the system. We find that the prediction algorithm achieves near 100% accuracy for v = 0, and the accuracy decreases with increasing v for all ODE models studied. The fact that multiple steady-state outcomes can be obtained for a given initial condition, i.e. the basins of attraction overlap in the space of initial conditions, limits the prediction accuracy for v > 0. Increasing the elapsed time of the variables used to train and test the classifier, increases the prediction accuracy, while adding explicit external noise to the ODE models decreases the prediction accuracy. Our results quantify the competition between early prognosis and high prediction accuracy that is frequently encountered by clinicians.

  17. Controllability modulates the neural response to predictable but not unpredictable threat in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kimberly H; Wheelock, Muriah D; Shumen, Joshua R; Bowen, Kenton H; Ver Hoef, Lawrence W; Knight, David C

    2015-10-01

    Stress resilience is mediated, in part, by our ability to predict and control threats within our environment. Therefore, determining the neural mechanisms that regulate the emotional response to predictable and controllable threats may provide important new insight into the processes that mediate resilience to emotional dysfunction and guide the future development of interventions for anxiety disorders. To better understand the effect of predictability and controllability on threat-related brain activity in humans, two groups of healthy volunteers participated in a yoked Pavlovian fear conditioning study during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Threat predictability was manipulated by presenting an aversive unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that was either preceded by a conditioned stimulus (i.e., predictable) or by presenting the UCS alone (i.e., unpredictable). Similar to animal model research that has employed yoked fear conditioning procedures, one group (controllable condition; CC), but not the other group (uncontrollable condition; UC) was able to terminate the UCS. The fMRI signal response within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC, ventromedial PFC, and posterior cingulate was diminished during predictable compared to unpredictable threat (i.e., UCS). In addition, threat-related activity within the ventromedial PFC and bilateral hippocampus was diminished only to threats that were both predictable and controllable. These findings provide insight into how threat predictability and controllability affects the activity of brain regions (i.e., ventromedial PFC and hippocampus) involved in emotion regulation, and may have important implications for better understanding neural processes that mediate emotional resilience to stress.

  18. Predicting aquifer response time for application in catchment modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Glen R; Gilfedder, Mat; Dawes, Warrick R; Rassam, David W

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that changes in catchment land use can lead to significant impacts on water resources. Where land-use changes increase evapotranspiration there is a resultant decrease in groundwater recharge, which in turn decreases groundwater discharge to streams. The response time of changes in groundwater discharge to a change in recharge is a key aspect of predicting impacts of land-use change on catchment water yield. Predicting these impacts across the large catchments relevant to water resource planning can require the estimation of groundwater response times from hundreds of aquifers. At this scale, detailed site-specific measured data are often absent, and available spatial data are limited. While numerical models can be applied, there is little advantage if there are no detailed data to parameterize them. Simple analytical methods are useful in this situation, as they allow the variability in groundwater response to be incorporated into catchment hydrological models, with minimal modeling overhead. This paper describes an analytical model which has been developed to capture some of the features of real, sloping aquifer systems. The derived groundwater response timescale can be used to parameterize a groundwater discharge function, allowing groundwater response to be predicted in relation to different broad catchment characteristics at a level of complexity which matches the available data. The results from the analytical model are compared to published field data and numerical model results, and provide an approach with broad application to inform water resource planning in other large, data-scarce catchments. PMID:24842053

  19. The Pupillary Orienting Response Predicts Adaptive Behavioral Adjustment after Errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Murphy

    Full Text Available Reaction time (RT is commonly observed to slow down after an error. This post-error slowing (PES has been thought to arise from the strategic adoption of a more cautious response mode following deployment of cognitive control. Recently, an alternative account has suggested that PES results from interference due to an error-evoked orienting response. We investigated whether error-related orienting may in fact be a pre-cursor to adaptive post-error behavioral adjustment when the orienting response resolves before subsequent trial onset. We measured pupil dilation, a prototypical measure of autonomic orienting, during performance of a choice RT task with long inter-stimulus intervals, and found that the trial-by-trial magnitude of the error-evoked pupil response positively predicted both PES magnitude and the likelihood that the following response would be correct. These combined findings suggest that the magnitude of the error-related orienting response predicts an adaptive change of response strategy following errors, and thereby promote a reconciliation of the orienting and adaptive control accounts of PES.

  20. Simplified Analysis Model for Predicting Pyroshock Responses on Composite Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Takashi; Shi, Qinzhong

    A simplified analysis model based on the frequency response analysis and the wave propagation analysis was established for predicting Shock Response Spectrum (SRS) on the composite panel subjected to pyroshock loadings. The complex composite panel was modeled as an isotropic single layer panel defined in NASA Lewis Method. Through the conductance of an impact excitation test on a composite panel with no equipment mounted on, it was presented that the simplified analysis model could estimate the SRS as well as the acceleration peak values in both near and far field in an accurate way. In addition, through the simulation for actual pyroshock tests on an actual satellite system, the simplified analysis model was proved to be applicable in predicting the actual pyroshock responses, while bringing forth several technical issues to estimate the pyroshock test specifications in early design stages.

  1. Anger responses to psychosocial stress predict heart rate and cortisol stress responses in men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupis, Sarah B; Lerman, Michelle; Wolf, Jutta M

    2014-11-01

    While previous research has suggested that anger and fear responses to stress are linked to distinct sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress responses, little is known about how these emotions predict hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. Further, earlier research primarily relied on retrospective self-report of emotion. The current study aimed at addressing both issues in male and female individuals by assessing the role of anger and fear in predicting heart rate and cortisol stress responses using both self-report and facial coding analysis to assess emotion responses. We exposed 32 healthy students (18 female; 19.6±1.7 yr) to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (TSST) and measured heart rate and salivary cortisol levels throughout the protocol. Anger and fear before and after stress exposure was assessed by self-report, and video recordings of the TSST were assessed by a certified facial coder to determine emotion expression (FACS). Self-reported emotions and emotion expressions did not correlate (all p>.23). Increases in self-reported fear predicted blunted cortisol responses in men (β=0.41, p=.04). Also for men, longer durations of anger expression predicted exaggerated cortisol responses (β=0.67 p=.004), and more anger incidences predicted exaggerated cortisol and heart rate responses (β=0.51, p=.033; β=0.46, p=.066, resp.). Anger and fear did not predict SNS or HPA activity for females (all p>.23). The current differential self-report and facial coding findings support the use of multiple modes of emotion assessment. Particularly, FACS but not self-report revealed a robust anger-stress association that could have important downstream health effects for men. For women, future research may clarify the role of other emotions, such as self-conscious expressions of shame, for physiological stress responses. A better understanding of the emotion-stress link may contribute to behavioral interventions targeting health-promoting ways of

  2. Apoptosis and other immune biomarkers predict influenza vaccine responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, David; Jojic, Vladimir; Kidd, Brian; Shen-Orr, Shai; Price, Jordan; Jarrell, Justin; Tse, Tiffany; Huang, Huang; Lund, Peder; Maecker, Holden T; Utz, Paul J; Dekker, Cornelia L; Koller, Daphne; Davis, Mark M

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of the immune system in many diseases, there are currently no objective benchmarks of immunological health. In an effort to identifying such markers, we used influenza vaccination in 30 young (20-30 years) and 59 older subjects (60 to >89 years) as models for strong and weak immune responses, respectively, and assayed their serological responses to influenza strains as well as a wide variety of other parameters, including gene expression, antibodies to hemagglutinin peptides, serum cytokines, cell subset phenotypes and in vitro cytokine stimulation. Using machine learning, we identified nine variables that predict the antibody response with 84% accuracy. Two of these variables are involved in apoptosis, which positively associated with the response to vaccination and was confirmed to be a contributor to vaccine responsiveness in mice. The identification of these biomarkers provides new insights into what immune features may be most important for immune health. PMID:23591775

  3. Subjective responses to alcohol in the lab predict neural responses to alcohol cues

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, KE; Ray, LA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Subjective responses to alcohol represent a biologically based, genetically moderated, and clinically informative marker of alcoholism risk; however, the physiology underlying this phenotype remains unclear. This study tested whether subjective responses during alcohol administration predict neural responses to alcohol cues in the scanner and whether these neural responses differ between OPRM1 genotypes. Method: Twenty alcohol-dependent individuals were recruited (10 G-allele carri...

  4. Predictive functional control of integrating process based on impulse response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHANG; Ping LI; Weidong ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The predictive model is built according to the characteristics of the impulse response of integrating process. In order to eliminate the permanent offset between the setpoint and the process output in the presence of the load disturbance, a novel error compensation method is proposed. Then predictive functional control of integrating process is designed. The method given generates a simple control structure, which can significantly reduce online computation. Furthermore, the tuning of the controller is fairly straightforward. Simulation results indicate that the designed control system is relatively robust to the parameters variation of the process.

  5. Predicting the shock compression response of heterogeneous powder mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenburg, D. A.; Thadhani, N. N.

    2013-06-01

    A model framework for predicting the dynamic shock-compression response of heterogeneous powder mixtures using readily obtained measurements from quasi-static tests is presented. Low-strain-rate compression data are first analyzed to determine the region of the bulk response over which particle rearrangement does not contribute to compaction. This region is then fit to determine the densification modulus of the mixture, σD, an newly defined parameter describing the resistance of the mixture to yielding. The measured densification modulus, reflective of the diverse yielding phenomena that occur at the meso-scale, is implemented into a rate-independent formulation of the P-α model, which is combined with an isobaric equation of state to predict the low and high stress dynamic compression response of heterogeneous powder mixtures. The framework is applied to two metal + metal-oxide (thermite) powder mixtures, and good agreement between the model and experiment is obtained for all mixtures at stresses near and above those required to reach full density. At lower stresses, rate-dependencies of the constituents, and specifically those of the matrix constituent, determine the ability of the model to predict the measured response in the incomplete compaction regime.

  6. Prediction of Human Activity by Discovering Temporal Sequence Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Fu, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Early prediction of ongoing human activity has become more valuable in a large variety of time-critical applications. To build an effective representation for prediction, human activities can be characterized by a complex temporal composition of constituent simple actions and interacting objects. Different from early detection on short-duration simple actions, we propose a novel framework for long -duration complex activity prediction by discovering three key aspects of activity: Causality, Context-cue, and Predictability. The major contributions of our work include: (1) a general framework is proposed to systematically address the problem of complex activity prediction by mining temporal sequence patterns; (2) probabilistic suffix tree (PST) is introduced to model causal relationships between constituent actions, where both large and small order Markov dependencies between action units are captured; (3) the context-cue, especially interactive objects information, is modeled through sequential pattern mining (SPM), where a series of action and object co-occurrence are encoded as a complex symbolic sequence; (4) we also present a predictive accumulative function (PAF) to depict the predictability of each kind of activity. The effectiveness of our approach is evaluated on two experimental scenarios with two data sets for each: action-only prediction and context-aware prediction. Our method achieves superior performance for predicting global activity classes and local action units. PMID:26353344

  7. Mothers' labeling responses to infants' gestures predict vocabulary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Janet; Masur, Elise Frank

    2015-11-01

    Twenty-nine infants aged 1;1 and their mothers were videotaped while interacting with toys for 18 minutes. Six experimental stimuli were presented to elicit infant communicative bids in two communicative intent contexts - proto-declarative and proto-imperative. Mothers' verbal responses to infants' gestural and non-gestural communicative bids were coded for object and action labels. Relations between maternal labeling responses and infants' vocabularies at 1;1 and 1;5 were examined. Mothers' labeling responses to infants' gestural communicative bids were concurrently and predictively related to infants' vocabularies, whereas responses to non-gestural communicative bids were not. Mothers' object labeling following gestures in the proto-declarative context mediated the association from infants' gesturing in the proto-declarative context to concurrent noun lexicons and was the strongest predictor of subsequent noun lexicons. Mothers' action labeling after infants' gestural bids in the proto-imperative context predicted infants' acquisition of action words at 1;5. Findings show that mothers' responsive labeling explain specific relations between infants' gestures and their vocabulary development. PMID:25643656

  8. Predictions of F-111 TACT aircraft buffet response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Atlee M., Jr.; Coe, Charles F.

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented for the prediction method development and correlations of predicted response with flight test measurements. The prediction method was based on refinements to the method described by Cunningham. One improvement made use of direct time integration of the correlated fluctuating pressure data to obtain buffet excitation for the various modes of interest. Another improvement incorporated a hybrid technique for scaling measured wind tunnel damping data to full-scale for the modes of interest. A third improvement made use of the diagonalized form of the fully coupled equations of motion. Finally, a mechanism was described for explaining an apparent coupling between the aircraft wing torsion modes and shock induced trailing edge separation that led to very high wing motion on the aircraft that was not observed on the wind tunnel model.

  9. Plasma Biomarkers Can Predict Treatment Response in Tuberculosis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meng-Rui; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Wang, Wei-Jie; Chuang, Tzu-Yi; Yang, Chih-Mann; Chang, Lih-Yu; Lin, Ching-Kai; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Shu, Chin-Chong; Lee, Li-Na; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite numerous studies, there has been little progress in the use of biomarkers for predicting treatment response in patients with tuberculosis (TB). Patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB between 2010 and 2014 were prospectively recruited. Blood samples were taken upon diagnosis and 2 months after the start of standard anti-TB treatment. A pilot study utilizing measurement of TB-antigen-stimulated cytokines was conducted to select potential biomarkers for further testing. Ou...

  10. Predictive factors associated with hepatitis C antiviraltherapy response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may lead to significantliver injury, and viral, environmental, host, immunologicand genetic factors may contribute to the differencesin the disease expression and treatment response.In the early 2000s, dual therapy using a combination of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PR) becamethe standard of care for HCV treatment. In this PRera, predictive factors of therapy response related tovirus and host have been identified. In 2010/2011,therapeutic regimens for HCV genotype 1 patients weremodified, and the addition of NS3/4a protease inhibitors(boceprevir or telaprevir) to dual therapy increasedthe effectiveness and chances of sustained virologicresponse (SVR). Nevertheless, the first-generation tripletherapy is associated with many adverse events, some ofwhich are serious and associated with death, particularlyin cirrhotic patients. This led to the need to identifyviral and host predictive factors that might influencethe SVR rate to triple therapy and avoid unnecessaryexposure to these drugs. Over the past four years,hepatitis C treatment has been rapidly changing with thedevelopment of new therapies and other developments.Currently, with the more recent generations of pangenotipicantiviral therapies, there have been highersustained virologic rates, and prognostic factors maynot have the same importance and strength as before.Nonetheless, some variables may still be consistent withthe low rates of non-response with regimens that includesofosbuvir, daclatasvir and ledipasvir. In this manuscript,we review the predictive factors of therapy responseacross the different treatment regimens over the lastdecade including the new antiviral drugs.

  11. Predicting the response of olfactory sensory neurons to odor mixtures from single odor response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Addolorata; de Paris, Alessandro; Migliore, Michele

    2016-04-01

    The response of olfactory receptor neurons to odor mixtures is not well understood. Here, using experimental constraints, we investigate the mathematical structure of the odor response space and its consequences. The analysis suggests that the odor response space is 3-dimensional, and predicts that the dose-response curve of an odor receptor can be obtained, in most cases, from three primary components with specific properties. This opens the way to an objective procedure to obtain specific olfactory receptor responses by manipulating mixtures in a mathematically predictable manner. This result is general and applies, independently of the number of odor components, to any olfactory sensory neuron type with a response curve that can be represented as a sigmoidal function of the odor concentration.

  12. Elevated EBNA1 Immune Responses Predict Conversion to Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lünemann, Jan D.; Tintoré, Mar; Messmer, Brady; Strowig, Till; Rovira, Álex; Perkal, Héctor; Caballero, Estrella; Münz, Christian; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aims of the study were to determine the immune responses to candidate viral triggers of multiple sclerosis (MS) in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS), and to evaluate their potential value in predicting conversion to MS. Methods Immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6, cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and measles were determined in a cohort of 147 CIS patients with a mean follow-up of 7 years and compared with 50 demographically matched controls. Results Compared to controls, CIS patients showed increased humoral (p<0.0001) and cellular (p=0.007) immune responses to the EBV-encoded nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1), but not to other EBV-derived proteins. IgG responses to other virus antigens and frequencies of T cells specific for HCMV and influenza virus gene products were unchanged in CIS patients. EBNA1 was the only viral antigen towards which immune responses correlated with number of T2 lesions (p=0.006) and number of Barkhof criteria (p=0.001) at baseline, and with number of T2 lesions (p=0.012 both at 1 and 5 years), presence of new T2 lesions (p=0.003 and p=0.028 at 1 and 5 years), and EDSS (p=0.015 and p=0.010 at 1 and 5 years) during follow-up. In a univariate Cox regression model, increased EBNA1-specific IgG responses predicted conversion to MS based on McDonald criteria [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), 2.2 (1.2–4.3); p=0.003]. Interpretation Our results indicate that elevated immune responses towards EBNA1 are selectively increased in CIS patients and suggest that EBNA1-specific IgG titers could be used as a prognostic marker for disease conversion and disability progression. PMID:20225269

  13. Response to work activity guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum is concerning the request from the FY95 Platte-Kansas Rivers Ecosystem Work Activity Guidance for refuge managers to review the purposes of refuges...

  14. Serum metabolites predict response to angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena, Michelle J; Heinzel, Andreas; Rossing, Peter; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Dallmann, Guido; Rossing, Kasper; Andersen, Steen; Mayer, Bernd; Heerspink, Hiddo J L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individual patients show a large variability in albuminuria response to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). Identifying novel biomarkers that predict ARB response may help tailor therapy. We aimed to discover and validate a serum metabolite classifier that predicts albuminuria response

  15. Serum metabolites predict response to angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena, Michelle J.; Heinzel, Andreas; Rossing, Peter; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Dallmann, Guido; Rossing, Kasper; Andersen, Steen; Mayer, Bernd; Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Individual patients show a large variability in albuminuria response to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). Identifying novel biomarkers that predict ARB response may help tailor therapy. We aimed to discover and validate a serum metabolite classifier that predicts albuminuria response

  16. Evidence that conditioned avoidance responses are reinforced by positive prediction errors signaled by tonic striatal dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Patricia A; Maia, Tiago V; Boschen, Suelen L; Bortolanza, Mariza; Wendler, Etieli; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Brandão, Marcus Lira; Winn, Philip; Blaha, Charles D; Da Cunha, Claudio

    2013-03-15

    We conducted an experiment in which hedonia, salience and prediction error hypotheses predicted different patterns of dopamine (DA) release in the striatum during learning of conditioned avoidance responses (CARs). The data strongly favor the latter hypothesis. It predicts that during learning of the 2-way active avoidance CAR task, positive prediction errors generated when rats do not receive an anticipated footshock (which is better than expected) cause DA release that reinforces the instrumental avoidance action. In vivo microdialysis in the rat striatum showed that extracellular DA concentration increased during early CAR learning and decreased throughout training returning to baseline once the response was well learned. In addition, avoidance learning was proportional to the degree of DA release. Critically, exposure of rats to the same stimuli but in an unpredictable, unavoidable, and inescapable manner, did not produce alterations from baseline DA levels as predicted by the prediction error but not hedonic or salience hypotheses. In addition, rats with a partial lesion of substantia nigra DA neurons, which did not show increased DA levels during learning, failed to learn this task. These data represent clear and unambiguous evidence that it was the factor positive prediction error, and not hedonia or salience, which caused increase in the tonic level of striatal DA and which reinforced learning of the instrumental avoidance response. PMID:22771418

  17. Activity, exposure rate and spectrum prediction with Java programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to envision the radiation exposure during Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) experiments, a software called Activity Predictor is developed using JavaTM programming language. The Activity Predictor calculates activities, exposure rates and gamma spectra of activated samples for NAA experiments performed at Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC), Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). The calculation procedure for predictions involves both analytical and Monte Carlo methods. The Activity Predictor software is validated with a series of activation experiments. It has been found that Activity Predictor software calculates the activities and exposure rates precisely. The software also predicts gamma spectrum for each measurement. The predicted spectra agreed partially with measured spectra. The error in net photo peak areas varied from 4.8 to 51.29%, which is considered to be due to simplistic modeling, statistical fluctuations and unknown contaminants in the samples. (author)

  18. Predicting mining activity with parallel genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaie, S.; Leigh, R.; Louis, S.J.; Raines, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    We explore several different techniques in our quest to improve the overall model performance of a genetic algorithm calibrated probabilistic cellular automata. We use the Kappa statistic to measure correlation between ground truth data and data predicted by the model. Within the genetic algorithm, we introduce a new evaluation function sensitive to spatial correctness and we explore the idea of evolving different rule parameters for different subregions of the land. We reduce the time required to run a simulation from 6 hours to 10 minutes by parallelizing the code and employing a 10-node cluster. Our empirical results suggest that using the spatially sensitive evaluation function does indeed improve the performance of the model and our preliminary results also show that evolving different rule parameters for different regions tends to improve overall model performance. Copyright 2005 ACM.

  19. Coping styles predict responsiveness to cognitive behaviour therapy in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Preethi; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2011-05-30

    The study aimed to determine the clinical and neuropsychological predictors of responsiveness to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp). Sixty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 25 healthy individuals took part in the study. Thirty patients (25 protocol completers) received CBTp in addition to standard care (SC); 30 patients (18 protocol completers) received SC only. All patients were assessed on symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and clinical and neuropsychological function before and after CBTp. Symptoms and self-esteem improved to a greater extent in the CBTp+SC than SC control group. Greater pre-therapy coping ability and the self-reflectiveness dimension of cognitive insight at baseline predicted improvement in symptoms in the CBTp+SC group, but not the SC control group, explaining up to 21% of the variance in symptom improvement. Pre-therapy neuropsychological function, duration of illness, clinical insight and gender did not predict CBTp responsiveness. Being able to have a range of coping strategies and reflect on one's experiences while refraining from overconfidence in one's interpretations before therapy is conducive to better CBTp responsiveness. PMID:21262541

  20. MGMT expression predicts response to temozolomide in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, J; Hentic, O; Rebours, V; Zappa, M; Gille, N; Theou-Anton, N; Vernerey, D; Maire, F; Lévy, P; Bedossa, P; Paradis, V; Hammel, P; Ruszniewski, P; Couvelard, A

    2016-08-01

    Temozolomide (TEM) showed encouraging results in well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (WDPNETs). Low O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression and MGMT promoter methylation within tumors correlate with a better outcome under TEM-based chemotherapy in glioblastoma. We aimed to assess whether MGMT expression and MGMT promoter methylation could help predict the efficacy of TEM-based chemotherapy in patients with WDPNET. Consecutive patients with progressive WDPNET and/or liver involvement over 50% who received TEM between 2006 and 2012 were retrospectively studied. Tumor response was assessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 guidelines. Nuclear expression of MGMT was assessed by immunochemistry (H-score, 0-300) and MGMT promoter methylation by pyrosequencing. Forty-three patients (21 men, 58years (27-84)) with grade 1 WDPNET (n=6) or 2 (n=36) were analyzed. Objective response, stable disease, and progression rates were seen in 17 patients (39.5%), 18 patients (41.9%), and 8 patients (18.6%), respectively. Low MGMT expression (≤50) was associated with radiological objective response (P=0.04) and better progression-free survival (PFS) (HR=0.35 (0.15-0.81), P=0.01). Disease control rate at 18months of treatment remained satisfying with an MGMT score up to 100 (74%) but dropped with a higher expression. High MGMT promoter methylation was associated with a low MGMT expression and longer PFS (HR=0.37 (0.29-1.08), P=0.05). Low MGMT score (≤50) appears to predict an objective tumor response, whereas an intermediate MGMT score (50-100) seems to be associated with prolonged stable disease.

  1. Prediction of response to interferon therapy in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Koch-Henriksen, N;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding interferon response factor (IRF)-5, IRF-8 and glypican-5 (GPC5) have been associated with disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon (IFN)-β. We analysed whether SNPs in the IRF5, IRF8 and GPC5...

  2. Uncontrolled diabetes predicts poor response to novel antiandrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantanos, Theodoros; Karanika, Styliani; Gignac, Gretchen

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic abnormalities including hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia have been associated with worse prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa), but there are limited data regarding their impact on the prognosis of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and the response of novel antiandrogens, namely abiraterone acetate (AA) and enzalutamide. Retrospective analysis of 61 patients with CRPC on AA or enzalutamide, treated at the Boston Medical Center, was performed. We evaluated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), HDL, LDL, Triglycerides and BMI within 2months before the initiation of treatment with AA or enzalutamide and progression-free survival (PFS) under this treatment. Regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to evaluate the data. HbA1c levels were found to predict adversely the PFS on the novel agents (df (1, 37), P=0.00, R(2)=0.40, coeff=-3.28). The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that there is significant difference in survival between the HbA1c 4.7-5.9% compared with patients with HbA1c 7.8-11.6% (6.72±1.3months, log rank test P<0.0001) LDL (P=0.07), HDL (P=0.14), and triglycerides (P=0.33) were not found to predict PFS. BMI predicted PFS positively (df (1.59), P=0.02, R(2)=0.09, coeff=0.03), but not independently of HbA1c (P=0.07). No significant implications of social and family history, previous chemotherapy regimen, and Gleason score with PFS were found. Multiple markers of patients' health state were not associated with HbA1c values. Uncontrolled diabetes can predict for poor response of CRPC patients to AA and enzalutamide determining PFS under this treatment. Elevated BMI can positively affect PFS at this stage of disease. PMID:27515296

  3. Predicting Ecosystem Response to Perturbation from Thermodynamic Criteria

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelian, K

    2008-01-01

    The response of ecosystems to perturbations is considered from a thermodynamic perspective by acknowledging that, as for all macroscopic systems and processes, the dynamics and stability of ecosystems is subject to definite thermodynamic law. For open ecosystems, exchanging energy, work, and mass with the environment, the thermodynamic criteria come from non-equilibrium or irreversible thermodynamics. For ecosystems during periods in which the boundary conditions may be considered as being constant, it is shown that criteria from irreversible thermodynamic theory are sufficient to permit a quantitative prediction of ecosystem response to perturbation. This framework is shown to provide a new perspective on the population dynamics of real ecosystems. The formalism is applied to the problem of the population oscillations of the southern pine beetle.

  4. Footbridge Response Predictions and Their Sensitivity to Stochastic Load Assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about footbridges response to actions of walking is important in assessments of vibration serviceability. In a number of design codes for footbridges, the vibration serviceability limit state is assessed using a walking load model in which the walking parameters (step frequency......, pedestrian mass, dynamic load factor, etc.) are modelled deterministically. This is a simplification of matters, as the walking parameters are basically stochastic as they will be different from one pedestrian to the next. The present paper considers a stochastic approach to modelling the action...... of pedestrians for predicting footbridge response, which is meaningful, and a step forward. Modelling walking parameters stochastically, however, requires decisions to be made in terms of their statistical distribution and the parameters describing the statistical distribution. The paper investigates...

  5. Global genetic variations predict brain response to faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Erin W; Tahmasebi, Amir; French, Leon; Kovacevic, Natasa; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Gallinat, Juergen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Nichols, Thomas; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcela; Smolka, Michal N; Ströhle, Andreas; Toro, Roberto; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš

    2014-08-01

    Face expressions are a rich source of social signals. Here we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance in the brain response to facial expressions explained by common genetic variance captured by ∼ 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML), we related this global genetic variance to that in the brain response to facial expressions, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a community-based sample of adolescents (n = 1,620). Brain response to facial expressions was measured in 25 regions constituting a face network, as defined previously. In 9 out of these 25 regions, common genetic variance explained a significant proportion of phenotypic variance (40-50%) in their response to ambiguous facial expressions; this was not the case for angry facial expressions. Across the network, the strength of the genotype-phenotype relationship varied as a function of the inter-individual variability in the number of functional connections possessed by a given region (R(2) = 0.38, p<0.001). Furthermore, this variability showed an inverted U relationship with both the number of observed connections (R2 = 0.48, p<0.001) and the magnitude of brain response (R(2) = 0.32, p<0.001). Thus, a significant proportion of the brain response to facial expressions is predicted by common genetic variance in a subset of regions constituting the face network. These regions show the highest inter-individual variability in the number of connections with other network nodes, suggesting that the genetic model captures variations across the adolescent brains in co-opting these regions into the face network.

  6. Global genetic variations predict brain response to faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin W Dickie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Face expressions are a rich source of social signals. Here we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance in the brain response to facial expressions explained by common genetic variance captured by ∼ 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML, we related this global genetic variance to that in the brain response to facial expressions, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in a community-based sample of adolescents (n = 1,620. Brain response to facial expressions was measured in 25 regions constituting a face network, as defined previously. In 9 out of these 25 regions, common genetic variance explained a significant proportion of phenotypic variance (40-50% in their response to ambiguous facial expressions; this was not the case for angry facial expressions. Across the network, the strength of the genotype-phenotype relationship varied as a function of the inter-individual variability in the number of functional connections possessed by a given region (R(2 = 0.38, p<0.001. Furthermore, this variability showed an inverted U relationship with both the number of observed connections (R2 = 0.48, p<0.001 and the magnitude of brain response (R(2 = 0.32, p<0.001. Thus, a significant proportion of the brain response to facial expressions is predicted by common genetic variance in a subset of regions constituting the face network. These regions show the highest inter-individual variability in the number of connections with other network nodes, suggesting that the genetic model captures variations across the adolescent brains in co-opting these regions into the face network.

  7. Amygdala response to explicit sad face stimuli at baseline predicts antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanik, Joanna; Nugent, Allison C; Drevets, Wayne C; Khanna, Ashish; Zarate, Carlos A; Furey, Maura L

    2016-08-30

    The muscarinic antagonist scopolamine produces rapid antidepressant effects in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). In healthy subjects, manipulation of acetyl-cholinergic transmission modulates attention in a stimulus-dependent manner. This study tested the hypothesis that baseline amygdalar activity in response to emotional stimuli correlates with antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine and could thus potentially predict treatment outcome. MDD patients and healthy controls performed an attention shifting task involving emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal in the amygdala acquired while MDD patients processed sad face stimuli correlated positively with antidepressant response to scopolamine. Amygdalar response to sad faces in MDD patients who did not respond to scopolamine did not differ from that of healthy controls. This suggests that the pre-treatment task elicited amygdalar activity that may constitute a biomarker of antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine. Furthermore, in MDD patients who responded to scopolamine, we observed a post-scopolamine stimulus processing shift towards a pattern demonstrated by healthy controls, indicating a change in stimulus-dependent neural response potentially driven by attenuated cholinergic activity in the amygdala. PMID:27366831

  8. Prediction of placebo responses: A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern eHoring

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Predicting who responds to placebo treatment – and under which circumstances – has been a question of interest and investigation for generations. However, the literature is disparate and inconclusive. This review aims to identify publications that provide high quality data on the topic of placebo response (PR prediction. Methods: To identify studies concerned with PR prediction, independent searches were performed in an expert database (for all symptom modalities and in PubMed (for pain only. Articles were selected when a they assessed putative predictors prior to placebo treatment and b an adequate control group was included when the association of predictors and PRs were analyzed. Results: Twenty-one studies were identified, most with pain as dependent variable. Most predictors of PRs were psychological constructs related to actions, expected outcomes and the emotional valence attached to these events (goal-seeking, self-efficacy/-esteem, locus of control, optimism. Other predictors involved behavioural control (desire for control, eating restraint, personality variables (fun seeking, sensation seeking, neuroticism, biological markers (sex, a single nucleotide polymorphism related to dopamine metabolism. Finally, suggestibility and beliefs in expectation biases, body consciousness and baseline symptom severity were found to be predictive. Conclusions: While results are heterogeneous, some congruence of predictors can be identified. PRs mainly appear to be moderated by expectations of how the symptom might change after treatment, or the expectation of how symptom repetition can be coped with. It is suggested to include the listed constructs in future research. Furthermore, a closer look at variables moderating symptom change in control groups seems warranted.

  9. Predicting the Response of the Mars Ionosphere to Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallows, K.; Withers, P.; Gonzalez, G.

    2015-12-01

    The increased soft X-ray irradiance during solar flares generates increased electron densities in the lower ionosphere of Mars. The relative changes in electron density during a flare are greater for larger flares and also at lower altitudes and larger flares, due to the wavelength dependence of both the flux increase during the flare and the absorption of flux by the neutral atmosphere. These relationships have been explored [Bougher et al. 2001, Fox et al. 2004, Mendillo et al. 2006, Mahajan et al. 2011, Lollo et al. 2012] but not quantified, which has impeded the validation of simulations of the ionospheric effects of solar flares. Such simulations are necessary for developing accurate descriptions of the physical processes governing ionospheric behavior under extreme conditions. We present a response function, a mathematical expression for the change in electron density during a solar flare as a function of the change in solar flux and an optical depth proxy. This response function is based on analysis of 20 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) radio occultation electron density profiles measured during solar flares. Characterizing the response as a function of optical depth, rather than altitude, provides the best description of ionospheric variability during a flare; otherwise non-negligible solar zenith angle effects are present. We demonstrate that the response function can be used to predict ionospheric electron densities during a specified solar flare by reproducing profiles known to be disturbed by a solar flare. We also demonstrate that the response function can be used to infer the strength of solar flares not visible at Earth by finding the flux enhancement required to reproduce an apparently flare affected profile given an undisturbed profile on the same date.

  10. Single-subject prediction of response inhibition behavior by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Popescu, Florin; Neuhaus, Andres H; Beste, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Much research has been devoted to investigating response inhibition and the neuronal processes constituting this essential cognitive faculty. However, the nexus between cognitive subprocesses, behavior, and electrophysiological processes remains associative in nature. We therefore investigated whether neurophysiological correlates of inhibition subprocesses merely correlate with behavioral performance or actually provide information expedient to the prediction of behavior on a single-subject level. Tackling this question, we used different data-driven classification approaches in a sample of n = 262 healthy young subjects who completed a standard Go/Nogo task while an EEG was recorded. On the basis of median-split response inhibition performance, subjects were classified as "accurate/slow" and "less accurate/fast." Even though these behavioral group differences were associated with significant amplitude variations in classical electrophysiological correlates of response inhibition (i.e., N2 and P3), they were not predictive for group membership on a single-subject level. Instead, amplitude differences in the Go-P2 originating in the precuneus (BA7) were shown to predict group membership on a single-subject level with up to 64% accuracy. These findings strongly suggest that the behavioral outcome of response inhibition greatly depends on the amount of cognitive resources allocated to early stages of stimulus-response activation during responding. This suggests that research should focus more on early processing steps during responding when trying to understand the origin of interindividual differences in response inhibition processes. PMID:26683075

  11. Plume trajectory prediction for use in radiological emergency response planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SAI multi puff steered plume model was developed for the State of Illinois to aid in emergency response planning. The plume is driven by either user input meteorological data or real-time remote tower data. Realistic steering is accomplished by dividing the plume into small puffs, each of which is individually responsive to wind direction changes. The steered plume is displayed against a topographical background on plotters and color graphics terminals. The background maps, showing realistic local details such as towns and rivers, may be varied both by scale and by amount of detail requested, including an emergency zone overlay. Up to ten contour levels representing nuclide concentrations and various exposure modes may be displayed. A sample scenario is discussed involving a hypothetical non-continuous release under changing meteorological conditions. Slides showing the progress of the plume and displaying contours of gamma dose rate and gamma dose are presented. The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety emergency response actions for this sample scenario are discussed. The recommendations for evacuation of shelter are based on the predicted doses within specified zones. After an incident, decisions must be made about reentry based in part on deposition and ingestion pathways. Slides showing contour plots of these quantities are shown and the results plotted are analyzed from the point of view of emergency planning

  12. From neural responses to population behavior: neural focus group predicts population-level media effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Berkman, Elliot T; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2012-05-01

    Can neural responses of a small group of individuals predict the behavior of large-scale populations? In this investigation, brain activations were recorded while smokers viewed three different television campaigns promoting the National Cancer Institute's telephone hotline to help smokers quit (1-800-QUIT-NOW). The smokers also provided self-report predictions of the campaigns' relative effectiveness. Population measures of the success of each campaign were computed by comparing call volume to 1-800-QUIT-NOW in the month before and the month after the launch of each campaign. This approach allowed us to directly compare the predictive value of self-reports with neural predictors of message effectiveness. Neural activity in a medial prefrontal region of interest, previously associated with individual behavior change, predicted the population response, whereas self-report judgments did not. This finding suggests a novel way of connecting neural signals to population responses that has not been previously demonstrated and provides information that may be difficult to obtain otherwise. PMID:22510393

  13. Using unknown knowns to predict coastal response to future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, N. G.; Lentz, E. E.; Gutierrez, B.; Thieler, E. R.; Passeri, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal zone, including its bathymetry, topography, ecosystem, and communities, depends on and responds to a wide array of natural and engineered processes associated with climate variability. Climate affects the frequency of coastal storms, which are only resolved probabilistically for future conditions, as well as setting the pace for persistent processes (e.g., waves driving daily alongshore transport; beach nourishment). It is not clear whether persistent processes or extreme events contribute most to the integrated evolution of the coast. Yet, observations of coastal change record the integration of persistent and extreme processes. When these observations span a large spatial domain and/or temporal range they may reflect a wide range of forcing and boundary conditions that include different levels of sea-level rise, storminess, sediment input, engineering activities, and elevation distributions. We have been using a statistical approach to characterize the interrelationships between oceanographic, ecological, and geomorphic processes—including the role played by human activities via coastal protection, beach nourishment, and other forms of coastal management. The statistical approach, Bayesian networks, incorporates existing information to establish underlying prior expectations for the distributions and inter-correlations of variables most relevant to coastal geomorphic evolution. This underlying information can then be used to make predictions. We demonstrate several examples of the utility of this approach using data as constraints and then propagating the constraints and uncertainty to make predictions of unobserved variables that include changes in shorelines, dunes, and overwash deposits. We draw on data from the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts of the United States, resolving time scales of years to a century. The examples include both short-term storm impacts and long-term evolution associated with sea-level rise. We show that the Bayesian network can

  14. Preoperative neutrophil response as a predictive marker of clinical outcome following open heart surgery and the impact of leukocyte filtration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Soo, Alan W

    2010-11-01

    Open heart surgery is associated with a massive systemic inflammatory response. Neutrophils, are the main mediator of this response. We hypothesised that the degree of neutrophil activation and inflammatory response to open heart surgery varies individually and correlates with clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to determine if individual clinical outcome can be predicted preoperatively through assessment of in-vitro stimulated neutrophil responses. Following that, the effects of neutrophil depletion through leukocyte filters are examined.

  15. Physiological Response to Physical Activity in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    This is a report on research in the field of physical responses of children to strenuous activity. The paper is divided into three subtopics: (1) peak performance measure in children; (2) training effects on children; and (3) importance of physical activity for children. Measurements used are oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac…

  16. Spatially pooled contrast responses predict neural and perceptual similarity of naturalistic image categories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris I A Groen

    Full Text Available The visual world is complex and continuously changing. Yet, our brain transforms patterns of light falling on our retina into a coherent percept within a few hundred milliseconds. Possibly, low-level neural responses already carry substantial information to facilitate rapid characterization of the visual input. Here, we computationally estimated low-level contrast responses to computer-generated naturalistic images, and tested whether spatial pooling of these responses could predict image similarity at the neural and behavioral level. Using EEG, we show that statistics derived from pooled responses explain a large amount of variance between single-image evoked potentials (ERPs in individual subjects. Dissimilarity analysis on multi-electrode ERPs demonstrated that large differences between images in pooled response statistics are predictive of more dissimilar patterns of evoked activity, whereas images with little difference in statistics give rise to highly similar evoked activity patterns. In a separate behavioral experiment, images with large differences in statistics were judged as different categories, whereas images with little differences were confused. These findings suggest that statistics derived from low-level contrast responses can be extracted in early visual processing and can be relevant for rapid judgment of visual similarity. We compared our results with two other, well- known contrast statistics: Fourier power spectra and higher-order properties of contrast distributions (skewness and kurtosis. Interestingly, whereas these statistics allow for accurate image categorization, they do not predict ERP response patterns or behavioral categorization confusions. These converging computational, neural and behavioral results suggest that statistics of pooled contrast responses contain information that corresponds with perceived visual similarity in a rapid, low-level categorization task.

  17. Simple regional strain pattern analysis to predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Jons, Christian; Olsen, Niels T;

    2012-01-01

    A classical strain pattern of early contraction in one wall and prestretching of the opposing wall followed by late contraction has previously been associated with left bundle branch block (LBBB) activation and short-term response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Aims of this study were...... to establish the long-term predictive value of an LBBB-related strain pattern and to identify changes in contraction patterns during short-term and long-term CRT....

  18. Aggression predicts Cortisol Awakening Response in healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sariñana-González

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It seems that aggressive behavior is negatively related to cortisol (C, but this relationship has been established considering the evening C levels. On the other hand, the relationship with the C awakening response (CAR and the influence of gender and menstrual cycle phase are not well understood. This study analyzed this relationship in 83 women (38 in the luteal and 45 in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle and 20 men. CAR was assessed by measuring salivary free cortisol levels in samples taken immediately following awakening and 30, 45, and 60 minutes later. Additionally, participants completed a self-report of aggression. Men presented lower CAR than women in the luteal phase. Moreover, they also had higher levels of physical aggression than women, independently of their menstrual phase. Regarding the relationships between variables, in men general aggression and verbal aggression predicted the CAR. In women, verbal aggression predicted the CAR during the follicular phase, whereas anger and physical aggression were predictors during the luteal phase. Our data support the view that there is a negative relationship between C and aggressive behavior, even during the morning, this relationship being moderated by gender and menstrual cycle phase in the women. These findings may help improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in violence.

  19. Predicting Physical Activity in Arab American School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically grounded research on the determinants of Arab American children's physical activity is virtually nonexistent. Thus, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and social cognitive theory (SCT) to predict Arab American children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).…

  20. Dynamical theory of active cellular response to external stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Rumi; Safran, Samuel A

    2008-09-01

    We present a comprehensive, theoretical treatment of the orientational response to external stress of active, contractile cells embedded in a gel-like elastic medium. The theory includes both the forces that arise from the deformation of the matrix as well as forces due to the internal regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions of the cell. We calculate the time-dependent response of both the magnitude and the direction of the elastic dipole that characterizes the active forces exerted by the cell, for various situations. For static or quasistatic external stress, cells orient parallel to the stress while for high frequency dynamic external stress, cells orient nearly perpendicular. Both numerical and analytical calculations of these effects are presented. In addition we predict the relaxation time for the cellular response for both slowly and rapidly varying external stresses; several characteristic scaling regimes for the relaxation time as a function of applied frequency are predicted. We also treat the case of cells for which the regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions is controlled by strain (instead of stress) and show that the predicted dependence of the cellular orientation on the Poisson ratio of the matrix can differentiate strain vs stress regulation of cellular response.

  1. Dynamical theory of active cellular response to external stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Rumi; Safran, Samuel A.

    2008-09-01

    We present a comprehensive, theoretical treatment of the orientational response to external stress of active, contractile cells embedded in a gel-like elastic medium. The theory includes both the forces that arise from the deformation of the matrix as well as forces due to the internal regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions of the cell. We calculate the time-dependent response of both the magnitude and the direction of the elastic dipole that characterizes the active forces exerted by the cell, for various situations. For static or quasistatic external stress, cells orient parallel to the stress while for high frequency dynamic external stress, cells orient nearly perpendicular. Both numerical and analytical calculations of these effects are presented. In addition we predict the relaxation time for the cellular response for both slowly and rapidly varying external stresses; several characteristic scaling regimes for the relaxation time as a function of applied frequency are predicted. We also treat the case of cells for which the regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions is controlled by strain (instead of stress) and show that the predicted dependence of the cellular orientation on the Poisson ratio of the matrix can differentiate strain vs stress regulation of cellular response.

  2. Novel enzymatic assay predicts minoxidil response in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Andy; Castano, Juan Antonio; McCoy, John; Bermudez, Fernando; Lotti, Torello

    2014-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the most common drug used for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in men and women. Although topical minoxidil exhibits a good safety profile, the efficacy in the overall population remains relatively low at 30-40%. To observe significant improvement in hair growth, minoxidil is typically used daily for a period of at least 3-4 months. Due to the significant time commitment and low response rate, a biomarker for predicting patient response prior to therapy would be advantageous. Minoxidil is converted in the scalp to its active form, minoxidil sulfate, by the sulfotransferase enzyme SULT1A1. We hypothesized that SULT1A1 enzyme activity in the hair follicle correlates with minoxidil response for the treatment of AGA. Our preliminary retrospective study of a SULT1A1 activity assay demonstrates 95% sensitivity and 73% specificity in predicting minoxidil treatment response for AGA. A larger prospective study is now under way to further validate this novel assay. PMID:24283387

  3. Nonlinear Predictive Control of Semi-Active Landing Gear System

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Dongsu; Gu, Hongbin; Liu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The application of model predictive control and constructive nonlinear control methodology to semi-active landing gear system is studied in this paper. A unified shock absorber mathematical model incorporates solenoid valve’s electromechanical and magnetic dynamics is built to facilitate simulation and controller design. Then we propose a hierarchical control structure to deal with the high nonlinearity. A dual mode model predictive controller as an outer loop controller is developed to gen...

  4. Semi-active model predictive control for 3rd generation benchmark problem using smart dampers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Guiyun; Sun Bingnan; Lü Yanping

    2007-01-01

    A semi-active strategy for model predictive control (MPC), in which magneto-rheological dampers are used as an actuator, is presented for use in reducing the nonlinear seismic response of high-rise buildings. A multi-step predictive model is developed to estimate the seismic performance of high-rise buildings, taking into account of the effects of nonlinearity, time-variability, model mismatching, and disturbances and uncertainty of controlled system parameters by the predicted error feedback in the multi-step predictive model. Based on the predictive model, a Kalman-Bucy observer suitable for semi-active strategy is proposed to estimate the state vector from the acceleration and semi-active control force feedback.The main advantage of the proposed strategy is its inherent stability, simplicity, on-line real-time operation, and the ability to handle nonlinearity, uncertainty, and time-variability properties of structures. Numerical simulation of the nonlinear seismic responses of a controlled 20-story benchmark building is carried out, and the simulation results are compared to those of other control systems. The results show that the developed semi-active strategy can efficiently reduce the nonlinear seismic response of high-rise buildings.

  5. Prediction of fine-tuned promoter activity from DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwo, Geoffrey; Rider, Andrew; Tan, Asako; Pinapati, Richard; Emrich, Scott; Chawla, Nitesh; Ferdig, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative prediction of transcriptional activity of genes using promoter sequence is fundamental to the engineering of biological systems for industrial purposes and understanding the natural variation in gene expression. To catalyze the development of new algorithms for this purpose, the Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM) organized a community challenge seeking predictive models of promoter activity given normalized promoter activity data for 90 ribosomal protein promoters driving expression of a fluorescent reporter gene. By developing an unbiased modeling approach that performs an iterative search for predictive DNA sequence features using the frequencies of various k-mers, inferred DNA mechanical properties and spatial positions of promoter sequences, we achieved the best performer status in this challenge. The specific predictive features used in the model included the frequency of the nucleotide G, the length of polymeric tracts of T and TA, the frequencies of 6 distinct trinucleotides and 12 tetranucleotides, and the predicted protein deformability of the DNA sequence. Our method accurately predicted the activity of 20 natural variants of ribosomal protein promoters (Spearman correlation r = 0.73) as compared to 33 laboratory-mutated variants of the promoters (r = 0.57) in a test set that was hidden from participants. Notably, our model differed substantially from the rest in 2 main ways: i) it did not explicitly utilize transcription factor binding information implying that subtle DNA sequence features are highly associated with gene expression, and ii) it was entirely based on features extracted exclusively from the 100 bp region upstream from the translational start site demonstrating that this region encodes much of the overall promoter activity. The findings from this study have important implications for the engineering of predictable gene expression systems and the evolution of gene expression in naturally occurring

  6. Predictive value of serum medroxyprogesterone acetate concentration for response in advanced or recurrent breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, R; Nagao, K; Matsuda, M; Baba, K; Matsuoka, Y; Yamashita, H; Fukuda, M; Higuchi, A; Ikeda, K

    1997-08-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs for endocrine therapy of metastatic breast cancer. In this study, the serum MPA concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and evaluated for its usefulness in predicting the response in 79 cases of advanced or recurrent breast cancers. Overall, 29 patients (37%) achieved an objective response. The response rate correlated significantly with the oestrogen receptor (ER) status (P = 0.03), proliferative activity determined by DNA polymerase alpha (P = 0.04), the disease-free interval (DFI) (P = 0.05) and the serum MPA concentration (P < 0.001). Patients with ER-positive tumours, lower proliferative activity, a longer (DFI) or a higher serum MPA concentration responded more frequently. The mean serum MPA concentration in the responders with ER-positive tumours (P = 0.01) or tumours with a lower proliferative activity (P = 0.008) were significantly lower than in cases with ER-negative tumours or tumours with a higher proliferative activity, respectively. Cases with soft tissue metastases showed responses at significantly lower MPA concentrations (P = 0.003) than those with bone or visceral metastases. Furthermore, there was a dramatic decrease in the MPA concentration when a responder with a high concentration became unresponsive to the therapy. Thus, the serum MPA concentration is a determining factor for the response to treatment. PMID:9337682

  7. How well do cognitive and environmental variables predict active commuting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin Gaston

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, there has been growing interest in theoretical studies integrating cognitions and environmental variables in the prediction of behaviour related to the obesity epidemic. This is the approach adopted in the present study in reference to the theory of planned behaviour. More precisely, the aim of this study was to determine the contribution of cognitive and environmental variables in the prediction of active commuting to get to and from work or school. Methods A prospective study was carried out with 130 undergraduate and graduate students (93 females; 37 males. Environmental, cognitive and socio-demographic variables were evaluated at baseline by questionnaire. Two weeks later, active commuting (walking/bicycling to get to and from work or school was self-reported by questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to predict intention and behaviour. Results The model predicting behaviour based on cognitive variables explained more variance than the model based on environmental variables (37.4% versus 26.8%; Z = 3.86, p p p Conclusion The results showed that cognitive variables play a more important role than environmental variables in predicting and explaining active commuting. When environmental variables were significant, they were mediated by cognitive variables. Therefore, individual cognitions should remain one of the main focuses of interventions promoting active commuting among undergraduate and graduate students.

  8. Making DDL Engaging Through Advance Organizers and Prediction Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金忍冬

    2012-01-01

      This paper addresses some of the requirements of the advance organizers and prediction activities for DDL (Data-Driv⁃en Learning) based on multi-modal corpora for learning English as a second language. It analyzes preliminary advantages and dis⁃advantages of using multi-modal corpora for DDL and focuses on key methodological issues related to self-guided learning and corpus operation. Pedagogical suggestions are provided on how to make the multi-modal corpora based DDL engaging in accor⁃dance with Krashen’ s Language Input Hypothesis with the assistance of advance organizers and prediction activities.

  9. A neural network model for olfactory glomerular activity prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Zu; Tsuji, Toshio; Takiguchi, Noboru; Ohtake, Hisao

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the importance of odors and methods for their evaluation have seen increased emphasis, especially in the fragrance and food industries. Although odors can be characterized by their odorant components, their chemical information cannot be directly related to the flavors we perceive. Biological research has revealed that neuronal activity related to glomeruli (which form part of the olfactory system) is closely connected to odor qualities. Here we report on a neural network model of the olfactory system that can predict glomerular activity from odorant molecule structures. We also report on the learning and prediction ability of the proposed model.

  10. Fractional Diffusion Based Modelling and Prediction of Human Brain Response to External Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Namazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human brain response is the result of the overall ability of the brain in analyzing different internal and external stimuli and thus making the proper decisions. During the last decades scientists have discovered more about this phenomenon and proposed some models based on computational, biological, or neuropsychological methods. Despite some advances in studies related to this area of the brain research, there were fewer efforts which have been done on the mathematical modeling of the human brain response to external stimuli. This research is devoted to the modeling and prediction of the human EEG signal, as an alert state of overall human brain activity monitoring, upon receiving external stimuli, based on fractional diffusion equations. The results of this modeling show very good agreement with the real human EEG signal and thus this model can be used for many types of applications such as prediction of seizure onset in patient with epilepsy.

  11. The markers predicting response to Hepatitis C virus treatment and evaluation of treatment responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Günal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Currently pegylated interferon alpha (peg-IFN and ribavirin treatment is recommended for chronic hepatitis Ctreatment. The aim of treatment is to provide sustained viral response (SVR.Material and methods: A total of 125 patients, who have been treated for chronic hepatitis C diagnosis and are followed upuntil 6 months after treatment, were enrolled into the study. Markers, which have indicated treatment response against hepatitisC virus treatment, treatment responses according to peg-IFNα type used, and experienced side effects in patients havebeen compared.Results: Of patients, 103 were (82.4% female and 22 were (17.6% male and mean of age was 54.74±7.93 years. Markersindicating SVR in our study were calculated as rapid viral response (RVR (p2 (p<0.034. Predictive parameters for EVR in our studywere defined as absence of diabetes in patients, high baseline lymphocyte numbers (2024.74±625.93 and high baseline cholesterollevel (in EVR positive patients 180.47±32.77 mg/dl; in EVR negatives 152.00±24.56. There was no statistical differencebetween peg-IFN type in patients and RVR, EVR and SVR. Also there was no statistical difference in hematological side effects(neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia in both treatment groups.Conclusions: As the efficacy of treatment against HCV is defined, predictive markers for the treatment response are becomingmore significant. Therefore, it is concluded that these factors should also be considered in patient treatment plans. J MicrobiolInfect Dis 2012; 2(3: 100-108Key words: Treatment of Hepatitis C, Sustained Viral Response, Markers of Treatment

  12. Stock Price Change Rate Prediction by Utilizing Social Network Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangkun Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL and genetic algorithm (GA. MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques.

  13. Task-free MRI predicts individual differences in brain activity during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavor, I; Parker Jones, O; Mars, R B; Smith, S M; Behrens, T E; Jbabdi, S

    2016-04-01

    When asked to perform the same task, different individuals exhibit markedly different patterns of brain activity. This variability is often attributed to volatile factors, such as task strategy or compliance. We propose that individual differences in brain responses are, to a large degree, inherent to the brain and can be predicted from task-independent measurements collected at rest. Using a large set of task conditions, spanning several behavioral domains, we train a simple model that relates task-independent measurements to task activity and evaluate the model by predicting task activation maps for unseen subjects using magnetic resonance imaging. Our model can accurately predict individual differences in brain activity and highlights a coupling between brain connectivity and function that can be captured at the level of individual subjects.

  14. NEURAL NETWORKS PREDICTION FOR SEISMIC RESPONSE OF STRUCTURE UNDER THE LEVENBERG-MARQUARDT ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐赵东; 沈亚鹏; 李爱群

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prediction effect of neural networks for seismic response of structure under the Levenberg-Marquardt(LM) algorithm. Results Based on identification and prediction ability of neural networks for nonlinear systems, and combined with LM algorithm, a multi-layer forward networks is adopted to predict the seismic responses of structure. The networks is trained in batch by the shaking table test data of three-floor reinforced concrete structure firstly, then the seismic responses of structure are predicted under the unused excitation data, and the predict responses are compared with the experiment responses. The error curves between the prediction and the experimental results show the efficiency of the method. Conclusion LM algorithm has very good convergence rate, and the neural networks can predict the seismic response of the structure well.

  15. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  16. Predicting active users' personality based on micro-blogging behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Li, Ang; Hao, Bibo; Guan, Zengda; Zhu, Tingshao

    2014-01-01

    Because of its richness and availability, micro-blogging has become an ideal platform for conducting psychological research. In this paper, we proposed to predict active users' personality traits through micro-blogging behaviors. 547 Chinese active users of micro-blogging participated in this study. Their personality traits were measured by the Big Five Inventory, and digital records of micro-blogging behaviors were collected via web crawlers. After extracting 839 micro-blogging behavioral features, we first trained classification models utilizing Support Vector Machine (SVM), differentiating participants with high and low scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory [corrected]. The classification accuracy ranged from 84% to 92%. We also built regression models utilizing PaceRegression methods, predicting participants' scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory. The Pearson correlation coefficients between predicted scores and actual scores ranged from 0.48 to 0.54. Results indicated that active users' personality traits could be predicted by micro-blogging behaviors.

  17. Does salivary gland scintigraphy predict response to pilocarpine in patients with post-radiotherapy xerostomia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to determine whether standard salivary gland scintigraphy may be used for the objective assessment of salivary gland sialogogues, in particular oral pilocarpine, in the treatment of post-radiotherapy xerostomia. Nine patients, with xerostomia following radiotherapy to the head and neck region underwent salivary gland scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate (40 MBq) both before and following 1 month of oral pilocarpine (5 mg tds). For each scan, the percentage uptake in the first 14 min, the peak uptake, time to peak uptake and the percentage of activity excreted following lemon juice stimulation were calculated. The results were correlated with the subjective response as assessed by questionnaire and visual analogue scale. We found no correlation between subjective response and any of the four scan parameters analysed. We could not identify any parameter that predicted those patients who would respond to pilocarpine. In addition, only one parameter, the percentage of activity excreted following stimulation, correlated with previous dose of radiotherapy to the gland. In conclusion, in this study salivary gland scintigraphy did not appear to correlate with or predict response to oral pilocarpine. However, future studies might consider performing salivary gland scintigraphy prior to radiotherapy as well as at differing time points following the commencement of pilocarpine. (orig.)

  18. Does salivary gland scintigraphy predict response to pilocarpine in patients with post-radiotherapy xerostomia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.A.; Cowan, R.A.; Slevin, N.J.; Allan, E.; Gupta, N.K. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Owens, S.E.; Jeans, S.P.; Roberts, J.K.; Hillel, P.G. [North Western Medical Physics, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Collins, C.D. [Department of Radiology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1999-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether standard salivary gland scintigraphy may be used for the objective assessment of salivary gland sialogogues, in particular oral pilocarpine, in the treatment of post-radiotherapy xerostomia. Nine patients, with xerostomia following radiotherapy to the head and neck region underwent salivary gland scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate (40 MBq) both before and following 1 month of oral pilocarpine (5 mg tds). For each scan, the percentage uptake in the first 14 min, the peak uptake, time to peak uptake and the percentage of activity excreted following lemon juice stimulation were calculated. The results were correlated with the subjective response as assessed by questionnaire and visual analogue scale. We found no correlation between subjective response and any of the four scan parameters analysed. We could not identify any parameter that predicted those patients who would respond to pilocarpine. In addition, only one parameter, the percentage of activity excreted following stimulation, correlated with previous dose of radiotherapy to the gland. In conclusion, in this study salivary gland scintigraphy did not appear to correlate with or predict response to oral pilocarpine. However, future studies might consider performing salivary gland scintigraphy prior to radiotherapy as well as at differing time points following the commencement of pilocarpine. (orig.) With 6 figs., 1 tab., 20 refs.

  19. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses.

  20. Transient Response of Aerobic and Anoxic Activated Sludge Activities to Sudden Substrate Concentration Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, G.; Vanrolleghem, P.A.; Gernaey, Krist

    2004-01-01

    The state-of-the-art understanding of activated sludge processes as summarized in activated sludge models (ASMs) predicts an instantaneous increase in the biomass activity (which is measured, e.g., by the corresponding respiration rate OUR, NUR, etc.) under sudden substrate concentration changes...... process. That transient phenomenon exhibits itself immediately upon addition of a substrate source to an endogenously respiring activated sludge sample and it usually takes a few minutes until the activated sludge reaches its maximum possible rate under given environmental conditions. This discrepancy...... response of the activated sludge most likely results from the sequence of intracellular reactions involved in substrate degradation by the activated sludge. Results from studies performed elsewhere with pure cultures (S. cerevisae and E. coli) support the hypothesis. The transient phenomenon can...

  1. Predicting activity approach based on new atoms similarity kernel function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Atta, Ahmed H; Moussa, M I; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2015-07-01

    Drug design is a high cost and long term process. To reduce time and costs for drugs discoveries, new techniques are needed. Chemoinformatics field implements the informational techniques and computer science like machine learning and graph theory to discover the chemical compounds properties, such as toxicity or biological activity. This is done through analyzing their molecular structure (molecular graph). To overcome this problem there is an increasing need for algorithms to analyze and classify graph data to predict the activity of molecules. Kernels methods provide a powerful framework which combines machine learning with graph theory techniques. These kernels methods have led to impressive performance results in many several chemoinformatics problems like biological activity prediction. This paper presents a new approach based on kernel functions to solve activity prediction problem for chemical compounds. First we encode all atoms depending on their neighbors then we use these codes to find a relationship between those atoms each other. Then we use relation between different atoms to find similarity between chemical compounds. The proposed approach was compared with many other classification methods and the results show competitive accuracy with these methods.

  2. Platelet serotonin transporter function predicts default-mode network activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Scharinger

    Full Text Available The serotonin transporter (5-HTT is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence.A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy subjects and maximal 5-HT uptake velocity (Vmax was assessed in blood platelets. We used a mixed-effects multilevel analysis technique (MEMA to test for linear relationships between whole-brain, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD activity and platelet Vmax.The present study demonstrates that increases in platelet Vmax significantly predict default-mode network (DMN suppression in healthy subjects independent of genetic variation within SLC6A4. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses indicate that platelet Vmax is related to global DMN activation and not intrinsic DMN connectivity.This study provides evidence that platelet Vmax predicts global DMN activation changes in healthy subjects. Given previous reports on platelet-synaptosomal Vmax coupling, results further suggest an important role of neuronal 5-HT reuptake in DMN regulation.

  3. PREDICTS: Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity in Changing Terrestrial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Mace

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The PREDICTS project (www.predicts.org.uk is a three-year NERC-funded project to model and predict at a global scale how local terrestrial diversity responds to human pressures such as land use, land cover, pollution, invasive species and infrastructure. PREDICTS is a collaboration between Imperial College London, the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Microsoft Research Cambridge, UCL and the University of Sussex. In order to meet its aims, the project relies on extensive data describing the diversity and composition of biological communities at a local scale. Such data are collected on a vast scale through the committed efforts of field ecologists. If you have appropriate data that you would be willing to share with us, please get in touch (enquiries@predicts.org.uk. All contributions will be acknowledged appropriately and all data contributors will be included as co-authors on an open-access paper describing the database.

  4. Doppler laser imaging predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, J; Kovacevic, M; Situm, M; Stanimirovic, A; Bolanca, Z; Goren, A

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only drug approved by the US FDA for the treatment of female pattern hair loss. Unfortunately, following 16 weeks of daily application, less than 40% of patients regrow hair. Several studies have demonstrated that sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles predicts topical minoxidil response in female pattern hair loss patients. However, due to patients’ discomfort with the procedure, and the time required to perform the enzymatic assay it would be ideal to develop a rapid, non-invasive test for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Minoxidil is a pro-drug converted to its active form, minoxidil sulfate, by sulfotransferase enzymes in the outer root sheath of hair. Minoxidil sulfate is the active form required for both the promotion of hair regrowth and the vasodilatory effects of minoxidil. We thus hypothesized that laser Doppler velocimetry measurement of scalp blood perfusion subsequent to the application of topical minoxidil would correlate with sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles. In this study, plucked hair follicles from female pattern hair loss patients were analyzed for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Additionally, laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the change in scalp perfusion at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, after the application of minoxidil. In agreement with our hypothesis, we discovered a correlation (r=1.0) between the change in scalp perfusion within 60 minutes after topical minoxidil application and sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hairs. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of using laser Doppler imaging as a rapid, non-invasive diagnostic test to predict topical minoxidil response in the treatment of female pattern hair loss. PMID:27049083

  5. Active diagnosis of hybrid systems - A model predictive approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba; Ravn, Anders P.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh;

    2009-01-01

    A method for active diagnosis of hybrid systems is proposed. The main idea is to predict the future output of both normal and faulty model of the system; then at each time step an optimization problem is solved with the objective of maximizing the difference between the predicted normal and faulty...... outputs constrained by tolerable performance requirements. As in standard model predictive control, the first element of the optimal input is applied to the system and the whole procedure is repeated until the fault is detected by a passive diagnoser. It is demonstrated how the generated excitation signal...... can be used as a test signal for sanity check at the commissioning or for detection of faults hidden by regulatory actions of the controller. The method is tested on the two tank benchmark example. ©2009 IEEE....

  6. Model-based Comparative Prediction of Transcription-Factor Binding Motifs in Anabolic Responses in Bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andy; B.; Chen; Kazunori; Hamamura; Guohua; Wang; Weirong; Xing; Subburaman; Mohan; Hiroki; Yokota; Yunlong; Liu

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory mechanism that controls the alteration of global gene expression patterns continues to be a challenging task in computational biology. We previously developed an ant algorithm, a biologically-inspired computational technique for microarray data, and predicted putative transcription-factor binding motifs (TFBMs) through mimicking interactive behaviors of natural ants. Here we extended the algorithm into a set of web-based software, Ant Modeler, and applied it to investigate the transcriptional mechanism underlying bone formation. Mechanical loading and administration of bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are two known treatments to strengthen bone. We addressed a question: Is there any TFBM that stimulates both "anabolic responses of mechanical loading" and "BMP-mediated osteogenic signaling"? Although there is no significant overlap among genes in the two responses, a comparative model-based analysis suggests that the two independent osteogenic processes employ common TFBMs, such as a stress responsive element and a motif for peroxisome proliferator-activated recep- tor (PPAR). The post-modeling in vitro analysis using mouse osteoblast cells sup- ported involvements of the predicted TFBMs such as PPAR, Ikaros 3, and LMO2 in response to mechanical loading. Taken together, the results would be useful to derive a set of testable hypotheses and examine the role of specific regulators in complex transcriptional control of bone formation.

  7. HLA Class-II Associated HIV Polymorphisms Predict Escape from CD4+ T Cell Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Erdmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy, antibody and CD8+ T cell-mediated responses targeting human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 exert selection pressure on the virus necessitating escape; however, the ability of CD4+ T cells to exert selective pressure remains unclear. Using a computational approach on HIV gag/pol/nef sequences and HLA-II allelic data, we identified 29 HLA-II associated HIV sequence polymorphisms or adaptations (HLA-AP in an African cohort of chronically HIV-infected individuals. Epitopes encompassing the predicted adaptation (AE or its non-adapted (NAE version were evaluated for immunogenicity. Using a CD8-depleted IFN-γ ELISpot assay, we determined that the magnitude of CD4+ T cell responses to the predicted epitopes in controllers was higher compared to non-controllers (p<0.0001. However, regardless of the group, the magnitude of responses to AE was lower as compared to NAE (p<0.0001. CD4+ T cell responses in patients with acute HIV infection (AHI demonstrated poor immunogenicity towards AE as compared to NAE encoded by their transmitted founder virus. Longitudinal data in AHI off antiretroviral therapy demonstrated sequence changes that were biologically confirmed to represent CD4+ escape mutations. These data demonstrate an innovative application of HLA-associated polymorphisms to identify biologically relevant CD4+ epitopes and suggests CD4+ T cells are active participants in driving HIV evolution.

  8. Music-induced emotions can be predicted from a combination of brain activity and acoustic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Weaver, James; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2015-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that music can communicate and induce a wide range of emotions in the listener. However, music is a highly-complex audio signal composed of a wide range of complex time- and frequency-varying components. Additionally, music-induced emotions are known to differ greatly between listeners. Therefore, it is not immediately clear what emotions will be induced in a given individual by a piece of music. We attempt to predict the music-induced emotional response in a listener by measuring the activity in the listeners electroencephalogram (EEG). We combine these measures with acoustic descriptors of the music, an approach that allows us to consider music as a complex set of time-varying acoustic features, independently of any specific music theory. Regression models are found which allow us to predict the music-induced emotions of our participants with a correlation between the actual and predicted responses of up to r=0.234,pmusic induced emotions can be predicted by their neural activity and the properties of the music. Given the large amount of noise, non-stationarity, and non-linearity in both EEG and music, this is an encouraging result. Additionally, the combination of measures of brain activity and acoustic features describing the music played to our participants allows us to predict music-induced emotions with significantly higher accuracies than either feature type alone (p<0.01). PMID:26544602

  9. Music-induced emotions can be predicted from a combination of brain activity and acoustic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Weaver, James; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2015-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that music can communicate and induce a wide range of emotions in the listener. However, music is a highly-complex audio signal composed of a wide range of complex time- and frequency-varying components. Additionally, music-induced emotions are known to differ greatly between listeners. Therefore, it is not immediately clear what emotions will be induced in a given individual by a piece of music. We attempt to predict the music-induced emotional response in a listener by measuring the activity in the listeners electroencephalogram (EEG). We combine these measures with acoustic descriptors of the music, an approach that allows us to consider music as a complex set of time-varying acoustic features, independently of any specific music theory. Regression models are found which allow us to predict the music-induced emotions of our participants with a correlation between the actual and predicted responses of up to r=0.234,pmusic induced emotions can be predicted by their neural activity and the properties of the music. Given the large amount of noise, non-stationarity, and non-linearity in both EEG and music, this is an encouraging result. Additionally, the combination of measures of brain activity and acoustic features describing the music played to our participants allows us to predict music-induced emotions with significantly higher accuracies than either feature type alone (p<0.01).

  10. Precise prediction model and simplified scoring system for sustained combined response to interferon-α

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To establish a predictive algorithm which may serve for selecting optimal candidates for interferon-α(IFN-α) treatment.METHODS:A total of 474 IFN-α treated hepatitis B virus e antigen(HBeAg)-positive patients were enrolled in the present study.The patients' baseline characteristics,such as age,gender,blood tests,activity grading(G) of intrahepatic inflammation,score(S) of liver fibrosis,hepatitis B virus(HBV) DNA and genotype were evaluated;therapy duration and response of each patient at the 24th wk af...

  11. Predictive computational modeling of the mucosal immune responses during Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adria Carbo

    Full Text Available T helper (Th cells play a major role in the immune response and pathology at the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection. There is a limited mechanistic understanding regarding the contributions of CD4+ T cell subsets to gastritis development during H. pylori colonization. We used two computational approaches: ordinary differential equation (ODE-based and agent-based modeling (ABM to study the mechanisms underlying cellular immune responses to H. pylori and how CD4+ T cell subsets influenced initiation, progression and outcome of disease. To calibrate the model, in vivo experimentation was performed by infecting C57BL/6 mice intragastrically with H. pylori and assaying immune cell subsets in the stomach and gastric lymph nodes (GLN on days 0, 7, 14, 30 and 60 post-infection. Our computational model reproduced the dynamics of effector and regulatory pathways in the gastric lamina propria (LP in silico. Simulation results show the induction of a Th17 response and a dominant Th1 response, together with a regulatory response characterized by high levels of mucosal Treg cells. We also investigated the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ activation on the modulation of host responses to H. pylori by using loss-of-function approaches. Specifically, in silico results showed a predominance of Th1 and Th17 cells in the stomach of the cell-specific PPARγ knockout system when compared to the wild-type simulation. Spatio-temporal, object-oriented ABM approaches suggested similar dynamics in induction of host responses showing analogous T cell distributions to ODE modeling and facilitated tracking lesion formation. In addition, sensitivity analysis predicted a crucial contribution of Th1 and Th17 effector responses as mediators of histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa during chronic stages of infection, which were experimentally validated in mice. These integrated immunoinformatics approaches

  12. Predicting the Response of Shear-critical Reinforced Concrete Beams using Response-2000 and SNI 2847:2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanto B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the accuracy of Response-2000 in predicting the response of shear-critical reinforced concrete beams. The experimental data selected was that obtained by Vecchio and Shim in 2004 on twelve reinforced concrete beams which sought to replicate beams originally tested by Bresler and Scordelis in the early 1960s. This study also aims to compare the results obtained to the predictions of SNI 2847:2013. It is demonstrated that Response-2000 is capable of providing accurate predictions of load-deflection responses up to the peak load, but underestimates the ductility of beams that exhibit a mixed flexure-shear failure mode. It is also shown that both methods provide conservative predictions of the shear strength of beams with no shear reinforcement, with the software providing more consistent and reliable predictions of shear strength of beams containing shear reinforcement.

  13. Neural activity during encoding predicts false memories created by misinformation

    OpenAIRE

    Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig E.L.

    2005-01-01

    False memories are often demonstrated using the misinformation paradigm, in which a person's recollection of a witnessed event is altered after exposure to misinformation about the event. The neural basis of this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. We used fMRI to investigate encoding processes during the viewing of an event and misinformation to see whether neural activity during either encoding phase could predict what would be remembered. fMRI data were collected as participants studied ...

  14. Platelet Serotonin Transporter Function Predicts Default-Mode Network Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Scharinger; Ulrich Rabl; Christian H. Kasess; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Tina Hofmaier; Kersten Diers; Lucie Bartova; Gerald Pail; Wolfgang Huf; Zeljko Uzelac; Beate Hartinger; Klaudius Kalcher; Thomas Perkmann; Helmuth Haslacher; Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg

    2014-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence. Methods A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy...

  15. Resource assurance predicts specialist and generalist bee activity in drought

    OpenAIRE

    Minckley, Robert L.; Roulston, T'ai H.; Williams, Neal M.

    2013-01-01

    Many short-lived desert organisms remain in diapause during drought. Theoretically, the cues desert species use to continue diapause through drought should differ depending on the availability of critical resources, but the unpredictability and infrequent occurrence of climate extremes and reduced insect activity during such events make empirical tests of this prediction difficult. An intensive study of a diverse bee–plant community through a drought event found that bee specialists of a drou...

  16. Prepotent response inhibition predicts treatment outcome in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Oord; H.M. Geurts; P.J.M. Prins; P.M.G. Emmelkamp; J. Oosterlaan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Inhibition deficits, including deficits in prepotent response inhibition and interference control, are core deficits in ADHD. The predictive value of prepotent response inhibition and interference control was assessed for outcome in a 10-week treatment trial with methylphenidate. Methods:

  17. Response surface optimisation for activation of bentonite with microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rožić Ljiljana S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the statistical design of the experimental method was applied on the acid activation process of bentonite with microwave irradiation. The influence of activation parameters (time, acid normality and microwave heating power on the selected process response of the activated bentonite samples was studied. The specific surface area was chosen for the process response, because the chemical, surface and structural properties of the activated clay determine and limit its potential applications. The relationship of various process parameters with the specific surface area of bentonite was examined. A mathematical model was developed using a second-order response surface model (RSM with a central composite design incorporating the above mentioned process parameters. The mathematical model developed helped in predicting the variation in specific surface area of activated bentonite with time (5-21 min, acid normality (2-7 N and microwave heating power (63-172 W. The calculated regression models were found to be statistically significant at the required range and presented little variability. Furthermore, high values of R2 (0.957 and R2 (adjusted (0.914 indicate a high dependence and correlation between the observed and the predicted values of the response. These high values also indicate that about 96% of the result of the total variation can be explained by this model. In addition, the model shows that increasing the time and acid normality improves the textural properties of bentonites, resulting in increased specific surface area. This model also can be useful for setting an optimum value of the activation parameters for achieving the maximum specific surface area. An optimum specific surface area of 142 m2g-1 was achieved with an acid normality of 5.2 N, activation time of 7.38 min and microwave power of 117 W. Acid activation of bentonite was found to occur faster with microwave irradiation than with conventional heating. Microwave

  18. Personalized medicine in psoriasis: developing a genomic classifier to predict histological response to Alefacept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Asifa S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alefacept treatment is highly effective in a select group patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, and is an ideal candidate to develop systems to predict who will respond to therapy. A clinical trial of 22 patients with moderate to severe psoriasis treated with alefacept was conducted in 2002-2003, as a mechanism of action study. Patients were classified as responders or non-responders to alefacept based on histological criteria. Results of the original mechanism of action study have been published. Peripheral blood was collected at the start of this clinical trial, and a prior analysis demonstrated that gene expression in PBMCs differed between responders and non-responders, however, the analysis performed could not be used to predict response. Methods Microarray data from PBMCs of 16 of these patients was analyzed to generate a treatment response classifier. We used a discriminant analysis method that performs sample classification from gene expression data, via "nearest shrunken centroid method". Centroids are the average gene expression for each gene in each class divided by the within-class standard deviation for that gene. Results A disease response classifier using 23 genes was created to accurately predict response to alefacept (12.3% error rate. While the genes in this classifier should be considered as a group, some of the individual genes are of great interest, for example, cAMP response element modulator (CREM, v-MAF avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family (MAFF, chloride intracellular channel protein 1 (CLIC1, also called NCC27, NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 1 (NLRP1, and CCL5 (chemokine, cc motif, ligand 5, also called regulated upon activation, normally T expressed, and presumably secreted/RANTES. Conclusions Although this study is small, and based on analysis of existing microarray data, we demonstrate that a treatment response classifier for alefacept can be created using gene

  19. Brain Activity in Response to Visual Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bertamini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have explored visual symmetry processing by measuring event related potentials and neural oscillatory activity. There is a sustained posterior negativity (SPN related to the presence of symmetry. There is also functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI activity in extrastriate visual areas and in the lateral occipital complex. We summarise the evidence by answering six questions. (1 Is there an automatic and sustained response to symmetry in visual areas? Answer: Yes, and this suggests automatic processing of symmetry. (2 Which brain areas are involved in symmetry perception? Answer: There is an extended network from extrastriate areas to higher areas. (3 Is reflection special? Answer: Reflection is the optimal stimulus for a more general regularity-sensitive network. (4 Is the response to symmetry independent of view angle? Answer: When people classify patterns as symmetrical or random, the response to symmetry is view-invariant. When people attend to other dimensions, the network responds to residual regularity in the image. (5 How are brain rhythms in the two hemispheres altered during symmetry perception? Answer: Symmetry processing (rather than presence produces more alpha desynchronization in the right posterior regions. Finally, (6 does symmetry processing produce positive affect? Answer: Not in the strongest sense, but behavioural measures reveal implicit positive evaluation of abstract symmetry.

  20. Improving active space telescope wavefront control using predictive thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica; Perrin, Marshall D.

    2015-01-01

    Active control algorithms for space telescopes are less mature than those for large ground telescopes due to differences in the wavefront control problems. Active wavefront control for space telescopes at L2, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), requires weighing control costs against the benefits of correcting wavefront perturbations that are a predictable byproduct of the observing schedule, which is known and determined in advance. To improve the control algorithms for these telescopes, we have developed a model that calculates the temperature and wavefront evolution during a hypothetical mission, assuming the dominant wavefront perturbations are due to changes in the spacecraft attitude with respect to the sun. Using this model, we show that the wavefront can be controlled passively by introducing scheduling constraints that limit the allowable attitudes for an observation based on the observation duration and the mean telescope temperature. We also describe the implementation of a predictive controller designed to prevent the wavefront error (WFE) from exceeding a desired threshold. This controller outperforms simpler algorithms even with substantial model error, achieving a lower WFE without requiring significantly more corrections. Consequently, predictive wavefront control based on known spacecraft attitude plans is a promising approach for JWST and other future active space observatories.

  1. Development and evaluation of a new method for predicting aircraft buffet response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A. M., Jr.; Waner, P. G., Jr.; Watts, J. D.; Benepe, D. B.; Riddle, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    The buffet prediction method uses rigid wind tunnel model fluctuating pressure data to form a buffet forcing function. The response is then calculated with a mathematical dynamic model of the airplane developed for gust response analysis. By including the extremes of phasing and contribution of symmetric and antisymmetric airplane responses, the upper and lower bounds are established for buffet response. F-111A flight test data show good agreement with predicted bounds for a variety of flight conditions.

  2. A model for signal processing and predictive control of semi-active structural control system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M-H Shih; W-P Sung; Ching-Jong Wang

    2009-06-01

    The theory for structural control has been well developed and applied to perform excellent energy dissipation using dampers. Both active and semi-active control systems may be used to decide on the optimal switch point of the damper based on the current and past structural responses to the excitation of external forces. However, numerous noises may occur when the control signals are accessed and transported thus causing a delay of the damper. Therefore, a predictive control technique that integrates an improved method of detecting the control signal based on the direction of the structural motion, and a calculator for detecting the velocity using the least-square polynomial regression is proposed in this research. Comparisons of the analytical data and experimental results show that this predictor is effective in switching the moving direction of the semi-active damper. This conclusion is further verified using the component and shaking table test with constant amplitude but various frequencies, and the El Centro earthquake test. All tests confirm that this predictive control technique is effective to alleviate the time delay problem of semi-active dampers. This predictive control technique promotes about 30% to 40% reduction of the structural displacement response and about 35% to 45% reduction of the structural acceleration response.

  3. Reward prediction-related increases and decreases in tonic neuronal activity of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichi eOkada

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The neuromodulators serotonin, acetylcholine, and dopamine have been proposed to play important roles in the execution of movement, control of several forms of attentional behavior, and reinforcement learning. While the response pattern of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and its specific role in reinforcement learning have been revealed, the roles of the other neuromodulators remain elusive. Reportedly, neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, one major source of serotonin, continually track the state of expectation of future rewards by showing a correlated response to the start of a behavioral task, reward cue presentation, and reward delivery. Here, we show that neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN, one major source of acetylcholine, showed similar encoding of the expectation of future rewards by a systematic increase or decrease in tonic activity. We recorded and analyzed PPTN neuronal activity in monkeys during a reward conditioned visually guided saccade task. The firing patterns of many PPTN neurons were tonically increased or decreased throughout the task period. The tonic activity pattern of neurons was correlated with their encoding of the predicted reward value; neurons exhibiting an increase or decrease in tonic activity showed higher or lower activity in the large reward-predicted trials, respectively. Tonic activity and reward-related modulation ended around the time of reward delivery. Additionally, some tonic changes in activity started prior to the appearance of the initial stimulus, and were related to the anticipatory fixational behavior. A partially overlapping population of neurons showed both the initial anticipatory response and subsequent predicted reward value-dependent activity modulation by their systematic increase or decrease of tonic activity. These bi-directional reward- and anticipatory behavior-related modulation patterns are suitable for the presumed role of the PPTN in reward processing and

  4. Can personality traits and gender predict the response to morphine? An experimental cold pain study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pud, Dorit; Yarnitsky, David; Sprecher, Elliot; Rogowski, Zeev; Adler, Rivka; Eisenberg, Elon

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of personality traits, in accordance with Cloninger's theory, and gender, in the variability of responsiveness to opioids. Specifically, it was intended to test whether or not the three personality dimensions - harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and novelty seeking (NS) - as suggested by Cloninger, can predict inter-personal differences in responsiveness to morphine after exposure to experimental cold pain. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (15 females, 19 males) were given the cold pressor test (CPT). Pain threshold, tolerance, and magnitude (VAS) were measured before and after (six measures, 30 min apart) the administration of either 0.5 mg/kg oral morphine sulphate (n=21) or 0.33 mg/kg oral active placebo (diphenhydramine) (n=13) in a randomized, double blind design. Assessment of the three personality traits, according to Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, was performed before the CPT. A high HA score (but not RD, NS, or baseline values of the three pain parameters) predicted a significantly larger pain relief following the administration of morphine sulphate (but not of the placebo). Women exhibited a larger response in response to both treatments, as indicated by a significantly increased threshold and tolerance following morphine sulphate as well as significantly increased tolerance and decreased magnitude following placebo administration. The present study confirms the existence of individual differences in response to analgesic treatment. It suggests that high HA personality trait is associated with better responsiveness to morphine treatment, and that females respond better than men to both morphine and placebo. PMID:16310713

  5. Structure-Functional Study of Tyrosine and Methionine Dipeptides: An Approach to Antioxidant Activity Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Torkova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantum chemical methods allow screening and prediction of peptide antioxidant activity on the basis of known experimental data. It can be used to design the selective proteolysis of protein sources in order to obtain products with antioxidant activity. Molecular geometry and electronic descriptors of redox-active amino acids, as well as tyrosine and methionine-containing dipeptides, were studied by Density Functional Theory method. The calculated data was used to reveal several descriptors responsible for the antioxidant capacities of the model compounds based on their experimentally obtained antioxidant capacities against ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate and peroxyl radical. A formula to predict antioxidant activity of peptides was proposed.

  6. Prediction of First-Order Vessel Responses with Applications to Decision Support Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik D.; Iseki, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a practical and simple approach for making vessel response predictions. Features of the procedure include a) predictions which are scaled so to better agree with corresponding true, future values to be measured at the time the predictions apply at; and b) predictions that are a......The paper presents a practical and simple approach for making vessel response predictions. Features of the procedure include a) predictions which are scaled so to better agree with corresponding true, future values to be measured at the time the predictions apply at; and b) predictions...... that are assigned an uncertainty measure to reflect a level of confidence. The approach is tested with full-scale data and the obtained results/predictions agree well with measured values. Potentially, the procedure is therefore very useful in future developments of general decision support systems....

  7. Soil radon response around an active volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N. E-mail: msa@nuclear.inin.mx; Valdes, C.; Pena, P.; Mena, M.; Tamez, E

    2001-06-01

    Soil radon behavior related to the volcanic eruptive period 1997-1999 of Popocatepetl volcano has been studied as a function of the volcanic activity. Since the volcano is located 60 km from Mexico City, the risk associated with an explosive eruptive phase is high and an intense surveillance program has been implemented. Previous studies in this particular volcano showed soil radon pulses preceding the initial phase of the eruption. The radon survey was performed with LR-115 track detectors at a shallow depth and the effect of the soil moisture during the rainy season has been observed on the detectors response. In the present state of the volcanic activity the soil radon behavior has shown more stability than in previous eruptive stages.

  8. Impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity and sedentary behaviors, but not reflective intentions, prospectively predict non-exercise activity thermogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Cheval

    Full Text Available Understanding the determinants of non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT is crucial, given its extensive health benefits. Some scholars have assumed that a proneness to react differently to environmental cues promoting sedentary versus active behaviors could be responsible for inter-individual differences in NEAT. In line with this reflection and grounded on the Reflective-Impulsive Model, we test the assumption that impulsive processes related to sedentary and physical activity behaviors can prospectively predict NEAT, operationalized as spontaneous effort exerted to maintain low intensity muscle contractions within the release phases of an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. Participants (n = 91 completed a questionnaire assessing their intentions to adopt physical activity behaviors and a manikin task to assess impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity behaviors (IAPA and sedentary behaviors (IASB. Participants were then instructed to perform a maximal handgrip strength task and an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. As hypothesized, multilevel regression analyses revealed that spontaneous effort was (a positively predicted by IAPA, (b negatively predicted by IASB, and (c was not predicted by physical activity intentions, after controlling for some confounding variables such as age, sex, usual PA level and average force provided during the maximal-contraction phases of the task. These effects remained constant throughout all the phases of the task. This study demonstrated that impulsive processes may play a unique role in predicting spontaneous physical activity behaviors. Theoretically, this finding reinforces the utility of a motivational approach based on dual-process models to explain inter-individual differences in NEAT. Implications for health behavior theories and behavior change interventions are outlined.

  9. Prediction of response to radiotherapy in the treatment of esophageal cancer using stem cell markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: In this study, we investigated whether cancer stem cell marker expressing cells can be identified that predict for the response of esophageal cancer (EC) to CRT. Materials and methods: EC cell-lines OE-33 and OE-21 were used to assess in vitro, stem cell activity, proliferative capacity and radiation response. Xenograft tumors were generated using NOD/SCID mice to assess in vivo proliferative capacity and tumor hypoxia. Archival and fresh EC biopsy tissue was used to confirm our in vitro and in vivo results. Results: We showed that the CD44+/CD24− subpopulation of EC cells exerts a higher proliferation rate and sphere forming potential and is more radioresistant in vitro, when compared to unselected or CD44+/CD24+ cells. Moreover, CD44+/CD24− cells formed xenograft tumors faster and were often located in hypoxic tumor areas. In a study of archival pre-neoadjuvant CRT biopsy material from EC adenocarcinoma patients (N = 27), this population could only be identified in 50% (9/18) of reduced-responders to neoadjuvant CRT, but never (0/9) in the complete responders (P = 0.009). Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation into the possible clinical benefit of CD44+/CD24− as a predictive marker in EC patients for the response to chemoradiation

  10. Ovarian response prediction in GnRH antagonist treatment for IVF using anti-Mullerian hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamdine, O.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Lentjes, E.W.; Torrance, H.L.; Macklon, N.S.; Fauser, B.C.; Broekmans, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the clinical value of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) for the prediction of high or low ovarian response in controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF using GnRH antagonist treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: AMH as a single test has substantial accuracy for ovarian response prediction in Gn

  11. Prediction-error in the context of real social relationships modulates reward system activity

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua ePoore; Jennifer ePfeifer; Elliot eBerkman; Tristen eInagaki; Benjamin Locke Welborn; Matthew eLieberman

    2012-01-01

    The human reward system is sensitive to both social (e.g., validation) and non-social rewards (e.g., money) and is likely integral for relationship development and reputation building. However, data is sparse on the question of whether implicit social reward processing meaningfully contributes to explicit social representations such as trust and attachment security in pre-existing relationships. This event-related fMRI experiment examined reward system prediction-error activity in response to...

  12. Factors Predicting Physical Activity Among Children With Special Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Yazdani, MD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obesity is especially prevalent among children with special needs. Both lack of physical activity and unhealthful eating are major contributing factors. The objective of our study was to investigate barriers to physical activity among these children. Methods We surveyed parents of the 171 children attending Vista Del Mar School in Los Angeles, a nonprofit school serving a socioeconomically diverse group of children with special needs from kindergarten through 12th grade. Parents were asked about their child’s and their own physical activity habits, barriers to their child’s exercise, and demographics. The response rate was 67%. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of children being physically active at least 3 hours per week. Results Parents reported that 45% of the children were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38% with autism, and 34% with learning disabilities; 47% of children and 56% of parents were physically active less than 3 hours per week. The top barriers to physical activity were reported as child’s lack of interest (43%, lack of developmentally appropriate programs (33%, too many behavioral problems (32%, and parents’ lack of time (29%. However, child’s lack of interest was the only parent-reported barrier independently associated with children’s physical activity. Meanwhile, children whose parents were physically active at least 3 hours per week were 4.2 times as likely to be physically active as children whose parents were less physically active (P = .01. Conclusion In this group of students with special needs, children’s physical activity was strongly associated with parental physical activity; parent-reported barriers may have had less direct effect. Further studies should examine the importance of parental physical activity among children with special needs.

  13. Predicting flow at work: investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karina; Cleal, Bryan

    2010-04-01

    Flow (a state of consciousness where people become totally immersed in an activity and enjoy it intensely) has been identified as a desirable state with positive effects for employee well-being and innovation at work. Flow has been studied using both questionnaires and Experience Sampling Method (ESM). In this study, we used a newly developed 9-item flow scale in an ESM study combined with a questionnaire to examine the predictors of flow at two levels: the activities (brainstorming, planning, problem solving and evaluation) associated with transient flow states and the more stable job characteristics (role clarity, influence and cognitive demands). Participants were 58 line managers from two companies in Denmark; a private accountancy firm and a public elder care organization. We found that line managers in elder care experienced flow more often than accountancy line managers, and activities such as planning, problem solving, and evaluation predicted transient flow states. The more stable job characteristics included in this study were not, however, found to predict flow at work.

  14. Predicting fluid responsiveness with transthoracic echocardiography is not yet evidence based

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, M; Haase, N; Johansen, R R;

    2013-01-01

    an integrated tool in the intensive care unit, this systematic review examined studies evaluating the predictive value of TTE for fluid responsiveness. In October 2012, we searched Pubmed, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies evaluating the predictive value of TTE-derived variables for fluid responsiveness...... responsiveness. Of the 4294 evaluated citations, only one study fully met our inclusion criteria. In this study, the predictive value of variations in inferior vena cava diameter (> 16%) for fluid responsiveness was moderate with sensitivity of 71% [95% confidence interval (CI) 44-90], specificity of 100% (95...

  15. Exploring the Inflammatory Metabolomic Profile to Predict Response to TNF-α Inhibitors in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppen, Bart V J; Fu, Junzeng; van Wietmarschen, Herman A; Harms, Amy C; Koval, Slavik; Marijnissen, Anne C A; Peeters, Judith J W; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; Tekstra, Janneke; van Laar, Jacob M; Hankemeier, Thomas; Lafeber, Floris P J G; van der Greef, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In clinical practice, approximately one-third of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) respond insufficiently to TNF-α inhibitors (TNFis). The aim of the study was to explore the use of a metabolomics to identify predictors for the outcome of TNFi therapy, and study the metabolomic fingerprint in active RA irrespective of patients' response. In the metabolomic profiling, lipids, oxylipins, and amines were measured in serum samples of RA patients from the observational BiOCURA cohort, before start of biological treatment. Multivariable logistic regression models were established to identify predictors for good- and non-response in patients receiving TNFi (n = 124). The added value of metabolites over prediction using clinical parameters only was determined by comparing the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC), sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative predictive value and by the net reclassification index (NRI). The models were further validated by 10-fold cross validation and tested on the complete TNFi treatment cohort including moderate responders. Additionally, metabolites were identified that cross-sectionally associated with the RA disease activity score based on a 28-joint count (DAS28), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or C-reactive protein (CRP). Out of 139 metabolites, the best-performing predictors were sn1-LPC(18:3-ω3/ω6), sn1-LPC(15:0), ethanolamine, and lysine. The model that combined the selected metabolites with clinical parameters showed a significant larger AUC-ROC than that of the model containing only clinical parameters (p = 0.01). The combined model was able to discriminate good- and non-responders with good accuracy and to reclassify non-responders with an improvement of 30% (total NRI = 0.23) and showed a prediction error of 0.27. For the complete TNFi cohort, the NRI was 0.22. In addition, 88 metabolites were associated with DAS28, ESR or CRP (p<0.05). Our study established an accurate prediction model

  16. Attachment avoidance predicts inflammatory responses to marital conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Glaser, Ronald; Loving, Timothy J.; Malarkey, William B.; Stowell, Jeffrey; Houts, Carrie; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2008-01-01

    Marital stress has been associated with immune dysregulation, including increased production of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Attachment style, one’s expectations about the availability and responsiveness of others in intimate relationships, appears to influence physiological stress reactivity and thus could influence inflammatory responses to marital conflict. Thirty-five couples were invited for two 24-hour admissions to a hospital research unit. The first visit included a structured social support...

  17. Agitation predicts response of depression to botulinum toxin treatment in a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Axel Wollmer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a randomized, controlled trial (n=30 we showed that botulinum toxin injection to the glabellar region produces a marked improvement in the symptoms of major depression. We hypothesized that the mood-lifting effect was mediated by facial feedback mechanisms. Here we assessed if agitation, which may be associated with increased dynamic psychomotor activity of the facial musculature, can predict response to the treatment. To test this hypothesis we re-analyzed the data of the scales from our previous study on a single item basis and compared the baseline scores in the agitation item (item 9 of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D between responders (n=9 and participants who did not attain response (n=6 among the recipients of onabotulinumtoxinA (n=15. Results: Responders had significantly higher item 9 scores at baseline (1.56+0.88 vs. 0.33+0.52, t(13=3.04, d=1.7, p=0.01, while no other single item of the HAM-D or the Beck Depression Inventory was associated with treatment response. The agitation score had an overall precision of 78% in predicting response in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis (area under the curve, AUC=0.87. These data provide a link between response to botulinum toxin treatment with a psychomotor manifestation of depression and thereby indirect support of the proposed facial feedback mechanism of action. Moreover, it suggests that patients with agitated depression may particularly benefit from botulinum toxin treatment.

  18. Prediction of Antifungal Activity of Gemini Imidazolium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Pałkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of antimicrobial therapy contributes to the development of strains of fungi resistant to antimicrobial drugs. Since cationic surfactants have been described as good antifungals, we present a SAR study of a novel homologous series of 140 bis-quaternary imidazolium chlorides and analyze them with respect to their biological activity against Candida albicans as one of the major opportunistic pathogens causing a wide spectrum of diseases in human beings. We characterize a set of features of these compounds, concerning their structure, molecular descriptors, and surface active properties. SAR study was conducted with the help of the Dominance-Based Rough Set Approach (DRSA, which involves identification of relevant features and relevant combinations of features being in strong relationship with a high antifungal activity of the compounds. The SAR study shows, moreover, that the antifungal activity is dependent on the type of substituents and their position at the chloride moiety, as well as on the surface active properties of the compounds. We also show that molecular descriptors MlogP, HOMO-LUMO gap, total structure connectivity index, and Wiener index may be useful in prediction of antifungal activity of new chemical compounds.

  19. Predicting beneficial effects of atomoxetine and citalopram on response inhibition in Parkinson's disease with clinical and neuroimaging measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zheng; Rae, Charlotte L; Nombela, Cristina; Ham, Timothy; Rittman, Timothy; Jones, Peter Simon; Rodríguez, Patricia Vázquez; Coyle-Gilchrist, Ian; Regenthal, Ralf; Altena, Ellemarije; Housden, Charlotte R; Maxwell, Helen; Sahakian, Barbara J; Barker, Roger A; Robbins, Trevor W; Rowe, James B

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that selective noradrenergic (atomoxetine) and serotonergic (citalopram) reuptake inhibitors may improve response inhibition in selected patients with Parkinson's disease, restoring behavioral performance and brain activity. We reassessed the behavioral efficacy of these drugs in a larger cohort and developed predictive models to identify patient responders. We used a double-blind randomized three-way crossover design to investigate stopping efficiency in 34 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease after 40 mg atomoxetine, 30 mg citalopram, or placebo. Diffusion-weighted and functional imaging measured microstructural properties and regional brain activations, respectively. We confirmed that Parkinson's disease impairs response inhibition. Overall, drug effects on response inhibition varied substantially across patients at both behavioral and brain activity levels. We therefore built binary classifiers with leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) to predict patients' responses in terms of improved stopping efficiency. We identified two optimal models: (1) a "clinical" model that predicted the response of an individual patient with 77-79% accuracy for atomoxetine and citalopram, using clinically available information including age, cognitive status, and levodopa equivalent dose, and a simple diffusion-weighted imaging scan; and (2) a "mechanistic" model that explained the behavioral response with 85% accuracy for each drug, using drug-induced changes of brain activations in the striatum and presupplementary motor area from functional imaging. These data support growing evidence for the role of noradrenaline and serotonin in inhibitory control. Although noradrenergic and serotonergic drugs have highly variable effects in patients with Parkinson's disease, the individual patient's response to each drug can be predicted using a pattern of clinical and neuroimaging features. PMID:26757216

  20. Neural Activities Underlying the Feedback Express Salience Prediction Errors for Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan; Hu, Xueping; Pan, Weigang; Yang, Chun; Wang, Lijun; Li, Yiyuan; Chen, Antao

    2016-01-01

    Feedback information is essential for us to adapt appropriately to the environment. The feedback-related negativity (FRN), a frontocentral negative deflection after the delivery of feedback, has been found to be larger for outcomes that are worse than expected, and it reflects a reward prediction error derived from the midbrain dopaminergic projections to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), as stated in reinforcement learning theory. In contrast, the prediction of response-outcome (PRO) model claims that the neural activity in the mediofrontal cortex (mPFC), especially the ACC, is sensitive to the violation of expectancy, irrespective of the valence of feedback. Additionally, increasing evidence has demonstrated significant activities in the striatum, anterior insula and occipital lobe for unexpected outcomes independently of their valence. Thus, the neural mechanism of the feedback remains under dispute. Here, we investigated the feedback with monetary reward and electrical pain shock in one task via functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results revealed significant prediction-error-related activities in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus and left cingulate gyrus for both money and pain. This implies that some regions underlying the feedback may signal a salience prediction error rather than a reward prediction error. PMID:27694920

  1. Optimal Coding Predicts Attentional Modulation of Activity in Neural Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Santiago; Pearlmutter, Barak A.

    2007-01-01

    Neuronal activity in response to a fixed stimulus has been shown to change as a function of attentional state, implying that the neural code also changes with attention. We propose an information-theoretic account of such modulation: that the nervous system adapts to optimally encode sensory stimuli while taking into account the changing relevance of different features. We show using computer simulation that such modulation emerges in a coding system informed about the uneven relevance of ...

  2. Predicting reinforced concrete frame response to excavation induced settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Laefer, Debra F.; Ceribasi, Seyit; James H Long; Cording, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    In many tunneling and excavation projects, free-field vertical ground movements have been used to predict subsidence and empirical limits have been employed to evaluate risk. Validity of such approaches given the reality of two-dimensional ground movements and the influence of adjacent applied loads has been largely unknown. This paper employed analytical and large-scale experimental efforts to quantify these issues, in the case of a reinforced concrete frame structure adjacent to an excavati...

  3. Variability of single trial brain activation predicts fluctuations in reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Stephan; Banaschewski, Tobias; Roessner, Veit; Klein, Christoph; Rietschel, Marcella; Feige, Bernd; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Brain activation stability is crucial to understanding attention lapses. EEG methods could provide excellent markers to assess neuronal response variability with respect to temporal (intertrial coherence) and spatial variability (topographic consistency) as well as variations in activation intensity (low frequency variability of single trial global field power). We calculated intertrial coherence, topographic consistency and low frequency amplitude variability during target P300 in a continuous performance test in 263 15-year-olds from a cohort with psychosocial and biological risk factors. Topographic consistency and low frequency amplitude variability predicted reaction time fluctuations (RTSD) in a linear model. Higher RTSD was only associated with higher psychosocial adversity in the presence of the homozygous 6R-10R dopamine transporter haplotype. We propose that topographic variability of single trial P300 reflects noise as well as variability in evoked cortical activation patterns. Dopaminergic neuromodulation interacted with environmental and biological risk factors to predict behavioural reaction time variability.

  4. Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are a framework for predicting quantitative relationships between molecular initiatin...

  5. Evaluation of Social Cognitive Scaling Response Options in the Physical Activity Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E.; Matheson, Deborah Hunt; Mark, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability, variability, and predictive validity of two common scaling response formats (semantic differential, Likert-type) and two numbers of response options (5-point, 7-point) in the physical activity domain. Constructs of the theory of planned behavior were chosen in this analysis based on its…

  6. From Boundary Layer Turbulence to Hydrologic Response: Recent Results on Scaling, Nonlinearity, and Predictability and Their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2002-12-01

    Deepening our understanding of the space-time variability of atmospheric/hydrologic processes and their interactions over a range of scales has important implications for improving model parameterizations and increasing the accuracy of predictive models. At the same time, the inherent nonlinear and chaotic character of some of these processes imposes limits on their predictability, and therefore provides upper bounds on the expected prediction accuracy from numerical models. This paper will address questions of scaling, nonlinearity and predictability in processes active at two major interfaces of the hydrologic system: the land-atmosphere interface, and the land-water interface. Specifically, recent findings and their practical implications will be presented on: (a) multiscale interactions in turbulent boundary layers and implications for boundary condition formulations; (b) predictability assessment of turbulent velocities in a boundary layer as a function of scale; and (c) nonlinear dynamics of basin hydrologic response as a function of spatio-temporally varying forcing and basin geomorphological organization.

  7. 5-HTTLPR differentially predicts brain network responses to emotional faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick M; Grady, Cheryl L; Madsen, Martin K;

    2015-01-01

    resonance imaging in 76 healthy adults. We observed robust increased response to emotional faces in the amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, fusiform gyrus, superior temporal sulcus and lateral prefrontal and occipito-parietal cortices. We observed dissociation between 5-HTTLPR groups such that LA LA individuals...

  8. Mothers' Labeling Responses to Infants' Gestures Predict Vocabulary Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Janet; Masur, Elise Frank

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine infants aged 1;1 and their mothers were videotaped while interacting with toys for 18 minutes. Six experimental stimuli were presented to elicit infant communicative bids in two communicative intent contexts--proto-declarative and proto-imperative. Mothers' verbal responses to infants' gestural and non-gestural communicative bids were…

  9. Global genetic variations predict brain response to faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickie, Erin W; Tahmasebi, Amir; French, Leon;

    2014-01-01

    Face expressions are a rich source of social signals. Here we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance in the brain response to facial expressions explained by common genetic variance captured by ∼ 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximu...

  10. COMT val158met predicts reward responsiveness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, T M; Linden, D E; Heerey, E A

    2012-11-01

    A functional variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene [val158met (rs4680)] is frequently implicated in decision-making and higher cognitive functions. It may achieve its effects by modulating dopamine-related decision-making and reward-guided behaviour. Here we demonstrate that individuals with the met/met polymorphism have greater responsiveness to reward than carriers of the val allele and that this correlates with risk-seeking behaviour. We assessed performance on a reward responsiveness task and the Balloon analogue risk task, which measure how participants (N = 70, western European, university and postgraduate students) respond to reward and take risks in the presence of available reward. Individuals with the met/met genotype (n = 19) showed significantly higher reward responsiveness, F2,64 = 4.02, P = 0.02, and reward-seeking behaviour, F(2,68) = 4.52, P = 0.01, than did either val/met (n = 25) or val/val (n = 26) carriers. These results highlight a scenario in which genotype-dependent reward responsiveness shapes reward-seeking, therefore suggesting a novel framework by which COMT may modulate behaviour. PMID:22900954

  11. Immune response markers in sentinel nodes may predict melanoma progression

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo, Monica; Castelli, Chiara; Rivoltini, Licia

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that variable expression of immune-response genes distinguishes tumor positive sentinel nodes in melanoma patients with malignant progression from those with non-progressing disease. Our results depict sentinel nodes as sites in which immune functions are associated with metastatic disease and identify CD30 as a host immune-related cancer prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target.

  12. Predicting and preventing the future: actively managing multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) has a highly variable clinical course but a number of demographic, clinical and MRI features can guide the clinician in the assessment of disease activity and likely disability outcome. It is also clear that the inflammatory activity in the first five years of relapsing-remitting MS results in the neurodegenerative changes seen in secondary progressive MS 10-15 years later. While conventional first-line disease modifying therapy has an effect on relapses, about one third of patients have a suboptimal response to treatment. With the advent of highly active second-line therapies with their evident marked suppression of inflammation, the clinician now has the tools to manage the course of relapsing-remitting MS more effectively. The development of treatment optimisation recommendations based on the clinical response to first-line therapies can guide the neurologist in more active management of the early course of relapsing-remitting MS, with the aim of preventing both acute inflammatory axonal injury and the neurodegenerative process which leads to secondary progressive MS.

  13. Rituximab-induced depletion of anti-PLA2R autoantibodies predicts response in membranous nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Laurence H; Fervenza, Fernando C; Beck, David M; Bonegio, Ramon G B; Malik, Fahim A; Erickson, Stephen B; Cosio, Fernando G; Cattran, Daniel C; Salant, David J

    2011-08-01

    Autoantibodies to the M-type phospholipase A(2) receptor (PLA(2)R) are sensitive and specific for idiopathic membranous nephropathy. The anti-B cell agent rituximab is a promising therapy for this disease, but biomarkers of early response to treatment currently do not exist. Here, we investigated whether levels of anti-PLA(2)R correlate with the immunological activity of membranous nephropathy, potentially exhibiting a more rapid response to treatment than clinical parameters such as proteinuria. We measured the amount of anti-PLA(2)R using Western blot immunoassay in serial serum samples from a total of 35 patients treated with rituximab for membranous nephropathy in two distinct cohorts. Pretreatment samples from 25 of 35 (71%) patients contained anti-PLA(2)R, and these autoantibodies declined or disappeared in 17 (68%) of these patients within 12 months after rituximab. Those who demonstrated this immunologic response fared better clinically: 59% and 88% attained complete or partial remission by 12 and 24 months, respectively, compared with 0% and 33% among those with persistent anti-PLA(2)R levels. Changes in antibody levels preceded changes in proteinuria. One subject who relapsed during follow-up had a concomitant return of anti-PLA(2)R. In summary, measuring anti-PLA(2)R levels by immunoassay may be a method to follow and predict response to treatment with rituximab in membranous nephropathy.

  14. Gene expression signature of fibroblast serum response predicts human cancer progression: similarities between tumors and wounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Y Chang

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer invasion and metastasis have been likened to wound healing gone awry. Despite parallels in cellular behavior between cancer progression and wound healing, the molecular relationships between these two processes and their prognostic implications are unclear. In this study, based on gene expression profiles of fibroblasts from ten anatomic sites, we identify a stereotyped gene expression program in response to serum exposure that appears to reflect the multifaceted role of fibroblasts in wound healing. The genes comprising this fibroblast common serum response are coordinately regulated in many human tumors, allowing us to identify tumors with gene expression signatures suggestive of active wounds. Genes induced in the fibroblast serum-response program are expressed in tumors by the tumor cells themselves, by tumor-associated fibroblasts, or both. The molecular features that define this wound-like phenotype are evident at an early clinical stage, persist during treatment, and predict increased risk of metastasis and death in breast, lung, and gastric carcinomas. Thus, the transcriptional signature of the response of fibroblasts to serum provides a possible link between cancer progression and wound healing, as well as a powerful predictor of the clinical course in several common carcinomas.

  15. An epigenetic signature in peripheral blood predicts active ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Teschendorff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that DNA methylation (DNAm markers in peripheral blood may hold promise as diagnostic or early detection/risk markers for epithelial cancers. However, to date no study has evaluated the diagnostic and predictive potential of such markers in a large case control cohort and on a genome-wide basis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By performing genome-wide DNAm profiling of a large ovarian cancer case control cohort, we here demonstrate that active ovarian cancer has a significant impact on the DNAm pattern in peripheral blood. Specifically, by measuring the methylation levels of over 27,000 CpGs in blood cells from 148 healthy individuals and 113 age-matched pre-treatment ovarian cancer cases, we derive a DNAm signature that can predict the presence of active ovarian cancer in blind test sets with an AUC of 0.8 (95% CI (0.74-0.87. We further validate our findings in another independent set of 122 post-treatment cases (AUC = 0.76 (0.72-0.81. In addition, we provide evidence for a significant number of candidate risk or early detection markers for ovarian cancer. Furthermore, by comparing the pattern of methylation with gene expression data from major blood cell types, we here demonstrate that age and cancer elicit common changes in the composition of peripheral blood, with a myeloid skewing that increases with age and which is further aggravated in the presence of ovarian cancer. Finally, we show that most cancer and age associated methylation variability is found at CpGs located outside of CpG islands. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results underscore the potential of DNAm profiling in peripheral blood as a tool for detection or risk-prediction of epithelial cancers, and warrants further in-depth and higher CpG coverage studies to further elucidate this role.

  16. Predictive Analysis of Landslide Activity Using Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markuzon, N.; Regan, J.; Slesnick, C.

    2012-12-01

    Landslides are historically one of the most damaging geohazard phenomena in terms of death tolls and socio-economic losses. Therefore, understanding the underlying causes of landslides and how environmental phenomena affect their frequency and severity is of critical importance. Of specific importance for mitigating future damage is increasing our understanding of how climate change will affect landslide severity, occurrence rates, and damage. We are developing data driven models aimed at predicting landslide activity. The models learn multi-dimensional weather and geophysical patterns associated with historical landslides and estimate location-dependent probabilities for landslides under current or future weather and geophysical conditions. Our approach uses machine learning algorithms capable of determining non-linear associations between dependent variables and landslide occurrence without requiring detailed knowledge of geomorphology. Our primary goal in year one of the project is to evaluate the predictive capabilities of data mining models in application to landslide activity, and to analyze if the approach will discover previously unknown variables and/or relationships important to landslide occurrence, frequency or severity. The models include remote sensing and ground-based data, including weather, landcover, slope, elevation and drainage information as well as urbanization data. The historical landslide dataset we used to build our preliminary models was compiled from City of Seattle landslide files, United States Geological Survey reports, newspaper articles, and a verified subset of the Seattle Landslide Database that consists of all reported landslides within Seattle, WA, between 1948 and 1999. Most of the landslides analyzed to-date are shallow. Using statistical analysis and unsupervised clustering methods we have thus far identified subsets of weather conditions that lead to a significantly higher landslide probability, and have developed

  17. Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kevin; Suchowski, Haim; Rho, Junsuk; Salandrino, Alessandro; Kante, Boubacar; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of optical second harmonic generation in 1961 started modern nonlinear optics. Soon after, R. C. Miller found empirically that the nonlinear susceptibility could be predicted from the linear susceptibilities. This important relation, known as Miller's Rule, allows a rapid determination of nonlinear susceptibilities from linear properties. In recent years, metamaterials, artificial materials that exhibit intriguing linear optical properties not found in natural materials, have shown novel nonlinear properties such as phase-mismatch-free nonlinear generation, new quasi-phase matching capabilities and large nonlinear susceptibilities. However, the understanding of nonlinear metamaterials is still in its infancy, with no general conclusion on the relationship between linear and nonlinear properties. The key question is then whether one can determine the nonlinear behaviour of these artificial materials from their exotic linear behaviour. Here, we show that the nonlinear oscillator model does not apply in general to nonlinear metamaterials. We show, instead, that it is possible to predict the relative nonlinear susceptibility of large classes of metamaterials using a more comprehensive nonlinear scattering theory, which allows efficient design of metamaterials with strong nonlinearity for important applications such as coherent Raman sensing, entangled photon generation and frequency conversion.

  18. Social responsibility activity of small enterprise – selected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Sokolowska

    2011-01-01

    Rules of social responsibility concept apply more to large enterprises activity than small ones. That is why there exists the need for indication of specificity of social responsibility in this enterprise group. The aim of the paper is to present social responsibility activities in selected areas of social responsibility in a small enterprise. The discussion is of theoretical and empirical nature.

  19. Neuromagnetic oscillations predict evoked-response latency delays and core language deficits in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, J Christopher; Khan, Sarah Y; Blaskey, Lisa; Chow, Vivian Y; Rey, Michael; Gaetz, William; Cannon, Katelyn M; Monroe, Justin F; Cornew, Lauren; Qasmieh, Saba; Liu, Song; Welsh, John P; Levy, Susan E; Roberts, Timothy P L

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have observed evoked response latency as well as gamma band superior temporal gyrus (STG) auditory abnormalities in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A limitation of these studies is that associations between these two abnormalities, as well as the full extent of oscillatory phenomena in ASD in terms of frequency and time, have not been examined. Subjects were presented pure tones at 200, 300, 500, and 1,000 Hz while magnetoencephalography assessed activity in STG auditory areas in a sample of 105 children with ASD and 36 typically developing controls (TD). Findings revealed a profile such that auditory STG processes in ASD were characterized by pre-stimulus abnormalities across multiple frequencies, then early high-frequency abnormalities followed by low-frequency abnormalities. Increased pre-stimulus activity was a 'core' abnormality, with pre-stimulus activity predicting post-stimulus neural abnormalities, group membership, and clinical symptoms (CELF-4 Core Language Index). Deficits in synaptic integration in the auditory cortex are associated with oscillatory abnormalities in ASD as well as patient symptoms. Increased pre-stimulus activity in ASD likely demonstrates a fundamental signal-to-noise deficit in individuals with ASD, with elevations in oscillatory activity suggesting an inability to maintain an appropriate 'neural tone' and an inability to rapidly return to a resting state prior to the next stimulus. PMID:23963591

  20. A Framework for Prediction of Response to HCV Therapy Using Different Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas M. F. El Houby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C which is a widely spread disease all over the world is a fatal liver disease caused by Hepatitis C Virus (HCV. The only approved therapy is interferon plus ribavirin. The number of responders to this treatment is low, while its cost is high and side effects are undesirable. Treatment response prediction will help in reducing the patients who suffer from the side effects and high costs without achieving recovery. The aim of this research is to develop a framework which can select the best model to predict HCV patients’ response to the treatment of HCV from clinical information. The framework contains three phases which are preprocessing phase to prepare the data for applying Data Mining (DM techniques, DM phase to apply different DM techniques, and evaluation phase to evaluate and compare the performance of the built models and select the best model as the recommended one. Different DM techniques had been applied which are associative classification, artificial neural network, and decision tree to evaluate the framework. The experimental results showed the effectiveness of the framework in selecting the best model which is the model built by associative classification using histology activity index, fibrosis stage, and alanine amino transferase.

  1. A Simple and Accurate Model to Predict Responses to Multi-electrode Stimulation in the Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias I Maturana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Implantable electrode arrays are widely used in therapeutic stimulation of the nervous system (e.g. cochlear, retinal, and cortical implants. Currently, most neural prostheses use serial stimulation (i.e. one electrode at a time despite this severely limiting the repertoire of stimuli that can be applied. Methods to reliably predict the outcome of multi-electrode stimulation have not been available. Here, we demonstrate that a linear-nonlinear model accurately predicts neural responses to arbitrary patterns of stimulation using in vitro recordings from single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs stimulated with a subretinal multi-electrode array. In the model, the stimulus is projected onto a low-dimensional subspace and then undergoes a nonlinear transformation to produce an estimate of spiking probability. The low-dimensional subspace is estimated using principal components analysis, which gives the neuron's electrical receptive field (ERF, i.e. the electrodes to which the neuron is most sensitive. Our model suggests that stimulation proportional to the ERF yields a higher efficacy given a fixed amount of power when compared to equal amplitude stimulation on up to three electrodes. We find that the model captures the responses of all the cells recorded in the study, suggesting that it will generalize to most cell types in the retina. The model is computationally efficient to evaluate and, therefore, appropriate for future real-time applications including stimulation strategies that make use of recorded neural activity to improve the stimulation strategy.

  2. A Simple and Accurate Model to Predict Responses to Multi-electrode Stimulation in the Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Matias I; Apollo, Nicholas V; Hadjinicolaou, Alex E; Garrett, David J; Cloherty, Shaun L; Kameneva, Tatiana; Grayden, David B; Ibbotson, Michael R; Meffin, Hamish

    2016-04-01

    Implantable electrode arrays are widely used in therapeutic stimulation of the nervous system (e.g. cochlear, retinal, and cortical implants). Currently, most neural prostheses use serial stimulation (i.e. one electrode at a time) despite this severely limiting the repertoire of stimuli that can be applied. Methods to reliably predict the outcome of multi-electrode stimulation have not been available. Here, we demonstrate that a linear-nonlinear model accurately predicts neural responses to arbitrary patterns of stimulation using in vitro recordings from single retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) stimulated with a subretinal multi-electrode array. In the model, the stimulus is projected onto a low-dimensional subspace and then undergoes a nonlinear transformation to produce an estimate of spiking probability. The low-dimensional subspace is estimated using principal components analysis, which gives the neuron's electrical receptive field (ERF), i.e. the electrodes to which the neuron is most sensitive. Our model suggests that stimulation proportional to the ERF yields a higher efficacy given a fixed amount of power when compared to equal amplitude stimulation on up to three electrodes. We find that the model captures the responses of all the cells recorded in the study, suggesting that it will generalize to most cell types in the retina. The model is computationally efficient to evaluate and, therefore, appropriate for future real-time applications including stimulation strategies that make use of recorded neural activity to improve the stimulation strategy. PMID:27035143

  3. Trend modelling of wave parameters and application in onboard prediction of ship responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, Najmeh; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, J. Juncher

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a trend analysis for prediction of sea state parameters onboard shipsduring voyages. Given those parameters, a JONSWAP model and also the transfer functions, prediction of wave induced ship responses are thus made. The procedure is tested with full-scale data of an in-service ......This paper presents a trend analysis for prediction of sea state parameters onboard shipsduring voyages. Given those parameters, a JONSWAP model and also the transfer functions, prediction of wave induced ship responses are thus made. The procedure is tested with full-scale data of an in...

  4. Predicting Ecosystem Response to Perturbation from Thermodynamic Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelian, K.; Chavez, V. Alonso

    2008-01-01

    The response of ecosystems to perturbations is considered from a thermodynamic perspective by acknowledging that, as for all macroscopic systems and processes, the dynamics and stability of ecosystems is subject to definite thermodynamic law. For open ecosystems, exchanging energy, work, and mass with the environment, the thermodynamic criteria come from non-equilibrium or irreversible thermodynamics. For ecosystems during periods in which the boundary conditions may be considered as being co...

  5. Random Forests for Ordinal Response Data: Prediction and Variable Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Janitza, Silke; Tutz, Gerhard; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure

    2014-01-01

    The random forest method is a commonly used tool for classification with high-dimensional data that is able to rank candidate predictors through its inbuilt variable importance measures (VIMs). It can be applied to various kinds of regression problems including nominal, metric and survival response variables. While classification and regression problems using random forest methodology have been extensively investigated in the past, there seems to be a lack of literature on handling ordinal re...

  6. Aggression predicts Cortisol Awakening Response in healthy young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Sariñana-González; Ángel Romero-Martínez; Luis Moya-Albiol

    2015-01-01

    It seems that aggressive behavior is negatively related to cortisol (C), but this relationship has been established considering the evening C levels. On the other hand, the relationship with the C awakening response (CAR) and the influence of gender and menstrual cycle phase are not well understood. This study analyzed this relationship in 83 women (38 in the luteal and 45 in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle) and 20 men. CAR was assessed by measuring salivary free cortisol levels...

  7. Attachment avoidance predicts inflammatory responses to marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Glaser, Ronald; Loving, Timothy J; Malarkey, William B; Stowell, Jeffrey; Houts, Carrie; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2009-10-01

    Marital stress has been associated with immune dysregulation, including increased production of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Attachment style, one's expectations about the availability and responsiveness of others in intimate relationships, appears to influence physiological stress reactivity and thus could influence inflammatory responses to marital conflict. Thirty-five couples were invited for two 24-h admissions to a hospital research unit. The first visit included a structured social support interaction, while the second visit comprised the discussion of a marital disagreement. A mixed effect within-subject repeated measure model indicated that attachment avoidance significantly influenced IL-6 production during the conflict visit but not during the social support visit. Individuals with higher attachment avoidance had on average an 11% increase in total IL-6 production during the conflict visit as compared to the social support visit, while individuals with lower attachment avoidance had, on average, a 6% decrease in IL-6 production during the conflict visit as compared to the social support visit. Furthermore, greater attachment avoidance was associated with a higher frequency of negative behaviors and a lower frequency of positive behaviors during the marital interaction, providing a mechanism by which attachment avoidance may influence inflammatory responses to marital conflict. In sum, these results suggest that attachment avoidance modulates marital behavior and stress-induced immune dysregulation. PMID:18952163

  8. Prediction of treatment week eight response & sustained virologic response in patients treated with boceprevir plus peginterferon alfa and ribavirin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Thompson

    Full Text Available AIM: Sustained virologic response (SVR can be attained with boceprevir plus peginterferon alfa and ribavirin (PR in up to 68% of patients, and short duration therapy is possible if plasma HCV RNA levels are undetectable at treatment week 8 (TW8 response. We have developed predictive models for SVR, and TW8 response using data from boceprevir clinical trials. METHODS: Regression models were built to predict TW8 response and SVR. Separate models were built for TW8 and SVR using baseline variables only, and compared to models with baseline variables plus HCV RNA change after 4 weeks of PR (TW4 delta. Predictive accuracy was assessed by c-statistics, calibration curves, and decision curve analyses. Nomograms were developed to create clinical decision support tools. Models were externally validated using independent data. RESULTS: The models that included TW4 delta produced the best discrimination ability. The predictive factors for TW8 response (n = 856 were TW4 delta, race, platelet count and ALT. The predictive factors for SVR (n = 522 were TW4 delta, HCV-subtype, gender, BMI, RBV dose and platelet count. The discrimination abilities of these models were excellent (C-statistics = 0.88, 0.80 respectively. Baseline models for TW8 response (n = 444 and SVR (n = 197 had weaker discrimination ability (C-statistic = 0.76, 0.69. External validation confirmed the predictive accuracy of the week 4 models. CONCLUSIONS: Models incorporating baseline and treatment week 4 data provide excellent prediction of TW8 response and SVR, and support the clinical utility of the lead-in phase of PR. The nomograms are suitable for point-of-care use to inform individual patient and physician decision-making.

  9. A Coupled Probabilistic Wake Vortex and Aircraft Response Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloudemans, Thijs; Van Lochem, Sander; Ras, Eelco; Malissa, Joel; Ahmad, Nashat N.; Lewis, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Wake vortex spacing standards along with weather and runway occupancy time, restrict terminal area throughput and impose major constraints on the overall capacity and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). For more than two decades, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been conducting research on characterizing wake vortex behavior in order to develop fast-time wake transport and decay prediction models. It is expected that the models can be used in the systems level design of advanced air traffic management (ATM) concepts that safely increase the capacity of the NAS. It is also envisioned that at a later stage of maturity, these models could potentially be used operationally, in groundbased spacing and scheduling systems as well as on the flight deck.

  10. Recent and Past Musical Activity Predicts Cognitive Aging Variability: Direct Comparison with Leisure Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda eHanna-Pladdy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age . These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to nonmusical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study examined the type of leisure activity (musical versus other as well as the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (> 10 years and nonmusicians (ages 59-80 were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and life-style activities (AAP. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to explain performance variance in musicians. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal immediate recall, judgment of line orientation (JLO, and Letter Number Sequencing (LNS, but not the AAP. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted JLO in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (< 9 years predicted enhanced LNS in musicians, while analyses for AAP, verbal recall and fluency were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not leisure activity, predicted variability across verbal and visuospatial domains in aging. Early musical acquisition predicted auditory

  11. Predictive features of persistent activity emergence in regular spiking and intrinsic bursting model neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Sidiropoulou

    Full Text Available Proper functioning of working memory involves the expression of stimulus-selective persistent activity in pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, which refers to neural activity that persists for seconds beyond the end of the stimulus. The mechanisms which PFC pyramidal neurons use to discriminate between preferred vs. neutral inputs at the cellular level are largely unknown. Moreover, the presence of pyramidal cell subtypes with different firing patterns, such as regular spiking and intrinsic bursting, raises the question as to what their distinct role might be in persistent firing in the PFC. Here, we use a compartmental modeling approach to search for discriminatory features in the properties of incoming stimuli to a PFC pyramidal neuron and/or its response that signal which of these stimuli will result in persistent activity emergence. Furthermore, we use our modeling approach to study cell-type specific differences in persistent activity properties, via implementing a regular spiking (RS and an intrinsic bursting (IB model neuron. We identify synaptic location within the basal dendrites as a feature of stimulus selectivity. Specifically, persistent activity-inducing stimuli consist of activated synapses that are located more distally from the soma compared to non-inducing stimuli, in both model cells. In addition, the action potential (AP latency and the first few inter-spike-intervals of the neuronal response can be used to reliably detect inducing vs. non-inducing inputs, suggesting a potential mechanism by which downstream neurons can rapidly decode the upcoming emergence of persistent activity. While the two model neurons did not differ in the coding features of persistent activity emergence, the properties of persistent activity, such as the firing pattern and the duration of temporally-restricted persistent activity were distinct. Collectively, our results pinpoint to specific features of the neuronal response to a given

  12. Western Mountain Initiative: predicting ecosystem responses to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Peterson, David L.; Wilson, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems of the western United States provide irreplaceable goods and services such as water, timber, biodiversity, and recreational opportunities, but their responses to climatic changes are complex and not well understood. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI), a collaboration between USGS and U.S. Forest Service scientists, catalyzes assessment and synthesis of the effects of disturbance and climate change across western mountain areas, focusing on national parks and surrounding national forests. The WMI takes an ecosystem approach to science, integrating research across science disciplines at scales ranging from field studies to global trends.

  13. Individual Differences in Gelotophobia Predict Responses to Joy and Contempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hofmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a paradigm facilitating smile misattribution, facial responses and ratings to contempt and joy were investigated in individuals with or without gelotophobia (fear of being laughed at. Participants from two independent samples (N1 = 83, N2 = 50 rated the intensity of eight emotions in 16 photos depicting joy, contempt, and different smiles. Facial responses were coded by the Facial Action Coding System in the second study. Compared with non-fearful individuals, gelotophobes rated joy smiles as less joyful and more contemptuous. Moreover, gelotophobes showed less facial joy and more contempt markers. The contempt ratings were comparable between the two groups. Looking at the photos of smiles lifted the positive mood of non-gelotophobes, whereas gelotophobes did not experience an increase. We hypothesize that the interpretation bias of “joyful faces hiding evil minds” (i.e., being also contemptuous and exhibiting less joy facially may complicate social interactions for gelotophobes and serve as a maintaining factor of gelotophobia.

  14. Improving models to predict phenological responses to global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Andrew D. [Harvard College, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-11-25

    The term phenology describes both the seasonal rhythms of plants and animals, and the study of these rhythms. Plant phenological processes, including, for example, when leaves emerge in the spring and change color in the autumn, are highly responsive to variation in weather (e.g. a warm vs. cold spring) as well as longer-term changes in climate (e.g. warming trends and changes in the timing and amount of rainfall). We conducted a study to investigate the phenological response of northern peatland communities to global change. Field work was conducted at the SPRUCE experiment in northern Minnesota, where we installed 10 digital cameras. Imagery from the cameras is being used to track shifts in plant phenology driven by elevated carbon dioxide and elevated temperature in the different SPRUCE experimental treatments. Camera imagery and derived products (“greenness”) is being posted in near-real time on a publicly available web page (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu/webcam/gallery/). The images will provide a permanent visual record of the progression of the experiment over the next 10 years. Integrated with other measurements collected as part of the SPRUCE program, this study is providing insight into the degree to which phenology may mediate future shifts in carbon uptake and storage by peatland ecosystems. In the future, these data will be used to develop improved models of vegetation phenology, which will be tested against ground observations collected by a local collaborator.

  15. Decreased dopamine activity predicts relapse in methamphetamine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang G. J.; Wang, G.-J.; Smith, L.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Tomasi, D.; Wong, C.T.; Hoffman, W.; Jayne, M.; Alia-Klein, N.; Thanos, P.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-20

    Studies in methamphetamine (METH) abusers showed that the decreases in brain dopamine (DA) function might recover with protracted detoxification. However, the extent to which striatal DA function in METH predicts recovery has not been evaluated. Here we assessed whether striatal DA activity in METH abusers is associated with clinical outcomes. Brain DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability was measured with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in 16 METH abusers, both after placebo and after challenge with 60 mg oral methylphenidate (MPH) (to measure DA release) to assess whether it predicted clinical outcomes. For this purpose, METH abusers were tested within 6 months of last METH use and then followed up for 9 months of abstinence. In parallel, 15 healthy controls were tested. METH abusers had lower D2R availability in caudate than in controls. Both METH abusers and controls showed decreased striatal D2R availability after MPH and these decreases were smaller in METH than in controls in left putamen. The six METH abusers who relapsed during the follow-up period had lower D2R availability in dorsal striatum than in controls, and had no D2R changes after MPH challenge. The 10 METH abusers who completed detoxification did not differ from controls neither in striatal D2R availability nor in MPH-induced striatal DA changes. These results provide preliminary evidence that low striatal DA function in METH abusers is associated with a greater likelihood of relapse during treatment. Detection of the extent of DA dysfunction may be helpful in predicting therapeutic outcomes.

  16. Solubility Prediction of Active Pharmaceutical Compounds with the UNIFAC Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouar, Abderrahim; Benmessaoud, Ibtissem; Koutchoukali, Ouahiba; Koutchoukali, Mohamed Salah

    2016-03-01

    The crystallization from solution of an active pharmaceutical ingredient requires the knowledge of the solubility in the entire temperature range investigated during the process. However, during the development of a new active ingredient, these data are missing. Its experimental determination is possible, but tedious. UNIFAC Group contribution method Fredenslund et al. (Vapor-liquid equilibria using UNIFAC: a group contribution method, 1977; AIChE J 21:1086, 1975) can be used to predict this physical property. Several modifications on this model have been proposed since its development in 1977, modified UNIFAC of Dortmund Weidlich et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 26:1372, 1987), Gmehling et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 32:178, 1993), Pharma-modified UNIFAC Diedrichs et al. (Evaluation und Erweiterung thermodynamischer Modelle zur Vorhersage von Wirkstofflöslichkeiten, PhD Thesis, 2010), KT-UNIFAC Kang et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 41:3260, 2002), ldots In this study, we used UNIFAC model by considering the linear temperature dependence of interaction parameters as in Pharma-modified UNIFAC and structural groups as defined by KT-UNIFAC first-order model. More than 100 binary datasets were involved in the estimation of interaction parameters. These new parameters were then used to calculate activity coefficient and solubility of some molecules in various solvents at different temperatures. The model gives better results than those from the original UNIFAC and shows good agreement between the experimental solubility and the calculated one.

  17. Autonomic activity during sleep predicts memory consolidation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Lauren N; Cellini, Nicola; McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Duggan, Katherine A; Mednick, Sara C

    2016-06-28

    Throughout history, psychologists and philosophers have proposed that good sleep benefits memory, yet current studies focusing on the relationship between traditionally reported sleep features (e.g., minutes in sleep stages) and changes in memory performance show contradictory findings. This discrepancy suggests that there are events occurring during sleep that have not yet been considered. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) shows strong variation across sleep stages. Also, increases in ANS activity during waking, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), have been correlated with memory improvement. However, the role of ANS in sleep-dependent memory consolidation has never been examined. Here, we examined whether changes in cardiac ANS activity (HRV) during a daytime nap were related to performance on two memory conditions (Primed and Repeated) and a nonmemory control condition on the Remote Associates Test. In line with prior studies, we found sleep-dependent improvement in the Primed condition compared with the Quiet Wake control condition. Using regression analyses, we compared the proportion of variance in performance associated with traditionally reported sleep features (model 1) vs. sleep features and HRV during sleep (model 2). For both the Primed and Repeated conditions, model 2 (sleep + HRV) predicted performance significantly better (73% and 58% of variance explained, respectively) compared with model 1 (sleep only, 46% and 26% of variance explained, respectively). These findings present the first evidence, to our knowledge, that ANS activity may be one potential mechanism driving sleep-dependent plasticity. PMID:27298366

  18. Predicting the Response of Electricity Load to Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Colman, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kalendra, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Our purpose is to develop a methodology to quantify the impact of climate change on electric loads in the United States. We perform simple linear regression, assisted by geospatial smoothing, on paired temperature and load time-series to estimate the heating- and coolinginduced sensitivity to temperature across 300 transmission zones and 16 seasonal and diurnal time periods. The estimated load sensitivities can be coupled with climate scenarios to quantify the potential impact of climate change on load, with a primary application being long-term electricity scenarios. The method allows regional and seasonal differences in climate and load response to be reflected in the electricity scenarios. While the immediate product of this analysis was designed to mesh with the spatial and temporal resolution of a specific electricity model to enable climate change scenarios and analysis with that model, we also propose that the process could be applied for other models and purposes.

  19. Camera response prediction for various capture settings using the spectral sensitivity and crosstalk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jueqin; Xu, Haisong

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a camera response formation model is proposed to accurately predict the responses of images captured under various exposure settings. Differing from earlier works that estimated the camera relative spectral sensitivity, our model constructs the physical spectral sensitivity curves and device-dependent parameters that convert the absolute spectral radiances of target surfaces to the camera readout responses. With this model, the camera responses to miscellaneous combinations of surfaces and illuminants could be accurately predicted. Thus, creating an "imaging simulator" by using the colorimetric and photometric research based on the cameras would be of great convenience. PMID:27607275

  20. Camera response prediction for various capture settings using the spectral sensitivity and crosstalk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jueqin; Xu, Haisong

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a camera response formation model is proposed to accurately predict the responses of images captured under various exposure settings. Differing from earlier works that estimated the camera relative spectral sensitivity, our model constructs the physical spectral sensitivity curves and device-dependent parameters that convert the absolute spectral radiances of target surfaces to the camera readout responses. With this model, the camera responses to miscellaneous combinations of surfaces and illuminants could be accurately predicted. Thus, creating an "imaging simulator" by using the colorimetric and photometric research based on the cameras would be of great convenience.

  1. A combined clinical and biomarker approach to predict diuretic response in acute heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Maaten, Jozine M; Valente, Mattia A E; Metra, Marco; Bruno, Noemi; O'Connor, Christopher M; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teerlink, John R; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth; Cleland, John G; Givertz, Michael M; Bloomfield, Daniel M; Dittrich, Howard C; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans L; Damman, Kevin; Voors, Adriaan A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor diuretic response in acute heart failure is related to poor clinical outcome. The underlying mechanisms and pathophysiology behind diuretic resistance are incompletely understood. We evaluated a combined approach using clinical characteristics and biomarkers to predict diuretic resp

  2. [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET predicts complete pathological response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berriolo-Riedinger, Alina; Touzery, Claude; Riedinger, Jean-Marc; Toubeau, Michel; Boichot, Christophe; Cochet, Alexandre [Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dijon (France); Coudert, Bruno; Fumoleau, Pierre [Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Department of Medical Oncology, Dijon (France); Arnould, Laurent [Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Department of Pathology, Dijon (France); Brunotte, Francois [Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dijon (France); CNRS UMR 5158, Dijon (France)

    2007-12-15

    To evaluate, in breast cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the predictive value of reduction in FDG uptake with regard to complete pathological response (pCR). Forty-seven women with non-metastatic, non-inflammatory, large or locally advanced breast cancer were included. Tumour uptake of FDG was evaluated before and after the first course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Four indices were used: maximal and average SUV without or with correction by body surface area and glycaemia (SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub avg}, SUV{sub max-BSA-G} and SUV{sub avg-BSA-G}, respectively). The predictive value of reduction in FDG uptake with respect to pCR was studied by logistic regression analysis. Relationships between baseline [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake and prognostic parameters were assessed. The relative decrease in FDG uptake ({delta}SUV) after the first course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was significantly greater in the pCR group than in the non-pCR group (p < 0.000066). The four FDG uptake indices were all strongly correlated with each other. A decrease in SUV{sub max-BSA-G} of 85.4% {+-} 21.9% was found in pCR patients, versus 22.6% {+-} 36.6% in non-pCR patients. {delta}SUV{sub max-BSA-G} <-60% predicted the pCR with an accuracy of 87% and {delta}SUVs were found to be only factors predictive of the pCR at multivariate analysis. An elevated baseline SUV was associated with high mitotic activity (p < 0.0016), tumour grading (p < 0.004), high nuclear pleomorphism score (p < 0.03) and negative hormonal receptor status (p < 0.005). In breast cancer patients, after only one course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy the reduction in FDG uptake is an early and powerful predictor of pCR. (orig.)

  3. Infrared spectra of primary melanomas can predict response to chemotherapy: The example of dacarbazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, N; Le Corre, Y; Martin, L; Mathieu, V; Goormaghtigh, E

    2016-02-01

    Metastatic melanomas are highly aggressive and median survival is 6-9months for stage IV patients in the absence of treatment with anti-tumor activity. Dacarbazine is an alkylating agent that has been widely used in the treatment of metastatic melanomas and that could be still used in combination with targeted or immune therapies. Indeed, therapeutic benefits of these treatments in monotherapy are poor and one option to improve them is to combine drugs and/or to better anticipate the individual response to a defined treatment. To our best knowledge and to date, there is no test available to predict the response of a patient to dacarbazine. We show here that examination of melanoma histological sections by infrared micro-spectroscopy reveals the sensitivity of the cancer to dacarbazine. Unsupervised analysis of the FTIR spectra evidences spontaneous and significant clustering of infrared spectra into two groups that match the clinical responsiveness of the patients to dacarbazine used as a first-line treatment. A supervised model resulted in 83% of the patient status (responder/non-responder) being correctly identified. The spectra revealed a key modification in the nature and quantity of lipids in the cells of both groups. PMID:26577766

  4. Immune response genes and pathogen presence predict migration survival in wild salmon smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Ken M; Hinch, Scott G; Gale, Marika Kirstin; Clark, Timothy D; Lotto, Andrew G; Casselman, Matthew T; Li, Shaorong; Rechisky, Erin L; Porter, Aswea D; Welch, David W; Miller, Kristina M

    2014-12-01

    We present the first data to link physiological responses and pathogen presence with subsequent fate during migration of wild salmonid smolts. We tagged and non-lethally sampled gill tissue from sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts as they left their nursery lake (Chilko Lake, BC, Canada) to compare gene expression profiles and freshwater pathogen loads with migration success over the first ~1150 km of their migration to the North Pacific Ocean using acoustic telemetry. Fifteen per cent of smolts were never detected again after release, and these fish had gene expression profiles consistent with an immune response to one or more viral pathogens compared with fish that survived their freshwater migration. Among the significantly upregulated genes of the fish that were never detected postrelease were MX (interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx) and STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-alpha/beta), which are characteristic of a type I interferon response to viral pathogens. The most commonly detected pathogen in the smolts leaving the nursery lake was infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Collectively, these data show that some of the fish assumed to have died after leaving the nursery lake appeared to be responding to one or more viral pathogens and had elevated stress levels that could have contributed to some of the mortality shortly after release. We present the first evidence that changes in gene expression may be predictive of some of the freshwater migration mortality in wild salmonid smolts. PMID:25354752

  5. Auditory Brainstem Response to Complex Sounds Predicts Self-Reported Speech-in-Noise Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samira; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) to predict subjective ratings of speech understanding in noise on the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ; Gatehouse & Noble, 2004) relative to the predictive ability of the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN; Killion, Niquette,…

  6. Predicting eruptions from precursory activity using remote sensing data hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath, K. A.; Ramsey, M. S.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-07-01

    Many volcanoes produce some level of precursory activity prior to an eruption. This activity may or may not be detected depending on the available monitoring technology. In certain cases, precursors such as thermal output can be interpreted to make forecasts about the time and magnitude of the impending eruption. Kamchatka (Russia) provides an ideal natural laboratory to study a wide variety of eruption styles and precursory activity prior to an eruption. At Bezymianny volcano for example, a clear increase in thermal activity commonly occurs before an eruption, which has allowed predictions to be made months ahead of time. Conversely, the eruption of Tolbachik volcano in 2012 produced no discernable thermal precursors before the large scale effusive eruption. However, most volcanoes fall between the extremes of consistently behaved and completely undetectable, which is the case with neighboring Kliuchevskoi volcano. This study tests the effectiveness of using thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing to track volcanic thermal precursors using data from both the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors. It focuses on three large eruptions that produced different levels and durations of effusive and explosive behavior at Kliuchevskoi. Before each of these eruptions, TIR spaceborne sensors detected thermal anomalies (i.e., pixels with brightness temperatures > 2 °C above the background temperature). High-temporal, low-spatial resolution (i.e., ~ hours and 1 km) AVHRR data are ideal for detecting large thermal events occurring over shorter time scales, such as the hot material ejected following strombolian eruptions. In contrast, high-spatial, low-temporal resolution (i.e., days to weeks and 90 m) ASTER data enables the detection of much lower thermal activity; however, activity with a shorter duration will commonly be missed. ASTER and AVHRR data are combined to track low

  7. Measures of endothelial dysfunction predict response to cardiac resynchronisation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, David R; Lawford, Patricia; Sheridan, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) improves morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF). Impaired endothelial function, as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in HF and may help to differentiate responders from non-responders. Methods 19 patients were recruited, comprising 94% men, mean age 69±8 years, New York Heart Association functional classes II–IV, QRSd 161±21 ms and mean left ventricular ejection fraction 26±8%. Markers of response and FMD were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months following CRT. Results 14 patients were responders to CRT. Responders had significant improvements in VO2 (12.6±1.7 to 14.7±1.5 mL/kg/min, pFMD in responders was 2.9±1.9% and 7.4±3.73% in non-responders (pFMD. This study confirms that FMD identifies responders to CRT, due to endothelium-dependent mechanisms alone. PMID:27335654

  8. Pharmacogenetic approaches to the prediction of drug response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following review of pharmacogenetic progress and methodology is offered to stimulate and suggest analogous studies on drugs of abuse. It is readily acknowledged that formidable methodological problems are posed by adapting to drugs of abuse these pharmacogenetic approaches based on the administration of single safe doses of various prescription drugs to normal subjects under carefully controlled environmental conditions. Results of similarly designed studies on drugs of abuse in addicts might be uninterpretable because of confounding by numerous environmental perturbations, including the smoking of cigarettes and/or marijuana, nutritional variations, and intake of other drugs such as ethanol. Ethical considerations render objectionable the administration to unaddicted subjects of drugs at dosage levels usually ingested by drug abusers. Other approaches would have to be taken in such normal subjects. Possibilities include administration of tracer doses of /sup 14/C- or /sup 13/C- labeled drugs or growth of normal cells in culture to investigate their pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic responses to various drugs of abuse

  9. Predicting the response of a submillimeter bolometer to cosmic rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcraft, Adam L; Sudiwala, Rashmi V; Ade, Peter A R; Griffin, Matthew J; Wakui, Elley; Bhatia, Ravinder S; Lange, Andrew E; Bock, James J; Turner, Anthony D; Yun, Minhee H; Beeman, Jeffrey W

    2003-09-01

    Bolometers designed to detect submillimeter radiation also respond to cosmic, gamma, and x rays. Because detectors cannot be fully shielded from such energy sources, it is necessary to understand the effect of a photon or cosmic-ray particle being absorbed. The resulting signal (known as a glitch) can then be removed from raw data. We present measurements using an Americium-241 gamma radiation source to irradiate a prototype bolometer for the High Frequency Instrument in the Planck Surveyor satellite. Our measurements showed no variation in response depending on where the radiation was absorbed, demonstrating that the bolometer absorber and thermistor thermalize quickly. The bolometer has previously been fully characterized both electrically and optically. We find that using optically measured time constants underestimates the time taken for the detector to recover from a radiation absorption event. However, a full thermal model for the bolometer, with parameters taken from electrical and optical measurements, provides accurate time constants. Slight deviations from the model were seen at high energies; these can be accounted for by use of an extended model. PMID:12962375

  10. Brain monoamine oxidase A activity predicts trait aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z; Kriplani, Aarti; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo; Williams, Benjamin; Telang, Frank; Shumay, Elena; Biegon, Anat; Craig, Ian W; Henn, Fritz; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S

    2008-05-01

    The genetic deletion of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), an enzyme that breaks down the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, produces aggressive phenotypes across species. Therefore, a common polymorphism in the MAO A gene (MAOA, Mendelian Inheritance in Men database number 309850, referred to as high or low based on transcription in non-neuronal cells) has been investigated in a number of externalizing behavioral and clinical phenotypes. These studies provide evidence linking the low MAOA genotype and violent behavior but only through interaction with severe environmental stressors during childhood. Here, we hypothesized that in healthy adult males the gene product of MAO A in the brain, rather than the gene per se, would be associated with regulating the concentration of brain amines involved in trait aggression. Brain MAO A activity was measured in vivo in healthy nonsmoking men with positron emission tomography using a radioligand specific for MAO A (clorgyline labeled with carbon 11). Trait aggression was measured with the multidimensional personality questionnaire (MPQ). Here we report for the first time that brain MAO A correlates inversely with the MPQ trait measure of aggression (but not with other personality traits) such that the lower the MAO A activity in cortical and subcortical brain regions, the higher the self-reported aggression (in both MAOA genotype groups) contributing to more than one-third of the variability. Because trait aggression is a measure used to predict antisocial behavior, these results underscore the relevance of MAO A as a neurochemical substrate of aberrant aggression. PMID:18463263

  11. PASS-predicted Vitex negundo activity: antioxidant and antiproliferative properties on human hepatoma cells-an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir, Farkaad A; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Mahmood A. Abdulla; Wageeh A. Yehye

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common type of tumour worldwide with a high mortality rate and with low response to current cytotoxic and chemotherapeutic drugs. The prediction of activity spectra for the substances (PASS) software, which predicted that more than 300 pharmacological effects, biological and biochemical mechanisms based on the structural formula of the substance was efficiently used in this study to reveal new multitalented actions for Vitex negundo (VN) constituents. ...

  12. Hazards Response of Energetic Materials - Developing a Predictive Capability for Initiation and Reaction under Multiple Stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols III, A L; Wallin, B K; Maienschein, J L; Reaugh, J E; Yoh, J J; McClelland, M E

    2005-04-15

    We present our approach to develop a predictive capability for hazards--thermal and nonshock impact--response of energetic material systems based on: (A) identification of relevant processes; (B) characterization of the relevant properties; (C) application of property data to predictive models; and (D) application of the models into predictive simulation. This paper focuses on the last two elements above, while a companion paper by Maienschein et al focuses on the first two elements. We outline models to describe the both the microscopic evolution of hot spots for detonation response and thermal kinetic models used to model slow heat environments. We show examples of application to both types of environments.

  13. Low and High Locomotor Responsiveness to Cocaine Predicts Intravenous Cocaine Conditioned Place Preference in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Richard M.; Everett, Carson V.; Nelson, Anna M.; Gulley, Joshua M.; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2006-01-01

    Outbred, male Sprague-Dawley rats can be classified as either low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs, respectively) based on cocaine-induced locomotor activity in an open-field arena. This difference reflects cocaine’s ability to inhibit the striatal dopamine transporter and predicts development of sensitization. To investigate the relationship between initial cocaine locomotor responsiveness and cocaine reward, here we first classified rats as either LCRs or HCRs in a conditioned place...

  14. Linear filters as a method of real-time prediction of geomagnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important factors controlling geomagnetic activity include the solar wind velocity, the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and the field orientation. Because these quantities change so much in transit through the solar wind, real-time monitoring immediately upstream of the earth provides the best input for any technique of real-time prediction. One such technique is linear prediction filtering which utilizes past histories of the input and output of a linear system to create a time-invariant filter characterizing the system. Problems of nonlinearity or temporal changes of the system can be handled by appropriate choice of input parameters and piecewise approximation in various ranges of the input. We have created prediction filters for all the standard magnetic indices and tested their efficiency. The filters show that the initial response of the magnetosphere to a southward turning of the IMF peaks in 20 minutes and then again in 55 minutes. After a northward turning, auroral zone indices and the midlatitude ASYM index return to background within 2 hours, while Dst decays exponentially with a time constant of about 8 hours. This paper describes a simple, real-time system utilizing these filters which could predict a substantial fraction of the variation in magnetic activity indices 20 to 50 minutes in advance

  15. Prediction models for platinum-based chemotherapy response and toxicity in advanced NSCLC patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ji-Ye; Li, Xi; Li, Xiang-Ping; Xiao, Ling; Zheng, Wei; Chen, Juan; Mao, Chen-Xue; Fang, Chao; Cui, Jia-Jia; Guo, Cheng-Xian; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Chun-Fang; Chen, Zi-Hua; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2016-07-10

    In this study, we aimed to establish a platinum-based chemotherapy response and toxicity prediction model in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. 416 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 185 genes were genotyped, and their association with drug response and toxicity were estimated using logistic regression. Nine data mining techniques were employed to establish the prediction model; the sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to assess the models' performance. Finally, selected models were validated in an independent cohort. The models established by naïve Bayesian algorithm had the best performance. The response prediction model achieved a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.47 with the ROC area under curve (AUC) of 0.80. The overall toxicity prediction model achieved a sensitivity of 0.86 and a specificity of 0.46 with the ROC AUC of 0.73. The hematological toxicity prediction model achieved a sensitivity of 0.89 and a specificity of 0.39 with the ROC AUC of 0.76. The gastrointestinal toxicity prediction model achieved a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.35 with the ROC AUC of 0.80. In conclusion, we provided platinum-based chemotherapy response and toxicity prediction models for advanced NSCLC patients. PMID:27126360

  16. Prediction of lung function response for populations exposed to a wide range of ozone conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Context: A human exposure-response (E-R) model that has previously been demonstrated to accurately predict population mean FEV1 response to ozone exposure has been proposed as the foundation for future risk assessments for ambient ozone. Objective: Fit the origi...

  17. Exposure-response functions for (or versus?) the prediction of annoyance in specific situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.A.; Vos, H.

    2012-01-01

    Based on data from many surveys, exposure-response functions have been derived to describe the average expected annoyance response at a certain noise level. These have been used to define acceptable levels of environmental noise for separate noise sources. However, the prediction of the annoyance re

  18. Macrobenthic species response surfaces along estuarine gradients: prediction by logistic regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ysebaert, T.; Meire, P.; Herman, P.M.J.; Verbeek, H.

    2002-01-01

    This study aims at contributing to the development of statistical models to predict macrobenthic species response to environmental conditions in estuarine ecosystems. Ecological response surfaces are derived for 10 estuarine macrobenthic species. Logistic regression is applied on a large data set, p

  19. Posterior Predictive Checks for Conditional Independence between Response Time and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsinova, Maria; Tijmstra, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Conditional independence (CI) between response time and response accuracy is a fundamental assumption of many joint models for time and accuracy used in educational measurement. In this study, posterior predictive checks (PPCs) are proposed for testing this assumption. These PPCs are based on three discrepancy measures reflecting different…

  20. Prediction of hearing thresholds: Comparison of cortical evoked response audiometry and auditory steady state response audiometry techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, LLN; Yeung, KNK

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated how well auditory steady state response (ASSR) and tone burst cortical evoked response audiometry (CERA) thresholds predict behavioral thresholds in the same participants. A total of 63 ears were evaluated. For ASSR testing, 100% amplitude modulated and 10% frequency modulated tone stimuli at a modulation frequency of 40Hz were used. Behavioral thresholds were closer to CERA thresholds than ASSR thresholds. ASSR and CERA thresholds were closer to behavioral thresho...

  1. Acceleration response spectrum for predicting floor vibration due to occupant walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Ruotian; Zhang, Mengshi

    2014-07-01

    Annoying vibrations caused by occupant walking is an important serviceability problem for long-span floors. At the design stage the floor's structural arrangement may frequently change to cater for the owner's varying requirements. An efficient and accurate approach for predicting a floor's acceleration response is thus of great significance. This paper presents a design-oriented acceleration response spectrum for calculating a floor's response given the floor's modal characteristics and a specified confidence level. 2204 measured footfall traces from 61 test subjects were used to generate 10 s peak root-mean-square acceleration response spectra, on which a piecewise mathematical representation is based. The proposed response spectrum consists of three main parts: the first harmonic plateau ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 Hz, the second harmonic plateau ranging from 3.0 to 5.0 Hz and the descending part going with frequencies from 5.0 to 10.0 Hz. The representative value of each plateau and the mathematical representation for the descending curve were determined statistically for different confidence levels. Furthermore, the effects of factors, such as floor span, occupant stride length, higher modes of vibration, boundary conditions and peak acceleration response, on the proposed spectrum have been investigated and a modification measure for each factor is suggested. A detailed application procedure for the proposed spectrum approach is presented and has been applied to four existing floors to predict their acceleration responses. Comparison between predicted and field measured responses shows that the measured accelerations of the four floors are generally close to or slightly higher than the predicted values for the 75 percent confidence level, but are all lower than the predicted values for the 95 percent confidence level. Therefore the suggested spectrum-based approach can be used for predicting a floor's response subject to a single person walking.

  2. Predicting trace organic compound attenuation with spectroscopic parameters in powdered activated carbon processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziska, Austin D; Park, Minkyu; Anumol, Tarun; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-08-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) is of growing interest in water research and society. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has been proven to be an effective method of removal for TOrCs in water, with the degree of effectiveness depending on dosage, contact time, and activated carbon type. In this study, the attenuation of TOrCs in three different secondary wastewater effluents using four PAC materials was studied in order to elucidate the effectiveness and efficacy of PAC for TOrC removal. With the notable exception of hydrochlorothiazide, all 14 TOrC indicators tested in this study exhibited a positive correlation of removal rate with their log Dow values, demonstrating that the main adsorption mechanism was hydrophobic interaction. As a predictive model, the modified Chick-Watson model, often used for the prediction of microorganism inactivation by disinfectants, was applied. The applied model exhibited good predictive power for TOrC attenuation by PAC in wastewater. In addition, surrogate models based upon spectroscopic measurements including UV absorbance at 254 nm and total fluorescence were applied to predict TOrC removal by PAC. The surrogate model was found to provide an excellent prediction of TOrC attenuation for all combinations of water quality and PAC type included in this study. The success of spectrometric parameters as surrogates in predicting TOrC attenuation by PAC are particularly useful because of their potential application in real-time on-line sensor monitoring and process control at full-scale water treatment plants, which could lead to significantly reduced operator response times and PAC operational optimization. PMID:27174829

  3. Active load management in an intelligent building using model predictive control strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Kullmann, Daniel; Thavlov, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    shifting in PowerFlexHouse heaters' power consumption scheme. With this demand side control study, it is expected that this method of demand response can dramatically raise energy efficiencies and improve grid reliability, when there is a high penetration of intermittent energy resources in the power......This paper introduces PowerFlexHouse, a research facility for exploring the technical potential of active load management in a distributed power system (SYSLAB) with a high penetration of renewable energy and presents in detail on how to implement a thermal model predictive controller for load...

  4. Challenges of using model predictive control for active demand side management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; You, Shi; Hu, Junjie;

    2015-01-01

    architecture design for Model Predictive Controller (MPC), and discusses the challenges encountered during the implementation of MPC for active demand side management. The two different pilot case studies show that energy savings and load shifting can be achieved by applying MPC with weather forecast......When there is a high penetration of renewables in the power system, it requires coordinated management of large numbers of distributed and demand response resources, intermittent resources to maintain the grid reliability and improve operational economics. This paper presents a hierarchical...

  5. Predictive neural coding of reward preference involves dissociable responses in human ventral midbrain and ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, John P; Buchanan, Tony W; Seymour, Ben; Dolan, Raymond J

    2006-01-01

    Food preferences are acquired through experience and can exert strong influence on choice behavior. In order to choose which food to consume, it is necessary to maintain a predictive representation of the subjective value of the associated food stimulus. Here, we explore the neural mechanisms by which such predictive representations are learned through classical conditioning. Human subjects were scanned using fMRI while learning associations between arbitrary visual stimuli and subsequent delivery of one of five different food flavors. Using a temporal difference algorithm to model learning, we found predictive responses in the ventral midbrain and a part of ventral striatum (ventral putamen) that were related directly to subjects' actual behavioral preferences. These brain structures demonstrated divergent response profiles, with the ventral midbrain showing a linear response profile with preference, and the ventral striatum a bivalent response. These results provide insight into the neural mechanisms underlying human preference behavior. PMID:16387647

  6. Methods and kits for predicting a response to an erythropoietic agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Michael L.; Klein, Jon B.; Brier, Michael E.; Gaweda, Adam E.

    2015-06-16

    Methods for predicting a response to an erythropoietic agent in a subject include providing a biological sample from the subject, and determining an amount in the sample of at least one peptide selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOS: 1-17. If there is a measurable difference in the amount of the at least one peptide in the sample, when compared to a control level of the same peptide, the subject is then predicted to have a good response or a poor response to the erythropoietic agent. Kits for predicting a response to an erythropoietic agent are further provided and include one or more antibodies, or fragments thereof, that specifically recognize a peptide of SEQ ID NOS: 1-17.

  7. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior.

  8. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior. PMID:25120046

  9. Does an understanding of ecosystems responses to rainfall pulses improve predictions of responses of drylands to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drylands will experience more intense and frequent droughts and floods. Ten-year field experiments manipulating the amount and variability of precipitation suggest that we cannot predict responses of drylands to climate change based on pulse experimentation. Long-term drought experiments showed no e...

  10. Multi-scale simulations predict responses to non-invasive nerve root stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Hirata, Akimasa; Terao, Yasuo; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Established biophysical neurone models have achieved limited success in reproducing electrophysiological responses to non-invasive stimulation of the human nervous system. This is related to our insufficient knowledge of the induced electric currents inside the human body. Despite the numerous research and clinical applications of non-invasive stimulation, it is still unclear which internal sites are actually affected by it. Approach. We performed multi-scale computer simulations that, by making use of advances in computing power and numerical algorithms, combine a microscopic model of electrical excitation of neurones with a macroscopic electromagnetic model of the realistic whole-body anatomy. Main results. The simulations yield responses consistent with those experimentally recorded following magnetic and electrical motor root stimulation in human subjects, and reproduce the observed amplitudes and latencies for a wide variety of stimulation parameters. Significance. Our findings demonstrate that modern computational techniques can produce detailed predictions about which and where neurones are activated, leading to improved understanding of the physics and basic mechanisms of non-invasive stimulation and enabling potential new applications that make use of improved targeting of stimulation.

  11. Reading a suspenseful literary text activates brain areas related to social cognition and predictive inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Lehne

    Full Text Available Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc. is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Sandman" subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus, lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference.

  12. Performance prediction for Grid workflow activities based on features-ranked RBF network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jie; Duan Rubing; Farrukh Nadeem

    2009-01-01

    Accurate performance prediction of Grid workflow activities can help Grid schedulers map activities to appropriate Grid sites. This paper describes an approach based on features-ranked RBF neural network to predict the performance of Grid workflow activities. Experimental results for two kinds of real world Grid workflow activities are presented to show effectiveness of our approach.

  13. Factors predictive of a beneficial response to therapy of hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G L; Lau, J Y

    1997-09-01

    Alpha interferon is the only drug that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, but only half of patients respond, either transiently or permanently. Pretreatment features that are associated with a greater likelihood of response to short courses of interferon include low hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels, viral genotypes 2 or 3, and the absence of fibrosis or cirrhosis on liver biopsy. Each of these features is more predictive of sustained response (SR) than the end-of-treatment response (ETR). However, the accuracy of these features in predicting response in individual patients is poor. Furthermore, there are several limitations to using these factors in the clinical management of patients. Most importantly, they were identified in 6-month treatment trials. Longer treatment or combination of interferon with ribavirin reduces relapses and will therefore lessen the association of these factors with long-term response. In addition, changes in the definition of treatment end points and the technology used to measure HCV RNA might change the association between these predictive factors and response. The best predictor of a treatment response is the early normalization of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level during interferon treatment. HCV RNA loss during treatment may also be helpful in predicting response, but it is probably no better than serum ALT levels and is expensive. In summary, several clinical and virological features are associated with higher response rates to interferon treatment. Although pretreatment factors do not accurately predict treatment outcome in individuals, they may be helpful in counseling patients and making treatment decisions. PMID:9305676

  14. Predicting Ovarian Cancer Patients' Clinical Response to Platinum-Based Chemotherapy by Their Tumor Proteomic Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun-Hsing; Levine, Douglas A; Zhang, Hui; Chan, Daniel W; Zhang, Zhen; Snyder, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy in the United States with most patients diagnosed in the advanced stage of the disease. Platinum-based antineoplastic therapeutics is indispensable to treating advanced ovarian serous carcinoma. However, patients have heterogeneous responses to platinum drugs, and it is difficult to predict these interindividual differences before administering medication. In this study, we investigated the tumor proteomic profiles and clinical characteristics of 130 ovarian serous carcinoma patients analyzed by the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC), predicted the platinum drug response using supervised machine learning methods, and evaluated our prediction models through leave-one-out cross-validation. Our data-driven feature selection approach indicated that tumor proteomics profiles contain information for predicting binarized platinum response (P drug responses as well as provided insights into the biological processes influencing the efficacy of platinum-based therapeutics. Our analytical approach is also extensible to predicting response to other antineoplastic agents or treatment modalities for both ovarian and other cancers. PMID:27312948

  15. Molecular markers predicting radiotherapy response: Report and recommendations from an International Atomic Energy Agency technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: There is increasing interest in radiogenomics and the characterization of molecular profiles that predict normal tissue and tumor radioresponse. A meeting in Amsterdam was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to discuss this topic on an international basis. Methods and Materials: This report is not completely exhaustive, but highlights some of the ongoing studies and new initiatives being carried out worldwide in the banking of tumor and normal tissue samples underpinning the development of molecular marker profiles for predicting patient response to radiotherapy. It is generally considered that these profiles will more accurately define individual or group radiosensitivities compared with the nondefinitive findings from the previous era of cellular-based techniques. However, so far there are only a few robust reports of molecular markers predicting normal tissue or tumor response. Results: Many centers in different countries have initiated tissue and tumor banks to store samples from clinical trials for future molecular profiling analysis, to identify profiles that predict for radiotherapy response. The European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology GENEtic pathways for the Prediction of the effects of Irradiation (GENEPI) project, to store, document, and analyze sample characteristics vs. response, is the most comprehensive in this regard. Conclusions: The next 5-10 years are likely to see the results of these and other correlative studies, and promising associations of profiles with response should be validated in larger definitive trials

  16. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for rTMS response in pharmacoresistant depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of whole-brain voxel-based regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) response in patients with pharmacoresistant depression. Thirty-three right-handed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (unipolar or bipolar depression) were included before rTMS. rTMS response was defined as at least 50% reduction in the baseline Beck Depression Inventory scores. The predictive value of 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for rTMS response was studied before treatment by comparing rTMS responders to non-responders at voxel level using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) (p 0.10). In comparison to responders, non-responders showed significant hypoperfusions (p < 0.001, uncorrected) in the left medial and bilateral superior frontal cortices (BA10), the left uncus/parahippocampal cortex (BA20/BA35) and the right thalamus. The area under the curve for the combination of SPECT clusters to predict rTMS response was 0.89 (p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the combination of clusters were: 94, 73, 81 and 92%, respectively. This study shows that, in pharmacoresistant depression, pretreatment rCBF of specific brain regions is a strong predictor for response to rTMS in patients with homogeneous demographic/clinical features. (orig.)

  17. Predictive factors of clinical response in steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis treated with granulocyte-monocyte apheresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valeria D'Ovidio; Donatella Meo; Angelo Viscido; Giampaolo Bresci; Piero Vernia; Renzo Caprilli

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To identify factors predicting the clinical response of ulcerative colitis patients to granulocyte-monocyte apheresis (GMA).METHODS: Sixty-nine ulcerative colitis patients (39 F, 30 M) dependent upon/refractory to steroids were treated with GMA.Steroid dependency, clinical activity index (CAI), C reactive protein (CRP) level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), values at baseline, use of immunosuppressant, duration of disease, and age and extent of disease were considered for statistical analysis as predictive factors of clinical response.Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used.RESULTS: In the univariate analysis, CAI (P = 0.039) and ESR (P = 0.017) levels at baseline were singled out as predictive of clinical remission.In the multivariate analysis steroid dependency [Odds ratio (OR) = 0.390, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.176-0.865, Wald 5.361, P = 0.0160] and low CAI levels at baseline (4 < CAI < 7) (OR = 0.770, 95% CI: 0.425-1.394, Wald 3.747, P = 0.028) proved to be effective as factors predicting clinical response.CONCLUSION: GMA may be a valid therapeutic option for steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis patients with mild-moderate disease and its clinical efficacy seems to persist for 12 mo.

  18. Predicting the Responses of Soil Nitrite-Oxidizers to Multi-Factorial Global Change: A Trait-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Xavier; Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Niboyet, Audrey; Barthes, Laure; Dijkstra, Paul; Field, Chris B.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Lerondelle, Catherine; Pommier, Thomas; Tang, Jinyun; Terada, Akihiko; Tourna, Maria; Poly, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial diversity is huge and a few grams of soil contain more bacterial taxa than there are bird species on Earth. This high diversity often makes predicting the responses of soil bacteria to environmental change intractable and restricts our capacity to predict the responses of soil functions to global change. Here, using a long-term field experiment in a California grassland, we studied the main and interactive effects of three global change factors (increased atmospheric CO2 concentration, precipitation and nitrogen addition, and all their factorial combinations, based on global change scenarios for central California) on the potential activity, abundance and dominant taxa of soil nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Using a trait-based model, we then tested whether categorizing NOB into a few functional groups unified by physiological traits enables understanding and predicting how soil NOB respond to global environmental change. Contrasted responses to global change treatments were observed between three main NOB functional types. In particular, putatively mixotrophic Nitrobacter, rare under most treatments, became dominant under the ‘High CO2+Nitrogen+Precipitation’ treatment. The mechanistic trait-based model, which simulated ecological niches of NOB types consistent with previous ecophysiological reports, helped predicting the observed effects of global change on NOB and elucidating the underlying biotic and abiotic controls. Our results are a starting point for representing the overwhelming diversity of soil bacteria by a few functional types that can be incorporated into models of terrestrial ecosystems and biogeochemical processes. PMID:27242680

  19. Response to induction chemotherapy as predictive marker of tumor response to radiotherapy and survival in oral cavity cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Kumar Saini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trials have shown some statistically nonsignificant survival advantage of taxane, platin and 5-FU (TPF induction chemotherapy before definitive chemoradiation. We tried to find the role of induction chemotherapy in the prediction of tumor response to radiotherapy and survival in the treatment of oral cavity cancers. Patients and Methods: Patients of stage III and IV (M0 unresectable oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma were assigned to receive two cycles of TPF. On the basis of response to chemotherapy, two groups were made. Those who had partial or more than partial response and another group who had stable disease or disease progression during chemotherapy. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy was given to all patients after induction chemotherapy. Results: A total of 128 patients who received TPF, 29 (22.6% had complete response, 57 (44.5% had partial response, 38 (29.7% had stable disease and 4 (3.1% had progressive disease. Definitive chemoradiotherapy lead to complete response in 48 (55.8% patients who had partial or more than partial response (total 86 to chemotherapy and 10 (23.8% patients among those who had stable disease or disease progression during chemotherapy (total 42. This difference in response is statistically significant (P = 0.001. Three years survival was significantly better after treatment in patients who responded more than partial (hazard ratio 0.463, 95% confidence interval 0.2789-0.7689, with an estimated 3-year survival of 35% in patients in group 1 and 14% in group 2. Conclusion: Response to induction chemotherapy can be a predictive marker for response to subsequent chemoradiotherapy and survival, with acceptable toxicities.

  20. Predicting survey responses: how and why semantics shape survey statistics on organizational behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ketil Arnulf

    Full Text Available Some disciplines in the social sciences rely heavily on collecting survey responses to detect empirical relationships among variables. We explored whether these relationships were a priori predictable from the semantic properties of the survey items, using language processing algorithms which are now available as new research methods. Language processing algorithms were used to calculate the semantic similarity among all items in state-of-the-art surveys from Organisational Behaviour research. These surveys covered areas such as transformational leadership, work motivation and work outcomes. This information was used to explain and predict the response patterns from real subjects. Semantic algorithms explained 60-86% of the variance in the response patterns and allowed remarkably precise prediction of survey responses from humans, except in a personality test. Even the relationships between independent and their purported dependent variables were accurately predicted. This raises concern about the empirical nature of data collected through some surveys if results are already given a priori through the way subjects are being asked. Survey response patterns seem heavily determined by semantics. Language algorithms may suggest these prior to administering a survey. This study suggests that semantic algorithms are becoming new tools for the social sciences, opening perspectives on survey responses that prevalent psychometric theory cannot explain.

  1. Predicting survey responses: how and why semantics shape survey statistics on organizational behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Jan Ketil; Larsen, Kai Rune; Martinsen, Øyvind Lund; Bong, Chih How

    2014-01-01

    Some disciplines in the social sciences rely heavily on collecting survey responses to detect empirical relationships among variables. We explored whether these relationships were a priori predictable from the semantic properties of the survey items, using language processing algorithms which are now available as new research methods. Language processing algorithms were used to calculate the semantic similarity among all items in state-of-the-art surveys from Organisational Behaviour research. These surveys covered areas such as transformational leadership, work motivation and work outcomes. This information was used to explain and predict the response patterns from real subjects. Semantic algorithms explained 60-86% of the variance in the response patterns and allowed remarkably precise prediction of survey responses from humans, except in a personality test. Even the relationships between independent and their purported dependent variables were accurately predicted. This raises concern about the empirical nature of data collected through some surveys if results are already given a priori through the way subjects are being asked. Survey response patterns seem heavily determined by semantics. Language algorithms may suggest these prior to administering a survey. This study suggests that semantic algorithms are becoming new tools for the social sciences, opening perspectives on survey responses that prevalent psychometric theory cannot explain. PMID:25184672

  2. Predicting survey responses: how and why semantics shape survey statistics on organizational behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Jan Ketil; Larsen, Kai Rune; Martinsen, Øyvind Lund; Bong, Chih How

    2014-01-01

    Some disciplines in the social sciences rely heavily on collecting survey responses to detect empirical relationships among variables. We explored whether these relationships were a priori predictable from the semantic properties of the survey items, using language processing algorithms which are now available as new research methods. Language processing algorithms were used to calculate the semantic similarity among all items in state-of-the-art surveys from Organisational Behaviour research. These surveys covered areas such as transformational leadership, work motivation and work outcomes. This information was used to explain and predict the response patterns from real subjects. Semantic algorithms explained 60-86% of the variance in the response patterns and allowed remarkably precise prediction of survey responses from humans, except in a personality test. Even the relationships between independent and their purported dependent variables were accurately predicted. This raises concern about the empirical nature of data collected through some surveys if results are already given a priori through the way subjects are being asked. Survey response patterns seem heavily determined by semantics. Language algorithms may suggest these prior to administering a survey. This study suggests that semantic algorithms are becoming new tools for the social sciences, opening perspectives on survey responses that prevalent psychometric theory cannot explain.

  3. Active teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain;

    2010-01-01

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed....

  4. Active teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain;

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching....

  5. Hazards Response of Energetic Materials - Initiation Mechanisms, Experimental Characterization, and Development of Predictive Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maienschein, J; Nichols III, A; Reaugh, J; McClelland, M; Hsu, P C

    2005-04-15

    We present our approach to develop a predictive capability for hazards -- thermal and non-shock impact -- response of energetic material systems based on: (A) identification of relevant processes; (B) characterization of the relevant properties; (C) application of property data to predictive models; and (D) application of the models into predictive simulation. This paper focuses on the first two elements above, while a companion paper by Nichols et al focuses on the final two elements. We outline the underlying mechanisms of hazards response and their interactions, and present our experimental work to characterize the necessary material parameters, including thermal ignition, thermal and mechanical properties, fracture/fragmentation behavior, deflagration rates, and the effect of material damage. We also describe our validation test, the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment. Finally, we integrate the entire collection of data into a qualitative understanding that is useful until such time as the predictive models become available.

  6. Use of molecular markers for predicting therapy response in cancer patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Predictive markers are factors that are associated with upfront response or resistance to a particular therapy. Predictive markers are important in oncology as tumors of the same tissue of origin vary widely in their response to most available systemic therapies. Currently recommended oncological predictive markers include both estrogen and progesterone receptors for identifying patients with breast cancers likely to benefit from hormone therapy, HER-2 for the identification of breast cancer patients likely to benefit from trastuzumab, specific K-RAS mutations for the identification of patients with advanced colorectal cancer unlikely to benefit from either cetuximab or panitumumab and specific EGFR mutations for selecting patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer for treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. The availability of predictive markers should increase drug efficacy and decrease toxicity, thus leading to a more personalized approach to cancer treatment.

  7. Baseline Delta Sleep Ratio Predicts Acute Ketamine Mood Response in Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Wallace C.; Selter, Jessica; Brutsche, Nancy; Sarasso, Simone; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Electroencephalographic (EEG) sleep slow wave activity (SWA; EEG power between 0.6–4 Hz) has been proposed as a marker of central synaptic plasticity. Decreased generation of sleep slow waves—a core feature of sleep in depression—indicates underlying plasticity changes in the disease. Various measures of SWA have previously been used to predict antidepressant treatment response. This study examined the relationship between baseline patterns of SWA in the first two NREM episodes and antidepressant response to an acute infusion of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist ketamine. Methods Thirty patients (20M, 10F, 18–65) fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) who had been drug-free for two weeks received a single open-label infusion of ketamine hydrochloride (.5 mg/kg) over 40 minutes. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) before and after ketamine infusion. Sleep recordings were obtained the night before the infusion and were visually scored. SWA was computed for individual artifact-free NREM sleep epochs, and averaged for each NREM episode. Delta sleep ratio (DSR) was calculated as SWANREM1 / SWANREM2. Results A significant positive correlation was observed between baseline DSR and reduced MADRS scores from baseline to Day 1 (r=.414, p=.02). Limitations The sample size was relatively small (N=30) and all subjects had treatment-resistant MDD, which may limit the generalizability of the findings. Further studies are needed to replicate and extend this observation to other patient groups. Conclusions DSR may be a useful baseline predictor of ketamine response in individuals with treatment-resistant MDD. PMID:22871531

  8. Predicting Climate Change using Response Theory: Global Averages and Spatial Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Lucarini, Valerio; Ragone, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The provision of accurate methods for predicting the climate response to anthropogenic and natural forcings is a key contemporary scientific challenge. Using a simplified and efficient open-source general circulation model of the atmosphere featuring O($10^5$) degrees of freedom, we show how it is possible to approach such a problem using nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Response theory allows one to practically compute the time-dependent measure supported on the pullback attractor of the climate system, whose dynamics is non-autonomous as a result of time-dependent forcings. We propose a simple yet efficient method for predicting - at any lead time and in an ensemble sense - the change in climate properties resulting from increase in the concentration of CO$_2$ using test perturbation model runs. We assess strengths and limitations of the response theory in predicting the changes in the globally averaged values of surface temperature and of the yearly total precipitation, as well as their spatial patter...

  9. Personalized in vitro cancer models to predict therapeutic response: Challenges and a framework for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Molly M; Johnson, Brian P; Livingston, Megan K; Schuler, Linda A; Alarid, Elaine T; Sung, Kyung E; Beebe, David J

    2016-09-01

    Personalized cancer therapy focuses on characterizing the relevant phenotypes of the patient, as well as the patient's tumor, to predict the most effective cancer therapy. Historically, these methods have not proven predictive in regards to predicting therapeutic response. Emerging culture platforms are designed to better recapitulate the in vivo environment, thus, there is renewed interest in integrating patient samples into in vitro cancer models to assess therapeutic response. Successful examples of translating in vitro response to clinical relevance are limited due to issues with patient sample acquisition, variability and culture. We will review traditional and emerging in vitro models for personalized medicine, focusing on the technologies, microenvironmental components, and readouts utilized. We will then offer our perspective on how to apply a framework derived from toxicology and ecology towards designing improved personalized in vitro models of cancer. The framework serves as a tool for identifying optimal readouts and culture conditions, thus maximizing the information gained from each patient sample.

  10. Prediction of response to chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer patients using Tc-99m MIBI scintimammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locally advanced breast cancer is a common presentation in our part of the world. Down staging of the disease followed by surgery and further therapy has shown to prolong survival in such patients. Early prediction of response to therapy and chemo-resistance is of vital importance to ensure better outcome. The study was done to evaluate the possible role of Tc-99m MIBI scintimammography (MSM) in reliable and early prediction of response to therapy through tracer dynamics of the tumor. Response assessment through clinical criteria and other available modalities was also compared. 16 female patients were evaluated through dynamic and static prone MSM performed before and after two cycles of chemotherapy. Decay corrected washout curves were generated by drawing regions of interest (ROIs) all around the tumor. The tracer washout kinetics of the tumor were studied through half life estimation and tracer retention at 60 minute with reference to peak activity on pre and post therapy studies. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. There was a good correlation between the clinical assessment and dynamic MSM findings in good responders while the dynamic MSM was able to provide better information in poor responders. The results conclude that using tracer kinetics of MSM, early and reliable prediction of response to therapy and chemo-resistance may be possible

  11. Systemic Inflammation Response Syndrome Score Predicts the Mortality in Multiple Trauma Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Jong Hyun; Kim, Myeong Su; Lee, Jung Cheul; Lee, Jang Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous statistical models have been developed to accurately predict outcomes in multiple trauma patients. However, such trauma scoring systems reflect the patient’s physiological condition, which can only be determined to a limited extent, and are difficult to use when performing a rapid initial assessment. We studied the predictive ability of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score compared to other scoring systems. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 229 patien...

  12. Response prediction for large scale model structure under forced vibration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the analytical prediction for the responses of the forced vibration test on a quarter-scale containment model structure built at Hualien, Taiwan. The prediction is performed blindly by using the computer program HASSI-8 which is developed for solving the soil-structure interaction problem using the method of hybrid modeling. The results obtained show very good correlation with the field test results

  13. Predicting Anticancer Drug Responses Using a Dual-Layer Integrated Cell Line-Drug Network Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiqian Zhang

    Full Text Available The ability to predict the response of a cancer patient to a therapeutic agent is a major goal in modern oncology that should ultimately lead to personalized treatment. Existing approaches to predicting drug sensitivity rely primarily on profiling of cancer cell line panels that have been treated with different drugs and selecting genomic or functional genomic features to regress or classify the drug response. Here, we propose a dual-layer integrated cell line-drug network model, which uses both cell line similarity network (CSN data and drug similarity network (DSN data to predict the drug response of a given cell line using a weighted model. Using the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE and Cancer Genome Project (CGP studies as benchmark datasets, our single-layer model with CSN or DSN and only a single parameter achieved a prediction performance comparable to the previously generated elastic net model. When using the dual-layer model integrating both CSN and DSN, our predicted response reached a 0.6 Pearson correlation coefficient with observed responses for most drugs, which is significantly better than the previous results using the elastic net model. We have also applied the dual-layer cell line-drug integrated network model to fill in the missing drug response values in the CGP dataset. Even though the dual-layer integrated cell line-drug network model does not specifically model mutation information, it correctly predicted that BRAF mutant cell lines would be more sensitive than BRAF wild-type cell lines to three MEK1/2 inhibitors tested.

  14. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for ketamine response in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketamine has been used successfully in various proportions of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. However, the response to this specific treatment remains largely unpredictable. We evaluated brain SPECT perfusion before treatment with ketamine, using voxel-based analysis. The objective was to determine the predictive value of brain SPECT for ketamine response. Seventeen women with FM (48 ± 11 years; ACR criteria) were enrolled in the study. Brain SPECT was performed before any change was made in therapy in the pain care unit. We considered that a patient was a good responder to ketamine if the VAS score for pain decreased by at least 50% after treatment. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2, in comparison to a group of ten healthy women matched for age. The VAS score for pain was 81.8 ± 4.2 before ketamine and 31.8 ± 27.1 after ketamine. Eleven patients were considered ''good responders'' to ketamine. Responder and non-responder subgroups were similar in terms of pain intensity before ketamine. In comparison to responding patients and healthy subjects, non-responding patients exhibited a significant reduction in bilateral perfusion of the medial frontal gyrus. This cluster of hypoperfusion was highly predictive of non-response to ketamine (positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 91%). Brain perfusion SPECT may predict response to ketamine in hyperalgesic FM patients. (orig.)

  15. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for ketamine response in hyperalgesic fibromyalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric; Cammilleri, Serge; Colavolpe, Cecile; Taieb, David; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Niboyet, Jean [Clinique La Phoceanne, Unite d' Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur, Marseille (France)

    2007-08-15

    Ketamine has been used successfully in various proportions of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. However, the response to this specific treatment remains largely unpredictable. We evaluated brain SPECT perfusion before treatment with ketamine, using voxel-based analysis. The objective was to determine the predictive value of brain SPECT for ketamine response. Seventeen women with FM (48 {+-} 11 years; ACR criteria) were enrolled in the study. Brain SPECT was performed before any change was made in therapy in the pain care unit. We considered that a patient was a good responder to ketamine if the VAS score for pain decreased by at least 50% after treatment. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2, in comparison to a group of ten healthy women matched for age. The VAS score for pain was 81.8 {+-} 4.2 before ketamine and 31.8 {+-} 27.1 after ketamine. Eleven patients were considered ''good responders'' to ketamine. Responder and non-responder subgroups were similar in terms of pain intensity before ketamine. In comparison to responding patients and healthy subjects, non-responding patients exhibited a significant reduction in bilateral perfusion of the medial frontal gyrus. This cluster of hypoperfusion was highly predictive of non-response to ketamine (positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 91%). Brain perfusion SPECT may predict response to ketamine in hyperalgesic FM patients. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of total body water estimates from O-18 and bioelectrical response prediction equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Inners, L. Daniel; Stricklin, Marcella D.; Klein, Peter D.; Wong, William W.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1993-01-01

    Identification of an indirect, rapid means to measure total body water (TBW) during space flight may aid in quantifying hydration status and assist in countermeasure development. Bioelectrical response testing and hydrostatic weighing were performed on 27 subjects who ingested O-18, a naturally occurring isotope of oxygen, to measure true TBW. TBW estimates from three bioelectrical response prediction equations and fat-free mass (FFM) were compared to TBW measured from O-18. A repeated measures MANOVA with post-hoc Dunnett's Test indicated a significant (p less than 0.05) difference between TBW estimates from two of the three bioelectrical response prediction equations and O-18. TBW estimates from FFM and the Kushner & Schoeller (1986) equation yielded results that were similar to those given by O-18. Strong correlations existed between each prediction method and O-18; however, standard errors, identified through regression analyses, were higher for the bioelectrical response prediction equations compared to those derived from FFM. These findings suggest (1) the Kushner & Schoeller (1986) equation may provide a valid measure of TBW, (2) other TBW prediction equations need to be identified that have variability similar to that of FFM, and (3) bioelectrical estimates of TBW may prove valuable in quantifying hydration status during space flight.

  17. The effectiveness of sputum pH analysis in the prediction of response to therapy in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Makoto; Sato, Takashi; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Kudo, Makoto; Kaneko, Takeshi; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The predictive factor of response to antituberculous therapy has not been fully elucidated. Airway acidity has been thought to be a potential indicator of the bactericidal activity. Therefore, we hypothesized that monitoring airway acidity by measuring sputum pH could predict response to therapy. Methods. A total of 47 patients having newly diagnosed, smear-positive, active pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled between October 2011 and March 2014. Sputum samples were serially analyzed before and after treatment. Eligible patients who initiated a standard 6-month treatment were monitored for the length of time to sputum smear and culture conversion. Results. There were 39 patients who completed a 2-month intensive phase of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol therapy followed by a 4-month continuation phase of isoniazid and rifampicin. Although factors including age, cavitation, sputum grade, and use of an acid-suppressant were associated with initial low sputum pH in univariate analysis, multivariate analysis revealed that only age ≥61 years was a statistically important factor predicting low pH value (p = 0.005). Further outcome analysis showed that initial low sputum pH before treatment was the only factor significantly associated with shorter length of time to both sputum smear and culture conversion (p = 0.034 and 0.019, respectively) independent of the effects of age, sputum bacterial load, extent of lung lesion, and cavitation. Thus, initial low sputum pH indicated favorable response to anti-tuberculosis therapy. Conclusions. Measuring sputum pH is an easy and inexpensive way of predicting response to standard combination therapy in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:26644982

  18. Evaluation of In-111 DTPA-paclitaxel scintigraphy to predict response on murine tumors to paclitaxel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our goal was to determine whether scintigraphy with 111In-DTPA-paclitaxel could predict the response to chemotherapy with paclitaxel. Ovarian carcinoma (OCA 1), mammary carcinoma (MCA-4), fibrosarcoma (FSA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC VII) were inoculated into the thighs of female C3Hf/Kam mice. Mice bearing 8 mm tumors were treated with paclitaxel (40 mg/kg). The growth delay, which was defined as the time in days for tumors in the treated groups to grow from 8 to 12 mm in diameter minus the time in days for tumors in the untreated control group to reach the same size, was measured to determine the effect of paclitaxel on the tumors. Sequential scintigraphy in mice bearing 10 to 14 mm tumors was conducted at 5, 30, 60, 120, 240 min and 24 hrs postinjection of 111In-DTPA-paclitaxel (3.7 MBq) or 111In-DTPA as a control tracer. The tumor uptakes (% injection dose/pixel) were determined. The growth delay of OCA 1, MCA-4, FSA and SCC VII tumors was 13.6, 4.0, -0.02 and -0.28 days, respectively. In other words, OCA 1 and MCA-4 were paclitaxel-sensitive tumors, whereas FSA and SCC VII were paclitaxel-resistant tumors. The tumor uptakes at 24 hrs postinjection of In-111 DTPA paclitaxel of OCA 1, MCA-4, FSA and SCC VII were 1.0 x 10-3, 1.6 x 10-3, 2.2 x 10-3 and 9.0 x 10-3% injection dose/pixel, respectively. There was no correlation between the response to chemotherapy with paclitaxel and the tumor uptakes of 111In-DTPA-paclitaxel. Scintigraphy with 111In-DTPA-paclitaxel could not predict the response to paclitaxel chemotherapy. Although there was significant accumulation of the paclitaxel in the tumor cells, additional mechanisms must be operative for the agent to be effective against the neoplasm. 111In-DTPA-paclitaxel activity is apparently different from that of paclitaxel with Cremophor. (author)

  19. On the best learning algorithm for web services response time prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Albu, Razvan-Daniel; Popentiu-Vladicescu, Florin

    2013-01-01

    In this article we will examine the effect of different learning algorithms, while training the MLP (Multilayer Perceptron) with the intention of predicting web services response time. Web services do not necessitate a user interface. This may seem contradictory to most people's concept of what...... an application is. A Web service is better imagined as an application "segment," or better as a program enabler. Performance is an important quality aspect of Web services because of their distributed nature. Predicting the response of web services during their operation is very important....

  20. Predicting failure response of spot welded joints using recent extensions to the Gurson model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2010-01-01

    The plug failure modes of resistance spot welded shear-lab and cross-tension test specimens are studied, using recent extensions to the Gurson model. A comparison of the predicted mechanical response is presented when using either: (i) the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model (GTN-model), (ii......) the shear-modified GTN-model by Nahshon and Hutchinson that also describes damage development at low triaxiality (NH-model) or (iii) the Gologanu-Leblond-Devaux model (GLD-model) accounting for non-spherical void growth. The failure responses predicted by the various models are discussed in relation...

  1. Pareto Optimization Identifies Diverse Set of Phosphorylation Signatures Predicting Response to Treatment with Dasatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammer, Martin; Dybowski, J Nikolaj; Hoffmann, Daniel; Schaab, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate biomarkers that can predict the effectiveness of targeted therapy in individual patients are highly desired. Previous biomarker discovery studies have largely focused on the identification of single biomarker signatures, aimed at maximizing prediction accuracy. Here, we present a different approach that identifies multiple biomarkers by simultaneously optimizing their predictive power, number of features, and proximity to the drug target in a protein-protein interaction network. To this end, we incorporated NSGA-II, a fast and elitist multi-objective optimization algorithm that is based on the principle of Pareto optimality, into the biomarker discovery workflow. The method was applied to quantitative phosphoproteome data of 19 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines from a previous biomarker study. The algorithm successfully identified a total of 77 candidate biomarker signatures predicting response to treatment with dasatinib. Through filtering and similarity clustering, this set was trimmed to four final biomarker signatures, which then were validated on an independent set of breast cancer cell lines. All four candidates reached the same good prediction accuracy (83%) as the originally published biomarker. Although the newly discovered signatures were diverse in their composition and in their size, the central protein of the originally published signature - integrin β4 (ITGB4) - was also present in all four Pareto signatures, confirming its pivotal role in predicting dasatinib response in NSCLC cell lines. In summary, the method presented here allows for a robust and simultaneous identification of multiple multivariate biomarkers that are optimized for prediction performance, size, and relevance.

  2. DISIS: prediction of drug response through an iterative sure independence screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Fang

    Full Text Available Prediction of drug response based on genomic alterations is an important task in the research of personalized medicine. Current elastic net model utilized a sure independence screening to select relevant genomic features with drug response, but it may neglect the combination effect of some marginally weak features. In this work, we applied an iterative sure independence screening scheme to select drug response relevant features from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE dataset. For each drug in CCLE, we selected up to 40 features including gene expressions, mutation and copy number alterations of cancer-related genes, and some of them are significantly strong features but showing weak marginal correlation with drug response vector. Lasso regression based on the selected features showed that our prediction accuracies are higher than those by elastic net regression for most drugs.

  3. High-throughput screening using patient-derived tumor xenografts to predict clinical trial drug response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Korn, Joshua M; Ferretti, Stéphane; Monahan, John E; Wang, Youzhen; Singh, Mallika; Zhang, Chao; Schnell, Christian; Yang, Guizhi; Zhang, Yun; Balbin, O Alejandro; Barbe, Stéphanie; Cai, Hongbo; Casey, Fergal; Chatterjee, Susmita; Chiang, Derek Y; Chuai, Shannon; Cogan, Shawn M; Collins, Scott D; Dammassa, Ernesta; Ebel, Nicolas; Embry, Millicent; Green, John; Kauffmann, Audrey; Kowal, Colleen; Leary, Rebecca J; Lehar, Joseph; Liang, Ying; Loo, Alice; Lorenzana, Edward; Robert McDonald, E; McLaughlin, Margaret E; Merkin, Jason; Meyer, Ronald; Naylor, Tara L; Patawaran, Montesa; Reddy, Anupama; Röelli, Claudia; Ruddy, David A; Salangsang, Fernando; Santacroce, Francesca; Singh, Angad P; Tang, Yan; Tinetto, Walter; Tobler, Sonja; Velazquez, Roberto; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Von Arx, Fabian; Wang, Hui Qin; Wang, Zongyao; Wiesmann, Marion; Wyss, Daniel; Xu, Fiona; Bitter, Hans; Atadja, Peter; Lees, Emma; Hofmann, Francesco; Li, En; Keen, Nicholas; Cozens, Robert; Jensen, Michael Rugaard; Pryer, Nancy K; Williams, Juliet A; Sellers, William R

    2015-11-01

    Profiling candidate therapeutics with limited cancer models during preclinical development hinders predictions of clinical efficacy and identifying factors that underlie heterogeneous patient responses for patient-selection strategies. We established ∼1,000 patient-derived tumor xenograft models (PDXs) with a diverse set of driver mutations. With these PDXs, we performed in vivo compound screens using a 1 × 1 × 1 experimental design (PDX clinical trial or PCT) to assess the population responses to 62 treatments across six indications. We demonstrate both the reproducibility and the clinical translatability of this approach by identifying associations between a genotype and drug response, and established mechanisms of resistance. In addition, our results suggest that PCTs may represent a more accurate approach than cell line models for assessing the clinical potential of some therapeutic modalities. We therefore propose that this experimental paradigm could potentially improve preclinical evaluation of treatment modalities and enhance our ability to predict clinical trial responses.

  4. Predicting anti-androgenic activity of bisphenols using molecular docking and quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianhai; Liu, Huihui; Yang, Qian; Liu, Jining; Chen, Jingwen; Shi, Lili

    2016-11-01

    Both in vivo and in vitro assay indicated that bisphenols can inhibit the androgen receptor. However, the underlying antagonistic mechanism is unclear. In this study, molecular docking was employed to probe the interaction mechanism between bisphenols and human androgen receptor (hAR). The binding pattern of ligands in hAR crystal structures was also analyzed. Results show that hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions are the dominant interactions between the ligands and hAR. The critical amino acid residues involved in forming hydrogen bonding between bisphenols and hAR is Asn 705 and Gln 711. Furthermore, appropriate molecular structural descriptors were selected to characterize the non-bonded interactions. Stepwise multiple linear regressions (MLR) analysis was employed to develop quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for predicting the anti-androgenic activity of bisphenols. Based on the QSAR development and validation guideline issued by OECD, the goodness-of-fit, robustness and predictive ability of constructed QSAR model were assessed. The model application domain was characterized by the Euclidean distance and Williams plot. The mechanisms of the constructed model were also interpreted based on the selected molecular descriptors i.e. the number of hydroxyl groups (nROH), the most positive values of the molecular surface potential (Vs,max) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (ELUMO). Finally, based on the model developed, the data gap for other twenty-six bisphenols on their anti-androgenic activity was filled. The predicted results indicated that the anti-androgenic activity of seven bisphenols was higher than that of bisphenol A. PMID:27561732

  5. Pathological predictive factors for tumor response in locally advanced breast carcinomas treated with anthracyclin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti Patel

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Pathological parameters like type of tumor, presence of LVE and tumor necrosis in the core biopsy can predict the response to NACT in routine stain. Tumor necrosis and type of breast carcinoma are predictive parameters for tumor responsiveness to NACT. LVE was reliable in predicting axillary lymph node metastasis.

  6. Biological markers as predictive factors of response to neoadjuvant taxanes and anthracycline chemotherapy in breast carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bo; YANG De-qi; XIE Fei

    2008-01-01

    Background Neoadjuvant chemotherapy provides an excellent model for evaluation of potential predictive factors.The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of different biological factors in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant taxane and anthracycline chemotherapy.Methods One hundred and thirty-five patients treated with 4 cycles of neoadjuvant taxanes and anthracycline were included in this retrospective study.Using pretreatment biopsy materials,immunohistochemical studies were performed for estrogen receptor(ER),progesterone receptor(PgR),HER-2,Ki-67 and p53 protein expression.The associations among biological markers and clinical and pathological complete response (pCR)were analyzed.Results The overall clinical response was 86%,including 33%clinical complete response(cCR)and 53%clinical partial response.The pCR was iust 17%.In the univariate analysis,only HER-2 overexpression was predictive of cCR to neoadjuvant chemotherapy(P=0.018).No significant associations between other biological factors and cCR were found.Absence of ER,PgR expression and overexpression of HER-2 were predictive of the pCR(P=0.002,0.001,0.01,respectively).Ki-67 and p53 failed to show an association with pCR.In multivariate analysis,overexpression of HER-2remained as an independent variable in predicting the cCR(P=0.021).However,negative ER was the only parameter that maintained statistical significance in predicting the pCR(P=0.001).Conclusions Patients with overexoression of HER-2 and negative hormonal receptor status are much more likely to respond to neoadjuvant taxane and anthracycline chemotherapy than those with the opposite characte ristics.These factors could serve as predictive markers for this regimen.

  7. Cortisol and Inflammatory Biomarkers Predict Poor Treatment Response in First Episode Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mondelli, Valeria; Ciufolini, Simone; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Di Forti, Marta; Giordano, Annalisa; Marques, Tiago R; Zunszain, Patricia A.; Morgan, Craig; MURRAY, Robin M.; Pariante, Carmine M.; Dazzan, Paola

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cortisol and inflammatory markers have been increasingly reported as abnormal at psychosis onset. The main aim of our study was to investigate the ability of these biomarkers to predict treatment response at 12 weeks follow-up in first episode psychosis.METHODS: In a longitudinal study, we collected saliva and blood samples in 68 first episode psychosis patients (and 57 controls) at baseline and assessed response to clinician-led antipsychotic treatment after 12 weeks. Moreover, w...

  8. Early Prediction and Evaluation of Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using Quantitative DCE-MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Tudorica; Oh, Karen Y.; Stephen Y-C Chui; Nicole Roy; Troxell, Megan L.; Arpana Naik; Kathleen A Kemmer; Yiyi Chen; Megan L Holtorf; Aneela Afzal; Charles S Springer Jr.; Xin Li; Wei Huang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to compare quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics with imaging tumor size for early prediction of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and evaluation of residual cancer burden (RCB). Twenty-eight patients with 29 primary breast tumors underwent DCE-MRI exams before, after one cycle of, at midpoint of, and after NACT. MRI tumor size in the longest diameter (LD) was measured according to the RECIST (Response Eval...

  9. Predicting Response to Hormonal Therapy and Survival in Men with Hormone Sensitive Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Grivas, Petros D; Robins, Diane M.; Hussain, Maha

    2012-01-01

    Androgen deprivation is the cornerstone of the management of metastatic prostate cancer. Despite several decades of clinical experience with this therapy there are no standard predictive biomarkers for response. Although several candidate genetic, hormonal, inflammatory, biochemical, metabolic biomarkers have been suggested as potential predictors of response and outcome, none has been prospectively validated nor has proven clinical utility to date. There is significant heterogeneity in the d...

  10. Predicting a human gut microbiota’s response to diet in gnotobiotic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Faith, Jeremiah J; Nathan P McNulty; Rey, Federico E.; Jeffrey I Gordon

    2011-01-01

    The inter-relationships between our diets and the structure and operations of our gut microbial communities are poorly understood. A model community of ten sequenced human gut bacteria was introduced into gnotobiotic mice, and changes in species abundance and microbial gene expression were measured in response to randomized perturbations of four defined ingredients in the host diet. From the responses, we developed a statistical model that predicted over 60% of the variation in species abunda...

  11. Texture analysis on MR images helps predicting non-response to NAC in breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Michoux, N.; Van den Broeck, S; Lacoste, L; Fellah, L.; Galant, Christine; Berlière, M.; Leconte, I

    2015-01-01

    Background To assess the performance of a predictive model of non-response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with breast cancer based on texture, kinetic, and BI-RADS parameters measured from dynamic MRI. Methods Sixty-nine patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast who underwent pre-treatment MRI were studied. Morphological parameters and biological markers were measured. Pathological complete response was defined as the absence of invasive and in situ cancer in breast...

  12. Depression and anxiety predict sex-specific cortisol responses to interpersonal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sally I; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith; Balaban, Susan; Bent, Eileen

    2016-07-01

    Clinical theories posit interpersonal stress as an important factor in the emergence and exacerbation of depression and anxiety, while neuroendocrine research confirms the association of these syndromes with dysregulation in a major stress response system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, the proposal that depression and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses are associated with problematic HPA responses to close relationship stress has not been directly tested. We examined 196 heterosexual dating couples' depression and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses, assessed with questionnaires and diagnostic interviews, in relation to cortisol responses to discussion of an unresolved relationship conflict. Participants provided seven salivary samples in anticipation of and directly following the discussion, and throughout an hour-long recovery period, which were assayed for cortisol. Multilevel models of the HPA response predicted by symptoms or diagnoses showed that women's depressive symptoms predicted attenuated cortisol levels, with a flatter response curve. In contrast, men's depression symptoms and women's anxiety symptoms and diagnoses predicted higher cortisol levels. These findings highlight the importance of examining sex differences in responses to interpersonal stressors for understanding HPA dysregulation in internalizing psychopathology. PMID:27107208

  13. The corporate response to shareholder activism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    Shareholders activism is no longer a typical American phenomenon. Many European companies have become familiar with shareholder actions too. Shareholders are making use of their rights and act against management deficiencies. It is the duty of the board of directors to guard against these actions of

  14. Acupuncture-Evoked Response in Somatosensory and Prefrontal Cortices Predicts Immediate Pain Reduction in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Maeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The linkage between brain response to acupuncture and subsequent analgesia remains poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate this linkage in chronic pain patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. Brain response to electroacupuncture (EA was evaluated with functional MRI. Subjects were randomized to 3 groups: (1 EA applied at local acupoints on the affected wrist (PC-7 to TW-5, (2 EA at distal acupoints (contralateral ankle, SP-6 to LV-4, and (3 sham EA at nonacupoint locations on the affected wrist. Symptom ratings were evaluated prior to and following the scan. Subjects in the local and distal groups reported reduced pain. Verum EA produced greater reduction of paresthesia compared to sham. Compared to sham EA, local EA produced greater activation in insula and S2 and greater deactivation in ipsilateral S1, while distal EA produced greater activation in S2 and deactivation in posterior cingulate cortex. Brain response to distal EA in prefrontal cortex (PFC and brain response to verum EA in S1, SMA, and PFC were correlated with pain reduction following stimulation. Thus, while greater activation to verum acupuncture in these regions may predict subsequent analgesia, PFC activation may specifically mediate reduced pain when stimulating distal acupoints.

  15. Response to induction chemotherapy as predictive marker of tumor response to radiotherapy and survival in oral cavity cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Surendra Kumar Saini; Shelly Srivastava; Shanbhu Nath Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trials have shown some statistically nonsignificant survival advantage of taxane, platin and 5-FU (TPF) induction chemotherapy before definitive chemoradiation. We tried to find the role of induction chemotherapy in the prediction of tumor response to radiotherapy and survival in the treatment of oral cavity cancers. Patients and Methods: Patients of stage III and IV (M0) unresectable oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma were assigned to receive two cycles of TPF. On the basis of r...

  16. Prediction-error in the context of real social relationships modulates reward system activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua ePoore

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The human reward system is sensitive to both social (e.g., validation and non-social rewards (e.g., money and is likely integral for relationship development and reputation building. However, data is sparse on the question of whether implicit social reward processing meaningfully contributes to explicit social representations such as trust and attachment security in pre-existing relationships. This event-related fMRI experiment examined reward system prediction-error activity in response to a potent social reward—social validation—and this activity’s relation to both attachment security and trust in the context of real romantic relationships. During the experiment, participants’ expectations for their romantic partners’ positive regard of them were confirmed (validated or violated, in either positive or negative directions. Primary analyses were conducted using predefined regions of interest, the locations of which were taken from previously published research. Results indicate that activity for mid-brain and striatal reward system regions of interest was modulated by social reward expectation violation in ways consistent with prior research on reward prediction-error. Additionally, activity in the striatum during viewing of disconfirmatory information was associated with both increases in post-scan reports of attachment anxiety and decreases in post-scan trust, a finding that follows directly from representational models of attachment and trust.

  17. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Gambling and Betting Activities Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ševčíková, Terézia

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is focused on Corporate Social Responsibility in the Gambling and Betting Activities Industry in the Czech Republic. Based on the quantitative research in gambling and betting enterprises in the Czech Republic an analysis was performed and current CSR situation was evaluated. Analysis revealed that the selected sector supports relatively actively CSR activities in all three areas. Furthermore, considerable number of enterprises engages the corporate social responsibility i...

  18. Assessment of communication of socially responsible activities in selected companies

    OpenAIRE

    Stříteská, Michaela; Bartáková, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Significance of socially responsible business activities has been growing constantly in recent years, mainly in the context of increasing competitiveness and gaining of goodwill. The companies pay bigger and bigger attention to the area of social responsibility and spend more and more financial funds on it. However, the specialists in theory and practice agree that companies do not know how to communicate these activities efficiently. And communication of CSR activities towards stakeholder...

  19. In vitro anti-Mycobacterium avium activities of quinolones: predicted active structures and mechanistic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopman, G; Li, J Y; Wang, S; Pearson, A J; Chang, K; Jacobs, M R; Bajaksouzian, S; Ellner, J J

    1994-08-01

    The relationship between the structures of quinolones and their anti-Mycobacterium avium activities has been previously derived by using the Multiple Computer-Automated Structure Evaluation program. A number of substructural constraints required to overcome the resistance of most of the strains have been identified. Nineteen new quinolones which qualify under these substructural requirements were identified by the program and subsequently tested. The results show that the substructural attributes identified by the program produced a successful a priori prediction of the anti-M. avium activities of the new quinolones. All 19 quinolones were found to be active, and 4 of them are as active or better than ciprofloxacin. With these new quinolones, the updated multiple computer-automated structure evaluation program structure-activity relationship analysis has helped to uncover additional information about the nature of the substituents at the C5 and C7 positions needed for optimal inhibitory activity. A possible explanation of drug resistance based on the observation of suicide inactivation of bacterial cytochrome P-450 by the cyclopropylamine moiety has also been proposed and is discussed in this report. Furthermore, we confirm the view that the amount of the uncharged form present in a neutral pH solution plays a crucial role in the drug's penetration ability.

  20. Nomogram for predicting pathologically complete response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for oesophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: A pathologically complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) is seen in 30% of the patients with oesophageal cancer. The aim is to identify patient and tumour characteristics associated with a pCR and to develop a nomogram for the prediction of pCR. Patients and methods: Patients who underwent nCRT followed by surgery were identified and response to nCRT was assessed according to a modified Mandard classification in the resection specimen. A model was developed with age, gender, histology and location of the tumour, differentiation grade, alcohol use, smoking, percentage weight loss, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), cT-stage and cN-stage as potential predictors for pCR. Probability of pCR was studied via logistic regression. Performance of the prediction nomogram was quantified using the concordance statistic (c-statistic) and corrected for optimism. Results: A total of 381 patients were included. After surgery, 27.6% of the tumours showed a pCR. Female sex, squamous cell histology, poor differentiation grade, and low cT-stage were predictive for a pCR with a c-statistic of 0.64 (corrected for optimism). Conclusion: A nomogram for the prediction of pathologically complete response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was developed, with a reasonable predictive power. This nomogram needs external validation before it can be used for individualised clinical decision-making

  1. Predicting the response of localised oesophageal cancer to neo-adjuvant chemoradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds John

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A complete pathological response to neo-adjuvant chemo-radiation for oesophageal cancer is associated with favourable survival. However, such a benefit is seen in the minority. If one could identify, at diagnosis, those patients who were unlikely to respond unnecessary toxicity could be avoided and alternative treatment can be considered. The aim of this review was to highlight predictive markers currently assessed and evaluate their clinical utility. Methods A systematic search of Pubmed and Google Scholar was performed using the following keywords; "neo-adjuvant", "oesophageal", "trimodality", "chemotherapy", "radiotherapy", "chemoradiation" and "predict". The original manuscripts were sourced for further articles of relevance. Results Conventional indices including tumour stage and grade seem unable to predict histological response. Immuno-histochemical markers have been extensively studied, but none has made its way into routine clinical practice. Global gene expression from fresh pre-treatment tissue using cDNA microarray has only recently been assessed, but shows considerable promise. Molecular imaging using FDG-PET seems to be able to predict response after neo-adjuvant chemoradiation has finished, but there is a paucity of data when such imaging is performed earlier. Conclusion Currently there are no clinically useful predictors of response based on standard pathological assessment and immunohistochemistry. Genomics, proteomics and molecular imaging may hold promise.

  2. Dynamic preload indicators fail to predict fluid responsiveness in open-chest conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Eric E. C.; Rex, Steffen; Kruitwagen, Cas L. J. J.; Kalkman, Cor J.; Buhre, Wolfgang F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Dynamic preload indicators like pulse pressure variation (PPV) and stroke volume variation (SVV) are increasingly being used for optimizing cardiac preload since they have been demonstrated to predict fluid responsiveness in a variety of perioperative settings. However, in open-chest cond

  3. A noise level prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu Zhu

    Full Text Available The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective.

  4. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  5. Pre- and post-radiotherapy MRI results as a predictive model for response in laryngeal carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ljumanovic, Redina; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Knol, Dirk L.; Leemans, C. Rene; Castelijns, Jonas A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to determine if pre-radiotherapy (RT) and/or post-radiotherapy magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can predict response in patients with laryngeal carcinoma treated with RT. Pre- and post-RT MR examinations of 80 patients were retrospectively reviewed and associated with regard to local

  6. Prediction of resistance development against drug combinations by collateral responses to component drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian; Gumpert, Heidi; Nilsson Wallin, Annika;

    2014-01-01

    to do so. Thus, predictive models are needed to rationally design resistance-limiting therapeutic regimens. Using adaptive evolution, we studied the resistance response of the common pathogen Escherichia coli to 5 different single antibiotics and all 10 different antibiotic drug pairs. By analyzing...

  7. PREDICTING RICE YIELD RESPONSE TO MIDSEASON NITROGEN WITH PLANT AREA MEASURMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple method is needed to aid farmers with midseason N decisions in dry-seeded, delayed flood rice (Oryza sativa L.). This study was conducted to develop thresholds using visual and digital image measurements for predicting rice yield response to N topdressing. 'Francis' and 'Cheniere' (cv) ric...

  8. Noninvasively derived stroke volume variation by finger volume clamping can reliably predict fluid responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Jaap Jan; Poterman, Marieke; Struys, Michel; Scheeren, Thomas; Kalmar, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Goal of Study:  Dynamic preload variables derived from the arterial pressure waveform have been shown to accurately predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients. One of these variables, stroke volume variation (SVV), can also be obtained noninvasively by the finger

  9. Predictive Power of the Baseline QRS Complex Duration for Clinical Response to Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemisaeid

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination of predictors of response to cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT in patients with moderate to severe heart failure accompanied by a ventricular dyssynchrony can play a major role in improving candidate selection for CRT.Objectives: We evaluated whether the baseline QRS duration could be used to discriminate responders from non-responders to CRT.Methods: Eighty three consecutive patients with moderate to severe heart failure and with successful implantation of a CRT device at our centre were included in the study. QRS durations were measured on 12-lead surface electrocardiogram before and 6 months after implantation of the CRT device, using the widest QRS complex in leads II, V1 and V6. Clinical response to CRT was defined as an improvement of ≥1 grade in NYHA class.Results: Optimal cut-off value to discriminate baseline QRS duration for predicting clinical response to CRT was identified at 152 ms, yielding a sensitivity of 73.3%, a specificity of 56.5% as well as positive and negative predictive values of 81.5% and 44.8%, respectively. The discriminatory pow- er of the baseline QRS duration for response to CRT assessed by the ROC curve was 0.6402 (95% CI: 0.4976 – 0.7829. Baseline QRS duration ≥ 152 ms could effectively predict clinical response to CRT after adjusting for covariates (OR = 3.743, p = 0.017.Conclusion: Baseline QRS duration can effectively predict clinical response to CRT and optimal cut-off value to discriminate baseline QRS duration for response to CRT is 152 ms.

  10. Modeling transducer impulse responses for predicting calibrated pressure pulses with the ultrasound simulation program Field II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Willatzen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    FIELD II is a simulation software capable of predicting the field pressure in front of transducers having any complicated geometry. A calibrated prediction with this program is, however, dependent on an exact voltage-to-surface acceleration impulse response of the transducer. Such impulse response...... is not calculated by FIELD II. This work investigates the usability of combining a one-dimensional multilayer transducer modeling principle with the FIELD II software. Multilayer here refers to a transducer composed of several material layers. Measurements of pressure and current from Pz27 piezoceramic disks...... as well as pressure and intensity measurements in front of a 128 element commercial convex medical transducer are compared to the simulations. Results show that the models can predict the pressure from the piezoceramic disks with a root mean square (rms) error of 11.2% to 36.2% with a 2 dB amplitude...

  11. Research on Responsivity of Microbolometer in Food Temperature Prediction by System-level Collaborative Simulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an 320×240 are fabricated according to the design to verify the system-level co-simulation results. Due to the complexity of microbolometer in food temperature prediction heat-transfer structure, thermoelectric characteristics could’t be simulated in the same design platform with the design of its Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC which is monolithically integrated with the heat-transfer structure. The purpose of coordinated simulation is to find out a coordinated analysis method between microbolometer in food temperature prediction and its Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC. Input and output characteristics of microbolometer in food temperature prediction was obtained. Responsivity of the heat-transfer model is analyzed based on the results of system-level collaborative simulation. Test values of responsivity matched the known design results of simulation well.

  12. In Silico Analysis of Microarray-Based Gene Expression Profiles Predicts Tumor Cell Response to Withanolides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (L. Dunal (Indian ginseng, winter cherry, Solanaceae is widely used in traditional medicine. Roots are either chewed or used to prepare beverages (aqueous decocts. The major secondary metabolites of Withania somnifera are the withanolides, which are C-28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids. Withania somnifera extracts exert chemopreventive and anticancer activities in vitro and in vivo. The aims of the present in silico study were, firstly, to investigate whether tumor cells develop cross-resistance between standard anticancer drugs and withanolides and, secondly, to elucidate the molecular determinants of sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells towards withanolides. Using IC50 concentrations of eight different withanolides (withaferin A, withaferin A diacetate, 3-azerininylwithaferin A, withafastuosin D diacetate, 4-B-hydroxy-withanolide E, isowithanololide E, withafastuosin E, and withaperuvin and 19 established anticancer drugs, we analyzed the cross-resistance profile of 60 tumor cell lines. The cell lines revealed cross-resistance between the eight withanolides. Consistent cross-resistance between withanolides and nitrosoureas (carmustin, lomustin, and semimustin was also observed. Then, we performed transcriptomic microarray-based COMPARE and hierarchical cluster analyses of mRNA expression to identify mRNA expression profiles predicting sensitivity or resistance towards withanolides. Genes from diverse functional groups were significantly associated with response of tumor cells to withaferin A diacetate, e.g. genes functioning in DNA damage and repair, stress response, cell growth regulation, extracellular matrix components, cell adhesion and cell migration, constituents of the ribosome, cytoskeletal organization and regulation, signal transduction, transcription factors, and others.

  13. Serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine as disease activity and response biomarker in alopecia areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Shigeki; Noguchi, Fumihito; Nakajima, Takeshi; Itami, Satoshi

    2013-11-01

    Serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17 (sTARC) is known as a good indicator for atopic dermatitis severity. Herein, we investigate whether sTARC correlates with severity and therapeutic response for alopecia areata (AA) in our 121 patients. The sTARC mean of AA totalis and universalis was significantly higher than mild AA. Next, we compared sTARC of diffuse AA (n = 14) and severity-controlled patchy AA (n = 32) and found that sTARC in diffuse AA (564.2 ± 400.0 pg/mL) was significantly higher than that of the patchy type (344.0 ± 239.8 pg/mL), suggesting a potential role of TARC in active progression of diffuse AA. Ten patients with diffuse AA were treated with i.v. corticosteroid pulse therapy. Then, we tested whether sTARC can predict prognosis after the pulse therapy and found that baseline sTARC in the poor responders (1025.5 ± 484.8 pg/mL) was significantly higher than that in the good responders (complete remission at 24 months after the pulse therapy, 347.8 ± 135.7 pg/mL), indicating sTARC as a response biomarker in the corticosteroid pulse therapy for diffuse AA. Finally, to investigate TARC production in the affected hair follicles, we performed immunohistochemical double staining of TARC and CD68 using scalp skin specimens of diffuse AA with high titers of sTARC. The results showed their co-localization in the infiltrating cells around the AA hair follicles, suggesting that TARC is mainly produced from CD68(+) histiocytes. In conclusion, sTARC is a disease activity and response biomarker in AA, providing new insight beyond the T-helper 1/2 paradigm to solve the immunological pathogenesis of AA.

  14. Quantitative modeling of the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Fuller-Rowell

    Full Text Available A physical model of the coupled thermosphere and ionosphere has been used to determine the accuracy of model predictions of the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity, and assess our understanding of the physical processes. The physical model is driven by empirical descriptions of the high-latitude electric field and auroral precipitation, as measures of the strength of the magnetospheric sources of energy and momentum to the upper atmosphere. Both sources are keyed to the time-dependent TIROS/NOAA auroral power index. The output of the model is the departure of the ionospheric F region from the normal climatological mean. A 50-day interval towards the end of 1997 has been simulated with the model for two cases. The first simulation uses only the electric fields and auroral forcing from the empirical models, and the second has an additional source of random electric field variability. In both cases, output from the physical model is compared with F-region data from ionosonde stations. Quantitative model/data comparisons have been performed to move beyond the conventional "visual" scientific assessment, in order to determine the value of the predictions for operational use. For this study, the ionosphere at two ionosonde stations has been studied in depth, one each from the northern and southern mid-latitudes. The model clearly captures the seasonal dependence in the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity at mid-latitude, reproducing the tendency for decreased ion density in the summer hemisphere and increased densities in winter. In contrast to the "visual" success of the model, the detailed quantitative comparisons, which are necessary for space weather applications, are less impressive. The accuracy, or value, of the model has been quantified by evaluating the daily standard deviation, the root-mean-square error, and the correlation coefficient between the data and model predictions. The modeled quiet-time variability, or standard

  15. The value of metabolic imaging to predict tumour response after chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Río Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aim to investigate the possibility of using 18F-positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET-CT to predict the histopathologic response in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC treated with preoperative chemoradiation (CRT. Methods The study included 50 patients with LARC treated with preoperative CRT. All patients were evaluated by PET-CT before and after CRT, and results were compared to histopathologic response quantified by tumour regression grade (patients with TRG 1-2 being defined as responders and patients with grade 3-5 as non-responders. Furthermore, the predictive value of metabolic imaging for pathologic complete response (ypCR was investigated. Results Responders and non-responders showed statistically significant differences according to Mandard's criteria for maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax before and after CRT with a specificity of 76,6% and a positive predictive value of 66,7%. Furthermore, SUVmax values after CRT were able to differentiate patients with ypCR with a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 74,4% (positive predictive value 41,2% and negative predictive value 87,9%; This rather low sensitivity and specificity determined that PET-CT was only able to distinguish 7 cases of ypCR from a total of 11 patients. Conclusions We conclude that 18-F PET-CT performed five to seven weeks after the end of CRT can visualise functional tumour response in LARC. In contrast, metabolic imaging with 18-F PET-CT is not able to predict patients with ypCR accurately.

  16. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke S.C. McCowan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival.

  17. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Luke S C; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual's entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual's future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  18. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for rTMS response in pharmacoresistant depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richieri, Raphaelle; Lancon, Christophe [Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Marseille (France); La Timone University, EA 3279 - Self-perceived Health Assessment Research Unit, School of Medicine, Marseille (France); Boyer, Laurent [La Timone University, EA 3279 - Self-perceived Health Assessment Research Unit, School of Medicine, Marseille (France); La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Department of Public Health, Marseille (France); Farisse, Jean [Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Marseille (France); Colavolpe, Cecile; Mundler, Olivier [La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre Europeen de Recherche en Imagerie Medicale (CERIMED), Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre Europeen de Recherche en Imagerie Medicale (CERIMED), Marseille (France); Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France)

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of whole-brain voxel-based regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) response in patients with pharmacoresistant depression. Thirty-three right-handed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (unipolar or bipolar depression) were included before rTMS. rTMS response was defined as at least 50% reduction in the baseline Beck Depression Inventory scores. The predictive value of {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for rTMS response was studied before treatment by comparing rTMS responders to non-responders at voxel level using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Of the patients, 18 (54.5%) were responders to rTMS and 15 were non-responders (45.5%). There were no statistically significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics (p > 0.10). In comparison to responders, non-responders showed significant hypoperfusions (p < 0.001, uncorrected) in the left medial and bilateral superior frontal cortices (BA10), the left uncus/parahippocampal cortex (BA20/BA35) and the right thalamus. The area under the curve for the combination of SPECT clusters to predict rTMS response was 0.89 (p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the combination of clusters were: 94, 73, 81 and 92%, respectively. This study shows that, in pharmacoresistant depression, pretreatment rCBF of specific brain regions is a strong predictor for response to rTMS in patients with homogeneous demographic/clinical features. (orig.)

  19. Prediction of pore-water pressure response to rainfall using support vector regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babangida, Nuraddeen Muhammad; Mustafa, Muhammad Raza Ul; Yusuf, Khamaruzaman Wan; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear complex behavior of pore-water pressure responses to rainfall was modelled using support vector regression (SVR). Pore-water pressure can rise to disturbing levels that may result in slope failure during or after rainfall. Traditionally, monitoring slope pore-water pressure responses to rainfall is tedious and expensive, in that the slope must be instrumented with necessary monitors. Data on rainfall and corresponding responses of pore-water pressure were collected from such a monitoring program at a slope site in Malaysia and used to develop SVR models to predict pore-water pressure fluctuations. Three models, based on their different input configurations, were developed. SVR optimum meta-parameters were obtained using k-fold cross validation and a grid search. Model type 3 was adjudged the best among the models and was used to predict three other points on the slope. For each point, lag intervals of 30 min, 1 h and 2 h were used to make the predictions. The SVR model predictions were compared with predictions made by an artificial neural network model; overall, the SVR model showed slightly better results. Uncertainty quantification analysis was also performed for further model assessment. The uncertainty components were found to be low and tolerable, with d-factor of 0.14 and 74 % of observed data falling within the 95 % confidence bound. The study demonstrated that the SVR model is effective in providing an accurate and quick means of obtaining pore-water pressure response, which may be vital in systems where response information is urgently needed.

  20. Ionospheric Response Due to Seismic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Signatures of the seismic activity in the ionospheric F2 region have been studied by analyzing the measurement of electron and ion temperatures during the occurrence of earthquake. The ionospheric electron and ion temperatures data recorded by the RPA payload aboard the Indian SROSS-C2 satellite during the period from January 1995 to December 2000 were used for the altitude range 430-630 km over Indian region. The normal day's electron and ion temperatures have been compared to the temperatures recorded during the seismic activity. The details of seismic events were obtained from USGS earthquake data information website. It has been found that the average electron temperature is enhanced during the occurrence of earthquakes by 1.2 to 1.5 times and this enhancement was for ion temperature ranging from 1.1to 1.3 times over the normal day's average temperatures. The above careful quantitative analysis of ionospheric electron and ion temperatures data shows the consistent enhancement in the ionospheric electron and ion temperatures. It is expected that the seismogenic vertical electrical field propagates up to the ionospheric heights and induces Joule heating that may cause the enhancement in ionospheric temperatures.

  1. Synthesising empirical results to improve predictions of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakesby, Richard A.; Moody, John A.; Martin, Deborah A.; Robichaud, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in research into wildfire impacts on runoff and erosion have demonstrated increasing complexity of controlling factors and responses, which, combined with changing fire frequency, present challenges for modellers. We convened a conference attended by experts and practitioners in post-wildfire impacts, meteorology and related research, including modelling, to focus on priority research issues. The aim was to improve our understanding of controls and responses and the predictive capabilities of models. This conference led to the eight selected papers in this special issue. They address aspects of the distinctiveness in the controls and responses among wildfire regions, spatiotemporal rainfall variability, infiltration, runoff connectivity, debris flow formation and modelling applications. Here we summarise key findings from these papers and evaluate their contribution to improving understanding and prediction of post-wildfire runoff and erosion under changes in climate, human intervention and population pressure on wildfire-prone areas.

  2. PREDICTION OF SITE RESPONSE SPECTRUM UNDER EARTHQUAKE VIBRATION USING AN OPTIMIZED DEVELOPED ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Esmaeilabadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Site response spectrum is one of the key factors to determine the maximum acceleration and displacement, as well as structure behavior analysis during earthquake vibrations. The main objective of this paper is to develop an optimized model based on artificial neural network (ANN using five different training algorithms to predict nonlinear site response spectrum subjected to Silakhor earthquake vibrations is. The model output was tested for a specified area in west of Iran. The performance and quality of optimized model under all training algorithms have been examined by various statistical, analytical and graph analyses criteria as well as a comparison with numerical methods. The observed adaptabilities in results indicate a feasible and satisfactory engineering alternative method for predicting the analysis of nonlinear site response.

  3. Snoring Sounds Predict Obstruction Sites and Surgical Response in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Ang; Lo, Yu-Lun; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Gui-She; Ni, Yung-Lun; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Snoring sounds generated by different vibrators of the upper airway may be useful indicators of obstruction sites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). This study aimed to investigate associations between snoring sounds, obstruction sites, and surgical responses (≥50% reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and Hz; odds ratio [OR], 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.49) and body mass index (OR, 1.48, 95% CI 1.02-2.15) after logistic regression analysis. Tonsil obstruction was significantly, inversely correlated with mean snoring sound intensity (301-850 Hz; OR, 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.96). Moreover, baseline tonsil obstruction detected by either DISE or mean snoring sound intensity (301-850 Hz), and AHI could significantly predict the surgical response. Our findings suggest that snoring sound detection may be helpful in determining obstruction sites and predict surgical responses. PMID:27471038

  4. RBFNN Model for Predicting Nonlinear Response of Uniformly Loaded Paddle Cantilever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah H. Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Radial basis Function neural network (RBFNN model has been developed for the prediction of nonlinear response for paddle Cantilever with built-in edges and different sizes, thickness and uniform loads. Learning data was performed by using a nonlinear finite element program, incremental stages of the nonlinear finite element analysis were generated by using 25 schemes of built paddle Cantilevers with different thickness and uniform distributed loads. The neural network model has 5 input nodes representing the uniform distributed load and paddle size, length, width and thickness, eight nodes at hidden layer and one output node representing the max. deflection response (1500×1 represent the deflection response of load. Regression analysis between finite element results and values predicted by the neural network model shows the least error.

  5. Prediction of Toxicity of Phenols and Anilines to Algae by Quantitative Structure-activity Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANG-HUA LU; CHAO WANG; XIAO-LING GUO

    2008-01-01

    Objective To measure the toxicity of phenol, aniline, and their derivatives to algae and to assess, model and predict the toxicity using quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. Methods Oxygen production was used as the response endpoint for assessing the toxic effects of chemicals on algal photosynthesis. The energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO) and the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (E) Were obtained from the ChemOffice 2004 program using the quantum chemical method MOPAC, and the frontier orbital energy gap (ΔE) was obtained. Results The compounds exhibited a reasonably wide range of algal toxicity. The most toxic compound was α-naphthol, whereas the least toxic one was aniline. A two-descriptor model was derived from the algal toxicity and structural parameters:logl/EC50=0.268logKow-1.006ΔE+11.769 (n=20,r2=0.946). This model was stable and satisfactory for predicting toxicity. Conclusion Phenol aniline, and their derivatives axe polar narcotics. Their toxicity is greater than estimated by hydrophobicity only, and addition of the frontier orbital energy gap ΔE can significantly improve the prediction of logKow-dependont models.

  6. Seismic response prediction for cabinets of nuclear power plants by using impact hammer test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective method to predict the seismic response of electrical cabinets of nuclear power plants is developed. This method consists of three steps: (1) identification of the earthquake-equivalent force based on the idealized lumped-mass system of the cabinet, (2) identification of the state-space equation (SSE) model of the system using input-output measurements from impact hammer tests, and (3) seismic response prediction by calculating the output of the identified SSE model under the identified earthquake-equivalent force. A three-dimensional plate model of cabinet structures is presented for the numerical verification of the proposed method. Experimental validation of the proposed method is carried out on a three-story frame which represents the structure of a cabinet. The SSE model of the frame is accurately identified by impact hammer tests with high fitness values over 85% of the actual frame characteristics. Shaking table tests are performed using El Centro, Kobe, and Northridge earthquakes as input motions and the acceleration responses are measured. The responses of the model under the three earthquakes are predicted and then compared with the measured responses. The predicted and measured responses agree well with each other with fitness values of 65-75%. The proposed method is more advantageous over other methods that are based on finite element (FE) model updating since it is free from FE modeling errors. It will be especially effective for cabinet structures in nuclear power plants where conducting shaking table tests may not be feasible. Limitations of the proposed method are also discussed.

  7. Predictive Factors of Tumor Response After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery is the standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to correlate tumor response to survival and to identify predictive factors for tumor response after chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2008, 168 patients with histologically proven locally advanced adenocarcinoma treated by preoperative chemoradiation before total mesorectal excision were retrospectively studied. They received a radiation dose of 45 Gy with a concomitant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Analysis of tumor response was based on lowering of the T stage between pretreatment endorectal ultrasound and pathologic specimens. Overall and progression-free survival rates were correlated with tumor response. Tumor response was analyzed with predictive factors. Results: The median follow-up was 34 months. Five-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were, of 44.4% and 74.5% in the whole population, 83.4% and 83.4%, respectively, in patients with pathological complete response, 38.6% and 71.9%, respectively, in patients with tumor downstaging, and 29.1and 58.9% respectively, in patients with absence of response. A pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level of <5 ng/ml was significantly independently associated with pathologic complete tumor response (p = 0.019). Pretreatment small tumor size (p = 0.04), pretreatment CEA level of <5 ng/ml (p = 0.008), and chemotherapy with capecitabine (vs. 5-FU) (p = 0.04) were significantly associated with tumor downstaging. Conclusions: Downstaging and complete response after CRT improved progression-free survival and overall survival of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma. In multivariate analysis, a pretreatment CEA level of <5 ng/ml was associated with complete tumor response. Thus, small tumor size, a pretreatment CEA level of < 5ng/ml, and use of capecitabine were associated with tumor downstaging.

  8. Predicting the Responses of Soil Nitrite-Oxidizers to Multi-Factorial Global Change: A Trait-Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Roux, Xavier; Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Niboyet, Audrey;

    2016-01-01

    change scenarios for central California) on the potential activity, abundance and dominant taxa of soil nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Using a trait-based model, we then tested whether categorizing NOB into a few functional groups unified by physiological traits enables understanding and predicting...... how soil NOB respond to global environmental change. Contrasted responses to global change treatments were observed between three main NOB functional types. In particular, putatively mixotrophic Nitrobacter, rare under most treatments, became dominant under the 'High CO2+Nitrogen...... for representing the overwhelming diversity of soil bacteria by a few functional types that can be incorporated into models of terrestrial ecosystems and biogeochemical processes....

  9. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Wenya eNan; Feng eWan; Mang I eVai; Agostinho eRosa

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the tr...

  10. Thermally-Activated Post-Glitch Response of the Neutron Star Inner Crust and Core

    CERN Document Server

    Link, Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Pinning of superfluid vortices is predicted to prevail throughout much of a neutron star. Here I develop a description of the coupling through thermally-activated vortex slippage}, and calculate the post-glitch response of a neutron star to a spin glitch. The theory has three robust conclusions: 1) If vortex pinning occurs in the core, typical large glitches decouple the core superfluid from the charged components over observable timescales. Core response to a glitch has a distinct observational signature that could be identified through analyses of existing and future timing data. 2) Post-glitch response over short timescales (days) in pulsars with large glitches (fractional spin jumps of $\\Delta\

  11. Predicting decadal trends and transient responses of radiocarbon storage and fluxes in a temperate forest soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Sierra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Representing the response of soil carbon dynamics to global environmental change requires the incorporation of multiple tools in the development of predictive models. An important tool to construct and test models is the incorporation of bomb radiocarbon in soil organic matter during the past decades. In this manuscript, we combined radiocarbon data and a previously developed empirical model to explore decade-scale soil carbon dynamics in a temperate forest ecosystem at the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. We evaluated the contribution of different soil C fractions to both total soil CO2 efflux and microbially respired C. We tested the performance of the model based on measurable soil organic matter fractions against a decade of radiocarbon measurements. The model was then challenged with radiocarbon measurements from a warming and N addition experiment to test multiple hypotheses about the different response of soil C fractions to the experimental manipulations. Our results showed that the empirical model satisfactorily predicts the trends of radiocarbon in litter, density fractions, and respired CO2 observed over a decade in the soils not subjected to manipulation. However, the model, modified with prescribed relationships for temperature and decomposition rates, predicted most but not all the observations from the field experiment where soil temperatures and nitrogen levels were increased, suggesting that a larger degree of complexity and mechanistic relations need to be added to the model to predict short-term responses and transient dynamics.

  12. Predicting decadal trends and transient responses of radiocarbon storage and fluxes in a temperate forest soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Sierra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Representing the response of soil carbon dynamics to global environmental change requires the incorporation of multiple tools in the development of predictive models. An important tool to construct and test models is the incorporation of bomb radiocarbon in soil organic matter during the past decades. In this manuscript, we combined radiocarbon data and a previously developed empirical model to explore decade-scale soil carbon dynamics in a temperate forest ecosystem at the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. We evaluated the contribution of different soil C fractions to both total soil CO2 efflux and microbially-respired C. We tested the performance of the model based on measurable soil organic matter fractions against a decade of radiocarbon measurements. The model was then challenged with radiocarbon measurements from a warming and N addition experiment to test multiple hypotheses about the different response of soil C fractions to the experimental manipulations. Our results showed that the empirical model satisfactorily predicts the trends of radiocarbon in litter, density fractions, and respired CO2 observed over a decade in the soils not subjected to manipulation. However, the model, modified with prescribed relationships for temperature and decomposition rates, predicted most but not all the observations from the field experiment where soil temperatures and nitrogen levels were increased, suggesting that a larger degree of complexity and mechanistic relations need to be added to the model to predict short-term responses and transient dynamics.

  13. Lateralization for speech predicts therapeutic response to cognitive behavioral therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishon, Ronit; Abraham, Karen; Alschuler, Daniel M; Keilp, John G; Stewart, Jonathan W; McGrath, Patrick J; Bruder, Gerard E

    2015-08-30

    A prior study (Bruder, G.E., Stewart, J.W., Mercier, M.A., Agosti, V., Leite, P., Donovan, S., Quitkin, F.M., 1997. Outcome of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression: relation of hemispheric dominance for verbal processing. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 106, 138-144.) found left hemisphere advantage for verbal dichotic listening was predictive of clinical response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. This study aimed to confirm this finding and to examine the value of neuropsychological tests, which have shown promise for predicting antidepressant response. Twenty depressed patients who subsequently completed 14 weeks of CBT and 74 healthy adults were tested on a Dichotic Fused Words Test (DFWT). Patients were also tested on the National Adult Reading Test to estimate IQ, and word fluency, choice RT, and Stroop neuropsychological tests. Left hemisphere advantage on the DFWT was more than twice as large in CBT responders as in non-responders, and was associated with improvement in depression following treatment. There was no difference between responders and non-responders on neuropsychological tests. The results support the hypothesis that the ability of individuals with strong left hemisphere dominance to recruit frontal and temporal cortical regions involved in verbal dichotic listening predicts CBT response. The large effect size, sensitivity and specificity of DFWT predictions suggest the potential value of this brief and inexpensive test as an indicator of whether a patient will benefit from CBT for depression.

  14. Predicting community responses to perturbations in the face of imperfect knowledge and network complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, M.; Wootton, J.T.; Doak, D.F.; Emmerson, M.; Estes, J.A.; Tinker, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    How best to predict the effects of perturbations to ecological communities has been a long-standing goal for both applied and basic ecology. This quest has recently been revived by new empirical data, new analysis methods, and increased computing speed, with the promise that ecologically important insights may be obtainable from a limited knowledge of community interactions. We use empirically based and simulated networks of varying size and connectance to assess two limitations to predicting perturbation responses in multispecies communities: (1) the inaccuracy by which species interaction strengths are empirically quantified and (2) the indeterminacy of species responses due to indirect effects associated with network size and structure. We find that even modest levels of species richness and connectance (??25 pairwise interactions) impose high requirements for interaction strength estimates because system indeterminacy rapidly overwhelms predictive insights. Nevertheless, even poorly estimated interaction strengths provide greater average predictive certainty than an approach that uses only the sign of each interaction. Our simulations provide guidance in dealing with the trade-offs involved in maximizing the utility of network approaches for predicting dynamics in multispecies communities. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Predicting rapid response to cognitive-behavioural treatment for panic disorder: the role of hippocampus, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Andrea; Thilo, Kai; Filippini, Nicola; Croft, Alison; Harmer, Catherine J

    2014-11-01

    Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective first-line intervention for anxiety disorders, treatments remain long and cost-intensive, difficult to access, and a subgroup of patients fails to show any benefits at all. This study aimed to identify functional and structural brain markers that predict a rapid response to CBT. Such knowledge will be important to establish the mechanisms underlying successful treatment and to develop more effective, shorter interventions. Fourteen unmedicated patients with panic disorder underwent 3 T functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before receiving four sessions of exposure-based CBT. Symptom severity was measured before and after treatment. During functional MRI, patients performed an emotion regulation task, either viewing negative images naturally, or intentionally down-regulating negative affect by using previously taught strategies of cognitive reappraisal. Structural MRI images were analysed including left and right segmentation and volume estimation. Improved response to brief CBT was predicted by increased pre-treatment activation in bilateral insula and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during threat processing, as well as increased right hippocampal gray matter volume. Previous work links these regions to improved threat processing and fear memory activation, suggesting that the activation of such mechanisms is crucial for exposure-based CBT to be effective.

  16. Predictive nature of prefrontal theta oscillation on the performance of trace conditioned eyeblink responses in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Yi-jie; Yang, Li; Hu, Chen; Ke, Xian-feng; Fan, Zheng-li; Sui, Jian-feng; Hu, Bo

    2014-05-15

    Stimulus-evoked theta oscillations are observed in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) when executing a variety of learning tasks. Here, we aimed to further determine whether spontaneous theta-band (5.0-10.0 Hz) oscillations in the mPFC predicted the subsequent behavioral performance in trace eyeblink conditioning (TEBC), in which the conditioned stimulus (CS) was separated from the unconditioned stimulus (US) by 500 ms trace interval. By recording local field potentials (LFP) signals in the guinea pigs performing the TEBC task, we found that, a higher mPFC relative theta ratio [theta/(delta+beta)] during the baseline (850-ms period prior to the onset of the CS) was predictive of higher magnitude and more adaptive timing rather than faster acquisition of trace conditioned eyeblink responses (CR). However, the prediction of baseline mPFC theta activity was time-limited to the well-learning stage. Additionally, the relative power of mPFC theta activity did not correlate with the CR performance if the trace interval between the CS and the US was shortened to 100 ms. These results suggest that the brain state in which the baseline mPFC theta activity is present or absent is detrimental for the subsequent performance of trace CRs especially when the asymptotic learning state is achieved.

  17. LSD-induced entropic brain activity predicts subsequent personality change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, A V; Kaelen, M; Lövdén, M; Nilsson, J; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J; Carhart-Harris, R L

    2016-09-01

    Personality is known to be relatively stable throughout adulthood. Nevertheless, it has been shown that major life events with high personal significance, including experiences engendered by psychedelic drugs, can have an enduring impact on some core facets of personality. In the present, balanced-order, placebo-controlled study, we investigated biological predictors of post-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) changes in personality. Nineteen healthy adults underwent resting state functional MRI scans under LSD (75µg, I.V.) and placebo (saline I.V.). The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was completed at screening and 2 weeks after LSD/placebo. Scanning sessions consisted of three 7.5-min eyes-closed resting-state scans, one of which involved music listening. A standardized preprocessing pipeline was used to extract measures of sample entropy, which characterizes the predictability of an fMRI time-series. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate drug-induced shifts in brain entropy and their relationship with the observed increases in the personality trait openness at the 2-week follow-up. Overall, LSD had a pronounced global effect on brain entropy, increasing it in both sensory and hierarchically higher networks across multiple time scales. These shifts predicted enduring increases in trait openness. Moreover, the predictive power of the entropy increases was greatest for the music-listening scans and when "ego-dissolution" was reported during the acute experience. These results shed new light on how LSD-induced shifts in brain dynamics and concomitant subjective experience can be predictive of lasting changes in personality. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3203-3213, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27151536

  18. Serum alpha-fetoprotein response can predict prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: To evaluate the clinical inference of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) response in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients undergoing percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Materials and methods: Three hundred and thirteen previously untreated HCC patients were enrolled in the study. The optimal AFP response was defined as >20% decrease from baseline after 1 month of RFA for those with a baseline AFP level of ≥100 ng/ml. The impact of AFP response on prognosis was analysed and prognostic factors were assessed. Results: After a median follow-up of 26.7 ± 19.1 months, 49 patients died and 264 patients were alive. The cumulative 5 year survival rates were 75.3 and 57.4% in patients with an initial AFP of 1.1 (p = 0.009), non-optimal AFP response (p = 0.023), and creatinine >1.5 mg/dl (p = 0.021) were independent risk factors predictive of poor overall survival. Besides, the cumulative 5 year recurrence rates were 83.4 and 100% in optimal and non-optimal AFP responders, respectively (p 5/mm3 (p = 0.048), tumour size >2 cm (p = 0.027), and non-optimal AFP response (p < 0.001) were independent risk factors associated with tumour recurrence after RFA. Conclusions: Serum AFP response may be a useful marker for predicting prognosis in HCC patients undergoing RFA.

  19. Gene Co-Expression Analysis Predicts Genetic Variants Associated with Drug Responsiveness in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Sanaya; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Responsiveness to drugs is an important concern in designing personalized treatment for cancer patients. Currently genetic markers are often used to guide targeted therapy. However, deeper understanding of the molecular basis for drug responses and discovery of new predictive biomarkers for drug sensitivity are much needed. In this paper, we present a workflow for identifying condition-specific gene co-expression networks associated with responses to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Erlotinib, in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines using data from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia by combining network mining and statistical analysis. Particularly, we have identified multiple gene modules specifically co-expressed in the drug responsive cell lines but not in the unresponsive group. Interestingly, most of these modules are enriched on specific cytobands, suggesting potential copy number variation events on these loci. Our results therefore imply that there are multiple genetic loci with copy number variations associated with the Erlotinib responses. The existence of CNVs in these loci is also confirmed in lung cancer tissue samples using the TCGA data. Since these structural variations are inferred from functional genomics data, these CNVs are functional variations. These results suggest the condition specific gene co- expression network mining approach is an effective approach in predicting candidate biomarkers for drug responses. PMID:27570645

  20. Use of Germline Polymorphisms in Predicting Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Response in Esophageal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pei-Chun [Department of Statistics and Informatics Science, Providence University, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Ching [Institute of Epidemiology Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Gene, Environment, and Human Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, Institute of Epidemiology, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Lai, Liang-Chuan [Graduate Institute of Physiology, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Mong-Hsun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shin-Kuang [National Clinical Trial and Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan (China); Yang, Pei-Wen; Lee, Yung-Chie [Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, Chuhsing K. [Research Center for Gene, Environment, and Human Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, Institute of Epidemiology, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Bioinformatics and Biostatistics Core, Research Center for Medical Excellence, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jang-Ming, E-mail: jangming@ntuh.gov.tw [Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Eric Y., E-mail: chuangey@ntu.edu.tw [National Clinical Trial and Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan (China); Bioinformatics and Biostatistics Core, Research Center for Medical Excellence, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To identify germline polymorphisms to predict concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) response in esophageal cancer patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 139 esophageal cancer patients treated with CCRT (cisplatin-based chemotherapy combined with 40 Gy of irradiation) and subsequent esophagectomy were recruited at the National Taiwan University Hospital between 1997 and 2008. After excluding confounding factors (i.e., females and patients aged {>=}70 years), 116 patients were enrolled to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with specific CCRT responses. Genotyping arrays and mass spectrometry were used sequentially to determine germline polymorphisms from blood samples. These polymorphisms remain stable throughout disease progression, unlike somatic mutations from tumor tissues. Two-stage design and additive genetic models were adopted in this study. Results: From the 26 SNPs identified in the first stage, 2 SNPs were found to be significantly associated with CCRT response in the second stage. Single nucleotide polymorphism rs16863886, located between SGPP2 and FARSB on chromosome 2q36.1, was significantly associated with a 3.93-fold increase in pathologic complete response to CCRT (95% confidence interval 1.62-10.30) under additive models. Single nucleotide polymorphism rs4954256, located in ZRANB3 on chromosome 2q21.3, was associated with a 3.93-fold increase in pathologic complete response to CCRT (95% confidence interval 1.57-10.87). The predictive accuracy for CCRT response was 71.59% with these two SNPs combined. Conclusions: This is the first study to identify germline polymorphisms with a high accuracy for predicting CCRT response in the treatment of esophageal cancer.

  1. Early Prediction and Evaluation of Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using Quantitative DCE-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudorica, Alina; Oh, Karen Y; Chui, Stephen Y-C; Roy, Nicole; Troxell, Megan L; Naik, Arpana; Kemmer, Kathleen A; Chen, Yiyi; Holtorf, Megan L; Afzal, Aneela; Springer, Charles S; Li, Xin; Huang, Wei

    2016-02-01

    The purpose is to compare quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics with imaging tumor size for early prediction of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and evaluation of residual cancer burden (RCB). Twenty-eight patients with 29 primary breast tumors underwent DCE-MRI exams before, after one cycle of, at midpoint of, and after NACT. MRI tumor size in the longest diameter (LD) was measured according to the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors) guidelines. Pharmacokinetic analyses of DCE-MRI data were performed with the standard Tofts and Shutter-Speed models (TM and SSM). After one NACT cycle the percent changes of DCE-MRI parameters K(trans) (contrast agent plasma/interstitium transfer rate constant), ve (extravascular and extracellular volume fraction), kep (intravasation rate constant), and SSM-unique τi (mean intracellular water lifetime) are good to excellent early predictors of pathologic complete response (pCR) vs. non-pCR, with univariate logistic regression C statistics value in the range of 0.804 to 0.967. ve values after one cycle and at NACT midpoint are also good predictors of response, with C ranging 0.845 to 0.897. However, RECIST LD changes are poor predictors with C = 0.609 and 0.673, respectively. Post-NACT K(trans), τi, and RECIST LD show statistically significant (P < .05) correlations with RCB. The performances of TM and SSM analyses for early prediction of response and RCB evaluation are comparable. In conclusion, quantitative DCE-MRI parameters are superior to imaging tumor size for early prediction of therapy response. Both TM and SSM analyses are effective for therapy response evaluation. However, the τi parameter derived only with SSM analysis allows the unique opportunity to potentially quantify therapy-induced changes in tumor energetic metabolism. PMID:26947876

  2. Early Prediction and Evaluation of Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using Quantitative DCE-MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Tudorica

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to compare quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI metrics with imaging tumor size for early prediction of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT and evaluation of residual cancer burden (RCB. Twenty-eight patients with 29 primary breast tumors underwent DCE-MRI exams before, after one cycle of, at midpoint of, and after NACT. MRI tumor size in the longest diameter (LD was measured according to the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors guidelines. Pharmacokinetic analyses of DCE-MRI data were performed with the standard Tofts and Shutter-Speed models (TM and SSM. After one NACT cycle the percent changes of DCE-MRI parameters Ktrans (contrast agent plasma/interstitium transfer rate constant, ve (extravascular and extracellular volume fraction, kep (intravasation rate constant, and SSM-unique τi (mean intracellular water lifetime are good to excellent early predictors of pathologic complete response (pCR vs. non-pCR, with univariate logistic regression C statistics value in the range of 0.804 to 0.967. ve values after one cycle and at NACT midpoint are also good predictors of response, with C ranging 0.845 to 0.897. However, RECIST LD changes are poor predictors with C = 0.609 and 0.673, respectively. Post-NACT Ktrans, τi, and RECIST LD show statistically significant (P < .05 correlations with RCB. The performances of TM and SSM analyses for early prediction of response and RCB evaluation are comparable. In conclusion, quantitative DCE-MRI parameters are superior to imaging tumor size for early prediction of therapy response. Both TM and SSM analyses are effective for therapy response evaluation. However, the τi parameter derived only with SSM analysis allows the unique opportunity to potentially quantify therapy-induced changes in tumor energetic metabolism.

  3. Use of Germline Polymorphisms in Predicting Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Response in Esophageal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify germline polymorphisms to predict concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) response in esophageal cancer patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 139 esophageal cancer patients treated with CCRT (cisplatin-based chemotherapy combined with 40 Gy of irradiation) and subsequent esophagectomy were recruited at the National Taiwan University Hospital between 1997 and 2008. After excluding confounding factors (i.e., females and patients aged ≥70 years), 116 patients were enrolled to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with specific CCRT responses. Genotyping arrays and mass spectrometry were used sequentially to determine germline polymorphisms from blood samples. These polymorphisms remain stable throughout disease progression, unlike somatic mutations from tumor tissues. Two-stage design and additive genetic models were adopted in this study. Results: From the 26 SNPs identified in the first stage, 2 SNPs were found to be significantly associated with CCRT response in the second stage. Single nucleotide polymorphism rs16863886, located between SGPP2 and FARSB on chromosome 2q36.1, was significantly associated with a 3.93-fold increase in pathologic complete response to CCRT (95% confidence interval 1.62–10.30) under additive models. Single nucleotide polymorphism rs4954256, located in ZRANB3 on chromosome 2q21.3, was associated with a 3.93-fold increase in pathologic complete response to CCRT (95% confidence interval 1.57–10.87). The predictive accuracy for CCRT response was 71.59% with these two SNPs combined. Conclusions: This is the first study to identify germline polymorphisms with a high accuracy for predicting CCRT response in the treatment of esophageal cancer.

  4. 77 FR 40879 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., Destruction, Transhipment, and Feedstock Use of Ozone-Depleting Substances (Renewal); 40 CFR 82.13;...

  5. 75 FR 76004 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... without change. Comment Filed EPA ICR Number 2392.01; Fuel Economy Labeling of Motor Vehicles...

  6. PASS-GP: Predictive active set selection for Gaussian processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2010-01-01

    available in GPs to make a common ranking for both active and inactive points, allowing points to be removed again from the active set. This is important for keeping the complexity down and at the same time focusing on points close to the decision boundary. We lend both theoretical and empirical support...

  7. Measuring disease activity to predict therapeutic outcome in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwee, C.B.; Prummel, M.F.; Gerding, M.N.; Kahaly, G.J.; Dekker, F.W.; Wiersinga, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The concept of disease activity in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) might explain why as many as one-third of patients do not respond to immunosuppressive treatment, because only patients in the active stage of disease are expected to respond. The hypothesis was adopted that a parameter used t

  8. A new ovarian response prediction index (ORPI: implications for individualised controlled ovarian stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Joao Batista A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to present a new ovarian response prediction index (ORPI, which was based on anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH levels, antral follicle count (AFC and age, and to verify whether it could be a reliable predictor of the ovarian stimulation response. Methods A total of 101 patients enrolled in the ICSI programme were included. The ORPI values were calculated by multiplying the AMH level (ng/ml by the number of antral follicles (2–9 mm, and the result was divided by the age (years of the patient (ORPI=(AMH x AFC/Patient age. Results The regression analysis demonstrated significant (PP=0.006 and collecting greater than or equal to 4 oocytes (OR: 49.25; PPP Conclusions The ORPI exhibited an excellent ability to predict a low ovarian response and a good ability to predict a collection of greater than or equal to 4 MII oocytes, an excessive ovarian response and the occurrence of pregnancy in infertile women. The ORPI might be used to improve the cost-benefit ratio of ovarian stimulation regimens by guiding the selection of medications and by modulating the doses and regimens according to the actual needs of the patients.

  9. [Individual response to treatments using Teuscher activator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, I L; Lagerström, L O

    1991-12-01

    Variations in facial growth and dentoalveolar development were studied in a group of 40 patients treated with the Teuscher appliance, a functional appliance which is a combination of an activator and a high-pull headgear. Patients were selected for this study on the basis of an initial Class II Division 1 malocclusion and on being consecutively treated with this appliance. The results showed that in 80% of the patients the maxilla either remained unchanged in it's relationship to the anterior cranial base (NSL) or became more retrusive during the treatment period. The mandible in 70% of the patients became more prognathic, only in four cases did the mandible become slightly more retrognathic. The analysis further showed that no statistically significant change occurred in the inclination of the mandible during treatment. Correlation analysis of the association between pretreatment mandibular plane angle and the changes during treatment showed no association. The dentoalveolar changes were characterized by retroclination of the maxillary incisors in 90% of the patients which occurred in spite of the torque springs, intended to maintain the inclination of these teeth. In contrast, the mandibular incisors on average showed no statistically significant change during treatment. This may be attributed to the capping of these teeth. Analysis of the association between the pretreatment inclination and the change during treatment of the mandibular incisors showed an inverse relationship. Mandibular incisors, that initially were proclined, tended to become more upright which is in contrast to previous studies indicating that functional appliance treatment generally increases the inclination of these teeth. The results of this study suggest that the correction of the skeletal component of the Class II malocclusion with the Teuscher appliance in most instances takes place by restriction of forward development of the maxilla in combination with downward-forward growth of the

  10. Predicting the profile of nutrients available for absorption: from nutrient requirement to animal response and environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, J; Kebreab, E; Mills, J A N; Pellikaan, W F; López, S; Bannink, A; France, J

    2007-02-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for dairy cattle aim to match nutrient requirements with nutrient intake at pre-defined production levels. These systems were not developed to address, and are not suitable to predict, the responses to dietary changes in terms of production level and product composition, excretion of nutrients to the environment, and nutrition related disorders. The change from a requirement to a response system to meet the needs of various stakeholders requires prediction of the profile of absorbed nutrients and its subsequent utilisation for various purposes. This contribution examines the challenges to predicting the profile of nutrients available for absorption in dairy cattle and provides guidelines for further improved prediction with regard to animal production responses and environmental pollution.The profile of nutrients available for absorption comprises volatile fatty acids, long-chain fatty acids, amino acids and glucose. Thus the importance of processes in the reticulo-rumen is obvious. Much research into rumen fermentation is aimed at determination of substrate degradation rates. Quantitative knowledge on rates of passage of nutrients out of the rumen is rather limited compared with that on degradation rates, and thus should be an important theme in future research. Current systems largely ignore microbial metabolic variation, and extant mechanistic models of rumen fermentation give only limited attention to explicit representation of microbial metabolic activity. Recent molecular techniques indicate that knowledge on the presence and activity of various microbial species is far from complete. Such techniques may give a wealth of information, but to include such findings in systems predicting the nutrient profile requires close collaboration between molecular scientists and mathematical modellers on interpreting and evaluating quantitative data. Protozoal metabolism is of particular interest here given the paucity of quantitative data

  11. Body size and activity times mediate mammalian responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Christy M; King, Sarah R B

    2014-06-01

    Model predictions of extinction risks from anthropogenic climate change are dire, but still overly simplistic. To reliably predict at-risk species we need to know which species are currently responding, which are not, and what traits are mediating the responses. For mammals, we have yet to identify overarching physiological, behavioral, or biogeographic traits determining species' responses to climate change, but they must exist. To date, 73 mammal species in North America and eight additional species worldwide have been assessed for responses to climate change, including local extirpations, range contractions and shifts, decreased abundance, phenological shifts, morphological or genetic changes. Only 52% of those species have responded as expected, 7% responded opposite to expectations, and the remaining 41% have not responded. Which mammals are and are not responding to climate change is mediated predominantly by body size and activity times (phylogenetic multivariate logistic regressions, P climate change than a shrew. Obligate diurnal and nocturnal mammals are more than twice as likely to respond as mammals with flexible activity times (P climate change in some analyses, whereas hibernation, heterothermy, burrowing, nesting, and study location did not influence responses. These results indicate that some mammal species can behaviorally escape climate change whereas others cannot, analogous to paleontology's climate sheltering hypothesis. Including body size and activity flexibility traits into future extinction risk forecasts should substantially improve their predictive utility for conservation and management. PMID:24449019

  12. Nonlinear Economic Model Predictive Control Strategy for Active Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Rui Mirra; Zong, Yi; Sousa, Joao M. C.;

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the development of advanced and innovative intelligent control techniques for energy management in buildings is a key issue within the smart grid topic. A nonlinear economic model predictive control (EMPC) scheme, based on the branch-and-bound tree search used as optimization algorithm...... for solving the nonconvex optimization problem is proposed in this paper. A simulation using the nonlinear model-based controller to control the temperature levels of an intelligent office building (PowerFlexHouse) is addressed. Its performance is compared with a linear model-based controller. The nonlinear...

  13. Transfer Student Success: Educationally Purposeful Activities Predictive of Undergraduate GPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauria, Renee M.; Fuller, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the effects of Educationally Purposeful Activities (EPAs) on transfer and nontransfer students' cumulative GPAs. Hierarchical, linear, and multiple regression models yielded seven statistically significant educationally purposeful items that influenced undergraduate student GPAs. Statistically significant positive EPAs for…

  14. Integrating Transcriptomic and Proteomic Data Using Predictive Regulatory Network Models of Host Response to Pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Chasman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian host response to pathogenic infections is controlled by a complex regulatory network connecting regulatory proteins such as transcription factors and signaling proteins to target genes. An important challenge in infectious disease research is to understand molecular similarities and differences in mammalian host response to diverse sets of pathogens. Recently, systems biology studies have produced rich collections of omic profiles measuring host response to infectious agents such as influenza viruses at multiple levels. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the regulatory network driving host response to multiple infectious agents, we integrated host transcriptomes and proteomes using a network-based approach. Our approach combines expression-based regulatory network inference, structured-sparsity based regression, and network information flow to infer putative physical regulatory programs for expression modules. We applied our approach to identify regulatory networks, modules and subnetworks that drive host response to multiple influenza infections. The inferred regulatory network and modules are significantly enriched for known pathways of immune response and implicate apoptosis, splicing, and interferon signaling processes in the differential response of viral infections of different pathogenicities. We used the learned network to prioritize regulators and study virus and time-point specific networks. RNAi-based knockdown of predicted regulators had significant impact on viral replication and include several previously unknown regulators. Taken together, our integrated analysis identified novel module level patterns that capture strain and pathogenicity-specific patterns of expression and helped identify important regulators of host response to influenza infection.

  15. Integrating Transcriptomic and Proteomic Data Using Predictive Regulatory Network Models of Host Response to Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasman, Deborah; Walters, Kevin B.; Lopes, Tiago J. S.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Roy, Sushmita

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian host response to pathogenic infections is controlled by a complex regulatory network connecting regulatory proteins such as transcription factors and signaling proteins to target genes. An important challenge in infectious disease research is to understand molecular similarities and differences in mammalian host response to diverse sets of pathogens. Recently, systems biology studies have produced rich collections of omic profiles measuring host response to infectious agents such as influenza viruses at multiple levels. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the regulatory network driving host response to multiple infectious agents, we integrated host transcriptomes and proteomes using a network-based approach. Our approach combines expression-based regulatory network inference, structured-sparsity based regression, and network information flow to infer putative physical regulatory programs for expression modules. We applied our approach to identify regulatory networks, modules and subnetworks that drive host response to multiple influenza infections. The inferred regulatory network and modules are significantly enriched for known pathways of immune response and implicate apoptosis, splicing, and interferon signaling processes in the differential response of viral infections of different pathogenicities. We used the learned network to prioritize regulators and study virus and time-point specific networks. RNAi-based knockdown of predicted regulators had significant impact on viral replication and include several previously unknown regulators. Taken together, our integrated analysis identified novel module level patterns that capture strain and pathogenicity-specific patterns of expression and helped identify important regulators of host response to influenza infection. PMID:27403523

  16. Skin conductance response to the pain of others predicts later costly helping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grit Hein

    Full Text Available People show autonomic responses when they empathize with the suffering of another person. However, little is known about how these autonomic changes are related to prosocial behavior. We measured skin conductance responses (SCRs and affect ratings in participants while either receiving painful stimulation themselves, or observing pain being inflicted on another person. In a later session, they could prevent the infliction of pain in the other by choosing to endure pain themselves. Our results show that the strength of empathy-related vicarious skin conductance responses predicts later costly helping. Moreover, the higher the match between SCR magnitudes during the observation of pain in others and SCR magnitude during self pain, the more likely a person is to engage in costly helping. We conclude that prosocial motivation is fostered by the strength of the vicarious autonomic response as well as its match with first-hand autonomic experience.

  17. Anxiety symptoms and disorder predict activity limitations in the elderly.

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Joanna; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Stewart, Rob; BERR, Claudine; Ritchie, Karen; Carrière, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: In the elderly, little attention has been paid to anxiety both on a symptom dimension and as a disorder, as an independent risk factor for the incidence of activity limitations. METHODS: In a community-dwelling cohort of 1581 persons aged 65+, the association between trait anxiety symptoms (Spielberger Trait, third highest tertile) and baseline DSM-IV anxiety disorder, and 7-year incident activity limitations was determined using mixed logistic regression...

  18. A predictive control algorithm for an active three-phase power filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Vlasenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with grid connection circuits for active filters, structures of active power filter control systems, and methods based on full capacity components determination. The existing structures of active power filter control and control algorithm adjustment for valve commutation loss reduction are analyzed. A predictive control algorithm for an active three-phase power filter is introduced.

  19. A predictive control algorithm for an active three-phase power filter

    OpenAIRE

    R.V. Vlasenko; Bialobrzeski, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with grid connection circuits for active filters, structures of active power filter control systems, and methods based on full capacity components determination. The existing structures of active power filter control and control algorithm adjustment for valve commutation loss reduction are analyzed. A predictive control algorithm for an active three-phase power filter is introduced.

  20. Predicting the Response to Intravenous Immunoglobulins in an Animal Model of Chronic Neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Johannes; Mathys, Christian; Mausberg, Anne K.; Bendszus, Martin; Pham, Mirko; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Kieseier, Bernd C.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a disabling autoimmune disorder of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) are effective in CIDP, but the treatment response varies greatly between individual patients. Understanding this interindividual variability and predicting the response to IVIg constitute major clinical challenges in CIDP. We previously established intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 deficient non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice as a novel animal model of CIDP. Here, we demonstrate that similar to human CIDP patients, ICAM-1 deficient NOD mice respond to IVIg treatment by clinical and histological measures. Nerve magnetic resonance imaging and histology demonstrated that IVIg ameliorates abnormalities preferentially in distal parts of the sciatic nerve branches. The IVIg treatment response also featured great heterogeneity allowing us to identify IVIg responders and non-responders. An increased production of interleukin (IL)-17 positively predicted IVIg treatment responses. In human sural nerve biopsy sections, high numbers of IL-17 producing cells were associated with younger age and shorter disease duration. Thus, our novel animal model can be utilized to identify prognostic markers of treatment responses in chronic inflammatory neuropathies and we identify IL-17 production as one potential such prognostic marker. PMID:27711247

  1. Stathmin protein level, a potential predictive marker for taxane treatment response in endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrica M J Werner

    Full Text Available Stathmin is a prognostic marker in many cancers, including endometrial cancer. Preclinical studies, predominantly in breast cancer, have suggested that stathmin may additionally be a predictive marker for response to paclitaxel. We first evaluated the response to paclitaxel in endometrial cancer cell lines before and after stathmin knock-down. Subsequently we investigated the clinical response to paclitaxel containing chemotherapy in metastatic endometrial cancer in relation to stathmin protein level in tumors. Stathmin level was also determined in metastatic lesions, analyzing changes in biomarker status on disease progression. Knock-down of stathmin improved sensitivity to paclitaxel in endometrial carcinoma cell lines with both naturally higher and lower sensitivity to paclitaxel. In clinical samples, high stathmin level was demonstrated to be associated with poor response to paclitaxel containing chemotherapy and to reduced disease specific survival only in patients treated with such combination. Stathmin level increased significantly from primary to metastatic lesions. This study suggests, supported by both preclinical and clinical data, that stathmin could be a predictive biomarker for response to paclitaxel treatment in endometrial cancer. Re-assessment of stathmin level in metastatic lesions prior to treatment start may be relevant. Also, validation in a randomized clinical trial will be important.

  2. The maternal serological response to intrauterine Ureaplasma sp. infection and prediction of risk of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demelza Jane Ireland

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (PTB associated with intrauterine infection and inflammation (IUI is the major cause of early PTB less than 32 weeks gestation. Ureaplasma sp. are common commensals of the urogenital tract in pregnancy and are the most commonly identified microorganism in amniotic fluid of preterm pregnancies. While we have an understanding of the causal relationship between intraamniotic infection, inflammation and PTB, we are still unable to explain why vaginal Ureaplasma colonization is tolerated in some women but causes PTB in others. It is now known that placental tissues are frequently colonized by bacteria even in apparently healthy pregnancies delivered at term; usually this occurs in the absence of a significant local inflammatory response. It appears, therefore, that the site, nature and magnitude of the immune response to infiltrating microorganisms is key in determining pregnancy outcome. Some evidence exists that the maternal serological response to Ureaplasma sp. colonization may be predictive of adverse pregnancy outcome, although issues such as the importance of virulence factors (serovars and the timing, magnitude and functional consequences of the immune response await clarification. This mini-review discusses the evidence linking the maternal immune response to risk of PTB and the potential applications of maternal serological analysis for predicting obstetric outcome.

  3. Infant Responses to Maternal Still Face at 9 Months Predict Social Abilities at 18 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Yato, Yuko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Tong, Lian; Yamakawa, Noriko; Anme, Tokie; Kawai, Masatoshi; Maeda, Tadahiko; Japan, Children's Study Group

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study investigated developmental change and stability in infant responses to the still-face (SF) situation, as well as predictive validity at age 18 months, focusing on autonomy and responsiveness.Methods: A total of 231 children (117 boys and 114 girls) and their Japanese mothers were observed in a face-to-face SF situation at two infant ages (4 and 9 months), as well as a caregiver-child teaching interaction at age 18 months. Each infant’s facial expression, gaze direction,...

  4. Infant Responses to Maternal Still Face at 9 Months Predict Social Abilities at 18 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Yato, Yuko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Tong, Lian; Yamakawa, Noriko; Anme, Tokie; Kawai, Masatoshi; Maeda, Tadahiko; ,

    2010-01-01

    Background This study investigated developmental change and stability in infant responses to the still-face (SF) situation, as well as predictive validity at age 18 months, focusing on autonomy and responsiveness. Methods A total of 231 children (117 boys and 114 girls) and their Japanese mothers were observed in a face-to-face SF situation at two infant ages (4 and 9 months), as well as a caregiver-child teaching interaction at age 18 months. Each infant’s facial expression, gaze direction, ...

  5. Prediction analysis of dose equivalent responses of neutron dosemeters used at a MOX fuel facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, N; Yoshida, T; Takada, C

    2011-07-01

    To predict how accurately neutron dosemeters can measure the neutron dose equivalent (rate) in MOX fuel fabrication facility work environments, the dose equivalent responses of neutron dosemeters were calculated by the spectral folding method. The dosemeters selected included two types of personal dosemeter, namely a thermoluminescent albedo neutron dosemeter and an electronic neutron dosemeter, three moderator-based neutron survey meters, and one special instrument called an H(p)(10) monitor. The calculations revealed the energy dependences of the responses expected within the entire range of neutron spectral variations observed in neutron fields at workplaces. PMID:21498409

  6. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approx. 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approx. 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This report documents the outcome of the assessment.

  7. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approx. 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approx. 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  8. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading. [Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approximately 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  9. Prediction of thermal and mechanical stress-strain responses of TMC's subjected to complex TMF histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. S.; Mirdamadi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and analytical evaluation of cross-plied laminates of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn (Ti-15-3) matrix reinforced with continuous silicon-carbide fibers (SCS-6) subjected to a complex TMF loading profile. Thermomechanical fatigue test techniques were developed to conduct a simulation of a generic hypersonic flight profile. A micromechanical analysis was used. The analysis predicts the stress-strain response of the laminate and of the constituents in each ply during thermal and mechanical cycling by using only constituent properties as input. The fiber was modeled as elastic with transverse orthotropic and temperature-dependent properties. The matrix was modeled using a thermoviscoplastic constitutive relation. The fiber transverse modulus was reduced in the analysis to simulate the fiber-matrix interface failures. Excellent correlation was found between measured and predicted laminate stress-strain response due to generic hypersonic flight profile when fiber debonding was modeled.

  10. How to predict community responses to perturbations in the face of imperfect knowledge and network complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufderheide, Helge; Rudolf, Lars; Gross, Thilo; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent attempts to predict the response of large food webs to perturbations have revealed that in larger systems increasingly precise information on the elements of the system is required. Thus, the effort needed for good predictions grows quickly with the system's complexity. Here, we show that not all elements need to be measured equally well, suggesting that a more efficient allocation of effort is possible. We develop an iterative technique for determining an efficient measurement strategy. In model food webs, we find that it is most important to precisely measure the mortality and predation rates of long-lived, generalist, top predators. Prioritizing the study of such species will make it easier to understand the response of complex food webs to perturbations.

  11. AAA gunnermodel based on observer theory. [predicting a gunner's tracking response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, R. S.; Glass, B. C.; Day, C. N.; Vikmanis, M. M.

    1978-01-01

    The Luenberger observer theory is used to develop a predictive model of a gunner's tracking response in antiaircraft artillery systems. This model is composed of an observer, a feedback controller and a remnant element. An important feature of the model is that the structure is simple, hence a computer simulation requires only a short execution time. A parameter identification program based on the least squares curve fitting method and the Gauss Newton gradient algorithm is developed to determine the parameter values of the gunner model. Thus, a systematic procedure exists for identifying model parameters for a given antiaircraft tracking task. Model predictions of tracking errors are compared with human tracking data obtained from manned simulation experiments. Model predictions are in excellent agreement with the empirical data for several flyby and maneuvering target trajectories.

  12. Predicting multi-class responses to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become a widely used treatment for improving local control of disease and increasing survival rates of rectal cancer patients. We aimed to identify a set of genes that can be used to predict responses to CRT in patients with rectal cancer. Gene expression profiles of pre-therapeutic biopsy specimens obtained from 77 rectal cancer patients were analyzed using DNA microarrays. The response to CRT was determined using the Dworak tumor regression grade: grade 1 (minimal, MI), grade 2 (moderate, MO), grade 3 (near total, NT), or grade 4 (total, TO). Top ranked genes for three different feature scores such as a p-value (pval), a rank product (rank), and a normalized product (norm) were selected to distinguish pre-defined groups such as complete responders (TO) from the MI, MO, and NT groups. Among five different classification algorithms, supporting vector machine (SVM) with the top 65 norm features performed at the highest accuracy for predicting MI using a 5-fold cross validation strategy. On the other hand, 98 pval features were selected for predicting TO by elastic net (EN). Finally we combined TO- and MI-finder models to build a three-class classification model and validated it using an independent dataset of rectal cancer mRNA expression. We identified MI- and TO-finders for predicting preoperative CRT responses, and validated these data using an independent public dataset. This stepwise prediction model requires further evaluation in clinical studies in order to develop personalized preoperative CRT in patients with rectal cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-016-0623-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  13. Activated oxygen alters cerebral microvascular responses in newborn pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffler, C.W.; Busiia, D.W.; Armstead, W.M.; Mirro, R.; Thelin, O. (Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis (United States))

    1990-02-26

    In piglets, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion blocks prostanoid dependent cerebral vasodilation to hypercapnia (CO{sub 2}) and hypotension but not prostanoid independent dilation to isoproterenol (Isu) or constriction to norepinephrine (NE). Ischemia/reperfusion increases activated-O{sub 2} production by piglet brains. Using cranial windows in piglets, the authors investigated the hypothesis that activated oxygen can block prostanoid dependent cerebral vasodilator responses to CO{sub 2} and hypotension without altering responses to Isu and NE. Exposure to an activated oxygen generating system of xanthine oxidase, hypoxanthine, and Fe that made about 3 times the activated-O{sub 2} on the brain surface as ischemia/reperfusion caused reversible pial arteriolar dilation. After exposure, pial arteriolar dilation was reduced to CO{sub 2} and hypotension but not to Isu. NE constrictor responses were also unaltered. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} + Fe caused constriction followed by reversible dilation. After exposure, pial arteriolar dilation in response to CO{sub 2} and hypotension was not altered. However, addition of xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe totally eliminated pial arteriolar dilator responses to CO{sub 2} and hypotension but did not decrease dilation caused by Isu or constriction caused by NE. The authors conclude that activated oxygen could produce the altered prostanoid dependent pial arteriolar responses observed following ischemia in piglets.

  14. Predicting zooplankton response to environmental changes in a temperate estuarine ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Sónia; Azeiteiro, Ulisses; Leandro, Sérgio; Queiroga, Henrique; Primo, Ana; Martinho, Filipe; Viegas, Ivan; Pardal, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A novel strategy that allows to predict the responses of zooplanktonic species to environmental conditions in an estuarine temperate ecosystem (Mondego estuary) is presented. It uses 12 indicator species from the zooplanktonic Mondego database (102 species) that are common members of the different habitats, characterized by their specific hydrological conditions. Indicator-species analysis (ISA) was used to define and describe which species were typical of each of the five sampling ...

  15. Predicting volume responsiveness in spontaneously breathing patients: still a challenging problem

    OpenAIRE

    Magder, S

    2006-01-01

    The prediction of which patients respond to fluid infusion and which patients do not is an important issue in the intensive care setting. Assessment of this response by monitoring changes in some hemodynamic characteristics in relation to spontaneous breathing efforts would be very helpful for the management of the critically ill. This unfortunately remains a difficult clinical problem, as discussed in the previous issue of the journal. Technical factors and physiological factors limit the us...

  16. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to predict response of hepatocellular carcinoma to chemoembolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johnathan; C; Chung; Neel; K; Naik; Robert; J; Lewandowski; Mary; F; Mulcahy; Laura; M; Kulik; Kent; T; Sato; Robert; K; Ryu; Riad; Salem; Andrew; C; Larson; Reed; A; Omary

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether intra-procedural diffusion- weighted magnetic resonance imaging can predict response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during trans- catheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). METHODS: Sixteen patients (15 male), aged 59 ±11 years (range: 42-81 years) underwent a total of 21 separate treatments for unresectable HCC in a hybrid magnetic resonance/interventional radiology suite. Ana- tomical imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (b = 0, 500 s/mm2) were performed on a 1.5-T unit. ...

  17. A validated miRNA profile predicts response to therapy in esophageal adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    SKINNER, HEATH D.; Lee, Jeffrey H.; Manoop S. Bhutani; Weston, Brian; Hofstetter, Wayne; Komaki, Ritsuko; Shiozaki, Hironori; Wadhwa, Roopma; Sudo, Kazuki; Elimova, Elena; Song, Shumei; Ye, Yuanqing; Huang, Maosheng; Ajani, Jaffer; Wu, Xifeng

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the current study we present a validated miRNA signature to predict pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in esophageal adenocarcinoma. METHODS Three patient cohorts (discovery, n = 10; model, n = 43; and validation, n = 65) with locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma were analyzed. In the discovery cohort 754 miRNAs were examined in pretreatment tumor biopsy specimens using a TaqMan array. Of these, the 44 most significantly altered between tumors...

  18. Immune Profiles to Predict Response to Desensitization Therapy in Highly HLA-Sensitized Kidney Transplant Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Yabu, Julie M.; Siebert, Janet C.; Maecker, Holden T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage kidney disease. Sensitization, the formation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies, remains a major barrier to successful kidney transplantation. Despite the implementation of desensitization strategies, many candidates fail to respond. Current progress is hindered by the lack of biomarkers to predict response and to guide therapy. Our objective was to determine whether differences in immune and gene profile...

  19. Prediction of dose-hepatotoxic response in humans based on toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic modeling with or without in vivo data: A case study with acetaminophen

    OpenAIRE

    Péry, Alexandre R. R.; Brochot, Céline; Zeman, Florence A.; Mombelli, Enrico; Desmots, Sophie; Pavan, Manuela; Fioravanzo, Elena; Zaldívar, José-Manuel

    2013-01-01

    In the present legislations, the use of methods alternative to animal testing is explicitly encouraged, to use animal testing only 'as a last resort' or to ban it. The use of alternative methods to replace kinetics or repeated dose in vivo tests is a challenging issue. We propose here a strategy based on in vitro tests and QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) models to calibrate a dose-response model predicting hepatotoxicity. The dose response consists in calibrating and coupl...

  20. Trait-like brain activity during adolescence predicts anxious temperament in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Fox

    Full Text Available Early theorists (Freud and Darwin speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and

  1. Trait-like brain activity during adolescence predicts anxious temperament in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew S; Shelton, Steven E; Oakes, Terrence R; Davidson, Richard J; Kalin, Ned H

    2008-01-01

    Early theorists (Freud and Darwin) speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI) (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations) and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray) that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and depression. In

  2. Vitamin D Receptor gene polymorphism may predict response to vitamin D intake and bone turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ahangari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study:The molecular and functional basis of the VDR polymorphisms is fundamental to appreciate their potential clinical implications. The rationale of this study was to determine the level of serum vitamin D response to vitamin D intake in different genotypes of VDR (FokI polymorphism and its effect on the bone turnover in postmenopausal women.  Methods:The subjects for the study were 312 pre and post-menopausal women aged between 20-75 year randomly selected from the participants of Iranian multicenter osteoporosis study. After an overnight fast, 4ml of peripheral blood was taken and centrifuged to separate serum for measurement of serum parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin and cross laps. The FokI polymorphism in exon 2 of the VDR gene was detected by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism Results and major conclusion: FOKI genotype predicted serum cross laps after adjustment for age, menopausal status, serum vitamin D (p<0.001 but did not find significant prediction regarding serum osteocalcin (p=0.3.Also in this model FOKI genotype predicted serum vitamin D after adjustment for age, menopausal status, calcium and vitamin D intake (p<0.001.VDR gene polymorphism may modifies response to vitamin D intake and predicts bone turnover.   "n 

  3. Predicting Themomechanical Responses of Polymer Thin Films and Nanocomposites via an Innovative Coarse-grained Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenjie; Hsu, David; Keten, Sinan

    Understanding and predicting the thermomechanical responses of nanoscale polymer systems are very challenging as their responses are greatly influenced by many factors, such as interfacial energy, filler volume fraction and molecule weight, giving rise to the presence of nanoscale interface and free surface. To overcome these issues, here we employ a novel atomistically informed coarse-grained computational technique, called thermomechanically consistent coarse graining (TCCG), to investigate how the nanoscale interface and free surface influence the elastic modulus (E) and glass transition temperature (Tg) of polymer films and nanocomposites. By performing tensile tests and nanoindentation simulations, we are able to predict the size dependent elastic properties of polymer films and quantify the length scale of the local mechanical interphase. Finally, taking cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites as a relevant model system, we present a multi-scale framework built upon our CG approach to allow the prediction of Tg of nanocomposite as a function of interfacial energy and filler volume fractions by drawing the analogy between thin film and nanocomposites. Our established multi-scale framework is validated by recent experiments and breaks new ground in predicting, without any empirical parameters, key structure-property relationships for polymer nanomaterials.

  4. Rapid brain responses independently predict gain maximization and loss minimization during economic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, René; Appelbaum, Lawrence G; Pearson, John M; Huettel, Scott A; Woldorff, Marty G

    2013-04-17

    Success in many decision-making scenarios depends on the ability to maximize gains and minimize losses. Even if an agent knows which cues lead to gains and which lead to losses, that agent could still make choices yielding suboptimal rewards. Here, by analyzing event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded in humans during a probabilistic gambling task, we show that individuals' behavioral tendencies to maximize gains and to minimize losses are associated with their ERP responses to the receipt of those gains and losses, respectively. We focused our analyses on ERP signals that predict behavioral adjustment: the frontocentral feedback-related negativity (FRN) and two P300 (P3) subcomponents, the frontocentral P3a and the parietal P3b. We found that, across participants, gain maximization was predicted by differences in amplitude of the P3b for suboptimal versus optimal gains (i.e., P3b amplitude difference between the least good and the best gains). Conversely, loss minimization was predicted by differences in the P3b amplitude to suboptimal versus optimal losses (i.e., difference between the worst and the least bad losses). Finally, we observed that the P3a and P3b, but not the FRN, predicted behavioral adjustment on subsequent trials, suggesting a specific adaptive mechanism by which prior experience may alter ensuing behavior. These findings indicate that individual differences in gain maximization and loss minimization are linked to individual differences in rapid neural responses to monetary outcomes.

  5. Do the acute platelet responses of patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) to IV anti-D and to IV gammaglobulin predict response to subsequent splenectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussel, J B; Kaufmann, C P; Ware, R E; Woloski, B M

    2001-05-01

    The acute platelet response to Intravenous Gammaglobulin (IVIG) has been reported to predict response to subsequent splenectomy of patients with ITP. The current study was undertaken to determine if the platelet response to IV anti-D (Winrho-SDF) predicts response to subsequent splenectomy. The 61 HIV-uninfected children and adults in this study had taken part in the pre-licensing studies of IV anti-D and were all those who not only had evaluable platelet responses to IV anti-D but also had undergone splenectomy and had information available describing its 1-year outcome. Results of treatment with IVIG were available in 38 of these 61 patients. Neither response to the initial infusion of IV anti-D, nor response to the initial or last IVIG, predicted the response in either children or adults to subsequent splenectomy. However, response to the last anti-D infusion in adults was strongly correlated (P = 0.003) to response to subsequent splenectomy as was hemolysis >/=2.0 gm/dl after IV anti-D (P = 0.03). There was no overall relationship between response to IV anti-D or IVIG, and response to subsequent splenectomy. However, a good platelet response in adults to the last IV anti-D and a hemoglobin decrease >/=2.0 gm/dl both appeared to predict response to subsequent splenectomy. PMID:11279654

  6. Measurement and Prediction of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian; Turner, Travis L.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Previous work at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) involved fabrication and testing of composite beams with embedded, pre-strained shape memory alloy (SMA) ribbons within the beam structures. That study also provided comparison of experimental results with numerical predictions from a research code making use of a new thermoelastic model for shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures. The previous work showed qualitative validation of the numerical model. However, deficiencies in the experimental-numerical correlation were noted and hypotheses for the discrepancies were given for further investigation. The goal of this work is to refine the experimental measurement and numerical modeling approaches in order to better understand the discrepancies, improve the correlation between prediction and measurement, and provide rigorous quantitative validation of the numerical analysis/design tool. The experimental investigation is refined by a more thorough test procedure and incorporation of higher fidelity measurements such as infrared thermography and projection moire interferometry. The numerical results are produced by a recently commercialized version of the constitutive model as implemented in ABAQUS and are refined by incorporation of additional measured parameters such as geometric imperfection. Thermal buckling, post-buckling, and random responses to thermal and inertial (base acceleration) loads are studied. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of SMAHC structures in controlling static and dynamic responses by adaptive stiffening. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results of the static and dynamic thermomechanical response, thereby providing quantitative validation of the numerical tool.

  7. Biomarkers for predicting clinical response to immunosuppressive therapy in aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Atsushi; Kojima, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    The decision to select hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or immunosuppressive therapy (IST) as initial therapy in acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is currently based on patient age and the availability of a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor. Although IST is a promising treatment option, the ability to predict its long-term outcomes remains poor due to refractoriness, relapses, and the risk of clonal evolution. Several predictive biomarkers for response to IST have been posited, including age, gender, pre-treatment blood cell counts, cytokines, gene mutations, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and telomere length (TL). While previous studies have provided substantial biological insights into the utility of IST, the prognostic power of the reported biomarkers is currently insufficient to contribute to clinical decision making. Recently, a large retrospective analysis proposed the combination of minor PNH clones and TL as an efficient predictor of IST response. Identification of a reliable predictor would provide a useful tool for determining the most appropriate treatment choice for AA patients, including up-front HSCT from HLA-matched unrelated donor. The present review summarizes studies evaluating the utility of biomarkers in predicting the clinical response to IST of patients with AA, and provides a baseline for prospective studies aimed at validating previously reported biomarkers. PMID:27091471

  8. Algorithms to Improve the Prediction of Postprandial Insulinaemia in Response to Common Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kirstine J; Petocz, Peter; Colagiuri, Stephen; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns that induce excessive insulin secretion may contribute to worsening insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. Our aim was to generate mathematical algorithms to improve the prediction of postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia for foods of known nutrient composition, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL). We used an expanded database of food insulin index (FII) values generated by testing 1000 kJ portions of 147 common foods relative to a reference food in lean, young, healthy volunteers. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were applied to validate previously generated equations for predicting insulinaemia, and develop improved predictive models. Large differences in insulinaemic responses within and between food groups were evident. GL, GI and available carbohydrate content were the strongest predictors of the FII, explaining 55%, 51% and 47% of variation respectively. Fat, protein and sugar were significant but relatively weak predictors, accounting for only 31%, 7% and 13% of the variation respectively. Nutritional composition alone explained only 50% of variability. The best algorithm included a measure of glycemic response, sugar and protein content and explained 78% of variation. Knowledge of the GI or glycaemic response to 1000 kJ portions together with nutrient composition therefore provides a good approximation for ranking of foods according to their "insulin demand".

  9. Algorithms to Improve the Prediction of Postprandial Insulinaemia in Response to Common Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstine J. Bell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary patterns that induce excessive insulin secretion may contribute to worsening insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. Our aim was to generate mathematical algorithms to improve the prediction of postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia for foods of known nutrient composition, glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL. We used an expanded database of food insulin index (FII values generated by testing 1000 kJ portions of 147 common foods relative to a reference food in lean, young, healthy volunteers. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were applied to validate previously generated equations for predicting insulinaemia, and develop improved predictive models. Large differences in insulinaemic responses within and between food groups were evident. GL, GI and available carbohydrate content were the strongest predictors of the FII, explaining 55%, 51% and 47% of variation respectively. Fat, protein and sugar were significant but relatively weak predictors, accounting for only 31%, 7% and 13% of the variation respectively. Nutritional composition alone explained only 50% of variability. The best algorithm included a measure of glycemic response, sugar and protein content and explained 78% of variation. Knowledge of the GI or glycaemic response to 1000 kJ portions together with nutrient composition therefore provides a good approximation for ranking of foods according to their “insulin demand”.

  10. The Predictive Role of Stock Market Return for Real Activity in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jiranyakul, Komain

    2012-01-01

    Stock market return is one of financial variables that contain information to forecast real activity such as industrial production and real GDP growth. However, it is still controversial that stock market return can have a predictive content on real activity. This paper attempts to investigate the ability of stock market return to predict industrial production growth (or real activity) in Thailand, which is an emerging market economy. The standard causality test and the equal forecast evalua...

  11. Alexithymia predicts arousal-based processing deficits and discordance between emotion response systems during emotional imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasley-Miklus, Catherine E; Panayiotou, Georgia; Vrana, Scott R

    2016-03-01

    Alexithymia is believed to involve deficits in emotion processing and imagery ability. Previous findings suggest that it is especially related to deficits in processing the arousal dimension of emotion, and that discordance may exist between self-report and physiological responses to emotional stimuli in alexithymia. The current study used a well-established emotional imagery paradigm to examine emotion processing deficits and discordance in participants (N = 86) selected based on their extreme scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Physiological (skin conductance, heart rate, and corrugator and zygomaticus electromyographic responses) and self-report (valence, arousal ratings) responses were monitored during imagery of anger, fear, joy, and neutral scenes and emotionally neutral high arousal (action) scenes. Results from regression analyses indicated that alexithymia was largely unrelated to responses on valence-based measures (facial electromyography, valence ratings), but that it was related to arousal-based measures. Specifically, alexithymia was related to higher heart rate during neutral and lower heart rate during fear imagery. Alexithymia did not predict differential responses to action versus neutral imagery, suggesting specificity of deficits to emotional contexts. Evidence for discordance between physiological responses and self-report in alexithymia was obtained from within-person analyses using multilevel modeling. Results are consistent with the idea that alexithymic deficits are specific to processing emotional arousal, and suggest difficulties with parasympathetic control and emotion regulation. Alexithymia is also associated with discordance between self-reported emotional experience and physiological response to emotion, consistent with prior evidence.

  12. The eye is listening: Music-induced arousal and individual differences predict pupillary responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eGingras

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pupillary responses are a well-known indicator of emotional arousal but have not yet been systematically investigated in response to music. Here, we measured pupillary dilations evoked by short musical excerpts normalized for intensity and selected for their stylistic uniformity. Thirty participants (15 females provided subjective ratings of music-induced felt arousal, tension, pleasantness and familiarity for 80 classical music excerpts. The pupillary responses evoked by these excerpts were measured in another thirty participants (15 females. We probed the role of listener-specific characteristics such as mood, stress reactivity, self-reported role of music in life, liking for the selected excerpts, as well as of subjective responses to music, in pupillary responses. Linear mixed model analyses showed that a greater role of music in life was associated with larger dilations, and that larger dilations were also predicted for excerpts rated as more arousing or tense. However, an interaction between arousal and liking for the excerpts suggested that pupillary responses were modulated less strongly by arousal when the excerpts were particularly liked. An analogous interaction was observed between tension and liking. Additionally, males exhibited larger dilations than females. Overall, these findings suggest a complex interplay between bottom-up and top-down influences on pupillary responses to music.

  13. Prediction of Antibacterial Activity from Physicochemical Properties of Antimicrobial Peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sousa Pereira Simoes de Melo, Manuel; Ferre, Rafael; Feliu, Lidia; Bardaji, Eduard; Planas, Marta; Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.

    2011-01-01

    Consensus is gathering that antimicrobial peptides that exert their antibacterial action at the membrane level must reach a local concentration threshold to become active. Studies of peptide interaction with model membranes do identify such disruptive thresholds but demonstrations of the possible co

  14. Predicting Nitrogen Fertilizer Recommendations for Corn using an Active Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active sensors, mounted on typical agricultural equipment, can be used to measure N (nitrogen) status in corn (Zea mays L.). This gives a producer the potential to improve N fertilizer recommendations that will reduce nitrate loss to the environment. This study examines the relationship between re...

  15. Ovarian response prediction in GnRH antagonist treatment for IVF using anti-Müllerian hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamdine, O.; Eijkemans, M. J C; Lentjes, E. W G; Torrance, H. L.; Macklon, N. S.; Fauser, B. C J M; Broekmans, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the clinical value of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) for the prediction of high or low ovarian response in controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF using GnRH antagonist treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER AMH as a single test has substantial accuracy for ovarian response prediction in GnRH

  16. Rapid Detection of Neutrophil Oxidative Burst Capacity is Predictive of Whole Blood Cytokine Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Vernon

    Full Text Available Maladaptive immune responses, particularly cytokine and chemokine-driven, are a significant contributor to the deleterious inflammation present in many types of injury and infection. Widely available applications to rapidly assess individual inflammatory capacity could permit identification of patients at risk for exacerbated immune responses and guide therapy. Here we evaluate neutrophil oxidative burst (NOX capacity measured by plate reader to immuno-type Rhesus Macaques as an acute strategy to rapidly detect inflammatory capacity and predict maladaptive immune responses as assayed by cytokine array.Whole blood was collected from anesthetized Rhesus Macaques (n = 25 and analyzed for plasma cytokine secretion (23-plex Luminex assay and NOX capacity. For cytokine secretion, paired samples were either unstimulated or ex-vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated (100μg/mL/24h. NOX capacity was measured in dihydrorhodamine-123 loaded samples following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA/ionomycin treatment. Pearson's test was utilized to correlate NOX capacity with cytokine secretion, p<0.05 considered significant.LPS stimulation induced secretion of the inflammatory molecules G-CSF, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12/23(p40, IL-18, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNFα. Although values were variable, several cytokines correlated with NOX capacity, p-values≤0.0001. Specifically, IL-1β (r = 0.66, IL-6 (r = 0.74, the Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12/23(p40 (r = 0.78, and TNFα (r = 0.76 were strongly associated with NOX.NOX capacity correlated with Th1-polarizing cytokine secretion, indicating its ability to rapidly predict inflammatory responses. These data suggest that NOX capacity may quickly identify patients at risk for maladaptive immune responses and who may benefit from immuno-modulatory therapies. Future studies will assess the in-vivo predictive value of NOX in animal models of immune-mediated pathologies.

  17. Right anterior superior temporal activation predicts auditory sentence comprehension following aphasic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that recovery of speech comprehension after left hemisphere infarction may depend on a mechanism in the right hemisphere. However, the role that distinct right hemisphere regions play in speech comprehension following left hemisphere stroke has not been established. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate narrative speech activation in 18 neurologically normal subjects and 17 patients with left hemisphere stroke and a history of aphasia. Activation for listening to meaningful stories relative to meaningless reversed speech was identified in the normal subjects and in each patient. Second level analyses were then used to investigate how story activation changed with the patients' auditory sentence comprehension skills and surprise story recognition memory tests post-scanning. Irrespective of lesion site, performance on tests of auditory sentence comprehension was positively correlated with activation in the right lateral superior temporal region, anterior to primary auditory cortex. In addition, when the stroke spared the left temporal cortex, good performance on tests of auditory sentence comprehension was also correlated with the left posterior superior temporal cortex (Wernicke's area). In distinct contrast to this, good story recognition memory predicted left inferior frontal and right cerebellar activation. The implication of this double dissociation in the effects of auditory sentence comprehension and story recognition memory is that left frontal and left temporal activations are dissociable. Our findings strongly support the role of the right temporal lobe in processing narrative speech and, in particular, auditory sentence comprehension following left hemisphere aphasic stroke. In addition, they highlight the importance of the right anterior superior temporal cortex where the response was dissociated from that in the left posterior temporal lobe.

  18. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9/Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Complex Activity in Human Glioma Samples Predicts Tumor Presence and Clinical Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fa Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-9/neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (MMP-9/NGAL complex activity is elevated in brain tumors and may serve as a molecular marker for brain tumors. However, the relationship between MMP-9/NGAL activity in brain tumors and patient prognosis and treatment response remains unclear. Here, we compared the clinical characteristics of glioma patients with the MMP-9/NGAL activity measured in their respective tumor and urine samples. Using gelatin zymography assays, we found that MMP-9/NGAL activity was significantly increased in tumor tissues (TT and preoperative urine samples (Preop-1d urine. Activity was reduced by seven days after surgery (Postop-1w urine and elevated again in cases of tumor recurrence. The MMP-9/NGAL status correlated well with MRI-based tumor assessments. These findings suggest that MMP-9/NGAL activity could be a novel marker to detect gliomas and predict the clinical outcome of patients.

  19. Meditation experience predicts less negative appraisal of pain: electrophysiological evidence for the involvement of anticipatory neural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher A; Jones, Anthony K P

    2010-09-01

    The aim of mindfulness meditation is to develop present-focused, non-judgmental, attention. Therefore, experience in meditation should be associated with less anticipation and negative appraisal of pain. In this study we compared a group of individuals with meditation experience to a control group to test whether any differences in the affective appraisal of pain could be explained by lower anticipatory neural processing. Anticipatory and pain-evoked ERPs and reported pain unpleasantness were recorded in response to laser stimuli of matched subjective intensity between the two groups. ERP data were analysed after source estimation with LORETA. No group effects were found on the laser energies used to induce pain. More experienced meditators perceived the pain as less unpleasant relative to controls, with meditation experience correlating inversely with unpleasantness ratings. ERP source data for anticipation showed that in meditators, lower activity in midcingulate cortex relative to controls was related to the lower unpleasantness ratings, and was predicted by lifetime meditation experience. Meditators also reversed the normal positive correlation between medial prefrontal cortical activity and pain unpleasantness during anticipation. Meditation was also associated with lower activity in S2 and insula during the pain-evoked response, although the experiment could not disambiguate this activity from the preceding anticipation response. Our data is consistent with the hypothesis that meditation reduces the anticipation and negative appraisal of pain, but effects on pain-evoked activity are less clear and may originate from preceding anticipatory activity. Further work is required to directly test the causal relationship between meditation, pain anticipation, and pain experience.

  20. Buffering social influence: neural correlates of response inhibition predict driving safety in the presence of a peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Christopher N; Carp, Joshua; O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Tinney, Francis J; Bingham, C Raymond; Shope, Jean T; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Falk, Emily B

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period characterized by increased sensitivity to social cues, as well as increased risk-taking in the presence of peers. For example, automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for adolescents, and driving with peers increases the risk of a fatal crash. Growing evidence points to an interaction between neural systems implicated in cognitive control and social and emotional context in predicting adolescent risk. We tested such a relationship in recently licensed teen drivers. Participants completed an fMRI session in which neural activity was measured during a response inhibition task, followed by a separate driving simulator session 1 week later. Participants drove alone and with a peer who was randomly assigned to express risk-promoting or risk-averse social norms. The experimentally manipulated social context during the simulated drive moderated the relationship between individual differences in neural activity in the hypothesized cognitive control network (right inferior frontal gyrus, BG) and risk-taking in the driving context a week later. Increased activity in the response inhibition network was not associated with risk-taking in the presence of a risky peer but was significantly predictive of safer driving in the presence of a cautious peer, above and beyond self-reported susceptibility to peer pressure. Individual differences in recruitment of the response inhibition network may allow those with stronger inhibitory control to override risky tendencies when in the presence of cautious peers. This relationship between social context and individual differences in brain function expands our understanding of neural systems involved in top-down cognitive control during adolescent development. PMID:25100217

  1. The prediction of ovarian response in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Wen-qin; Yu Rong; YE Bi-lu; LIN Jin-ju; YANG Hai-yan

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To indentify the predictive parameters of ovarian response in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer(IVF-ET)cycles,Methods:one hundred and six patients were administered GnRH-a/ rFSH/ human chorionic gonadotrophin(HCG)for ovarian stimulation.The following predictive parameters were examined,age,the basal level of FSH,mean ovarian volume,total of antral follicle count(AFC),the ratio of FSH/LH and the concentration of inhibin B after down-regulation.Ovarian response was assessed by the number of oocytes retrieved and the dosage of gonado-trophins(Can)used.Results:Correlations between predictive parameters and assessment indices of ovarian response were as follows:The basal FSH level and the ratio of FSH/LH showed a negative correlation with the number of oocyte obtained(r =-0.192,r=-0.227,respectively),while AFC and the concentration of inhibin B after down-regulation posi-tively correlated with the number of oocyte obtained(r=0.316,r=0.523,respectively),AFC,the mean ovarian volume and the concentration of inhibin B after down-regulation showed a negative correlation with the dosage of Gn used(r=-0.245,r=-0.294,r=-0.241,respectively),the ratio of FSH/ LH showed a positive correlation with the dosage of Gn used(r=0.255).Multiple regression analysis showed that inhibin B was the best predictor for the number of retrieved oocyte,followed by AFC,while the ovarian volume was the most important predictive parameter for the dosage of Gn used,then the ratio of FSH/LH.Conclusions:The level of inhibin B after down-regulation is the best predictor of ovarian response in IVF-ET.However,it's not yet a widely available test due to its high cost.AFC,by simple,non-invasive trsnsvaginal ultra-sound scan,could be the first applicable option in predicting ovarian response before IVF treatment.

  2. Molecular physicochemical parameters predicting antioxidant activity of Brazilian natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Scotti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are capable of oxidizing cellular proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, contributing to cellular aging, mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, coronary heart and neurodegenerative diseases. Free radicals-scavenging by phenolic compounds occurs by the transfer of one electron followed by the H-abstraction. In order to evaluate the antioxidant activity of a series of seventeen phenolic compounds extracted from Brazilian flora (Chimarrhis turbinata and Arrabidea samydoides, some physicochemical parameters (heat formation of the neutral, radical, and cationic compounds; orbitals' energies; ClogP; ΔH OX; and ΔHf were calculated. Considering the results from the calculated descriptors, the molecules 10a-f can be classified as having a higher antioxidant activity.

  3. Response of global lightning activity to air temperature variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ming; TAO Shanchang; ZHU Baoyou; L(U) Weitao; TAN Yongbo

    2005-01-01

    It is an issue of great attention but yet not very clear whether lightning activities increase or decrease on a warmer world. Reeve et al. presented that lightning activities in global land and the Northern Hemisphere land have positive response to the increase of wet bulb temperature at 1000hPa. Is this positive response restricted only to wet bulb temperature or in land? What is the response of global lightning activities (in both land and ocean) to the global surface air temperature variation like? This paper, based on the 5-year or 8-year OTD/LIS satellite-based lightning detecting data and the NCEP reanalysis data, makes a reanalysis of the response of the global and regional lightning activities to temperature variations. The results show that on the interannual time scale the global total flash rate has positive response to the variation in global surface air temperature, with the sensitivity of 17±7% K-1. Also, the seasonal mean flash rate of continents all over the world and that of continents in the Northern Hemisphere have sensitive positive response to increase of global surface air temperature and wet bulb temperature, with the sensitivity of about 13±5% K-1, a bit lower than estimation of 40% K-1 in Reeve et al. However, the Southern Hemisphere and other areas like the tropics show no significant correlation.

  4. Baseline brain activity fluctuations predict somatosensory perception in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Boly, M; Balteau, E.; Schnakers, C; Degueldre, C.; Moonen, G.; Luxen, A.; Phillips, C.; Peigneux, P; Maquet, P; Laureys, S.

    2007-01-01

    In perceptual experiments, within-individual fluctuations in perception are observed across multiple presentations of the same stimuli, a phenomenon that remains only partially understood. Here, by means of thulium–yttrium/aluminum–garnet laser and event-related functional MRI, we tested whether variability in perception of identical stimuli relates to differences in prestimulus, baseline brain activity. Results indicate a positive relationship between conscious perception of low-intensity so...

  5. Integrated Experimental and Modeling Studies to Predict the Impact Response of Explosives and Propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maienschein, J L; Nichols III, A L; Reaugh, J E; McClelland, M E; Hsu, P C

    2005-05-25

    Understanding and predicting the impact response of explosives and propellants remains a challenging area in the energetic materials field. Efforts are underway at LLNL (and other laboratories) to apply modern diagnostic tools and computational analysis to move beyond the current level of imprecise approximations towards a predictive approach more closely based on fundamental understanding of the relevant mechanisms. In this paper we will discuss a set of underlying mechanisms that govern the impact response of explosives and propellants: (a) mechanical insult (impact) leading to material damage and/or direct ignition; (b) ignition leading to flame spreading; (c) combustion being driven by flame spreading, perhaps in damaged materials; (d) combustion causing further material damage; (e) combustion leading to pressure build-up or relief; (f) pressure changes driving the rates of combustion and flame spread; (g) pressure buildup leading to structural response and damage, which causes many of the physical hazards. We will briefly discuss our approach to modeling up these mechanistic steps using ALE 3D, the LLNL hydrodynamic code with fully coupled chemistry, heat flow, mass transfer, and slow mechanical motion as well as hydrodynamic processes. We will identify the necessary material properties needed for our models, and will discuss our experimental efforts to characterize these properties and the overall mechanistic steps, in order to develop and parameterize the models in ALE 3D and to develop a qualitative understanding of impact response.

  6. TH-A-9A-01: Active Optical Flow Model: Predicting Voxel-Level Dose Prediction in Spine SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J; Wu, Q.J.; Yin, F; Kirkpatrick, J; Cabrera, A [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Ge, Y [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To predict voxel-level dose distribution and enable effective evaluation of cord dose sparing in spine SBRT. Methods: We present an active optical flow model (AOFM) to statistically describe cord dose variations and train a predictive model to represent correlations between AOFM and PTV contours. Thirty clinically accepted spine SBRT plans are evenly divided into training and testing datasets. The development of predictive model consists of 1) collecting a sequence of dose maps including PTV and OAR (spinal cord) as well as a set of associated PTV contours adjacent to OAR from the training dataset, 2) classifying data into five groups based on PTV's locations relative to OAR, two “Top”s, “Left”, “Right”, and “Bottom”, 3) randomly selecting a dose map as the reference in each group and applying rigid registration and optical flow deformation to match all other maps to the reference, 4) building AOFM by importing optical flow vectors and dose values into the principal component analysis (PCA), 5) applying another PCA to features of PTV and OAR contours to generate an active shape model (ASM), and 6) computing a linear regression model of correlations between AOFM and ASM.When predicting dose distribution of a new case in the testing dataset, the PTV is first assigned to a group based on its contour characteristics. Contour features are then transformed into ASM's principal coordinates of the selected group. Finally, voxel-level dose distribution is determined by mapping from the ASM space to the AOFM space using the predictive model. Results: The DVHs predicted by the AOFM-based model and those in clinical plans are comparable in training and testing datasets. At 2% volume the dose difference between predicted and clinical plans is 4.2±4.4% and 3.3±3.5% in the training and testing datasets, respectively. Conclusion: The AOFM is effective in predicting voxel-level dose distribution for spine SBRT. Partially supported by NIH

  7. Participation in Peer Response as Activity: An Examination of Peer Response Stances from an Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Mitchell, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a case study that examined English as a Second Language students' peer response stances from an activity theory perspective. More specifically, the study was guided by the constructs of activity and motive/object in Leont'ev's theory. Multiple sources of data were collected from two native Spanish-speaking students enrolled in…

  8. Dissecting Neural Responses to Temporal Prediction, Attention, and Memory: Effects of Reward Learning and Interoception on Time Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Studentsova, Yana; Volkow, Nora D

    2015-10-01

    Temporal prediction (TP) is needed to anticipate future events and is essential for survival. Our sense of time is modulated by emotional and interoceptive (corporal) states that are hypothesized to rely on a dopamine (DA)-modulated "internal clock" in the basal ganglia. However, the neurobiological substrates for TP in the human brain have not been identified. We tested the hypothesis that TP involves DA striato-cortical pathways, and that accurate responses are reinforcing in themselves and activate the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed the involvement of the NAc and anterior insula in the temporal precision of the responses, and of the ventral tegmental area in error processing. Moreover, NAc showed higher activation for successful than for unsuccessful trials, indicating that accurate TP per se is rewarding. Inasmuch as activation of the NAc is associated with drug-induced addictive behaviors, its activation by accurate TP could help explain why video games that rely on TP can trigger compulsive behaviors. PMID:25389123

  9. Acceleration response spectrum for prediction of structural vibration due to individual bouncing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Lei; Racic, Vitomir; Lou, Jiayue

    2016-08-01

    This study is designed to develop an acceleration response spectrum that can be used in vibration serviceability assessment of civil engineering structures, such as floors and grandstands those are dynamically excited by individual bouncing. The spectrum is derived from numerical simulations and statistical analysis of acceleration responses of a single degree of freedom system with variable natural frequency and damping under a large number of experimentally measured individual bouncing loads. Its mathematical representation is fit for fast yet reliable application in design practice and is comprised of three equations that describe three distinct frequency regions observed in the actual data: the first resonant plateau (2-3.5 Hz), the second resonant plateau (4-7 Hz) and a descension region (7-15 Hz). Finally, this paper verifies the proposed response spectrum approach to predict structural vibration by direct comparison against numerical simulations and experimental results.

  10. Forward and Inverse Modelling Approaches for Prediction of Light Stimulus from Electrophysiological Response in Plants

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Shre Kumar; Das, Saptarshi; Manzella, Veronica; Vitaletti, Andrea; Masi, Elisa; Santopolo, Luisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Maharatna, Koushik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, system identification approach has been adopted to develop a novel dynamical model for describing the relationship between light as an environmental stimulus and the electrical response as the measured output for a bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) plant. More specifically, the target is to predict the characteristics of the input light stimulus (in terms of on-off timing, duration and intensity) from the measured electrical response - leading to an inverse problem. We explored two major classes of system estimators to develop dynamical models - linear and nonlinear - and their several variants for establishing a forward and also an inverse relationship between the light stimulus and plant electrical response. The best class of models are given by the Nonlinear Hammerstein-Wiener (NLHW) estimator showing good data fitting results over other linear and nonlinear estimators in a statistical sense. Consequently, a few set of models using different functional variants of NLHW has been developed and their a...

  11. Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations: Ground Motion Prediction Equations and Site Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this publication is to provide the state-of-the-art practice and detailed technical elements related to ground motion evaluation by ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and site response in the context of seismic hazard assessments as recommended in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. The publication includes the basics of GMPEs, ground motion simulation, selection and adjustment of GMPEs, site characterization, and modelling of site response in order to improve seismic hazard assessment. The text aims at delineating the most important aspects of these topics (including current practices, criticalities and open problems) within a coherent framework. In particular, attention has been devoted to filling conceptual gaps. It is written as a reference text for trained users who are responsible for planning preparatory seismic hazard analyses for siting of all nuclear installations and/or providing constraints for anti-seismic design and retrofitting of existing structures

  12. A computer program for predicting nonlinear uniaxial material responses using viscoplastic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T. Y.; Thompson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program was developed for predicting nonlinear uniaxial material responses using viscoplastic constitutive models. Four specific models, i.e., those due to Miller, Walker, Krieg-Swearengen-Rhode, and Robinson, are included. Any other unified model is easily implemented into the program in the form of subroutines. Analysis features include stress-strain cycling, creep response, stress relaxation, thermomechanical fatigue loop, or any combination of these responses. An outline is given on the theoretical background of uniaxial constitutive models, analysis procedure, and numerical integration methods for solving the nonlinear constitutive equations. In addition, a discussion on the computer program implementation is also given. Finally, seven numerical examples are included to demonstrate the versatility of the computer program developed.

  13. Predicting Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with PET Imaging Using Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros-Pavlos Ypsilantis

    Full Text Available Imaging of cancer with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET has become a standard component of diagnosis and staging in oncology, and is becoming more important as a quantitative monitor of individual response to therapy. In this article we investigate the challenging problem of predicting a patient's response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy from a single 18F-FDG PET scan taken prior to treatment. We take a "radiomics" approach whereby a large amount of quantitative features is automatically extracted from pretherapy PET images in order to build a comprehensive quantification of the tumor phenotype. While the dominant methodology relies on hand-crafted texture features, we explore the potential of automatically learning low- to high-level features directly from PET scans. We report on a study that compares the performance of two competing radiomics strategies: an approach based on state-of-the-art statistical classifiers using over 100 quantitative imaging descriptors, including texture features as well as standardized uptake values, and a convolutional neural network, 3S-CNN, trained directly from PET scans by taking sets of adjacent intra-tumor slices. Our experimental results, based on a sample of 107 patients with esophageal cancer, provide initial evidence that convolutional neural networks have the potential to extract PET imaging representations that are highly predictive of response to therapy. On this dataset, 3S-CNN achieves an average 80.7% sensitivity and 81.6% specificity in predicting non-responders, and outperforms other competing predictive models.

  14. Predicting Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with PET Imaging Using Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypsilantis, Petros-Pavlos; Siddique, Musib; Sohn, Hyon-Mok; Davies, Andrew; Cook, Gary; Goh, Vicky; Montana, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Imaging of cancer with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) has become a standard component of diagnosis and staging in oncology, and is becoming more important as a quantitative monitor of individual response to therapy. In this article we investigate the challenging problem of predicting a patient's response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy from a single 18F-FDG PET scan taken prior to treatment. We take a "radiomics" approach whereby a large amount of quantitative features is automatically extracted from pretherapy PET images in order to build a comprehensive quantification of the tumor phenotype. While the dominant methodology relies on hand-crafted texture features, we explore the potential of automatically learning low- to high-level features directly from PET scans. We report on a study that compares the performance of two competing radiomics strategies: an approach based on state-of-the-art statistical classifiers using over 100 quantitative imaging descriptors, including texture features as well as standardized uptake values, and a convolutional neural network, 3S-CNN, trained directly from PET scans by taking sets of adjacent intra-tumor slices. Our experimental results, based on a sample of 107 patients with esophageal cancer, provide initial evidence that convolutional neural networks have the potential to extract PET imaging representations that are highly predictive of response to therapy. On this dataset, 3S-CNN achieves an average 80.7% sensitivity and 81.6% specificity in predicting non-responders, and outperforms other competing predictive models.

  15. Predicting Climate Change Using Response Theory: Global Averages and Spatial Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Ragone, Francesco; Lunkeit, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The provision of accurate methods for predicting the climate response to anthropogenic and natural forcings is a key contemporary scientific challenge. Using a simplified and efficient open-source general circulation model of the atmosphere featuring O(10^5 ) degrees of freedom, we show how it is possible to approach such a problem using nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Response theory allows one to practically compute the time-dependent measure supported on the pullback attractor of the climate system, whose dynamics is non-autonomous as a result of time-dependent forcings. We propose a simple yet efficient method for predicting—at any lead time and in an ensemble sense—the change in climate properties resulting from increase in the concentration of CO_2 using test perturbation model runs. We assess strengths and limitations of the response theory in predicting the changes in the globally averaged values of surface temperature and of the yearly total precipitation, as well as in their spatial patterns. The quality of the predictions obtained for the surface temperature fields is rather good, while in the case of precipitation a good skill is observed only for the global average. We also show how it is possible to define accurately concepts like the inertia of the climate system or to predict when climate change is detectable given a scenario of forcing. Our analysis can be extended for dealing with more complex portfolios of forcings and can be adapted to treat, in principle, any climate observable. Our conclusion is that climate change is indeed a problem that can be effectively seen through a statistical mechanical lens, and that there is great potential for optimizing the current coordinated modelling exercises run for the preparation of the subsequent reports of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change.

  16. A fundamental model of mistuning for system identification and forced response prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Drew M.

    The vibratory response of a turbine blade is very sensitive to small changes in the blade properties. Therefore, the variations that come from the manufacturing process and wear can significantly increase a blade's vibratory stress at resonance. This phenomenon, referred to as mistuning, can cause blades in a gas turbine engine to fail from high cycle fatigue. A new reduced order model of mistuned bladed disk vibration is presented. This new approach is shown to accurately represent the response of real turbine geometries when only a single family of modes is excited. Yet its mathematical form is even simpler than that of a mass-spring model. Because it requires only minimal input data, this model is much easier to use than previous reduced order methods. Furthermore, its simplicity allows the fundamental parameters that control mistuning to be readily identified. This model is then used to develop a set of analysis tools to assess the mistuning in an engine component and predict its vibratory response under rotating conditions. These tools include a completely experimental method of system identification which uses vibratory response measurements of the bladed disk system as a whole to infer its mistuning. As a system-based method, this approach is particularly well suited to integrally bladed rotors, whose blades cannot be removed for individual testing. Next, an analytical method is developed to adjust mistuning for the effects of centrifugal stiffening. The approach allows mistuning measured from a stationary rotor to be used to predict the part's forced response under rotating conditions. Finally, the system identification method is extended to allow forced response measurements from a rotating test to be used as input. The mistuning measured through this approach will reflect all effects present during the operating conditions. One particular advantage of this method is that it can capture the effect of centrifugal loading on the mistuning of conventionally

  17. Spatial properties of objects predict patterns of neural response in the ventral visual pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David M; Young, Andrew W; Andrews, Timothy J

    2016-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies have revealed topographically organised patterns of response to different objects in the ventral visual pathway. These patterns are thought to be based on the form of the object. However, it is not clear what dimensions of object form are important. Here, we determined the extent to which spatial properties (energy across the image) could explain patterns of response in these regions. We compared patterns of fMRI response to images from different object categories presented at different retinal sizes. Although distinct neural patterns were evident to different object categories, changing the size (and thus the spatial properties) of the images had a significant effect on these patterns. Next, we used a computational approach to determine whether more fine-grained differences in the spatial properties can explain the patterns of neural response to different objects. We found that the spatial properties of the image were able to predict patterns of neural response, even when categorical factors were removed from the analysis. We also found that the effect of spatial properties on the patterns of response varies across the ventral visual pathway. These results show how spatial properties can be an important organising principle in the topography of the ventral visual pathway. PMID:26619786

  18. Quantifying bile acid malabsorption helps predict response and tailor sequestrant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekoya, Oluwafikunayo; McLaughlin, John; Leitao, Eugenia; Johns, Wendy; Lal, Simon; Paine, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Although recognised as a cause of chronic diarrhoea for over forty years, diagnostic tests and treatments for bile acid malabsorption (BAM) remain controversial. Recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines highlighted the lack of evidence in the field, and called for further research. This retrospective study explores the BAM subtype and severity, the use and response to bile acid sequestrants (BAS) and the prevalence of abnormal colonic histology. 264 selenium-75-labelled homocholic acid conjugated taurine (SeHCAT)-tested patient records were reviewed and the severity and subtype of BAM, presence of colonic histopathology and response to BAS were recorded. 53% of patients tested had BAM, with type-2 BAM in 45% of patients with presumed irritable bowel syndrome. Colonic histological abnormalities were similar overall between patients with (29%) or without (23%) BAM (p = 0.46) and between BAM subtypes, with no significant presence of inflammatory changes. 63% of patients with BAM had a successful BAS response which showed a trend to decreased response with reduced severity. Colestyramine was unsuccessful in 44% (38/87) and 45% of these (17/38) were related to medication intolerance, despite a positive SeHCAT. 47% (7/15) of colestyramine failures had a successful colesevelam response. No patient reported colesevelam intolerance. Quantifying severity of BAM appears to be useful in predicting BAS response. Colesevelam was better tolerated than colestyramine and showed some efficacy in colestyramine failures. Colestyramine failure should not be used to exclude BAM. Colonic histology is of no relevance.

  19. Amygdala response predicts trajectory of symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy among adolescent girls with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisler, Josh M; Sigel, Benjamin A; Kramer, Teresa L; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-12-01

    Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is the gold standard treatment for pediatric PTSD. Nonetheless, clinical outcomes in TF-CBT are highly variable, indicating a need to identify reliable predictors that allow forecasting treatment response. Here, we test the hypothesis that functional neuroimaging correlates of emotion processing predict PTSD symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) among adolescent girls with PTSD. Thirty-four adolescent girls with PTSD related to physical or sexual assault were enrolled in TF-CBT, delivered in an approximately 12 session format, in an open trial. Prior to treatment, they were engaged in an implicit threat processing task during 3T fMRI, during which they viewed faces depicting fearful or neutral expressions. Among adolescent girls completing TF-CBT (n = 23), slopes of PTSD symptom trajectories during TF-CBT were significantly related to pre-treatment degree of bilateral amygdala activation while viewing fearful vs neutral images. Adolescents with less symptom reduction were characterized by greater amygdala activation to both threat and neutral images (i.e., less threat-safety discrimination), whereas adolescents with greater symptom reduction were characterized by amygdala activation only to threat images. These clinical outcome relationships with pre-treatment bilateral amygdala activation remained when controlling for possible confounding demographic or clinical variables (e.g., concurrent psychotropic medication, comorbid diagnoses). While limited by a lack of a control group, these preliminary results suggest that pre-treatment amygdala reactivity to fear stimuli, a component of neurocircuitry models of PTSD, positively predicts symptom reduction during TF-CBT among assaulted adolescent girls, providing support for an objective measure for forecasting treatment response in this vulnerable population.

  20. Predicting activities without computing descriptors: graph machines for QSAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulon, A; Picot, T; Duprat, A; Dreyfus, G

    2007-01-01

    We describe graph machines, an alternative approach to traditional machine-learning-based QSAR, which circumvents the problem of designing, computing and selecting molecular descriptors. In that approach, which is similar in spirit to recursive networks, molecules are considered as structured data, represented as graphs. For each example of the data set, a mathematical function (graph machine) is built, whose structure reflects the structure of the molecule under consideration; it is the combination of identical parameterised functions, called "node functions" (e.g. a feedforward neural network). The parameters of the node functions, shared both within and across the graph machines, are adjusted during training with the "shared weights" technique. Model selection is then performed by traditional cross-validation. Therefore, the designer's main task consists in finding the optimal complexity for the node function. The efficiency of this new approach has been demonstrated in many QSAR or QSPR tasks, as well as in modelling the activities of complex chemicals (e.g. the toxicity of a family of phenols or the anti-HIV activities of HEPT derivatives). It generally outperforms traditional techniques without requiring the selection and computation of descriptors. PMID:17365965

  1. Applications of NASA and NOAA Satellite Observations by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Response to Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center supports the transition of unique NASA and NOAA research activities to the operational weather forecasting community. SPoRT emphasizes real-time analysis and prediction out to 48 hours. SPoRT partners with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and National Centers to improve current products, demonstrate future satellite capabilities and explore new data assimilation techniques. Recently, the SPoRT Center has been involved in several activities related to disaster response, in collaboration with NOAA s National Weather Service, NASA s Applied Sciences Disasters Program, and other partners.

  2. Assessing conservation relevance of organism-environment relations using predicted changes in response variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Kevin J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; White, Joseph D.; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Cade, Brian S.; Zygo, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    1. Organism–environment models are used widely in conservation. The degree to which they are useful for informing conservation decisions – the conservation relevance of these relations – is important because lack of relevance may lead to misapplication of scarce conservation resources or failure to resolve important conservation dilemmas. Even when models perform well based on model fit and predictive ability, conservation relevance of associations may not be clear without also knowing the magnitude and variability of predicted changes in response variables. 2. We introduce a method for evaluating the conservation relevance of organism–environment relations that employs confidence intervals for predicted changes in response variables. The confidence intervals are compared to a preselected magnitude of change that marks a threshold (trigger) for conservation action. To demonstrate the approach, we used a case study from the Chihuahuan Desert involving relations between avian richness and broad-scale patterns of shrubland. We considered relations for three winters and two spatial extents (1- and 2-km-radius areas) and compared predicted changes in richness to three thresholds (10%, 20% and 30% change). For each threshold, we examined 48 relations. 3. The method identified seven, four and zero conservation-relevant changes in mean richness for the 10%, 20% and 30% thresholds respectively. These changes were associated with major (20%) changes in shrubland cover, mean patch size, the coefficient of variation for patch size, or edge density but not with major changes in shrubland patch density. The relative rarity of conservation-relevant changes indicated that, overall, the relations had little practical value for informing conservation decisions about avian richness. 4. The approach we illustrate is appropriate for various response and predictor variables measured at any temporal or spatial scale. The method is broadly applicable across ecological

  3. Electrophysiological Indices of Response Inhibition in a Go/NoGo Task Predict Self-Control in a Social Context

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle Nash; Bastian Schiller; Gianotti, Lorena R. R.; Thomas Baumgartner; Daria Knoch

    2013-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that response inhibition-a core executive function-may subserve self-regulation and self-control. However, it is unclear whether response inhibition also predicts self-control in the multifaceted, high-level phenomena of social decision-making. Here we examined whether electrophysiological indices of response inhibition would predict self-control in a social context. Electroencephalography was recorded as participants completed a widely used Go/NoGo task (the cued...

  4. Activation and Regulation of DNA-Driven Immune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Paludan, Søren R

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune system provides early defense against infections and also plays a key role in monitoring alterations of homeostasis in the body. DNA is highly immunostimulatory, and recent advances in this field have led to the identification of the innate immune sensors responsible for the recognition of DNA as well as the downstream pathways that are activated. Moreover, information on how cells regulate DNA-driven immune responses to avoid excessive inflammation is now emerging. Finally,...

  5. Responsible Development of AREVA's Mining Activities - Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By defining AREVA's strategy and policies, this report aims to demonstrate the company's performance in the key areas of mining activity responsibility: ethics and governance, social report, the environment, occupational health and safety, community involvement, commitments to stakeholders. The data given cover the assets for which AREVA acts as operator in uranium mining activities: exploration, project development, production and rehabilitation. The consolidated data target activities in France, Canada, Niger, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Gabon and Namibia. Activities in the Central African Republic and those linked to La Mancha no longer fall within the scope of this report (sale of assets in 2012). This report is the third edition of this annual exercise

  6. Prediction and Validation of Promoters Involved in the Abscisic Acid Response in Physcomitrella patens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerrit Timmerhaus; Sebastian T.Hanke; Karl Buchta; Stefan A. Rensing

    2011-01-01

    Detection of cis-regulatory elements, such as transcription factor binding sites (TFBS), through utilization of ortholog conservation is possible only if genomic data from closely related organisms are available. An alternative ap-proach is the detection of TFBS based on their overrepresentation in promoters of co-regulated genes. However, this ap-proach usually suffers from a high rate of false-positive prediction. Here, we have conducted a case study using promoters of genes known to be strongly induced by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA)in the model plant Physcornitrella patens,a moss. Putative TFBS were detected using three de novo motif detection tools in a strict consensus approach. The resulting motifs were validated using data from microarray expression profiling and were able to predict ABA-induced genes with high specificity (90.48%)at mediocre sensitivity (33.33%). In addition, 27 genes predicted to contain ABA-responsive TFBS were validated using real-time PCR. Here, a total of 37% of the genes could be shown to be induced upon ABA treatment,while 70% were found to be regulated by ABA. We conclude that the consensus approach for motif detection using co-regulation information can be used to identify genes that are regulated under a given stimulus. In terms of evolution, we find that the ABA response has apparently been conserved since the first land plants on the level of families involved in transcriptional regulation.

  7. Strain energy density gradients in bone marrow predict osteoblast and osteoclast activity: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Duncan; Schulte, Friederike A; Lambers, Floor M; Kuhn, Gisela; Müller, Ralph

    2015-03-18

    Huiskes et al. hypothesized that mechanical strains sensed by osteocytes residing in trabecular bone dictate the magnitude of load-induced bone formation. More recently, the mechanical environment in bone marrow has also been implicated in bone׳s response to mechanical stimulation. In this study, we hypothesize that trabecular load-induced bone formation can be predicted by mechanical signals derived from an integrative µFE model, incorporating a description of both the bone and marrow phase. Using the mouse tail loading model in combination with in vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) we tracked load induced changes in the sixth caudal vertebrae of C57BL/6 mice to quantify the amount of newly mineralized and eroded bone volumes. To identify the mechanical signals responsible for adaptation, local morphometric changes were compared to micro-finite element (µFE) models of vertebrae prior to loading. The mechanical parameters calculated were strain energy density (SED) on trabeculae at bone forming and resorbing surfaces, SED in the marrow at the boundary between bone forming and resorbing surfaces, along with SED in the trabecular bone and marrow volumes. The gradients of each parameter were also calculated. Simple regression analysis showed mean SED gradients in the trabecular bone matrix to significantly correlate with newly mineralized and eroded bone volumes R(2)=0.57 and 0.41, respectively, pbone marrow plays a significant role in determining osteoblast and osteoclast activity.

  8. Role of p-glycoprotein expression in predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer-a prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia Ashima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT is an integral part of multi-modality approach in the management of locally advanced breast cancer. It is vital to predict response to chemotherapy in order to tailor the regime for a particular patient. The prediction would help in avoiding the toxicity induced by an ineffective chemotherapeutic regime in a non-responder and would also help in the planning of an alternate regime. Development of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents is a major problem and one of the mechanisms considered responsible is the expression of 170-k Da membrane glycoprotein (usually referred to as p-170 or p-glycoprotein, which is encoded by multidrug resistance (MDR1 gene. This glycoprotein acts as an energy dependent pump, which actively extrudes certain families of chemotherapeutic agents from the cells. The expression of p-glycoprotein at initial presentation has been found to be associated with refractoriness to chemotherapy and a poor outcome. Against this background a prospective study was conducted using C219 mouse monoclonal antibody specific for p-glycoprotein to ascertain whether pretreatment detection of p-glycoprotein expression could be utilized as a reliable predictor of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. Patients and methods Fifty cases of locally advanced breast cancer were subjected to trucut® biopsy and the tissue samples were evaluated immunohistochemically for p-glycoprotein expression and ER, PR status. The response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was assessed clinically and by using ultrasound after three cycles of FAC regime (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, Adriamycin 50 mg/m2, 5-fluorourail 600 mg/m2 at an interval of three weeks. The clinical response was correlated with both the pre and post chemotherapy p-glycoprotein expression. Descriptive studies were performed with SPSS version 10. The significance of correlation between tumor response and p

  9. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Physical Activity and Fitness in Underserved Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using…

  10. TFF3 is a valuable predictive biomarker of endocrine response in metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Felicity E B; Westley, Bruce R

    2015-06-01

    The stratification of breast cancer patients for endocrine therapies by oestrogen or progesterone receptor expression is effective but imperfect. The present study aims were to validate microarray studies that demonstrate TFF3 regulation by oestrogen and its association with oestrogen receptors in breast cancer, to evaluate TFF3 as a biomarker of endocrine response, and to investigate TFF3 function. Microarray data were validated by quantitative RT-PCR and northern and western transfer analyses. TFF3 was induced by oestrogen, and its induction was inhibited by antioestrogens, tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and fulvestrant in oestrogen-responsive breast cancer cells. The expression of TFF3 mRNA was associated with oestrogen receptor mRNA in breast tumours (Pearson's coefficient=0.762, P=0.000). Monoclonal antibodies raised against the TFF3 protein detected TFF3 by immunohistochemistry in oesophageal submucosal glands, intestinal goblet and neuroendocrine cells, Barrett's metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia. TFF3 protein expression was associated with oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and TFF1 expression in malignant breast cells. TFF3 is a specific and sensitive predictive biomarker of response to endocrine therapy, degree of response and duration of response in unstratified metastatic breast cancer patients (P=0.000, P=0.002 and P=0.002 respectively). Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that TFF3 is an independent biomarker of endocrine response and degree of response, and this was confirmed in a validation cohort. TFF3 stimulated migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. In conclusion, TFF3 expression is associated with response to endocrine therapy, and outperforms oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and TFF1 as an independent biomarker, possibly because it mediates the malign effects of oestrogen on invasion and metastasis.

  11. Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression Exposure to many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals can cause adverse outcomes. These adverse outcomes, such as cancer, have been linked to mol...

  12. Response surface and artificial neural network prediction model and optimization for surface roughness in machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Sahoo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the development of prediction model using response surface methodology and artificial neural network and optimizes the process parameter using 3D surface plot. The experiment has been conducted using coated carbide insert in machining AISI 1040 steel under dry environment. The coefficient of determination value for RSM model is found to be high (R2 = 0.99 close to unity. It indicates the goodness of fit for the model and high significance of the model. The percentage of error for RSM model is found to be only from -2.63 to 2.47. The maximum error between ANN model and experimental lies between -1.27 and 0.02 %, which is significantly less than the RSM model. Hence, both the proposed RSM and ANN prediction model sufficiently predict the surface roughness, accurately. However, ANN prediction model seems to be better compared with RSM model. From the 3D surface plots, the optimal parametric combination for the lowest surface roughness is d1-f1-v3 i.e. depth of cut of 0.1 mm, feed of 0.04 mm/rev and cutting speed of 260 m/min respectively.

  13. Crowdsourced assessment of common genetic contribution to predicting anti-TNF treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberts, Solveig K.; Zhu, Fan; García-García, Javier; Stahl, Eli; Pratap, Abhishek; Pandey, Gaurav; Pappas, Dimitrios; Aguilar, Daniel; Anton, Bernat; Bonet, Jaume; Eksi, Ridvan; Fornés, Oriol; Guney, Emre; Li, Hongdong; Marín, Manuel Alejandro; Panwar, Bharat; Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Poglayen, Daniel; Cui, Jing; Falcao, Andre O.; Suver, Christine; Hoff, Bruce; Balagurusamy, Venkat S. K.; Dillenberger, Donna; Neto, Elias Chaibub; Norman, Thea; Aittokallio, Tero; Ammad-ud-din, Muhammad; Azencott, Chloe-Agathe; Bellón, Víctor; Boeva, Valentina; Bunte, Kerstin; Chheda, Himanshu; Cheng, Lu; Corander, Jukka; Dumontier, Michel; Goldenberg, Anna; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Hajiloo, Mohsen; Hidru, Daniel; Jaiswal, Alok; Kaski, Samuel; Khalfaoui, Beyrem; Khan, Suleiman Ali; Kramer, Eric R.; Marttinen, Pekka; Mezlini, Aziz M.; Molparia, Bhuvan; Pirinen, Matti; Saarela, Janna; Samwald, Matthias; Stoven, Véronique; Tang, Hao; Tang, Jing; Torkamani, Ali; Vert, Jean-Phillipe; Wang, Bo; Wang, Tao; Wennerberg, Krister; Wineinger, Nathan E.; Xiao, Guanghua; Xie, Yang; Yeung, Rae; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhao, Cheng; Calaza, Manuel; Elmarakeby, Haitham; Heath, Lenwood S.; Long, Quan; Moore, Jonathan D.; Opiyo, Stephen Obol; Savage, Richard S.; Zhu, Jun; Greenberg, Jeff; Kremer, Joel; Michaud, Kaleb; Barton, Anne; Coenen, Marieke; Mariette, Xavier; Miceli, Corinne; Shadick, Nancy; Weinblatt, Michael; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul P.; Gerlag, Danielle; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Kurreeman, Fina; Allaart, Cornelia F.; Louis Bridges Jr., S.; Criswell, Lindsey; Moreland, Larry; Klareskog, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K.; Friend, Stephen; Plenge, Robert; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Oliva, Baldo; Guan, Yuanfang; Mangravite, Lara M.

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects millions world-wide. While anti-TNF treatment is widely used to reduce disease progression, treatment fails in ∼one-third of patients. No biomarker currently exists that identifies non-responders before treatment. A rigorous community-based assessment of the utility of SNP data for predicting anti-TNF treatment efficacy in RA patients was performed in the context of a DREAM Challenge (http://www.synapse.org/RA_Challenge). An open challenge framework enabled the comparative evaluation of predictions developed by 73 research groups using the most comprehensive available data and covering a wide range of state-of-the-art modelling methodologies. Despite a significant genetic heritability estimate of treatment non-response trait (h2=0.18, P value=0.02), no significant genetic contribution to prediction accuracy is observed. Results formally confirm the expectations of the rheumatology community that SNP information does not significantly improve predictive performance relative to standard clinical traits, thereby justifying a refocusing of future efforts on collection of other data. PMID:27549343

  14. Crowdsourced assessment of common genetic contribution to predicting anti-TNF treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberts, Solveig K; Zhu, Fan; García-García, Javier; Stahl, Eli; Pratap, Abhishek; Pandey, Gaurav; Pappas, Dimitrios; Aguilar, Daniel; Anton, Bernat; Bonet, Jaume; Eksi, Ridvan; Fornés, Oriol; Guney, Emre; Li, Hongdong; Marín, Manuel Alejandro; Panwar, Bharat; Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Poglayen, Daniel; Cui, Jing; Falcao, Andre O; Suver, Christine; Hoff, Bruce; Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Dillenberger, Donna; Neto, Elias Chaibub; Norman, Thea; Aittokallio, Tero; Ammad-Ud-Din, Muhammad; Azencott, Chloe-Agathe; Bellón, Víctor; Boeva, Valentina; Bunte, Kerstin; Chheda, Himanshu; Cheng, Lu; Corander, Jukka; Dumontier, Michel; Goldenberg, Anna; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Hajiloo, Mohsen; Hidru, Daniel; Jaiswal, Alok; Kaski, Samuel; Khalfaoui, Beyrem; Khan, Suleiman Ali; Kramer, Eric R; Marttinen, Pekka; Mezlini, Aziz M; Molparia, Bhuvan; Pirinen, Matti; Saarela, Janna; Samwald, Matthias; Stoven, Véronique; Tang, Hao; Tang, Jing; Torkamani, Ali; Vert, Jean-Phillipe; Wang, Bo; Wang, Tao; Wennerberg, Krister; Wineinger, Nathan E; Xiao, Guanghua; Xie, Yang; Yeung, Rae; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhao, Cheng; Greenberg, Jeff; Kremer, Joel; Michaud, Kaleb; Barton, Anne; Coenen, Marieke; Mariette, Xavier; Miceli, Corinne; Shadick, Nancy; Weinblatt, Michael; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul P; Gerlag, Danielle; Huizinga, Tom W J; Kurreeman, Fina; Allaart, Cornelia F; Louis Bridges, S; Criswell, Lindsey; Moreland, Larry; Klareskog, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K; Friend, Stephen; Plenge, Robert; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Oliva, Baldo; Guan, Yuanfang; Mangravite, Lara M; Bridges, S Louis; Criswell, Lindsey; Moreland, Larry; Klareskog, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K; Friend, Stephen; Plenge, Robert; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Oliva, Baldo; Guan, Yuanfang; Mangravite, Lara M

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects millions world-wide. While anti-TNF treatment is widely used to reduce disease progression, treatment fails in ∼one-third of patients. No biomarker currently exists that identifies non-responders before treatment. A rigorous community-based assessment of the utility of SNP data for predicting anti-TNF treatment efficacy in RA patients was performed in the context of a DREAM Challenge (http://www.synapse.org/RA_Challenge). An open challenge framework enabled the comparative evaluation of predictions developed by 73 research groups using the most comprehensive available data and covering a wide range of state-of-the-art modelling methodologies. Despite a significant genetic heritability estimate of treatment non-response trait (h(2)=0.18, P value=0.02), no significant genetic contribution to prediction accuracy is observed. Results formally confirm the expectations of the rheumatology community that SNP information does not significantly improve predictive performance relative to standard clinical traits, thereby justifying a refocusing of future efforts on collection of other data. PMID:27549343

  15. Dissociation predicts treatment response in eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon

    2016-01-01

    Using clinical data from a specialized trauma clinic, this study investigated pretreatment clinical factors predicting response to eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) among adult patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants were evaluated using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale before treatment and were reassessed using the CAPS after treatment and at 6-month follow-up. A total of 69 patients underwent an average of 4 sessions of EMDR, and 60 (87%) completed the posttreatment evaluation, including 8 participants who terminated treatment prematurely. Intent-to-treat analysis revealed that 39 (65%) of the 60 patients were classified as responders and 21 (35%) as nonresponders when response was defined as more than a 30% decrease in total CAPS score. The nonresponders had higher levels of dissociation (depersonalization and derealization) and numbing symptoms, but other PTSD symptoms, such as avoidance, hyperarousal, and intrusion, were not significantly different. The number of psychiatric comorbidities was also associated with treatment nonresponse. The final logistic regression model yielded 2 significant variables: dissociation (p < .001) and more than 2 comorbidities compared to none (p < .05). These results indicate that complex symptom patterns in PTSD may predict treatment response and support the inclusion of the dissociative subtype of PTSD in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. PMID:26156867

  16. Hemodynamic Changes during a Deep Inspiration Maneuver Predict Fluid Responsiveness in Spontaneously Breathing Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Préau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We hypothesized that the hemodynamic response to a deep inspiration maneuver (DIM indicates fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing (SB patients. Design. Prospective study. Setting. ICU of a general hospital. Patients. Consecutive nonintubated patients without mechanical ventilation, considered for volume expansion (VE. Intervention. We assessed hemodynamic status at baseline and after VE. Measurements and Main Results. We measured radial pulse pressure (PP using an arterial catheter and peak velocity of femoral artery flow (VF using continuous Doppler. Changes in PP and VF induced by a DIM (ΔPPdim and ΔVFdim were calculated in 23 patients. ΔPPdim and ΔVFdim ≥12% predicted responders to VE with sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 100%. Conclusions. In a restricted population of SB patients with severe sepsis or acute pancreatitis, ΔPPdim and ΔVFdim are accurate indices for predicting fluid responsiveness. These results should be confirmed in a larger population before validating their use in current practice.

  17. Circadian gene expression predicts patient response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haijie; Chu, Qiqi; Xie, Guojiang; Han, Hao; Chen, Zheng; Xu, Benhua; Yue, Zhicao

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy may be useful in patients with operable rectal cancer, but treatment responses are variable. We examined whether expression levels of circadian clock genes could be used as biomarkers to predict treatment response. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 250 patients with rectal cancer, treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in a single institute between 2011 and 2013. Gene expression analysis (RT-PCR) was performed in tissue samples from 20 patients showing pathological complete regression (pCR) and 20 showing non-pCR. The genes analyzed included six core clock genes (Clock, Per1, Per2, Cry1, Cry2 and Bmal1) and three downstream target genes (Wee1, Chk2 and c-Myc). Patient responses were analyzed through contrast-enhanced pelvic MRI and endorectal ultrasound, and verified by histological assessment. pCR was defined histologically as an absence of tumor cells. Among the 250 included patients, 70.8% showed regression of tumor size, and 18% showed pCR. Clock, Cry2 and Per2 expressions were significantly higher in the pCR group than in the non-pCR group (PWee1 and Chk2 expression did not differ significantly between groups. Circadian genes are potential biomarkers for predicting whether a patient with rectal cancer would benefit from neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. PMID:26617816

  18. Structure-based activity prediction for an enzyme of unknown function

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, Johannes C.; Marti-Arbona, Ricardo; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Fedorov, Elena; Almo, Steven C.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Raushel, Frank M.

    2007-01-01

    With many genomes sequenced, a pressing challenge in biology is predicting the function of the proteins that the genes encode. When proteins are unrelated to others of known activity, bioinformatics inference for function becomes problematic. It would thus be useful to interrogate protein structures for function directly. Here, we predict the function of an enzyme of unknown activity, Tm0936 from Thermotoga maritima, by docking high-energy intermediate forms of thousands of candidate metaboli...

  19. Does Cognition Predict Treatment Response and Remission in Psychotherapy for Late-Life Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreau, Sherry A.; Rideaux, Tiffany; O'Hara, Ruth; Arean, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify cognitive predictors of geriatric depression treatment outcome. Method Older participants completed baseline measures of memory and executive function, health, and baseline and posttreatment Hamilton Depression Scales (HAM-D) in a 12-week trial comparing psychotherapies (problem-solving vs. supportive; n = 46). We examined cognitive predictors to identify treatment responders, i.e., HAM-D scores reduced by ≥50%, and remitters, i.e., posttreatment HAM-D score ≤ 10. Results Empirically-derived decision trees identified poorer performance on switching (i.e. Trails B), with a cut-score of ≥82” predicting psychotherapy responders. No other cognitive or health variables predicted psychotherapy outcomes in the decision trees. Conclusions Psychotherapies that support or improve the executive skill of switching may augment treatment response for older patients exhibiting executive dysfunction in depression. If replicated, Trails B has potential as a brief cognitive tool for clinical decision-making in geriatric depression. PMID:25441055

  20. Sexual selection predicts advancement of avian spring migration in response to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Tøttrup, Anders P; Coppack, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    suggest that sexual selection could help to understand this variation, since early spring arrival of males is favoured by female choice. Climate change could weaken the strength of natural selection opposing sexual selection for early migration, which would predict greatest advancement in species...... with stronger female choice. We test this hypothesis comparatively by investigating the degree of long-term change in spring passage at two ringing stations in northern Europe in relation to a synthetic estimate of the strength of female choice, composed of degree of extra-pair paternity, relative testes size...... in the timing of first-arriving individuals, suggesting that selection has not only acted on protandrous males. These results suggest that sexual selection may have an impact on the responses of organisms to climate change, and knowledge of a species' mating system might help to inform attempts at predicting...

  1. Characterizing climate predictability and model response variability from multiple initial condition and multi-model ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Devashish

    2016-01-01

    Climate models are thought to solve boundary value problems unlike numerical weather prediction, which is an initial value problem. However, climate internal variability (CIV) is thought to be relatively important at near-term (0-30 year) prediction horizons, especially at higher resolutions. The recent availability of significant numbers of multi-model (MME) and multi-initial condition (MICE) ensembles allows for the first time a direct sensitivity analysis of CIV versus model response variability (MRV). Understanding the relative agreement and variability of MME and MICE ensembles for multiple regions, resolutions, and projection horizons is critical for focusing model improvements, diagnostics, and prognosis, as well as impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability studies. Here we find that CIV (MICE agreement) is lower (higher) than MRV (MME agreement) across all spatial resolutions and projection time horizons for both temperature and precipitation. However, CIV dominates MRV over higher latitudes generally an...

  2. Beyond the effective mass approximation: predictive theory of the nonlinear optical response of conduction electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shukai; Talbayev, Diyar

    2016-01-01

    We present an experimental and computational study of the nonlinear optical response of conduction electrons to intense terahertz (THz) electric field. Our observations (saturable absorption and an amplitude-dependent group refractive index) can be understood on the qualitative level as the breakdown of the effective mass approximation. However, a predictive theoretical description of the nonlinearity has been missing. We propose a model based on the semiclassical electron dynamics, a realistic band structure, and the free electron Drude parameters to accurately calculate the experimental observables in InSb. Our results open a path to predictive modeling of the conduction-electron optical nonlinearity in semiconductors, metamaterials, as well as high-field effects in THz plasmonics.

  3. The effects of incidentally learned temporal and spatial predictability on response times and visual fixations during target detection and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Melissa R; Hong, S Lee; van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Ericson, Justin M

    2014-01-01

    Responses are quicker to predictable stimuli than if the time and place of appearance is uncertain. Studies that manipulate target predictability often involve overt cues to speed up response times. However, less is known about whether individuals will exhibit faster response times when target predictability is embedded within the inter-trial relationships. The current research examined the combined effects of spatial and temporal target predictability on reaction time (RT) and allocation of overt attention in a sustained attention task. Participants responded as quickly as possible to stimuli while their RT and eye movements were measured. Target temporal and spatial predictability were manipulated by altering the number of: 1) different time intervals between a response and the next target; and 2) possible spatial locations of the target. The effects of target predictability on target detection (Experiment 1) and target discrimination (Experiment 2) were tested. For both experiments, shorter RTs as target predictability increased across both space and time were found. In addition, the influences of spatial and temporal target predictability on RT and the overt allocation of attention were task dependent; suggesting that effective orienting of attention relies on both spatial and temporal predictability. These results indicate that stimulus predictability can be increased without overt cues and detected purely through inter-trial relationships over the course of repeated stimulus presentations.

  4. The effects of incidentally learned temporal and spatial predictability on response times and visual fixations during target detection and discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R Beck

    Full Text Available Responses are quicker to predictable stimuli than if the time and place of appearance is uncertain. Studies that manipulate target predictability often involve overt cues to speed up response times. However, less is known about whether individuals will exhibit faster response times when target predictability is embedded within the inter-trial relationships. The current research examined the combined effects of spatial and temporal target predictability on reaction time (RT and allocation of overt attention in a sustained attention task. Participants responded as quickly as possible to stimuli while their RT and eye movements were measured. Target temporal and spatial predictability were manipulated by altering the number of: 1 different time intervals between a response and the next target; and 2 possible spatial locations of the target. The effects of target predictability on target detection (Experiment 1 and target discrimination (Experiment 2 were tested. For both experiments, shorter RTs as target predictability increased across both space and time were found. In addition, the influences of spatial and temporal target predictability on RT and the overt allocation of attention were task dependent; suggesting that effective orienting of attention relies on both spatial and temporal predictability. These results indicate that stimulus predictability can be increased without overt cues and detected purely through inter-trial relationships over the course of repeated stimulus presentations.

  5. High-resolution MRI predicts steroid injection response in carpal tunnel syndrome patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Takatoshi; Oki, Hodaka; Kinoshita, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Yoshiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Korogi, Yukunori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Oshige, Takahisa; Sakai, Akinori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kitakyushu (Japan); Matsuyama, Atsushi; Hisaoka, Masanori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Oncology, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    To correlate median nerve T2 signal and shape at the carpal tunnel with steroid injection (SI) response in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients. One hundred and sixty-three CTS wrists of 92 consecutive patients who were scheduled to undergo SI were prospectively evaluated with 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a nerve conduction study. All patients underwent axial high-resolution T2-weighted MRI (in-plane resolution of 0.25 x 0.25 mm). The CTS wrists were classified into three groups according to the nerve T2 signal and the flattening ratio at the hook of hamate level: group 1, high and oval; group 2, high and flat; group 3, low and flat. Clinical response to SI was evaluated at 6 months after injection. One hundred and thirteen of the 163 wrists (69.3 %) responded well to SI. The percentage of improvement was 81.7 % (49/60) in group 1, 69.9 % (51/73) in group 2, and 43.3 % (13/30) in group 3 (P < 0.01). On stepwise logistic regression analysis high-resolution MRI was the only significant independent factor for SI response in CTS patients (P < 0.01). High-resolution MRI correlates well with SI response in CTS patients and seems useful for predicting SI response. (orig.)

  6. Species differences in bumblebee immune response predict developmental success of a parasitoid fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Staige E; Malfi, Rosemary L; Roulston, T'ai H

    2015-08-01

    Endoparasitoids develop inside the body of a host organism and, if successful, eventually kill their host in order to reach maturity. Host species can vary in their suitability for a developing endoparasitoid; in particular, the host immune response, which can suppress egg hatching and larval development, has been hypothesized to be one of the most important determinants of parasitoid host range. In this study, we investigated whether three bumblebee host species (Bombus bimaculatus, Bombus griseocollis, and Bombus impatiens) varied in their suitability for the development of a shared parasitoid, the conopid fly (Conopidae, Diptera) and whether the intensity of host encapsulation response, an insect immune defense against invaders, could predict parasitoid success. When surgically implanted with a nylon filament, B. griseocollis exhibited a stronger immune response than both B. impatiens and B. bimaculatus. Similarly, B. griseocollis was more likely to melanize conopid larvae from natural infections and more likely to kill conopids prior to its own death. Our results indicate that variation in the strength of the general immune response of insects may have ecological implications for sympatric species that share parasites. We suggest that, in this system, selection for a stronger immune response may be heightened by the pattern of phenological overlap between local host species and the population peak of their most prominent parasitoid. PMID:25795253

  7. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and telomere length predicts response to immunosuppressive therapy in pediatric aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Hideki; Sekiya, Yuko; Okuno, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Hirotoshi; Nishio, Nobuhiro; Yoshida, Nao; Wang, Xinan; Xu, Yinyan; Kawashima, Nozomu; Doisaki, Sayoko; Hama, Asahito; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Kudo, Kazuko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ito, Etsuro; Yabe, Hiromasa; Ohga, Shouichi; Ohara, Akira; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-12-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia is an immune-mediated disease characterized by severe defects in stem cell number resulting in hypocellular marrow and peripheral blood cytopenias. Minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria populations and a short telomere length were identified as predictive biomarkers of immunosuppressive therapy responsiveness in aplastic anemia. We enrolled 113 aplastic anemia patients (63 boys and 50 girls) in this study to evaluate their response to immunosuppressive therapy. The paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria populations and telomere length were detected by flow cytometry. Forty-seven patients (42%) carried a minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria population. The median telomere length of aplastic anemia patients was -0.99 standard deviation (SD) (range -4.01-+3.01 SD). Overall, 60 patients (53%) responded to immunosuppressive therapy after six months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the absence of a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria population and a shorter telomere length as independent unfavorable predictors of immunosuppressive therapy response at six months. The cohort was stratified into a group of poor prognosis (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria negative and shorter telomere length; 37 patients) and good prognosis (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria positive and/or longer telomere length; 76 patients), respectively. The response rates of the poor prognosis and good prognosis groups at six months were 19% and 70%, respectively (Ptelomere length is an efficient predictor of poor immunosuppressive therapy response, which should be considered while deciding treatment options: immunosuppressive therapy or first-line hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The trial was registered in www.umin.ac.jp with number UMIN000017972.

  8. Predicting spike occurrence and neuronal responsiveness from LFPs in primary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storchi, Riccardo; Zippo, Antonio G; Caramenti, Gian Carlo; Valente, Maurizio; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2012-01-01

    Local Field Potentials (LFPs) integrate multiple neuronal events like synaptic inputs and intracellular potentials. LFP spatiotemporal features are particularly relevant in view of their applications both in research (e.g. for understanding brain rhythms, inter-areal neural communication and neuronal coding) and in the clinics (e.g. for improving invasive Brain-Machine Interface devices). However the relation between LFPs and spikes is complex and not fully understood. As spikes represent the fundamental currency of neuronal communication this gap in knowledge strongly limits our comprehension of neuronal phenomena underlying LFPs. We investigated the LFP-spike relation during tactile stimulation in primary somatosensory (S-I) cortex in the rat. First we quantified how reliably LFPs and spikes code for a stimulus occurrence. Then we used the information obtained from our analyses to design a predictive model for spike occurrence based on LFP inputs. The model was endowed with a flexible meta-structure whose exact form, both in parameters and structure, was estimated by using a multi-objective optimization strategy. Our method provided a set of nonlinear simple equations that maximized the match between models and true neurons in terms of spike timings and Peri Stimulus Time Histograms. We found that both LFPs and spikes can code for stimulus occurrence with millisecond precision, showing, however, high variability. Spike patterns were predicted significantly above chance for 75% of the neurons analysed. Crucially, the level of prediction accuracy depended on the reliability in coding for the stimulus occurrence. The best predictions were obtained when both spikes and LFPs were highly responsive to the stimuli. Spike reliability is known to depend on neuron intrinsic properties (i.e. on channel noise) and on spontaneous local network fluctuations. Our results suggest that the latter, measured through the LFP response variability, play a dominant role. PMID:22586452

  9. Predicting spike occurrence and neuronal responsiveness from LFPs in primary somatosensory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Storchi

    Full Text Available Local Field Potentials (LFPs integrate multiple neuronal events like synaptic inputs and intracellular potentials. LFP spatiotemporal features are particularly relevant in view of their applications both in research (e.g. for understanding brain rhythms, inter-areal neural communication and neuronal coding and in the clinics (e.g. for improving invasive Brain-Machine Interface devices. However the relation between LFPs and spikes is complex and not fully understood. As spikes represent the fundamental currency of neuronal communication this gap in knowledge strongly limits our comprehension of neuronal phenomena underlying LFPs. We investigated the LFP-spike relation during tactile stimulation in primary somatosensory (S-I cortex in the rat. First we quantified how reliably LFPs and spikes code for a stimulus occurrence. Then we used the information obtained from our analyses to design a predictive model for spike occurrence based on LFP inputs. The model was endowed with a flexible meta-structure whose exact form, both in parameters and structure, was estimated by using a multi-objective optimization strategy. Our method provided a set of nonlinear simple equations that maximized the match between models and true neurons in terms of spike timings and Peri Stimulus Time Histograms. We found that both LFPs and spikes can code for stimulus occurrence with millisecond precision, showing, however, high variability. Spike patterns were predicted significantly above chance for 75% of the neurons analysed. Crucially, the level of prediction accuracy depended on the reliability in coding for the stimulus occurrence. The best predictions were obtained when both spikes and LFPs were highly responsive to the stimuli. Spike reliability is known to depend on neuron intrinsic properties (i.e. on channel noise and on spontaneous local network fluctuations. Our results suggest that the latter, measured through the LFP response variability, play a dominant role.

  10. Individual differences in cortisol stress response predict increases in voice pitch during exam stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Nowak, Judyta; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Despite a long history of empirical research, the potential vocal markers of stress remain unclear. Previous studies examining speech under stress most consistently report an increase in voice pitch (the acoustic correlate of fundamental frequency, F0), however numerous studies have failed to replicate this finding. In the present study we tested the prediction that these inconsistencies are tied to variation in the severity of the stress response, wherein voice changes may be observed predominantly among individuals who show a cortisol stress response (i.e., an increase in free cortisol levels) above a critical threshold. Voice recordings and saliva samples were collected from university psychology students at baseline and again immediately prior to an oral examination. Voice recordings included both read and spontaneous speech, from which we measured mean, minimum, maximum, and the standard deviation in F0. We observed an increase in mean and minimum F0 under stress in both read and spontaneous speech, whereas maximum F0 and its standard deviation showed no systematic changes under stress. Our results confirmed that free cortisol levels increased by an average of 74% (ranging from 0 to 270%) under stress. Critically, increases in cortisol concentrations significantly predicted increases in mean F0 under stress for both speech types, but did not predict variation in F0 at baseline. On average, stress-induced increases in voice pitch occurred only when free cortisol levels more than doubled their baseline concentrations. Our results suggest that researchers examining speech under stress should control for individual differences in the magnitude of the stress response. PMID:27188981

  11. Quantification in gas chromatography: prediction of flame ionization detector response factors from combustion enthalpies and molecular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Laumer, Jean-Yves; Cicchetti, Esmeralda; Merle, Philippe; Egger, Jonathan; Chaintreau, Alain

    2010-08-01

    In a previous report, we validated the use of a database that compiled the relative response factors of flavor and fragrance compounds under standard GC conditions for a flame ionization detector. Here we investigate the prediction of unknown response factors from the molecular structure by using combustion enthalpies. In a first step, this enthalpy was well-predicted with either ab initio calculation or multiple linear regression based on the molecular formula. In a second step, good correlation was observed between these combustion enthalpies and experimental relative response factors, and so the response factors were predictable from only the molecular formula. With a database of 351 compounds, about 60% of them exhibited a difference of less than 5% between the predicted and experimental relative response factors and about 80% exhibited a difference of less than 10%. PMID:20700911

  12. Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first presents a rather personal view of some different aspects of predictability, going in crescendo from simple linear systems to high-dimensional nonlinear systems with stochastic forcing, which exhibit emergent properties such as phase transitions and regime shifts. Then, a detailed correspondence between the phenomenology of earthquakes, financial crashes and epileptic seizures is offered. The presented statistical evidence provides the substance of a general phase diagram for understanding the many facets of the spatio-temporal organization of these systems. A key insight is to organize the evidence and mechanisms in terms of two summarizing measures: (i) amplitude of disorder or heterogeneity in the system and (ii) level of coupling or interaction strength among the system's components. On the basis of the recently identified remarkable correspondence between earthquakes and seizures, we present detailed information on a class of stochastic point processes that has been found to be particu...

  13. Evaluation of Response Prediction Procedures using Full Scale Measurements for a Container Ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of recent full-scale strain measurements in the hull of a large container carrier covering several months of operation. The focus is on the real-time prediction accuracy of responses 5-15 seconds ahead of the measurements. Such results are less applicable...... in the operation of container carriers but are important in e.g. loading/unloading operations at sea or helicopter landings. Three different procedures are discussed: Conditional processes with analytical estimates of the mean values and standard deviations, the autoregressive predictor method and a method based...... Large Container Ships (TULCS) project no. 234146....

  14. Comparison between genomic predictions using daughter yield deviation and conventional estimated breeding value as response variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Gang; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Zhang, Y;

    2010-01-01

    This study compared genomic predictions using conventional estimated breeding values (EBV) and daughter yield deviations (DYD) as response variables based on simulated data. Eight scenarios were simulated in regard to heritability (0.05 and 0.30), number of daughters per sire (30, 100, and unequal......), the EBV and DYD approaches provided similar genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) reliabilities, except for scenarios with unequal numbers of daughters and half of sires without genotype, for which the EBV approach was superior to the DYD approach (by 1.2 and 2.4%). Using a Bayesian mixture prior model...

  15. Strategies for numerical prediction of the uncertainty in the material response of solid foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohe, Joerg; Beckmann, Carla [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Hardenacke, Volker [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The present study is concerned with a numerical prediction of uncertainty effects in the macroscopic material response of solid foams and other cellular solids used as a lightweight material for reduction of the energy consumption in all fields of transport. Two different routes are proposed. In a first approach, a repeated analysis of small scale volume elements for the microstructure is performed. As an alternative, large scale representative volume elements for the microstructure are considered where the stochastic information is generated by applying the homogenization scheme to subsets (''testing volume elements'') defined by the individual cells or cell clusters. (orig.)

  16. "We Are in This Together": Common Group Identity Predicts Majority Members' Active Acculturation Efforts to Integrate Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Jonas R; Thomsen, Lotte; Sam, David L; Berry, John W

    2015-10-01

    Although integration involves a process of mutual accommodation, the role of majority groups is often downplayed to passive tolerance, leaving immigrants with the sole responsibility for active integration. However, we show that common group identity can actively involve majority members in this process across five studies. Study 1 showed that common identity positively predicted support of integration efforts; Studies 2 and 3 extended these findings, showing that it also predicted real behavior such as monetary donations and volunteering. A decrease in modern racism mediated the relations across these studies, and Studies 4 and 5 further demonstrated that it indeed mediated these effects over and above acculturation expectations and color-blindness, which somewhat compromised integration efforts. Moreover, the last two studies also demonstrated that common, but not dual, groups motivated integration efforts. Common identity appears crucial for securing majorities' altruistic efforts to integrate immigrants and, thus, for achieving functional multiculturalism. PMID:26276500

  17. Drug predictive cues activate aversion-sensitive striatal neurons that encode drug seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Robble, Mykel A; Hebron, Emily M; Dupont, Matthew J; Ebben, Amanda L; Wheeler, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    Drug-associated cues have profound effects on an addict's emotional state and drug-seeking behavior. Although this influence must involve the motivational neural system that initiates and encodes the drug-seeking act, surprisingly little is known about the nature of such physiological events and their motivational consequences. Three experiments investigated the effect of a cocaine-predictive stimulus on dopamine signaling, neuronal activity, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking. In all experiments, rats were divided into two groups (paired and unpaired), and trained to self-administer cocaine in the presence of a tone that signaled the immediate availability of the drug. For rats in the paired group, self-administration sessions were preceded by a taste cue that signaled delayed drug availability. Assessments of hedonic responses indicated that this delay cue became aversive during training. Both the self-administration behavior and the immediate cue were subsequently extinguished in the absence of cocaine. After extinction of self-administration behavior, the presentation of the aversive delay cue reinstated drug seeking. In vivo electrophysiology and voltammetry recordings in the nucleus accumbens measured the neural responses to both the delay and immediate drug cues after extinction. Interestingly, the presentation of the delay cue simultaneously decreased dopamine signaling and increased excitatory encoding of the immediate cue. Most importantly, the delay cue selectively enhanced the baseline activity of neurons that would later encode drug seeking. Together these observations reveal how cocaine cues can modulate not only affective state, but also the neurochemical and downstream neurophysiological environment of striatal circuits in a manner that promotes drug seeking. PMID:25948270

  18. Predicting the crack response for a pipe with a complex crack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, Robert G.

    Traditional flaw evaluation in the nuclear field uses conservative methods to predict maximum load carrying capacity for flaws in a given pipe. There is a need in the nuclear industry for more accurate estimates of the load carrying capacity of nuclear piping such that probabilistic tools can be used to predict the time to failure for various types of cracks. These more accurate estimates will allow the nuclear industry to repair flaws at a more appropriate time considering external factors such as costs and man-rem planning along with the flaw repair. Analysis of the maximum load carrying capacity of a pipe with a complex crack (CC) has gained increased importance due to the recent identification of long CC's that have appeared in dissimilar metal (DM) welds thought to be caused by primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). A coded solution for a single material with a weld was developed that gives an accurate maximum load and crack driving force prediction for a pipe with a through wall crack (TWC), called LBBEng. To support the analysis of a CC, traditionally, an assumption is used that the CC performs similar to that of a TWC of a reduced thickness (TWCr). This modification gives a conservative prediction of the maximum load carrying capacity for a CC in a single material but was never verified for a CC in a DM weld. From the evaluation of the DM weld test data, along with finite element analysis, it can be demonstrated that the crack response of a CC can be predicted by a TWC model when modifications are made to the reduced thickness method.

  19. Dose-response relation between physical activity and sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Vroome, E.M. de; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the dose-response relation between moderate and vigorous physical activity and sick leave in a working population. Methods: Data were used from three large Dutch databases: two continuous, cross sectional surveys among a representative sample of the Dutch population and one

  20. 76 FR 63295 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Number 2392.02; Fuel Economy Labeling of Motor Vehicles (Final Rule); 40 CFR parts 85, 86, and 600;...

  1. Vestibular activation differentially modulates human early visual cortex and V5/MT excitability and response entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemungal, Barry M; Guzman-Lopez, Jessica; Arshad, Qadeer; Schultz, Simon R; Walsh, Vincent; Yousif, Nada

    2013-01-01

    Head movement imposes the additional burdens on the visual system of maintaining visual acuity and determining the origin of retinal image motion (i.e., self-motion vs. object-motion). Although maintaining visual acuity during self-motion is effected by minimizing retinal slip via the brainstem vestibular-ocular reflex, higher order visuovestibular mechanisms also contribute. Disambiguating self-motion versus object-motion also invokes higher order mechanisms, and a cortical visuovestibular reciprocal antagonism is propounded. Hence, one prediction is of a vestibular modulation of visual cortical excitability and indirect measures have variously suggested none, focal or global effects of activation or suppression in human visual cortex. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced phosphenes to probe cortical excitability, we observed decreased V5/MT excitability versus increased early visual cortex (EVC) excitability, during vestibular activation. In order to exclude nonspecific effects (e.g., arousal) on cortical excitability, response specificity was assessed using information theory, specifically response entropy. Vestibular activation significantly modulated phosphene response entropy for V5/MT but not EVC, implying a specific vestibular effect on V5/MT responses. This is the first demonstration that vestibular activation modulates human visual cortex excitability. Furthermore, using information theory, not previously used in phosphene response analysis, we could distinguish between a specific vestibular modulation of V5/MT excitability from a nonspecific effect at EVC.

  2. Vestibular Activation Differentially Modulates Human Early Visual Cortex and V5/MT Excitability and Response Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Lopez, Jessica; Arshad, Qadeer; Schultz, Simon R; Walsh, Vincent; Yousif, Nada

    2013-01-01

    Head movement imposes the additional burdens on the visual system of maintaining visual acuity and determining the origin of retinal image motion (i.e., self-motion vs. object-motion). Although maintaining visual acuity during self-motion is effected by minimizing retinal slip via the brainstem vestibular-ocular reflex, higher order visuovestibular mechanisms also contribute. Disambiguating self-motion versus object-motion also invokes higher order mechanisms, and a cortical visuovestibular reciprocal antagonism is propounded. Hence, one prediction is of a vestibular modulation of visual cortical excitability and indirect measures have variously suggested none, focal or global effects of activation or suppression in human visual cortex. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced phosphenes to probe cortical excitability, we observed decreased V5/MT excitability versus increased early visual cortex (EVC) excitability, during vestibular activation. In order to exclude nonspecific effects (e.g., arousal) on cortical excitability, response specificity was assessed using information theory, specifically response entropy. Vestibular activation significantly modulated phosphene response entropy for V5/MT but not EVC, implying a specific vestibular effect on V5/MT responses. This is the first demonstration that vestibular activation modulates human visual cortex excitability. Furthermore, using information theory, not previously used in phosphene response analysis, we could distinguish between a specific vestibular modulation of V5/MT excitability from a nonspecific effect at EVC. PMID:22291031

  3. Comparative study to predict dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory activity of β-amino amide scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study was performed on 34 β-amino amide derivatives as dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors in order to determine their structural requirement to enhance the antidiabetic activities. Hologram quantitative structure activity relationships models utilized specialized fragment fingerprints (hologram length 353 which showed good predictivity with cross-validated q 2 and conventional r 2 values of 0.971 and 0.971, respectively. Models were validated and optimized by a test set of eight compounds and gave satisfactory predictive ability. Hologram quantitative structure activity relationships maps were helpful in prediction of the structural features of the ligands to account for the activity in terms of positively and negatively contributing towards activity. The information obtained from maps could be effectively use as a guiding tool for further structure modifications and synthesis of new potent antidiabetic agents.

  4. Predicting involvement in prison gang activity: street gang membership, social and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jane L; Alleyne, Emma; Mozova, Katarina; James, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether street gang membership, psychological factors, and social factors such as preprison experiences could predict young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Data were collected via individual interviews with 188 young offenders held in a Young Offenders Institution in the United Kingdom. Results showed that psychological factors such as the value individuals attached to social status, a social dominance orientation, and antiauthority attitudes were important in predicting young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Further important predictors included preimprisonment events such as levels of threat, levels of individual delinquency, and levels of involvement in group crime. Longer current sentences also predicted involvement in prison gang activity. However, street gang membership was not an important predictor of involvement in prison gang activity. These findings have implications for identifying prisoners involved in prison gang activity and for considering the role of psychological factors and group processes in gang research.

  5. An Effective Approach Based on Response Surface Methodology for Predicting Friction Welding Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sare; Deniz Karaoglan, Aslan; Ersozlu, Ismail

    2016-03-01

    The joining of dissimilar metals is one of the most essential necessities of industries. Manufacturing by the joint of alloy steel and normal carbon steel is used in production, because it decreases raw material cost. The friction welding process parameters such as friction pressure, friction time, upset pressure, upset time and rotating speed play the major roles in determining the strength and microstructure of the joints. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM), which is a well-known design of experiments approach, is used for modeling the mathematical relation between the responses (tensile strength and maximum temperature), and the friction welding parameters with minimum number of experiments. The results show that RSM is an effective method for this type of problems for developing models and prediction.

  6. Prediction of response to chemotherapy by ERCC1 immunohistochemistry and ERCC1 polymorphism in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Steffensen, Karina; Waldstrøm, M.; Jeppesen, Ulla;

    2007-01-01

    The response of tumor cells to platinum-based chemotherapy involves DNA repair mechanisms. Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ercc1) is one of the leading genes involved in DNA repair, and several studies have linked ercc1 to platinum resistance in cell lines and in human cancers....... A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of ercc1 at codon 118 has been proposed to impair ercc1 translation and reduce ERCC1 protein expression and consequently influence the response to platinum-based chemotherapy. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate ERCC1 expression and ercc1 codon...... 118 polymorphism in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and their possible predictive value in patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 159 patients with advanced EOC were used for immunohistochemistry. Ercc1 codon 118 SNP genotyping...

  7. Words in Context: The Effects of Length, Frequency, and Predictability on Brain Responses During Natural Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Sarah; Hawelka, Stefan; Hutzler, Florian; Kronbichler, Martin; Richlan, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Word length, frequency, and predictability count among the most influential variables during reading. Their effects are well-documented in eye movement studies, but pertinent evidence from neuroimaging primarily stem from single-word presentations. We investigated the effects of these variables during reading of whole sentences with simultaneous eye-tracking and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fixation-related fMRI). Increasing word length was associated with increasing activation in occipital areas linked to visual analysis. Additionally, length elicited a U-shaped modulation (i.e., least activation for medium-length words) within a brain stem region presumably linked to eye movement control. These effects, however, were diminished when accounting for multiple fixation cases. Increasing frequency was associated with decreasing activation within left inferior frontal, superior parietal, and occipito-temporal regions. The function of the latter region—hosting the putative visual word form area—was originally considered as limited to sublexical processing. An exploratory analysis revealed that increasing predictability was associated with decreasing activation within middle temporal and inferior frontal regions previously implicated in memory access and unification. The findings are discussed with regard to their correspondence with findings from single-word presentations and with regard to neurocognitive models of visual word recognition, semantic processing, and eye movement control during reading. PMID:27365297

  8. New Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Models Improve Predictability of Ames Mutagenicity for Aromatic Azo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganelli, Serena; Benfenati, Emilio; Manganaro, Alberto; Kulkarni, Sunil; Barton-Maclaren, Tara S; Honma, Masamitsu

    2016-10-01

    Existing Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models have limited predictive capabilities for aromatic azo compounds. In this study, 2 new models were built to predict Ames mutagenicity of this class of compounds. The first one made use of descriptors based on simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES), calculated with the CORAL software. The second model was based on the k-nearest neighbors algorithm. The statistical quality of the predictions from single models was satisfactory. The performance further improved when the predictions from these models were combined. The prediction results from other QSAR models for mutagenicity were also evaluated. Most of the existing models were found to be good at finding toxic compounds but resulted in many false positive predictions. The 2 new models specific for this class of compounds avoid this problem thanks to a larger set of related compounds as training set and improved algorithms.

  9. Earthquake Risk - SEISMIC_SHAKING_PREDICTED_RESPONSE_RP35_IN: Predicted Responses of Geologic Materials to Seismically Induced Ground Shaking (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SEISMIC_SHAKING_PREDICTED_RESPONSE_RP35_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows the distribution and classification of National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

  10. Computer-aided breast MR image feature analysis for prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify a new clinical marker based on quantitative kinetic image features analysis and assess its feasibility to predict tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: The authors assembled a dataset involving breast MR images acquired from 68 cancer patients before undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Among them, 25 patients had complete response (CR) and 43 had partial and nonresponse (NR) to chemotherapy based on the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. The authors developed a computer-aided detection scheme to segment breast areas and tumors depicted on the breast MR images and computed a total of 39 kinetic image features from both tumor and background parenchymal enhancement regions. The authors then applied and tested two approaches to classify between CR and NR cases. The first one analyzed each individual feature and applied a simple feature fusion method that combines classification results from multiple features. The second approach tested an attribute selected classifier that integrates an artificial neural network (ANN) with a wrapper subset evaluator, which was optimized using a leave-one-case-out validation method. Results: In the pool of 39 features, 10 yielded relatively higher classification performance with the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.61 to 0.78 to classify between CR and NR cases. Using a feature fusion method, the maximum AUC = 0.85 ± 0.05. Using the ANN-based classifier, AUC value significantly increased to 0.96 ± 0.03 (p < 0.01). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that quantitative analysis of kinetic image features computed from breast MR images acquired prechemotherapy has potential to generate a useful clinical marker in predicting tumor response to chemotherapy

  11. Computer-aided breast MR image feature analysis for prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghaei, Faranak; Tan, Maxine; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin, E-mail: Bin.Zheng-1@ou.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Hollingsworth, Alan B. [Mercy Women’s Center, Mercy Health Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73120 (United States); Qian, Wei [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To identify a new clinical marker based on quantitative kinetic image features analysis and assess its feasibility to predict tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: The authors assembled a dataset involving breast MR images acquired from 68 cancer patients before undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Among them, 25 patients had complete response (CR) and 43 had partial and nonresponse (NR) to chemotherapy based on the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. The authors developed a computer-aided detection scheme to segment breast areas and tumors depicted on the breast MR images and computed a total of 39 kinetic image features from both tumor and background parenchymal enhancement regions. The authors then applied and tested two approaches to classify between CR and NR cases. The first one analyzed each individual feature and applied a simple feature fusion method that combines classification results from multiple features. The second approach tested an attribute selected classifier that integrates an artificial neural network (ANN) with a wrapper subset evaluator, which was optimized using a leave-one-case-out validation method. Results: In the pool of 39 features, 10 yielded relatively higher classification performance with the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.61 to 0.78 to classify between CR and NR cases. Using a feature fusion method, the maximum AUC = 0.85 ± 0.05. Using the ANN-based classifier, AUC value significantly increased to 0.96 ± 0.03 (p < 0.01). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that quantitative analysis of kinetic image features computed from breast MR images acquired prechemotherapy has potential to generate a useful clinical marker in predicting tumor response to chemotherapy.

  12. The effect of cell size distribution on predicted osmotic responses of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmoazzen, H Y; Chan, C C V; Acker, J P; Elliott, J A W; McGann, L E

    2005-01-01

    An understanding of the kinetics of the osmotic response of cells is important in understanding permeability properties of cell membranes and predicting cell responses during exposure to anisotonic conditions. Traditionally, a mathematical model of cell osmotic response is obtained by applying mass transport and Boyle-vant Hoff equations using numerical methods. In the usual application of these equations, it is assumed that all cells are the same size equal to the mean or mode of the population. However, biological cells (even if they had identical membranes and hence identical permeability characteristics--which they do not) have a distribution in cell size and will therefore shrink or swell at different rates when exposed to anisotonic conditions. A population of cells may therefore exhibit a different average osmotic response than that of a single cell. In this study, a mathematical model using mass transport and Boyle-van't Hoff equations was applied to measured size distributions of cells. Chinese hamster fibroblast cells (V-79W) and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK), were placed in hypertonic solutions and the kinetics of cell shrinkage were monitored. Consistent with the theoretical predictions, the size distributions of these cells were found to change over time, therefore the selection of the measure of central tendency for the population may affect the calculated osmotic parameters. After examining three different average volumes (mean, median, and mode) using four different theoretical cell size distributions, it was determined that, for the assumptions used in this study, the mean or median were the best measures of central tendency to describe osmotic volume changes in cell suspensions. PMID:16082441

  13. The use of early summer mosquito surveillance to predict late summer West Nile virus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rochlin, Ilia; Campbell, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Utility of early-season mosquito surveillance to predict West Nile virus activity in late summer was assessed in Suffolk County, NY. Dry ice-baited CDC miniature light traps paired with gravid traps were set weekly. Maximum-likelihood estimates of WNV positivity, minimum infection rates, and % positive pools were generally well correlated. However, positivity in gravid traps was not correlated with positivity in CDC light traps. The best early-season predictors of WNV activity in late summer (estimated using maximum-likelihood estimates of Culex positivity in August and September) were early date of first positive pool, low numbers of mosquitoes in July, and low numbers of mosquito species in July. These results suggest that early-season entomological samples can be used to predict WNV activity later in the summer, when most human cases are acquired. Additional research is needed to establish which surveillance variables are most predictive and to characterize the reliability of the predictions.

  14. TNF-α Promoter Polymorphisms Predict the Response to Etanercept More Powerfully than that to Infliximab/Adalimumab in Spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Dong, Zheng; Zhu, Qi; He, Dongyi; Ma, Yanyun; Du, Aiping; He, Fan; Zhao, Dongbao; Xu, Xia; Zhang, Hui; Jin, Li; Wang, Jiucun

    2016-08-31

    While previous studies have researched in association analyses between TNFα promoter polymorphisms and responses to TNF blockers in spondyloarthritis patients, their results were conflicting. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether TNFα promoter polymorphisms could predict response to TNF blockers and find the source of heterogeneity. Data were extracted and analyzed from published articles and combined with our unpublished data. We found that the greatest potential sources of heterogeneity in the results were gender ratio, disease type, continents, and TNF blockers. Then Stratification analysis showed that the TNFα -308 G allele and the -238 G allele predicted a good response to TNF blockers (OR = 2.64 [1.48-4.73]; 2.52 [1.46-4.37]). However, G alleles of TNFα -308 and -238 could predict the response to etanercept (OR = 4.02 [2.24-7.23]; 5.17 [2.29-11.67]) much more powerfully than the response to infiliximab/adalimumab (OR = 1.68 [1.02-2.78]; 1.28 [0.57-2.86]). TNFα -857 could not predict the response in either subgroup. Cumulative meta-analysis performed in ankylosing spondylitis patients presented the odds ratio decreased with stricter response criteria. In conclusion, TNFα -308 A/G and -238 A/G are more powerful to predict the response to Etanercept and it is dependent on the criteria of response.

  15. Prediction of exposure-response relationships to support first-in-human study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, John P

    2010-12-01

    In drug development, phase 1 first-in-human studies represent a major milestone as the drug moves from preclinical discovery to clinical development activities. The safety of human subjects is paramount to the conduct of these studies and regulatory considerations guide activities. Forces of evolution on the pharmaceutical industry are re-shaping the first-in-human dose selection strategy. Namely, high attrition rates in part due to lack of efficacy have led to the re-organization of research and development organizations around the umbrella of translational research. Translational research strives to bring basic research advances into the clinic and support the reverse transfer of information to enhance compound selection strategies. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling holds a unique position in translational research by attempting to integrate diverse sets of information. PK/PD modeling has demonstrated utility in dose selection and trial design for later stages of drug development and is now being employed with greater prevalence in the translational research setting to manage risk (i.e., oncology and inflammation/immunology). Moving from empirical E (max) models to more mechanistic representations of the biological system, a higher fidelity of human predictions is expected. Strategies that have proven useful for PK predictions are being applied to PK/PD predictions. This review article examines examples of the application of PK/PD modeling in establishing target concentrations for supporting first-in-human study design. PMID:20967521

  16. A quantitative structure-activity relationship to predict efficacy of granular activated carbon adsorption to control emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennicutt, A R; Morkowchuk, L; Krein, M; Breneman, C M; Kilduff, J E

    2016-08-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship was developed to predict the efficacy of carbon adsorption as a control technology for endocrine-disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals, and components of personal care products, as a tool for water quality professionals to protect public health. Here, we expand previous work to investigate a broad spectrum of molecular descriptors including subdivided surface areas, adjacency and distance matrix descriptors, electrostatic partial charges, potential energy descriptors, conformation-dependent charge descriptors, and Transferable Atom Equivalent (TAE) descriptors that characterize the regional electronic properties of molecules. We compare the efficacy of linear (Partial Least Squares) and non-linear (Support Vector Machine) machine learning methods to describe a broad chemical space and produce a user-friendly model. We employ cross-validation, y-scrambling, and external validation for quality control. The recommended Support Vector Machine model trained on 95 compounds having 23 descriptors offered a good balance between good performance statistics, low error, and low probability of over-fitting while describing a wide range of chemical features. The cross-validated model using a log-uptake (qe) response calculated at an aqueous equilibrium concentration (Ce) of 1 μM described the training dataset with an r(2) of 0.932, had a cross-validated r(2) of 0.833, and an average residual of 0.14 log units. PMID:27586364

  17. Post-stress rumination predicts HPA axis responses to repeated acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianferante, Danielle; Thoma, Myriam V; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Breines, Juliana G; Zoccola, Peggy M; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    Failure of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to habituate to repeated stress exposure is related with adverse health outcomes, but our knowledge of predictors of non-habituation is limited. Rumination, defined as repetitive and unwanted past-centered negative thinking, is related with exaggerated HPA axis stress responses and poor health outcomes. The aim of this study was to test whether post-stress rumination was related with non-habituation of cortisol to repeated stress exposure. Twenty-seven participants (n=13 females) were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) twice on consecutive afternoons. Post-stress rumination was measured after the first TSST, and HPA axis responses were assessed by measuring salivary cortisol 1 min before, and 1, 10, 20, 60, and 120 min after both TSSTs. Stress exposure induced HPA axis activation on both days, and this activation showed habituation indicated by lower responses to the second TSST (F=3.7, p=0.015). Post-stress rumination after the first TSST was associated with greater cortisol reactivity after the initial stress test (r=0.45, pHPA axis responses. This finding implicates rumination as one possible mechanism mediating maladaptive stress response patterns, and it might also offer a pathway through which rumination might lead to negative health outcomes.

  18. Big money, Big responsibility : A study of active and responsible ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Sofia

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Social Responsible Investments and Corporate Social Responsibility are terms that have become increasingly important in the business world of today. Fund companies have during the last years increased their work with issues such as human rights, environmental impact and business ethics before making an investment. The trend of today is rather to work as active owners and influence companies to change rather than passively excluding certain industries. Other investors whose business i...

  19. Predicting the responsiveness of soil biodiversity to deforestation: a cross-biome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Thomas W; Maynard, Daniel S; Leff, Jonathan W; Oldfield, Emily E; McCulley, Rebecca L; Fierer, Noah; Bradford, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    The consequences of deforestation for aboveground biodiversity have been a scientific and political concern for decades. In contrast, despite being a dominant component of biodiversity that is essential to the functioning of ecosystems, the responses of belowground biodiversity to forest removal have received less attention. Single-site studies suggest that soil microbes can be highly responsive to forest removal, but responses are highly variable, with negligible effects in some regions. Using high throughput sequencing, we characterize the effects of deforestation on microbial communities across multiple biomes and explore what determines the vulnerability of microbial communities to this vegetative change. We reveal consistent directional trends in the microbial community response, yet the magnitude of this vegetation effect varied between sites, and was explained strongly by soil texture. In sandy sites, the difference in vegetation type caused shifts in a suite of edaphic characteristics, driving substantial differences in microbial community composition. In contrast, fine-textured soil buffered microbes against these effects and there were minimal differences between communities in forest and grassland soil. These microbial community changes were associated with distinct changes in the microbial catabolic profile, placing community changes in an ecosystem functioning context. The universal nature of these patterns allows us to predict where deforestation will have the strongest effects on soil biodiversity, and how these effects could be mitigated.

  20. Predicting the responsiveness of soil biodiversity to deforestation: a cross-biome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Thomas W; Maynard, Daniel S; Leff, Jonathan W; Oldfield, Emily E; McCulley, Rebecca L; Fierer, Noah; Bradford, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    The consequences of deforestation for aboveground biodiversity have been a scientific and political concern for decades. In contrast, despite being a dominant component of biodiversity that is essential to the functioning of ecosystems, the responses of belowground biodiversity to forest removal have received less attention. Single-site studies suggest that soil microbes can be highly responsive to forest removal, but responses are highly variable, with negligible effects in some regions. Using high throughput sequencing, we characterize the effects of deforestation on microbial communities across multiple biomes and explore what determines the vulnerability of microbial communities to this vegetative change. We reveal consistent directional trends in the microbial community response, yet the magnitude of this vegetation effect varied between sites, and was explained strongly by soil texture. In sandy sites, the difference in vegetation type caused shifts in a suite of edaphic characteristics, driving substantial differences in microbial community composition. In contrast, fine-textured soil buffered microbes against these effects and there were minimal differences between communities in forest and grassland soil. These microbial community changes were associated with distinct changes in the microbial catabolic profile, placing community changes in an ecosystem functioning context. The universal nature of these patterns allows us to predict where deforestation will have the strongest effects on soil biodiversity, and how these effects could be mitigated. PMID:24692253

  1. CT contrast predicts pancreatic cancer treatment response to verteporfin-based photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermyn, Michael; Davis, Scott C.; Dehghani, Hamid; Huggett, Matthew T.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pereira, Stephen P.; Bown, Stephen G.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine dominant factors affecting treatment response in pancreatic cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), based on clinically available information in the VERTPAC-01 trial. This trial investigated the safety and efficacy of verteporfin PDT in 15 patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. CT scans before and after contrast enhancement from the 15 patients in the VERTPAC-01 trial were used to determine venous-phase blood contrast enhancement and this was correlated with necrotic volume determined from post-treatment CT scans, along with estimation of optical absorption in the pancreas for use in light modeling of the PDT treatment. Energy threshold contours yielded estimates for necrotic volume based on this light modeling. Both contrast-derived venous blood content and necrotic volume from light modeling yielded strong correlations with observed necrotic volume (R2 = 0.85 and 0.91, respectively). These correlations were much stronger than those obtained by correlating energy delivered versus necrotic volume in the VERTPAC-01 study and in retrospective analysis from a prior clinical study. This demonstrates that contrast CT can provide key surrogate dosimetry information to assess treatment response. It also implies that light attenuation is likely the dominant factor in the VERTPAC treatment response, as opposed to other factors such as drug distribution. This study is the first to show that contrast CT provides needed surrogate dosimetry information to predict treatment response in a manner which uses standard-of-care clinical images, rather than invasive dosimetry methods.

  2. When power shapes interpersonal behavior: Low relationship power predicts men's aggressive responses to low situational power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D; McNulty, James K; Finkel, Eli J

    2016-08-01

    When does power in intimate relationships shape important interpersonal behaviors, such as psychological aggression? Five studies tested whether possessing low relationship power was associated with aggressive responses, but (a) only within power-relevant relationship interactions when situational power was low, and (b) only by men because masculinity (but not femininity) involves the possession and demonstration of power. In Studies 1 and 2, men lower in relationship power exhibited greater aggressive communication during couples' observed conflict discussions, but only when they experienced low situational power because they were unable to influence their partner. In Study 3, men lower in relationship power reported greater daily aggressive responses toward their partner, but only on days when they experienced low situational power because they were either (a) unable to influence their partner or (b) dependent on their partner for support. In Study 4, men who possessed lower relationship power exhibited greater aggressive responses during couples' support-relevant discussions, but only when they had low situational power because they needed high levels of support. Study 5 provided evidence for the theoretical mechanism underlying men's aggressive responses to low relationship power. Men who possessed lower relationship power felt less manly on days they faced low situational power because their partner was unwilling to change to resolve relationship problems, which in turn predicted greater aggressive behavior toward their partner. These results demonstrate that fully understanding when and why power is associated with interpersonal behavior requires differentiating between relationship and situational power. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27442766

  3. CT contrast predicts pancreatic cancer treatment response to verteporfin-based photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to determine dominant factors affecting treatment response in pancreatic cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), based on clinically available information in the VERTPAC-01 trial. This trial investigated the safety and efficacy of verteporfin PDT in 15 patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. CT scans before and after contrast enhancement from the 15 patients in the VERTPAC-01 trial were used to determine venous-phase blood contrast enhancement and this was correlated with necrotic volume determined from post-treatment CT scans, along with estimation of optical absorption in the pancreas for use in light modeling of the PDT treatment. Energy threshold contours yielded estimates for necrotic volume based on this light modeling. Both contrast-derived venous blood content and necrotic volume from light modeling yielded strong correlations with observed necrotic volume (R2 = 0.85 and 0.91, respectively). These correlations were much stronger than those obtained by correlating energy delivered versus necrotic volume in the VERTPAC-01 study and in retrospective analysis from a prior clinical study. This demonstrates that contrast CT can provide key surrogate dosimetry information to assess treatment response. It also implies that light attenuation is likely the dominant factor in the VERTPAC treatment response, as opposed to other factors such as drug distribution. This study is the first to show that contrast CT provides needed surrogate dosimetry information to predict treatment response in a manner which uses standard-of-care clinical images, rather than invasive dosimetry methods. (paper)

  4. Trisomy 3 may predict a poor response of gastric MALT lymphoma to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sawako Taji; Masuji Morita; Masafumi Taniwaki; Kenichi Nomura; Yosuke Matsumoto; Hideaki Sakabe; Naohisa Yoshida; Shoji Mitsufuji; Kazuhiro Nishida; Shigeo Horiike; Shigeo Nakamura

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relation of the response to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy to the depth of tumor invasion and chromosome abnormalities in patients with mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and to determine the clinical value of aneuploidy.METHODS: We studied 13 patients with localized gastric MALT lymphoma of stage E1. Before eradication therapy,the depth of tumor invasion was assessed by endoscopic ultrasonography in 8 patients and by endoscopic examination and gastrointestinal series in the remaining patients. To detect chromosomal abnormalities, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of diagnostic biopsy specimens underwent tissuefluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using chromosomespecific α-satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 3,7,12,and 18 and YAC clones for t(11;18)(q21;q21).RESULTS: Seven of the 13 patients had complete regression(CR) in response to H pylori eradication therapy. No patient with CR had submucosal tumor invasion. Trisomy 18 was seen in 1 patient with CR, and both trisomies 12 and 18 were present in another patient with CR. All patients with no response or progressive disease had deep submucosal tumor invasion and showed t(11;18)(q21;q21) or trisomy 3. Trisomy 7 was not detected in this series of patients.CONCLUSION: The depth of tumor invasion is an accurate predictor of the response of stage E1 MALT lymphoma to H pylori eradication therapy and is closely associated with the presence of chromosomal abnormalities. Trisomy 3 may predict the aggressive development of MALT lymphoma.

  5. When power shapes interpersonal behavior: Low relationship power predicts men's aggressive responses to low situational power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D; McNulty, James K; Finkel, Eli J

    2016-08-01

    When does power in intimate relationships shape important interpersonal behaviors, such as psychological aggression? Five studies tested whether possessing low relationship power was associated with aggressive responses, but (a) only within power-relevant relationship interactions when situational power was low, and (b) only by men because masculinity (but not femininity) involves the possession and demonstration of power. In Studies 1 and 2, men lower in relationship power exhibited greater aggressive communication during couples' observed conflict discussions, but only when they experienced low situational power because they were unable to influence their partner. In Study 3, men lower in relationship power reported greater daily aggressive responses toward their partner, but only on days when they experienced low situational power because they were either (a) unable to influence their partner or (b) dependent on their partner for support. In Study 4, men who possessed lower relationship power exhibited greater aggressive responses during couples' support-relevant discussions, but only when they had low situational power because they needed high levels of support. Study 5 provided evidence for the theoretical mechanism underlying men's aggressive responses to low relationship power. Men who possessed lower relationship power felt less manly on days they faced low situational power because their partner was unwilling to change to resolve relationship problems, which in turn predicted greater aggressive behavior toward their partner. These results demonstrate that fully understanding when and why power is associated with interpersonal behavior requires differentiating between relationship and situational power. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts.

  7. [Bone marrow stromal damage mediated by immune response activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojinović, J; Kamenov, B; Najman, S; Branković, Lj; Dimitrijević, H

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate influence of activated immune response on hematopoiesis in vitro, using the experimental model of BCG immunized BALB/c mice and in patients with chronic immunoactivation: long-lasting infections, autoimmunity or malignancy. We correlated changes in long term bone marrow cultures (Dexter) and NBT reduction with appearance of anemia in patients and experimental model of immunization by BCG. Increased spontaneous NBT reduction pointed out role of macrophage activation in bone marrow stroma damage. Long-term bone marrow cultures showed reduced number of hematopoietic cells, with predomination of fibroblasts and loss of fat cells. This results correlated with anemia and leucocytosis with stimulated myelopoiesis in peripheral blood. Activation of immune response, or acting of any agent that directly changes extracellular matrix and cellularity of bone marrow, may result in microenviroment bone marrow damage that modify hematopoiesis.

  8. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts. PMID:26555621

  9. CD83 Modulates B Cell Activation and Germinal Center Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzak, Lena; Seitz, Christine; Urbat, Anne; Hutzler, Stefan; Ostalecki, Christian; Gläsner, Joachim; Hiergeist, Andreas; Gessner, André; Winkler, Thomas H; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Nitschke, Lars

    2016-05-01

    CD83 is a maturation marker for dendritic cells. In the B cell lineage, CD83 is expressed especially on activated B cells and on light zone B cells during the germinal center (GC) reaction. The function of CD83 during GC responses is unclear. CD83(-/-) mice have a strong reduction of CD4(+) T cells, which makes it difficult to analyze a functional role of CD83 on B cells during GC responses. Therefore, in the present study we generated a B cell-specific CD83 conditional knockout (CD83 B-cKO) model. CD83 B-cKO B cells show defective upregulation of MHC class II and CD86 expression and impaired proliferation after different stimuli. Analyses of GC responses after immunization with various Ags revealed a characteristic shift in dark zone and light zone B cell numbers, with an increase of B cells in the dark zone of CD83 B-cKO mice. This effect was not accompanied by alterations in the level of IgG immune responses or by major differences in affinity maturation. However, an enhanced IgE response was observed in CD83 B-cKO mice. Additionally, we observed a strong competitive disadvantage of CD83-cKO B cells in GC responses in mixed bone marrow chimeras. Furthermore, infection of mice with Borrelia burgdorferi revealed a defect in bacterial clearance of CD83 B-cKO mice with a shift toward a Th2 response, indicated by a strong increase in IgE titers. Taken together, our results show that CD83 is important for B cell activation and modulates GC composition and IgE Ab responses in vivo. PMID:26983787

  10. Delphinid behavioral responses to incidental mid-frequency active sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, E Elizabeth; Smith, Michael H; Gassmann, Martin; Wiggins, Sean M; Douglas, Annie B; Hildebrand, John A

    2014-10-01

    Opportunistic observations of behavioral responses by delphinids to incidental mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar were recorded in the Southern California Bight from 2004 through 2008 using visual focal follows, static hydrophones, and autonomous recorders. Sound pressure levels were calculated between 2 and 8 kHz. Surface behavioral responses were observed in 26 groups from at least three species of 46 groups out of five species encountered during MFA sonar incidents. Responses included changes in behavioral state or direction of travel, changes in vocalization rates and call intensity, or a lack of vocalizations while MFA sonar occurred. However, 46% of focal groups not exposed to sonar also changed their behavior, and 43% of focal groups exposed to sonar did not change their behavior. Mean peak sound pressure levels when a behavioral response occurred were around 122 dB re: 1 μPa. Acoustic localizations of dolphin groups exhibiting a response gave insight into nighttime movement patterns and provided evidence that impacts of sonar may be mediated by behavioral state. The lack of response in some cases may indicate a tolerance of or habituation to MFA sonar by local populations; however, the responses that occur at lower received levels may point to some sensitization as well.

  11. Nonconscious activation of placebo and nocebo pain responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Karin B; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Kirsch, Irving; Raicek, Jacqueline; Lindstrom, Kara M; Berna, Chantal; Gollub, Randy L; Ingvar, Martin; Kong, Jian

    2012-09-25

    The dominant theories of human placebo effects rely on a notion that consciously perceptible cues, such as verbal information or distinct stimuli in classical conditioning, provide signals that activate placebo effects. However, growing evidence suggest that behavior can be triggered by stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness. Here, we performed two experiments in which the responses to thermal pain stimuli were assessed. The first experiment assessed whether a conditioning paradigm, using clearly visible cues for high and low pain, could induce placebo and nocebo responses. The second experiment, in a separate group of subjects, assessed whether conditioned placebo and nocebo responses could be triggered in response to nonconscious (masked) exposures to the same cues. A total of 40 healthy volunteers (24 female, mean age 23 y) were investigated in a laboratory setting. Participants rated each pain stimulus on a numeric response scale, ranging from 0 = no pain to 100 = worst imaginable pain. Significant placebo and nocebo effects were found in both experiment 1 (using clearly visible stimuli) and experiment 2 (using nonconscious stimuli), indicating that the mechanisms responsible for placebo and nocebo effects can operate without conscious awareness of the triggering cues. This is a unique experimental verification of the influence of nonconscious conditioned stimuli on placebo/nocebo effects and the results challenge the exclusive role of awareness and conscious cognitions in placebo responses. PMID:23019380

  12. Parent attendance and homework adherence predict response to a family-school intervention for children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Angela T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Soffer, Stephen L; Jones, Heather A; Costigan, Tracy E; Patterson, Anwar; Jawad, Abbas F; Power, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of two dimensions of parent engagement, attendance and homework adherence, to parent and child treatment response and explored whether early engagement was a stronger predictor of outcomes than later engagement. The sample consisted of parents of participants (n = 92; M age = 9.4 years, SD = 1.27; 67% male, 69% White) in a 12-session evidence-based family-school intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Attendance was assessed using clinician records, and homework adherence was measured by rating permanent products. Outcomes included parent and teacher ratings of family involvement in education, parenting practices, and child functioning. Accounting for the contributions of baseline scores and attendance, homework adherence was a significant predictor of parental self-efficacy, the parent-teacher relationship, parenting through positive involvement, and the child's inattention to homework and homework productivity. Accounting for the contribution of baseline scores and homework adherence, attendance was a significant predictor of one outcome, the child's academic productivity. Early homework adherence appeared to be more predictive of outcomes than later adherence, whereas attendance did not predict outcomes during either half of treatment. These results indicate that, even in the context of evidence-based practice, it is the extent to which parents actively engage with treatment, rather than the number of sessions they attend, that is most important in predicting intervention response. Because attendance is limited as an index of engagement and a predictor of outcomes, increased efforts to develop interventions to promote parent adherence to behavioral interventions for children are warranted. PMID:23688140

  13. Predictive Factors of the Response of Rectal Cancer to Neoadjuvant Radiochemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spolverato, Gaya; Pucciarelli, Salvatore [Department of Oncology and Surgical Sciences, Section of Surgery, University of Padova, Padova 35128 (Italy); Bertorelle, Roberta [Istituto Oncologico Veneto-IRCCS, Padova 35128 (Italy); De Rossi, Anita, E-mail: anita.derossi@unipd.it [Istituto Oncologico Veneto-IRCCS, Padova 35128 (Italy); Department of Oncology and Surgical Sciences, Section of Oncology, University of Padova, Padova 35128 (Italy); Nitti, Donato [Department of Oncology and Surgical Sciences, Section of Surgery, University of Padova, Padova 35128 (Italy)

    2011-04-26

    Locally advanced rectal cancer is currently treated with pre-operative radiochemotherapy (pRCT), but the response is not uniform. Identification of patients with higher likelihood of responding to pRCT is clinically relevant, as patients with resistant tumors could be spared exposure to radiation or DNA-damaging drugs that are associated with adverse side effects. To highlight predictive biomarkers of response to pRCT, a systematic search of PubMed was conducted with a combination of the following terms: “rectal”, “predictive”, “radiochemotherapy”, “neoadjuvant”, “response” and “biomarkers”. Genetic polymorphisms in epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) genes, the expression of several markers, such as EGFR, bcl-2/bax and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and circulating biomarkers, such as serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, are promising as predictor markers, but need to be further evaluated. The majority of the studies did not support the predictive value of p53, while the values of Ki-67, TS and p21 is still controversial. Gene expression profiles of thousands of genes using microarrays, microRNA studies and the search for new circulating molecules, such as human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA and cell-free DNA, are providing interesting results that might lead to the identification of new useful biomarkers. Evaluation of biomarkers in larger, prospective trials are required to guide therapeutic strategies.

  14. EGFR expression level predicts response and overall survival in gastric cancer PDTX model treated with cetuximab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Objective:hTe aim of this study was to determine whether the EGFR statuscould significantly predict some benefit in overall survival and response to cetuximab in advanced GC xenografts.Methods: Two hundred xenografts derived from 20 GC patients were established. Then they were divided into cetuximab treated group and control group randomly.Results:Among the cetuximab treated group, 4 GC cases were identified responded to cetuximab.hTose cetuximab treated PDX models had longer OS than non-treated. High EGFR mRNA expression and immunohistochemistry score are more prone to response to cetuximab. EGFR amplification, mRNA and protein overexpression were associated with the OS in cetuximab treated PDX models. Moreover, in the PDX models derived from EGFR ampliifcation, mRNA or protein overexpression cases, the OS is signiifcantly different between the cetuximab treated and control group, while the OS in not statistically different in other cases.Conclusion:EGFR status predicts sensitivity to therapy and survival in GC treated with cetuximab, especially the mRNA and protein expression level.

  15. ULK1: a promising biomarker in predicting poor prognosis and therapeutic response in human nasopharygeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yun

    Full Text Available Plenty of studies have established that dysregulation of autophagy plays an essential role in cancer progression. The autophagy-related proteins have been reported to be closely associated with human cancer patients' prognosis. We explored the expression dynamics and prognostic value of autophagy-related protein ULK1 by immunochemistry (IHC method in two independent cohorts of nasopharygeal carcinoma (NPC cases. The X-tile program was applied to determine the optimal cut-off value in the training cohort. This derived cutoff value was then subjected to analysis the association of ULK1 expression with patients' clinical characteristics and survival outcome in the validation cohort and overall cases. High ULK1 expression was closely associated with aggressive clinical feature of NPC patients. Furthermore, high expression of ULK1 was observed more frequently in therapeutic resistant group than that in therapeutic effective group. Our univariate and multivariate analysis also showed that higher ULK1 expression predicted inferior disease-specific survival (DSS (P<0.05. Consequently, a new clinicopathologic prognostic model with 3 poor prognostic factors (ie, ULK1 expression, overall clinical stage and therapeutic response could significantly stratify risk (low, intermediate and high for DSS in NPC patients (P<0.001. These findings provide evidence that, the examination of ULK1 expression by IHC method, could serve as an effective additional tool for predicting therapeutic response and patients' survival outcome in NPC patients.

  16. Elevation in inflammatory serum biomarkers predicts response to trastuzumab-containing therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A Alkhateeb

    Full Text Available Approximately half of all HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer patients do not respond to trastuzumab-containing therapy. Therefore, there remains an urgent and unmet clinical need for the development of predictive biomarkers for trastuzumab response. Recently, several lines of evidence have demonstrated that the inflammatory tumor microenvironment is a major contributor to therapy resistance in breast cancer. In order to explore the predictive value of inflammation in breast cancer patients, we measured the inflammatory biomarkers serum ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP in 66 patients immediately before undergoing trastuzumab-containing therapy and evaluated their progression-free and overall survival. The elevation in pre-treatment serum ferritin (>250 ng/ml or CRP (>7.25 mg/l was a significant predictor of reduced progression-free survival and shorter overall survival. When patients were stratified based on their serum ferritin and CRP levels, patients with elevation in both inflammatory biomarkers had a markedly poorer response to trastuzumab-containing therapy. Therefore, the elevation in inflammatory serum biomarkers may reflect a pathological state that decreases the clinical efficacy of this therapy. Anti-inflammatory drugs and life-style changes to decrease inflammation in cancer patients should be explored as possible strategies to sensitize patients to anti-cancer therapeutics.

  17. Final Scientific Technical Report: INTEGRATED PREDICTIVE DEMAND RESPONSE CONTROLLER FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Mike

    2013-10-14

    This project provides algorithms to perform demand response using the thermal mass of a building. Using the thermal mass of the building is an attractive method for performing demand response because there is no need for capital expenditure. The algorithms rely on the thermal capacitance inherent in the building?s construction materials. A near-optimal ?day ahead? predictive approach is developed that is meant to keep the building?s electrical demand constant during the high cost periods. This type of approach is appropriate for both time-of-use and critical peak pricing utility rate structures. The approach uses the past days data in order to determine the best temperature setpoints for the building during the high price periods on the next day. A second ?model predictive approach? (MPC) uses a thermal model of the building to determine the best temperature for the next sample period. The approach uses constant feedback from the building and is capable of appropriately handling real time pricing. Both approaches are capable of using weather forecasts to improve performance.

  18. Blinded prospective evaluation of computer-based mechanistic schizophrenia disease model for predicting drug response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Hugo; Spiros, Athan; Roberts, Patrick; Twyman, Roy; Alphs, Larry; Grace, Anthony A

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous advances in understanding the neurobiological circuits involved in schizophrenia have not translated into more effective treatments. An alternative strategy is to use a recently published 'Quantitative Systems Pharmacology' computer-based mechanistic disease model of cortical/subcortical and striatal circuits based upon preclinical physiology, human pathology and pharmacology. The physiology of 27 relevant dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate-mediated targets is calibrated using retrospective clinical data on 24 different antipsychotics. The model was challenged to predict quantitatively the clinical outcome in a blinded fashion of two experimental antipsychotic drugs; JNJ37822681, a highly selective low-affinity dopamine D(2) antagonist and ocaperidone, a very high affinity dopamine D(2) antagonist, using only pharmacology and human positron emission tomography (PET) imaging data. The model correctly predicted the lower performance of JNJ37822681 on the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) total score and the higher extra-pyramidal symptom (EPS) liability compared to olanzapine and the relative performance of ocaperidone against olanzapine, but did not predict the absolute PANSS total score outcome and EPS liability for ocaperidone, possibly due to placebo responses and EPS assessment methods. Because of its virtual nature, this modeling approach can support central nervous system research and development by accounting for unique human drug properties, such as human metabolites, exposure, genotypes and off-target effects and can be a helpful tool for drug discovery and development. PMID:23251349

  19. Blinded prospective evaluation of computer-based mechanistic schizophrenia disease model for predicting drug response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Geerts

    Full Text Available The tremendous advances in understanding the neurobiological circuits involved in schizophrenia have not translated into more effective treatments. An alternative strategy is to use a recently published 'Quantitative Systems Pharmacology' computer-based mechanistic disease model of cortical/subcortical and striatal circuits based upon preclinical physiology, human pathology and pharmacology. The physiology of 27 relevant dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and glutamate-mediated targets is calibrated using retrospective clinical data on 24 different antipsychotics. The model was challenged to predict quantitatively the clinical outcome in a blinded fashion of two experimental antipsychotic drugs; JNJ37822681, a highly selective low-affinity dopamine D(2 antagonist and ocaperidone, a very high affinity dopamine D(2 antagonist, using only pharmacology and human positron emission tomography (PET imaging data. The model correctly predicted the lower performance of JNJ37822681 on the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS total score and the higher extra-pyramidal symptom (EPS liability compared to olanzapine and the relative performance of ocaperidone against olanzapine, but did not predict the absolute PANSS total score outcome and EPS liability for ocaperidone, possibly due to placebo responses and EPS assessment methods. Because of its virtual nature, this modeling approach can support central nervous system research and development by accounting for unique human drug properties, such as human metabolites, exposure, genotypes and off-target effects and can be a helpful tool for drug discovery and development.

  20. A Nomogram for Predicting the Pathological Response of Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Chen, Sheng; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Di, Gen-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The value of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) patients is still controversial. We aimed to identify predictors and construct a nomogram for predicting the pathologically complete response (pCR) of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) after NCT in node positive breast cancer patients. In total, 426 patients with pathologically proven ALN metastasis before NCT were enrolled, randomized 1:1 and divided into a training set and a validation set. We developed a nomogram based on independent predictors for ALN pCR identified by multivariate logistic regression as well as clinical significant predictors. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that hormone receptor (HR) status, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status and Ki67 index were independent predictors. The nomogram was thereby constructed by those independent predictors as well as tumor size and NCT regimens. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the training set and the validation set were 0.804 and 0.749, respectively. We constructed a nomogram for predicting ALN pCR in patients who received NCT. Our nomogram can improve risk stratification, accurately predict post-NCT ALN status and avoid unnecessary ALN dissection. PMID:27576704