WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity patterns govern

  1. Gendered Behavior Patterns in School Board Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountford, Meredith; Brunner, C. Cryss

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Educational leadership literature lacks research focused on how gender influences decision making, in particular at the highest level of school governance, the school board table. Consequently, whether gender makes a difference during decision making at the school board table has yet to be determined. Purpose/Objective/Research…

  2. Japan's nuclear PA activity in local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Nobuyuki

    1995-01-01

    This presentation emphasises some points of PA activities, based on the experience of 'cooperation projects for local governments'. Local governments distribute the public information directly to the residents. This is very important because officers of the local government can be the opinion leaders of the region. Local government exist very close to the residents, while the central government is a distant and faceless existence for the local people. It is believed that the local governments play an imperative role in PA activities. In other words, we must further utilize the organizations and functions of the local governments to implement PA activities. In conclusion, three recommendations are offered. Firstly, enough budget and authority should be given to the local governments as far as PA activities in their areas are concerned, and most of such activities should be entrusted to the local governments. Local governments should place more public relations officers, and continue the manpower development. Second, with regard to highly technical or specialized issues which a local governments cannot treat alone, related organizations like JAERO should support their PA activities. Third, such related organizations should also cooperate with local government including assistance in providing know-how, when their public information activities focus on educators, journalists, or the women. These three points should be given due consideration in our cooperation projects for the local governments, and JAERO is doing its best every day

  3. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefidvash, Farhang

    1997-01-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  4. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefidvash, Farhang [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    1997-07-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  5. Network governance of active employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil; Torfing, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The recent reform of the Danish governance system in the field of active employment policy has been subject to fierce criticism, as many commentators fear that it is the beginning of the end of the Danish Model of active stakeholder involvement. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, ......, the tight metagovernance of the LECs does not seem to straightjacket the LECs as there is a considerable scope for local policy making which makes it worthwhile for the social partners to participate in the local networks.......The recent reform of the Danish governance system in the field of active employment policy has been subject to fierce criticism, as many commentators fear that it is the beginning of the end of the Danish Model of active stakeholder involvement. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data......, this study aims to analyse the impact of the governance reform by assessing the initial experiences with the Local Employment Councils (LECs). The analysis shows that the LECs are relatively well-functioning and contribute to an effective and democratic governance of local employment policy. Furthermore...

  6. E-Government and Geographical Information Based Collaboration Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Lise; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve an efficient e-Government many factors must be considered. In the UN e-Government Survey from 2008 a holistic approach is recommended incorporating human capacity, infrastructure development and access to information and knowledge. In the same survey Denmark is ranked second i...

  7. Design of governance in virtual communities: definition, mechanisms, and variation patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Salomo, Søren

    2013-01-01

    A fast-growing stream of literature has shown tremendous interests in the ‘wisdom of crowds’, embedded in various forms of Virtual Communities (VCs). However, it difficult to design an appropriate governance structure for VCs because: (1) it is not clear what governance exactly is in VCs; (2) our...... to underpin the theoretical and practical implications of our research endeavour....... knowledge on how key governance mechanisms differ among various types of VCs is limited to date; (3) the variation patterns of governance mechanisms are far from fully explored to guide the design of governance in VCs. Therefore, this paper seeks to propose a working definition for governance in VCs...

  8. Government Strategic Support for Investment Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turekulova, Assiya N.; Mukhambetova, Lyazzat K.; Doshan, Almagul S.; Issabekov, Baurzhan N.; Chimgentbayeva, Gulbakyt K.; Turegeldinova, Aliya Zh.

    2016-01-01

    When system risks are high most investors choose to exit the market; however, there are some contrarian investors who opt to make investments. The authors analyzed the main goals of the investment process and measures that should be provided by the government to stimulate investments and innovation especially by means of investment banking. The…

  9. Scrutinizing Open Government Data to Understand Patterns in eGovernment Uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle

    2015-01-01

    reflects on the impact of communication via local print media and discusses the body of literature which focuses on print media as a vehicle for communication to citizens. The study opens for a discussion of how open government data-sets give new opportunities for generating scholarly insights but also how...

  10. Regulatory activities of government: analysis of determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Pevcin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available International comparisons show that large cross-country differences exist in the overall macro extent of regulation of the economy. In this context, the main purpose of the article is to investigate, why such differences exist by identifying and empirically verifying the effect of various factors that could potentially shape those differences. Empirical analysis based on the sample of 32 developed and democratic countries revealed that almost 70 % of variation in the macro extent of regulation could be explained with 7 statistically significant explanatory variables. The econometric analysis revealed that the macro extent of regulation decreases with income inequality in society, with the level of economic development, with the sizeof economy, with the share of transfer spending in GDP and with the share of government employment in labour force. On the other hand, the extent of regulation is positively related to government ownership of enterprises and to presidential political regime

  11. Modeling Patterns of Activities using Activity Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Prafulla N; Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-06-01

    Pervasive computing offers an unprecedented opportunity to unobtrusively monitor behavior and use the large amount of collected data to perform analysis of activity-based behavioral patterns. In this paper, we introduce the notion of an activity curve , which represents an abstraction of an individual's normal daily routine based on automatically-recognized activities. We propose methods to detect changes in behavioral routines by comparing activity curves and use these changes to analyze the possibility of changes in cognitive or physical health. We demonstrate our model and evaluate our change detection approach using a longitudinal smart home sensor dataset collected from 18 smart homes with older adult residents. Finally, we demonstrate how big data-based pervasive analytics such as activity curve-based change detection can be used to perform functional health assessment. Our evaluation indicates that correlations do exist between behavior and health changes and that these changes can be automatically detected using smart homes, machine learning, and big data-based pervasive analytics.

  12. Banking on the public: market competition and shifting patterns of governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.G.W.

    2011-01-01

    The financial crisis that started in 2007 has put the inherent challenges posed by global financial markets in a multilevel governance setting in sharp relief. It prominently raised the question why it apparently was not possible to develop a governance pattern better equipped to mitigate the worst

  13. Activity patterns in malformed fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F; Barr, M

    1982-04-15

    Knowledge of a malformed fetus before the onset of labor would assist the physician in preparing the expectant parents, managing the timing and method of delivery, and preparing for the immediate care of a salvageable infant. This 3-year prospective investigation compared the activity patterns of fetuses who were later found to have major malformation with those of fetuses who had no apparent defects. Fetal motion over prolonged periods was determined by daily charting of fetal movement by the mother. Although not a reliable predictor for all malformations, evidence of fetal inactivity was found to be more common (p less than 0.0001) among fetuses with anomalies (16 of 58 cases, 28%) than among those with no defects (39 of 1,098 cases, 4%). All malformations associated with fetal inactivity were strongly suspected ultrasonographically and included hydrocephalus, gastroschisis, nonimmune hydrops, bilateral renal agenesis, and bilateral dislocation of the hips. Documentation of fetal inactivity is helpful in recognizing certain major malformations and constitutes grounds for more detailed study by ultrasonography.

  14. Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil & Gas Activities: Multilevel Governance & Legal Pluralism at Stake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelaudeix, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the governance process of offshore oil and gas activities in the Arctic with the concept of multilevelgovernance and legal pluralism to address both issues of management of the environment and public participation. The analysis goes beyond the single issue of fragmentation p...... and from regional government, indigenous shareholders and corporation perspectives, could be helpful in providing relevant actors with arguments to weigh the decision on seismic and drilling activities in relation to risk acceptance.......This article analyses the governance process of offshore oil and gas activities in the Arctic with the concept of multilevelgovernance and legal pluralism to address both issues of management of the environment and public participation. The analysis goes beyond the single issue of fragmentation...... pertaining to the international and supranational levels, to encompass national and regional levels and evaluate how the interactions between those levels structure the policy process and impact the efficiency of environmental management and public participation. Four paths of reflection arise from...

  15. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a "Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind" that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call "Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind." While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation.

  16. Quantitative Content Analysis of Communication Patterns on Facebook: A Case Study of the Croatian Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mato Brautović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of involving citizens more deeply in the democratic process, Facebook is becoming an increasingly important tool for governments in policy making. Facebook has the potential to increase political participation, but many governments fail to use it in the right way, because they just share information online and do not engage with their followers/citizens. This paper shows how the Croatian government is using Facebook and the communication patterns resulting from their work. The quantitative analysis of 20,546 posts and 52,311 comments show that communication is one way, rather than interactive. Government users do not follow the 90-9-1- rule of thumb for social networks.

  17. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood ... values of SBP, DBP, BMI and WHR were higher among participants with low PA compared to those ..... nervous system is associated with abdominal visceral ...

  18. Switching among graphic patterns is governed by oscillatory coordination dynamics: Implications for understanding handwriting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier-Giorgio eZanone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Revisiting an original idea by Hollerbach (1981, previous work has established that the production of graphic shapes, assumed to be the blueprint for handwriting, is governed by the dynamics of orthogonal non-linear coupled oscillators. Such dynamics determines few stable coordination patterns, giving rise to a limited set of preferred graphic shapes, namely, four lines and four ellipsoids independent of orientation. The present study investigates the rules of switching among such graphic coordination patterns. Seven participants were required to voluntarily switch within twelve pairs of shapes presented on a graphic tablet. In line with previous theoretical and experimental work on bimanual coordination, results corroborated our hypothesis that the relative stability of the produced coordination patterns determines the time needed for switching: the transition to a more stable pattern was shorter, and inversely. Moreover, switching between patterns with the same orientation but different eccentricities was faster than with a change in orientation. Nonetheless, the switching time covaried strictly with the change in relative phase effected by the transition between two shapes, whether this implied a change in eccentricity or in orientation. These findings suggest a new operational definition of what the (motor units or strokes of handwriting are and shed a novel light on how co-articulation and recruitment of degrees of freedom may occur in graphic skills. They also yield some leads for understanding the acquisition and the neural underpinnings of handwriting.

  19. Performance Government: Activating and Regulating the Self-Governing Capacities of Teachers and School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses "performance government" as an emergent form of rule in advanced liberal democracies. It discloses how teachers and school leaders in Australia are being governed by the practices of performance government which centre on the recently established Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) and…

  20. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...... is unlikely to reside in oscillatory breathing movements, because such patterns emerge in preparations retaining only the medulla (and perhaps only the spinal cord). However, momentary changes in breathing patterns induced by affect, startle, whole-body movement changes, or compensatory ventilatory changes...... of hippocampal contributions to breathing control should be viewed in the context that significant interactions exist between blood pressure changes and ventilation, and that modest breathing challenges, such as exposure to hypercapnia or to increased resistive loads, bring into action a vast array of brain...

  1. Sow-activity classification from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escalante, Hugo Jair; Rodriguez, Sara V.; Cordero, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    sow-activity classification can be approached with standard machine learning methods for pattern classification. Individual predictions for elements of times series of arbitrary length are combined to classify it as a whole. An extensive comparison of representative learning algorithms, including......This paper describes a supervised learning approach to sow-activity classification from accelerometer measurements. In the proposed methodology, pairs of accelerometer measurements and activity types are considered as labeled instances of a usual supervised classification task. Under this scenario...... neural networks, support vector machines, and ensemble methods, is presented. Experimental results are reported using a data set for sow-activity classification collected in a real production herd. The data set, which has been widely used in related works, includes measurements from active (Feeding...

  2. Stakeholder involvement in international conventions governing civil nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmerechts, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Mr Emmerechts explained that international conventions have varying positions on stakeholders and their involvement depending upon the intent of the legislator and the field they cover, ranging from a narrow to a broad interpretation. He addressed stakeholder involvement in two other international conventions governing civil nuclear activities, namely the Convention on Nuclear Safety, and the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (the Joint Convention), both concluded under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). He noted that the Convention on Nuclear Safety remains a 'traditional' international legal instrument, focusing on governments and governmental bodies as the main stakeholders and limiting obligations regarding the involvement of the public and intergovernmental organisations to their receiving information and observing. Likewise, the Joint Convention limits obligations regarding public involvement to access to information, notably as to the siting of proposed facilities. However, he noted that in the European Union, the Directive on Nuclear Safety (2014/87/Euratom) and the Directive for the Safe Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste (2011/70/Euratom) have more advanced public participation requirements in nuclear decision making. Mr Emmerechts explained that the substantial differences between nuclear legislation and the Aarhus and Espoo Conventions with regards to public involvement requirements could partly be explained by the technicality of nuclear information and by issues related to nuclear security

  3. CONDITIONS GOVERNING THE EXERCISE OF COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES BY PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Narcisa Stoicu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Constitution establishes that market economy in Romania is based on private property and is developed under the law of supply and demand. As such, the State has the obligation to ensure freedom of trade, protection of fair competition and to create an appropriate framework for the use of all factors of production. The Constitution also provides that the choice of profession should be free, and that the exercise of this freedom may be limited "only by law", with regard to the right to work. The operative principle in relation to commercial activities is the freedom of trade, according to which anyone is free to exercise a commercial profession, provided they respect the limitations and the special conditions prescribed by law. As regards the conditions governing the exercise of commercial activities, the law establishes certain conditions on the capacity of individuals to conduct economic activities, also establishing certain incapacities, as well as incompatibilities, forfeitures and bans on making trade. The law sets specific conditions regarding the capacity of individuals to conduct commercial professional activities, but it also establishes some incapacities to provide shelter from adverse consequences to some persons.

  4. Spontaneous Plasticity of Multineuronal Activity Patterns in Activated Hippocampal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Usami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using functional multineuron imaging with single-cell resolution, we examined how hippocampal networks by themselves change the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous activity during the course of emitting spontaneous activity. When extracellular ionic concentrations were changed to those that mimicked in vivo conditions, spontaneous activity was increased in active cell number and activity frequency. When ionic compositions were restored to the control conditions, the activity level returned to baseline, but the weighted spatial dispersion of active cells, as assessed by entropy-based metrics, did not. Thus, the networks can modify themselves by altering the internal structure of their correlated activity, even though they as a whole maintained the same level of activity in space and time.

  5. West African spatial patterns of economic activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Howard, Allen; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, two different bodies of literature developed by both US historians and francophone geographers have moved toward similar conclusions regarding West African economic spatial patterns. Despite their different backgrounds, both the ‘spatial factor’ approach promoted by histor......Over the last 30 years, two different bodies of literature developed by both US historians and francophone geographers have moved toward similar conclusions regarding West African economic spatial patterns. Despite their different backgrounds, both the ‘spatial factor’ approach promoted...... by historians and the ‘mobile space’ approach developed by geographers view exchange centres as nodes of transnational trade networks and places in production territories, and perceive spatial dynamics as highly dependent on shifts of trade flows and production activities. The objective of this article...

  6. Activity patterns of elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, K H; Shephard, R J

    1977-01-01

    The activity patterns of elderly men and women (greater than 60 years) were examined by diaries, ECG taperecorders, and electro-chemical integrators. Although the subjects thought that they were active relative to others of their age, both activity measurements and initial assessments of fitness indicated an inactive life style. At different periods of the day, the heart rate averaged 70-90 beats per minute, and the physical training threshold was rarely approached. During the week, the women engaged in 90 min. more physical activity than the men. However, at the weekend the men added an average of 100 min. of physical activity, whereas the women carried out 30 min. less physical work. Introduction of a 1-hour physical activity class four times per week increased the average daily energy expenditure by 150-200 kCal, to 2500 kCal in the men and 2200 kCal in the women. The added activity was sufficient to augment aerobic power, to induce favorable changes in body composition and to initiate change in other areas of life style, including a diminished use of the car.

  7. Recurrence analysis of ant activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Marcel Neves

    Full Text Available In this study, we used recurrence quantification analysis (RQA and recurrence plots (RPs to compare the movement activity of individual workers of three ant species, as well as a gregarious beetle species. RQA and RPs quantify the number and duration of recurrences of a dynamical system, including a detailed quantification of signals that could be stochastic, deterministic, or both. First, we found substantial differences between the activity dynamics of beetles and ants, with the results suggesting that the beetles have quasi-periodic dynamics and the ants do not. Second, workers from different ant species varied with respect to their dynamics, presenting degrees of predictability as well as stochastic signals. Finally, differences were found among minor and major caste of the same (dimorphic ant species. Our results underscore the potential of RQA and RPs in the analysis of complex behavioral patterns, as well as in general inferences on animal behavior and other biological phenomena.

  8. Cross-country differences in government sector activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Pevcin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the analysis presented in the article is to identify various economic, social, political, demographic and cultural factors that could shape the differences in the size of government sector across countries and, with the use of econometric analysis empirically verify the effect of those factors. The analysis focuses only on ”budgetary” government, meaning that the size of government is measured with a certain government spending ratio. The results of the analysis revealed that economic factors are more important in explaining the variation in the size of government consumption spending, whereas political, social and cultural factors are more important in explaining the variation in the size of transfer spending. In addition, the results indicate that the relative size of government spending is inversely related to the extent of the regulation of the economy.

  9. Root activity patterns of some tree crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A coordinated research programme was followed using a soil injection method which employed 32 P-labelled superphosphate solution. The technique was applied for determining the root activity distribution of various crops. Field experiments were carried out in Uganda on bananas, Spain and Taiwan on citrus, Ghana on cocoa, Columbia and Kenya on coffee, and Ivory Coast and Malaysia on oil palms, to study the patterns of root activity as a function of depth and distance from the tree base, soil type, tree age and season. A few weeks after injection, leaf samples of similar age were taken from well-defined morphological positions on the tree and analyzed for 32 P. The activity of the label in the sample reflects the root activity at the various positions in the soil. Some preliminary experiments were also carried out using 32 P-superphosphate to evaluate the efficiency of different methods of fertilizer placement in relation to phosphate uptake by the plantation as a whole

  10. Directory of DOE and contractor personnel involved in non-government standards activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document contains a listing of DOE employees and DOE contractors who have submitted form DOE F 1300.2, Record of Non-Government Standards Activity. Additional names were added from rosters supplied by non-Government standards bodies.

  11. Early patterns of commercial activity in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapira, Philip; Youtie, Jan; Arora, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Graphene, a novel nanomaterial consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms, has attracted significant attention due to its distinctive properties, including great strength, electrical and thermal conductivity, lightness, and potential benefits for diverse applications. The commercialization of scientific discoveries such as graphene is inherently uncertain, with the lag time between the scientific development of a new technology and its adoption by corporate actors revealing the extent to which firms are able to absorb knowledge and engage in learning to implement applications based on the new technology. From this perspective, we test for the existence of three different corporate learning and activity patterns: (1) a linear process where patenting follows scientific discovery; (2) a double-boom phenomenon where corporate (patenting) activity is first concentrated in technological improvements and then followed by a period of technology productization; and (3) a concurrent model where scientific discovery in publications occurs in parallel with patenting. By analyzing corporate publication and patent activity across country and application lines, we find that, while graphene as a whole is experiencing concurrent scientific development and patenting growth, country- and application-specific trends offer some evidence of the linear and double-boom models.

  12. Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behrens, Carl E

    2006-01-01

    Launching satellites into orbit, once the exclusive domain of the U.S. and Soviet governments, today is an industry in which companies in the United States, Europe, China, Russia, Ukraine, Japan, and India compete...

  13. Nuevos patrones en el gobierno de los colegios (New Patterns of School Governance). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renchler, Ron

    This digest in Spanish explains why public-school governance is receiving increasing scrutiny. It identifies who is held accountable for results in the current governance system and describes recent proposals for transforming governance structures. Since many reforms of the past decade bypassed the school board and district office, reformers are…

  14. Seasonal and daily activity patterns of leopard tortoises ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal and daily activity patterns of leopard tortoises ( Stigmochelys pardalis Bell, 1828) on farmland in the Nama-Karoo, South Africa. ... that activity is also initiated by the time since sunrise. Key words: Stigmochelys pardalis, leopard tortoise, activity patterns, activity behaviour, Nama-Karoo Biome, time of day, season.

  15. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gubbels, Jessica S.; van Assema, Patricia; Kremers, Stef P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early childhood. The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined such behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance of examining energy balance-related behavioral patterns in children, outlines methods to examine these patterns, and provides examples of patterns that have been found (e.g., the universal sedentar...

  16. Correlations between human mobility and social interaction reveal general activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollgaard, Anders; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    activity types, namely communication, motion, and physical proximity by analyzing data collected from smartphones distributed among 638 individuals. We explore two central questions: Which underlying principles govern the formation of the activity patterns? Are the patterns specific to each individual...... or shared across the entire population? We find that statistics of the entire population allows us to successfully predict 71% of the activity and 85% of the inactivity involved in communication, mobility, and physical proximity. Surprisingly, individual level statistics only result in marginally better...... they be of social or of physical character....

  17. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  18. 'Good Governance' dan 'Governability'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Pratikno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article endeavors to trace the outset of governance concept, its dominant meanings and discourse, and its implication towards governability. The central role of government in the governing processes has predominantly been adopted. The concept of governance was emerged precisely in the context of the failure of government as key player in regulation, economic redistribution and political participation. Governance is therefore aimed to emphasize pattern of governing which are based both on democratic mechanism and sound development management. However, practices of such good governance concept –which are mainly adopted and promoted by donor states and agencies– tend to degrade state and/or government authority and legitimacy. Traditional function of the state as sole facilitator of equal societal, political and legal membership among citizens has been diminished. The logic of fair competition has been substituted almost completely by the logic of free competition in nearly all sectors of public life. The concept and practices of good governance have resulted in decayed state authority and failed state which in turn created a condition for "ungovernability". By promoting democratic and humane governance, the article accordingly encourages discourse to reinstall and bring the idea of accountable state back in.

  19. SLEEP PATTERN AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS OF A GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE IN KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa Rajendran; Karthika M; Prathibha M. T; Vinod P. B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Relationship between sleep pattern and academic performance of students is well accepted. The studies relating the sleep pattern of medical students and academic performance is limited. This study was conducted to identify sleep pattern of medical students and find out any relationship between sleep pattern and academic performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS A questionnaire-based study was carried out to assess sociodemographic parameters, sleep/wake timing, sle...

  20. Finding purchase activity patterns in small & medium enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Geert J.

    2015-01-01

    Finding purchase activity patterns in Small & Medium Enterprises in a research program to enable SMEs to improve their purchase and company performance. Posterpresentatie KCO conferentie, 16 november 2015.

  1. Universal principles governing multiple random searchers on complex networks: The logarithmic growth pattern and the harmonic law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tongfeng; Zhang, Jie; Small, Michael; Harandizadeh, Bahareh; Hui, Pan

    2018-03-01

    We propose a unified framework to evaluate and quantify the search time of multiple random searchers traversing independently and concurrently on complex networks. We find that the intriguing behaviors of multiple random searchers are governed by two basic principles—the logarithmic growth pattern and the harmonic law. Specifically, the logarithmic growth pattern characterizes how the search time increases with the number of targets, while the harmonic law explores how the search time of multiple random searchers varies relative to that needed by individual searchers. Numerical and theoretical results demonstrate these two universal principles established across a broad range of random search processes, including generic random walks, maximal entropy random walks, intermittent strategies, and persistent random walks. Our results reveal two fundamental principles governing the search time of multiple random searchers, which are expected to facilitate investigation of diverse dynamical processes like synchronization and spreading.

  2. Activism of Institutional Investors, Corporate Governance Alerts and Financial Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Sebastien Lantz; Sophie Montandrau; Jean-Michel Sahut

    2014-01-01

    Institutional investors are predominant on the financial markets and are becoming more active in their portfolio management. This article attempts to enhance our understanding of the incidence of shareholder activism on market reaction in the wake of seve

  3. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; van Assema, Patricia; Kremers, Stef P J

    2013-06-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early childhood. The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined such behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance of examining energy balance-related behavioral patterns in children, outlines methods to examine these patterns, and provides examples of patterns that have been found (e.g., the universal sedentary-snacking and healthy intake patterns, as well as more unique or local patterns), child and parental characteristics predicting such patterns (e.g., child gender and maternal educational level), and the relationship of these patterns with overweight and related measures.

  4. Exotic high activity surface patterns in PtAu nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    of the truncated octahedron cluster motif. Exotic surface patterns are obtained particularly for Pt-rich compositions, where Pt atoms are being surrounded by Au atoms. These surface arrangements boost the catalytic activity by creating a large number of active

  5. Patterns and predictors of physical activity among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patterns and predictors of physical activity (PA) in pregnant women is poorly understood. This study described the patterns of physical activity (PA) in specific domains (home, occupation, transport and exercise/sport) and intensities (light, moderate and vigorous), and determined the factors associated with achieving ...

  6. Time activity patterns: a case of south Durban, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matooane, M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure modelling in south Durban is constrained by a lack of population specific time-activity patterns data. We argue that the application of time-activity patterns from elsewhere in the world in exposure modelling in south Durban would...

  7. Default activity patterns at the neocortical microcircuit level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur eLuczak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Even in absence of sensory stimuli cortical networks exhibit complex, self-organized activity patterns. While the function of those spontaneous patterns of activation remains poorly understood, recent studies both in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that neocortical neurons activate in a surprisingly similar sequential order both spontaneously and following input into cortex. For example, neurons that tend to fire earlier within spontaneous bursts of activity also fire earlier than other neurons in response to sensory stimuli. These 'default patterns' can last hundreds of milliseconds and are strongly conserved under a variety of conditions. In this paper we will review recent evidence for these default patterns at the local cortical level. We speculate that cortical architecture imposes common constraints on spontaneous and evoked activity flow, which result in the similarity of the patterns.

  8. Africa after the Cold War : new patterns of government and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.

    1996-01-01

    Fundamental changes are taking place within the African State system which is still, in essence, the one created by the colonial powers and inherited at independence by the governments of modern Africa. Powerful forces in the industrialized world continue to have a crucial influence on events in the

  9. Physical activity patterns during pregnancy through postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evenson Kelly R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Realizing the importance of regular physical activity, particularly in the prevention of chronic diseases and unhealthy weight gain, it is important to study how physical activity changes during and after pregnancy using prospective study designs. The aim of this study was to describe the mode, duration, intensity, and changes in physical activity during pregnancy through one year postpartum among a cohort of women. Methods This study was part of the third Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Postpartum Study at the University of North Carolina Hospitals. A cohort of 471 women was followed at 17-22 and 27-30 weeks' gestation and at 3 and 12 months postpartum. The participants reported the mode, frequency, duration, and intensity of all physical activities that increased their breathing and heart rate in the past week. Results Overall physical activity for the cohort decreased from 17-22 weeks to 27-30 weeks of gestation, but rebounded up at 3 months postpartum and remained stable at 12 months postpartum. The mean MET h/wk values for each time point were 24.7 (standard deviation, SD 26.8, 19.1 (SD 18.9, 25.7 (SD 29.3, and 26.7 (SD 31.5. In postpartum, women reported more care-giving and recreational activity and less indoor household activity, as compared to their activity level during pregnancy. Conclusion For health benefits and weight management, health care professionals are encouraged to provide pregnant and postpartum women with information on recommendations of physical activity, particularly regarding the minimum duration and intensity level.

  10. Classifying sows' activity types from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, Cecile; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    An automated method of classifying sow activity using acceleration measurements would allow the individual sow's behavior to be monitored throughout the reproductive cycle; applications for detecting behaviors characteristic of estrus and farrowing or to monitor illness and welfare can be foreseen....... This article suggests a method of classifying five types of activity exhibited by group-housed sows. The method involves the measurement of acceleration in three dimensions. The five activities are: feeding, walking, rooting, lying laterally and lying sternally. Four time series of acceleration (the three...

  11. Crepuscular flight activity of an invasive insect governed by interacting abiotic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigen Chen

    Full Text Available Seasonal and diurnal flight patterns of the invasive walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, were assessed between 2011 and 2014 in northern California, USA in the context of the effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, wind speed, and barometric pressure. Pityophthorus juglandis generally initiated flight in late January and continued until late November. This seasonal flight could be divided approximately into three phases (emergence: January-March; primary flight: May-July; and secondary flight: September-October. The seasonal flight response to the male-produced aggregation pheromone was consistently female-biased (mean of 58.9% females. Diurnal flight followed a bimodal pattern with a minor peak in mid-morning and a major peak at dusk (76.4% caught between 1800 and 2200 h. The primarily crepuscular flight activity had a Gaussian relationship with ambient temperature and barometric pressure but a negative exponential relationship with increasing light intensity and wind speed. A model selection procedure indicated that the four abiotic factors collectively and interactively governed P. juglandis diurnal flight. For both sexes, flight peaked under the following second-order interactions among the factors when: 1 temperature between was 25 and 30 °C and light intensity was less than 2000 lux; 2 temperature was between 25 and 35 °C and barometric pressure was between 752 and 762 mba (and declined otherwise; 3 barometric pressure was between 755 and 761 mba and light intensity was less than 2000 lux (and declined otherwise; and 4 temperature was ca. 30 °C and wind speed was ca. 2 km/h. Thus, crepuscular flight activity of this insect can be best explained by the coincidence of moderately high temperature, low light intensity, moderate wind speed, and low to moderate barometric pressure. The new knowledge provides physical and temporal guidelines for the application of semiochemical-based control techniques as part of an IPM

  12. THE APPLICABILITY OF THE PRINCIPLES THAT GOVERN THE BUDGETARY ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Bobes Florina

    2013-01-01

    When applying the financial and budgetary rules, or in other words, when applying the budgetary process (the preparation, approval, execution and completion procedure of the public budget) certain principles that consistently and accurately conduct activities that this procedure involves need to be considered. These principles are the following: the universality principle, the unity principle, annuality of the public budget, the monetary unit, publicity and budgetary specialization. Through t...

  13. Muscle activation patterns in posttraumatic neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhand, Marcus Johannes

    2003-01-01

    As an important consequence of our research, we question the relevance of the criteria of the WAD injury severity classification system. We showed that the musculoskeletal signs in WAD grade II are not characterized by muscle spasm, (i.e. increase of muscle activity), but rather by a decrease in

  14. Third Party Liability governing Dangerous and Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Martino, Vittorio.

    1979-01-01

    The introductory chapters of this book analyse the concept of fault as a basis for third party liability and the evolution of jurisprudence and doctrine towards the concept of absolute liability. The following part covers the Italian system of liability for hazardous activities. The nuclear third party liability system is then analysed according to existing international conventions and nuclear legislation in several countries. The Appendix contains various legislative and regulatory texts on nuclear third party liability in Italy and in other countries which provide for special legislation in this field. (NEA) [fr

  15. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; van Assema, P.; Kremers, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance examining energy

  16. Correlations between human mobility and social interaction reveal general activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollgaard, Anders; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    A day in the life of a person involves a broad range of activities which are common across many people. Going beyond diurnal cycles, a central question is: to what extent do individuals act according to patterns shared across an entire population? Here we investigate the interplay between different activity types, namely communication, motion, and physical proximity by analyzing data collected from smartphones distributed among 638 individuals. We explore two central questions: Which underlying principles govern the formation of the activity patterns? Are the patterns specific to each individual or shared across the entire population? We find that statistics of the entire population allows us to successfully predict 71% of the activity and 85% of the inactivity involved in communication, mobility, and physical proximity. Surprisingly, individual level statistics only result in marginally better predictions, indicating that a majority of activity patterns are shared across our sample population. Finally, we predict short-term activity patterns using a generalized linear model, which suggests that a simple linear description might be sufficient to explain a wide range of actions, whether they be of social or of physical character.

  17. Architecture and Patterns for IT Service Management, Resource Planning, and Governance Making Shoes for the Cobbler's Children

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Charles T

    2011-01-01

    Information technology supports efficient operations, enterprise integration, and seamless value delivery, yet itself is too often inefficient, un-integrated, and of unclear value. This completely rewritten version of the bestselling Architecture and Patterns for IT Service Management, Resource Planning and Governance retains the original (and still unique) approach: apply the discipline of enterprise architecture to the business of large scale IT management itself. Author Charles Betz applies his deep practitioner experience to a critical reading of ITIL 2011, COBIT version 4, the CMMI suite

  18. SLEEP PATTERN AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS OF A GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE IN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Rajendran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Relationship between sleep pattern and academic performance of students is well accepted. The studies relating the sleep pattern of medical students and academic performance is limited. This study was conducted to identify sleep pattern of medical students and find out any relationship between sleep pattern and academic performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS A questionnaire-based study was carried out to assess sociodemographic parameters, sleep/wake timing, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness and academic performance. Academic performance was measured on the basis of the aggregate marks scored for the previous year university exam. RESULTS The study population included 349 students with a mean age of 21.4±1.1years. The student’s average weekday bedtime, rise time and total sleep time was 12:02a.m., 07:03a.m. and 7.23hrs., respectively. The corresponding values for weekends were 12:25a.m., 08:17a.m. and 08:18hrs. Mean sleep duration of night prior to exam was 5.16±1.50.Students with earlier bed/rise time and longer hours of sleep night prior to exam had better academic performance. CONCLUSION Academic performance of medical students showed significant negative correlation with sleep/wake timings and positive correlation with duration of sleepnight before examination.

  19. BEYOND GUNS AND BUTTER: Finnish Central Government Spending Patterns the in Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Eloranta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the long-run demand for central government spending in Finland by analyzing quantitative and qualitative changes in the spending behavior, examining possible links between variables in a VAR-framework, and performing multivariate analysis of the demand factors. The results was shoved that a explained  by a lack of military versus social spending tradeoff effect. Even though certain other variables were found to be relevant in explaining this demand, this lack of a tradeoff increased the Finnish spending levels substantially during the twentieth centurt welfare state expansion.

  20. Signatures of selection in loci governing major colour patterns in Heliconius butterflies and related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joron Mathieu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-coding change is one possible genetic mechanism underlying the evolution of adaptive wing colour pattern variation in Heliconius butterflies. Here we determine whether 38 putative genes within two major Heliconius patterning loci, HmYb and HmB, show evidence of positive selection. Ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes (ω were used to test for selection, as a means of identifying candidate genes within each locus that control wing pattern. Results Preliminary analyses using 454 transcriptome and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC sequences from three Heliconius species highlighted a cluster of genes within each region showing relatively higher rates of sequence evolution. Other genes within the region appear to be highly constrained, and no ω estimates exceeded one. Three genes from each locus with the highest average pairwise ω values were amplified from additional Heliconius species and races. Two selected genes, fizzy-like (HmYb and DALR (HmB, were too divergent for amplification across species and were excluded from further analysis. Amongst the remaining genes, HM00021 and Kinesin possessed the highest background ω values within the HmYb and HmB loci, respectively. After accounting for recombination, these two genes both showed evidence of having codons with a signature of selection, although statistical support for this signal was not strong in any case. Conclusions Tests of selection reveal a cluster of candidate genes in each locus, suggesting that weak directional selection may be occurring within a small region of each locus, but coding changes alone are unlikely to explain the full range of wing pattern diversity. These analyses pinpoint many of the same genes believed to be involved in the control of colour patterning in Heliconius that have been identified through other studies implementing different research methods.

  1. An epidemiological study of physical activity patterns and weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity during pregnancy has been investigated for its potential benefits which includes weight control. Physical activity patterns of pregnant women in Tshwane, South Africa, were investigated using the EPIC–Norfolk Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPAQ-2) in an epidemiological cross-sectional study. Differences ...

  2. Physical activity patterns in Greenland: a country in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger K; Jørgensen, Marit E; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2011-11-01

    To examine differences in physical activity patterns among Inuit in Greenland in relation to social transition. The Inuit in Greenland are an indigenous population in the circumpolar north who are experiencing rapid social transition. Physical activity patterns were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version). The population was divided into six groups according to different stages of social change, measured on the basis of education, current residence and occupation. Data were collected in a country-wide cross-sectional population survey among adult Inuit in Greenland from 2005 to 2009. Men with long vocational or academic education living in towns (latest stage of social change) spent significantly less time on occupational physical activity (p = 0.001) compared with hunters and fishermen in villages (earliest stage of social change) (trend test p = 0.01). Women in the latest stage of change spent significantly less time on domestic physical activity (p physical activity during transportation (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01 for men and women, respectively). No significant difference was found for leisure time physical activity. Men and women in the latest stage of social change spent more time on sedentary activity (p physical activity patterns among Inuit in Greenland included decreasing time spent on domestic and occupational physical activity and increasing time spent on sedentary activities along with social change. Knowledge of changes in physical activity patterns in relation to social transition is important in prevention of obesity, type 2 diabetes and lifestyle diseases.

  3. Categorizing Pedagogical Patterns by Teaching Activities and Pedagogical Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is a proposal for a universal pedagogical pattern categorization based on teaching values and activities. This categorization would be more sustainable than the arbitrary categorization implied by pedagogical pattern language themes. Pedagogical patterns from two...... central patterns languages are analyzed and categorized, and the result is a catalogue theoretically founded and practical in its application. The teaching values are derived from learning theories, implying the theoretical foundation of the catalogue. In order to increase the usability of the value...

  4. The Influence of Institutional Shareholder Activism as a Corporate Governance Monitoring Mechanism in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Maizatul A. Musa

    2012-01-01

    Not many studies have been undertaken on shareholder activism in emerging economies, including Malaysia. Shareholder activism in emerging economies is on the rise. This paper seeks to comprehend the elements of this activism that are unique to Malaysia, specifically with respect to how the agency problem is controlled through shareholder activism in improving corporate governance practices within target companies. Through shareholder activism, shareholders make contact with a target company t...

  5. Physical activity patterns in Greenland: A country in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger; Jørgensen, Marit E; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To examine differences in physical activity patterns among Inuit in Greenland in relation to social transition. The Inuit in Greenland are an indigenous population in the circumpolar north who are experiencing rapid social transition.......To examine differences in physical activity patterns among Inuit in Greenland in relation to social transition. The Inuit in Greenland are an indigenous population in the circumpolar north who are experiencing rapid social transition....

  6. GRK2 Constitutively Governs Peripheral Delta Opioid Receptor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Doyle Brackley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Opioids remain the standard for analgesic care; however, adverse effects of systemic treatments contraindicate long-term administration. While most clinical opioids target mu opioid receptors (MOR, those that target the delta class (DOR also demonstrate analgesic efficacy. Furthermore, peripherally restrictive opioids represent an attractive direction for analgesia. However, opioid receptors including DOR are analgesically incompetent in the absence of inflammation. Here, we report that G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 naively associates with plasma membrane DOR in peripheral sensory neurons to inhibit analgesic agonist efficacy. This interaction prevents optimal Gβ subunit association with the receptor, thereby reducing DOR activity. Importantly, bradykinin stimulates GRK2 movement away from DOR and onto Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP. protein kinase C (PKC-dependent RKIP phosphorylation induces GRK2 sequestration, restoring DOR functionality in sensory neurons. Together, these results expand the known function of GRK2, identifying a non-internalizing role to maintain peripheral DOR in an analgesically incompetent state.

  7. 42 CFR 137.211 - How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self-governance activities have resulted in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self-governance activities have resulted in savings as described in § 137.210. 137.211 Section 137.211 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Savings § 137.211 How does...

  8. Chemotactic preferences govern competition and pattern formation in simulated two-strain microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centler, Florian; Thullner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Substrate competition is a common mode of microbial interaction in natural environments. While growth properties play an important and well-studied role in competition, we here focus on the influence of motility. In a simulated two-strain community populating a homogeneous two-dimensional environment, strains competed for a common substrate and only differed in their chemotactic preference, either responding more sensitively to a chemoattractant excreted by themselves or responding more sensitively to substrate. Starting from homogeneous distributions, three possible behaviors were observed depending on the competitors' chemotactic preferences: (i) distributions remained homogeneous, (ii) patterns formed but dissolved at a later time point, resulting in a shifted community composition, and (iii) patterns emerged and led to the extinction of one strain. When patterns formed, the more aggregating strain populated the core of microbial aggregates where starving conditions prevailed, while the less aggregating strain populated the more productive zones at the fringe or outside aggregates, leading to a competitive advantage of the less aggregating strain. The presence of a competitor was found to modulate a strain's behavior, either suppressing or promoting aggregate formation. This observation provides a potential mechanism by which an aggregated lifestyle might evolve even if it is initially disadvantageous. Adverse effects can be avoided as a competitor hinders aggregate formation by a strain which has just acquired this ability. The presented results highlight both, the importance of microbial motility for competition and pattern formation, and the importance of the temporal evolution, or history, of microbial communities when trying to explain an observed distribution.

  9. Mining continuous activity patterns from animal trajectory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Luo, Ze; Baoping, Yan; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of animal tracking data brings us opportunities and challenges to intuitively understand the mechanisms of animal activities. In this paper, we aim to discover animal movement patterns from animal trajectory data. In particular, we propose a notion of continuous activity pattern as the concise representation of underlying similar spatio-temporal movements, and develop an extension and refinement framework to discover the patterns. We first preprocess the trajectories into significant semantic locations with time property. Then, we apply a projection-based approach to generate candidate patterns and refine them to generate true patterns. A sequence graph structure and a simple and effective processing strategy is further developed to reduce the computational overhead. The proposed approaches are extensively validated on both real GPS datasets and large synthetic datasets.

  10. Fetal activity patterns in hypertensive pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1982-01-01

    This prospective investigation attempts to determine whether the maternal recording of perceived fetal motion is useful for fetal assessment in pregnancies complicated by hypertension. During a 21 month period, 124 patients whose pregnancies were complicated by either chronic or pregnancy-induced hypertension participated. The number of perceived movements per hour (24 +/- 11, mean +/- S.D.) and evidence for fetal inactivity (7 cases, 6%) did not vary significantly from a control group of normotensive pregnancies (p greater than 0.05). Fetal inactivity was predictive of an unfavorable perinatal outcome in 6 of 7 cases, including the three stillborn infants. No perinatal deaths occurred among the 117 hypertensive pregnancies with active fetuses, and the 6 cases with an unfavorable outcome were associated with mild intrauterine growth delay, prematurity, or acute changes such as placental abruption or umbilical cord accidents. Realizing these limitations, a record of fetal inactivity is worthwhile in managing the pregnancy complicated by hypertension.

  11. A Multiscale Survival Process for Modeling Human Activity Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyang; Cui, Peng; Song, Chaoming; Zhu, Wenwu; Yang, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Human activity plays a central role in understanding large-scale social dynamics. It is well documented that individual activity pattern follows bursty dynamics characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. Here we study a large-scale online chatting dataset consisting of 5,549,570 users, finding that individual activity pattern varies with timescales whereas existing models only approximate empirical observations within a limited timescale. We propose a novel approach that models the intensity rate of an individual triggering an activity. We demonstrate that the model precisely captures corresponding human dynamics across multiple timescales over five orders of magnitudes. Our model also allows extracting the population heterogeneity of activity patterns, characterized by a set of individual-specific ingredients. Integrating our approach with social interactions leads to a wide range of implications.

  12. Muscle activity pattern dependent pain development and alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Muscle activity is for decades considered to provide health benefits irrespectively of the muscle activity pattern performed and whether it is during e.g. sports, transportation, or occupational work tasks. Accordingly, the international recommendations for public health-promoting physical activity...... do not distinguish between occupational and leisure time physical activity. However, in this body of literature, attention has not been paid to the extensive documentation on occupational physical activity imposing a risk of impairment of health - in particular musculoskeletal health in terms...... during physical activities at leisure and sport the motor recruitment patterns are more dynamic including regularly relatively high muscle forces - also activating type 2 muscles fibers - as well as periods of full relaxation even of the type 1 muscle fibers. Such activity is unrelated to muscle pain...

  13. The case for foreign exchange intervention: the government as an active reserve manager

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Neely

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that major governments should actively manage their foreign exchange portfolios to maximize the risk-adjusted return to the taxpayer by exploiting long-term, fundamental based predictability in floating exchange rates. Such transactions—equivalent to foreign exchange intervention—would improve welfare by transferring risk from private agents to the risk-tolerant government. Interventions explicitly designed to profit the reserve management authority would be more likely to b...

  14. Modeling activity patterns of wildlife using time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jindong; Hull, Vanessa; Ouyang, Zhiyun; He, Liang; Connor, Thomas; Yang, Hongbo; Huang, Jinyan; Zhou, Shiqiang; Zhang, Zejun; Zhou, Caiquan; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Jianguo

    2017-04-01

    The study of wildlife activity patterns is an effective approach to understanding fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes. However, traditional statistical approaches used to conduct quantitative analysis have thus far had limited success in revealing underlying mechanisms driving activity patterns. Here, we combine wavelet analysis, a type of frequency-based time-series analysis, with high-resolution activity data from accelerometers embedded in GPS collars to explore the effects of internal states (e.g., pregnancy) and external factors (e.g., seasonal dynamics of resources and weather) on activity patterns of the endangered giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ). Giant pandas exhibited higher frequency cycles during the winter when resources (e.g., water and forage) were relatively poor, as well as during spring, which includes the giant panda's mating season. During the summer and autumn when resources were abundant, pandas exhibited a regular activity pattern with activity peaks every 24 hr. A pregnant individual showed distinct differences in her activity pattern from other giant pandas for several months following parturition. These results indicate that animals adjust activity cycles to adapt to seasonal variation of the resources and unique physiological periods. Wavelet coherency analysis also verified the synchronization of giant panda activity level with air temperature and solar radiation at the 24-hr band. Our study also shows that wavelet analysis is an effective tool for analyzing high-resolution activity pattern data and its relationship to internal and external states, an approach that has the potential to inform wildlife conservation and management across species.

  15. Assessment of morbidity pattern, quality of life and awareness of government facilities among elderly population in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was done to assess the determinants of morbidity pattern, quality of life (QoL and awareness of elderly about various government schemes and social security legislations. Materials and Methods: Data was collected by house to house survey among participants aged 60 years and above using a structured interview schedule. The QoL was assessed using Kannada version of WHOQOL-BREF instrument following language validation. Results: Mean age of 206 participants was 69.6±6.7 years. Half of them were males and majority were graduates 54 (26.2%. Morbidity was present among 194 (94.2% participants (95% CI 89.5-98.9%, most common being hypertension 96 (46.6%. Morbid conditions were seen more among less educated (P = 0.007. Only 68 (33% were under medical insurance coverage, 17 (8.3% were under old age government pension and 74 (35.9% were under retirement pension scheme. Social relationships, psychological health and environmental domain scores were associated with socio-economic status. Social relationship domain score was significantly better among well educated participants and those without morbidities. Level of ambulation was significantly associated with QoL scores in all domains (P < 0.001. Majority of the participants 132 (64.1% had moderate level of awareness about government facilities for senior citizens. Awareness level was significantly better among males (P < 0.001, well educated (P < 0.001, better socio-economic status respondents (P < 0.001 and those currently working (P = 0.026. Conclusion: Health status of elderly needs improvement which would also improve their QoL. Awareness about various government schemes needs to be enhanced to improve its utilization. The results of this study are expected to help policy makers in planning comprehensive services for elderly residing in this area.

  16. Setting the scene: Human activities, environmental impacts and governance arrangements in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tin, T.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Liggett, D.; Maher, P.T.; Hughes, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    The scope and intensity of human activity in the Antarctic region has changed considerably over the past 100 years, resulting in significant modifications to the Antarctic environment and its ecosystems, and to the institutional arrangements governing human activities. Since the nineteenth century,

  17. Decentralization and centralization: governing the activation of social assistance recipients in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minas, R.; Wright, S.; van Berkel, H.H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to examine the governance of activation in relation to the decentralization and centralization of activation for social assistance recipients in Sweden, The Netherlands and the UK. Design/methodology/approach – This paper outlines broad trends in the

  18. Leisure Activity Patterns and Marital Conflict in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Hassan; Noushad, Siena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past few decades, the association between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict or satisfaction has been studied extensively. However, most studies to date have been limited to middle-class families of developed societies, and an investigation of the issue, from a developing country perspective like Iran, is non-existent. Objectives: In an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict in a nationally representative sample of Iranian married males. Patients and Methods: Using the cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 400 Iranian married individuals from seven provinces of Iran was surveyed. Self-administered surveys included a checklist collecting demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the enrolled participants, leisure time questionnaire, and marital conflict questionnaire. The main patterns of leisure activity were derived from principal component analysis. For each pattern, factor scores were calculated. The relationship between factor scores and marital conflict were assessed using multivariate linear regression models accounting for the potential confounding effects of age, education, socioeconomic status, job status, number of children, duration of marriage, and time spent for leisure. Results: Two hundred and ninety-nine respondents completed the leisure time and marital conflict questionnaires. Five major leisure patterns were identified accounting for 60.3% of the variance in data. The most dominant pattern was family-oriented activities (e.g. spending time with family outdoors and spending time with family indoors) and was negatively linked to marital conflict (standardized beta= −0.154, P = 0.013). Of the four remaining patterns, three only included individual activities and one was a family-individual composite. Individual patterns exhibited discrepant behavior; while the pattern involving activities

  19. Towards inclusive governance of hazardous activities, synthesis of the conclusions of the 2001-2003 Trustnet activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.

    2004-01-01

    TRUSTNET is a European pluralistic think tank network on the governance of hazardous activities since 1997. It is involving the participation of some 150 key decision makers, stakeholders and experts at European, national and local levels in activities having impact on health and the environment. The participants of TRUSTNET are representatives of public authorities at national and European levels, industry, trade unions, local governments, NGOs. They are also consumers or lay citizens, together with a multidisciplinary group of experts in risk management, public health, political sciences, sociology, psychology, economics, law and ethics. TRUSTNET is supported by the European Commission (DG- Research - Radiation protection) as a Concerted Action. The work programme of TRUSTNET is based on a participatory methodology and a co-expertise of actual case studies involving experts and non-experts. From 1997 to 1999, TRUSTNET has identified the severe difficulties and multiple social blockages affecting the credibility, effectiveness and legitimacy of traditional regulatory framework of hazardous activities. It has also identified emerging features of inclusive risk governance as a major opportunity for overcoming the observed difficulties. The conclusions of the 1997-1999 exercise have been reported in 2000 in the 'TRUSTNET Framework: a New Perspective on Risk Governance'. From 2001 to 2003, TRUSTNET has carried on the reflection and more specifically investigated the possible strategies for implementing in Europe inclusive governance in the various activities entailing risks for health and the environment. The presentation ('Towards Inclusive Governance') will outline presenting the main conclusions of this 2001-2003 exercise. (author)

  20. Leisure Activity Patterns and Marital Conflict in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Hassan; Noushad, Siena

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the association between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict or satisfaction has been studied extensively. However, most studies to date have been limited to middle-class families of developed societies, and an investigation of the issue, from a developing country perspective like Iran, is non-existent. In an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict in a nationally representative sample of Iranian married males. Using the cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 400 Iranian married individuals from seven provinces of Iran was surveyed. Self-administered surveys included a checklist collecting demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the enrolled participants, leisure time questionnaire, and marital conflict questionnaire. The main patterns of leisure activity were derived from principal component analysis. For each pattern, factor scores were calculated. The relationship between factor scores and marital conflict were assessed using multivariate linear regression models accounting for the potential confounding effects of age, education, socioeconomic status, job status, number of children, duration of marriage, and time spent for leisure. Two hundred and ninety-nine respondents completed the leisure time and marital conflict questionnaires. Five major leisure patterns were identified accounting for 60.3% of the variance in data. The most dominant pattern was family-oriented activities (e.g. spending time with family outdoors and spending time with family indoors) and was negatively linked to marital conflict (standardized beta= -0.154, P = 0.013). Of the four remaining patterns, three only included individual activities and one was a family-individual composite. Individual patterns exhibited discrepant behavior; while the pattern involving activities like 'watching TV', 'non-purposive time spending', and

  1. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance agreement...

  2. Are muscle activation patterns altered during shod and barefoot running with a forefoot footfall pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervilha, Ulysses Fernandes; Mochizuki, Luis; Figueira, Aylton; Hamill, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the activation of lower limb muscles during barefoot and shod running with forefoot or rearfoot footfall patterns. Nine habitually shod runners were asked to run straight for 20 m at self-selected speed. Ground reaction forces and thigh and shank muscle surface electromyographic (EMG) were recorded. EMG outcomes (EMG intensity [iEMG], latency between muscle activation and ground reaction force, latency between muscle pairs and co-activation index between muscle pairs) were compared across condition (shod and barefoot), running cycle epochs (pre-strike, strike, propulsion) and footfall (rearfoot and forefoot) by ANOVA. Condition affected iEMG at pre-strike epoch. Forefoot and rearfoot strike patterns induced different EMG activation time patterns affecting co-activation index for pairs of thigh and shank muscles. All these timing changes suggest that wearing shoes or not is less important for muscle activation than the way runners strike the foot on the ground. In conclusion, the guidance for changing external forces applied on lower limbs should be pointed to the question of rearfoot or forefoot footfall patterns.

  3. Simple Rules Govern the Patterns of Arctic Sea Ice Melt Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Predrag; Cael, B. B.; Silber, Mary; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2018-04-01

    Climate change, amplified in the far north, has led to rapid sea ice decline in recent years. In the summer, melt ponds form on the surface of Arctic sea ice, significantly lowering the ice reflectivity (albedo) and thereby accelerating ice melt. Pond geometry controls the details of this crucial feedback; however, a reliable model of pond geometry does not currently exist. Here we show that a simple model of voids surrounding randomly sized and placed overlapping circles reproduces the essential features of pond patterns. The only two model parameters, characteristic circle radius and coverage fraction, are chosen by comparing, between the model and the aerial photographs of the ponds, two correlation functions which determine the typical pond size and their connectedness. Using these parameters, the void model robustly reproduces the ponds' area-perimeter and area-abundance relationships over more than 6 orders of magnitude. By analyzing the correlation functions of ponds on several dates, we also find that the pond scale and the connectedness are surprisingly constant across different years and ice types. Moreover, we find that ponds resemble percolation clusters near the percolation threshold. These results demonstrate that the geometry and abundance of Arctic melt ponds can be simply described, which can be exploited in future models of Arctic melt ponds that would improve predictions of the response of sea ice to Arctic warming.

  4. Simple Rules Govern the Patterns of Arctic Sea Ice Melt Ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Predrag; Cael, B B; Silber, Mary; Abbot, Dorian S

    2018-04-06

    Climate change, amplified in the far north, has led to rapid sea ice decline in recent years. In the summer, melt ponds form on the surface of Arctic sea ice, significantly lowering the ice reflectivity (albedo) and thereby accelerating ice melt. Pond geometry controls the details of this crucial feedback; however, a reliable model of pond geometry does not currently exist. Here we show that a simple model of voids surrounding randomly sized and placed overlapping circles reproduces the essential features of pond patterns. The only two model parameters, characteristic circle radius and coverage fraction, are chosen by comparing, between the model and the aerial photographs of the ponds, two correlation functions which determine the typical pond size and their connectedness. Using these parameters, the void model robustly reproduces the ponds' area-perimeter and area-abundance relationships over more than 6 orders of magnitude. By analyzing the correlation functions of ponds on several dates, we also find that the pond scale and the connectedness are surprisingly constant across different years and ice types. Moreover, we find that ponds resemble percolation clusters near the percolation threshold. These results demonstrate that the geometry and abundance of Arctic melt ponds can be simply described, which can be exploited in future models of Arctic melt ponds that would improve predictions of the response of sea ice to Arctic warming.

  5. Citizen Empowerment through e-Democracy: Patterns of E-Government Adoption for Small-Sized Cities in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Floyd E., III

    2014-01-01

    E-government is one of the buzzwords in discussing modernizing public administration. Numerous researchers have conducted studies related to the implementation of e-government and e-government 2.0 programs. The main goal of e-government programs is to increase government efficiency and offer benefits to citizens. As the requirements of government…

  6. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gutierrez, S.; Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Losada, J. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Benito, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country.

  7. Predesigned surface patterns and topological defects control the active matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiv, Taras; Peng, Chenhui; Guo, Yubing; Wei, Qi-Huo; Lavrentovich, Oleg

    Active matter exhibits remarkable patterns of never-ending dynamics with giant fluctuations of concentration, varying order, nucleating and annihilating topological defects. These patterns can be seen in active systems of both biological and artificial origin. A fundamental question is whether and how one can control this chaotic out-of-equilibrium behavior. We demonstrate a robust control of local concentration, trajectories of active self-propelled units and the net flows of active bacteria Bacillus Substilis by imposing pre-designed surface patterns of orientational order in a water-based lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal. The patterns force the bacteria to gather into dynamic swarms with spatially modulated concentration and well-defined polarity of motion. Topological defects produce net motion of bacteria with a unidirectional circulation, while pairs of defects induce a pumping action. The qualitative features of the dynamics can be explained by interplay of curvature and activity, in particular, by ability of mixed splay-bend curvatures to generate threshold-less active flows. The demonstrated level of control opens opportunities in engineering materials and devices that mimic rich functionality of living systems. This work was supported by NSF Grants DMR-1507637, DMS-1434185, CMMI-1436565, by the Petroleum Research Grant PRF# 56046-ND7 administered by the American Chemical Society.

  8. National report card on energy efficiency : 2. annual report card on government activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This second annual report card produced by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance is a means by which to monitor the efforts of Canada's federal, provincial and territorial governments in energy efficiency activities. The Alliance works in partnership with manufacturers, utilities, governments, builders, labour, consumer groups and environmental organizations. Energy efficiency is one of the primary tools governments can use to meet the Kyoto climate change commitment. The issue of climate change was examined in greater depth in this second annual report card. Ten specific measures that each government should take in order to be efficiency leaders were identified. These included minimum standards and regulations for buildings and appliances, supporting energy efficiency in the marketplace, and leadership programs to improve energy efficiency and achieve emission reduction targets. Efficiency in transportation was not included in this report card. A brief summary of what the federal government, as well as each provincial and territorial government are doing to promote energy efficiency was included. Each jurisdiction was given a grade. The Yukon received the highest mark of A minus. Saskatchewan received the lowest, and only failed mark. It was emphasized that public and private utilities also play a key role in supporting energy efficiency in Canada. 2 tabs

  9. PHYSIOLOGIC PATTERNS OF SLEEP ON EEG, MASKING OF EPILEPTIFORM ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Glukhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiologic patterns of sleep on EEG can sometimes be similar to epileptiform activity and even to the EEG pattern of epileptic seizures, but they have no connection to epilepsy and their incorrect interpretation may lead to overdiagnosis of epilepsy. These sleep patterns include vertex transients, K-complexes, hypnagogic hypersynchrony, 14 and 6 Hz positive bursts, wicket-potentials, etc. The main distinctive features of acute physiological phenomena of sleep unlike epileptiform activity are stereotyped, monomorphic morphology of waves, which frequently has rhythmic, arcuate pattern, often with change of lateralization, mainly dominated in the first stages of sleep (N1-N2, with their reduction in the deeper stages and transition to delta sleep (N3. The correct interpretation of physiological sharp-wave phenomena of sleep on EEG requires considerable training and experience of the physician. Our review includes a variety of physiological sleep patterns, which can mimic epileptiform activity on EEG, their criteria of diagnostic with demonstration of own illustrations of EEG.

  10. Characteristics of diurnal pattern of global photosynthetically-active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two year data (September 1992 August 1994) on photosynhetically-active radiation (PAR) measured at Ilorin (Lat.: 832´N. Long.:434´E) using LI-190SA quantum sensor are analysed both on daily and monthly mean diurnal bases. This was done with the aim of characterizing the diurnal pattern of this radiation at this ...

  11. Thoracic posture, shoulder muscle activation patterns and isokinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Shoulder injuries are the most severe injuries in rugby union players, accounting for almost 20% of injuries related to the sport and resulting in lost playing hours. Objective. To profile the thoracic posture, scapular muscle activation patterns and rotator cuff muscle isokinetic strength of semi-professional

  12. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure in Postmenopausal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hormonal changes during menopause have been attributed to hypertension-a common public health concern. This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood pressure (BP) in postmenopausal women newly diagnosed with hypertension and referred for treatment at the medicine outpatient ...

  13. Merlin : microsimulation system for predicting leisure activity-travel patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, van M.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a model of annual activity-travel patterns of leisure and vacation travel is reported. The simulation system, called Merlin, is a hybrid model system consisting of discrete choice models and rule-based models. It predicts the annual number of day trips and vacations, and the profile

  14. Physical Activity Patterns among U.S. Adults with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chung-Yi; An, Ruopeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize physical activity patterns among people with disabilities using data from a nationally representative health survey. Method: Individual-level data came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2011 survey. Pearson's chi-squared tests were conducted to assess the difference in the proportion distribution of…

  15. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Chee Huei Phing; Hazizi Abu Saad; M.Y. Barakatun Nisak; M.T. Mohd Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objective: Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prom...

  16. Changing patterns of brain activation during maze learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, J D; Gold, J M; Esposito, G; Ostrem, J L; Mattay, V; Weinberger, D R; Berman, K F

    1998-05-18

    Recent research has found that patterns of brain activation involving the frontal cortex during novel task performance change dramatically following practice and repeat performance. Evidence for differential left vs. right frontal lobe activation, respectively, during episodic memory encoding and retrieval has also been reported. To examine these potentially related issues regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 15 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET) during the naive and practiced performance of a maze task paradigm. SPM analysis indicated a largely right-sided, frontal lobe activation during naive performance. Following training and practice, performance of the same maze task elicited a more posterior pattern of rCBF activation involving posterior cingulate and precuneus. The change in the pattern of rCBF activation between novel and practiced task conditions agrees with results found in previous studies using repeat task methodology, and indicates that the neural circuitry required for encoding novel task information differs from that required when the same task has become familiar and information is being recalled. The right-sided preponderance of activation during naive performance may relate to task novelty and the spatially-based nature of the stimuli, whereas posterior areas activated during repeat performance are those previously found to be associated with visuospatial memory recall. Activation of these areas, however, does not agree with previously reported findings of left-sided activation during verbal episodic memory encoding and right-sided activation during retrieval, suggesting different neural substrates for verbal and visuospatial processing within memory. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. Soil Landscape Pattern Changes in Response to Rural Anthropogenic Activity across Tiaoxi Watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui; Jiang, Diwei; Christakos, George; Fei, Xufeng; Wu, Jiaping

    2016-01-01

    Soil sealing (loss of soil resources due to extensive land covering for the purpose of house building, road construction etc.) and subsequent soil landscape pattern changes constitute typical environmental problems in many places worldwide. Previous studies concentrated on soil sealing in urbanized regions, whereas rural areas have not been given sufficient attention. Accordingly, this paper studies soil landscape pattern dynamics (i.e., landscape pattern changes in response to rural anthropogenic activities) in the Tiaoxi watershed (Zhejiang province, eastern China), in which surface sealing is by far the predominant component of human forcing with respect to environmental change. A novel approach of quantifying the impacts of rural anthropogenic activities on soil resources is presented. Specifically, quantitative relationships were derived between five soil landscape pattern metrics (patch density, edge density, shape index, Shannon’s diversity index and aggregation index) and three rural anthropogenic activity indicators (anthropogenic activity intensity, distance to towns, and distance to roads) at two landscape block scales (3 and 5 km) between 1985 and 2010. The results showed that the Tiaoxi watershed experienced extensive rural settlement expansion and high rates of soil sealing. Soil landscapes became more fragmented, more irregular, more isolated, and less diverse. Relationships between soil landscape pattern changes and rural anthropogenic activities differed with the scale (spatial and temporal) and variable considered. In particular, the anthropogenic activity intensity was found to be the most important indicator explaining social development intensity, whereas the other two proximity indicators had a significant impact at certain temporal interval. In combination with scale effects, spatial dependency (correlation) was shown to play a key role that should be carefully taken into consideration in any relevant environmental study. Overall, the

  18. Characterising infant inter-breath interval patterns during active and quiet sleep using recurrence plot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M

    2009-01-01

    Breathing patterns are characteristically different between active and quiet sleep states in infants. It has been previously identified that breathing dynamics are governed by a non-linear controller which implies the need for a nonlinear analytical tool. Further, it has been shown that quantified nonlinear variables are different between adult sleep states. This study aims to determine whether a nonlinear analytical tool known as recurrence plot analysis can characterize breath intervals of active and quiet sleep states in infants. Overnight polysomnograms were obtained from 32 healthy infants. The 6 longest periods each of active and quiet sleep were identified and a software routine extracted inter-breath interval data for recurrence plot analysis. Determinism (DET), laminarity (LAM) and radius (RAD) values were calculated for an embedding dimension of 4, 6, 8 and 16, and fixed recurrence of 0.5, 1, 2, 3.5 and 5%. Recurrence plots exhibited characteristically different patterns for active and quiet sleep. Active sleep periods typically had higher values of RAD, DET and LAM than for quiet sleep, and this trend was invariant to a specific choice of embedding dimension or fixed recurrence. These differences may provide a basis for automated sleep state classification, and the quantitative investigation of pathological breathing patterns.

  19. Listening to sound patterns as a dynamic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mari Riess

    2003-04-01

    The act of listening to a series of sounds created by some natural event is described as involving an entrainmentlike process that transpires in real time. Some aspects of this dynamic process are suggested. In particular, real-time attending is described in terms of an adaptive synchronization activity that permits a listener to target attending energy to forthcoming elements within an acoustical pattern (e.g., music, speech, etc.). Also described are several experiments that illustrate features of this approach as it applies to attending to musiclike patterns. These involve listeners' responses to changes in either the timing or the pitch structure (or both) of various acoustical sequences.

  20. Patterns recognition of electric brain activity using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatov, V. Yu.; Pchelintseva, S. V.; Runnova, A. E.; Hramov, A. E.

    2017-04-01

    An approach for the recognition of various cognitive processes in the brain activity in the perception of ambiguous images. On the basis of developed theoretical background and the experimental data, we propose a new classification of oscillating patterns in the human EEG by using an artificial neural network approach. After learning of the artificial neural network reliably identified cube recognition processes, for example, left-handed or right-oriented Necker cube with different intensity of their edges, construct an artificial neural network based on Perceptron architecture and demonstrate its effectiveness in the pattern recognition of the EEG in the experimental.

  1. Activity Patterns and Pollution Exposure. A Case Study of Melbourne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, L.; Smith, N.; Trinidad, G.; Guo, J.

    2001-01-01

    In recent times there has been increasing interest in modelling policies to limit impacts of air pollution due to motor vehicles. Impacts of air pollution on human health and comfort depend on the relationship between the distribution of pollutants and the spatial distribution of the urban population. As emissions, weather conditions and the location of the population vary with time of day, day of month and season of the year, the problem is complex. Travel demand models with activity-based approaches and a focus on the overall structure of activity/travel relations, not only spatially, but temporally can make a valuable contribution. They are often used to estimate emissions due to the travel patterns of city populations but may equally be used to provide distributions of urban populations during the day. A case study for Melbourne, Australia demonstrates the use of activity data in the estimation of population exposure. Additionally the study shows some marked differences in activity between seasons and even greater the differences in effect of that activity on exposure to air pollution. Numbers of cities will have seasonal pollutant patterns similar to Melbourne and others will benefit from exploring such patterns

  2. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S; Mniszewski, Susan M; Del Valle, Sara Y; Hyman, James M

    2014-12-01

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule's regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity's regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. We use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.

  3. Cortisol patterns are associated with T cell activation in HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Patterson

    Full Text Available The level of T cell activation in untreated HIV disease is strongly and independently associated with risk of immunologic and clinical progression. The factors that influence the level of activation, however, are not fully defined. Since endogenous glucocorticoids are important in regulating inflammation, we sought to determine whether less optimal diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with greater T cell activation.We studied 128 HIV-infected adults who were not on treatment and had a CD4(+ T cell count above 250 cells/µl. We assessed T cell activation by CD38 expression using flow cytometry, and diurnal cortisol was assessed with salivary measurements.Lower waking cortisol levels correlated with greater T cell immune activation, measured by CD38 mean fluorescent intensity, on CD4(+ T cells (r = -0.26, p = 0.006. Participants with lower waking cortisol also showed a trend toward greater activation on CD8(+ T cells (r = -0.17, p = 0.08. A greater diurnal decline in cortisol, usually considered a healthy pattern, correlated with less CD4(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.018 and CD8(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.017 activation.These data suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis contributes to the regulation of T cell activation in HIV. This may represent an important pathway through which psychological states and the HPA axis influence progression of HIV.

  4. SME purchasing activity patterns delphi study : Recognizing patterns in the way Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) organize their procurement activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This survey is about recognizing patterns in the way Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) organize their procurement activities. The scope of the survey is limited to the key commodities of the SME. A key commodity is defined as the purchased product or service group which is essential for realizing

  5. Autogenic training alters cerebral activation patterns in fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlamann, Marc; Naglatzki, Ryan; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R

    2010-10-01

    Cerebral activation patterns during the first three auto-suggestive phases of autogenic training (AT) were investigated in relation to perceived experiences. Nineteen volunteers trained in AT and 19 controls were studied with fMRI during the first steps of autogenic training. FMRI revealed activation of the left postcentral areas during AT in those with experience in AT, which also correlated with the level of AT experience. Activation of prefrontal and insular cortex was significantly higher in the group with experience in AT while insular activation was correlated with number years of simple relaxation exercises. Specific activation in subjects experienced in AT may represent a training effect. Furthermore, the correlation of insular activation suggests that these subjects are different from untrained subjects in emotional processing or self-awareness.

  6. Physical activity patterns of youth with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Phil E; MacDonald, Megan; Hornyak, Joseph E; Ulrich, Dale A

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity patterns of children with Down syndrome. A cross-sectional approach and accelerometry were used to measure the time children with Down syndrome (N = 104) spent in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results indicated that adolescents from ages 14 to 15 years were the most sedentary and spent the least amount of time in light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A general trend of decreasing physical activity as children increase in age was found. This trend is similar to that found among typically developing youth. Participants in this study were found to spend a majority of their day engaged in sedentary activities. Results indicate that most participants were not accumulating the recommended 60 minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity.

  7. Prediction of Human Activity by Discovering Temporal Sequence Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Fu, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Early prediction of ongoing human activity has become more valuable in a large variety of time-critical applications. To build an effective representation for prediction, human activities can be characterized by a complex temporal composition of constituent simple actions and interacting objects. Different from early detection on short-duration simple actions, we propose a novel framework for long -duration complex activity prediction by discovering three key aspects of activity: Causality, Context-cue, and Predictability. The major contributions of our work include: (1) a general framework is proposed to systematically address the problem of complex activity prediction by mining temporal sequence patterns; (2) probabilistic suffix tree (PST) is introduced to model causal relationships between constituent actions, where both large and small order Markov dependencies between action units are captured; (3) the context-cue, especially interactive objects information, is modeled through sequential pattern mining (SPM), where a series of action and object co-occurrence are encoded as a complex symbolic sequence; (4) we also present a predictive accumulative function (PAF) to depict the predictability of each kind of activity. The effectiveness of our approach is evaluated on two experimental scenarios with two data sets for each: action-only prediction and context-aware prediction. Our method achieves superior performance for predicting global activity classes and local action units.

  8. Corporate governance and firm characteristics as explanatory factors of shareholder activism: Validation through the French context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siala Bouaziz Souha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the major determinants of company shareholder activism investigated with according to a set of SBF 120 listed firms. Based on a sample of 77 companies, observed over the period 2008–2012, we are led to conclude that some firm governance characteristics do appear to affect shareholding activism. In addition, it has been revealed that the presence of institutional investors, ownership concentration, leaders’ presence in the capital, control structure, leadership change, firm growth as well as leverage level appear to have a significant influence on the probability of activism to take place.

  9. Opportunism Motivation of Environmental Protection Activism and Corporate Governance: An Empirical Study from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the study of environmental protection issues for more than forty years, research on the impact of financial performance on environmental protection has been one of the important branches. In the framework of principal-agent theory, this paper explores the opportunism motives in a company’s environmental protection activism and the moderating role of corporate governance using the data of Chinese listed companies from 2005 to 2016. The study finds that: (1 the company’s environmental protection activism is driven by the opportunist motives of policymakers who want to mask their inability; and (2 environmental protection activism does not enhance the company’s future performance and value creation capability. Further studies find that corporate governance mechanisms play different moderating roles. Fund Shareholders play a positive governance role and reduce the correlation between financial performance and environmental protection activism. However, independence of the board of directors intensifies the opportunist motives. This paper provides new theoretical explanations for environmental protection decision-making, provides novel enlightenment for the protection of environmental protection policies in developing countries and regions.

  10. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe. A central and eastern European perspective. The implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, N.E.; Jansen, T.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, "Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective" is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project "Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe". The ETGAGE

  11. Reviewing education and training for governance and active citizenship in Europe : a Central and Eastern European perspective : the implications of the research for Central and Eastern European policy design on active citizenship and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chioncel, Nicoleta; Jansen, Theo

    2004-01-01

    The RE-ETGACE Project, 'Reviewing Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe - A Central and Eastern European Perspective' is a complementary measure to the original ETGACE Project 'Education and Training for Governance and Active Citizenship in Europe'. The ETGAGE

  12. Patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorely Trish

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys. Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day, fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week, and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Results Boys were more active than girls (p Conclusion Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls.

  13. Instabilities and patterns in an active nematic film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pragya; Marchetti, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Experiments on microtubule bundles confined to an oil-water interface have motivated extensive theoretical studies of two-dimensional active nematics. Theoretical models taking into account the interplay between activity, flow and order have remarkably reproduced several experimentally observed features of the defect-dynamics in these ``living'' nematics. Here, we derive minimal description of a two-dimensional active nematic film confined between walls. At high friction, we eliminate the flow to obtain closed equations for the nematic order parameter, with renormalized Frank elastic constants. Active processes can render the ``Frank'' constants negative, resulting in the instability of the uniformly ordered nematic state. The minimal model yields emergent patterns of growing complexity with increasing activity, including bands and turbulent dynamics with a steady density of topological defects, as obtained with the full hydrodynamic equations. We report on the scaling of the length scales of these patterns and of the steady state number of defects with activity and system size. National Science Foundation grant DMR-1305184 and Syracuse Soft Matter Program.

  14. Exploring Human Activity Patterns Using Taxicab Static Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jiang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the patterns of human activities within a geographical space by adopting the taxicab static points which refer to the locations with zero speed along the tracking trajectory. We report the findings from both aggregated and individual aspects. Results from the aggregated level indicate the following: (1 Human activities exhibit an obvious regularity in time, for example, there is a burst of activity during weekend nights and a lull during the week. (2 They show a remarkable spatial drifting pattern, which strengthens our understanding of the activities in any given place. (3 Activities are heterogeneous in space irrespective of their drifting with time. These aggregated results not only help in city planning, but also facilitate traffic control and management. On the other hand, investigations on an individual level suggest that (4 activities witnessed by one taxicab will have different temporal regularity to another, and (5 each regularity implies a high level of prediction with low entropy by applying the Lempel-Ziv algorithm.

  15. The Influence of Some Romanian Interest Groups Upon the Activity of Government and Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on two specific interest groups, NGOs and trade unions, and on their influence upon the government and parliament. Our paper is based on an analyze of the activity of several interest groups during the period 2002-2004 and on the results of several researches and reports published on the last years. The analyze identifies petitioning for rule making, public meetings and debates, monitoring the activity of the public institutions and participating in advisory or regulatory committees as being the most common used mechanisms to influence the government and the parliament in Romania. Also, the analyze shows that administrative procedures affect the degree of bureaucratic autonomy. Overall, the results of this brief research show some pluralist forms of the interaction between the interest groups and the public institutions.

  16. Physical activity, obesity and mortality: does pattern of physical activity have stronger epidemiological associations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E.; Grunseit, Anne C.; Rangul, Vegar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most studies of physical activity (PA) epidemiology use behaviour measured at a single time-point. We examined whether 'PA patterns' (consistently low, consistently high or inconsistent PA levels over time) showed different epidemiological relationships for anthropometric and mortality...... and time 3, and sport and active travel at times 1 and 2 with BMI, waist, hip circumference and mortality (death from coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)) were compared to 'PA patterns' spanning multiple time points. PA pattern classified participants' PA as either 1) inactive......: The moderately and highly active groups for PA at times 1 and 3 had up to 1.7 cm lower increase in waist circumference compared with the inactive/low active group. Across 'PA patterns', 'active maintainers' had a 2.0 cm lower waist circumference than 'inactive/low maintainers'. Waist circumference was inversely...

  17. Muscle activity pattern dependent pain development and alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-12-01

    Muscle activity is for decades considered to provide health benefits irrespectively of the muscle activity pattern performed and whether it is during e.g. sports, transportation, or occupational work tasks. Accordingly, the international recommendations for public health-promoting physical activity do not distinguish between occupational and leisure time physical activity. However, in this body of literature, attention has not been paid to the extensive documentation on occupational physical activity imposing a risk of impairment of health - in particular musculoskeletal health in terms of muscle pain. Focusing on muscle activity patterns and musculoskeletal health it is pertinent to elucidate the more specific aspects regarding exposure profiles and body regional pain. Static sustained muscle contraction for prolonged periods often occurs in the neck/shoulder area during occupational tasks and may underlie muscle pain development in spite of rather low relative muscle load. Causal mechanisms include a stereotype recruitment of low threshold motor units (activating type 1 muscle fibers) characterized by a lack of temporal as well as spatial variation in recruitment. In contrast during physical activities at leisure and sport the motor recruitment patterns are more dynamic including regularly relatively high muscle forces - also activating type 2 muscles fibers - as well as periods of full relaxation even of the type 1 muscle fibers. Such activity is unrelated to muscle pain development if adequate recovery is granted. However, delayed muscle soreness may develop following intensive eccentric muscle activity (e.g. down-hill skiing) with peak pain levels in thigh muscles 1-2 days after the exercise bout and a total recovery within 1 week. This acute pain profile is in contrast to the chronic muscle pain profile related to repetitive monotonous work tasks. The painful muscles show adverse functional, morphological, hormonal, as well as metabolic characteristics. Of

  18. Meeting at the Edges: Spaces, Places and Grassroots Governance Activism in Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Through ethnography of activist organisations promoting transparency, accountability and active citizenship, and comprising coalitions of the city’s middle classes and urban poor, this article explores the spaces in which activists from different social backgrounds meet and carry out their work. By locating the positions of meeting rooms, offices and activists’ homes in urban space, I open up a view of the everyday practices of grassroots governance initiatives aimed at producing shared citiz...

  19. China’s Foreign Aid and Government-Sponsored Investment Activities: Scale, Content, Destinations, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    this document Browse Reports & Bookstore Make a charitable contribution Limited Electronic Distribution Rights This document and trademark(s...sponsors. Support RAND—make a tax-deductible charitable contribution at www.rand.org/giving/contribute.html R® is a registered trademark © Copyright 2013...cooperation organizations such as the xvi China’s Foreign Aid and Government-Sponsored Investment Activities Shanghai Cooperation Organisation have

  20. 25 CFR 170.622 - What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? 170.622 Section 170.622 Indians BUREAU OF..., functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? All IRR...

  1. Physical Activity Behavior Patterns during School Leisure Time in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity (PA in children is paramount to attenuate the incidence of chronic disease and to improve social and cognitive health. Limited research exists examining the observed PA patterns during school leisure times in children from the U.S. The purpose of this study was to examine the observed PA patterns of children during three school leisure times: before school, during lunch, and after school. The SOPLAY instrument was used to observe PA during the three leisure times across six weeks at four elementary schools in the U.S. Observer PA counts were stratified by sex, PA intensity (sedentary, walking, and very active, and leisure time. Multi-level models were employed to examine the effect of leisure time and PA intensity on observer PA counts, adjusting for day and school-level clustering. Lunch displayed the greatest number of counts for sedentary, walking, and very active PA intensities (p 0.05. After school displayed the fewest counts for walking and very active PA in both sexes (p < 0.05. An emphasis should be placed on increasing walking and very active PA intensities before school and during lunch in girls and after school in both sexes. Keywords: after school, before school, lunch, SOPLAY, systematic observation

  2. Children's organized physical activity patterns from childhood into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C; Garner, Rochelle E; Kohen, Dafna E

    2009-11-01

    Few longitudinal studies of physical activity have included young children or used nationally representative datasets. The purpose of the current study was to explore patterns of organized physical activity for Canadian children aged 4 through 17 years. Data from 5 cycles of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth were analyzed separately for boys (n = 4463) and girls (n = 4354) using multiple trajectory modeling. Boys' and girls' organized physical activity was best represented by 3 trajectory groups. For boys, these groups were labeled: high stable, high decreasing, and low decreasing participation. For girls, these groups were labeled: high decreasing, moderate stable, and low decreasing participation. Risk factors (parental education, household income, urban/rural dwelling, and single/dual parent) were explored. For boys and girls, having a parent with postsecondary education and living in a higher income household were associated with a greater likelihood of weekly participation in organized physical activity. Living in an urban area was also significantly associated with a greater likelihood of weekly participation for girls. Results suggest that Canadian children's organized physical activity is best represented by multiple patterns of participation that tend to peak in middle childhood and decline into adolescence.

  3. Dynamical patterns in nematic active matter on a sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkes, Silke; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Sknepnek, Rastko

    2018-04-01

    Using simulations of self-propelled agents with short-range repulsion and nematic alignment, we explore the dynamical phases of a dense active nematic confined to the surface of a sphere. We map the nonequilibrium phase diagram as a function of curvature, alignment strength, and activity. Our model reproduces several phases seen in recent experiments on active microtubule bundles confined the surfaces of vesicles. At low driving, we recover the equilibrium nematic ground state with four +1 /2 defects. As the driving is increased, geodesic forces drive the transition to a polar band wrapping around an equator, with large empty spherical caps corresponding to two +1 defects at the poles. Upon further increasing activity, the bands fold onto themselves, and the system eventually transitions to a turbulent state marked by the proliferation of pairs of topological defects. We highlight the key role of the nematic persistence length in controlling pattern formation in these confined systems with positive Gaussian curvature.

  4. Patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart JH; Gorely, Trish; Edwardson, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys). Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day), fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day) and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week), and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Results Boys were more active than girls (p < 0.001) and younger adolescents were more active than older adolescents (p < 0.01). Boys ate breakfast on more days per week than girls (p < 0.01) and older adolescents ate more fruit and vegetables than younger adolescents (p < 0.01). Almost 54% of adolescents had multiple risk behaviours and only 6% achieved all three of the recommendations. Girls had significantly more risk factors than boys (p < 0.01). For adolescents with two risk behaviours, the most prevalent cluster was formed by not meeting the physical activity and fruit and vegetable recommendations. Conclusion Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls. PMID:19624822

  5. Application of activity sensors for estimating behavioral patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Cain, James W.; Cox, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of Global Positioning System (GPS) collars in habitat selection studies provides large numbers of precise location data points with reduced field effort. However, inclusion of activity sensors in many GPS collars also grants the potential to remotely estimate behavioral state. Thus, only using GPS collars to collect location data belies their full capabilities. Coupling behavioral state with location data would allow researchers and managers to refine habitat selection models by using diel behavioral state changes to partition fine-scale temporal shifts in habitat selection. We tested the capability of relatively unsophisticated GPS-collar activity sensors to estimate behavior throughout diel periods using free-ranging female elk (Cervus canadensis) in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico, USA, 2013–2014. Collars recorded cumulative number of movements (hits) per 15-min recording period immediately preceding GPS fixes at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 hr. We measured diel behavioral patterns of focal elk, categorizing active (i.e., foraging, traveling, vigilant, grooming) and inactive (i.e., resting) states. Active behaviors (foraging, traveling) produced more average hits (0.87 ± 0.69 hits/min, 4.0 ± 2.2 hits/min, respectively; 95% CI) and inactive (resting) behavior fewer hits (−1.1 ± 0.61 95% CI). We differentiated active and inactive behavioral states with a bootstrapped threshold of 5.9 ± 3.9 hits/15-min recording period. Mean cumulative activity-sensor hits corresponded with observed diel behavioral patterns: hits increased during crepuscular (0600, 1800 hr) observations when elk were most active (0000–0600 hr: d = 0.19; 1200–1800 hr: d = 0.64) and decreased during midday and night (0000 hr, 1200 hr) when elk were least active (1800–0000 hr: d = −0.39; 0600–1200 hr: d = −0.43). Even using relatively unsophisticated GPS-collar activity sensors, managers can

  6. Trends in space activities in 2014: The significance of the space activities of governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paikowsky, Deganit; Baram, Gil; Ben-Israel, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the principal events of 2014 in the field of space activities, and extrapolates from them the primary trends that can be identified in governmental space activities. In 2014, global space activities centered on two vectors. The first was geopolitical, and the second relates to the matrix between increasing commercial space activities and traditional governmental space activities. In light of these two vectors, the article outlines and analyzes trends of space exploration, human spaceflights, industry and technology, cooperation versus self-reliance, and space security and sustainability. It also reviews the space activities of the leading space-faring nations.

  7. A MULTIDISCIPLINARY ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR STUDYING ACTIVE MOBILITY PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Orellana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a Methodological, b Behavioural, and c Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.

  8. a Multidisciplinary Analytical Framework for Studying Active Mobility Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, D.; Hermida, C.; Osorio, P.

    2016-06-01

    Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a) Methodological, b) Behavioural, and c) Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.

  9. Habitat Selection and Activity Pattern of GPS Collared Sumateran Tigers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Priatna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although translocation has been used in mitigating human-carnivore conflict for decades, few studies have been conducted on the behavioral ecology of released animals. Such information is necessary in the context of sustainable forest management. In this study we determine the type of land cover used as main habitat and examine the activity pattern of translocated tigers. Between 2008 and 2010 we captured six conflict tigers and translocated them 74-1,350 km from their capture sites in Sumatera. All tigers were fitted with global positioning system (GPS collars. The collars were set to fix 24-48 location coordinates per day.  All translocated tigers showed a preference for a certain habitat type within their new home range, and tended to select the majority of natural land cover type within the landscape as their main habitat, but the availability of natural forest habitat within the landscape remains essensial for their survival. The activity of male translocated tigers differed significantly between the six time intervals of 24 hours, and their most active periods were in the afternoon (14:00-18:00 hours and in the evening (18:00-22:00 hours. Despite being preliminary, the findings of this study-which was the first such study conducted in Sumatera-highlight the conservation value of tiger translocation and provide valuable information for improving future management of conflict tigers.Keywords: activity pattern, GPS collars, habitat selection, sumateran tiger, translocation

  10. Distributed patterns of brain activity that lead to forgetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke eOztekin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Proactive interference (PI, in which irrelevant information from prior learning disrupts memory performance, is widely viewed as a major cause of forgetting. However, the hypothesized spontaneous recovery (i.e. automatic retrieval of interfering information presumed to be at the base of PI remains to be demonstrated directly. Moreover, it remains unclear at what point during learning and/or retrieval interference impacts memory performance. In order to resolve these open questions, we employed a machine-learning algorithm to identify distributed patterns of brain activity associated with retrieval of interfering information that engenders PI and causes forgetting. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an item recognition task. We induced PI by constructing sets of three consecutive study lists from the same semantic category. The classifier quantified the magnitude of category-related activity at encoding and retrieval. Category-specific activity during retrieval increased across lists, consistent with the category information becoming increasingly available and producing interference. Critically, this increase was correlated with individual differences in forgetting and the deployment of frontal lobe mechanisms that resolve interference. Collectively, these findings suggest that distributed patterns of brain activity pertaining to the interfering information during retrieval contribute to forgetting. The prefrontal cortex mediates the relationship between the spontaneous recovery of interfering information at retrieval and individual differences in memory performance.

  11. Determination of root activity pattern in citrus under irrigation (Tumbaco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizaga, Jorge; Calvache, Marcelo

    1992-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in Tumbaco, province of Pichincha, from january to april 1991. The objective of the study was to determine the root activity patterns in citrus. Tangerine plants of two varieties(common and willowleaf on rugged lemon pattern) three years old were used. A solution of Na H 2 PO 4 labeled with 3 2 P was applied at four distances: 0.30, 0.60, 0.90 and 1.20 m, distributed in a circle around the trees. Leaf samples were taken at 20,37 and 64 days after application and 3 2 P activity was determined. Statistical analysis of the data showed a highly significant variation between treatments and two ranges of significance were defined: the first one included the treatments at 0.30 and 0.60 m, and the second, the treatments at 0.90 and 1.20 m. At the same time soil moisture data were collected. These data demonstrated the relation between soil moisture and root activity and efficiency. With the obtained information it can be concluded that in trees over three years old, and in Tumbaco conditions of citrus management and ecology, the best distance to apply fertilizer is in circles located at 0.30 to 0.60 . from the trunck of tree

  12. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS for interventional tool guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Guo

    Full Text Available Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  13. Atrial natriuretic peptide and feeding activity patterns in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.H.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents historical data about atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP from its discovery as an atrial natriuretic factor (ANF to its role as an atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH. As a hormone, ANP can interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-A and is related to feeding activity patterns in the rat. Food restriction proved to be an interesting model to investigate this relationship. The role of ANP must be understood within a context of peripheral and central interactions involving different peptides and pathways

  14. Root activity pattern of banana under irrigated and rain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobhana, A.; Aravindakshan, M.; Wahid, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Root morphology by excavation method and root activity pattern by 32 P soil-injection technique have been studied in banana var., Nendran under rainfed/irrigated conditions. The number of roots, length and diameter of roots and dry weight of roots were found to be more for the rainfed banana crop compared to the irrigated. The results of the radiotracer studies indicated that about 60 per cent of the active roots of irrigated banana lie within 20 cm distance and about 90 per cent of the total root activity is found within 40 cm distance from the plant. In the case of rainfed crop about 85 per cent of the active roots were found within a radius of 40 cm around the plant. Active roots were found to be more concentrated at 15 to 30 cm depth under rainfed conditions while the density of active roots was more or less uniform along the profile upto a dpeth of 60 cm in irrigated banana. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  15. Sedentary and Physical Activity Patterns in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Guillermo R.; Travier, Noémie; Guerra-Balic, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the patterns of sedentary time (ST) and physical activity (PA) levels throughout the week among adults and older adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). We analyzed ST and PA patterns of adults and older adults with ID. Forty-two adults and 42 older adults with mild to severe ID participated in this study. Height and weight were obtained to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). Body fat and fat-free mass percentages were also obtained. Patterns of PA levels and ST were assessed with GT3X Actigraph accelerometers. Adults performed higher amounts of total PA and moderate to vigorous PA than older adults during the week, on weekdays and in center time (all p > 0.05). No differences between males and females were found for either PA levels or ST. Only 10.7% of the participants met the global recommendations on PA for health. The participants of the current study showed low PA levels and a high prevalence of ST. Interestingly, when comparing age and/or sex groups, no differences were observed for ST. Our findings provide novel and valuable information to be considered in future interventions aiming to increase PA levels and reduce ST. PMID:28880236

  16. Sedentary and Physical Activity Patterns in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo R. Oviedo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the patterns of sedentary time (ST and physical activity (PA levels throughout the week among adults and older adults with Intellectual Disability (ID. We analyzed ST and PA patterns of adults and older adults with ID. Forty-two adults and 42 older adults with mild to severe ID participated in this study. Height and weight were obtained to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI. Body fat and fat-free mass percentages were also obtained. Patterns of PA levels and ST were assessed with GT3X Actigraph accelerometers. Adults performed higher amounts of total PA and moderate to vigorous PA than older adults during the week, on weekdays and in center time (all p > 0.05. No differences between males and females were found for either PA levels or ST. Only 10.7% of the participants met the global recommendations on PA for health. The participants of the current study showed low PA levels and a high prevalence of ST. Interestingly, when comparing age and/or sex groups, no differences were observed for ST. Our findings provide novel and valuable information to be considered in future interventions aiming to increase PA levels and reduce ST.

  17. Cross-border cattle marketing in Sub-Saharan Africa since 1990: geographical patterns and government induced change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo); P. Quarles van Ufford (Paul); F. Zaal (fred)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter aims to study the impact of government policies on cross-border cattle marketing in Africa. It analyses the extent to which this type of cross-border trade has been created, diverted or contracted as a result of government policies. The chapter portrays the geographical

  18. DOE Technical Standards List. Directory of DOE and contractor personnel involved in non-government standards activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This is a periodic report on the level of agency participation in non-Government standards activities. This technical standards list is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) management and other personnel involved in the DOE technical Standards Program by identifying those participating individuals. The body of this document contains a listing of DOE employees and DOE contractors who have submitted a Record of Non-Government Standards Activity. Additional names were added from rosters supplied by non-Government standards bodies. Appendices to this document are provided to list the information by parent employment organization, by non-Government standards activity, and by the proper names of the non-Government standards organizations and committees.

  19. Integration of active pauses and pattern of muscular activity during computer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Nancy; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    Submaximal isometric muscle contractions have been reported to increase variability of muscle activation during computer work; however, other types of active contractions may be more beneficial. Our objective was to determine which type of active pause vs. rest is more efficient in changing muscle activity pattern during a computer task. Asymptomatic regular computer users performed a standardised 20-min computer task four times, integrating a different type of pause: sub-maximal isometric contraction, dynamic contraction, postural exercise and rest. Surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity was recorded bilaterally from five neck/shoulder muscles. Root-mean-square decreased with isometric pauses in the cervical paraspinals, upper trapezius and middle trapezius, whereas it increased with rest. Variability in the pattern of muscular activity was not affected by any type of pause. Overall, no detrimental effects on the level of SEMG during active pauses were found suggesting that they could be implemented without a cost on activation level or variability. Practitioner Summary: We aimed to determine which type of active pause vs. rest is best in changing muscle activity pattern during a computer task. Asymptomatic computer users performed a standardised computer task integrating different types of pauses. Muscle activation decreased with isometric pauses in neck/shoulder muscles, suggesting their implementation during computer work.

  20. Vision drives correlated activity without patterned spontaneous activity in developing Xenopus retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demas, James A; Payne, Hannah; Cline, Hollis T

    2012-04-01

    Developing amphibians need vision to avoid predators and locate food before visual system circuits fully mature. Xenopus tadpoles can respond to visual stimuli as soon as retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) innervate the brain, however, in mammals, chicks and turtles, RGCs reach their central targets many days, or even weeks, before their retinas are capable of vision. In the absence of vision, activity-dependent refinement in these amniote species is mediated by waves of spontaneous activity that periodically spread across the retina, correlating the firing of action potentials in neighboring RGCs. Theory suggests that retinorecipient neurons in the brain use patterned RGC activity to sharpen the retinotopy first established by genetic cues. We find that in both wild type and albino Xenopus tadpoles, RGCs are spontaneously active at all stages of tadpole development studied, but their population activity never coalesces into waves. Even at the earliest stages recorded, visual stimulation dominates over spontaneous activity and can generate patterns of RGC activity similar to the locally correlated spontaneous activity observed in amniotes. In addition, we show that blocking AMPA and NMDA type glutamate receptors significantly decreases spontaneous activity in young Xenopus retina, but that blocking GABA(A) receptor blockers does not. Our findings indicate that vision drives correlated activity required for topographic map formation. They further suggest that developing retinal circuits in the two major subdivisions of tetrapods, amphibians and amniotes, evolved different strategies to supply appropriately patterned RGC activity to drive visual circuit refinement. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cortical activity patterns predict robust speech discrimination ability in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetake, Jai A.; Wolf, Jordan T.; Cheung, Ryan J.; Engineer, Crystal T.; Ram, Satyananda K.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that support speech discrimination in noisy conditions are poorly understood. In quiet conditions, spike timing information appears to be used in the discrimination of speech sounds. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that spike timing is also used to distinguish between speech sounds in noisy conditions that significantly degrade neural responses to speech sounds. We tested speech sound discrimination in rats and recorded primary auditory cortex (A1) responses to speech sounds in background noise of different intensities and spectral compositions. Our behavioral results indicate that rats, like humans, are able to accurately discriminate consonant sounds even in the presence of background noise that is as loud as the speech signal. Our neural recordings confirm that speech sounds evoke degraded but detectable responses in noise. Finally, we developed a novel neural classifier that mimics behavioral discrimination. The classifier discriminates between speech sounds by comparing the A1 spatiotemporal activity patterns evoked on single trials with the average spatiotemporal patterns evoked by known sounds. Unlike classifiers in most previous studies, this classifier is not provided with the stimulus onset time. Neural activity analyzed with the use of relative spike timing was well correlated with behavioral speech discrimination in quiet and in noise. Spike timing information integrated over longer intervals was required to accurately predict rat behavioral speech discrimination in noisy conditions. The similarity of neural and behavioral discrimination of speech in noise suggests that humans and rats may employ similar brain mechanisms to solve this problem. PMID:22098331

  2. Neural signatures of attention: insights from decoding population activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Gregoriou, Georgia G

    2018-01-01

    Understanding brain function and the computations that individual neurons and neuronal ensembles carry out during cognitive functions is one of the biggest challenges in neuroscientific research. To this end, invasive electrophysiological studies have provided important insights by recording the activity of single neurons in behaving animals. To average out noise, responses are typically averaged across repetitions and across neurons that are usually recorded on different days. However, the brain makes decisions on short time scales based on limited exposure to sensory stimulation by interpreting responses of populations of neurons on a moment to moment basis. Recent studies have employed machine-learning algorithms in attention and other cognitive tasks to decode the information content of distributed activity patterns across neuronal ensembles on a single trial basis. Here, we review results from studies that have used pattern-classification decoding approaches to explore the population representation of cognitive functions. These studies have offered significant insights into population coding mechanisms. Moreover, we discuss how such advances can aid the development of cognitive brain-computer interfaces.

  3. Prolonged Intracellular Na+ Dynamics Govern Electrical Activity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaph Zylbertal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activity has been reported in many brain areas and is hypothesized to mediate working memory and emotional brain states and to rely upon network or biophysical feedback. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which persistent neuronal activity can be generated without feedback, relying instead on the slow removal of Na+ from neurons following bursts of activity. We show that mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, which plays a major role in mammalian social behavior, may respond to a brief sensory stimulation with persistent firing. By combining electrical recordings, Ca2+ and Na+ imaging, and realistic computational modeling, we explored the mechanisms underlying the persistent activity in AOB mitral cells. We found that the exceptionally slow inward current that underlies this activity is governed by prolonged dynamics of intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i, which affects neuronal electrical activity via several pathways. Specifically, elevated dendritic [Na+]i reverses the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger activity, thus modifying the [Ca2+]i set-point. This process, which relies on ubiquitous membrane mechanisms, is likely to play a role in other neuronal types in various brain regions.

  4. Tracking urban human activity from mobile phone calling patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Daniel; Ghosh, Asim; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Dunbar, Robin I M; Kaski, Kimmo

    2017-11-01

    Timings of human activities are marked by circadian clocks which in turn are entrained to different environmental signals. In an urban environment the presence of artificial lighting and various social cues tend to disrupt the natural entrainment with the sunlight. However, it is not completely understood to what extent this is the case. Here we exploit the large-scale data analysis techniques to study the mobile phone calling activity of people in large cities to infer the dynamics of urban daily rhythms. From the calling patterns of about 1,000,000 users spread over different cities but lying inside the same time-zone, we show that the onset and termination of the calling activity synchronizes with the east-west progression of the sun. We also find that the onset and termination of the calling activity of users follows a yearly dynamics, varying across seasons, and that its timings are entrained to solar midnight. Furthermore, we show that the average mid-sleep time of people living in urban areas depends on the age and gender of each cohort as a result of biological and social factors.

  5. Tracking urban human activity from mobile phone calling patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Monsivais

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Timings of human activities are marked by circadian clocks which in turn are entrained to different environmental signals. In an urban environment the presence of artificial lighting and various social cues tend to disrupt the natural entrainment with the sunlight. However, it is not completely understood to what extent this is the case. Here we exploit the large-scale data analysis techniques to study the mobile phone calling activity of people in large cities to infer the dynamics of urban daily rhythms. From the calling patterns of about 1,000,000 users spread over different cities but lying inside the same time-zone, we show that the onset and termination of the calling activity synchronizes with the east-west progression of the sun. We also find that the onset and termination of the calling activity of users follows a yearly dynamics, varying across seasons, and that its timings are entrained to solar midnight. Furthermore, we show that the average mid-sleep time of people living in urban areas depends on the age and gender of each cohort as a result of biological and social factors.

  6. Accelerometer-determined physical activity level among government employees in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazizi, A S; Aina, Mardiah B; Mohd, Nasir M T; Zaitun, Y; Hamid, Jan J M; Tabata, I

    2012-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate accelerometer-determined physical activity level of 233 Malay government employees (104 men, 129 women) working in the Federal Government Building Penang, Malaysia. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage and blood pressure were measured for each respondent. All the respondents were asked to wear an accelerometer for 3 days. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated using a standard formulas. Fasting blood sample was obtained to determine the lipid profile and glucose levels of the respondents. Based on the accelerometer-determined physical activity level, almost 65% of the respondents were categorised as sedentary. Approximately 50.2% of the respondents were overweight or obese. There were negative but significant relationships between body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.353, p obesity in this study. The high prevalence of physical inactivity and obesity found among respondents of this study indicate a need for implementing intervention programmes among this population.

  7. Safeguarding Self-Governance: A Grounded Theory of Older Patients’ Pattern of Behavior in Relation to their Relatives in Fast-track Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie B.; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Lindhardt Damsgaard, Tove

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to generate a grounded theory of older patients’ pattern of behavior in relation to their relatives’ involvement in fast-track programs during total joint replacement. Sixteen patients were recruited in orthopedic wards. Data collection included 11 interviews......, shielding, distancing, and masking. Keywords: Fast-track program, grounded theory, older patients, relatives, total joint replacement.......-governance emerged in the analysis as the core category of our theory and pattern of behavior of the older patients in relation to their relatives. The older patients’ main concern was to complete the fast-track program while maintaining autonomy, which they resolved through four strategies of actions: embracing...

  8. DOE technical standards list: Directory of DOE and contractor personnel involved in non-government standards activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The body of this document contains a listing of DOE employees and DOE contractors who have submitted form DOE F 1300.2, Record of Non-Government Standards Activity, which is attached to the end of this document. Additional names were added from rosters supplied by non-Government standards bodies. The committees or governing bodies in which the person participates is listed after each name. An asterisk preceding the committee notation indicates that the person has identified himself or herself as the DOE representative on that committee. Appendices to this document are also provided to sort the information by the parent employment organization, by non-Government standards activity, and by the proper names of the non-Government standards organizations and committees. DOE employees and contractors listed in this technical standards list are those recorded as of May 1, 1999.

  9. DOE technical standards list: Directory of DOE and contractor personnel involved in non-government standards activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The body of this document contains a listing of DOE employees and DOE contractors who have submitted form DOE F 1300.2, Record of Non-Government Standards Activity, which is attached to the end of this document and to DOE Order 1300.2A. Additional names were added from rosters supplied by non-Government standards bodies. The committees or governing bodies in which the person participates is listed after each name. An asterisk preceding the committee notation indicates that the person has identified himself or herself as the DOE representative on that committee. Appendices to this document are also provided to sort the information by the parent employment organization, by non-Government standards activity, and by the proper names of the non-Government standards organizations and committees. DOE employees and contractors listed in this TSL are those recorded as of July 1, 1996.

  10. Pattern and determinants of obesity among adolescent females in private and public schools in the Olorunda Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer Olubanji; Olugbenga-Bello, Adenike Iyanuoluwa; Adekanle, Daniel Adebode; Adeomi, Adeleye A

    2011-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise at an alarming rate worldwide to such an extent that it has been described as a global epidemic. Our study aims to investigate the pattern and determinants of obesity among adolescent females in private and public schools in the Olorunda Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Using the multistage sampling technique, 520 pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 257 girls from private schools and 263 girls from public schools. Most of the respondents from private schools (65.2%) had good knowledge about obesity and related matters while most of those from public schools (65.9%) had poor knowledge. The dietary practice of the majority of the girls from private schools (60.2%) was unhealthy while most of the girls from public schools (68.7%) had healthy dietary practices. Most of the respondents from private schools (64.2%) lived sedentary lifestyles while most from public schools (64.0%) lived active lifestyles. Using the BMI, the majority of the girls from private schools were underweight (52%), 10 (4.0%) were overweight and 3 (1.2%) were obese. For public schools, the majority (55.4%) fell within the normal group, 6 (2.3%) were overweight and none was obese. The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity was higher among the girls in private schools than among girls attending public schools. We concluded that awareness should be created to promote a healthy balance of food, drink and physical activity within and outside the school.

  11. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  12. Decoding subjective mental states from fMRI activity patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masako; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoding has emerged as a powerful tool to read out detailed stimulus features from multi-voxel brain activity patterns. Moreover, the method has been extended to perform a primitive form of 'mind-reading,' by applying a decoder 'objectively' trained using stimulus features to more 'subjective' conditions. In this paper, we first introduce basic procedures for fMRI decoding based on machine learning techniques. Second, we discuss the source of information used for decoding, in particular, the possibility of extracting information from subvoxel neural structures. We next introduce two experimental designs for decoding subjective mental states: the 'objective-to-subjective design' and the 'subjective-to-subjective design.' Then, we illustrate recent studies on the decoding of a variety of mental states, such as, attention, awareness, decision making, memory, and mental imagery. Finally, we discuss the challenges and new directions of fMRI decoding. (author)

  13. Command of active matter by topological defects and patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chenhui; Turiv, Taras; Guo, Yubing; Wei, Qi-Huo; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2016-11-01

    Self-propelled bacteria are marvels of nature with a potential to power dynamic materials and microsystems of the future. The challenge lies in commanding their chaotic behavior. By dispersing swimming Bacillus subtilis in a liquid crystalline environment with spatially varying orientation of the anisotropy axis, we demonstrate control over the distribution of bacterial concentration, as well as the geometry and polarity of their trajectories. Bacteria recognize subtle differences in liquid crystal deformations, engaging in bipolar swimming in regions of pure splay and bend but switching to unipolar swimming in mixed splay-bend regions. They differentiate topological defects, heading toward defects of positive topological charge and avoiding negative charges. Sensitivity of bacteria to preimposed orientational patterns represents a previously unknown facet of the interplay between hydrodynamics and topology of active matter.

  14. Patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cauwenberghe Eveline

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about patterns of sedentary behavior (SB and physical activity among preschoolers. Therefore, in this observational study patterns of SB and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA were examined in detail throughout the week in preschool-aged boys and girls. Methods A sample of 703 Melbourne preschool children (387 boys; 4.6 ± 0.7 y were included in data analysis. SB and MVPA data were collected using accelerometry over an eight-day period. Percentage of time per hour in SB and in MVPA between 08:00 h and 20:00 h was calculated. Multi-level logistic regression models were created to examine the hour-by-hour variability in SB and MVPA for boys and girls across weekdays and weekend days. Odds ratios (OR were calculated to interpret differences in hour-by-hour SB and MVPA levels between boys and girls, and between weekdays and weekend days. Results The highest SB levels co-occurred with the lowest MVPA levels from the morning till the early afternoon on weekdays, and during the morning and around midday on weekends. Besides, participation in SB was the lowest and participation in MVPA was the highest from the mid afternoon till the evening on weekdays and weekend days. The variability across the hours in SB and, especially, in MVPA was rather small throughout weekdays and weekends. These patterns were found in both boys and girls. During some hours, girls were found to be more likely than boys to demonstrate higher SB levels (OR from 1.08 to 1.16; all p  Conclusion Entire weekdays, especially from the morning till the early afternoon, and entire weekend days are opportunities to reduce SB and to promote MVPA in preschool-aged boys and girls. Particularly weekdays hold the greatest promise for improving SB and MVPA. No particular time of the week was found where one sex should be targeted.

  15. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huei Phing, Chee; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Barakatun Nisak, M Y; Mohd Nasir, M T

    2017-12-01

    Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prompt group (n = 44), an aerobics group (n = 42) or a control group (n = 103) based on sample size calculation formula. Step counts were evaluated by Lifecorder e-STEP accelerometers for all participants. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 'harmonizing' definition, in which individuals who have at least three of the five metabolic risk factors (waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) will be classified as having metabolic syndrome. A total of 80% of the enrolled government employees with metabolic syndrome completed the programme. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows (version 20, SPSS, Chicago, IL). There were significantly higher step counts on average in the aerobics group compared to the control group over assessments. Assessments at baseline, post-intervention and follow-up showed a significant difference in step counts between the intervention and control groups. The greatest reductions in the proportions of individuals with metabolic syndrome were observed in the aerobics group with a reduction of 79.4% in the post-intervention assessment compared to the assessment at baseline. The findings of this study suggest that physical activity intervention via aerobics classes is an effective strategy for improving step counts and reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  16. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESS AND INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pоlina Kolisnichenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to reveal the conditions of the innovative development of the small and mediumsized entrepreneurship in Ukraine; the problems that suppress the innovative activity and small and medium-sized enterprises development; peculiarities of the tax incentives for the development of the entrepreneurship in the advanced countries and in Ukraine; the main kinds and characteristics of the small and medium-sized enterprises public support. Methodology. The methods of scientific research include: analysis and generalization for studying the main kinds and characteristics of the government support of the small and medium-sized enterprises; dynamic and comparative analysis for studying the problems and factors influencing the development of small and medium enterprises and innovative activity, peculiarities of tax incentives for business development; systemanalytical method for studying the conditions of the innovative development of the small and medium-sized entrepreneurship. Results. The government's financial support priorities should be: optimal application of the fiscal regulation instruments (reduction of the amount of taxes, determination of the criteria for the maximum taxation amount, tax incentives etc., maintenance of the self-investment of small and medium-sized enterprises as well as investment, financial means of the public influence over the development of the enterprises, effective combination of both direct and indirect forms of the innovative development support. Practical implications. The obtained results can be used in the process of formation and implementation of the small and medium enterprise sector development strategy and innovative activity in the long-term perspective. Value/originality. The obtained data can provide a better understanding of the direction of innovative business development in Ukraine.

  17. Pattern recognition in complex activity travel patterns : comparison of Euclidean distance, signal-processing theoretical, and multidimensional sequence alignment methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joh, C.H.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The application of a multidimensional sequence alignment method for classifying activity travel patterns is reported. The method was developed as an alternative to the existing classification methods suggested in the transportation literature. The relevance of the multidimensional sequence alignment

  18. Brain activation patterns during memory of cognitive agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Sophia; Luks, Tracy L; Simpson, Gregory V; Schulman, Brian J; Glenn, Shenly; Wong, Amy E

    2006-06-01

    Agency is the awareness that one's own self is the agent or author of an action, a thought, or a feeling. The implicit memory that one's self was the originator of a cognitive event - the sense of cognitive agency - has not yet been fully explored in terms of relevant neural systems. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined brain activation patterns differentiating memory for the source of previously self-generated vs. experimenter-presented word items from a sentence completion paradigm designed to be emotionally neutral and semantically constrained in content. Accurate memory for the source of self-generated vs. externally-presented word items resulted in activation of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) bilaterally, supporting an emerging body of work that indicates a key role for this region in self-referential processing. Our data extend the function of mPFC into the domain of memory and the accurate retrieval of the sense of cognitive agency under conditions where agency was encoded implicitly.

  19. Mouse visual neocortex supports multiple stereotyped patterns of microcircuit activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, Alexander J; MacLean, Jason N

    2014-06-04

    Spiking correlations between neocortical neurons provide insight into the underlying synaptic connectivity that defines cortical microcircuitry. Here, using two-photon calcium fluorescence imaging, we observed the simultaneous dynamics of hundreds of neurons in slices of mouse primary visual cortex (V1). Consistent with a balance of excitation and inhibition, V1 dynamics were characterized by a linear scaling between firing rate and circuit size. Using lagged firing correlations between neurons, we generated functional wiring diagrams to evaluate the topological features of V1 microcircuitry. We found that circuit connectivity exhibited both cyclic graph motifs, indicating recurrent wiring, and acyclic graph motifs, indicating feedforward wiring. After overlaying the functional wiring diagrams onto the imaged field of view, we found properties consistent with Rentian scaling: wiring diagrams were topologically efficient because they minimized wiring with a modular architecture. Within single imaged fields of view, V1 contained multiple discrete circuits that were overlapping and highly interdigitated but were still distinct from one another. The majority of neurons that were shared between circuits displayed peri-event spiking activity whose timing was specific to the active circuit, whereas spike times for a smaller percentage of neurons were invariant to circuit identity. These data provide evidence that V1 microcircuitry exhibits balanced dynamics, is efficiently arranged in anatomical space, and is capable of supporting a diversity of multineuron spike firing patterns from overlapping sets of neurons. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347769-09$15.00/0.

  20. Exotic high activity surface patterns in PtAu nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-05-09

    The structure and chemical ordering of PtAu nanoclusters of 79, 135, and 201 atoms are studied via a combination of a basin hopping atom-exchange technique (to locate the lowest energy homotops at fixed composition), a symmetry orbit technique (to find the high symmetry isomers), and density functional theory local reoptimization (for determining the most stable homotop). The interatomic interactions between Pt and Au are derived from the empirical Gupta potential. The lowest energy structures show a marked tendency toward PtcoreAushell chemical ordering by enrichment of the more cohesive Pt in the core region and of Au in the shell region. We observe a preferential segregation of Pt atoms to (111) facets and Au atoms to (100) facets of the truncated octahedron cluster motif. Exotic surface patterns are obtained particularly for Pt-rich compositions, where Pt atoms are being surrounded by Au atoms. These surface arrangements boost the catalytic activity by creating a large number of active sites. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Security Cooperation Activities: Strengthening a Partner Military and its Governing Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    governments suffered from economic instability , corruption, poor rule of law, and low administration of justice. Government and economic stability ...types of programs applied. Conditions defining allied state characteristics are military structure, government polity rating, and economic stability ...regional instability . Dr. Michael Mihalka and Mr. Mark Wilcox covered the trends in liberal democracy in the South Caucasus in light of economic

  2. Connectivity, excitability and activity patterns in neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Feber, Joost; Stoyanova, Irina I; Chiappalone, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Extremely synchronized firing patterns such as those observed in brain diseases like epilepsy may result from excessive network excitability. Although network excitability is closely related to (excitatory) connectivity, a direct measure for network excitability remains unavailable. Several methods currently exist for estimating network connectivity, most of which are related to cross-correlation. An example is the conditional firing probability (CFP) analysis which calculates the pairwise probability (CFP i,j ) that electrode j records an action potential at time t = τ, given that electrode i recorded a spike at t = 0. However, electrode i often records multiple spikes within the analysis interval, and CFP values are biased by the on-going dynamic state of the network. Here we show that in a linear approximation this bias may be removed by deconvoluting CFP i,j with the autocorrelation of i (i.e. CFP i,i ), to obtain the single pulse response (SPR i,j )—the average response at electrode j to a single spike at electrode i. Thus, in a linear system SPRs would be independent of the dynamic network state. Nonlinear components of synaptic transmission, such as facilitation and short term depression, will however still affect SPRs. Therefore SPRs provide a clean measure of network excitability. We used carbachol and ghrelin to moderately activate cultured cortical networks to affect their dynamic state. Both neuromodulators transformed the bursting firing patterns of the isolated networks into more dispersed firing. We show that the influence of the dynamic state on SPRs is much smaller than the effect on CFPs, but not zero. The remaining difference reflects the alteration in network excitability. We conclude that SPRs are less contaminated by the dynamic network state and that mild excitation may decrease network excitability, possibly through short term synaptic depression. (papers)

  3. Activity patterns in networks stabilized by background oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppensteadt, Frank

    2009-07-01

    The brain operates in a highly oscillatory environment. We investigate here how such an oscillating background can create stable organized behavior in an array of neuro-oscillators that is not observable in the absence of oscillation, much like oscillating the support point of an inverted pendulum can stabilize its up position, which is unstable without the oscillation. We test this idea in an array of electronic circuits coming from neuroengineering: we show how the frequencies of the background oscillation create a partition of the state space into distinct basins of attraction. Thus, background signals can stabilize persistent activity that is otherwise not observable. This suggests that an image, represented as a stable firing pattern which is triggered by a voltage pulse and is sustained in synchrony or resonance with the background oscillation, can persist as a stable behavior long after the initial stimulus is removed. The background oscillations provide energy for organized behavior in the array, and these behaviors are categorized by the basins of attraction determined by the oscillation frequencies.

  4. Physical activity patterns in children with and without Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; O'Neill, Kristen L; Stettler, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    To describe physical activity (PA) patterns in children with Down syndrome (DS) compared to their unaffected siblings. Children with DS (n = 28) and their siblings (n = 30), between 3-10-years (mean +/- SD 7.1 +/- 2.1 years) participated in a nutrition and growth study. PA was measured over 7 days using accelerometers. Children with DS were younger (6.6 vs. 7.1 years) and heavier (BMI 18.4 vs. 16.7 kg m(-2)) than their siblings (p children. Children with DS accumulated less VPA than their siblings (49.5 vs. 68.6 minutes per day; p = 0.04) and for shorter bouts (2.5 vs. 5.1 minutes per bout; p Children with DS participated in less total and sustained VPA and had higher BMI levels compared with their siblings. Because children with DS have a tendency toward childhood obesity, increasing participation in VPA may be appropriate for prevention of obesity and promotion of lifelong health.

  5. 17 CFR 1.59 - Activities of self-regulatory organization employees, governing board members, committee members...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activities of self-regulatory... COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.59 Activities of self-regulatory organization employees, governing...) Self-regulatory organization means “self-regulatory organization,” as defined in Commission regulation...

  6. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localised pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key component of plant innate immunity. Most known plant PRRs are receptor kinases and initiation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) signalling requires phosphorylation of the PR...

  7. Digital Environmental Governance in China: Information Disclosure, Pollution Control, and Environmental Activism in the Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Tan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese water bureaucracy increasingly utilises information and communications technology (ICT in order to strengthen interaction with the population, which is severely affected by industrial pollution. Government webpages, mailboxes, and online interviews with officers have become prevalent tools for environmental governance, including information disclosure, and a virtual communication forum between the state and its citizens. The present study employs a mixed methods approach with a qualitative emphasis to explore the process of communication and interaction between government agencies and local residents in Dongying, Shandong Province. The results show that information disclosure of pollution data remains far from being transparent, despite the fact that the local government has implemented digital environmental governance, as encouraged by the central Chinese state. Internet technologies empower resource-poor environmental activists in Dongying to strengthen their social network and build communication with the authorities. The application of bureaucratic techniques, however, is key for them to enter the communication interface with government agencies in order to influence political decisions. Results suggest that local cadres tend to send mixed signals to activists and display wariness towards them. They also tend to take preventive measures to keep the situation under control when environmental disputes arise. The proposed communication interface approach sheds a clearer light on the complexity among the emergent ICTs, environmental activism, and digital governance.

  8. Breast Feeding Pattern and the Health of Children in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odu, Bimbola Kemi; Dotun, Owoeye Olajumoke

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the different patterns of feeding infants and their corresponding effects on children's health. There are anti-effective properties present in human milk which help children to fight against many childhood diseases. The long-term effect of breast milk like intelligence, socialization and personality development of children…

  9. Artemisinin combination therapies price disparity between government and private health sectors and its implication on antimalarial drug consumption pattern in Morogoro Urban District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisa, Allen Lewis; Kiriba, Deodatus

    2012-03-28

    Universal access to effective treatments is a goal of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. However, despite official commitments and substantial increases in financing, this objective remains elusive, as development assistance continue to be routed largely through government channels, leaving the much needed highly effective treatments inaccessible or unaffordable to those seeking services in the private sector. To quantify the effect of price disparity between the government and private health systems, this study have audited 92 government and private Drug Selling Units (DSUs) in Morogoro urban district in Tanzania to determine the levels, trend and consumption pattern of antimalarial drugs in the two health systems. A combination of observation, interviews and questionnaire administered to the service providers of the randomly selected DSUs were used to collect data. ALU was the most selling antimalarial drug in the government health system at a subsidized price of 300 TShs (0.18 US$). By contrast, ALU that was available in the private sector (coartem) was being sold at a price of about 10,000 TShs (5.9 US$), the price that was by far unaffordable, prompting people to resort to cheap but failed drugs. As a result, metakelfin (the phased out drug) was the most selling drug in the private health system at a price ranging from 500 to 2,000 TShs (0.29-1.18 US$). In order for the prompt diagnosis and treatment with effective drugs intervention to have big impact on malaria in mostly low socioeconomic malaria-endemic areas of Africa, inequities in affordability and access to effective treatment must be eliminated. For this to be ensued, subsidized drugs should be made available in both government and private health sectors to promote a universal access to effective safe and affordable life saving antimalarial drugs.

  10. Artemisinin combination therapies price disparity between government and private health sectors and its implication on antimalarial drug consumption pattern in Morogoro Urban District, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malisa Allen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal access to effective treatments is a goal of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. However, despite official commitments and substantial increases in financing, this objective remains elusive, as development assistance continue to be routed largely through government channels, leaving the much needed highly effective treatments inaccessible or unaffordable to those seeking services in the private sector. Methods To quantify the effect of price disparity between the government and private health systems, this study have audited 92 government and private Drug Selling Units (DSUs in Morogoro urban district in Tanzania to determine the levels, trend and consumption pattern of antimalarial drugs in the two health systems. A combination of observation, interviews and questionnaire administered to the service providers of the randomly selected DSUs were used to collect data. Results ALU was the most selling antimalarial drug in the government health system at a subsidized price of 300 TShs (0.18 US$. By contrast, ALU that was available in the private sector (coartem was being sold at a price of about 10,000 TShs (5.9 US$, the price that was by far unaffordable, prompting people to resort to cheap but failed drugs. As a result, metakelfin (the phased out drug was the most selling drug in the private health system at a price ranging from 500 to 2,000 TShs (0.29–1.18 US$. Conclusions In order for the prompt diagnosis and treatment with effective drugs intervention to have big impact on malaria in mostly low socioeconomic malaria-endemic areas of Africa, inequities in affordability and access to effective treatment must be eliminated. For this to be ensued, subsidized drugs should be made available in both government and private health sectors to promote a universal access to effective safe and affordable life saving antimalarial drugs.

  11. Patterns of Walkability, Transit, and Recreation Environment for Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marc A; Todd, Michael; Kurka, Jonathan; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli L; Frank, Lawrence D; Sallis, James F

    2015-12-01

    Diverse combinations of built environment (BE) features for physical activity (PA) are understudied. This study explored whether patterns of GIS-derived BE features explained objective and self-reported PA, sedentary behavior, and BMI. Neighborhood Quality of Life Study participants (N=2,199, aged 20-65 years, 48.2% female, 26% ethnic minority) were sampled in 2001-2005 from Seattle / King County WA and Baltimore MD / Washington DC regions. Their addresses were geocoded to compute net residential density, land use mix, retail floor area ratio, intersection density, public transit, and public park and private recreation facility densities using a 1-km network buffer. Latent profile analyses (LPAs) were estimated from these variables. Multilevel regression models compared profiles on accelerometer-measured moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and self-reported PA, adjusting for covariates and clustering. Analyses were conducted in 2013-2014. Seattle region LPAs yielded four profiles, including low walkability/transit/recreation (L-L-L); mean walkability/transit/recreation (M-M-M); moderately high walkability/transit/recreation (MH-MH-MH); and high walkability/transit/recreation (H-HH). All measures were higher in the HHH than the LLL profile (difference of 17.1 minutes/day for MVPA, 146.5 minutes/week for walking for transportation, 58.2 minutes/week for leisure-time PA, and 2.2 BMI points; all pwalkability index. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of the active layer pattern on the electrical characteristics of organic inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kwon, Jin-Hyuk; Bae, Jin-Hyuk [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae-Hoon; Baang, Sung-Keun [Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We describe the importance of a patterned active layer for the fine driving of organic inverters. In the case of a non-patterned inverter, the capacitance as a function of the applied bias in an organic capacitor structure exhibits a slow saturation nature due to the slow movement of charge carriers. Hence, during the operation of organic inverters with non-patterned active layers, the voltage gains inevitably exhibit lower values whereas higher gains are achieved in the case of sharply-patterned pentacene layers. These results suggest that the patterning of the active layer can be a decisive factor for realizing high-performance electronic circuits based on organic semiconductors.

  13. Distinct patterns of brain activity characterise lexical activation and competition in spoken word production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Piai

    Full Text Available According to a prominent theory of language production, concepts activate multiple associated words in memory, which enter into competition for selection. However, only a few electrophysiological studies have identified brain responses reflecting competition. Here, we report a magnetoencephalography study in which the activation of competing words was manipulated by presenting pictures (e.g., dog with distractor words. The distractor and picture name were semantically related (cat, unrelated (pin, or identical (dog. Related distractors are stronger competitors to the picture name because they receive additional activation from the picture relative to other distractors. Picture naming times were longer with related than unrelated and identical distractors. Phase-locked and non-phase-locked activity were distinct but temporally related. Phase-locked activity in left temporal cortex, peaking at 400 ms, was larger on unrelated than related and identical trials, suggesting differential activation of alternative words by the picture-word stimuli. Non-phase-locked activity between roughly 350-650 ms (4-10 Hz in left superior frontal gyrus was larger on related than unrelated and identical trials, suggesting differential resolution of the competition among the alternatives, as reflected in the naming times. These findings characterise distinct patterns of activity associated with lexical activation and competition, supporting the theory that words are selected by competition.

  14. Contrasting activity patterns of sympatric and allopatric black and grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Cain, S.L.; Podruzny, S.; Cherry, S.; Frattaroli, L.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of grizzly (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) overlaps in western North America. Few studies have detailed activity patterns where the species are sympatric and no studies contrasted patterns where populations are both sympatric and allopatric. We contrasted activity patterns for sympatric black and grizzly bears and for black bears allopatric to grizzly bears, how human influences altered patterns, and rates of grizzlyblack bear predation. Activity patterns differed between black bear populations, with those sympatric to grizzly bears more day-active. Activity patterns of black bears allopatric with grizzly bears were similar to those of female grizzly bears; both were crepuscular and day-active. Male grizzly bears were crepuscular and night-active. Both species were more night-active and less day-active when ???1 km from roads or developments. In our sympatric study area, 2 of 4 black bear mortalities were due to grizzly bear predation. Our results suggested patterns of activity that allowed for intra- and inter-species avoidance. National park management often results in convergence of locally high human densities in quality bear habitat. Our data provide additional understanding into how bears alter their activity patterns in response to other bears and humans and should help park managers minimize undesirable bearhuman encounters when considering needs for temporal and spatial management of humans and human developments in bear habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  15. The measurement of sedentary patterns and behaviors using the activPAL™ Professional physical activity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, Kieran P; Bourke, Alan K; Nelson, John; Donnelly, Alan E; Harrington, Deirdre M

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated the negative effects of sedentary time and sedentary patterns on health indices. However, these studies have used methodologies that do not directly measure the sedentary state. Recent technological developments in the area of motion sensors have incorporated inclinometers, which can measure the inclination of the body directly, without relying on self-report or count thresholds. This paper aims to provide a detailed description of methodologies used to examine a range of relevant variables, including sedentary levels and patterns from an inclinometer-based motion sensor. The activPAL Professional physical activity logger provides an output which can be interpreted and used without the need for further processing and additional variables were derived using a custom designed MATLAB® computer program. The methodologies described have been implemented on a sample of 44 adolescent females, and the results of a range of daily physical activity and sedentary variables are described and presented. The results provide a range of objectively measured and objectively processed variables, including total time spent sitting/lying, standing and stepping, number and duration of daily sedentary bouts and both bed hours and non-bed hours, which may be of interest when making association between physical activity, sedentary behaviors and health indices. (paper)

  16. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, M Hongchul; Ting, Lena H

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., synergy force vector was reduced by ~45% when generalizability requirements were imposed. Muscles recruited in the generalizable muscle activation patterns had less sensitive torque-producing characteristics to changes in postures. We

  17. WHAT GOVERNS THE BULK VELOCITY OF THE JET COMPONENTS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Bo; Cao Xinwu; Gu Minfeng

    2012-01-01

    We use a sample of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. Based on Königl's inhomogeneous jet model, the jet parameters, such as the bulk motion Lorentz factor, magnetic field strength, and electron density in the jet, can be estimated with the very long baseline interferometry and X-ray data.. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present between the bulk Lorentz factor and the Eddington ratio. The massive black holes will be spun up through accretion, as the black holes acquire mass and angular momentum simultaneously through accretion. Recent investigation indeed suggested that most supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies have on average higher spins than the black holes in spiral galaxies, where random, small accretion episodes (e.g., tidally disrupted stars, accretion of molecular clouds) might have played a more important role. If this is true, then the correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components found in this work implies that the motion velocity of the jet components is probably governed by the black hole spin. No correlation is found between the magnetic field strength at 10R S (R S = 2GM/c 2 is the Schwarzschild radius) in the jets and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample. This is consistent with the black hole spin scenario, i.e., the faster moving jets are magnetically accelerated by the magnetic fields threading the horizon of more rapidly rotating black holes. The results imply that the Blandford-Znajek mechanism may dominate over the Blandford-Payne mechanism for the jet acceleration, at least in these radio-loud AGNs.

  18. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS THAT GOVERN LARGE SOLAR FLARES AND ERUPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toriumi, Shin [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Schrijver, Carolus J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Harra, Louise K. [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Hudson, Hugh [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Nagashima, Kaori, E-mail: shin.toriumi@nao.ac.jp [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), especially the larger ones, emanate from active regions (ARs). With the aim of understanding the magnetic properties that govern such flares and eruptions, we systematically survey all flare events with Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite levels of ≥M5.0 within 45° from disk center between 2010 May and 2016 April. These criteria lead to a total of 51 flares from 29 ARs, for which we analyze the observational data obtained by the Solar Dynamics Observatory . More than 80% of the 29 ARs are found to exhibit δ -sunspots, and at least three ARs violate Hale’s polarity rule. The flare durations are approximately proportional to the distance between the two flare ribbons, to the total magnetic flux inside the ribbons, and to the ribbon area. From our study, one of the parameters that clearly determine whether a given flare event is CME-eruptive or not is the ribbon area normalized by the sunspot area, which may indicate that the structural relationship between the flaring region and the entire AR controls CME productivity. AR characterization shows that even X-class events do not require δ -sunspots or strong-field, high-gradient polarity inversion lines. An investigation of historical observational data suggests the possibility that the largest solar ARs, with magnetic flux of 2 × 10{sup 23} Mx, might be able to produce “superflares” with energies of the order of 10{sup 34} erg. The proportionality between the flare durations and magnetic energies is consistent with stellar flare observations, suggesting a common physical background for solar and stellar flares.

  19. AN ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVITIES OF PHARMACISTS’ WORKING IN THE GOVERNMENT SECTOR IN GANJAM DISTRICT, ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurukrushna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Pharmacist also known as chemist or drugist is the health care professional who practice in pharmacy , the field of health science focusing on safe and effective medication use. Every day millions of people across the world visit community pharmacists for their health care needs. The aim of the present study was t o ass ess the working of pharmacists in the government sector of Ganjam District in the state of Odisha and difficulties arising out of their diverse role play. METHODS AND MATERIAL : It was a cross - sectional study carried out in the drug depot centre in the offi ce of Chief District Medical Officer (CDMO, Ganjam, Odisha between November 2013 to April 2014.A pretested scientifically designed questionnaire was used for collection of data. Data was collected in first ten days of every month at CDMO office drug depot . The data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics data in SPSS version 16.0. RESULTS: Data were collected from 114 pharmacists among them 85 pharmacists were only from PHC (n. It was found that 49% had experience > 20yrs followed by experience 10 - 20yrs (32% and less than 10yrs was 19%. 48% had taken training for various programmes among them majority (23% had taken training on RNTCP followed by NVBDCP . Only 17% had any training on supply chain management during the last 3 years . Regarding drug disposal 44% opined that they burned the expiry drugs and 22% returned them to suppliers. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist has significant impact on public health and improving patients quality of life in rural area , but in current sce nario the activities of pharmacists need improvement.

  20. Nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) during the maternity season in West Virginia (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.B.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) at diurnal roost trees remain largely uninvestigated. For example, the influence of reproductive status, weather, and roost tree and surrounding habitat characteristics on timing of emergence, intra-night activity, and entrance at their roost trees is poorly known. We examined nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis maternity colonies during pregnancy and lactation at diurnal roost trees situated in areas that were and were not subjected to recent prescribed fires at the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia from 2007 to 2009. According to exit counts and acoustic data, northern myotis colony sizes were similar between reproductive periods and roost tree settings. However, intra-night activity patterns differed slightly between reproductive periods and roost trees in burned and non-burned areas. Weather variables poorly explained variation in activity patterns during pregnancy, but precipitation and temperature were negatively associated with activity patterns during lactation. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  1. Thoracic posture, shoulder muscle activation patterns and isokinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor posture, scapular dyskinesia, altered scapular muscle recruitment patterns and ... postural deviation and incorrect shoulder kinematics.[5]. Knowledge of the .... the contra-lateral hand was placed as far down the spinal column as possible, and the ... produced by muscle contraction for rotation around a joint.[12] During.

  2. Weighted Local Active Pixel Pattern (WLAPP for Face Recognition in Parallel Computation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundavarapu Mallikarjuna Rao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  - The availability of multi-core technology resulted totally new computational era. Researchers are keen to explore available potential in state of art-machines for breaking the bearer imposed by serial computation. Face Recognition is one of the challenging applications on so ever computational environment. The main difficulty of traditional Face Recognition algorithms is lack of the scalability. In this paper Weighted Local Active Pixel Pattern (WLAPP, a new scalable Face Recognition Algorithm suitable for parallel environment is proposed.  Local Active Pixel Pattern (LAPP is found to be simple and computational inexpensive compare to Local Binary Patterns (LBP. WLAPP is developed based on concept of LAPP. The experimentation is performed on FG-Net Aging Database with deliberately introduced 20% distortion and the results are encouraging. Keywords — Active pixels, Face Recognition, Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Active Pixel Pattern (LAPP, Pattern computing, parallel workers, template, weight computation.  

  3. Mining Emerging Patterns for Recognizing Activities of Multiple Users in Pervasive Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Understanding and recognizing human activities from sensor readings is an important task in pervasive computing. Existing work on activity recognition mainly focuses on recognizing activities for a single user in a smart home environment. However, in real life, there are often multiple inhabitants...... activity models, and propose an Emerging Pattern based Multi-user Activity Recognizer (epMAR) to recognize both single-user and multiuser activities. We conduct our empirical studies by collecting real-world activity traces done by two volunteers over a period of two weeks in a smart home environment...... sensor readings in a home environment, and propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize both single-user and multi-user activities in a unified solution. We exploit Emerging Pattern – a type of knowledge pattern that describes significant changes between classes of data – for constructing our...

  4. The lysine acetyltransferase activator Brpf1 governs dentate gyrus development through neural stem cells and progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linya You

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation has recently emerged as an important post-translational modification in diverse organisms, but relatively little is known about its roles in mammalian development and stem cells. Bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1 is a multidomain histone binder and a master activator of three lysine acetyltransferases, MOZ, MORF and HBO1, which are also known as KAT6A, KAT6B and KAT7, respectively. While the MOZ and MORF genes are rearranged in leukemia, the MORF gene is also mutated in prostate and other cancers and in four genetic disorders with intellectual disability. Here we show that forebrain-specific inactivation of the mouse Brpf1 gene causes hypoplasia in the dentate gyrus, including underdevelopment of the suprapyramidal blade and complete loss of the infrapyramidal blade. We trace the developmental origin to compromised Sox2+ neural stem cells and Tbr2+ intermediate neuronal progenitors. We further demonstrate that Brpf1 loss deregulates neuronal migration, cell cycle progression and transcriptional control, thereby causing abnormal morphogenesis of the hippocampus. These results link histone binding and acetylation control to hippocampus development and identify an important epigenetic regulator for patterning the dentate gyrus, a brain structure critical for learning, memory and adult neurogenesis.

  5. Analysis of Gait Pattern to Recognize the Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition based on the computer vision is the process of labelling image sequences with action labels. Accurate systems for this problem are applied in areas such as visual surveillance, human computer interaction and video retrieval. The challenges are due to variations in motion, recording settings and gait differences. Here we propose an approach to recognize the human activities through gait. Activity recognition through Gait is the process of identifying an activity by the manner in which they walk. The identification of human activities in a video, such as a person is walking, running, jumping, jogging etc are important activities in video surveillance. We contribute the use of Model based approach for activity recognition with the help of movement of legs only. Experimental results suggest that our method are able to recognize the human activities with a good accuracy rate and robust to shadows present in the videos.

  6. AWARENESS AS A FACTOR OF INFLUENCE ON THE LEVEL OF PUBLIC SATISFACTION WITH LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiseleva N. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the modern period of the development of statehood in Russia the significant increase of attention is attributed to the issue of effectiveness of state power and government not only on the federal and regional levels, but on the local level as well. In 2009 there was developed and implemented the system of indicators of the effectiveness’ estimates of the activity of local self-government. The system of effectiveness’ estimates included sociological indices of satisfaction of population. Implementation of sociological indices in the system of effectiveness’ estimates of the activity of local self-government brought positive responses from academic community, politicians, managers, and the public. In the article the analysis of influence of cognitive factor (being kept informed on the level of social contentment of the activity of local self-government’ bodies is done. We do this, based on the results of sociological studies of the major Russian research organizations and data from the aggregate reports, which deal with the monitoring of effectiveness of local self-government of some subjects in the Central federal district of Russia.

  7. The activity pattern of shoulder muscles in subjects with and without subacromial impingement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Nørregaard, Jesper; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Altered shoulder muscle activity is frequently believed to be a pathogenetic factor of subacromial impingement (SI) and therapeutic interventions have been directed towards restoring normal motor patterns. Still, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the changes in muscle activity in p...... that the different motor patterns might be a pathogenetic factor of SI, perhaps due to inappropriate neuromuscular strategies affecting both shoulders....

  8. Smoking Patterns and Smoking Cessation Willingness—A Study among Beneficiaries of Government Welfare Assistance in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Milcarz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence and tobacco use patterns among adult social assistance beneficiaries and their interest in quitting. The results are based on data collected in a cross-sectional survey conducted among adults in the Piotrkowski district. A sample of 3636 social assistance beneficiaries produced a total of 1817 respondents who completed face-to-face questionnaires. Overall, 37.1% of the respondents, including 52.8% men and 29.6% women, were current smokers. Over one third of the smokers reported their willingness to quit. In the study population, several characteristics were significantly associated with the current daily smoking: male gender, low educational attainment, unemployment or temporary employment, lack of awareness of smoking-associated health risks, use of e-cigarettes, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. The intention to quit smoking among the daily smokers was positively correlated with their awareness of smoking-associated health risks, lack of previous quit attempts, and low exposure to ETS. Smoking prevalence among social assistance recipients tends to be higher than in the general population, but more than half of the smokers are willing to quit. There is an urgency to develop policies tailored to the needs of these disadvantaged population groups.

  9. Active patterning and asymmetric transport in a model actomyosin network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shenshen [Department of Chemical Engineering and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Wolynes, Peter G. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2013-12-21

    Cytoskeletal networks, which are essentially motor-filament assemblies, play a major role in many developmental processes involving structural remodeling and shape changes. These are achieved by nonequilibrium self-organization processes that generate functional patterns and drive intracellular transport. We construct a minimal physical model that incorporates the coupling between nonlinear elastic responses of individual filaments and force-dependent motor action. By performing stochastic simulations we show that the interplay of motor processes, described as driving anti-correlated motion of the network vertices, and the network connectivity, which determines the percolation character of the structure, can indeed capture the dynamical and structural cooperativity which gives rise to diverse patterns observed experimentally. The buckling instability of individual filaments is found to play a key role in localizing collapse events due to local force imbalance. Motor-driven buckling-induced node aggregation provides a dynamic mechanism that stabilizes the two-dimensional patterns below the apparent static percolation limit. Coordinated motor action is also shown to suppress random thermal noise on large time scales, the two-dimensional configuration that the system starts with thus remaining planar during the structural development. By carrying out similar simulations on a three-dimensional anchored network, we find that the myosin-driven isotropic contraction of a well-connected actin network, when combined with mechanical anchoring that confers directionality to the collective motion, may represent a novel mechanism of intracellular transport, as revealed by chromosome translocation in the starfish oocyte.

  10. Rural health prepayment schemes in China: towards a more active role for government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, G; Shenglan, T

    1999-04-01

    A large majority of China's rural population were members of health prepayment schemes in the 1970's. Most of these schemes collapsed during the transition to a market economy. Some localities subsequently reestablished schemes. In early 1997 a new government policy identified health prepayment as a major potential source of rural health finance. This paper draws on the experience of existing schemes to explore how government can support implementation of this policy. The decision to support the establishment of health prepayment schemes is part of the government's effort to establish new sources of finance for social services. It believes that individuals are more likely to accept voluntary contributions to a prepayment scheme than tax increases. The voluntary nature of the contributions limits the possibilities for risk-sharing and redistribution between rich and poor. This underlines the need for the government to fund a substantial share of health expenditure out of general revenues, particularly in poor localities. The paper notes that many successful prepayment schemes depend on close supervision by local political leaders. It argues that the national programme will have to translate these measures into a regulatory system which defines the responsibilities of scheme management bodies and local governments. A number of prepayment schemes have collapsed because members did not feel they got value for money. Local health bureaux will have to cooperate with prepayment schemes to ensure that health facilities provide good quality services at a reasonable cost. Users' representatives can also monitor performance. The paper concludes that government needs to clarify the relationship between health prepayment schemes and other actors in rural localities in order to increase the chance that schemes will become a major source rural health finance.

  11. Longitudinal Physical Activity Patterns Among Older Adults: A Latent Transition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Stephen J; Joshi, Spruha; Cerdá, Magdalena; Kennedy, Gary J; Beard, John R; Rundle, Andrew G

    2018-05-14

    Most epidemiologic studies of physical activity measure either total energy expenditure or engagement in a single activity type, such as walking. These approaches may gloss over important nuances in activity patterns. We performed a latent transition analysis to identify patterns of activity types as well as neighborhood and individual determinants of changes in those activity patterns over two years in a cohort of 2,023 older adult residents of New York City, NY, surveyed between 2011 and 2013. We identified seven latent classes: 1) Mostly Inactive, 2) Walking, 3) Exercise, 4) Household Activities and Walking, 5) Household Activities and Exercise, 6) Gardening and Household Activities, and 7) Gardening, Household Activities, and Exercise. The majority of subjects retained the same activity patterns between waves (54% unchanged between waves 1 and 2, 66% unchanged between waves 2 and 3).Most latent class transitions were between classes distinguished only by one form of activity, and only neighborhood unemployment was consistently associated with changing between activity latent classes. Future latent transition analyses of physical activity would benefit from larger cohorts and longer follow-up periods to assess predictors of and long-term impacts of changes in activity patterns.

  12. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Active Transportation Patterns in French Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Perchoux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were (1 to define physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviors (SB patterns in daily life contexts (work, leisure, and transportation in French working women from NutriNet-Santé web-cohort and (2 to identify pattern(s of active transportation and their individual, social, and environmental correlates. 23,432 participants completed two questionnaires to evaluate PA and SB in daily life contexts and individual representations of residential neighborhood and transportation modes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed which identified 6 distinct movement behavior patterns: (i active occupation, high sedentary leisure, (ii sedentary occupation, low leisure, (iii sedentary transportation, (iv sedentary occupation and leisure, (v active transportation, and (vi active leisure. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of the “active transportation” cluster. The perceived environmental characteristics positively associated with “active transportation” included “high availability of destinations around home,” “presence of bicycle paths,” and “low traffic.” A “positive image of walking/cycling,” the “individual feeling of being physically active,” and a “high use of active transport modes by relatives/friends” were positively related to “active transportation,” identified as a unique pattern regarding individual and environmental correlates. Identification of PA and SB context-specific patterns will help to understand movement behaviors’ complexity and to design interventions to promote active transportation in specific subgroups.

  13. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Active Transportation Patterns in French Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Camille; Enaux, Christophe; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Menai, Mehdi; Charreire, Hélène; Salze, Paul; Weber, Christiane; Hercberg, Serge; Feuillet, Thierry; Hess, Franck; Roda, Célina; Simon, Chantal; Nazare, Julie-Anne

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were (1) to define physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) patterns in daily life contexts (work, leisure, and transportation) in French working women from NutriNet-Santé web-cohort and (2) to identify pattern(s) of active transportation and their individual, social, and environmental correlates. 23,432 participants completed two questionnaires to evaluate PA and SB in daily life contexts and individual representations of residential neighborhood and transportation modes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed which identified 6 distinct movement behavior patterns: (i) active occupation, high sedentary leisure, (ii) sedentary occupation, low leisure, (iii) sedentary transportation, (iv) sedentary occupation and leisure, (v) active transportation, and (vi) active leisure. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of the "active transportation" cluster. The perceived environmental characteristics positively associated with "active transportation" included "high availability of destinations around home," "presence of bicycle paths," and "low traffic." A "positive image of walking/cycling," the "individual feeling of being physically active," and a "high use of active transport modes by relatives/friends" were positively related to "active transportation," identified as a unique pattern regarding individual and environmental correlates. Identification of PA and SB context-specific patterns will help to understand movement behaviors' complexity and to design interventions to promote active transportation in specific subgroups.

  14. Mining Emerging Sequential Patterns for Activity Recognition in Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua

    2010-01-01

    Body Sensor Networks oer many applications in healthcare, well-being and entertainment. One of the emerging applications is recognizing activities of daily living. In this paper, we introduce a novel knowledge pattern named Emerging Sequential Pattern (ESP)|a sequential pattern that discovers...... signicant class dierences|to recognize both simple (i.e., sequential) and complex (i.e., interleaved and concurrent) activities. Based on ESPs, we build our complex activity models directly upon the sequential model to recognize both activity types. We conduct comprehensive empirical studies to evaluate...

  15. Object Relevance Weight Pattern Mining for Activity Recognition and Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmes, Paulito Pedregosa; Pung, Hung Keng; Gu, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring daily activities of a person has many potential benefits in pervasive computing. These include providing proactive support for the elderly and monitoring anomalous behaviors. A typical approach in existing research on activity detection is to construct sequence-based models of low-leve...

  16. Physical activity patterns of female students of Kyambogo University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Watching television (TV) was the second (64%) common passive activity students engaged in. ... of pain (67%), accessibility to available facilities (66%), financial costs (63%), safety (46%) cultural appropriateness (43%), peer support (36%) and embarrassment (27%) as factors hindering their participation in physical activity ...

  17. Lights out, let's move about: locomotory activity patterns of Wagner's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to assess whether these animals possess an endogenous rhythm of locomotor activity that entrains to the light:dark cycle, they were subjected to three ... by the light:dark cycle with the most activity concentrated during the night and consequently this desert-dwelling mammal may thus be considered truly nocturnal.

  18. Seasonal activity patterns and habitats in Solifugae (Arachnida) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-03-09

    Mar 9, 1992 ... Zeria vena tor. is a nocturnal species apparently active only during midsummer. Once again, without infonnation on the biology of solifuges, it is not possible to detennine the factors that decide why certain species are active at particular times. Surface-foraging tennites (Microhodoter- mes viator) in the ...

  19. 75 FR 75573 - Standards Governing the Release of a Suspicious Activity Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Part III Department of the Treasury Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Parts 4 and 21 Office of Thrift Supervision 12 CFR Parts 510 and 563 31 CFR Part 103 Standards Governing the Release of a... THE TREASURY Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 4 [Docket ID OCC-2010-0018] RIN...

  20. Activities pattern of planned settlement’s residence and its influence toward settlement design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirfalini Aulia, Dwira

    2018-03-01

    Everyday activity of residents in a housing area will create activities pattern. Utilization of public spaces in a housing area with repeating activities pattern will affect the design of public spaces. Changes in public space usage in a housing area happen as a result of residents’ activities pattern. The goal of this paper is to identify residents’ activity pattern and connect its influence towards public spaces utilization in planned housing in micro and urban area in macro. Housing residents classified into four respondent groups based on marriage status which is unmarried, single parents, the family without child and family with a child. The method used in this research is the qualitative descriptive approach. Research finding showed that housing area with housing facilities capable of creating happiness and convenience for its residents doing their activities in public spaces.

  1. Analysis of Activity Patterns and Performance in Polio Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Mary

    2004-01-01

    The goals of this project are: 1) to study the temporal relationship between activity level and health status in polio survivors and to compare the results with those obtained from an age-matched control population and 2...

  2. Analysis of Activity Patterns and Performance in Polio Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Mary

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this project are: 1) to study the temporal relationship between activity level and health status in polio survivors and to compare the results with those obtained from an age matched control population and 2...

  3. Analysis of Activity Patterns and Performance in Polio Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Mary

    2006-01-01

    The goals of this project were: 1) to study the temporal relationship between activity level and health status in polio survivors and to compare the results with those obtained from an age-matched control population and 2...

  4. Analysis of Activity Patterns and Performance in Polio Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Mary

    2002-01-01

    The goals of this project are: 1) to study the temporal relationship between activity level and health status in polio survivors and to compare the results with those obtained from an age-matched control population and 2...

  5. The centralization of territorial governance of active labor market policies in Spain during the Great Recession (2011-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge José Hernández-Moreno

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spain is among the West European countries that has achieved higher levels of decentralization in its Welfare State. The 1990s and 2000s witnessed an acceleration of this process, which has been accompanied by an expansion of social spending at the subnational level, especially by the Autonomous Communities (Autonomous Communities. This article aims to contribute to several debates regarding changes in the territorial dimension of governance in social policies and their explanatory factors. Specifically, it focuses on active labor market policies (ALMPs and addresses the question of whether the reforms introduced in the field of activation in the context of the economic crisis have affected the exercise of political, financial and administrative authority by the different levels of government.

  6. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Li, Y; Lai, J; Wang, D; Zhang, J; Fu, P; Yang, X; Qi, L

    2013-10-01

    To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement definition. The "Green Water" dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of rice and vegetables and moderate intakes in animal foods was related to the lowest prevalence of MS (15.9%). Compared to the "Green Water" dietary pattern, the "Yellow Earth" dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of refined cereal products, tubers, cooking salt and salted vegetable was associated with a significantly elevated odds of MS (odds ratio 1.66, 95%CI: 1.40-1.96), after adjustment of age, sex, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors. The "Western/new affluence" dietary pattern characterized by higher consumption of beef/lamb, fruit, eggs, poultry and seafood also significantly associated with MS (odds ratio: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.13-1.67). Physical activity showed significant interactions with the dietary patterns in relation to MS risk (P for interaction = 0.008). In the joint analysis, participants with the combination of sedentary activity with the "Yellow Earth" dietary pattern or the "Western/new affluence" dietary pattern both had more than three times (95%CI: 2.8-6.1) higher odds of MS than those with active activity and the "Green Water" dietary pattern. Our findings from the large Chinese national representative data indicate that dietary patterns affect the likelihood of MS. Combining healthy dietary pattern with active lifestyle may benefit more in prevention of MS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulation to create environments conducive to physical activity: understanding the barriers and facilitators at the Australian state government level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Jane; Mavoa, Helen; Crammond, Brad; Loff, Bebe; Peeters, Anna; Lawrence, Mark; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2012-01-01

    Policy and regulatory interventions aimed at creating environments more conducive to physical activity (PA) are an important component of strategies to improve population levels of PA. However, many potentially effective policies are not being broadly implemented. This study sought to identify potential policy/regulatory interventions targeting PA environments, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state/territory government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n = 40) to examine participants': 1) suggestions for regulatory interventions to create environments more conducive to PA; 2) support for preselected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Thematic and constant comparative analyses were conducted. POLICY INTERVENTIONS MOST COMMONLY SUGGESTED BY PARTICIPANTS FELL INTO TWO AREAS: 1) urban planning and provision of infrastructure to promote active travel; 2) discouraging the use of private motorised vehicles. Of the eleven preselected interventions presented to participants, interventions relating to walkability/cycling and PA facilities received greatest support. Interventions involving subsidisation (of public transport, PA-equipment) and the provision of more public transport infrastructure received least support. These were perceived as not economically viable or unlikely to increase PA levels. Dominant barriers were: the powerful 'road lobby', weaknesses in the planning system and the cost of potential interventions. Facilitators were: the provision of evidence, collaboration across sectors, and synergies with climate change/environment agendas. This study points to how difficult it will be to achieve policy change when there is a powerful 'road lobby' and government investment prioritises road infrastructure over PA-promoting infrastructure. It highlights the pivotal role of the

  8. 'Demand pull' government policies to support Product-Service System activity: The case of Energy Service Companies in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Hannon, MJ; Foxon, TJ; Gale, WF

    2015-01-01

    Product-Service Systems (PSSs) constitute a family of service-based business models designed to satisfy our societal needs in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. To date however PSS application has remained niche due to a variety of critical barriers. This paper explores how ‘demand pull’ national government policies could support PSS activity by addressing these barriers and cultivating market demand. Lessons are drawn from a case study of how regulatory, economic incenti...

  9. Patterns of arm muscle activation involved in octopus reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Fiorito, G; Hochner, B

    1998-08-01

    The extreme flexibility of the octopus arm allows it to perform many different movements, yet octopuses reach toward a target in a stereotyped manner using a basic invariant motor structure: a bend traveling from the base of the arm toward the tip (Gutfreund et al., 1996a). To study the neuronal control of these movements, arm muscle activation [electromyogram (EMG)] was measured together with the kinematics of reaching movements. The traveling bend is associated with a propagating wave of muscle activation, with maximal muscle activation slightly preceding the traveling bend. Tonic activation was occasionally maintained afterward. Correlation of the EMG signals with the kinematic variables (velocities and accelerations) reveals that a significant part of the kinematic variability can be explained by the level of muscle activation. Furthermore, the EMG level measured during the initial stages of movement predicts the peak velocity attained toward the end of the reaching movement. These results suggest that feed-forward motor commands play an important role in the control of movement velocity and that simple adjustment of the excitation levels at the initial stages of the movement can set the velocity profile of the whole movement. A simple model of octopus arm extension is proposed in which the driving force is set initially and is then decreased in proportion to arm diameter at the bend. The model qualitatively reproduces the typical velocity profiles of octopus reaching movements, suggesting a simple control mechanism for bend propagation in the octopus arm.

  10. Estuarine morphometry governs optically active substances, Kd(PAR) and beam attenuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, L. C.; Nielsen, J. M.; Blüthgen, J.

    2013-01-01

    estuaries using OACs as input parameters. It is concluded that there are no large differences in OAC concentrations between the two estuaries. The spatial distributions of OACs and optical properties were significantly different and governed by the estuary morphometry, i.e. a power distribution......°N) at high discharges. The major difference was the spatial distribution of the optical properties against distance, best described by significant power functions in the ria, compared to significant linear functions in the coastal plain. It was hypothesized that estuarine morphometry could explain...... this spatial distribution. Partition and multiple regression analyses showed that Chl-a governed Kd(PAR) and beam attenuation coefficient in both estuaries. Significant, high correlations were obtained by multiple regression analyses in the estimation of Kd(PAR) and beam attenuation coefficients in the two...

  11. fMRI activation patterns in an analytic reasoning task: consistency with EEG source localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bian; Vasanta, Kalyana C.; O'Boyle, Michael; Baker, Mary C.; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda

    2010-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to model brain activation patterns associated with various perceptual and cognitive processes as reflected by the hemodynamic (BOLD) response. While many sensory and motor tasks are associated with relatively simple activation patterns in localized regions, higher-order cognitive tasks may produce activity in many different brain areas involving complex neural circuitry. We applied a recently proposed probabilistic independent component analysis technique (PICA) to determine the true dimensionality of the fMRI data and used EEG localization to identify the common activated patterns (mapped as Brodmann areas) associated with a complex cognitive task like analytic reasoning. Our preliminary study suggests that a hybrid GLM/PICA analysis may reveal additional regions of activation (beyond simple GLM) that are consistent with electroencephalography (EEG) source localization patterns.

  12. Patterns for election of active computing nodes in high availability distributed data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Preetha; Padmini, S.; Diwakar, M.P.; Gohel, Nilesh

    2013-01-01

    Computer based systems for power plant and research reactors are expected to have high availability. Redundancy is a common approach to improve the availability of a system. In redundant configuration the challenge is to select one node as active, and in case of failure of current active node provide automatic fast switchover by electing another node to function as active and restore normal operation. Additional constraints include: exactly one node should be elected as active in an n-way redundant architecture. This paper discusses various high availability configurations developed by Electronics Division and deployed in power and research reactors and patterns followed to elect active nodes of distributed data acquisition systems. The systems are categorized into two: Active/Passive where changeover takes effect only on the failure of Active node, and Active/Active, where changeover is effective in alternate cycles. A novel concept of priority driven state based Active (Master) node election pattern is described for Active/Passive systems which allows multiple redundancy and dynamic election of single master. The paper also discusses the Active/Active pattern, which uncovers failure early by activating all the nodes alternatively in a redundant system. This pattern can be extended to multiple redundant nodes. (author)

  13. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts......Background: Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore...

  14. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  15. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2012-06-06

    In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray

  16. Root activity distribution pattern of Ganesh pomegranate (Punica granatum) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, S.C.; Murthy, S.V.K.

    2001-01-01

    In one-year old Ganesh pomegranate seedlings raised on a loamy sand (Typic Haplustalf) under rain fed conditions, during winter (January-March) one-half of the active roots (44-51%) resided at 50 cm radial distance. Depth wise, bulk (44-78%) of the roots were found at 15 cm depth. The results indicate that the zone of high root activity is located around 50 cm distance from trunk and applications of fertilizers in this zone may lead to enhanced use efficiency of fertilizers. (author)

  17. Sociocultural patterning of neural activity during self-reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yina; Bang, Dan; Wang, Chenbo

    2014-01-01

    ) in Chinese than in Danish participants. Moreover, the group difference in TPJ activity was mediated by a measure of a cultural value (i.e., interdependence of self-construal). Our findings suggest that individuals in different sociocultural contexts may learn and/or adopt distinct strategies for self-reflection...

  18. Activity patterns of cultured neural networks on micro electrode arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Wim; van Pelt, J.

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid neuro-electronic interface is a cell-cultured micro electrode array, acting as a neural information transducer for stimulation and/or recording of neural activity in the brain or the spinal cord (ventral motor region or dorsal sensory region). It consists of an array of micro electrodes on

  19. Leisure time physical activity patterns in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, G Shankar; Patel, Rishee; Dwivedi, Vikram; Chhabra, Deepak; Balakishore, P; Dakshinamoorthy, Anandhi; Kaur, Parminder

    2018-05-01

    The World Health Organization has recommended a moderate intensity physical activity of 150min, or 75min vigorous-intensity physical activity per week to achieve optimal health benefits. It is not known if Indian populations who indulge in leisure time physical exercises satisfy these recommendations. This study used a questionnaire to obtain data regarding demographic details, current engagement in leisure time physical activities, and dosages of these exercises from participants between 18 and 64 years of age. Data was collected from a total of 390 participants (231 males and 159 females). 50.76% and 34.35% of the participants reported exercising voluntarily and for health benefits respectively. Most participants (94.61%) indicated exercising without prescription. 55.38% and 12.82% of the participants under and above 38 years of age perform moderate to vigorous intensity exercises respectively. The over-all results of this study indicate that the participants' choices of leisure time physical exercises are based on their personal choices and beliefs. The exercise intensities undertaken do not meet the global recommended intensities, especially in those above 38 years of age. Professionals and facilities to engage the public in the WHO recommended intensities of physical activity needs to be established. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Activity patterns of cochlear ganglion neurones in the starling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, G A; Gleich, O; Leppelsack, H J; Oeckinghaus, H

    1985-09-01

    Spontaneous activity and responses to simple tonal stimuli were studied in cochlear ganglion neurones of the starling. Both regular and irregular spontaneous activity were recorded. Non-auditory cells have their origin in the macula lagenae. Mean spontaneous rate for auditory cells (all irregularly spiking) was 45 spikes s-1. In half the units having characteristic frequencies (CFs) less than 1.5 kHz, time-interval histograms (TIHs) of spontaneous activity showed regularly-spaced peaks or 'preferred' intervals. The spacing of the peak intervals was, on average, 15% greater than the CF-period interval of the respective units. In TIH of lower-frequency cells without preferred intervals, the modal interval was also on average about 15% longer than the CF-period interval. Apparently, the resting oscillation frequency of these cells lies below their CF. Tuning curves (TCs) of neurones to short tone bursts show no systematic asymmetry as in mammals. Below CF 1 kHz, the low-frequency flanks of the TCs are, on average, steeper than the high-frequency flanks. Above CF 1 kHz, the reverse is true. The cochlear ganglion and nerve are tonotopically organized. Low-frequency fibres arise apically in the papilla basilaris and are found near non-auditory (lagenar) fibres. Discharge rates to short tones were monotonically related to sound pressure level. Saturation rates often exceeded 300 spikes s-1. 'On-off' responses and primary suppression of spontaneous activity were observed. A direct comparison of spontaneous activity and tuning-curve symmetry revealed that, apart from quantitative differences, fundamental qualitative differences exist between starling and guinea-pig primary afferents.

  1. Diverse patterns of neuroendocrine activity in maltreated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, D; Rogosch, F A

    2001-01-01

    Cortisol regulation was investigated in a sample of school-aged maltreated (n = 175) and demographically comparable low-income nonmaltreated (n = 209) children in the context of a day camp research program. Overall group differences between maltreated and nonmaltreated children were not found for average morning or average afternoon cortisol levels. However, significant variations were found that were based on the subtypes of maltreatment that the children had experienced. Maltreated children who had been both physically and sexually abused (as well as neglected or emotionally maltreated) exhibited substantial elevations in morning cortisol levels; children who had high (>1 SD) cortisol levels in both the morning and afternoon were also overrepresented in the multiple abuse group. Developmental timing of maltreatment did not account for these group differences, whereas the severity of sexual abuse was implicated. In contrast to the multiple abuse group, a subgroup of physically abused children showed evidence of a trend toward lower morning cortisol relative to nonmaltreated children with a significantly smaller decrease in cortisol levels from morning to afternoon. The findings are discussed in terms of the diversity of atypical cortisol regulation patterns that are exhibited among maltreated children.

  2. Sexual disparity in activity patterns and time budgets of angulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavioural frequencies and time budgets for male and female Chersina angulata were recorded in spring, September 2004. The daily activity of the population was 10.51 ± 0.42 h (mean ± CI), but individual males and females were in the open for 2.57 ± 1.12 h and 1.58 ± 1.44 h, respectively. Both sexes spent nearly 3.5 h ...

  3. Sociocultural patterning of neural activity during self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Bang, Dan; Wang, Chenbo; Allen, Micah; Frith, Chris; Roepstorff, Andreas; Han, Shihui

    2014-01-01

    Western cultures encourage self-construals independent of social contexts, whereas East Asian cultures foster interdependent self-construals that rely on how others perceive the self. How are culturally specific self-construals mediated by the human brain? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we monitored neural responses from adults in East Asian (Chinese) and Western (Danish) cultural contexts during judgments of social, mental and physical attributes of themselves and public figures to assess cultural influences on self-referential processing of personal attributes in different dimensions. We found that judgments of self vs a public figure elicited greater activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in Danish than in Chinese participants regardless of attribute dimensions for judgments. However, self-judgments of social attributes induced greater activity in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) in Chinese than in Danish participants. Moreover, the group difference in TPJ activity was mediated by a measure of a cultural value (i.e. interdependence of self-construal). Our findings suggest that individuals in different sociocultural contexts may learn and/or adopt distinct strategies for self-reflection by changing the weight of the mPFC and TPJ in the social brain network.

  4. Cerebral Activity Changes in Different Traditional Chinese Medicine Patterns of Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pattern differentiation is the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED. This study aims to investigate the differences in cerebral activity in ED patients with different TCM patterns. Methods. 27 psychogenic ED patients and 27 healthy subjects (HS were enrolled in this study. Each participant underwent an fMRI scan in resting state. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF was used to detect the brain activity changes in ED patients with different patterns. Results. Compared to HS, ED patients showed an increased cerebral activity in bilateral cerebellum, insula, globus pallidus, parahippocampal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, and middle cingulate cortex (MCC. Compared to the patients with liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern (LSSDP, the patients with kidney-yang deficiency pattern (KDP showed an increased activity in bilateral brainstem, cerebellum, hippocampus, and the right insula, thalamus, MCC, and a decreased activity in bilateral putamen, medial frontal gyrus, temporal pole, and the right caudate nucleus, OFC, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (P<0.005. Conclusions. The ED patients with different TCM patterns showed different brain activities. The differences in cerebral activity between LSSDP and KDP were mainly in the emotion-related regions, including prefrontal cortex and cingulated cortex.

  5. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  6. HEART RATE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN PERSONS WITH PROFOUND INTELLECTUAL AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, Aly; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Stewart, Roy E.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Wijck, Ruud; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  7. A specific metabolic pattern related to the hallucinatory activity in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huret, J.D.; Martinot, J.L.; Lesur, A.; Mazoyer, B.; Pappata, S.; Syrota, A.; Baron, J.C.; Lemperiere, T.

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and PEI study using 18 F - fluorodesoxyglucose for measuring local cerebral glucose metabolism with the aim of showing a specific pattern related to the hallucinatory activity, is presented in schizophrenic patients all experiencing hallucinations or pseudo-halluccinations

  8. Using visual information analysis to explore complex patterns in the activity of designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of complex interlinked datasets poses a significant problem for design researchers. This is addressed by proposing an information visualisation method for analysing patterns of design activity, qualitatively and quantitatively, with respect to time. This method visualises the tempora...

  9. Making inferences about patterns in wildlife tourism activities in Scotland using social media

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The Power Point file contains the slides of my talk for the BES 2016 annual meeting. The title of the talk is: "Making inferences about patterns in wildlife tourism activities in Scotland using social media".

  10. Spatial-temporal patterns of retinal waves underlying activity-dependent refinement of retinofugal projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ben K; Sher, Alexander; Litke, Alan M; Feldheim, David A

    2009-10-29

    During development, retinal axons project coarsely within their visual targets before refining to form organized synaptic connections. Spontaneous retinal activity, in the form of acetylcholine-driven retinal waves, is proposed to be necessary for establishing these projection patterns. In particular, both axonal terminations of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the size of receptive fields of target neurons are larger in mice that lack the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (beta2KO). Here, using a large-scale, high-density multielectrode array to record activity from hundreds of RGCs simultaneously, we present analysis of early postnatal retinal activity from both wild-type (WT) and beta2KO retinas. We find that beta2KO retinas have correlated patterns of activity, but many aspects of these patterns differ from those of WT retina. Quantitative analysis suggests that wave directionality, coupled with short-range correlated bursting patterns of RGCs, work together to refine retinofugal projections.

  11. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Lauridsen, Felicia Kathrine Bratt

    2016-01-01

    Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak......-valley-peak (PVP) pattern. However, different features of PVP patterns and their robustness in predicting active regulatory elements have never been systematically analyzed. Here, we present PARE, a novel computational method that systematically analyzes the H3K4me1 or H3K4me3 PVP patterns to predict NFRs. We show...... four ENCODE cell lines and four hematopoietic differentiation stages, we identified several enhancers whose regulatory activity is stage specific and correlates positively with the expression of proximal genes in a particular stage. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PVP patterns delineate...

  12. Prevalence and patterns of physical activity among medical students in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Padmapriya, Krishnakumar; Krishna, Pushpa; Rasu, Thenna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is one of the leading health indicators. The objective was to study the prevalence and patterns of physical activity among young adults. Methods: 259 Medical students (Men: Women = 116:143) in the age group of 18?22 yrs were interviewed using the official English long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The total level of physical activity and activity in each of the 4 life domains ? work, transport, domestic and gardening and lei...

  13. Resting-state brain activity in the motor cortex reflects task-induced activity: A multi-voxel pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Toshiki; Kurashige, Hiroki; Nambu, Isao; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hanakawa, Takashi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Osu, Rieko

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that resting-state brain activity reflects task-induced brain activity patterns. In this study, we examined whether neural representations of specific movements can be observed in the resting-state brain activity patterns of motor areas. First, we defined two regions of interest (ROIs) to examine brain activity associated with two different behavioral tasks. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis with regularized logistic regression, we designed a decoder to detect voxel-level neural representations corresponding to the tasks in each ROI. Next, we applied the decoder to resting-state brain activity. We found that the decoder discriminated resting-state neural activity with accuracy comparable to that associated with task-induced neural activity. The distribution of learned weighted parameters for each ROI was similar for resting-state and task-induced activities. Large weighted parameters were mainly located on conjunctive areas. Moreover, the accuracy of detection was higher than that for a decoder whose weights were randomly shuffled, indicating that the resting-state brain activity includes multi-voxel patterns similar to the neural representation for the tasks. Therefore, these results suggest that the neural representation of resting-state brain activity is more finely organized and more complex than conventionally considered.

  14. Development and implementation of a local government survey to measure community supports for healthy eating and active living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latetia V Moore

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to make healthy choices is influenced by where one lives, works, shops, and plays. Locally enacted policies and standards can influence these surroundings but little is known about the prevalence of such policies and standards that support healthier behaviors. In this paper, we describe the development of a survey questionnaire designed to capture local level policy supports for healthy eating and active living and findings and lessons learned from a 2012 pilot in two states, Minnesota and California, including respondent burden, survey sampling and administration methods, and survey item feasibility issues. A 38-item, web-based, self-administered survey and sampling frame were developed to assess the prevalence of 22 types of healthy eating and active living policies in a representative sample of local governments in the two states. The majority of respondents indicated the survey required minimal effort to complete with half taking <20 min to complete the survey. A non-response follow-up plan including emails and phone calls was required to achieve a 68% response rate (versus a 37% response rate for email only reminders. Local governments with larger residential populations reported having healthy eating and active living policies and standards more often than smaller governments. Policies that support active living were more common than those that support healthy eating and varied within the two states. The methods we developed are a feasible data collection tool for estimating the prevalence of municipal healthy eating and active living policies and standards at the state and national level.

  15. Food Patterns According to Sociodemographics, Physical Activity, Sleeping and Obesity in Portuguese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pedro; Santos, Susana; Padrão, Patrícia; Cordeiro, Tânia; Bessa, Mariana; Valente, Hugo; Barros, Renata; Teixeira, Vitor; Mitchell, Vanessa; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, André

    2010-01-01

    Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables. PMID:20617022

  16. Food Patterns According to Sociodemographics, Physical Activity, Sleeping and Obesity in Portuguese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lopes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables.

  17. Objective measurements of daily physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviour in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Van Domelen, Dane R

    2013-01-01

    objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer.......objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer....

  18. Cerebral Activity Changes in Different Traditional Chinese Medicine Patterns of Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Peihai; Pan, Junjie; Li, Zhengjie; Liu, Jixin; Li, Guangsen; Qin, Wei; You, Yaodong; Yu, Xujun; Sun, Jinbo; Dong, Minghao; Gong, Qiyong; Guo, Jun; Chang, Degui

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pattern differentiation is the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). This study aims to investigate the differences in cerebral activity in ED patients with different TCM patterns. Methods. 27 psychogenic ED patients and 27 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled in this study. Each participant underwent an fMRI scan in resting state. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) was used to detect the brain activity ...

  19. Precise shape reconstruction by active pattern in total-internal-reflection-based tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Satoshi; Taira, Ryosuke; Deguchi, Koichiro

    2014-03-01

    We are developing a total-internal-reflection-based tactile sensor in which the shape is reconstructed using an optical reflection. This sensor consists of silicone rubber, an image pattern, and a camera. It reconstructs the shape of the sensor surface from an image of a pattern reflected at the inner sensor surface by total internal reflection. In this study, we propose precise real-time reconstruction by employing an optimization method. Furthermore, we propose to use active patterns. Deformation of the reflection image causes reconstruction errors. By controlling the image pattern, the sensor reconstructs the surface deformation more precisely. We implement the proposed optimization and active-pattern-based reconstruction methods in a reflection-based tactile sensor, and perform reconstruction experiments using the system. A precise deformation experiment confirms the linearity and precision of the reconstruction.

  20. Subthalamic Neural Activity Patterns Anticipate Economic Risk Decisions in Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, M.; Carpaneto, J.; Priori, A.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Economic decision-making is disrupted in individuals with gambling disorder, an addictive behavior observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients receiving dopaminergic therapy. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is involved in the inhibition of impulsive behaviors; however, its role in impulse control disorders and addiction is still unclear. Here, we recorded STN local field potentials (LFPs) in PD patients with and without gambling disorder during an economic decision-making task. Reaction times analysis showed that for all patients, the decision whether to risk preceded task onset. We compared then for both groups the STN LFP preceding high- and low-risk economic decisions. We found that risk avoidance in gamblers correlated with larger STN LFP low-frequency (gambling disorder were instead not correlated with pretask STN LFP. Our results suggest that STN activity preceding task onset affects risk decisions by preemptively inhibiting attraction to high but unlikely rewards in favor of a long-term payoff. PMID:29445770

  1. Patterns of EEG Activity in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukova M.A.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews most recent findings on neural activity in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Most of the studies demonstrate decreased connectivity in cortical regions, excitatory/inhibitory imbalance and atypical processing of language in people with ASD. It is argued that difficulties in semantic integration are connected to selective insensitivity to language, which is manifested in atypical N400 ERP component. In the article we analyze the data suggesting a strong relationship between ASD and epilepsy and argue that the comorbidity is more prevalent among individuals who have cognitive dysfunction. The EEG profile of people with ASD suggests U-shaped alterations with excess in high- and low-frequency EEG bands. We critically analyze the “broken mirror” hypothesis of ASD and demonstrate findings which challenge this theory.

  2. Subthalamic Neural Activity Patterns Anticipate Economic Risk Decisions in Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A; Rosa, M; Carpaneto, J; Romito, L M; Priori, A; Micera, S

    2018-01-01

    Economic decision-making is disrupted in individuals with gambling disorder, an addictive behavior observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients receiving dopaminergic therapy. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is involved in the inhibition of impulsive behaviors; however, its role in impulse control disorders and addiction is still unclear. Here, we recorded STN local field potentials (LFPs) in PD patients with and without gambling disorder during an economic decision-making task. Reaction times analysis showed that for all patients, the decision whether to risk preceded task onset. We compared then for both groups the STN LFP preceding high- and low-risk economic decisions. We found that risk avoidance in gamblers correlated with larger STN LFP low-frequency (gambling disorder were instead not correlated with pretask STN LFP. Our results suggest that STN activity preceding task onset affects risk decisions by preemptively inhibiting attraction to high but unlikely rewards in favor of a long-term payoff.

  3. Estimating repetitive spatiotemporal patterns from resting-state brain activity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yusuke; Hiroe, Nobuo; Yamashita, Okito; Sato, Masa-Aki

    2016-06-01

    Repetitive spatiotemporal patterns in spontaneous brain activities have been widely examined in non-human studies. These studies have reported that such patterns reflect past experiences embedded in neural circuits. In human magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies, however, spatiotemporal patterns in resting-state brain activities have not been extensively examined. This is because estimating spatiotemporal patterns from resting-state MEG/EEG data is difficult due to their unknown onsets. Here, we propose a method to estimate repetitive spatiotemporal patterns from resting-state brain activity data, including MEG/EEG. Without the information of onsets, the proposed method can estimate several spatiotemporal patterns, even if they are overlapping. We verified the performance of the method by detailed simulation tests. Furthermore, we examined whether the proposed method could estimate the visual evoked magnetic fields (VEFs) without using stimulus onset information. The proposed method successfully detected the stimulus onsets and estimated the VEFs, implying the applicability of this method to real MEG data. The proposed method was applied to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and MEG data. The results revealed informative spatiotemporal patterns representing consecutive brain activities that dynamically change with time. Using this method, it is possible to reveal discrete events spontaneously occurring in our brains, such as memory retrieval. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Health promotion activities in annual reports of local governments: 'Health for All' targets as a tool for content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Camilla M; Bjärås, Gunilla E M; Tillgren, Per; Ostenson, Claes-Göran

    2003-09-01

    This article presents an instrument to study the annual reporting of health promotion activities in local governments within the three intervention municipalities of the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP). The content of health promotion activities are described and the strengths, weaknesses and relevance of the method to health promotion discussed. A content analysis of local governmental reports from 1995-2000 in three Swedish municipalities. A matrix with WHO's 38 'Health for All' (HFA) targets from 1991 was used when coding the local health promotion activities. There are many public health initiatives within the local governmental structure even if they are not always addressed as health promotion. The main focuses in the local governmental reports were environmental issues, unemployment, social care and welfare. Local governmental reports were found to be a useful source of information that could provide knowledge about the priorities and organizational capacities for health promotion within local authorities. Additionally the HFA targets were an effective tool to identify and categorize systematically local health promotion activities in the annual reports of local governments. Identifying local health promotion initiatives by local authorities may ease the development of a health perspective and joint actions within the existing political and administrative structure. This paper provides a complementary method of attaining and structuring information about the local community for developments in health promotion.

  5. Transnational Islamic activism and radicalization : patterns, trends, and prognosticators.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Engi, Dennis; LaViolette, Randall A.; Spomer, Judith E.

    2010-06-01

    The research described in this report developed the theoretical and conceptual framework for understanding, recognizing, and anticipating the origins, dynamic mechanisms, perceptions, and social structures of Islamic social reform movements in the Muslim homeland and in diaspora communities. This research has revealed valuable insights into the dynamic mechanisms associated with reform movements and, as such, offers the potential to provide indications and warnings of impending violence. This study produced the following significant findings: (1) A framework for understanding Islamic radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory was developed and implemented. This framework provides a causal structure for the interrelationships among the myriad features of a social movement. (2) The degree to which movement-related activity shows early diffusion across multiple social contexts is a powerful distinguisher of successful and unsuccessful social movements. Indeed, this measurable appears to have significantly more predictive power than volume of such activity and also more power than various system intrinsics. (3) Significant social movements can occur only if both the intra-context 'infectivity' of the movement exceeds a certain threshold and the inter-context interactions associated with the movement occur with a frequency that is larger than another threshold. Note that this is reminiscent of, and significantly extends, well-known results for epidemic thresholds in disease propagation models. (4) More in-depth content analysis of blogs through the lens of Argumentation Theory has the potential to reveal new insights into radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory. This connection has the potential to be of value from two important perspectives - first, this connection has the potential to provide more in depth insights into the forces underlying the emergence of radical behavior and second, this connection may provide insights into

  6. Active sensing via movement shapes spatiotemporal patterns of sensory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, Sarah A; Roth, Eatai; Cowan, Noah J; Fortune, Eric S

    2012-05-01

    Previous work has shown that animals alter their locomotor behavior to increase sensing volumes. However, an animal's own movement also determines the spatial and temporal dynamics of sensory feedback. Because each sensory modality has unique spatiotemporal properties, movement has differential and potentially independent effects on each sensory system. Here we show that weakly electric fish dramatically adjust their locomotor behavior in relation to changes of modality-specific information in a task in which increasing sensory volume is irrelevant. We varied sensory information during a refuge-tracking task by changing illumination (vision) and conductivity (electroreception). The gain between refuge movement stimuli and fish tracking responses was functionally identical across all sensory conditions. However, there was a significant increase in the tracking error in the dark (no visual cues). This was a result of spontaneous whole-body oscillations (0.1 to 1 Hz) produced by the fish. These movements were costly: in the dark, fish swam over three times further when tracking and produced more net positive mechanical work. The magnitudes of these oscillations increased as electrosensory salience was degraded via increases in conductivity. In addition, tail bending (1.5 to 2.35 Hz), which has been reported to enhance electrosensory perception, occurred only during trials in the dark. These data show that both categories of movements - whole-body oscillations and tail bends - actively shape the spatiotemporal dynamics of electrosensory feedback.

  7. Evolution of Daily Activity Patterns from 1971 to 1981: A Study of the Halifax Activity Panel Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Harvey

    2001-12-01

    similarity measures between character strings, which can be used to measure the similarity of two persons’ daily activities, to measure change over time, or to determine the relative similarity of three or more activity diaries. The results of the research showed that both pure activities and activity-settings identified broadly the same behvioural groupings: employed workers, domestic workers, and weekend activities. The similarity of activity patterns of individuals was greater over the ten-year analysis period than the average similarity of the sample in either 1971 or 1981. The average similarity of activity and activitysetting patterns rose from 1971 to 1981, which contradicts observations that daily routines are becoming more complex and diverse.

  8. Labeling Residential Community Characteristics from Collective Activity Patterns Using Taxi Trip Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2017-09-01

    There existing a significant social and spatial differentiation in the residential communities in urban city. People live in different places have different socioeconomic background, resulting in various geographically activity patterns. This paper aims to label the characteristics of residential communities in a city using collective activity patterns derived from taxi trip data. Specifically, we first present a method to allocate the O/D (Origin/Destination) points of taxi trips to the land use parcels where the activities taken place in. Then several indices are employed to describe the collective activity patterns, including both activity intensity, travel distance, travel time, and activity space of residents by taking account of the geographical distribution of all O/Ds of the taxi trip related to that residential community. Followed by that, an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is introduced to cluster the residential communities with similar activity patterns. In the case study of Wuhan, the residential communities are clearly divided into eight clusters, which could be labelled as ordinary communities, privileged communities, old isolated communities, suburban communities, and so on. In this paper, we provide a new perspective to label the land use under same type from people's mobility patterns with the support of big trajectory data.

  9. Changes in shoulder muscle activity pattern on surface electromyography after breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Joo; Kwon, YoungOk

    2018-02-01

    Alterations in muscle activation and restricted shoulder mobility, which are common in breast cancer patients, have been found to affect upper limb function. The purpose of this study was to determine muscle activity patterns, and to compare the prevalence of abnormal patterns among the type of breast surgery. In total, 274 breast cancer patients were recruited after surgery. Type of breast surgery was divided into mastectomy without reconstruction (Mastectomy), reconstruction with tissue expander/implant (TEI), latissimus dorsi (LD) flap, or transverse rectus abdominis flap (TRAM). Activities of shoulder muscles were measured using surface electromyography. Experimental analysis was conducted using a Gaussian filter smoothing method with regression. Patients demonstrated different patterns of muscle activation, such as normal, lower muscle electrical activity, and tightness. After adjusting for BMI and breast surgery, the odds of lower muscle electrical activity and tightness in the TRAM are 40.2% and 38.4% less than in the Mastectomy only group. The prevalence of abnormal patterns was significantly greater in the ALND than SLNB in all except TRAM. Alterations in muscle activity patterns differed by breast surgery and reconstruction type. For breast cancer patients with ALND, TRAM may be the best choice for maintaining upper limb function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Physical Activity Patterns and Psychological Correlates of Physical Activity among Singaporean Primary, Secondary, and Junior College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. K. John; Koh, K. T.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Liu, W. C.; Chye, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine physical activity patterns and psychological correlates of physical activity among primary, secondary, and junior college students in Singapore. A sample of 3,333 school students aged 10 to 18 years took part in the study. Results showed that the younger students had significantly higher physical…

  11. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Bar-On

    Full Text Available The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01. The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between

  12. Democracy to Come: Active Forums as Indicator Suites for e-Participation and e-Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodan, Debbie; Balnaves, Mark

    There is in modern industrial societies a ‘civic deficit’ Civic engagement in the traditional sense of community values and civic participation is declining (Putman 2000). What has not been examined is the ways in which various media including new media may provide real options for participatory cultures and participatory democracy now and in the future. Undoubtedly there are differences between participatory cultures that are considered a ‘genuine’ contribution to representational democracy and those that are not. This paper, based on initial research into Internet activism, will examine GetUp! as a specific example of an active forum that the authors argue enable participatory citizenship through media participation. While there are very few examples of active forums that might be considered a ‘genuine’ contribution to representational democracy there are clear signals that activism through active forums is maturing into a potent democratic force.

  13. A cluster analysis of patterns of objectively measured physical activity in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul H; Yu, Ying-Ying; McDowell, Ian; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, T H

    2013-08-01

    The health benefits of exercise are clear. In targeting interventions it would be valuable to know whether characteristic patterns of physical activity (PA) are associated with particular population subgroups. The present study used cluster analysis to identify characteristic hourly PA patterns measured by accelerometer. Cross-sectional design. Objectively measured PA in Hong Kong adults. Four-day accelerometer data were collected during 2009 to 2011 for 1714 participants in Hong Kong (mean age 44?2 years, 45?9% male). Two clusters were identified, one more active than the other. The ‘active cluster’ (n 480) was characterized by a routine PA pattern on weekdays and a more active and varied pattern on weekends; the other, the ‘less active cluster’ (n 1234), by a consistently low PA pattern on both weekdays and weekends with little variation from day to day. Demographic, lifestyle, PA level and health characteristics of the two clusters were compared. They differed in age, sex, smoking, income and level of PA required at work. The odds of having any chronic health conditions was lower for the active group (adjusted OR50?62, 95% CI 0?46, 0?84) but the two groups did not differ in terms of specific chronic health conditions or obesity. Implications are drawn for targeting exercise promotion programmes at the population level.

  14. 42 CFR 137.205 - Will this voluntary uniform data set reporting activity be required of all Self-Governance Tribes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... resources, hardware, software, and technical assistance to the Self-Governance Tribes to facilitate data... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will this voluntary uniform data set reporting activity be required of all Self-Governance Tribes entering into a compact with the IHS under Title V? 137...

  15. Sleep pattern and locomotor activity are impaired by doxorubicin in non-tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Fabio Santos; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Rosa, José Cesar; Frank, Miriam Kannebley; Mariano, Melise Oliveira; Budni, Josiane; Quevedo, João; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Dos; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    We sought explore the effects of doxorubicin on sleep patterns and locomotor activity. To investigate these effects, two groups were formed: a control group and a Doxorubicin (DOXO) group. Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to either the control or DOXO groups. The sleep patterns were examined by polysomnographic recording and locomotor activity was evaluated in an open-field test. In the light period, the total sleep time and slow wave sleep were decreased, while the wake after sleep onset and arousal were increased in the DOXO group compared with the control group (plocomotor activity.

  16. Differences in the EMG pattern of lea muscle activation during locomotion in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albani, G; Sandrini, G; Kunig, G; Martin-Soelch, C; Mauro, A; Pignatti, R; Pacchetti, C; Dietz, [No Value; Leenders, KL

    2003-01-01

    In this pilot study, EMG patterns of leg muscle activation were studied in five parkinsonian patients with (B1) and five without (B2) freezing. Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and tibialis anterior (TA) activity was analysed, by means of surface electromyography (EMG), during treadmill walking at two

  17. Generation of activity-rest patterns by dual circadian pacemaker systems : a model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Domien G.M.; Daan, Serge

    1992-01-01

    Activity-rest patterns displayed by an animal under various circumstances are suggested to result from the combined influences of two virtually identical circadian pacemaker components. Increased output of each component proportionally increases the probability of activity of the animal. Such a dual

  18. Firing patterns of spontaneously active motor units in spinal cord-injured subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, Christine K.

    Involuntary motor unit activity at low rates is common in hand muscles paralysed by spinal cord injury. Our aim was to describe these patterns of motor unit behaviour in relation to motoneurone and motor unit properties. Intramuscular electromyographic activity (EMG), surface EMG and force were

  19. Physical activity levels and patterns of thirteen to fifteen year old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is worldwide concern over the decline in physical activity (PA) levels among school children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the (PA) levels and PA patterns of thirteen to fifteen year old boys from different race groups in the North- West Province and to determine to what degree this physical activity profile ...

  20. Physical activity patterns in patients with early and late age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to visual impairment that affects visual functioning and thereby the ability to be physically active. We investigated physical activity patterns in patients with AMD. METHODS: Patients with early and late AMD and elderly controls were...

  1. Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and sleep/wake patterns of Japanese elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yasunori; Suzuki, Shuhei; Inoue, Yuich

    2008-01-01

    Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and their impact on sleep/wake patterns were assessed in 509 elementary school children (6-12 years of age; 252 males and 257 females). Television viewing, playing video games, and surfing the Internet had negative impact on sleep/wake parameters. Moreover, presence of a television set or video game in the child's bedroom increased their activity before bedtime. Time to return home later than 8 p.m. from after-school activity also had a negative impact on sleep/wake patterns. Health care practitioners should be aware of the potential negative impact of television, video games, and the Internet before bedtime, and also the possibility that late after-school activity can disturb sleep/wake patterns.

  2. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Huei Phing

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that physical activity intervention via aerobics classes is an effective strategy for improving step counts and reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  3. Neural Activity Patterns in the Human Brain Reflect Tactile Stickiness Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junsuk; Yeon, Jiwon; Ryu, Jaekyun; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2017-01-01

    Our previous human fMRI study found brain activations correlated with tactile stickiness perception using the uni-variate general linear model (GLM) (Yeon et al., 2017). Here, we conducted an in-depth investigation on neural correlates of sticky sensations by employing a multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) on the same dataset. In particular, we statistically compared multi-variate neural activities in response to the three groups of sticky stimuli: A supra-threshold group including a set of sticky stimuli that evoked vivid sticky perception; an infra-threshold group including another set of sticky stimuli that barely evoked sticky perception; and a sham group including acrylic stimuli with no physically sticky property. Searchlight MVPAs were performed to search for local activity patterns carrying neural information of stickiness perception. Similar to the uni-variate GLM results, significant multi-variate neural activity patterns were identified in postcentral gyrus, subcortical (basal ganglia and thalamus), and insula areas (insula and adjacent areas). Moreover, MVPAs revealed that activity patterns in posterior parietal cortex discriminated the perceptual intensities of stickiness, which was not present in the uni-variate analysis. Next, we applied a principal component analysis (PCA) to the voxel response patterns within identified clusters so as to find low-dimensional neural representations of stickiness intensities. Follow-up clustering analyses clearly showed separate neural grouping configurations between the Supra- and Infra-threshold groups. Interestingly, this neural categorization was in line with the perceptual grouping pattern obtained from the psychophysical data. Our findings thus suggest that different stickiness intensities would elicit distinct neural activity patterns in the human brain and may provide a neural basis for the perception and categorization of tactile stickiness. PMID:28936171

  4. Extraction and characterization of essential discharge patterns from multisite recordings of spiking ongoing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Storchi

    Full Text Available Neural activation patterns proceed often by schemes or motifs distributed across the involved cortical networks. As neurons are correlated, the estimate of all possible dependencies quickly goes out of control. The complex nesting of different oscillation frequencies and their high non-stationariety further hamper any quantitative evaluation of spiking network activities. The problem is exacerbated by the intrinsic variability of neural patterns.Our technique introduces two important novelties and enables to insulate essential patterns on larger sets of spiking neurons and brain activity regimes. First, the sampling procedure over N units is based on a fixed spike number k in order to detect N-dimensional arrays (k-sequences, whose sum over all dimension is k. Then k-sequences variability is greatly reduced by a hierarchical separative clustering, that assigns large amounts of distinct k-sequences to few classes. Iterative separations are stopped when the dimension of each cluster comes to be smaller than a certain threshold. As threshold tuning critically impacts on the number of classes extracted, we developed an effective cost criterion to select the shortest possible description of our dataset. Finally we described three indexes (C,S,R to evaluate the average pattern complexity, the structure of essential classes and their stability in time.We validated this algorithm with four kinds of surrogated activity, ranging from random to very regular patterned. Then we characterized a selection of ongoing activity recordings. By the S index we identified unstable, moderatly and strongly stable patterns while by the C and the R indices we evidenced their non-random structure. Our algorithm seems able to extract interesting and non-trivial spatial dynamics from multisource neuronal recordings of ongoing and potentially stimulated activity. Combined with time-frequency analysis of LFPs could provide a powerful multiscale approach linking population

  5. Patterns of muscle activity underlying object-specific grasp by the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, T; Spinks, R L; Umilta, M A; Lemon, R N

    2004-09-01

    During object grasp, a coordinated activation of distal muscles is required to shape the hand in relation to the physical properties of the object. Despite the fundamental importance of the grasping action, little is known of the muscular activation patterns that allow objects of different sizes and shapes to be grasped. In a study of two adult macaque monkeys, we investigated whether we could distinguish between EMG activation patterns associated with grasp of 12 differently shaped objects, chosen to evoke a wide range of grasping postures. Each object was mounted on a horizontal shuttle held by a weak spring (load force 1-2 N). Objects were located in separate sectors of a "carousel," and inter-trial rotation of the carousel allowed sequential presentation of the objects in pseudorandom order. EMG activity from 10 to 12 digit, hand, and arm muscles was recorded using chronically implanted electrodes. We show that the grasp of different objects was characterized by complex but distinctive patterns of EMG activation. Cluster analysis shows that these object-related EMG patterns were specific and consistent enough to identify the object unequivocally from the EMG recordings alone. EMG-based object identification required a minimum of six EMGs from simultaneously recorded muscles. EMG patterns were consistent across recording sessions in a given monkey but showed some differences between animals. These results identify the specific patterns of activity required to achieve distinct hand postures for grasping, and they open the way to our understanding of how these patterns are generated by the central motor network.

  6. Micro-flock patterns and macro-clusters in chiral active Brownian disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Demian; Liebchen, Benno

    2018-02-01

    Chiral active particles (or self-propelled circle swimmers) feature a rich collective behavior, comprising rotating macro-clusters and micro-flock patterns which consist of phase-synchronized rotating clusters with a characteristic self-limited size. These patterns emerge from the competition of alignment interactions and rotations suggesting that they might occur generically in many chiral active matter systems. However, although excluded volume interactions occur naturally among typical circle swimmers, it is not yet clear if macro-clusters and micro-flock patterns survive their presence. The present work shows that both types of pattern do survive but feature strongly enhance fluctuations regarding the size and shape of the individual clusters. Despite these fluctuations, we find that the average micro-flock size still follows the same characteristic scaling law as in the absence of excluded volume interactions, i.e. micro-flock sizes scale linearly with the single-swimmer radius.

  7. Predicting Neural Activity Patterns Associated with Sentences Using a Neurobiologically Motivated Model of Semantic Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Andrew James; Binder, Jeffrey R; Fernandino, Leonardo; Humphries, Colin J; Conant, Lisa L; Aguilar, Mario; Wang, Xixi; Doko, Donias; Raizada, Rajeev D S

    2017-09-01

    We introduce an approach that predicts neural representations of word meanings contained in sentences then superposes these to predict neural representations of new sentences. A neurobiological semantic model based on sensory, motor, social, emotional, and cognitive attributes was used as a foundation to define semantic content. Previous studies have predominantly predicted neural patterns for isolated words, using models that lack neurobiological interpretation. Fourteen participants read 240 sentences describing everyday situations while undergoing fMRI. To connect sentence-level fMRI activation patterns to the word-level semantic model, we devised methods to decompose the fMRI data into individual words. Activation patterns associated with each attribute in the model were then estimated using multiple-regression. This enabled synthesis of activation patterns for trained and new words, which were subsequently averaged to predict new sentences. Region-of-interest analyses revealed that prediction accuracy was highest using voxels in the left temporal and inferior parietal cortex, although a broad range of regions returned statistically significant results, showing that semantic information is widely distributed across the brain. The results show how a neurobiologically motivated semantic model can decompose sentence-level fMRI data into activation features for component words, which can be recombined to predict activation patterns for new sentences. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Cerebral Activity Changes in Different Traditional Chinese Medicine Patterns of Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Peihai; Pan, Junjie; Li, Zhengjie; Liu, Jixin; Li, Guangsen; Qin, Wei; You, Yaodong; Yu, Xujun; Sun, Jinbo; Dong, Minghao; Gong, Qiyong; Guo, Jun; Chang, Degui

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pattern differentiation is the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). This study aims to investigate the differences in cerebral activity in ED patients with different TCM patterns. Methods. 27 psychogenic ED patients and 27 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled in this study. Each participant underwent an fMRI scan in resting state. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) was used to detect the brain activity changes in ED patients with different patterns. Results. Compared to HS, ED patients showed an increased cerebral activity in bilateral cerebellum, insula, globus pallidus, parahippocampal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and middle cingulate cortex (MCC). Compared to the patients with liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern (LSSDP), the patients with kidney-yang deficiency pattern (KDP) showed an increased activity in bilateral brainstem, cerebellum, hippocampus, and the right insula, thalamus, MCC, and a decreased activity in bilateral putamen, medial frontal gyrus, temporal pole, and the right caudate nucleus, OFC, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (P emotion-related regions, including prefrontal cortex and cingulated cortex.

  9. Food Patterns According to Sociodemographics, Physical Activity, Sleeping and Obesity in Portuguese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira; Santos; Padrão; Cordeiro; Bessa; Valente; Barros; Teixeira; Mitchell; Lopes; Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant po...

  10. Dietary and physical activity patterns in French children are related to overweight and socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Lioret, S.; Touvier, M.; Lafay, L.; Volatier, J. L.; Maire, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SED) has already been identified as a risk factor of childhood overweight (OW) but less is known about the dietary patterns related to adiposity. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle patterns combining overall diet and physical activity were associated with childhood OW and if they were involved in the reverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and OW. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7-d food record in 748 French children aged 3-11 y from the 1998-...

  11. Detectable elements in a particles pattern of suspended urban matter analysed by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, L.; Beltran, C.; Alemon, E.; Ortiz, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The multielement composition of a Standard Reference Material 1648 pattern certified is reported and it is used for the suspended in air aerosol samples analysis from urban localities of the Valley of Mexico, which was irradiated in the same geometry of the sample. The bottom of laboratory is analysed where was made the gamma spectrometry and it is compared the ratio of country up of bottom photo peaks with pattern photo peaks in nearer interest regions. The bottom natural gamma transmitters were identified and those of the activated pattern in the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor. (Author)

  12. Incoherent feedforward control governs adaptation of activated ras in a eukaryotic chemotaxis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kosuke; Shao, Danying; Adler, Micha; Charest, Pascale G; Loomis, William F; Levine, Herbert; Groisman, Alex; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Firtel, Richard A

    2012-01-03

    Adaptation in signaling systems, during which the output returns to a fixed baseline after a change in the input, often involves negative feedback loops and plays a crucial role in eukaryotic chemotaxis. We determined the dynamical response to a uniform change in chemoattractant concentration of a eukaryotic chemotaxis pathway immediately downstream from G protein-coupled receptors. The response of an activated Ras showed near-perfect adaptation, leading us to attempt to fit the results using mathematical models for the two possible simple network topologies that can provide perfect adaptation. Only the incoherent feedforward network accurately described the experimental results. This analysis revealed that adaptation in this Ras pathway is achieved through the proportional activation of upstream components and not through negative feedback loops. Furthermore, these results are consistent with a local excitation, global inhibition mechanism for gradient sensing, possibly with a Ras guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein acting as a global inhibitor.

  13. Daily physical activity patterns from hip- and wrist-worn accelerometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiroma, Eric J; Schepps, M A; Harezlak, J

    2016-01-01

    Accelerometer wear location may influence physical activity estimates. This study investigates this relationship through the examination of activity patterns throughout the day. Participants from the aging research evaluating accelerometry (AREA) study (n men = 37, n women = 47, mean age (SD) = 78...... activity accrual provide support that each location is capable of estimating total physical activity volume. The examination of activity patterns over time may provide a more detailed way to examine differences in wear location and different subpopulations. © 2016 Institute of Physics and Engineering.......9 (5.5) years) were asked to wear accelerometers in a free-living environment for 7 d at three different wear locations; one on each wrist and one on the right hip. During waking hours, wrist-worn accelerometers consistently produced higher median activity counts, about 5 × higher, as well as wider...

  14. Estimating Activity Patterns Using Spatio-temporal Data of Cellphone Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Seyedmostafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The tendency towards using activity-based models to predict trip demand has increased dramatically over recent years, but these models have suffered insufficient data for calibration. This paper discusses ways to process the cellphone spatio-temporal data in a manner that makes it comprehensible for traffic interpretations and proposes methods on how to infer urban mobility and activity patterns from the aforementioned data. Movements of each subscriber is described by a sequence of stays and trips and each stay is labeled by an activity. The type of activities are estimated using features such as land use, duration of stay, frequency of visit, arrival time to that activity and its distance from home. Finally, the chains of trips are identified and different patterns that citizens follow to participate in activities are determined. The data comprises 144 million records of the location of 300,000 citizens of Shiraz at five-minute intervals.

  15. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  16. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  17. Objective assessment of levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasholt, Martin; Chawes, Bo; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    Background:To study in detail levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children and the effect of gender and body mass index on this activity.Methods:Two hundred and fifty-three children aged 5 years participating in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC20....... A high body mass index tended to be associated with lower levels of physical activity.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.99....

  18. Unsupervised classification of neocortical activity patterns in neonatal and pre-juvenile rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eCichon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexible communication within the brain, which relies on oscillatory activity, is not confined to adult neuronal networks. Experimental evidence has documented the presence of discontinuous patterns of oscillatory activity already during early development. Their highly variable spatial and time-frequency organization has been related to region specificity. However, it might be equally due to the absence of unitary criteria for classifying the early activity patterns, since they have been mainly characterized by visual inspection. Therefore, robust and unbiased methods for categorizing these discontinuous oscillations are needed for increasingly complex data sets from different labs. Here, we introduce an unsupervised detection and classification algorithm for the discontinuous activity patterns of rodents during early development. For this, firstly time windows with discontinuous oscillations vs. epochs of network silence were identified. In a second step, the major features of detected events were identified and processed by principal component analysis for deciding on their contribution to the classification of different oscillatory patterns. Finally, these patterns were categorized using an unsupervised cluster algorithm. The results were validated on manually characterized neonatal spindle bursts, which ubiquitously entrain neocortical areas of rats and mice, and prelimbic nested gamma spindle bursts. Moreover, the algorithm led to satisfactory results for oscillatory events that, due to increased similarity of their features, were more difficult to classify, e.g. during the pre-juvenile developmental period. Based on a linear classification, the optimal number of features to consider increased with the difficulty of detection. This algorithm allows the comparison of neonatal and pre-juvenile oscillatory patterns in their spatial and temporal organization. It might represent a first step for the unbiased elucidation of activity patterns

  19. Dietary and physical activity patterns in French children are related to overweight and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Lafay, Lionel; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Maire, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SED) has already been identified as a risk factor of childhood overweight (OW) but less is known about the dietary patterns related to adiposity. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle patterns combining overall diet and physical activity were associated with childhood OW and if they were involved in the reverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and OW. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7-d food record in 748 French children aged 3-11 y from the 1998-1999 cross-sectional French Enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires national food consumption survey. Weight and height, leisure time physical activity, SED (television viewing), and SES were reported by parents or children by answering questionnaires. Scores for lifestyle patterns were assessed with factor analysis and their relationship with OW was explored by logistic regression analysis. Two similar lifestyle patterns were identified in children aged 3-6 y and 7-11 y: "snacking and sedentary" and "varied food and physically active." The snacking and sedentary pattern was positively associated with OW in the youngest children (P-trend = 0.0161) and partly mediated the negative association of SES to OW. The varied food and physically active pattern was inversely correlated with OW in the eldest children only (P-trend = 0.0401). A third pattern called "big eaters at main meals" was derived in children aged 7-11 y and was positively correlated with OW (P-trend = 0.0165). From a public health perspective, the combinations of identifiable dietary and physical activity behaviors may be useful as a basis for recommendations on preventing OW.

  20. Has the civil society a real place in the governance of the nuclear and chemical activities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium, organized in three sessions discusses the following topics: the historical aspects of the transparency in the nuclear domain, the AZF accident, the nuclear wastes specific case, the access of the society to the knowledge, the democratic participation to the management of the risk activities and the conditions of this sustainable participation, the international situation and the public trust. (A.L.B.)

  1. Young Children as Active Citizens in Local Government: Possibilities and Challenges from an Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Clare; Gregoric, Carolyn; Krieg, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable research and discussion regarding children and young people's rights and citizenship, the participation of young children in community decision-making is still limited. In this exploratory research, a case study is reported on how ideas about young children as active citizens are interpreted within one local government…

  2. Patterns of care and survival after a cancer of unknown primary (CUP) diagnosis: A population-based nested cohort study in Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Andrea L; Pearson, Sallie-Anne; Dobbins, Timothy A; Er, Chuang C; Ward, Robyn L; Vajdic, Claire M

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about patterns of care after a cancer of unknown primary (CUP) diagnosis. We performed a retrospective cohort study to describe and compare the treatment, health service use and survival of patients with CUP and metastatic cancer of known primary among 143,956 Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs clients, 2004-2007. We randomly matched clients with CUP (C809; n=252) with clients with a first diagnosis of metastatic solid cancer of known primary (n=980). We ascertained health services from the month of diagnosis up to 2 months post-diagnosis for consultations, hospitalizations and emergency department visits, and up to 1 year for treatment. We compared cancer treatments using conditional logistic regression; consultation rates using negative binomial regression; and survival using stratified Cox regression. 30% of CUP patients and 70% of patients with known primary received cancer treatment and the median survival was 37 days and 310 days respectively. CUP patients received fewer cancer medicines (odds ratio (OR)=0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33-0.89) and less cancer-related surgery (OR=0.25, 95% CI 0.15-0.41); males with CUP received more radiation therapy (OR=2.88, 95% CI 1.69-4.91). CUP patients had more primary care consultations (incidence rate ratio (IRR)=1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.41), emergency department visits (IRR=1.86, 95% CI 1.50-2.31) and hospitalizations (IRR=1.18, 95% CI 1.03-1.35), and a higher risk of death within 30 days (hazard ratio=3.30, 95% CI 1.69-6.44). Patients with CUP receive less treatment but use more health services, which may reflect underlying patient and disease characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Commonwealth of Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Patterns of physical activity and obesity indices among white-collar men in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yiing Mei

    2007-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify patterns of physical activity among white-collar men in Taiwan and to analyze the relationships between physical activity patterns and obesity indices. This cross-sectional survey included 350 subjects (between 21 and 75 years old). The Monitoring Trends and Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease Optional Study of Physical Activity Questionnaire (MOSPA-Q), developed and published by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used to measure subjects' daily energy expenditures attributed to physical activity. Obesity indices included body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio (WHR), body fat percentage, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Three patterns of physical activity, namely work-oriented, active, and light-active lifestyles, were identified through cluster analysis. The work-oriented group reported spending the most amount of time on work-related activities (10.5 hours/week). The active group spent the most time (1 hour/day) of the three groups on leisure activities. The light-active group spent the most time (7 hours/day) of the three groups on light activities. Referencing the 150 minutes/week of moderate- intensity physical activity recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) for health gain as a cut-off point, 1.1%, 15.2%, and 29.1% of subjects in the active, light-active and work-oriented groups, respectively, failed to achieve this minimal level. Those in the work-oriented group categorized in high work-overload and prevalent inactivity situations returned the worst obesity indices (Body weight, BMI, WHR, and body fat percentages) adjusted by age.

  4. It's about time: a comparison of Canadian and American time-activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Judith A; Nelson, William C; Burnett, Richard T; Aaron, Shawn; Raizenne, Mark E

    2002-11-01

    This study compares two North American time-activity data bases: the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) of 9386 interviewees in 1992-1994 in the continental USA with the Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey (CHAPS) of 2381 interviewees in 1996-1997 in four major Canadian cities. Identical surveys and methodology were used to collect this data: random sample telephone selection within the identified telephone exchanges, computer-assisted telephone interviews, overselection of children and weekends in the 24-h recall diary and the same interviewers. Very similar response rates were obtained: 63% (NHAPS) and 64.5% (CHAPS). Results of comparisons by age within major activity and location groups suggest activity and location patterns are very similar (most differences being less than 1% or 14 min in a 24-h day) with the exception of seasonal differences. Canadians spend less time outdoors in winter and less time indoors in summer than their U.S. counterparts. When exposure assessments use time of year or outdoor/indoor exposure gradients, these differences may result in significant differences in exposure assessments. Otherwise, the 24-h time activity patterns of North Americans are remarkably similar and use of the combined data set for some exposure assessments may be feasible.

  5. Operant conditioning of synaptic and spiking activity patterns in single hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Nobuyoshi; Sakaguchi, Tetsuya; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2014-04-02

    Learning is a process of plastic adaptation through which a neural circuit generates a more preferable outcome; however, at a microscopic level, little is known about how synaptic activity is patterned into a desired configuration. Here, we report that animals can generate a specific form of synaptic activity in a given neuron in the hippocampus. In awake, head-restricted mice, we applied electrical stimulation to the lateral hypothalamus, a reward-associated brain region, when whole-cell patch-clamped CA1 neurons exhibited spontaneous synaptic activity that met preset criteria. Within 15 min, the mice learned to generate frequently the excitatory synaptic input pattern that satisfied the criteria. This reinforcement learning of synaptic activity was not observed for inhibitory input patterns. When a burst unit activity pattern was conditioned in paired and nonpaired paradigms, the frequency of burst-spiking events increased and decreased, respectively. The burst reinforcement occurred in the conditioned neuron but not in other adjacent neurons; however, ripple field oscillations were concomitantly reinforced. Neural conditioning depended on activation of NMDA receptors and dopamine D1 receptors. Acutely stressed mice and depression model mice that were subjected to forced swimming failed to exhibit the neural conditioning. This learning deficit was rescued by repetitive treatment with fluoxetine, an antidepressant. Therefore, internally motivated animals are capable of routing an ongoing action potential series into a specific neural pathway of the hippocampal network.

  6. [Activity patterns and foraging behavior of Apis cerana cerana in the urban gardens in winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-jun; Yang, Qing-qing; Long, Li; Hu, Hong-mei; Duan, Bin; Chen, Wen-nian

    2016-01-01

    Bees and other pollinating insects are the important parts of biodiversity due to their great role in plant reproduction and crop production. To explore the role of city garden in native bees conservation, activity patterns, visiting behaviors and flowering plants with nectar or pollen were recorded in south Sichuan in winter. The results showed that, worker bees (Apis cerana cerana) were active to collect food out hive under suitable weather conditions, the duration of working was long. Peaks of the number of outgoing, entrance and foragers without pollen appeared at 14:00-15:00, and bimodal patterns were observed. While, peak of bees with pollen appeared at 11:00, and a unimodal pattern was observed. Time significantly affected the activity of workers. The workload of honey bees on nectar and pollen collection were different, just less than twenty percent foragers carrying pollen. Temperature and humidity also affected flights of bees to some degree, and bee activities showed similar patterns on different days. However, the activities had diverse characteristics in some time. Though a less number of plants were in flowering, most of them could be utilized by A. cerana cerana, and colonies could effectively get the food resource by behavior adjustment. In addition, visiting activities of bees on the flowers of main garden plants, such as Camellia japonica, showed obvious rhythm. Increasing the flowering plants with nectar and pollen in winter by scientific management of urban gardens would facilitate the creation of suitable habitats for A. cerana cerana and maintaining the wild population.

  7. Activity patterns of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus revealed by accelerometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Ryan

    Full Text Available An understanding of koala activity patterns is important for measuring the behavioral response of this species to environmental change, but to date has been limited by the logistical challenges of traditional field methodologies. We addressed this knowledge gap by using tri-axial accelerometer data loggers attached to VHF radio collars to examine activity patterns of adult male and female koalas in a high-density population at Cape Otway, Victoria, Australia. Data were obtained from 27 adult koalas over two 7-d periods during the breeding season: 12 in the early-breeding season in November 2010, and 15 in the late-breeding season in January 2011. Multiple 15 minute observation blocks on each animal were used for validation of activity patterns determined from the accelerometer data loggers. Accelerometry was effective in distinguishing between inactive (sleeping, resting and active (grooming, feeding and moving behaviors. Koalas were more active during the early-breeding season with a higher index of movement (overall dynamic body acceleration [ODBA] for both males and females. Koalas showed a distinct temporal pattern of behavior, with most activity occurring from mid-afternoon to early morning. Accelerometry has potential for examining fine-scale behavior of a wide range of arboreal and terrestrial species.

  8. Activity patterns of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) revealed by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle A; Whisson, Desley A; Holland, Greg J; Arnould, John P Y

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of koala activity patterns is important for measuring the behavioral response of this species to environmental change, but to date has been limited by the logistical challenges of traditional field methodologies. We addressed this knowledge gap by using tri-axial accelerometer data loggers attached to VHF radio collars to examine activity patterns of adult male and female koalas in a high-density population at Cape Otway, Victoria, Australia. Data were obtained from 27 adult koalas over two 7-d periods during the breeding season: 12 in the early-breeding season in November 2010, and 15 in the late-breeding season in January 2011. Multiple 15 minute observation blocks on each animal were used for validation of activity patterns determined from the accelerometer data loggers. Accelerometry was effective in distinguishing between inactive (sleeping, resting) and active (grooming, feeding and moving) behaviors. Koalas were more active during the early-breeding season with a higher index of movement (overall dynamic body acceleration [ODBA]) for both males and females. Koalas showed a distinct temporal pattern of behavior, with most activity occurring from mid-afternoon to early morning. Accelerometry has potential for examining fine-scale behavior of a wide range of arboreal and terrestrial species.

  9. [Mammals' camera-trapping in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico: relative abundance and activity patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Rodríguez-Soto, Clarita; Soria-Díaz, Leroy; Urios, Vicente

    2011-03-01

    Species conservation and their management depend on the availability of their population behavior and changes in time. This way, population studies include aspects such as species abundance and activity pattern, among others, with the advantage that nowadays new technologies can be applied, in addition to common methods. In this study, we used camera-traps to obtain the index of relative abundance and to establish activity pattern of medium and large mammals in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico. The study was conducted from December 2003 to May 2006, with a total sampling effort of 4 305 trap-days. We obtained 897 photographs of 19 different species. Nasua narica, Sylvilagus floridanus and Urocyon cinereoargenteus were the most abundant, in agreement with the relative abundance index (RAI, number of independent records/100 trap-days), and according to previous studies with indirect methods in the area. The activity patterns of the species showed that 67% of them are nocturnal, except Odocoileus virginianus, Nasua narica and others. Some species showed differences with previously reported patterns, which are related with seasonality, resources availability, organism sex, principally. The applied method contributed with reliable data about relative abundance and activity patterns.

  10. Ramadan major nutrient patterns are associated with anthropometric measurements and physical activity in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Akhoundan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During Ramadan fasting quantity and quality of dietary intake may change. There was no data on nutrient patterns in Ramadan fasting. The purpose of this study was to identify Ramadan major nutrient patterns among those who fast in Tehran, Iran. 510 fasting people aged 18-65 years and BMI 18.5-40 Kg/m2 were recruited in our study by 2-stage cluster sampling method in June-July 2014. Data on the socio-demographic and physical activity level were collected by questionnaire. Usual diet during Ramadan was estimated by valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. BMI was calculated based on measured height and weight. Three nutrient patterns derived by conducting principal component factor analysis on 30 major nutrients. Micronutrient and fiber pattern which characterized by high intake of vitamin K, total fiber, iron, manganese, magnesium, β-carotene, folate, vitamin B12, potassium and calcium was adversely associated with weight (b=-0.16, P= 0.004. High protein pattern had great loadings on protein, riboflavin, phosphorous and zinc which physical activity level was decreased by tertiles of this pattern (b=0.13, P=0.02. High carbohydrate pattern which presented high positive loadings on carbohydrate and thiamin and negative loading on total fat, poly unsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids was positively associated with BMI (b= 0.12, P=0.03. Adherence to different Ramadan nutrient patterns is associated with weight, BMI and physical activity level. People on high in carbohydrate may have a higher BMI and low micronutrient density diet that should be considered in Ramadan fasting nutrition educational programs.

  11. Motor control patterns during an active straight leg raise in pain-free subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beales, Darren John; O'Sullivan, Peter Bruce; Briffa, N Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Repeated measures. To investigate motor control (MC) patterns of normal subjects during the low level physical load of the active straight leg raise (ASLR). Aberrant MC patterns, as observed with the ASLR test, are considered to be a mechanism for ongoing pain and disability in subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pelvic girdle pain. These patterns may not only affect the provision of lumbopelvic stability, but also respiration and the control of continence. Greater understanding of MC patterns in pain-free subjects may improve the management of pelvic girdle pain. METHODS.: Fourteen pain-free nulliparous women were examined during the ASLR. Electromyography of the anterior abdominal wall, right chest wall and the anterior scaleni, intraabdominal pressure (IAP), intrathoracic pressure (ITP), respiratory rate, pelvic floor kinematics, and downward leg pressure of the nonlifted leg were compared between a left and right ASLR. There was greater activation of obliquus internus abdominis and obliquus externus abdominis on the side of the ASLR. The predominant pattern of activation for the chest wall was tonic activation during an ipsilateral ASLR, and phasic respiratory activation lifting the contralateral leg. Respiratory fluctuation of both IAP and ITP did not differ lifting either leg. The baseline shifts of these pressure variables in response to the physical demand of lifting the leg was also the same either side. There was no difference in respiratory rate, pelvic floor kinematics, or downward leg pressure. Pain-free subjects demonstrate a predominant pattern of greater ipsilateral tonic activation of the abdominal wall and chest wall on the side of the ASLR. This was achieved with minimal apparent disruption to IAP and ITP. The findings of this study demonstrate the plastic nature of the abdominal cylinder and the flexibility of the neuromuscular system in controlling load transference during an ASLR.

  12. Ancestral regulatory circuits governing ectoderm patterning downstream of Nodal and BMP2/4 revealed by gene regulatory network analysis in an echinoderm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Saudemont

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderms, which are phylogenetically related to vertebrates and produce large numbers of transparent embryos that can be experimentally manipulated, offer many advantages for the analysis of the gene regulatory networks (GRN regulating germ layer formation. During development of the sea urchin embryo, the ectoderm is the source of signals that pattern all three germ layers along the dorsal-ventral axis. How this signaling center controls patterning and morphogenesis of the embryo is not understood. Here, we report a large-scale analysis of the GRN deployed in response to the activity of this signaling center in the embryos of the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, in which studies with high spatial resolution are possible. By using a combination of in situ hybridization screening, overexpression of mRNA, recombinant ligand treatments, and morpholino-based loss-of-function studies, we identified a cohort of transcription factors and signaling molecules expressed in the ventral ectoderm, dorsal ectoderm, and interposed neurogenic ("ciliary band" region in response to the known key signaling molecules Nodal and BMP2/4 and defined the epistatic relationships between the most important genes. The resultant GRN showed a number of striking features. First, Nodal was found to be essential for the expression of all ventral and dorsal marker genes, and BMP2/4 for all dorsal genes. Second, goosecoid was identified as a central player in a regulatory sub-circuit controlling mouth formation, while tbx2/3 emerged as a critical factor for differentiation of the dorsal ectoderm. Finally, and unexpectedly, a neurogenic ectoderm regulatory circuit characterized by expression of "ciliary band" genes was triggered in the absence of TGF beta signaling. We propose a novel model for ectoderm regionalization, in which neural ectoderm is the default fate in the absence of TGF beta signaling, and suggest that the stomodeal and neural subcircuits that we

  13. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESS AND INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Pоlina Kolisnichenko

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to reveal the conditions of the innovative development of the small and mediumsized entrepreneurship in Ukraine; the problems that suppress the innovative activity and small and medium-sized enterprises development; peculiarities of the tax incentives for the development of the entrepreneurship in the advanced countries and in Ukraine; the main kinds and characteristics of the small and medium-sized enterprises public support. Methodology. The methods of scientific...

  14. Physical activity patterns in older men and women in Germany: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Trampisch Ulrike; Klaaßen-Mielke Renate; Platen Petra; Moschny Anna; Hinrichs Timo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Data on physical activity in older adults in Germany is scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze physical activity patterns and to explore factors associated with physical activity in different domains, i.e. sporting activities (SA) and domestic activities (DA), in older men and women. Methods As part of the 7-year follow-up telephone interviews of the getABI cohort (community-dwelling older adults in Germany), the PRISCUS-PAQ was used to survey participants about thei...

  15. Impact of urban setting on activity-travel patterns : comparison of performance indicators with quasi-experimental design data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, D.M.E.G.W.; Arentze, T.A.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The interest in activity-travel patterns has gained huge moment um lately. Most studies focus on analysis of particular aspects of such patterns and examine the relationships between aspects of activity patterns and sociodemographic variables. To complement this work, a study was conducted to

  16. Unraveling dynamics of human physical activity patterns in chronic pain conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Buchser, Eric; Aminian, Kamiar

    2013-06-01

    Chronic pain is a complex disabling experience that negatively affects the cognitive, affective and physical functions as well as behavior. Although the interaction between chronic pain and physical functioning is a well-accepted paradigm in clinical research, the understanding of how pain affects individuals' daily life behavior remains a challenging task. Here we develop a methodological framework allowing to objectively document disruptive pain related interferences on real-life physical activity. The results reveal that meaningful information is contained in the temporal dynamics of activity patterns and an analytical model based on the theory of bivariate point processes can be used to describe physical activity behavior. The model parameters capture the dynamic interdependence between periods and events and determine a `signature' of activity pattern. The study is likely to contribute to the clinical understanding of complex pain/disease-related behaviors and establish a unified mathematical framework to quantify the complex dynamics of various human activities.

  17. User Activity Recognition in Smart Homes Using Pattern Clustering Applied to Temporal ANN Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourobou, Serge Thomas Mickala; Yoo, Younghwan

    2015-05-21

    This paper discusses the possibility of recognizing and predicting user activities in the IoT (Internet of Things) based smart environment. The activity recognition is usually done through two steps: activity pattern clustering and activity type decision. Although many related works have been suggested, they had some limited performance because they focused only on one part between the two steps. This paper tries to find the best combination of a pattern clustering method and an activity decision algorithm among various existing works. For the first step, in order to classify so varied and complex user activities, we use a relevant and efficient unsupervised learning method called the K-pattern clustering algorithm. In the second step, the training of smart environment for recognizing and predicting user activities inside his/her personal space is done by utilizing the artificial neural network based on the Allen's temporal relations. The experimental results show that our combined method provides the higher recognition accuracy for various activities, as compared with other data mining classification algorithms. Furthermore, it is more appropriate for a dynamic environment like an IoT based smart home.

  18. User Activity Recognition in Smart Homes Using Pattern Clustering Applied to Temporal ANN Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Thomas Mickala Bourobou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the possibility of recognizing and predicting user activities in the IoT (Internet of Things based smart environment. The activity recognition is usually done through two steps: activity pattern clustering and activity type decision. Although many related works have been suggested, they had some limited performance because they focused only on one part between the two steps. This paper tries to find the best combination of a pattern clustering method and an activity decision algorithm among various existing works. For the first step, in order to classify so varied and complex user activities, we use a relevant and efficient unsupervised learning method called the K-pattern clustering algorithm. In the second step, the training of smart environment for recognizing and predicting user activities inside his/her personal space is done by utilizing the artificial neural network based on the Allen’s temporal relations. The experimental results show that our combined method provides the higher recognition accuracy for various activities, as compared with other data mining classification algorithms. Furthermore, it is more appropriate for a dynamic environment like an IoT based smart home.

  19. Statewide prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis and rate of adrenaline autoinjector activation in Victorian government schools, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Paxton; Koplin, Jennifer; Beck, Cara; Field, Michael; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of school students at risk of anaphylaxis in Victoria is unknown and has not been previously studied. Similarly, rates of adrenaline autoinjector usage in the school environment have yet to be determined given increasing prescription rates. We sought to determine time trends in prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis across all year levels and the annual usage rate of adrenaline autoinjectors in the school setting relative to the number of students at risk of anaphylaxis. Statewide surveys from more than 1,500 government schools including more than 550,000 students were used and prevalence rates (%) with 95% CIs were calculated. The overall prevalence of students at risk of anaphylaxis has increased 41% from 0.98% (95% CI, 0.95-1.01) in 2009 to 1.38% (95% CI, 1.35-1.41) in 2014. There was a significant drop in reporting of anaphylaxis risk with transition from the final year of primary school to the first year of secondary school, suggesting a change in parental reporting of anaphylaxis risk among secondary school students. The number of adrenaline autoinjectors activated per 1000 students at risk of anaphylaxis ranged from 6 to 8 per year, with consistently higher activation use in secondary school students than in primary school students. Statewide prevalence of anaphylaxis risk has increased in children attending Victorian government schools. However, adrenaline autoinjector activation has remained fairly stable despite known increase in the rates of prescription. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Developmental heterogeneity in DNA packaging patterns influences T-cell activation and transmigration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Gupta

    Full Text Available Cellular differentiation programs are accompanied by large-scale changes in nuclear organization and gene expression. In this context, accompanying transitions in chromatin assembly that facilitates changes in gene expression and cell behavior in a developmental system are poorly understood. Here, we address this gap and map structural changes in chromatin organization during murine T-cell development, to describe an unusual heterogeneity in chromatin organization and associated functional correlates in T-cell lineage. Confocal imaging of DNA assembly in cells isolated from bone marrow, thymus and spleen reveal the emergence of heterogeneous patterns in DNA organization in mature T-cells following their exit from the thymus. The central DNA pattern dominated in immature precursor cells in the thymus whereas both central and peripheral DNA patterns were observed in naïve and memory cells in circulation. Naïve T-cells with central DNA patterns exhibited higher mechanical pliability in response to compressive loads in vitro and transmigration assays in vivo, and demonstrated accelerated expression of activation-induced marker CD69. T-cell activation was characterized by marked redistribution of DNA assembly to a central DNA pattern and increased nuclear size. Notably, heterogeneity in DNA patterns recovered in cells induced into quiescence in culture, suggesting an internal regulatory mechanism for chromatin reorganization. Taken together, our results uncover an important component of plasticity in nuclear organization, reflected in chromatin assembly, during T-cell development, differentiation and transmigration.

  1. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  2. a Three-Step Spatial-Temporal Clustering Method for Human Activity Pattern Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; Li, S.; Xu, S.

    2016-06-01

    How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time) to four dimensions (space, time and semantics). More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people "say" for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The results show that the

  3. A THREE-STEP SPATIAL-TEMPORAL-SEMANTIC CLUSTERING METHOD FOR HUMAN ACTIVITY PATTERN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time to four dimensions (space, time and semantics. More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people “say” for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The

  4. Organ involvement in Argentinian systemic sclerosis patients with "late" pattern as compared to patients with "early/active" pattern by nailfold capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino Claverie, Lucila; Knobel, Elizabeth; Takashima, Lorena; Techera, Lorena; Oliver, Marina; Gonzalez, Paula; Romanini, Félix E; Fonseca, María L; Mamani, Marta N

    2013-06-01

    Changes in nailfold capillaroscopy in systemic sclerosis patients could be related to the disease severity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with "late" scleroderma (SD) pattern have more organ involvement than patients with "early/active" SD pattern. Forty-six Argentinian patients (44 women and 2 men), with a diagnosis of systemic sclerosis, were distributed in two groups based on the presence of late and early/active patterns. Organ involvement was assessed as follows: pulmonary function by chest radiography, high-resolution chest tomography (HRCT), lung volume tests, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO); esophageal involvement by manometry; and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by Doppler echocardiography and six-minute walk test. Honeycombing of the lungs evaluated by HRCT was more frequently present in patients with late pattern compared with early/active patients (p = 0.01). We also found statistically significant differences in lung volume tests (p = 0.03) and DLCO (p = 0.02) between the two SD pattern groups. Esophageal manometry showed a significantly higher frequency of motility disorders in the group with late pattern (p = 0.0024). In this study, patients with late pattern had higher frequency of pulmonary and esophageal involvement compared with patients with early/active pattern.

  5. Variations in adolescents’ motivational characteristics across gender and physical activity patterns: A latent class analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lawler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglecting to take account of the underlying context or type of physical activity (PA that underpins overall involvement has resulted in a limited understanding of adolescents’ PA participation. The purpose of the present research was to identify male and female adolescents’ leisure time PA patterns and examine whether psychological processes derived from self-determination theory differ as a function of the pattern of PA undertaken. Methods Nine hundred ninety-five students (61.2% females, 38.8% males; M age = 13.72 years, SD = 1.25 from eight secondary schools in Dublin, Ireland completed a physical activity recall 7 day diary and measures of intrinsic motivation, competence, relatedness, autonomy and autonomy support. Based on the diary five binary indicators of physical activity were derived reflecting recommended levels of MVPA on a minimum of 3 days, at least three sessions of non-organized physical activity (e.g. jog, team sport, individual sport, and organized non-sport physical activity (e.g. dance. Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of adolescents that engaged in similar patterns of physical activity. Profiles of physical activity participation were subsequently compared on motivational characteristics using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Latent class analysis revealed six distinct classes for girls (Organized Run/Swim & Dance/Gym; Organized Dance; Leisure Active Team Sport; Active Individual Sport; Walk/Run/Outdoor games; Non-Participation and five for boys (Leisure Active Gym; Leisure Active Individual Sport; Active Team Sport; Active Mixed Type; Non-Participation. Significant differences were found between the classes. Girls characterized by participation in team or individual sport, and boys represented by team sport participation demonstrated significantly higher self-determined motivational characteristics relative to other profiles of physical activity. Conclusion This research

  6. Variations in adolescents' motivational characteristics across gender and physical activity patterns: A latent class analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Margaret; Heary, Caroline; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2017-08-17

    Neglecting to take account of the underlying context or type of physical activity (PA) that underpins overall involvement has resulted in a limited understanding of adolescents' PA participation. The purpose of the present research was to identify male and female adolescents' leisure time PA patterns and examine whether psychological processes derived from self-determination theory differ as a function of the pattern of PA undertaken. Nine hundred ninety-five students (61.2% females, 38.8% males; M age = 13.72 years, SD = 1.25) from eight secondary schools in Dublin, Ireland completed a physical activity recall 7 day diary and measures of intrinsic motivation, competence, relatedness, autonomy and autonomy support. Based on the diary five binary indicators of physical activity were derived reflecting recommended levels of MVPA on a minimum of 3 days, at least three sessions of non-organized physical activity (e.g. jog), team sport, individual sport, and organized non-sport physical activity (e.g. dance). Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of adolescents that engaged in similar patterns of physical activity. Profiles of physical activity participation were subsequently compared on motivational characteristics using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Latent class analysis revealed six distinct classes for girls (Organized Run/Swim & Dance/Gym; Organized Dance; Leisure Active Team Sport; Active Individual Sport; Walk/Run/Outdoor games; Non-Participation) and five for boys (Leisure Active Gym; Leisure Active Individual Sport; Active Team Sport; Active Mixed Type; Non-Participation). Significant differences were found between the classes. Girls characterized by participation in team or individual sport, and boys represented by team sport participation demonstrated significantly higher self-determined motivational characteristics relative to other profiles of physical activity. This research offers a nuanced insight into the underlying type of activities that

  7. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) change their activity patterns in response to frugivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Shelly; Cipolletta, Chloé; Robbins, Martha M

    2009-02-01

    The most important environmental factor explaining interspecies variation in ecology and sociality of the great apes is likely to be variation in resource availability. Relatively little is known about the activity patterns of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), which inhabit a dramatically different environment from the well-studied mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei). This study aims to provide a detailed quantification of western lowland gorillas' activity budgets using direct observations on one habituated group in Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. We examined how activity patterns of both sexes are shaped by seasonal frugivory. Activity was recorded with 5-min instantaneous sampling between December 2004 and December 2005. During the high-frugivory period the gorillas spent less time feeding and more time traveling than during the low-frugivory period. The silverback spent less time feeding but more time resting than both females and immatures, which likely results from a combination of social and physiological factors. When compared with mountain gorillas, western lowland gorillas spend more time feeding (67 vs. 55%) and traveling (12 vs. 6.5%), but less time resting (21 vs. 34%) and engaging in social/other activities (0.5 vs. 3.6%). This disparity in activity budgets of western lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas may be explained by the more frugivorous diet and the greater dispersion of food resources experienced by western lowland gorillas. Like other apes, western lowland gorillas change their activity patterns in response to changes in the diet. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Understanding the Functionality of Human Activity Hotspots from Their Scaling Pattern Using Trajectory Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human activity hotspots are the clusters of activity locations in space and time, and a better understanding of their functionality would be useful for urban land use planning and transportation. In this article, using trajectory data, we aim to infer the functionality of human activity hotspots from their scaling pattern in a reliable way. Specifically, a large number of stopping locations are extracted from trajectory data, which are then aggregated into activity hotspots. Activity hotspots are found to display scaling patterns in terms of the sublinear scaling relationships between the number of stopping locations and the number of points of interest (POIs, which indicates economies of scale of human interactions with urban land use. Importantly, this scaling pattern remains stable over time. This finding inspires us to devise an allometric ruler to identify the activity hotspots, whose functionality could be reliably estimated using the stopping locations. Thereafter, a novel Bayesian inference model is proposed to infer their urban functionality, which examines the spatial and temporal information of stopping locations covering 75 days. Experimental results suggest that the functionality of identified activity hotspots are reliably inferred by stopping locations, such as the railway station.

  9. Physical Activity Pattern of Malaysian Preschoolers: Environment, Barriers, and Motivators for Active Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ong, Wei Wen; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Children's physical activity has been correlated with child characteristics and social or physical environment. This study aimed to compare preschoolers' physical activity among various sociodemographic characteristics and to determine barriers, motivators, and environmental factors for active play. A total of 835 preschoolers were included in this analysis. Time spent on active play, quiet play, and screen time was reported by parents. Boys spent significantly more time on active play and screen time than girls. Time spent on quiet play was highest in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia and lowest in Sarawak. Some 40% of children achieved active play recommendation while 27% exceeded daily screen time recommendation. Most parents reported that their child played actively in the house area; and that the main barrier and motivator to active play were safety and child's enjoyment, respectively. These findings demonstrate that sociodemographic characteristics and environment should be considered in designing physical activity intervention programs. © 2016 APJPH.

  10. Motives for using Facebook, patterns of Facebook activities, and late adolescents' social adjustment to college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chia-chen; Brown, B Bradford

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that Facebook, the leading social networking site among young people, facilitates social connections among college students, but the specific activities and motives that foster social adjustment remain unclear. This study examined associations between patterns of Facebook activity, motives for using Facebook, and late adolescents' social adjustment to the college environment. Anonymous self-report survey data from 193 mostly European American students (M age = 20.32; 54 % female) attending a major Midwestern university indicated that motives and activity patterns were associated directly with social adjustment, but the association between one activity, status updating, and social adjustment also was moderated by the motive of relationship maintenance. Findings provide a more comprehensive portrait of how Facebook use may foster or inhibit social adjustment in college.

  11. Differential patterns of prefrontal MEG activation during verbal & visual encoding and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Garreth; Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve; Ingamells, Ed; Gathercole, Susan; Baddeley, Alan; Green, Gary G R

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal profile of activation of the prefrontal cortex in verbal and non-verbal recognition memory was examined using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Sixteen neurologically healthy right-handed participants were scanned whilst carrying out a modified version of the Doors and People Test of recognition memory. A pattern of significant prefrontal activity was found for non-verbal and verbal encoding and recognition. During the encoding, verbal stimuli activated an area in the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and non-verbal stimuli activated an area in the right. A region in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex also showed significant activation during the encoding of non-verbal stimuli. Both verbal and non-verbal stimuli significantly activated an area in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the right anterior prefrontal cortex during successful recognition, however these areas showed temporally distinct activation dependent on material, with non-verbal showing activation earlier than verbal stimuli. Additionally, non-verbal material activated an area in the left anterior prefrontal cortex during recognition. These findings suggest a material-specific laterality in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during encoding for verbal and non-verbal but also support the HERA model for verbal material. The discovery of two process dependent areas during recognition that showed patterns of temporal activation dependent on material demonstrates the need for the application of more temporally sensitive techniques to the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in recognition memory.

  12. Differential patterns of prefrontal MEG activation during verbal & visual encoding and retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garreth Prendergast

    Full Text Available The spatiotemporal profile of activation of the prefrontal cortex in verbal and non-verbal recognition memory was examined using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Sixteen neurologically healthy right-handed participants were scanned whilst carrying out a modified version of the Doors and People Test of recognition memory. A pattern of significant prefrontal activity was found for non-verbal and verbal encoding and recognition. During the encoding, verbal stimuli activated an area in the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and non-verbal stimuli activated an area in the right. A region in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex also showed significant activation during the encoding of non-verbal stimuli. Both verbal and non-verbal stimuli significantly activated an area in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the right anterior prefrontal cortex during successful recognition, however these areas showed temporally distinct activation dependent on material, with non-verbal showing activation earlier than verbal stimuli. Additionally, non-verbal material activated an area in the left anterior prefrontal cortex during recognition. These findings suggest a material-specific laterality in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during encoding for verbal and non-verbal but also support the HERA model for verbal material. The discovery of two process dependent areas during recognition that showed patterns of temporal activation dependent on material demonstrates the need for the application of more temporally sensitive techniques to the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in recognition memory.

  13. Physical activity levels and patterns of 11-14 year-old Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin-Isler, Ayse; Asci, F Hulya; Altintas, Atakan; Guven-Karahan, Bengu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined age and gender differences in physical activity levels and various physical activity patterns of 11-14-year-old Turkish adolescents and also determined if these differ between genders. Six hundred and fifty girls and 666 boys between the ages of 11 and 14 years constituted the sample of this study. Participants self-reported physical activity levels and patterns were determined by a Weekly Activity Checklist. A 2 x 4 (Gender x Age) MANOVA revealed overall significant main effect of gender and age on the physical activity level of adolescents; however, gender x age interaction effect was not significant. The findings indicated an interaction effect was not significant. The findings indicated an age-related decline in physical activity level, an increase in participation in low activities, and a decrease in participation in moderate and vigorous activities in 11-14-year-old Turkish adolescents. In addition it was found that boys were more active than girls and participated more in moderate and vigorous activities.

  14. Structure-function relationships governing activity and stability of a DNA alkylation damage repair thermostable protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugino, Giuseppe; Miggiano, Riccardo; Serpe, Mario; Vettone, Antonella; Valenti, Anna; Lahiri, Samarpita; Rossi, Franca; Rossi, Mosè; Rizzi, Menico; Ciaramella, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Alkylated DNA-protein alkyltransferases repair alkylated DNA bases, which are among the most common DNA lesions, and are evolutionary conserved, from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes. The human ortholog, hAGT, is involved in resistance to alkylating chemotherapy drugs. We report here on the alkylated DNA-protein alkyltransferase, SsOGT, from an archaeal species living at high temperature, a condition that enhances the harmful effect of DNA alkylation. The exceptionally high stability of SsOGT gave us the unique opportunity to perform structural and biochemical analysis of a protein of this class in its post-reaction form. This analysis, along with those performed on SsOGT in its ligand-free and DNA-bound forms, provides insights in the structure-function relationships of the protein before, during and after DNA repair, suggesting a molecular basis for DNA recognition, catalytic activity and protein post-reaction fate, and giving hints on the mechanism of alkylation-induced inactivation of this class of proteins. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Governance of the research activities in higher educational institutions: factors and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musawenkosi Ngibe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available South African higher education institutions, specifically, universities of technology have been faced with an arduous battle of increasing postgraduate students enrolment (masters and doctoral and improve their completion rate. However, the situation is exacerbated by inadequate number and inexperience of supervisors to supervise these postgraduate students. The Durban University of Technology has formulated research structures to administer and co-ordinate research activities in order to improve the number of staff members with doctoral qualifications in order to aid the current challenges. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the circumstances and factors hindering the academic staff throughput rates and the impact it has on the university. The use of qualitative and quantitative approach was used for this study, with closed and open-ended questionnaires used to collect data from 278 academic staff members using a probability sampling. The respondents 9 (4.9% indicated that lack of external funding and project management skills proved to be major contributory factors hindering academics staff to complete their postgraduate degrees within the required time. The study recommends that funding should be made easily available to academics pursuing doctoral studies, while project management workshops should be organised regularly to help academics appropriately management their studies. This can have a positive impact which will benefit the university and aid to the current crisis of lack of supervisor for masters and doctoral studies

  16. Magnetic Properties of Solar Active Regions that Govern Large Solar Flares and Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriumi, Shin; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Harra, Louise; Hudson, Hugh S.; Nagashima, Kaori

    2017-08-01

    Strong flares and CMEs are often produced from active regions (ARs). In order to better understand the magnetic properties and evolutions of such ARs, we conducted statistical investigations on the SDO/HMI and AIA data of all flare events with GOES levels >M5.0 within 45 deg from the disk center for 6 years from May 2010 (from the beginning to the declining phase of solar cycle 24). Out of the total of 51 flares from 29 ARs, more than 80% have delta-sunspots and about 15% violate Hale’s polarity rule. We obtained several key findings including (1) the flare duration is linearly proportional to the separation of the flare ribbons (i.e., scale of reconnecting magnetic fields) and (2) CME-eruptive events have smaller sunspot areas. Depending on the magnetic properties, flaring ARs can be categorized into several groups, such as spot-spot, in which a highly-sheared polarity inversion line is formed between two large sunspots, and spot-satellite, where a newly-emerging flux next to a mature sunspot triggers a compact flare event. These results point to the possibility that magnetic structures of the ARs determine the characteristics of flares and CMEs. In the presentation, we will also show new results from the systematic flux emergence simulations of delta-sunspot formation and discuss the evolution processes of flaring ARs.

  17. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Li, Y.; Lai, J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Yang, X.; Qi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. Methods and results: CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome

  18. Seasonal activity patterns and diet divergence of three sympatric Afrotropical tortoise species (genus Kinixys)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiselli, Luca

    2003-01-01

    Three species of hinge-back tortoises ( (Kinixys belliana nogueyi, Kinixys erosa, Kinixys homeana) are found in simpatry in the rainforests of the Niger Delta, southern Nigeria (west Africa). The seasonal activity patterns and food habits of these tortoises are studied in the present paper. K. erosa

  19. Theories of Person Perception Predict Patterns of Neural Activity During Mentalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Mark A; Mitchell, Jason P

    2017-08-22

    Social life requires making inferences about other people. What information do perceivers spontaneously draw upon to make such inferences? Here, we test 4 major theories of person perception, and 1 synthetic theory that combines their features, to determine whether the dimensions of such theories can serve as bases for describing patterns of neural activity during mentalizing. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants made social judgments about well-known public figures. Patterns of brain activity were then predicted using feature encoding models that represented target people's positions on theoretical dimensions such as warmth and competence. All 5 theories of person perception proved highly accurate at reconstructing activity patterns, indicating that each could describe the informational basis of mentalizing. Cross-validation indicated that the theories robustly generalized across both targets and participants. The synthetic theory consistently attained the best performance-approximately two-thirds of noise ceiling accuracy--indicating that, in combination, the theories considered here can account for much of the neural representation of other people. Moreover, encoding models trained on the present data could reconstruct patterns of activity associated with mental state representations in independent data, suggesting the use of a common neural code to represent others' traits and states. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Brain activity patterns induced by interrupting the cognitive processes with online advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejer, Izabela; Jankowski, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    As a result of the increasing role of online advertising and strong competition among advertisers, intrusive techniques are commonly used to attract web users' attention. Moreover, since marketing content is usually delivered to the target audience when they are performing typical online tasks, like searching for information or reading online content, its delivery interrupts the web user's current cognitive process. The question posed by many researchers in the field of online advertising is: how should we measure the influence of interruption of cognitive processes on human behavior and emotional state? Much research has been conducted in this field; however, most of this research has focused on monitoring activity in the simulated environment, or processing declarative responses given by users in prepared questionnaires. In this paper, a more direct real-time approach is taken, and the effect of the interruption on a web user is analyzed directly by studying the activity of his brain. This paper presents the results of an experiment that was conducted to find the brain activity patterns associated with interruptions of the cognitive process by showing internet advertisements during a text-reading task. Three specific aspects were addressed in the experiment: individual patterns, the consistency of these patterns across trials, and the intra-subject correlation of the individual patterns. Two main effects were observed for most subjects: a drop in activity in the frontal and prefrontal cortical areas across all frequency bands, and significant changes in the frontal/prefrontal asymmetry index.

  1. Time budgets and activity patterns of sub-Antarctic fur seals at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-04-15

    Apr 15, 1993 ... tially influence the activity patterns of fur seals when they are ashore, and their relatively ... modified by cloud cover and shade (which advanced pro- gressively across the ..... Influence of climate on the distri- bution of walruses ...

  2. Isolating weather effects from seasonal activity patterns of a temperate North American Colubrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. George; Frank R. III Thompson; John. Faaborg

    2015-01-01

    Forecasting the effects of climate change on threatened ecosystems and species will require an understanding of how weather influences processes that drive population dynamics. We have evaluated weather effects on activity patterns of western ratsnakes, a widespread predator of birds and small mammals in eastern North America. From 2010-2013 we radio-tracked 53...

  3. Influence of Day Length and Physical Activity on Sleep Patterns in Older Icelandic Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brychta, Robert J; Arnardóttir, Nanna Ýr; Jóhannsson, Erlingur

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. Methods: A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 +/- 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger...

  4. A Multi-Agent Modelling Approach to Simulate Dynamic Activity-Travel Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Q.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.; Bazzan, A.L.C.; Klügl, F.

    2009-01-01

    Contributing to the recent interest in the dynamics of activity-travel patterns, this chapter discusses a framework of an agent-based modeling approach focusing on the dynamic formation of (location) choice sets. Individual travelers are represented as agents, each with their cognition of the

  5. Correlations between human mobility and social interaction reveal general activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollgaard, Anders; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    A day in the life of a person involves a broad range of activities which are common across many people. Going beyond diurnal cycles, a central question is: to what extent do individuals act according to patterns shared across an entire population? Here we investigate the interplay between differe...... they be of social or of physical character....

  6. Associations among handgrip strength, dietary pattern, and physical activity level in Physical Education students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem KURT

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among handgrip strength (HGS, dietary pattern, and physical activity level in students from a physical education and sport department. Material and Methods: In this study, 124 men and 77 women aged 18–29 y participated. HGS was evaluated in the dominant hand by using an adjustable handgrip dynamometer and expressed in Newton. Dietary pattern was evaluated by using the Dietary Pattern Index (DPI adapted into the Turkish. Physical activity level was measured by using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Results: The Spearman correlation coefficient showed that HGS positively correlated with IPAQ score (r=0.204, p=0.004, body mass index (r=0.559, p<0.001, and age (r=0.205, p=0.003, but negatively correlated with DPI score (r=−0.179, p=0.01. Conclusion: HGS is a useful, simple, and objective assessment tool for monitoring the physical activity levels and dietary patterns of young subjects.

  7. Time budgets and activity patterns of sub-Antarctic fur seals at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... location and distribution on site, and the prevailing weather conditions influence the pattern of interaction and allocation of time to the various activities in A. tropicalis. The predominance of inactivity is considered to be a behavioural thermoregulatory response to limit endogenous heat production as is energy conservation ...

  8. An Ecological Momentary Assessment of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Patterns of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Peter C.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We used ecological momentary assessment to understand the physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns of university students. Study design: Cross sectional, opportunistic sample from a university in the English midlands. Methods: Ecological momentary assessment diaries were completed every 15 minutes across two days. The sample…

  9. Effect of frustration on brain activation pattern in subjects with different temperament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBierzynska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI session, the subjects underwent two weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tactile task based on discrimination of Braille-like raised dots patterns and negative feedback. Effectiveness of this procedure has been confirmed in a pilot study using galvanic skin response (GSR and questionnaires. Brain activation pattern during tactile discrimination task before and after frustration were compared directly. Results revealed changes in brain activity in structures mostly reported in acute stress studies: striatum, cingulate cortex, insula, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus and in structures engaged in tactile Braille discrimination: SI and SII. Temperament type affected activation pattern. Subjects with low tolerance for arousal showed higher activation in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL than high reactivity group. Even though performance in the discrimination trials following frustration was unaltered, we observed increased activity of primary and secondary somatosensory cortex processing the tactile information. We interpret this effect as an indicator of additional involvement required to counteract the effects of frustration.

  10. Classifying Human Activity Patterns from Smartphone Collected GPS data: a Fuzzy Classification and Aggregation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Neng; Lin, Ge

    2016-12-01

    Smartphones have emerged as a promising type of equipment for monitoring human activities in environmental health studies. However, degraded location accuracy and inconsistency of smartphone-measured GPS data have limited its effectiveness for classifying human activity patterns. This study proposes a fuzzy classification scheme for differentiating human activity patterns from smartphone-collected GPS data. Specifically, a fuzzy logic reasoning was adopted to overcome the influence of location uncertainty by estimating the probability of different activity types for single GPS points. Based on that approach, a segment aggregation method was developed to infer activity patterns, while adjusting for uncertainties of point attributes. Validations of the proposed methods were carried out based on a convenient sample of three subjects with different types of smartphones. The results indicate desirable accuracy (e.g., up to 96% in activity identification) with use of this method. Two examples were provided in the appendix to illustrate how the proposed methods could be applied in environmental health studies. Researchers could tailor this scheme to fit a variety of research topics.

  11. Effect of Frustration on Brain Activation Pattern in Subjects with Different Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierzynska, Maria; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Marchewka, Artur; Debowska, Weronika; Duszyk, Anna; Zajkowski, Wojciech; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Nowicka, Anna; Strelau, Jan; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging session, the subjects underwent 2 weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tactile task based on discrimination of Braille-like raised dots patterns and negative feedback. Effectiveness of this procedure has been confirmed in a pilot study using galvanic skin response and questionnaires. Brain activation pattern during tactile discrimination task before and after frustration were compared directly. Results revealed changes in brain activity in structures mostly reported in acute stress studies: striatum, cingulate cortex, insula, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus and in structures engaged in tactile Braille discrimination: SI and SII. Temperament type affected activation pattern. Subjects with low tolerance for arousal showed higher activation in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule than high reactivity group. Even though performance in the discrimination trials following frustration was unaltered, we observed increased activity of primary and secondary somatosensory cortex processing the tactile information. We interpret this effect as an indicator of additional involvement required to counteract the effects of frustration.

  12. Post-fire recovery of torpor and activity patterns of a small mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Clare; Hume, Taylor; Körtner, Gerhard; Currie, Shannon E; Nowack, Julia; Geiser, Fritz

    2017-05-01

    To cope with the post-fire challenges of decreased availability of food and shelter, brown antechinus ( Antechinus stuartii ), a small marsupial mammal, increase the use of energy-conserving torpor and reduce activity. However, it is not known how long it takes for animals to resume pre-fire torpor and activity patterns during the recovery of burnt habitat. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that antechinus will adjust torpor use and activity after a fire depending on vegetation recovery. We simultaneously quantified torpor and activity patterns for female antechinus from three adjacent areas: (i) the area of a management burn 1 year post-fire, (ii) an area that was burned 2 years prior, and (iii) a control area. In comparison to shortly after the management burn, antechinus in all three groups displayed less frequent and less pronounced torpor while being more active. We provide the first evidence that only 1 year post-fire antechinus resume pre-fire torpor and activity patterns, probably in response to the return of herbaceous ground cover and foraging opportunities. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Pattern of leisure-time physical activity involvement of Academic and non-Academic staff in tertiary Institutions in Ondo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ajibua M.A.; Alla J.B

    2012-01-01

    Leisure signifies individual’s choice to spend his/her discretionary time fulfilling certain interest or needs or performing a gratifying experience for the sake of wellness or personal development. The aim of this study was to look into the pattern of leisure-time physical activity involvement among academic and non-academic staff in tertiary institution in Ondo State. For the purpose of the study, 40 academic and 40 non-academic staff were selected from the five Government-owned tertiary in...

  14. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  15. Dusk to dawn activity patterns of anopheline mosquitoes in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

    2011-05-01

    Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective.

  16. Recognition of neural brain activity patterns correlated with complex motor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkin, Semen; Musatov, Vyacheslav Yu.; Runnova, Anastasia E.; Grubov, Vadim V.; Efremova, Tatyana Yu.; Zhuravlev, Maxim O.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, based on the apparatus of artificial neural networks, a technique for recognizing and classifying patterns corresponding to imaginary movements on electroencephalograms (EEGs) obtained from a group of untrained subjects was developed. The works on the selection of the optimal type, topology, training algorithms and neural network parameters were carried out from the point of view of the most accurate and fast recognition and classification of patterns on multi-channel EEGs associated with the imagination of movements. The influence of the number and choice of the analyzed channels of a multichannel EEG on the quality of recognition of imaginary movements was also studied, and optimal configurations of electrode arrangements were obtained. The effect of pre-processing of EEG signals is analyzed from the point of view of improving the accuracy of recognition of imaginary movements.

  17. Partnerships and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    Three models of cooperation are outlined and their consequences for governance discussed, using case studies of local multisectoral collaboration on labour market related social policy - active social policy - in Denmark.......Three models of cooperation are outlined and their consequences for governance discussed, using case studies of local multisectoral collaboration on labour market related social policy - active social policy - in Denmark....

  18. GABAB-receptor activation alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons in the rat substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, G; Kling-Petersen, T; Nissbrandt, H

    1993-11-01

    Previous electrophysiological experiments have emphasized the importance of the firing pattern for the functioning of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. In this regard, excitatory amino acid receptors appear to constitute an important modulatory control mechanism. In the present study, extracellular recording techniques were used to investigate the significance of GABAB-receptor activation for the firing properties of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in the rat. Intravenous administration of the GABAB-receptor agonist baclofen (1-16 mg/kg) was associated with a dose-dependent regularization of the firing pattern, concomitant with a reduction in burst firing. At higher doses (16-32 mg/kg), the firing rate of the DA neurons was dose-dependently decreased. Also, microiontophoretic application of baclofen regularized the firing pattern of nigral DA neurons, including a reduction of burst firing. Both the regularization of the firing pattern and inhibition of firing rate produced by systemic baclofen administration was antagonized by the GABAB-receptor antagonist CGP 35348 (200 mg/kg, i.v.). The GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol produced effects on the firing properties of DA neurons that were opposite to those observed following baclofen, i.e., an increase in firing rate accompanied by a decreased regularity. The NMDA receptor antagonist MK 801 (0.4-3.2 mg/kg, i.v.) produced a moderate, dose-dependent increase in the firing rate of the nigral DA neurons as well as a slightly regularized firing pattern. Pretreatment with MK 801 (3.2 mg/kg, i.v., 3-10 min) did neither promote nor prevent the regularization of the firing pattern or inhibition of firing rate on the nigral DA neurons produced by baclofen. The present results clearly show that GABAB-receptors can alter the firing pattern of nigral DA neurons, hereby counterbalancing the previously described ability of glutamate to induce burst firing activity on these neurons.

  19. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernandez-de-las-Penas, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern....... The current study investigated whether the overall spontaneous FM pain pattern can be reproduced by local and referred pain from active MTPs located in different muscles....

  20. Decoding of visual activity patterns from fMRI responses using multivariate pattern analyses and convolutional neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Raheel; Kamel, Nidal; Naufal, Mohamad; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Dass, Sarat C; Ahmad, Rana Fayyaz; Abdullah, Jafri M; Reza, Faruque

    2017-01-01

    Decoding of human brain activity has always been a primary goal in neuroscience especially with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. In recent years, Convolutional neural network (CNN) has become a popular method for the extraction of features due to its higher accuracy, however it needs a lot of computation and training data. In this study, an algorithm is developed using Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and modified CNN to decode the behavior of brain for different images with limited data set. Selection of significant features is an important part of fMRI data analysis, since it reduces the computational burden and improves the prediction performance; significant features are selected using t-test. MVPA uses machine learning algorithms to classify different brain states and helps in prediction during the task. General linear model (GLM) is used to find the unknown parameters of every individual voxel and the classification is done using multi-class support vector machine (SVM). MVPA-CNN based proposed algorithm is compared with region of interest (ROI) based method and MVPA based estimated values. The proposed method showed better overall accuracy (68.6%) compared to ROI (61.88%) and estimation values (64.17%).

  1. Angiogenesis interactome and time course microarray data reveal the distinct activation patterns in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Hui Chu

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis involves stimulation of endothelial cells (EC by various cytokines and growth factors, but the signaling mechanisms are not completely understood. Combining dynamic gene expression time-course data for stimulated EC with protein-protein interactions associated with angiogenesis (the "angiome" could reveal how different stimuli result in different patterns of network activation and could implicate signaling intermediates as points for control or intervention. We constructed the protein-protein interaction networks of positive and negative regulation of angiogenesis comprising 367 and 245 proteins, respectively. We used five published gene expression datasets derived from in vitro assays using different types of blood endothelial cells stimulated by VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A. We used the Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM to identify significant temporal gene expression profiles. The statistically significant patterns between 2D fibronectin and 3D type I collagen substrates for telomerase-immortalized EC (TIME show that different substrates could influence the temporal gene activation patterns in the same cell line. We investigated the different activation patterns among 18 transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors, and experimentally measured the protein level of the tyrosine-kinase receptors VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 in human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC and human microvascular EC (MEC. The results show that VEGFR1-VEGFR2 levels are more closely coupled than VEGFR1-VEGFR3 or VEGFR2-VEGFR3 in HUVEC and MEC. This computational methodology can be extended to investigate other molecules or biological processes such as cell cycle.

  2. Mechanochemical pattern formation in simple models of active viscoelastic fluids and solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sergio; Radszuweit, Markus; Engel, Harald; Bär, Markus

    2017-11-01

    The cytoskeleton of the organism Physarum polycephalum is a prominent example of a complex active viscoelastic material wherein stresses induce flows along the organism as a result of the action of molecular motors and their regulation by calcium ions. Experiments in Physarum polycephalum have revealed a rich variety of mechanochemical patterns including standing, traveling and rotating waves that arise from instabilities of spatially homogeneous states without gradients in stresses and resulting flows. Herein, we investigate simple models where an active stress induced by molecular motors is coupled to a model describing the passive viscoelastic properties of the cellular material. Specifically, two models for viscoelastic fluids (Maxwell and Jeffrey model) and two models for viscoelastic solids (Kelvin-Voigt and Standard model) are investigated. Our focus is on the analysis of the conditions that cause destabilization of spatially homogeneous states and the related onset of mechano-chemical waves and patterns. We carry out linear stability analyses and numerical simulations in one spatial dimension for different models. In general, sufficiently strong activity leads to waves and patterns. The primary instability is stationary for all active fluids considered, whereas all active solids have an oscillatory primary instability. All instabilities found are of long-wavelength nature reflecting the conservation of the total calcium concentration in the models studied.

  3. Bilateral versus ipsilesional cortico-subcortical activity patterns in stroke show hemispheric dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Ana C; Banca, Paula; Pascoal, Augusto G; Cordeiro, Gustavo; Sargento-Freitas, João; Gouveia, Ana; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Background Understanding of interhemispheric interactions in stroke patients during motor control is an important clinical neuroscience quest that may provide important clues for neurorehabilitation. In stroke patients bilateral overactivation in both hemispheres has been interpreted as a poor prognostic indicator of functional recovery. In contrast, ipsilesional patterns have been linked with better motor outcomes. Aim We investigated the pathophysiology of hemispheric interactions during limb movement without and with contralateral restraint, to mimic the effects of constraint-induced movement therapy. We used neuroimaging to probe brain activity with such a movement-dependent interhemispheric modulation paradigm. Methods We used a functional magnetic resonance imaging block design during which the plegic/paretic upper limb was recruited/mobilized to perform unilateral arm elevation, as a function of presence versus absence of contralateral limb restriction (n = 20, with balanced left/right lesion sites). Results Analysis of 10 right hemispheric stroke participants yielded bilateral sensorimotor cortex activation in all movement phases in contrast with the unilateral dominance seen in the 10 left hemispheric stroke participants. Superimposition of contralateral restriction led to a prominent shift from activation to deactivation response patterns, in particular in cortical and basal ganglia motor areas in right hemispheric stroke. Left hemispheric stroke was, in general, characterized by reduced activation patterns, even in the absence of restriction, which induced additional cortical silencing. Conclusion The observed hemispheric-dependent activation/deactivation shifts is novel and these pathophysiological observations suggest short-term neuroplasticity that may be useful for hemisphere-tailored neurorehabilitation.

  4. Thermal ecology and activity pattern lizard tropidurus hispidus (sauria: tropiduridae) in the east of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, Jenniffer; Gonzalez S, Luis Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    We studied aspects of thermal ecology and activity patterns in the lizard Tropidurus hispidus in a forest tropophic of Sucre state, Venezuela between June 2007 and May 2008. The body temperature was 35.68±1.4 Celsius degrades from 32.6 to 37.80 Celsius degrade. Female's body temperature (Tb) in drought and rainfall was 34-38 Celsius degrades and 32-38 Celsius degrades, respectively. In males the range of body temperature (Tb) in drought was 35-37 Celsius degrades and 34-35 Celsius degrades, in rain. No relation was found between the air temperature (Ta) and substrate temperature (Ts). Thermoregulatory trend, indicate active thermoregulation in drought and rain. Dividing the activity into three time segments: morning, afternoon and evening and the pattern of activity was bimodal in drought and unimodal in rain. To relate the pattern of activity with environmental variables (air and substrate) using the Pearson correlation in drought was a negative correlation with air temperature (-0.780) and with the substrate (-0.65). Rain was not associated with the air temperature (-0.056) or the substrate (-0.040). The thermal niche breadth was calculated using the Levins index, we did not find significant differences between males and females in both periods and thermal niche overlap between sexes, obtained by the Pianka index was 0.81 in rain and 0.90 in drought.

  5. Complementary Gli activity mediates early patterning of the mouse visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Marosh; Wallace, Valerie A

    2006-03-01

    The Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of the vertebrate central nervous system, including the eye. This pathway is mediated by the Gli transcription factors (Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3) that differentially activate and repress the expression of specific downstream target genes. In this study, we investigated the roles of the three vertebrate Glis in mediating midline Shh signaling in early ocular development. We examined the ocular phenotypes of Shh and Gli combination mutant mouse embryos and monitored proximodistal and dorsoventral patterning by the expression of specific eye development regulatory genes using in situ hybridization. We show that midline Shh signaling relieves the repressor activity of Gli3 adjacent to the midline and then promotes eye pattern formation through the nonredundant activities of all three Gli proteins. Gli3, in particular, is required to specify the dorsal optic stalk and to define the boundary between the optic stalk and the optic cup.

  6. Plasmonic modulator optimized by patterning of active layer and tuning permittivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    as electrodes. External field changes carrier density in the ultra-thin ITO layer, which influences the permittivity. The metal-insulator-metal system possesses a plasmon resonance, and it is strongly affected by changes in the permittivity of the active layer. To improve performance of the structure we propose...... several optimizations. We examine influence of the ITO permittivity on the modulator's performance and point out appropriate values. We analyze eigenmodes of the waveguide structure and specify the range for its efficient operation. We show that substituting the continuous active layer by a one......-dimension periodic stripes increases transmittance through the device and keeps the modulator's performance at the same level. The dependence on the pattern size and filling factor of the active material is analyzed and optimum parameters are found. Patterned ITO layers allow us to design a Bragg grating inside...

  7. Leisure-time physical activity patterns by weight control status: 1999-2002 NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Yore, Michelle M; Kohl, Harold W

    2007-05-01

    Regular physical activity reduces the risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, and some cancers. Physical activity is associated inversely with overweight and obesity prevalence, thus potentially assisting in weight control efforts. The purpose of this paper is to examine the variability of physical activity levels and their patterns by self-reported weight control status in a nationally representative sample. Four years of data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to examine leisure-time physical activity patterns (regular, irregular, inactive) and the prevalence of weight control practices (trying to lose, trying to maintain, not trying to lose or maintain) among U.S. adults (N = 9496). The prevalence of regular physical activity was 32.6% among people trying to lose weight, 37.9% among people trying to maintain weight, and 21.8% among those not trying to lose or maintain weight. Those trying to lose weight were almost three times as likely to be regularly active (vs inactive), and those trying to maintain weight were over three times more likely to be regularly active (vs inactive) than those not trying to lose or maintain weight. The most commonly reported activities among those trying to lose weight were walking (38.3%), yard work (14.5%), biking (12.5%), and running (11.6%). Despite the importance of physical activity, fewer than half the people trying to lose or maintain weight were regularly active during leisure-time. People trying to lose or maintain weight had a higher likelihood of being regularly active than those not trying to lose or maintain weight. Walking was the most common type of physical activity among all weight control groups. Health promotion efforts should promote increased levels of physical activity among all adults.

  8. Dissecting patterns of preparatory activity in the frontal eye fields during pursuit target selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Ramanujan T; Joshua, Mati

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the composition of preparatory activity of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons in monkeys performing a pursuit target selection task. In response to the orthogonal motion of a large and a small reward target, monkeys initiated pursuit biased toward the direction of large reward target motion. FEF neurons exhibited robust preparatory activity preceding movement initiation in this task. Preparatory activity consisted of two components, ramping activity that was constant across target selection conditions, and a flat offset in firing rates that signaled the target selection condition. Ramping activity accounted for 50% of the variance in the preparatory activity and was linked most strongly, on a trial-by-trial basis, to pursuit eye movement latency rather than to its direction or gain. The offset in firing rates that discriminated target selection conditions accounted for 25% of the variance in the preparatory activity and was commensurate with a winner-take-all representation, signaling the direction of large reward target motion rather than a representation that matched the parameters of the upcoming movement. These offer new insights into the role that the frontal eye fields play in target selection and pursuit control. They show that preparatory activity in the FEF signals more strongly when to move rather than where or how to move and suggest that structures outside the FEF augment its contributions to the target selection process. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We used the smooth eye movement pursuit system to link between patterns of preparatory activity in the frontal eye fields and movement during a target selection task. The dominant pattern was a ramping signal that did not discriminate between selection conditions and was linked, on trial-by-trial basis, to movement latency. A weaker pattern was composed of a constant signal that discriminated between selection conditions but was only weakly linked to the movement parameters. Copyright © 2017 the American

  9. Active pauses induce more variable electromyographic pattern of the trapezius muscle activity during computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    , with passive (relax) and active (30% maximum voluntary contraction of shoulder elevation) pauses given every 2 min at two different work paces (low/high). Bipolar SEMG from four parts of the trapezius muscle was recorded. The relative rest time was higher for the lower parts compared with the upper......The aim of this laboratory study was to evaluate effects of active and passive pauses and investigate the distribution of the trapezius surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity during computer mouse work. Twelve healthy male subjects performed four sessions of computer work for 10 min in one day...... of the trapezius (pwork with active pause compared with passive one (p

  10. Physical activity patterns in morbidly obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soyang; Mohammad, Jamal; Samuel, Isaac

    2011-01-01

    To compare physical activity patterns between morbidly obese and normal-weight women. Daily physical activity of 18 morbidly obese and 7 normal-weight women aged 30-58 years was measured for 2 days using the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) device. The obese group spent about 2 hr/day less standing and 30 min/day less walking than did the normal-weight group. Time spent standing (standing time) was positively associated with time spent walking (walking time). Age- and walking time-adjusted standing time did not differ according to weight status. Promoting standing may be a strategy to increase walking.

  11. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...

  12. Leadership, Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts About » Leadership, Governance Leadership national security and energy challenges. Leadership, Governance Ethics, Accountability Los Alamos National . Director's Office terry wallace in leadership, governance Director Terry C. Wallace, Jr. Terry C. Wallace, Jr

  13. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... of governance. Finally, the paper makes recommendations for future work in adapting ST to the e-government context....

  14. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRO M. TOZETTI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  15. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozetti, Alexandro M; Martins, Marcio

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado) in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  16. Ambulatory activity monitoring: Progress in measurement of activity, posture, and specific motion patterns in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); U.W. Ebner-Priemer (Ulrich); J. Fahrenberg (Jochen)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBehavior is central to psychology in almost any definition. Although observable activity is a core aspect of behavior, assessment strategies have tended to focus on emotional, cognitive, or physiological responses. When physical activity is assessed, it is done so mostly with

  17. Capturing well-being in activity pattern models within activity-based travel demand models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The activity-based approach which is based on the premise that the demand for travel is derived : from the demand for activities, currently constitutes the state of the art in metropolitan travel : demand forecasting and particularly in a form known ...

  18. Activization of the state policy on euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Pak

    2016-09-01

    Research objective is the justification of the need of activization of the state policy on Euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance. During the research it is recognized that the realization of the state policy on the basis of the considered principles, tools, functions, factors and methods has to execute a main objective of the interstate regional control which is exercised in the sphere of Euro-regional cooperation and to promote adjustment of close mutually beneficial relations of Ukraine and neighboring states, to increase competitiveness of the Ukrainian territories and the most effective use of capacity of the Ukrainian regions in the course of activity of Euro-regions. Finally, such state policy has to be focused on the maintenance of the sufficient standard of living of the population, on ensuring integrity and unity of the social and economic space of the country, on formation of the conditions of sustainable and industrial and innovative development of regions, which will provide its harmonious integration into the European environment.

  19. Patterns of health behaviour associated with active travel: a compositional data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Louise; Dumuid, Dorothea; Atkin, Andrew J; Olds, Timothy; Ogilvie, David

    2018-03-21

    Active travel (walking or cycling for transport) is associated with favourable health outcomes in adults. However, little is known about the concurrent patterns of health behaviour associated with active travel. We used compositional data analysis to explore differences in how people doing some active travel used their time compared to those doing no active travel, incorporating physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep. We analysed cross-sectional data from the 2014/15 United Kingdom Harmonised European Time Use Survey. Participants recorded two diary days of activity, and we randomly selected one day from participants aged 16 years or over. Activities were categorised into six mutually exclusive sets, accounting for the entire 24 h: (1) sleep; (2) leisure moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); (3) leisure sedentary screen time; (4) non-discretionary time (work, study, chores and caring duties); (5) travel and (6) other. This mixture of activities was defined as a time-use composition. A binary variable was created indicating whether participants reported any active travel on their selected diary day. We used compositional multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to test whether mean time-use composition differed between individuals reporting some active travel and those reporting no active travel, adjusted for covariates. We then used adjusted linear regression models and bootstrap confidence intervals to identify which of the six activity sets differed between groups. 6143 participants (mean age 48 years; 53% female) provided a valid diary day. There was a statistically significant difference in time-use composition between those reporting some active travel and those reporting no active travel. Those undertaking active travel reported a relatively greater amount of time in leisure MVPA and travel, and a relatively lower amount of time in leisure sedentary screen time and sleep. Compared to those not undertaking active travel, those who did

  20. Enabling active and healthy ageing decision support systems with the smart collection of TV usage patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billis, Antonis S; Batziakas, Asterios; Bratsas, Charalampos; Tsatali, Marianna S; Karagianni, Maria; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    Smart monitoring of seniors behavioural patterns and more specifically activities of daily living have attracted immense research interest in recent years. Development of smart decision support systems to support the promotion of health smart homes has also emerged taking advantage of the plethora of smart, inexpensive and unobtrusive monitoring sensors, devices and software tools. To this end, a smart monitoring system has been used in order to extract meaningful information about television (TV) usage patterns and subsequently associate them with clinical findings of experts. The smart TV operating state remote monitoring system was installed in four elderly women homes and gathered data for more than 11 months. Results suggest that TV daily usage (time the TV is turned on) can predict mental health change. Conclusively, the authors suggest that collection of smart device usage patterns could strengthen the inference capabilities of existing health DSSs applied in uncontrolled settings such as real senior homes.

  1. Distribution patterns of firearm discharge residues as revealed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Driscoll, D.C.; Jester, W.A.

    1975-01-01

    A systematic investigation using a variety of handguns has revealed the existence of distinguisable distribution patterns of firearm discharge residues on surfaces below the flight path of a bullet. The residues are identificable even at distances of 12 meters from the gun using nondestructive neutron activation analysis. The results of these investigations show that the distribution pattern for a gun is reproducible using similar ammunition and that there exist two distinct regions to the patterns developed between the firearm and the target-one with respect to the position of the gun and the other in the vicinity of the target. The judicious applications of these findings could be of significant value in criminal investigations. (T.G.)

  2. School and class-level variations and patterns of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholt, Carina Bjørnskov; Pisinger, Veronica Sofie Clara; Danquah, Ida Høgstedt

    2018-01-01

    is to describe patterns of PA and assess variations between schools and classes in PA, in a large cohort of Danish high school students. METHODS: Self-reported cross-sectional data came from The Danish National Youth Study, comprising a total of 70,674 students attending 119 different schools and 3213 classes....... Multilevel logistic regressions were applied to evaluate the association between socio-demographic variables and patterns of PA, and to assess the impact of schools and classes on PA measures. RESULTS: Students whose parents have achieved a lower level of education, older students and girls of perceived......BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge of physical activity (PA) patterns among high school students. High schools plays an important role as context for the students, but it is uncertain to what extent schools influence student participation in PA during leisure time. The purpose of this study...

  3. Leisure time physical activity in Saudi Arabia: prevalence, pattern and determining factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Al Khoudair, Ali Salah; Al Harbi, Mohammad Abdulwahab; Al Ali, Ahmed Radi

    2012-01-01

    Identification of reliable predictors of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) will enable healthcare providers to intervene and change the patterns of LTPA in the population to improve community health. The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence and pattern of LTPA among adult Saudis aged 18-65 years, and to define the socio-demographic determinants that correlate with LTPA in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study of 2176 adult Saudis attending urban and rural primary health care centers were selected using a multistage proportionate sampling method. Participants were personally interviewed to gather information regarding socio-demographics, physical activity pattern using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Physical activity (PA) in each domain was expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs). The median total METs minutes/week for LTPA for both genders was 256, higher for men (636 METs minutes/week) compared to women (249 METs minutes/week). Overall, only 19.8% of the total PA was derived from LTPA. Of the sampled population 50.0% reported doing no leisure activity. Using the cut off of 600 METs-minutes/day or 150 minutes of moderate intensity over 5 or more days/week, only 21.0% of the included sample were considered as being sufficiently active and 10.4% were in the high active category with beneficial health effects. Multivariate regression analysis showed that male, younger age (active in the LTPA domain. The prevalence and intensity of LTPA among the included sample demonstrated low levels. Nearly 80% of the included sample population did not achieve the recommended LTPA level with beneficial health effects. Female gender, urban residence and associated chronic diseases correlated with a low LTPA.

  4. SEASONAL DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SEDENTARY PATTERNS: THE RELEVANCE OF THE PA CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to characterize seasonal variation in the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA and sedentary behavior of Portuguese school youth, and understand the influence of activity choices and settings. The participants in this study were 24 students, aged 10-13 years. Accelerometers measured daily PA over 7 consecutive days, in different seasons May - June and January - February. In summer, boys accumulated more minutes in MVPA (928 minutes/week than girls (793 minutes/week. In winter the pattern was reversed with girls accumulating more activity than boys (736 minutes/week vs. 598 minutes/week. The repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant effects for season (F = 5.98, p = 0.023 and in- school vs. out-of-school (F = 6.53, p = 0.018. Youth were more active in the summer and activity levels were higher after school than in school. Summer season provided relevant contexts for youth physical activity accumulation. Winter season may have been a significant barrier to boy's preferred PA context. Differences in choices of outdoor or indoor PA, after school, explained the gender differences in seasonal activity patterns

  5. Effects of Age, Season, Gender and Urban-Rural Status on Time-Activity: Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Matz, Carlyn J.; Stieb, David M.; Davis, Karelyn; Egyed, Marika; Rose, Andreas; Chou, Benedito; Brion, Orly

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2) was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-...

  6. Influence of patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation on quadriceps activation in individuals with knee joint injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaviano, Neal R; Langston, William T; Hart, Joseph M; Saliba, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation is a common intervention to address muscle weakness, however presents with many limitations such as fatigue, muscle damage, and patient discomfort that may influence its effectiveness. One novel form of electrical stimulation purported to improve neuromuscular re-education is Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation (PENS), which is proposed to mimic muscle-firing patterns of healthy individuals. PENS provides patterned stimulating to the agonist muscle, antagonist muscle and then agonist muscle again in an effort to replicate firing patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a single PENS treatment on knee extension torque and quadriceps activation in individuals with quadriceps inhibition. 18 subjects (10 males and 8 females: 24.2±3.4 years, 175.3±11.8cm, 81.8±12.4kg) with a history of knee injury/pain participated in this double-blinded randomized controlled laboratory trial. Participants demonstrated quadriceps inhibition with a central activation ratio of ≤90%. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps and central activation ratio were measured before and after treatment. The treatment intervention was a 15-minute patterned electrical stimulation applied to the quadriceps and hamstring muscles with a strong motor contraction or a sham group, who received an identical set up as the PENS group, but received a 1mA subsensory stimulation. A 2×2 (group × time) ANCOVA was used to determine differences in maximal voluntary isometric contraction and central activation ratio between groups. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction was selected as a covariate due to baseline differences. There were no differences in change scores between pre- and post-intervention for maximal voluntary isometric contraction: (PENS: 0.09±0.32Nm/kg and Sham 0.15±0.18Nm/kg, p=0.713), or central activation ratio:(PENS: -1.22±6.06 and Sham: 1.48±3.7, p=0.270). A single Patterned Electrical

  7. Effects of Individual Health Topic Familiarity on Activity Patterns During Health Information Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Koichi; Fukui, Ken–ichi; Numao, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-medical professionals (consumers) are increasingly using the Internet to support their health information needs. However, the cognitive effort required to perform health information searches is affected by the consumer’s familiarity with health topics. Consumers may have different levels of familiarity with individual health topics. This variation in familiarity may cause misunderstandings because the information presented by search engines may not be understood correctly by the consumers. Objective As a first step toward the improvement of the health information search process, we aimed to examine the effects of health topic familiarity on health information search behaviors by identifying the common search activity patterns exhibited by groups of consumers with different levels of familiarity. Methods Each participant completed a health terminology familiarity questionnaire and health information search tasks. The responses to the familiarity questionnaire were used to grade the familiarity of participants with predefined health topics. The search task data were transcribed into a sequence of search activities using a coding scheme. A computational model was constructed from the sequence data using a Markov chain model to identify the common search patterns in each familiarity group. Results Forty participants were classified into L1 (not familiar), L2 (somewhat familiar), and L3 (familiar) groups based on their questionnaire responses. They had different levels of familiarity with four health topics. The video data obtained from all of the participants were transcribed into 4595 search activities (mean 28.7, SD 23.27 per session). The most frequent search activities and transitions in all the familiarity groups were related to evaluations of the relevancy of selected web pages in the retrieval results. However, the next most frequent transitions differed in each group and a chi-squared test confirmed this finding (Pinformation search patterns

  8. Shuttle Rocket Motor Program: NASA should delay awarding some construction contracts. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Even though the executive branch has proposed terminating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program, NASA is proceeding with all construction activity planned for FY 1992 to avoid schedule slippage if the program is reinstated by Congress. However, NASA could delay some construction activities for at least a few months without affecting the current launch data schedule. For example, NASA could delay Yellow Creek's motor storage and dock projects, Stennis' dock project, and Kennedy's rotation processing and surge facility and dock projects. Starting all construction activities as originally planned could result in unnecessarily incurring additional costs and termination liability if the funding for FY 1993 is not provided. If Congress decides to continue the program, construction could still be completed in time to avoid schedule slippage.

  9. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  10. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  11. Restrictive pattern on spirometry: association with cardiovascular risk and level of physical activity in asymptomatic adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To determine whether a restrictive pattern on spirometry is associated with the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL, as well as with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, in asymptomatic adults. Methods : A total of 374 participants (mean age, 41 ± 14 years underwent spirometry, which included the determination of FVC and FEV1. A restrictive pattern on spirometry was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio > 0.7 and an FVC < 80% of the predicted value. After conducting demographic, anthropometric, and CVD risk assessments, we evaluated body composition, muscle function, and postural balance, as well as performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and administering the six-minute walk test. The PADL was quantified with a triaxial accelerometer. Results : A restrictive pattern on spirometry was found in 10% of the subjects. After multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for confounders (PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness, the following variables retained significance (OR; 95% CI as predictors of a restrictive pattern: systemic arterial hypertension (17.5; 1.65-184.8, smoking (11.6; 1.56-87.5, physical inactivity (8.1; 1.43-46.4, larger center-of-pressure area while standing on a force platform (1.34; 1.05-1.71; and dyslipidemia (1.89; 1.12-1.98. Conclusions : A restrictive pattern on spirometry appears to be common in asymptomatic adults. We found that CVD risk factors, especially systemic arterial hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity, were directly associated with a restrictive pattern, even when the analysis was adjusted for PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness. Longitudinal studies are needed in order to improve understanding of the etiology of a restrictive pattern as well as to aid in the design of preventive strategies.

  12. Distinct Patterns of Brain Activity Characterise Lexical Activation and Competition in Spoken Word Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Jensen, O.; Schoffelen, J.M.; Bonnefond, M.

    2014-01-01

    According to a prominent theory of language production, concepts activate multiple associated words in memory, which enter into competition for selection. However, only a few electrophysiological studies have identified brain responses reflecting competition. Here, we report a magnetoencephalography

  13. Geographical patterns of the standing and active human gut microbiome in health and IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Ateequr; Rausch, Philipp; Wang, Jun; Skieceviciene, Jurgita; Kiudelis, Gediminas; Bhagalia, Ketan; Amarapurkar, Deepak; Kupcinskas, Limas; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip; Baines, John F; Ott, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    A global increase of IBD has been reported, especially in countries that previously had low incidence rates. Also, the knowledge of the human gut microbiome is steadily increasing, however, limited information regarding its variation on a global scale is available. In the light of the microbial involvement in IBDs, we aimed to (1) identify shared and distinct IBD-associated mucosal microbiota patterns from different geographical regions including Europe (Germany, Lithuania) and South Asia (India) and (2) determine whether profiling based on 16S rRNA transcripts provides additional resolution, both of which may hold important clinical relevance. In this study, we analyse a set of 89 mucosal biopsies sampled from individuals of German, Lithuanian and Indian origins, using bacterial community profiling of a roughly equal number of healthy controls, patients with Crohn's disease and UC from each location, and analyse 16S rDNA and rRNA as proxies for standing and active microbial community structure, respectively. We find pronounced population-specific as well as general disease patterns in the major phyla and patterns of diversity, which differ between the standing and active communities. The geographical origin of samples dominates the patterns of β diversity with locally restricted disease clusters and more pronounced effects in the active microbial communities. However, two genera belonging to the Clostridium leptum subgroup, Faecalibacteria and Papillibacter, display consistent patterns with respect to disease status and may thus serve as reliable 'microbiomarkers'. These analyses reveal important interactions of patients' geographical origin and disease in the interpretation of disease-associated changes in microbial communities and highlight the added value of analysing communities on both the 16S rRNA gene (DNA) and transcript (RNA) level. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  14. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y.; Rymer, William Z.

    2018-01-01

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy. PMID:26916510

  15. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Saldívar-Lucio

    Full Text Available The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress. The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region.

  16. Axi-symmetric patterns of active polar filaments on spherical and composite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pragya; Rao, Madan

    2014-03-01

    Experiments performed on Fission Yeast cells of cylindrical and spherical shapes, rod-shaped bacteria and reconstituted cylindrical liposomes suggest the influence of cell geometry on patterning of cortical actin. A theoretical model based on active hydrodynamic description of cortical actin that includes curvature-orientation coupling predicts spontaneous formation of acto-myosin rings, cables and nodes on cylindrical and spherical geometries [P. Srivastava et al, PRL 110, 168104(2013)]. Stability and dynamics of these patterns is also affected by the cellular shape and has been observed in experiments performed on Fission Yeast cells of spherical shape. Motivated by this, we study the stability and dynamics of axi-symmetric patterns of active polar filaments on the surfaces of spherical, saddle shaped and conical geometry and classify the stable steady state patterns on these surfaces. Based on the analysis of the fluorescence images of Myosin-II during ring slippage we propose a simple mechanical model for ring-sliding based on force balance and make quantitative comparison with the experiments performed on Fission Yeast cells. NSF Grant DMR-1004789 and Syracuse Soft Matter Program.

  17. Improved prognostic classification of breast cancer defined by antagonistic activation patterns of immune response pathway modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teschendorff, Andrew E; Gomez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex; El-Ashry, Dorraya; Schmidt, Marcus; Gehrmann, Mathias; Caldas, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Elucidating the activation pattern of molecular pathways across a given tumour type is a key challenge necessary for understanding the heterogeneity in clinical response and for developing novel more effective therapies. Gene expression signatures of molecular pathway activation derived from perturbation experiments in model systems as well as structural models of molecular interactions ('model signatures') constitute an important resource for estimating corresponding activation levels in tumours. However, relatively few strategies for estimating pathway activity from such model signatures exist and only few studies have used activation patterns of pathways to refine molecular classifications of cancer. Here we propose a novel network-based method for estimating pathway activation in tumours from model signatures. We find that although the pathway networks inferred from cancer expression data are highly consistent with the prior information contained in the model signatures, that they also exhibit a highly modular structure and that estimation of pathway activity is dependent on this modular structure. We apply our methodology to a panel of 438 estrogen receptor negative (ER-) and 785 estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers to infer activation patterns of important cancer related molecular pathways. We show that in ER negative basal and HER2+ breast cancer, gene expression modules reflecting T-cell helper-1 (Th1) and T-cell helper-2 (Th2) mediated immune responses play antagonistic roles as major risk factors for distant metastasis. Using Boolean interaction Cox-regression models to identify non-linear pathway combinations associated with clinical outcome, we show that simultaneous high activation of Th1 and low activation of a TGF-beta pathway module defines a subtype of particularly good prognosis and that this classification provides a better prognostic model than those based on the individual pathways. In ER+ breast cancer, we find that

  18. Fetal functional brain age assessed from universal developmental indices obtained from neuro-vegetative activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hoyer

    Full Text Available Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS. Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4-40.3 weeks of gestation preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5. The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R(2 of training and validation set of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications. We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA

  19. Physical activity patterns and estimated daily energy expenditures in normal and overweight tunisian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Fayçal; Bouhlel, Ezdine; Feki, Youssef; Amri, Mohamed; Shephard, Roy J

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to test the normality of physical activity patterns and energy expenditures in normal weight and overweight primary school students. Heart rate estimates of total daily energy expenditure (TEE), active energy expenditure (AEE), and activity patterns were made over 3 consecutive school days in healthy middle-class Tunisian children (46 boys, 44 girls, median age (25(th)-75(th)) percentile, 9.2 (8.8-9.9) years. Our cross-section included 52 students with a normal body mass index (BMI) and 38 who exceeded age-specific BMI limits. TEE, AEE and overall physical activity level (PAL) were not different between overweight children and those with a normal BMI [median values (25(th)-75(th)) 9.20 (8.20-9.84) vs. 8.88 (7.42-9.76) MJ/d; 3.56 (2.59-4.22) vs. 3.85 (2.77-4.78) MJ/d and 1.74 (1.54-2.04) vs. 1.89 (1.66-2.15) respectively]. Physical activity intensities (PAI) were expressed as percentages of the individual's heart rate reserve (%HRR). The median PAI for the entire day (PAI24) and for the waking part of day (PAIw) were lower in overweight than in normal weight individuals [16.3 (14.2-18.9) vs. 20.6 (17.9-22.3) %HRR, p spend more time in moderate activity and less time in sedentary pursuits than overweight children.

  20. Patterns of frontoparietal activation as a marker for unsuccessful visuospatial processing in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drag, Lauren L; Light, Sharee N; Langenecker, Scott A; Hazlett, Kathleen E; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Welsh, Robert; Steinberg, Brett A; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2016-09-01

    Visuospatial abilities are sensitive to age-related decline, although the neural basis for this decline (and its everyday behavioral correlates) is as yet poorly understood. fMRI was employed to examine age-related differences in patterns of functional activation that underlie changes in visuospatial processing. All participants completed a brief neuropsychological battery and also a figure ground task (FGT) assessing visuospatial processing while fMRI was recorded. Participants included 16 healthy older adults (OA; aged 69-82 years) and 16 healthy younger adults (YA; aged 20-35 years). We examined age-related differences in behavioral performance on the FGT in relation to patterns of fMRI activation. OA demonstrated reduced performance on the FGT task and showed increased activation of supramarginal parietal cortex as well as increased activation of frontal and temporal regions compared to their younger counterparts. Performance on the FGT related to increased supramarginal gyrus activity and increased medial prefrontal activity in OAs, but not YAs. Our results are consistent with an anterior-posterior compensation model. Successful FGT performance requires the perception and integration of multiple stimuli and thus it is plausible that healthy aging may be accompanied by changes in visuospatial processing that mimic a subtle form of dorsal simultanagnosia. Overall, decreased visuospatial processing in OA relates to an altered frontoparietal neurobiological signature that may contribute to the general phenomenon of increasingly fragmented execution of behavior associated with normal aging.

  1. Differential Activation Patterns of fMRI in Sleep-Deprived Brain: Restoring Effects of Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggested a remediation role of acupuncture in insomnia, and acupuncture also has been used in insomnia empirically and clinically. In this study, we employed fMRI to test the role of acupuncture in sleep deprivation (SD. Sixteen healthy volunteers (8 males were recruited and scheduled for three fMRI scanning procedures, one following the individual’s normal sleep and received acupuncture SP6 (NOR group and the other two after 24 h of total SD with acupuncture on SP6 (SD group or sham (Sham group. The sessions were counterbalanced approximately two weeks apart. Acupuncture stimuli elicited significantly different activation patterns of three groups. In NOR group, the right superior temporal lobe, left inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus were activated; in SD group, the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left basal ganglia, and thalamus were significantly activated while, in Sham group, the bilateral thalamus and left cerebellum were activated. Different activation patterns suggest a unique role of acupuncture on SP6 in remediation of SD. SP6 elicits greater and anatomically different activations than those of sham stimuli; that is, the salience network, a unique interoceptive autonomic circuit, may indicate the mechanism underlying acupuncture in restoring sleep deprivation.

  2. Understanding Activation Patterns in Shared Circuits: Toward a Value Driven Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Aziz-Zadeh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade many studies indicate that we utilize our own motor system to understand the actions of other people. This mirror neuron system (MNS has been proposed to be involved in social cognition and motor learning. However, conflicting findings regarding the underlying mechanisms that drive these shared circuits make it difficult to decipher a common model of their function. Here we propose adapting a “value-driven” model to explain discrepancies in the human mirror system literature and to incorporate this model with existing models. We will use this model to explain discrepant activation patterns in multiple shared circuits in the human data, such that a unified model may explain reported activation patterns from previous studies as a function of value.

  3. Geographic Variation in Daily Temporal Activity Patterns of a Neotropical Marsupial (Gracilinanus agilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson M Vieira

    Full Text Available The temporal activity of animals is an outcome of both biotic and abiotic factors, which may vary along the geographic range of the species. Therefore, studies conducted with a species in different localities with distinct features could elucidate how animals deal with such factors. In this study, we used live traps equipped with timing devices to investigate the temporal activity patterns of the didelphid Gracilinanus agilis in two dry-woodland areas of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado. These areas were located about 660 km apart, one in Central Brazil and the other in Southeastern Brazil. We compared such patterns considering both reproductive and non-reproductive periods, and how it varies as a function of temperature on a seasonal basis. In Central Brazil, we found a constant, and temperature-independent activity during the night in both reproductive and non-reproductive periods. On the other hand, in Southeastern Brazil, we detected a constant activity during the reproductive period, but in the non-reproductive period G. agilis presented a peak of activity between two and four hours after sunset. Moreover, in this latter we found a relation between temporal activity and temperature during the autumn and spring. These differences in temporal activity between areas, observed during the non-reproductive period, might be associated with the higher seasonal variability in temperature, and lower mean temperatures in the Southeastern site in comparison to the Central one. In Southeastern Brazil, the decrease in temperature during the non-reproductive season possibly forced G. agilis to be active only at certain hours of the night. However, likely due to the reproductive activities (intensive foraging and searching for mates this marsupial showed constant, temperature-independent activity during the night in the reproductive period at both sites.

  4. Physical Activity Patterns During Pregnancy in a Sample of Portuguese Women: A Longitudinal Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Paula Clara; Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Carla; Santos, Rute; Ferreira, Margarida; Alves, Odete; Moreira, Pedro; Mota, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    Physical activity (PA) patterns during pregnancy have not been explored in depth and most previous studies lack assessment of variables such as type, frequency, duration and intensity of activity. This study had two goals: 1) to analyze PA patterns during pregnancy according to weekly time spent on different types of activity; and 2) to determine women's perception about health care providers regarding PA advisement during pregnancy. A longitudinal prospective study was carried out with a 118-pregnant women cohort. Participants were evaluated during all trimesters. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect personal and obstetric data. Type, duration and frequency of PA were evaluated using the pregnancy physical activity questionnaire (PPAQ) and intensity levels were calculated. Repeated measure analysis of variance was performed to determine differences between trimesters, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed when appropriate. A decrease in values of self-reported PA (MET.h.wk(-1)) was found from the first to the second and the first to the third trimester of pregnancy, respectively; total (270.91 vs 220.54 vs 210.35; P pregnancy. Women spent most of their weekly time during the entire pregnancy on household and caregiving activities, occupational activities and leisure, except sport activities. Swimming was the most reported organized PA, reaching its highest proportion (12.7%) in the second trimester. Prenatal exercise classes were reported by 39.8% of women during the 3rd trimester. Pregnant women reported that PA was recommended by health professionals: 53.9% in the 1st trimester, 70.4% in the 2nd trimester and 56.8% in the 3rd trimester. Self-reported PA decreased, especially from the first to the second trimester, in total, light and moderate intensity. Women spent most of their weekly time on domestic, occupational and leisure activities, except sport activities. There are some health care providers that do not recommend physical activity

  5. Exploring the Use of Activity Patterns for Smart Monitoring of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Karen Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-10

    The world is at an inflection point where our ability to collect data now far outpaces our ability to make use of it. LANL has a number of efforts to help us pull more meaningful insights out of our data and target resources to where they will be most impactful. We are exploring an approach to recognizing activity patterns across disparate data streams for a more holistic view of nuclear facility monitoring.

  6. Muscle activation patterns and motor anatomy of Anna's hummingbirds Calypte anna and zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Edward R; Keeney, Brooke K; Kung, Eric; Makan, Sirish; Wild, J Martin; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    Flying animals exhibit profound transformations in anatomy, physiology, and neural architecture. Although much is known about adaptations in the avian skeleton and musculature, less is known about neuroanatomy and motor unit integration for bird flight. Hummingbirds are among the most maneuverable and specialized of vertebrate fliers, and two unusual neuromuscular features have been previously reported: (1) the pectoralis major has a unique distribution pattern of motor end plates (MEPs) compared with all other birds and (2) electromyograms (EMGs) from the hummingbird's pectoral muscles, the pectoralis major and the supracoracoideus, show activation bursts composed of one or a few spikes that appear to have a very consistent pattern. Here, we place these findings in a broader context by comparing the MEPs, EMGs, and organization of the spinal motor neuron pools of flight muscles of Anna's hummingbird Calypte anna, zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, and, for MEPs, several other species. The previously shown MEP pattern of the hummingbird pectoralis major is not shared with its closest taxonomic relative, the swift, and appears to be unique to hummingbirds. MEP arrangements in previously undocumented wing muscles show patterns that differ somewhat from other avian muscles. In the parallel-fibered strap muscles of the shoulder, MEP patterns appear to relate to muscle length, with the smallest muscles having fibers that span the entire muscle. MEP patterns in pennate distal wing muscles were the same regardless of size, with tightly clustered bands in the middle portion of the muscle, not evenly distributed bands over the muscle's entire length. Muscle activations were examined during slow forward flight in both species, during hovering in hummingbirds, and during slow ascents in zebra finches. The EMG bursts of a wing muscle, the pronator superficialis, were highly variable in peak number, size, and distribution across wingbeats for both species. In the pectoralis

  7. PATTERNS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG AMERICAN INDIAN CHILDREN: AN ASSESSMENT OF BARRIERS AND SUPPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Janice L.; Davis, Sally M.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Going, Scott; Becenti, Alberta; Metcalfe, Lauve; Stone, Elaine; Harnack, Lisa; Ring, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Estimates indicate that 10% to 50% of American Indian and non-Indian children in the U.S. are obese, defined as a body mass index ≥ 95th percentile of the NHANES II reference data. Pathways is a two-phase, multi-site study to develop and test a school-based obesity prevention program in American Indian schoolchildren in grades three through five. During Phase I feasibility prior to initiation of the Pathways trial, data were collected related to physical activity patterns, and the supports of, and barriers to, physical activity. Nine schools from communities representing six different tribal groups participated in this study. Multiple measures were used for data collection including direct observation, paired child interviews, and in-depth interviews and focus groups with adults. Students completed the self-administered Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors (KAB) survey, and a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Barriers to physical activity at schools included a lack of facilities, equipment, and trained staff persons for PE. Adults were not consistently active with their children, but they were highly supportive of their children’s activity level. Children reported a strong enjoyment of physical activity and strong peer support to be physically active. Weather conditions, safety concerns, and homework/chores were common barriers to physical activity reported by children and adult caregivers. The information was used to design culturally and age-appropriate, practical interventions including the five physical activity programs for schoolchildren in the Pathways study. PMID:11759094

  8. Patterns of Asexuality in China: Sexual Activity, Sexual and Romantic Attraction, and Sexual Desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Su, Yanchen

    2018-05-01

    This study examined patterns of asexuality in Chinese asexual people in terms of sexual activities, sexual/romantic attraction, and sexual desire. The sample included 227 (64 men and 163 women) asexual participants and 57 (26 men and 31 women) uncertain asexual participants recruited from social networks for asexual people. The control group included 217 (115 men and 102 women) heterosexual participants recruited from general social networks. Participants scoring 40 or higher on the Asexuality Identification Scale were classified as asexual. Asexual participants reported having less frequent masturbation, sexual intercourse experience, and sexual and romantic attraction compared to heterosexual participants. Lower sexual attraction among asexuals indicated that "people who experience little or no sexual attraction" would be a more appropriate definition of asexuality. The pattern of uncertain asexual participants' sexual/romantic attraction and sexual desire was intermediate between heterosexual and asexual participants. Asexual participants scored significantly lower on dyadic sexual desire and slightly lower on solitary sexual desire than heterosexual participants. There were significant differences in sexual activities and solitary sexual desire among romantic orientation categories. Homoromantic participants showed higher dyadic sexual desire and were more likely to engage in masturbation, indicating the heterogeneity among asexual people. The findings indicated that Chinese asexual people showed similar patterns of asexuality as in Western nations. Specifically, asexual people have little or no sexual attraction, non-partner-orientated sexual desire, and are heterogeneous in sexual activities and sexual desire. This implies similar mechanisms underlying the etiology of asexuality across cultures.

  9. Activity Pattern Profiles: Relationship With Affect, Daily Functioning, Impairment, and Variables Related to Life Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruíz-Párraga, Gema T; González-Gómez, Henar; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify subgroups of patients on the basis of their activity patterns and to investigate their relationship with life goals, optimism, affect, and functioning. The sample was comprised of 276 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the activity pattern variables and the resulting clusters were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. The 4-cluster was the optimal solution. The 4 clusters comprised: 1) avoiders: patients with high levels of avoidance and low levels of persistence, who use pacing to reduce pain, 2) doers: patients with high levels of persistence and low levels of pacing and avoidance, 3) extreme cyclers: patients with high levels of avoidance and persistence and low levels of pacing, and 4) medium cyclers: patients with moderately high levels of avoidance and persistence and high levels of pacing. Comparison of the clusters showed that doers had the most adaptive profile, whereas avoiders, followed by extreme cyclers, had unhealthy profiles. Doers showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. It is useful to distinguish profiles on the basis of various activity patterns. In contrast to profiles characterized by avoidance, profiles characterized by high persistence and low avoidance were associated with adaptive results. Patients with this profile also showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential patterns of cortical activation as a function of fluid reasoning complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Bernardo; Saggino, Aristide; Ferretti, Antonio; Caulo, Massimo; Romani, Gian Luca; Onofrj, Marco

    2009-02-01

    Fluid intelligence (gf) refers to abstract reasoning and problem solving abilities. It is considered a human higher cognitive factor central to general intelligence (g). The regions of the cortex supporting gf have been revealed by recent bioimaging studies and valuable hypothesis on the neural correlates of individual differences have been proposed. However, little is known about the interaction between individual variability in gf and variation in cortical activity following task complexity increase. To further investigate this, two samples of participants (high-IQ, N = 8; low-IQ, N = 10) with significant differences in gf underwent two reasoning (moderate and complex) tasks and a control task adapted from the Raven progressive matrices. Functional magnetic resonance was used and the recorded signal analyzed between and within the groups. The present study revealed two opposite patterns of neural activity variation which were probably a reflection of the overall differences in cognitive resource modulation: when complexity increased, high-IQ subjects showed a signal enhancement in some frontal and parietal regions, whereas low-IQ subjects revealed a decreased activity in the same areas. Moreover, a direct comparison between the groups' activation patterns revealed a greater neural activity in the low-IQ sample when conducting moderate task, with a strong involvement of medial and lateral frontal regions thus suggesting that the recruitment of executive functioning might be different between the groups. This study provides evidence for neural differences in facing reasoning complexity among subjects with different gf level that are mediated by specific patterns of activation of the underlying fronto-parietal network.

  11. Acute caffeine administration effect on brain activation patterns in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Sven; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Moser, Dominik; Toma, Simona; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Sinanaj, Indrit; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that acute caffeine administration enhances task-related brain activation in elderly individuals with preserved cognition. To explore the effects of this widely used agent on cognition and brain activation in early phases of cognitive decline, we performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study during an n-back working memory task in 17 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to 17 age-matched healthy controls (HC). All individuals were regular caffeine consumers with an overnight abstinence and given 200 mg caffeine versus placebo tablets 30 minutes before testing. Analyses included assessment of task-related activation (general linear model), functional connectivity (tensorial-independent component analysis, TICA), baseline perfusion (arterial spin labeling, ASL), grey matter density (voxel-based morphometry, VBM), and white matter microstructure (tract-based spatial statistics, TBSS). Acute caffeine administration induced a focal activation of the prefrontal areas in HC with a more diffuse and posteromedial activation pattern in MCI individuals. In MCI, TICA documented a significant caffeine-related enhancement in the prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, ventral premotor and parietal cortex as well as the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The absence of significant group differences in baseline ASL perfusion patterns supports a neuronal rather than a purely vascular origin of these differences. The VBM and TBSS analyses excluded potentially confounding differences in grey matter density and white matter microstructure between MCI and HC. The present findings suggest a posterior displacement of working memory-related brain activation patterns after caffeine administration in MCI that may represent a compensatory mechanism to counterbalance a frontal lobe dysfunction.

  12. Relations among physical activity patterns, lifestyle activities, and fundamental movement skills for Finnish students in grade 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Timo; Kalaja, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jutila, Ari; Virtanen, Petri; Watt, Anthony

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the relations among leisure time physical activity and in sport clubs, lifestyle activities, and the locomotor, balance manipulative skills of Grade 7 students participating in Finnish physical education at a secondary school in central Finland completed self-report questionnaires on their physical activity patterns at leisure time and during sport club participation, and time spent watching television and using the computer and other electronic media. Locomotor skills were analyzed by the leaping test, balance skills by the flamingo standing test, and manipulative skills by the accuracy throwing test. Analysis indicated physical activity in sport clubs positively explained scores on balance and locomotor tests but not on accuracy of throwing. Leisure time physical activity and lifestyle activities were not statistically significant predictors of performance on any movement skill tests. Girls scored higher on the static balance skill and boys higher on the throwing task. Overall, physical activity in sport clubs was more strongly associated with performance on the fundamental movement tasks than was physical activity during leisure.

  13. Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF): isoelectric focusing pattern and tumoricidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin; Nagasawa, Hideko; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Ken; Hori, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    Gc protein is the precursor for Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF), with three phenotypes: Gc1f, Gc1s and Gc2, based on its electrophoretic mobility. The difference in electrophoretic mobility is because of the difference in its posttranslational sugar moiety composition. We compared the difference between Gc protein and GcMAF electrophoretic mobility using the isoelectric focusing (IEF) method. The tumoricidal activity of GcMAF-treated macrophage was evaluated after coculture with L-929 cell. The tumoricidal mechanism was investigated using TNF bioassay and nitric oxide (NO) release. The difference in Gc protein and GcMAF electrophoretic mobility was detected. The tumoricidal activity of GcMAF-treated macrophage was detected, but no release of TNF and NO was detected. The difference of isoelectric focusing mobility in Gc protein and GcMAF would be useful to develop a GcMAF detection method. GcMAF increased macrophage tumoricidal activity but TNF and NO release were not involved in the mechanism.

  14. Deviations in daily physical activity patterns in patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome: A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evering, R.M.H.; Tönis, Thijs; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2011-01-01

    Deviations in daily physical activity patterns may play an important role in the development and maintenance of fatigue in the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The aim of this study is to gain insight into the objective daily physical activity pattern of patients with CFS in comparison with healthy

  15. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern. The cu...

  16. Mechanochemical activation and patterning of an adhesive surface toward nanoparticle deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytekin, H Tarik; Baytekin, Bilge; Huda, Sabil; Yavuz, Zelal; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2015-02-11

    Mechanical pulling of adhesive tape creates radicals on the tape's surface. These radicals are capable of reducing metal salts to the corresponding metal nanoparticles. In this way, the mechanically activated tape can be decorated with various types of nanoparticles, including Au, Ag, Pd, or Cu. While retaining their mechanical properties and remaining "sticky," the tapes can exhibit new properties derived from the presence of metal nanoparticles (e.g., bacteriostaticity, increased electrical conductivity). They can also be patterned with nanoparticles only at selective locations of mechanical activation.

  17. Physical activity patterns of college students with and without high school physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Brett; Kernodle, Michael; Ballard, Kesley; McKey, Cathy; Eason, Billy; Weeks, Megan

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in physical activity patterns of high school graduates in Texas who completed physical education class credit during high school and those who did not but who were varsity athletes. A questionnaire was designed and tested for reliability prior to being administered to 201 college students. Analysis indicated that participants who completed high school physical education class credit do not currently participate in regular physical activity as much as those who were not required to complete such credit. Conversely, athletes who did not participate in physical education reported currently engaging in more cardiovascular exercise and team sports than the physical education students during high school.

  18. Improving Corporate Governance Practices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Huse; J. Gabrielsson; A. Minichilli

    2009-01-01

    Peak performing organizations may benefit from active value creating boards. Suggestions to improve board behaviour and corporate governance practices are presented in this article. The suggestions result from findings in the “Valued Creating Board” research programme. However, active boards working in a shareholder activism framework may destroy rather than support value creation processes within firms. In peak performing organizations corporate governance practices should be designed and de...

  19. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Lan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000, an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework. Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement, history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain

  20. Neighborhood walkability, income, and hour-by-hour physical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Daniel; Eriksson, Ulf; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate both the mean daily physical activity and the hour-by-hour physical activity patterns across the day using accelerometry and how they are associated with neighborhood walkability and individual income. Moderate physical activity (MPA) was assessed by accelerometry in 2252 adults in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. Neighborhood walkability (residential density, street connectivity, and land use mix) was objectively assessed within 1000m network buffers around the participants' residence and individual income was self-reported. Living in a high walkability neighborhood was associated with more mean daily MPA compared with living in a low walkability neighborhood on weekdays and weekend days. Hour-by-hour analyses showed that this association appeared mainly in the afternoon/early evening during weekdays, whereas it appeared across the middle of the day during weekend days. Individual income was associated with mean daily MPA on weekend days. On weekdays, the hour-by-hour analyses showed that high income was associated with more MPA around noon and in late afternoon/early evening, whereas low income was associated with more MPA at the hours before noon and in the early afternoon. During the weekend, high income was more consistently associated with higher MPA. Hour-by-hour accelerometry physical activity patterns provides a more comprehensive picture of the associations between neighborhood walkability and individual income and physical activity and the variability of these associations across the day.

  1. Relationship between massive chronic rotator cuff tear pattern and loss of active shoulder range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Philippe; Matsumura, Noboru; Lädermann, Alexandre; Denard, Patrick J; Walch, Gilles

    2014-08-01

    Management of massive chronic rotator cuff tears remains controversial, with no clearly defined clinical presentation as yet. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of tear size and location on active motion in patients with chronic and massive rotator cuff tears with severe muscle degeneration. One hundred patients with massive rotator cuff tears accompanied by muscle fatty infiltration beyond Goutallier stage 3 were prospectively included in this study. All patients were divided into 5 groups on the basis of tear pattern (supraspinatus, superior subscapularis, inferior subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor). Active range of shoulder motion was assessed in each group and differences were analyzed. Active elevation was significantly decreased in patients with 3 tear patterns involved. Pseudoparalysis was found in 80% of the cases with supraspinatus and complete subscapularis tears and in 45% of the cases with tears involving the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and superior subscapularis. Loss of active external rotation was related to tears involving the infraspinatus and teres minor; loss of active internal rotation was related to tears of the subscapularis. This study revealed that dysfunction of the entire subscapularis and supraspinatus or 3 rotator cuff muscles is a risk factor for pseudoparalysis. For function to be preserved in patients with massive chronic rotator cuff tears, it may be important to avoid fatty infiltration with anterior extension into the lower subscapularis or involvement of more than 2 rotator cuff muscles. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lateralization of brain activity pattern during unilateral movement in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Hou, Yanan; Hallett, Mark; Zhang, Jiarong; Chan, Piu

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the lateralization of brain activity pattern during performance of unilateral movement in drug-naïve Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with only right hemiparkinsonian symptoms. Functional MRI was obtained when the subjects performed strictly unilateral right hand movement. A laterality index was calculated to examine the lateralization. Patients had decreased activity in the left putamen and left supplementary motor area, but had increased activity in the right primary motor cortex, right premotor cortex, left postcentral gyrus, and bilateral cerebellum. The laterality index was significantly decreased in PD patients compared with controls (0.41 ± 0.14 vs. 0.84 ± 0.09). The connectivity from the left putamen to cortical motor regions and cerebellum was decreased, while the interactions between the cortical motor regions, cerebellum, and right putamen were increased. Our study demonstrates that in early PD, the lateralization of brain activity during unilateral movement is significantly reduced. The dysfunction of the striatum-cortical circuit, decreased transcallosal inhibition, and compensatory efforts from cortical motor regions, cerebellum, and the less affected striatum are likely reasons contributing to the reduced motor lateralization. The disruption of the lateralized brain activity pattern might be a reason underlying some motor deficits in PD, like mirror movements or impaired bilateral motor coordination. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Patterns of cerebral activation during lexical and phonological reading in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senaha M.L.H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the concepts of cognitive neuropsychology, there are two principal routes of reading processing: a lexical route, in which global reading of words occurs and a phonological route, responsible for the conversion of the graphemes into their respective phonemes. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to investigate the patterns of cerebral activation in lexical and phonological reading by 13 healthy women with a formal educational level greater than 11 years. Participants were submitted to a silent reading task containing three types of stimuli: real words (irregular and foreign words, nonwords and illegitimate graphic stimuli. An increased number of activated voxels were identified by fMRI in the word reading (lexical processing than in the nonword reading (phonological processing task. In word reading, activation was greater than for nonwords in the following areas: superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri, and bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum and the left precentral gyrus, as indicated by fMRI. In the reading of nonwords, the activation was predominant in the right cerebellum and in the left superior temporal gyrus. The results of the present study suggest the existence of differences in the patterns of cerebral activation during lexical and phonological reading, with greater involvement of the right hemisphere in reading words than nonwords.

  4. Micro-level explanations for emergent patterns of self-governance arrangements in small-scale fisheries-A modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Lindkvist

    Full Text Available Small-scale fisheries (SSFs in developing countries are expected to play a significant role in poverty alleviation and enhancing food security in the decades to come. To realize this expectation, a better understanding of their informal self-governance arrangements is critical for developing policies that can improve fishers' livelihoods and lead to sustainable ecosystem stewardship. The goal of this paper is to develop a more nuanced understanding of micro-level factors-such as fishers' characteristics and behavior-to explain observed differences in self-governance arrangements in Northwest Mexico. We focus on two ubiquitous forms of self-governance: hierarchical non-cooperative arrangements between fishers and fishbuyers, such as patron-client relationships (PCs, versus more cooperative arrangements amongst fishers, such as fishing cooperatives (co-ops. We developed an agent-based model of an archetypical SSF that captures key hypotheses from in-depth fieldwork in Northwest Mexico of fishers' day-to-day fishing and trading. Results from our model indicate that high diversity in fishers' reliability, and low initial trust between co-op members, makes co-ops' establishment difficult. PCs cope better with this kind of diversity because, in contrast to co-ops, they have more flexibility in choosing whom to work with. However, once co-ops establish, they cope better with seasonal variability in fish abundance and provide long-term security for the fishers. We argue that existing levels of trust and diversity among fishers matter for different self-governance arrangements to establish and persist, and should therefore be taken into account when developing better, targeted policies for improved SSFs governance.

  5. Micro-level explanations for emergent patterns of self-governance arrangements in small-scale fisheries-A modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindkvist, Emilie; Basurto, Xavier; Schlüter, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) in developing countries are expected to play a significant role in poverty alleviation and enhancing food security in the decades to come. To realize this expectation, a better understanding of their informal self-governance arrangements is critical for developing policies that can improve fishers' livelihoods and lead to sustainable ecosystem stewardship. The goal of this paper is to develop a more nuanced understanding of micro-level factors-such as fishers' characteristics and behavior-to explain observed differences in self-governance arrangements in Northwest Mexico. We focus on two ubiquitous forms of self-governance: hierarchical non-cooperative arrangements between fishers and fishbuyers, such as patron-client relationships (PCs), versus more cooperative arrangements amongst fishers, such as fishing cooperatives (co-ops). We developed an agent-based model of an archetypical SSF that captures key hypotheses from in-depth fieldwork in Northwest Mexico of fishers' day-to-day fishing and trading. Results from our model indicate that high diversity in fishers' reliability, and low initial trust between co-op members, makes co-ops' establishment difficult. PCs cope better with this kind of diversity because, in contrast to co-ops, they have more flexibility in choosing whom to work with. However, once co-ops establish, they cope better with seasonal variability in fish abundance and provide long-term security for the fishers. We argue that existing levels of trust and diversity among fishers matter for different self-governance arrangements to establish and persist, and should therefore be taken into account when developing better, targeted policies for improved SSFs governance.

  6. Micro-level explanations for emergent patterns of self-governance arrangements in small-scale fisheries—A modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basurto, Xavier; Schlüter, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) in developing countries are expected to play a significant role in poverty alleviation and enhancing food security in the decades to come. To realize this expectation, a better understanding of their informal self-governance arrangements is critical for developing policies that can improve fishers’ livelihoods and lead to sustainable ecosystem stewardship. The goal of this paper is to develop a more nuanced understanding of micro-level factors—such as fishers’ characteristics and behavior—to explain observed differences in self-governance arrangements in Northwest Mexico. We focus on two ubiquitous forms of self-governance: hierarchical non-cooperative arrangements between fishers and fishbuyers, such as patron-client relationships (PCs), versus more cooperative arrangements amongst fishers, such as fishing cooperatives (co-ops). We developed an agent-based model of an archetypical SSF that captures key hypotheses from in-depth fieldwork in Northwest Mexico of fishers’ day-to-day fishing and trading. Results from our model indicate that high diversity in fishers’ reliability, and low initial trust between co-op members, makes co-ops’ establishment difficult. PCs cope better with this kind of diversity because, in contrast to co-ops, they have more flexibility in choosing whom to work with. However, once co-ops establish, they cope better with seasonal variability in fish abundance and provide long-term security for the fishers. We argue that existing levels of trust and diversity among fishers matter for different self-governance arrangements to establish and persist, and should therefore be taken into account when developing better, targeted policies for improved SSFs governance. PMID:28406935

  7. National youth sedentary behavior and physical activity daily patterns using latent class analysis applied to accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Wen, Fang; Hales, Derek; Herring, Amy H

    2016-05-03

    Applying latent class analysis (LCA) to accelerometry can help elucidated underlying patterns. This study described the patterns of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity among youth by applying LCA to a nationally representative United States (US) sample. Using 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 3998 youths 6-17 years wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for one week, providing > =3 days of wear for > =8 h/day from 6:00 am-midnight. Cutpoints defined sedentary behavior ( = 2296 counts/minute), and vigorous activity (> = 4012 counts/minute). To account for wear time differences, outcomes were expressed as percent of day in a given intensity. LCA was used to classify daily (Monday through Sunday) patterns of average counts/minute, sedentary behavior, light activity, MVPA, and vigorous activity separately. The latent classes were explored overall and by age (6-11, 12-14, 15-17 years), gender, and whether or not youth attended school during measurement. Estimates were weighted to account for the sampling frame. For average counts/minute/day, four classes emerged from least to most active: 40.9% of population (mean 323.5 counts/minute/day), 40.3% (559.6 counts/minute/day), 16.5% (810.0 counts/minute/day), and 2.3% (1132.9 counts/minute/day). For percent of sedentary behavior, four classes emerged: 13.5% of population (mean 544.6 min/day), 30.1% (455.1 min/day), 38.5% (357.7 min/day), and 18.0% (259.2 min/day). For percent of light activity, four classes emerged: 12.3% of population (mean 222.6 min/day), 29.3% (301.7 min/day), 41.8% (384.0 min/day), and 16.6% (455.5 min/day). For percent of MVPA, four classes emerged: 59.9% of population (mean 25.0 min/day), 33.3% (60.9 min/day), 3.1% (89.0 min/day), and 3.6% (109.3 min/day). For percent of vigorous activity, three classes emerged: 76.8% of population (mean 7.1 min/day), 18.5% (23.9 min/day), and 4.7% (47.4 min/day). Classes were developed by age

  8. BREADFRUIT (Treculia africana MARKETING ACTIVITIES AND RETURNS IN AHIAZU MBAISE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OF IMO STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonna Christopher EMEROLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on marketing of breadfruits (Treculia africana and returns was done in Ahiazu Mbaise local Government area of Imo State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to describe socio-economic characteristics of respondents (sellers and buyers of African breadfruit; identify value-chain activities available in processing and its storage in compliance with consumers’ order and preferences; determine factors influencing decision to supply African breadfruit; and constraints with its post-harvest management in the study area. Three-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting locations and respondents through which eighty (80 farm households who gather/harvest, process and sell breadfruits were selected and interviewed with structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and probit regression model. Result revealed that 65.80% of the respondents were females and 81.20% of them were married with mean household size of 9 members. Their literacy level was high as 97.6% of them had at least primary education. Predominant marketing activities were fruit gathering/harvesting, processing, storage and packaging, transportation, and sales. Socio-economic factors of gender, household size, income, level of education, years of farming experience and labour significantly influenced supply of breadfruits to consumers with challenges of seasonal scarcity, and tedious methods of processing deterring the enterprise in the area. We recommended provision of credit support to enable fruit gatherers purchase and use shelling machines and good storage facilities to smooth any fluctuations in supplies during off-seasons and help fight overdependence of households on roots and tubers.

  9. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formisano, E; Pepino, A; Bracale, M [Department of Electronic Engineering, Biomedical Unit, Universita di Napoli, Federic II, Italy, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Di Salle, F [Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Radiologucal Unit, Universita di Napoli, Federic II, Italy, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Lanfermann, H; Zanella, F E [Department of Neuroradiology, J.W. Goethe Universitat, Frankfurt/M. (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors) 17 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formisano, E.; Pepino, A.; Bracale, M.; Di Salle, F.; Lanfermann, H.; Zanella, F.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors)

  11. Spatial Co-Occurrence and Activity Patterns of Mesocarnivores in the Temperate Forests of Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Bu

    Full Text Available Understanding the interactions between species and their coexistence mechanisms will help explain biodiversity maintenance and enable managers to make sound conservation decisions. Mesocarnivores are abundant and diverse mid-sized carnivores and can have profound impacts on the function, structure and dynamics of ecosystem after the extirpation of apex predators in many ecosystems. The moist temperate forests of Southwest China harbor a diverse community of mesocarnivores in the absence of apex predators. Sympatric species tend to partition limited resources along time, diet and space to facilitate coexistence. We determined the spatial and temporal patterns for five species of mesocarnivores. We used detection histories from a large camera-trap dataset collected from 2004-2015 with an extensive effort of 23,313 camera-days from 495 camera locations. The five mesocarnivore species included masked palm civet Paguma larvata, leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis, hog badger Arctonyx collaris, yellow-throated marten Martes flavigula, and Siberian weasel Mustela sibirica. Only the masked palm civet and hog badger tended to avoid each other; while for other pairs of species, they occurred independently of each other, or no clear pattern observed. With regard to seasonal activity, yellow-throated marten was most active in winter, opposite the pattern observed for masked palm civet, leopard cat and hog badger. For diel activity, masked palm civet, leopard cat and hog badger were primarily nocturnal and crepuscular; yellow-throated marten was diurnal, and Siberian weasel had no clear pattern for most of the year (March to November, but was nocturnal in the winter (December to February. The seasonal shift of the Siberian weasel may be due to the high diet overlap among species in winter. Our results provided new facts and insights into this unique community of mesocarnivores of southwest China, and will facilitate future studies on the mechanism

  12. Urinary Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity and Its Isozyme Patterns in Kawasaki Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Kawamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal urinary findings, such as sterile pyuria, proteinuria, and microscopic hematuria, are often seen in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD. We investigated the potential significance of urinary lactate dehydrogenase (U-LDH activity and its isozyme patterns in KD. Total U-LDH activity and its isozymes (U-LDH1-5 levels were compared among 120 patients with KD, 18 patients with viral infection (VI, and 43 patients with upper urinary tract infection (UTI and additionally compared between intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG responders (n=89 and nonresponders (n=31 with KD. Total U-LDH activity was higher in KD (35.4±4.8 IU/L, P<0.05 and UTI patients (66.0±8.0 IU/L, P<0.01 than in VI patients (17.0±6.2 IU/L. In the isozyme pattern analysis, KD patients had high levels of U-LDH1 and U-LDH2, while UTI patients had high levels of U-LDH3, U-LDH4, and U-LDH5. Furthermore, IVIG nonresponders of KD had significantly higher levels of total U-LDH activity (45.1±4.7 IU/L, P<0.05, especially U-LDH1 and U-LDH2 (P<0.05, than IVIG responders (32.0±2.8 IU/L. KD patients have increased levels of total U-LDH activity, especially U-LDH-1 and U-LDH2, indicating a unique pattern of U-LDH isozymes different from that in UTI patients.

  13. Student Participation in Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    The success of student government activities on any campus is significantly affected by the amount of student participation permitted in the institution's decision-making processes. The traditional" model of government--characterized by tokenism--often results in the separate jurisdictions" model-- characterized by fragmentation and interest…

  14. Patterns of Fitbit Use and Activity Levels Throughout a Physical Activity Intervention: Exploratory Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sheri J; Nelson, Sandahl H; Weiner, Lauren S

    2018-02-05

    There has been a rapid increase in the use of technology-based activity trackers to promote behavior change. However, little is known about how individuals use these trackers on a day-to-day basis or how tracker use relates to increasing physical activity. The aims were to use minute level data collected from a Fitbit tracker throughout a physical activity intervention to examine patterns of Fitbit use and activity and their relationships with success in the intervention based on ActiGraph-measured moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Participants included 42 female breast cancer survivors randomized to the physical activity intervention arm of a 12-week randomized controlled trial. The Fitbit One was worn daily throughout the 12-week intervention. ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer was worn for 7 days at baseline (prerandomization) and end of intervention (week 12). Self-reported frequency of looking at activity data on the Fitbit tracker and app or website was collected at week 12. Adherence to wearing the Fitbit was high and stable, with a mean of 88.13% of valid days over 12 weeks (SD 14.49%). Greater adherence to wearing the Fitbit was associated with greater increases in ActiGraph-measured MVPA (b interaction =0.35, PHartman, Sandahl H Nelson, Lauren S Weiner. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 05.02.2018.

  15. Gender differences in physical activity patterns among older adults who fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Sarah T; Albert, Steven M

    2015-02-01

    This study describes gender differences in the level and pattern of physical activity in groups of older adults who were frequent fallers, intermittent fallers, or non-fallers. Interviews were conducted with adults aged 50 years and older (N=1834) at senior centers across Pennsylvania from 2010 to 2011. Self-reported falls and validated measures of physical activity were collected at baseline and at 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments. Complete follow-up data were available for 1487 participants. Men who fell frequently decreased in recreational/leisure activity and household/yard work compared to the intermittent fallers and non-fallers. This association remained even when controlling for baseline health status. All women-regardless of fall group-engaged in similar levels of recreational/leisure activity and household/yard work over time. For both men and women, frequent fallers also showed a greater decrease in walking activities compared to intermittent fallers and non-fallers. Frequent falling among older adults is associated with declines in common leisure, household, and walking activities. The effect of falling frequency on physical activity appears to affect men and women differently, generating the hypothesis that interventions to promote physical activity among fallers need to be gender specific. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reconstruction of human brain spontaneous activity based on frequency-pattern analysis of magnetoencephalography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.; Ustinin, Mikhail N.; Rykunov, Stanislav D.; Boyko, Anna I.; Sychev, Vyacheslav V.; Walton, Kerry D.; Rabello, Guilherme M.; Garcia, John

    2015-01-01

    A new method for the analysis and localization of brain activity has been developed, based on multichannel magnetic field recordings, over minutes, superimposed on the MRI of the individual. Here, a high resolution Fourier Transform is obtained over the entire recording period, leading to a detailed multi-frequency spectrum. Further analysis implements a total decomposition of the frequency components into functionally invariant entities, each having an invariant field pattern localizable in recording space. The method, addressed as functional tomography, makes it possible to find the distribution of magnetic field sources in space. Here, the method is applied to the analysis of simulated data, to oscillating signals activating a physical current dipoles phantom, and to recordings of spontaneous brain activity in 10 healthy adults. In the analysis of simulated data, 61 dipoles are localized with 0.7 mm precision. Concerning the physical phantom the method is able to localize three simultaneously activated current dipoles with 1 mm precision. Spatial resolution 3 mm was attained when localizing spontaneous alpha rhythm activity in 10 healthy adults, where the alpha peak was specified for each subject individually. Co-registration of the functional tomograms with each subject's head MRI localized alpha range activity to the occipital and/or posterior parietal brain region. This is the first application of this new functional tomography to human brain activity. The method successfully provides an overall view of brain electrical activity, a detailed spectral description and, combined with MRI, the localization of sources in anatomical brain space. PMID:26528119

  17. Developmental patterns and parental correlates of youth leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the developmental patterns and parental correlates of youth leisure-time physical activity from middle childhood through adolescence. On 5 occasions across 7 years, fathers, mothers, and children who were first- and second born from 201 European American, working- and middle-class families participated in home and multiple nightly phone interviews. Multilevel modeling revealed that, controlling for family socioeconomic status, neighborhood characteristics, and youth overweight status and physical health, leisure-time physical activity increased during middle childhood and declined across adolescence, and the decline was more pronounced for girls than for boys. Moreover, controlling for time-varying, parental work hours and youth interest in sports and outdoor activities, on occasions when fathers and mothers spent proportionally more time on these activities with youth than usual, youth also spent more total time on these activities than usual. The within-person association between mother-youth joint involvement and youth's total involvement in leisure-time physical activity reached statistical significance at the transition to adolescence, and became stronger over time. Findings highlight the importance of maintaining adolescents', especially girls', physical activity levels and targeting both fathers' and mothers' involvement to promote youth's physical activity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Evolution of Muscle Activity Patterns Driving Motions of the Jaw and Hyoid during Chewing in Gnathostomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konow, Nicolai; Herrel, Anthony; Ross, Callum F.; Williams, Susan H.; German, Rebecca Z.; Sanford, Christopher P. J.; Gintof, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Although chewing has been suggested to be a basal gnathostome trait retained in most major vertebrate lineages, it has not been studied broadly and comparatively across vertebrates. To redress this imbalance, we recorded EMG from muscles powering anteroposterior movement of the hyoid, and dorsoventral movement of the mandibular jaw during chewing. We compared muscle activity patterns (MAP) during chewing in jawed vertebrate taxa belonging to unrelated groups of basal bony fishes and artiodactyl mammals. Our aim was to outline the evolution of coordination in MAP. Comparisons of activity in muscles of the jaw and hyoid that power chewing in closely related artiodactyls using cross-correlation analyses identified reorganizations of jaw and hyoid MAP between herbivores and omnivores. EMG data from basal bony fishes revealed a tighter coordination of jaw and hyoid MAP during chewing than seen in artiodactyls. Across this broad phylogenetic range, there have been major structural reorganizations, including a reduction of the bony hyoid suspension, which is robust in fishes, to the acquisition in a mammalian ancestor of a muscle sling suspending the hyoid. These changes appear to be reflected in a shift in chewing MAP that occurred in an unidentified anamniote stem-lineage. This shift matches observations that, when compared with fishes, the pattern of hyoid motion in tetrapods is reversed and also time-shifted relative to the pattern of jaw movement. PMID:21705368

  19. Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words:  Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.

  20. Binding activity of patterned concanavalin A studied by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed, Kateryna; Pyka-Fosciak, Grazyna; Raczkowska, Joanna; Lekka, Malgorzata; Styczen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The mode of protein immobilization plays a crucial role in the preparation of protein microarrays used for a wide spectrum of applications in analytical biochemistry. The microcontact printing technique was used to form a protein pattern using concanavalin A (Con A) since Con A belongs to a group of proteins widely used in analytical assays due to their selectivity as regards different kinds of carbohydrates. Atomic force microscopy was used to image surface topography, delivering information about the quality of the protein pattern. The force spectroscopy mode was used to verify the functional activity of deposited proteins via determination of the forces of interaction between Con A and carboxypeptidase Y bearing carbohydrate structure recognized by Con A. The calculated binding force between Con A and CaY was 105 ± 2 pN and it was compared with that measured for Con A deposited directly from the protein solution. The similarity of the value obtained for the interaction force was independent of the mode of protein deposition, thereby verifying that the microcontact printing technique did not influence the carbohydrate binding activity of Con A. The correlation between the surface topography of patterned samples and adhesion maps obtained showed the possible use of AFM for studying the chemical properties of different regions of the micropatterns produced

  1. Stochastic demand patterns for Markov service facilities with neutral and active periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csenki, Attila

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier paper, a closed form expression was obtained for the joint interval reliability of a Markov system with a partitioned state space S=U union D, i.e. for the probability that the system will reside in the set of up states U throughout the union of some specific disjoint time intervals I l =[θ l ,θ l +ζ l ],l=1,...,k. The deterministic time intervals I l formed a demand pattern specifying the desired active periods. In the present paper, we admit stochastic demand patterns by assuming that the lengths of the active periods, ζ l , as well as the lengths of the neutral periods, θ l -(θ l-1 +ζ l-1 ), are random. We explore two mechanisms for modelling random demand: (1) by alternating renewal processes; (2) by sojourn times of some continuous time Markov chain with a partitioned state space. The first construction results in an expression in terms of a revised version of the moment generating functions of the sojourns of the alternating renewal process. The second construction involves the probability that a Markov chain follows certain patterns of visits to some groups of states and yields an expression using Kronecker matrix operations. The model of a small computer system is analysed to exemplify the ideas

  2. Exploring associations between gaze patterns and putative human mirror neuron system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Peter H; Gurvich, Caroline; Fielding, Joanne; Enticott, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    The human mirror neuron system (MNS) is hypothesized to be crucial to social cognition. Given that key MNS-input regions such as the superior temporal sulcus are involved in biological motion processing, and mirror neuron activity in monkeys has been shown to vary with visual attention, aberrant MNS function may be partly attributable to atypical visual input. To examine the relationship between gaze pattern and interpersonal motor resonance (IMR; an index of putative MNS activity), healthy right-handed participants aged 18-40 (n = 26) viewed videos of transitive grasping actions or static hands, whilst the left primary motor cortex received transcranial magnetic stimulation. Motor-evoked potentials recorded in contralateral hand muscles were used to determine IMR. Participants also underwent eyetracking analysis to assess gaze patterns whilst viewing the same videos. No relationship was observed between predictive gaze and IMR. However, IMR was positively associated with fixation counts in areas of biological motion in the videos, and negatively associated with object areas. These findings are discussed with reference to visual influences on the MNS, and the possibility that MNS atypicalities might be influenced by visual processes such as aberrant gaze pattern.

  3. Exploring associations between gaze patterns and putative human mirror neuron system activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hugh Donaldson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The human mirror neuron system (MNS is hypothesised to be crucial to social cognition. Given that key MNS-input regions such as the superior temporal sulcus are involved in biological motion processing, and mirror neuron activity in monkeys has been shown to vary with visual attention, aberrant MNS function may be partly attributable to atypical visual input. To examine the relationship between gaze pattern and interpersonal motor resonance (IMR; an index of putative MNS activity, healthy right-handed participants aged 18-40 (n = 26 viewed videos of transitive grasping actions or static hands, whilst the left primary motor cortex received transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs recorded in contralateral hand muscles were used to determine IMR. Participants also underwent eyetracking analysis to assess gaze patterns whilst viewing the same videos. No relationship was observed between predictive gaze (PG and IMR. However, IMR was positively associated with fixation counts in areas of biological motion in the videos, and negatively associated with object areas. These findings are discussed with reference to visual influences on the MNS, and the possibility that MNS atypicalities might be influenced by visual processes such as aberrant gaze pattern.

  4. Pattern Matching for Volcano Status Assessment: what monitoring data alone can say about Mt. Etna activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavo, F.; Cannata, A.; Cassisi, C.

    2017-12-01

    The importance of assessing the ongoing status of active volcanoes is crucial not only for exposures to the local population but due to possible presence of tephra also for airline traffic. Adequately monitoring of active volcanoes, hence, plays a key role for civil protection purposes. In last decades, in order to properly monitor possible threats, continuous measuring networks have been designed and deployed on most of potentially hazardous volcanos. Nevertheless, at the present, volcano real-time surveillance is basically delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology, who interpret data coming from different kind of monitoring networks using their experience and non-measurable information (e.g. information from the field) to infer the volcano status. In some cases, raw data are used in some models to obtain more clues on the ongoing activity. In the last decades, with the development of volcano monitoring networks, huge amount of data of different geophysical, geochemical and volcanological types have been collected and stored in large databases. Having such big data sets with many examples of volcanic activity allows us to study volcano monitoring from a machine learning perspective. Thus, exploiting opportunities offered by the abundance of volcano monitoring time-series data we can try to address the following questions: Are the monitored parameters sufficient to discriminate the volcano status? Is it possible to infer/distinguish the volcano status only from the multivariate patterns of measurements? Are all the kind of measurements in the pattern equally useful for status assessment? How accurate would be an automatic system of status inference based only on pattern recognition of data? Here we present preliminary results of the data analysis we performed on a set of data and activity covering the period 2011-2017 at Mount Etna (Italy). In the considered period, we had 52 events of lava fountaining and long periods of Strombolian activity. We

  5. Are diet and physical activity patterns related to cigarette smoking in adolescents? Findings from Project EAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J

    2007-07-01

    An inadequate diet and physical inactivity may compound the many deleterious effects of smoking on health. Some research indicates that smoking behavior is related to other health behaviors, but little research has examined how smoking may be related to dietary intake of key nutrients, consumption of fast food, sedentary lifestyle, or weight status. The purpose of this study was to describe smoking frequency among adolescents and its relationship to physical activity and dietary patterns. The research study employed a cross-sectional, population-based design. Adolescents self-reported cigarette smoking, physical activity, and eating behaviors on the Project EAT (Eating Among Teens) survey and reported dietary intake on a food frequency questionnaire completed in school classrooms. The sample included 4746 middle school and high school students from Minneapolis-St. Paul public schools. Mixed-model regression, which was controlled for sex, race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, grade level (middle school or high school), and school, was used to examine the association of smoking with diet and physical activity patterns. Overall, reported smoking frequency was inversely related to participating in team sports, eating regular meals, and consuming healthful foods and nutrients. Smoking frequency was directly related to frequency of fast-food and soft drink consumption. Adolescents who smoke cigarettes may be less likely to engage in health-promoting lifestyle behaviors. Interventions are needed to prevent smoking and the unhealthy dietary practices and physical activity behaviors that may be associated with it.

  6. Voluntary resistance running wheel activity pattern and skeletal muscle growth in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerlotz, Kirsten; Elliott, Bradley; Guillemin, Bernard; Smith, Heather K

    2008-06-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the pattern of voluntary activity of young rats in response to resistance loading on running wheels and to determine the effects of the activity on the growth of six limb skeletal muscles. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were housed individually with a resistance running wheel (R-RUN, n = 7) or a conventional free-spinning running wheel (F-RUN, n = 6) or without a wheel, as non-running control animals (CON, n = 6). The torque required to move the wheel in the R-RUN group was progressively increased, and the activity (velocity, distance and duration of each bout) of the two running wheel groups was recorded continuously for 45 days. The R-RUN group performed many more, shorter and faster bouts of running than the F-RUN group, yet the mean daily distance was not different between the F-RUN (1.3 +/- 0.2 km) and R-RUN group (1.4 +/- 0.6 km). Only the R-RUN resulted in a significantly (P RUN and R-RUN led to a significantly greater wet mass relative to increase in body mass and muscle fibre cross-sectional area in the soleus muscle compared with CON. We conclude that the pattern of voluntary activity on a resistance running wheel differs from that on a free-spinning running wheel and provides a suitable model to induce physiological muscle hypertrophy in rats.

  7. Emergence of long-range correlations and bursty activity patterns in online communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Pietro; Bonaventura, Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Research has suggested that the activity occurring in a variety of social, economic, and technological systems exhibits long-range fluctuations in time. Pronounced levels of rapidly occurring events are typically observed over short periods of time, followed by long periods of inactivity. Relatively few studies, however, have shed light on the degree to which inhomogeneous temporal processes can be detected at, and emerge from, different levels of analysis. Here we investigate patterns of human activity within an online forum in which communication can be assessed at three intertwined levels: the micro level of the individual users; the meso level of discussion groups and continuous sessions; and the macro level of the whole system. To uncover the relation between different levels, we conduct a number of numerical simulations of a zero-crossing model in which users' behavior is constrained by progressively richer and more realistic rules of social interaction. Results indicate that, when users are solipsistic, their bursty behavior is not sufficient for generating heavy-tailed interevent time distributions at a higher level. However, when users are socially interdependent, the power spectra and interevent time distributions of the simulated and real forums are remarkably similar at all levels of analysis. Social interaction is responsible for the aggregation of multiple bursty activities at the micro level into an emergent bursty activity pattern at a higher level. We discuss the implications of the findings for an emergentist account of burstiness in complex systems.

  8. A pilot study of physical activity and sedentary behavior distribution patterns in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Emma; Mundell, Benjamin; Amin, Shreyasee; Kaufman, Kenton

    2017-09-01

    The study aims were to investigate free-living physical activity and sedentary behavior distribution patterns in a group of older women, and assess the cross-sectional associations with body mass index (BMI). Eleven older women (mean (SD) age: 77 (9) yrs) wore custom-built activity monitors, each containing a tri-axial accelerometer (±16g, 100Hz), on the waist and ankle for lab-based walking trials and 4 days in free-living. Daily active time, step counts, cadence, and sedentary break number were estimated from acceleration data. The sedentary bout length distribution and sedentary time accumulation pattern, using the Gini index, were investigated. Associations of the parameters' total daily values and coefficients of variation (CVs) of their hourly values with BMI were assessed using linear regression. The algorithm demonstrated median sensitivity, positive predictive value, and agreement values >98% and <1% mean error in cadence calculations with video identification during lab trials. Participants' sedentary bouts were found to be power law distributed with 56% of their sedentary time occurring in 20min bouts or longer. Meaningful associations were detectable in the relationships of total active time, step count, sedentary break number and their CVs with BMI. Active time and step counts had moderate negative associations with BMI while sedentary break number had a strong negative association. Active time, step count and sedentary break number CVs also had strong positive associations with BMI. The results highlight the importance of measuring sedentary behavior and suggest a more even distribution of physical activity throughout the day is associated with lower BMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development Center for Digital Government Cooperation Patterns of Small Medium Enterprises-Private to the Acceleration of Economic Increase in Tourist Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Suyono, Joko; Sudapet, Nyoman

    2017-01-01

    The infrastructure budget reached Rp 290 Billion in APBN-P (Budget spending Revenue State changes) in 2015 be consist of opportunities for investors and Government Areas, this will be trigger an increase in the central area of UKM. 2014 year Indonesia stock exchange noted the value of market capitalization (market cap) to the property sector, real estate, and construction of the building reached Rp 360 Billion (idx, 2014). Bank Indonesia survey showed a significant increase in the selling pri...

  10. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  11. Experimentalist governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately

  12. Remaking Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded…

  13. Collective Behavior of Chiral Active Matter: Pattern Formation and Enhanced Flocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebchen, Benno; Levis, Demian

    2017-08-01

    We generalize the Vicsek model to describe the collective behavior of polar circle swimmers with local alignment interactions. While the phase transition leading to collective motion in 2D (flocking) occurs at the same interaction to noise ratio as for linear swimmers, as we show, circular motion enhances the polarization in the ordered phase (enhanced flocking) and induces secondary instabilities leading to structure formation. Slow rotations promote macroscopic droplets with late time sizes proportional to the system size (indicating phase separation) whereas fast rotations generate patterns consisting of phase synchronized microflocks with a controllable characteristic size proportional to the average single-particle swimming radius. Our results defy the viewpoint that monofrequent rotations form a vapid extension of the Vicsek model and establish a generic route to pattern formation in chiral active matter with possible applications for understanding and designing rotating microflocks.

  14. 17 CFR 240.3a43-1 - Customer-related government securities activities incidental to the futures-related business of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customer-related government securities activities incidental to the futures-related business of a futures commission merchant registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. 240.3a43-1 Section 240.3a43-1 Commodity and Securities...

  15. Habitat-associated and temporal patterns of bat activity in a diverse forest landscape of southern New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brooks

    2009-01-01

    The development and use of acoustic recording technology, surveys have revealed the composition, relative levels of activity, and preliminary habitat use of bat communities of various forest locations. However, detailed examinations of acoustic surveys results to investigate temporal patterns of bat activity are rare. Initial active acoustic surveys of bat activity on...

  16. A systematic study on activating the employee concerns' system for the improvement of governance in utility companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tetsuo; Morimoto, Toshio; Iida, Nobuharu; Nishimura, Takeshi; Itoh, Kunio; Tanaka, Hiroji

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a systematic methodology that can externalize potential concerns of employee and evaluate the values of the concerns raised in corporations and other organizations. By implementing this methodology into corporate/organization governance regime, we can expect to improve the work environment and enhance the capability for the corporate/organization governance through enhancing internal autonomic purification compatibility. (author)

  17. Brain activity patterns uniquely supporting visual feature integration after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali eRaja Beharelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI patients typically respond more slowly and with more variability than controls during tasks of attention requiring speeded reaction time. These behavioral changes are attributable, at least in part, to diffuse axonal injury (DAI, which affects integrated processing in distributed systems. Here we use a multivariate method sensitive to distributed neural activity to compare brain activity patterns of patients with chronic phase moderate-to-severe TBI to those of controls during performance on a visual feature-integration task assessing complex attentional processes that has previously shown sensitivity to TBI. The TBI patients were carefully screened to be free of large focal lesions that can affect performance and brain activation independently of DAI. The task required subjects to hold either one or three features of a target in mind while suppressing responses to distracting information. In controls, the multi-feature condition activated a distributed network including limbic, prefrontal, and medial temporal structures. TBI patients engaged this same network in the single-feature and baseline conditions. In multi-feature presentations, TBI patients alone activated additional frontal, parietal, and occipital regions. These results are consistent with neuroimaging studies using tasks assessing different cognitive domains, where increased spread of brain activity changes was associated with TBI. Our results also extend previous findings that brain activity for relatively moderate task demands in TBI patients is similar to that associated with of high task demands in controls.

  18. Short communication: Assessment of activity patterns of growing rabbits in a flux-controlled chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Olivas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flux-controlled and metabolic chambers are often used for nutritional and environmental studies. However, the potential alterations of animal behaviour and welfare are so far not fully understood. In consequence, this study had 2 main objectives: to assess potential alterations of animal activity pattern and time budget inside a flux chamber, and to assess the importance of the “rearing up” behaviour. To this end, 10 growing rabbits of different ages (from 1 to 5 wk of the growing period were housed inside a flux chamber. Their activity was continuously recorded and assessed, determining the frequency and duration of 8 different behaviours: lying, sleeping, sitting, eating, drinking, walking, rearing up and others. Nocturnal rabbit behaviour and time budget were not altered inside the chamber if compared to previously described rabbit activity under conventional cages. In addition, rabbits in this experiment presented a tendency to perform “rearing up” when housed inside the flux chamber.

  19. Determination of Groundwater Flows Pattern in Surakarta Region Using the Activity Ratio of Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisjachudin Faisal; Agus Sulistyono; Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri; Budi Legowo

    2002-01-01

    Tritium activity analysis on groundwater samples has been carried out at 13 different locations in Surakarta regency in order to determine the groundwater flow pattern. Tritium activity in the groundwater is measured by LSC (Liquid Scintillation Counter) Tri-Carb 2700TR Measurement of the optimum activity is done on sample volume ratio with cocktail 7.4 : 12.6 in operation 0.5 - 4.5 keV. The highest result fulfilled in the location of Lor In Hotel for 1566 dpm and the lowest is in the location of Kadipiro for 0.03 dpm. Those data have shown that groundwater flow come from western area to eastern area of Surakarta city. (author)

  20. Self-Reported Physical Activity and Exercise Patterns in Children With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwanghe, Osarhiemen A; Muntz, Devin S; Kwon, Soyang; Montgomery, Simone; Kemiki, Opeyemi; Hsu, Lewis L; Thompson, Alexis A; Liem, Robert I

    2017-08-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) significantly affects physical functioning. We examined physical activity (PA) patterns in children with SCD versus a national sample and factors associated with PA and participation in physical education and organized sports. One hundred children with SCD completed a 58-item survey with questions from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Physical Activity Questionnaire and others on physical education and sports, disease impact, and physical functioning. Compared with NHANES participants, more children with SCD (67 vs 42%, p physical education and sports, respectively. Greater disease impact on PA and physical functioning were associated with lower participation. Children with SCD are active at moderate to vigorous intensity for shorter durations. Negative personal beliefs about disease impact and poor physical functioning represent barriers to PA in SCD.

  1. Activities of the Federal Government, Laender and municipalities and fields of activity relating to building modernisation; Aktivitaeten des Bundes, der Laender und der Kommunen und Handlungsfelder zur Gebaeudesanierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, Thomas; Schuele, Ralf; Pietzner, Katja [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    The present report inquires into how the programmes and activities undertaken by the German Federal Government and the Lnder to increase the potential for building modernisation should be designed so that municipalities, including those with poor financial means, can utilise and create incentives and also take on a role as local multiplicator for building modernisation to improve energy efficiency. The goal is to maximise synergy effects between building modernisation programmes of the Federation and Laender and activities at the municipal level. The second part of the report explains the legal framework for promotion by the Federation and Laender which has been set up on the basis of European and global goals for climate protection and in particular building modernisation. The third part clarifies the importance and significance of building modernisation for climate protection and pinpoints general impediments affecting the area of building modernisation. The last part of the report offers suggestions to municipalities for setting up, designing and supplementing building modernisation programmes dedicated to improving energy efficiency.

  2. Patterns of acoustical activity of bats prior to and following White-nose Syndrome occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W. Mark; Britzke, Eric R.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Johnson, Joshua B.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose Syndrome (WNS), a wildlife health concern that has decimated cave-hibernating bat populations in eastern North America since 2006, began affecting source-caves for summer bat populations at Fort Drum, a U.S. Army installation in New York in the winter of 2007–2008. As regional die-offs of bats became evident, and Fort Drum's known populations began showing declines, we examined whether WNS-induced change in abundance patterns and seasonal timing of bat activity could be quantified using acoustical surveys, 2003–2010, at structurally uncluttered riparian–water habitats (i.e., streams, ponds, and wet meadows). As predicted, we observed significant declines in overall summer activity between pre-WNS and post-WNS years for little brown bats Myotis lucifugus, northern bats M. septentrionalis, and Indiana bats M. sodalis. We did not observe any significant change in activity patterns between pre-WNS and post-WNS years for big brown bats Eptesicus fuscus, eastern red bats Lasiurus borealis, or the small number of tri-colored bats Perimyotis subflavus. Activity of silver-haired bats Lasionycteris noctivagans increased from pre-WNS to post-WNS years. Activity levels of hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus significantly declined between pre- and post-WNS years. As a nonhibernating, migratory species, hoary bat declines might be correlated with wind-energy development impacts occurring in the same time frame rather than WNS. Intraseason activity patterns also were affected by WNS, though the results were highly variable among species. Little brown bats showed an overall increase in activity from early to late summer pre-WNS, presumably due to detections of newly volant young added to the local population. However, the opposite occurred post-WNS, indicating that reproduction among surviving little brown bats may be declining. Our data suggest that acoustical monitoring during the summer season can provide insights into species' relative abundance on the

  3. Associations between dietary patterns, physical activity (leisure-time and occupational) and television viewing in middle-aged French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreire, Hélène; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Bertrais, Sandrine; Simon, Chantal; Chaix, Basile; Weber, Christiane; Touvier, Mathilde; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2011-03-01

    Diet and physical activity are considered to be major components of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined in detail the relationships between specific types of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and diet in adults. The objective of the present study was to assess differential relationships between dietary patterns, leisure-time and occupational physical activities and time spent watching television (TV), as an indicator of sedentary behaviour, in middle-aged French subjects. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from 1359 participants in the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study, who completed a detailed physical activity questionnaire and at least six 24 h dietary records. Sex-specific dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis; their relationships with leisure-time and occupational physical activities and TV viewing were assessed using ANCOVA, after adjustment for age, educational level and smoking status. Three dietary patterns were identified in each sex. After adjustment for potential confounders, leisure-time physical activity was positively associated with a 'healthy' food pattern in both men (P for trend trend trend convenience' pattern in men and with a 'alcohol-appetiser' pattern in women. In conclusion, identification of relationships between dietary patterns, physical activity and sedentary behaviour can enable identification of different types of lifestyle and should help to target at-risk groups in nutrition prevention programmes.

  4. Spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in northwestern Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabet Lilia Estallo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Argentina, dengue has affected mainly the Northern provinces, including Salta. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, northwestern Argentina. The location of clusters as hot spot areas should help control programs to identify priority areas and allocate their resources more effectively. METHODOLOGY: Oviposition activity was detected in Orán City (Salta province using ovitraps, weekly replaced (October 2005-2007. Spatial autocorrelation was measured with Moran's Index and depicted through cluster maps to identify hot spots. Total egg numbers were spatially interpolated and a classified map with Ae. aegypti high oviposition activity areas was performed. Potential breeding and resting (PBR sites were geo-referenced. A logistic regression analysis of interpolated egg numbers and PBR location was performed to generate a predictive mapping of mosquito oviposition activity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both cluster maps and predictive map were consistent, identifying in central and southern areas of the city high Ae. aegypti oviposition activity. A logistic regression model was successfully developed to predict Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on distance to PBR sites, with tire dumps having the strongest association with mosquito oviposition activity. A predictive map reflecting probability of oviposition activity was produced. The predictive map delimitated an area of maximum probability of Ae. aegypti oviposition activity in the south of Orán city where tire dumps predominate. The overall fit of the model was acceptable (ROC=0.77, obtaining 99% of sensitivity and 75.29% of specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Distance to tire dumps is inversely associated with high mosquito activity, allowing us to identify hot spots. These methodologies are useful for prevention, surveillance, and control of tropical vector borne diseases and might assist

  5. Patterns, levels and correlates of self-reported physical activity in urban black Soweto women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Crowther, Nigel J; Chirwa, Esnat D; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-09-08

    Urban black South African women have a high prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity patterns of a cohort of middle-aged urban-dwelling black African women and to determine if physical activity is associated with anthropometric measures and metabolic outcomes in this population. Physical activity and sitting time were assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a cross-sectional study of 977 black African women (mean age 41.0 ± 7.84 years) from the Birth to Twenty study based in Soweto, Johannesburg. Anthropometric outcomes were measured and fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile were analysed to determine metabolic disease risk and prevalence. Sixty-seven percent of the population were classified as active according to GPAQ criteria, and the domain that contributed most to overall weekly physical activity was walking for travel. Only 45.0% of women participated in leisure time activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was 40.0%, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.2% and 48.0%, respectively. Women who reported owning a motor vehicle walked for travel less, and participated in more leisure-time activity (both p travel (both p travel is a major contributor to physical activity, future research should attempt to determine whether the intensity of this activity plays a role in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

  6. Spatial patterns of persistent neural activity vary with the behavioral context of short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daie, Kayvon; Goldman, Mark S; Aksay, Emre R F

    2015-02-18

    A short-term memory can be evoked by different inputs and control separate targets in different behavioral contexts. To address the circuit mechanisms underlying context-dependent memory function, we determined through optical imaging how memory is encoded at the whole-network level in two behavioral settings. Persistent neural activity maintaining a memory of desired eye position was imaged throughout the oculomotor integrator after saccadic or optokinetic stimulation. While eye position was encoded by the amplitude of network activity, the spatial patterns of firing were context dependent: cells located caudally generally were most persistent following saccadic input, whereas cells located rostrally were most persistent following optokinetic input. To explain these data, we computationally identified four independent modes of network activity and found these were differentially accessed by saccadic and optokinetic inputs. These results show how a circuit can simultaneously encode memory value and behavioral context, respectively, in its amplitude and spatial pattern of persistent firing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Patterns of myopigenic activities with age, gender and ethnicity in Sydney schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Amanda N; Morgan, Ian G; Mitchell, Paul; Rose, Kathryn A

    2013-05-01

    To examine the patterns of myopigenic activity (high near work, low time outdoors) in children growing up in Sydney, Australia, by age, ethnicity and gender. The Sydney Adolescent Vascular and Eye Study (SAVES) re-examined children from the two age cohorts (6 and 12 years at baseline) from the Sydney Myopia Study (SMS). At 5-6 year follow-up, 863 in the younger cohort and 1196 in the older cohort had complete refraction data. Cycloplegic autorefraction (cyclopentolate 1%; Canon RK-F1) was measured at baseline and follow-up. Children who became myopic (≤-0.50 dioptres spherical equivalent refraction) were those classified as non-myopic at baseline and myopic at follow-up. A detailed questionnaire was administered to measure weekly activities, including time spent outdoors and near work at both baseline and follow-up examination. Overall, 128 (14.8%) children in the younger cohort and 210 (17.6%) in the older cohort became myopic. At follow-up, for both cohorts, children had significantly reduced the amount of time spent outdoors (younger cohort, p = 0.001, older cohort, p Asian ethnicity spent significantly less time outdoors by more than 7 h per week (both cohorts at baseline and follow-up, all p Asian ancestry having a more myopigenic activity pattern than European Caucasian children. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  8. Travel determinants and multi-scale transferability of national activity patterns to local populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, Kriste M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gou; ias, Konstadinos G [UCSB

    2010-11-30

    The ability to transfer national travel patterns to a local population is of interest when attempting to model megaregions or areas that exceed metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries. At the core of this research are questions about the connection between travel behavior and land use, urban form, and accessibility. As a part of this process, a group of land use variables have been identified to define activity and travel patterns for individuals and households. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) participants are divided into categories comprised of a set of latent cluster models representing persons, travel, and land use. These are compared to two sets of cluster models constructed for two local travel surveys. Comparison of means statistical tests are used to assess differences among sociodemographic groups residing in localities with similar land uses. The results show that the NHTS and the local surveys share mean population activity and travel characteristics. However, these similarities mask behavioral heterogeneity that are shown when distributions of activity and travel behavior are examined. Therefore, data from a national household travel survey cannot be used to model local population travel characteristics if the goal to model the actual distributions and not mean travel behavior characteristics.

  9. An assessment of schoolyard features and behavior patterns in children's utilization and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthamatten, Peter; Brink, Lois; Kingston, Beverly; Kutchman, Eve; Lampe, Sarah; Nigg, Claudio

    2014-03-01

    Careful research that elucidates how behavior relates to design in the context of elementary school grounds can serve to guide cost-efficient design with the goal of encouraging physical activity (PA). This work explores patterns in children's PA behavior within playground spaces with the specific goal of guiding healthy playground design. Data on children's utilization and PA behavior in 6 playgrounds divided into 106 observation zones were collected in 2005 and 2006 at Denver elementary school playgrounds using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth. Analyses of variance and t tests determined whether there were differences in utilization and behavior patterns across observations zones and between genders. This study provides evidence that children prefer to use certain types of playground zones and that they are more likely to practice moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in some zones. The authors observed statistically significant differences between genders. Boys were more likely to engage in MVPA in zones without equipment, girls were more likely to use zones with equipment. This work suggests that the inclusion or omission of specific playground features may have an impact on the way that children use the spaces.

  10. Patterns of motor activity in the isolated nerve cord of the octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Yoram; Matzner, Henry; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2006-12-01

    The extremely flexible octopus arm provides a unique opportunity for studying movement control in a highly redundant motor system. We describe a novel preparation that allows analysis of the peripheral nervous system of the octopus arm and its interaction with the muscular and mechanosensory elements of the arm's intrinsic muscular system. First we examined the synaptic responses in muscle fibers to identify the motor pathways from the axial nerve cord of the arm to the surrounding musculature. We show that the motor axons project to the muscles via nerve roots originating laterally from the arm nerve cord. The motor field of each nerve is limited to the region where the nerve enters the arm musculature. The same roots also carry afferent mechanosensory information from the intrinsic muscle to the axial nerve cord. Next, we characterized the pattern of activity generated in the dorsal roots by electrically stimulating the axial nerve cord. The evoked activity, although far reaching and long lasting, cannot alone account for the arm extension movements generated by similar electrical stimulation. The mismatch between patterns of activity in the isolated cord and in an intact arm may stem from the involvement of mechanosensory feedback in natural arm extension.

  11. The in vitro isolated whole guinea pig brain as a model to study epileptiform activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Curtis, Marco; Librizzi, Laura; Uva, Laura

    2016-02-15

    Research on ictogenesis is based on the study of activity between seizures and during seizures in animal models of epilepsy (chronic condition) or in in vitro slices obtained from naïve non-epileptic brains after treatment with pro-convulsive drugs, manipulations of the extracellular medium and specific stimulation protocols. The in vitro isolated guinea pig brain retains the functional connectivity between brain structures and maintains interactions between neuronal, glial and vascular compartments. It is a close-to-in vivo preparation that offers experimental advantages not achieved with the use of other experimental models. Neurophysiological and imaging techniques can be utilized in this preparation to study brain activity during and between seizures induced by pharmacological or functional manipulations. Cellular and network determinants of interictal and ictal discharges that reproduce abnormal patterns observed in human focal epilepsies and the associated changes in extracellular ion and blood-brain permeability can be identified and analyzed in the isolated guinea pig brain. Ictal and interictal patterns recorded in in vitro slices may show substantial differences from seizure activity recorded in vivo due to slicing procedure itself. The isolated guinea pig brain maintained in vitro by arterial perfusion combines the typical facilitated access of in vitro preparations, that are difficult to approach during in vivo experiments, with the preservation of larger neuronal networks. The in vitro whole isolated guinea pig brain preparation offers an unique experimental model to study systemic and neurovascular changes during ictogenesis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The nocturnal bottleneck and the evolution of activity patterns in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkema, Menno P.; Davies, Wayne I. L.; Foster, Russell G.; Menaker, Michael; Hut, Roelof A.

    2013-01-01

    In 1942, Walls described the concept of a ‘nocturnal bottleneck’ in placental mammals, where these species could survive only by avoiding daytime activity during times in which dinosaurs were the dominant taxon. Walls based this concept of a longer episode of nocturnality in early eutherian mammals by comparing the visual systems of reptiles, birds and all three extant taxa of the mammalian lineage, namely the monotremes, marsupials (now included in the metatherians) and placentals (included in the eutherians). This review describes the status of what has become known as the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis, giving an overview of the chronobiological patterns of activity. We review the ecological plausibility that the activity patterns of (early) eutherian mammals were restricted to the night, based on arguments relating to endothermia, energy balance, foraging and predation, taking into account recent palaeontological information. We also assess genes, relating to light detection (visual and non-visual systems) and the photolyase DNA protection system that were lost in the eutherian mammalian lineage. Our conclusion presently is that arguments in favour of the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis in eutherians prevail. PMID:23825205

  13. Renewing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.

  14. Similar expression patterns of bestrophin-4 and cGMP dependent Ca2+-activated chloride channel activity in the vasculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena V.; Larsen, Per; Matchkov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    (abstract by Matchkov et. al) that siRNA mediated downregulation of bestrophin-4 is associated with the disappearance of a recently demonstrated2 cGMP-dependent Ca2+-activated Cl- current in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Here we study the distribution of bestrophin-4-and cGMP dependent Cl- channel...... expressed epitope) Western blot detected a ~65 kDa band in cell lysates from rat mesenteric small arteries and aorta, which was not seen in pulmonary arteries and when preincubated with the immunizing peptide. The distribution of bestrophin-4 mRNA and protein has a pattern similar to the cGMP-dependent Cl......- current in SMCs of different origins. Immunohistochemistry identified bestrophin-4 both in endothelial and SMCs of the vascular tree in the brain, heart, kidney and mesentery, but not in the lungs. We suggest that bestrophin-4 is important for the cGMP dependent, Ca2+ activated Cl- conductance in many...

  15. Evaluating influence of active tectonics on spatial distribution pattern of floods along eastern Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, R.; Ramasamy, SM.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding is a naturally recurrent phenomenon that causes severe damage to lives and property. Predictions on flood-prone zones are made based on intensity-duration of rainfall, carrying capacity of drainage, and natural or man-made obstructions. Particularly, the lower part of the drainage system and its adjacent geomorphic landforms like floodplains and deltaic plains are considered for analysis, but stagnation in parts of basins that are far away from major riverine systems is less unveiled. Similarly, uncharacteristic flooding in the upper and middle parts of drainage, especially in zones of an anomalous drainage pattern, is also least understood. Even though topographic differences are attributed for such anomalous spatial occurrence of floods, its genetic cause has to be identified for effective management practice. Added to structural and lithological variations, tectonic movements too impart micro-scale terrain undulations. Because active tectonic movements are slow-occurring, long-term geological processes, its resultant topographical variations and drainage anomalies are least correlated with floods. The recent floods of Tamil Nadu also exhibit a unique distribution pattern emphasizing the role of tectonics over it. Hence a detailed geoinformatics-based analysis was carried out to envisage the relationship between spatial distribution of flood and active tectonic elements such as regional arches and deeps, block faults, and graben and drainage anomalies such as deflected drainage, compressed meander, and eyed drainages. The analysis reveals that micro-scale topographic highs and lows imparted by active tectonic movements and its further induced drainage anomalies have substantially controlled the distribution pattern of flood.

  16. Western and Mediterranean Dietary Patterns and Physical Activity and Fitness among Spanish Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Bibiloni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess prevailing food patterns, and its association with physical activity and fitness among Spanish older adults. Methods: Cross-sectional study in Spain, collecting data from a sample (n = 380; 54% female aged 55–80 years (men and 60–80 years (women with no previously documented cardiovascular disease. Body weight, body fat and waist circumference were assessed. Physical activity performed was measured using the Minnesota Leisure-time Physical Activity Questionnaire (LTPA. Physical fitness was assessed using a validated physical fitness test battery. Food consumption was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis identified two major dietary food patterns: “Western” (WDP and “Mediterranean” (MDP dietary patterns. Results: Participants in MDP’s fourth quartile were classified in the second (men and third (men and women tertile of LTPA. After adjusting for age, body fat, waist-to-height ratio, and METs, in both sexes, a negative significant association was found between 30-s Chair stand and 6-min walking test, a positive significant association was found between 30-m Gait speed and 8-foot Time Up-and-Go (except in men tests with WDP. The 30-m Gait speed test was negatively associated with MDP in men. Conclusions: MDP is associated with more time spent on LTPA, and this association was independent of body composition and a fast gait speed in men. WDP is associated with slower gait speed and lower body strength, agility and aerobic endurance. MDP has protective effect on healthy physical fitness, and WDP may be a contributor to frailty.

  17. Western and Mediterranean Dietary Patterns and Physical Activity and Fitness among Spanish Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Julibert, Alicia; Argelich, Emma; Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Pons, Antoni; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2017-07-06

    Objectives: To assess prevailing food patterns, and its association with physical activity and fitness among Spanish older adults. Methods: Cross-sectional study in Spain, collecting data from a sample ( n = 380; 54% female) aged 55-80 years (men) and 60-80 years (women) with no previously documented cardiovascular disease. Body weight, body fat and waist circumference were assessed. Physical activity performed was measured using the Minnesota Leisure-time Physical Activity Questionnaire (LTPA). Physical fitness was assessed using a validated physical fitness test battery. Food consumption was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis identified two major dietary food patterns: "Western" (WDP) and "Mediterranean" (MDP) dietary patterns. Results: Participants in MDP's fourth quartile were classified in the second (men) and third (men and women) tertile of LTPA. After adjusting for age, body fat, waist-to-height ratio, and METs, in both sexes, a negative significant association was found between 30-s Chair stand and 6-min walking test, a positive significant association was found between 30-m Gait speed and 8-foot Time Up-and-Go (except in men) tests with WDP. The 30-m Gait speed test was negatively associated with MDP in men. Conclusions: MDP is associated with more time spent on LTPA, and this association was independent of body composition and a fast gait speed in men. WDP is associated with slower gait speed and lower body strength, agility and aerobic endurance. MDP has protective effect on healthy physical fitness, and WDP may be a contributor to frailty.

  18. The wiring of developing sensory circuits - from patterned spontaneous activity to mechanisms of synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Helen Leighton

    2016-09-01

    intend to outline the most recent descriptions of spontaneous activity patterns in rodent developing sensory areas, as well as the inferences we can make about the information content of those activity patterns and ideas about the plasticity rules that allow this activity to shape the young brain.

  19. Physical activity patterns in older men and women in Germany: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trampisch Ulrike

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on physical activity in older adults in Germany is scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze physical activity patterns and to explore factors associated with physical activity in different domains, i.e. sporting activities (SA and domestic activities (DA, in older men and women. Methods As part of the 7-year follow-up telephone interviews of the getABI cohort (community-dwelling older adults in Germany, the PRISCUS-PAQ was used to survey participants about their everyday physical activity patterns. Time per week (hh:mm spent in SA and DA (heavy housework, gardening was analyzed for men and women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed in order to assess the odds of participating in SA and DA for at least 2.5 hours/week in association with sociodemographic factors, a broad range of physical health-related factors and interview date (season of the year. Results A total of 1,610 primary health care patients (51.6% women with a median age of 77 (range 72-93 years were included in the analyses. Men engaged in SA more often than women (01:45 vs. 01:10, whereas women did more DA per week than men (04:00 vs. 03:00. Being interviewed in spring or summer was associated with increased performance of DA in both sexes. Participation in these activities was reduced in more highly educated men and women. Living alone increased the odds of sports participation in women, but not in men. Most physical health-related factors were only selectively associated with either SA or DA, in men or women, respectively. The need for a walking aid was the only factor that consistently lowered the odds of being active in both activity domains and sexes. Conclusions This exploratory study delivers reliable and relevant data on the participation in and correlates of sporting and domestic activities of community-dwelling older adults for whom there had previously been only limited information at a population level in Germany

  20. Association of PM2.5 pollution with the pattern of human activity: A case study of a developed city in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chengzhen; Chai, Pengfei; Lin, Hongbo; Zhang, Zhenyu; Ye, Zhenhua; Gu, Mengjia; Lu, Huaichu; Shen, Peng; Jin, Mingjuan; Wang, Jianbing; Chen, Kun

    2016-12-01

    Recently, air pollution has attracted a substantial amount of attention in China, which can be influenced by a variety of factors, but the association between air pollution and human activity is not quite clear. Based on real-time online data (January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014) of air pollution and meteorology reported by official sites, and demographic, economic, and environmental reform data in a statistical yearbook, the influences of meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity, precipitation intensity, and wind force) and human activities on PM 2.5 pollution were explored. After correlation analysis, logistic regression analysis, and a nonparametric test, weak negative correlations between temperature and PM 2.5 pollution were found. In most cases, festival and morning peak hours were protection and risk factors of PM 2.5 pollution, respectively. In addition, government actions, such as an afforestation project and increasing financial expenditure for energy saving and environmental protection, could greatly contribute to alleviating pollution of PM 2.5 . The findings could help officials formulate effective laws and regulations, and then PM 2.5 pollution related to the pattern of human activity would be ameliorated. Most of the time, festival and morning peak hours are protection and risk factors for PM 2.5 pollution, respectively. Increasing the percentage of afforestation area and financial expenditure for energy saving and environmental protection could significantly reduce PM 2.5 pollution. The findings can help officials formulate effective laws and regulations, and then PM 2.5 pollution related to the pattern of human activity, especially government action, will be ameliorated.

  1. Increasing ocean temperatures reduce activity patterns of a large commercially important coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, J L; Messmer, V; Coker, D J; Hoey, A S; Pratchett, M S

    2014-04-01

    Large-bodied fish are critical for sustaining coral reef fisheries, but little is known about the vulnerability of these fish to global warming. This study examined the effects of elevated temperatures on the movement and activity patterns of the common coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), which is an important fishery species in tropical Australia and throughout the Indo West-Pacific. Adult fish were collected from two locations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (23°S and 14°S) and maintained at one of four temperatures (24, 27, 30, 33 °C). Following >4 weeks acclimation, the spontaneous swimming speeds and activity patterns of individuals were recorded over a period of 12 days. At 24-27 °C, spontaneous swimming speeds of common coral trout were 0.43-0.45 body lengths per second (bls(-1)), but dropped sharply to 0.29 bls(-1) at 30 °C and 0.25 bls(-1) at 33 °C. Concurrently, individuals spent 9.3-10.6% of their time resting motionless on the bottom at 24-27 °C, but this behaviour increased to 14.0% at 30 °C and 20.0% of the time at 33 °C (mean ± SE). The impact of temperature was greatest for smaller individuals (55 cm TL) were first affected by 30 °C and 33 °C, respectively. Importantly, there was some indication that populations can adapt to elevated temperature if presented with adequate time, as the high-latitude population decreased significantly in swimming speeds at both 30 °C and 33 °C, while the low-latitude population only showed significant reductions at 33 °C. Given that movement and activity patterns of large mobile species are directly related to prey encounter rates, ability to capture prey and avoid predators, any reductions in activity patterns are likely to reduce overall foraging and energy intake, limit the energy available for growth and reproduction, and affect the fitness and survival of individuals and populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Influence of human activity patterns on epidemiology of plague in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeau, Marianne; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Hieronimo, Proches; Meliyo, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Human plague has been a recurring public health threat in some villages in the Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, in the period between 1980 and 2004. Despite intensive past biological and medical research, the reasons for the plague outbreaks in the same set of villages remain unknown. Plague research needs to broaden its scope and formulate new hypotheses. This study was carried out to establish relationships between the nature and the spatial extent of selected human activities on one hand, and the reported plague cases on the other hand. Three outdoor activities namely, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market, were selected. Through enquiries the activity patterns related to these activities were mapped in 14 villages. Standard deviation ellipses represent the extent of action spaces. Over 130 activity types were identified and listed. Of these, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market were used for further analysis. The results indicate a significant correlation between the plague frequency and the size of these action spaces. Different characteristics of land use and related human activities were correlated with the plague frequency at village and hamlet levels. Significant relationships were found between plague frequency and specific sources of firewood and water, and specific market places.

  3. Dietary habits and physical activity patterns among Slovenian elderly: cross-sectional survey with cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joca Zurc

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity and a healthy diet are significant predictors of healthy ageing—they help the elderly maintain their physical and mental health, and prevent chronic diseases. Methods: The data for the empirical quantitative survey were collected on the sample of 218 elderly community-dwelling participants (aged 65 years or more, using a structured questionnaire for self-reporting. Data analyses were proceed with the bivariate statistics, and multivariate hierarchical cluster analysis. Results: Most respondents reported good dietary habits (83.1% and a satisfactory physical activity level (60.5%. On average, the elderly eat 3-4 meals per day (59.8% and engage in physical activity at least three times a week (58.6%, with interventions lasting 15 minutes or more (84.4 % and non-organized activity prevailing (96.2%. Ward’s method yielded three clusters with homogenous dietary and physical activity patterns: ‘Health Conscious’ (30.8%, ‘At Risk’ (42.7% and ‘Special Requirements’ (26.5%. Significant differences were identified between clusters and educational level (p = 0.001. Discussion and conclusions: In the future, special attention should be placed on the elderly group with a lower educational level and special dietary and physical activity requirements. Additional studies on representative samples are required for a comprehensive investigation into the lifestyle behaviours of elderly individuals.

  4. Longitudinal patterns of predominant asthma disease activity in pediatric patients enrolled in an asthma-specific disease management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lyne; Nichols, Breck; Choi Kwong, Kenny Yat; Morphew, Tricia; Jones, Craig A

    2008-08-01

    To determine if patterns of predominant asthma disease activity are more closely related than baseline asthma severity to measures of morbidity (acute asthma attack, emergency room visit/hospitalization, missed school days, and/or steroid burst). Retrospective analysis was performed for inner-city Los Angeles asthmatic children (3 to 18 years of age) during their first year of enrollment in an asthma-specific disease management program. All measures of morbidity were more closely related to patterns of predominant disease activity than baseline severity. We conclude that patterns of predominant disease activity are a more significant predictor of asthma morbidity than is baseline severity.

  5. Knee and Hip Joint Kinematics Predict Quadriceps and Hamstrings Neuromuscular Activation Patterns in Drop Jump Landings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Malfait

    Full Text Available The purpose was to assess if variation in sagittal plane landing kinematics is associated with variation in neuromuscular activation patterns of the quadriceps-hamstrings muscle groups during drop vertical jumps (DVJ.Fifty female athletes performed three DVJ. The relationship between peak knee and hip flexion angles and the amplitude of four EMG vectors was investigated with trajectory-level canonical correlation analyses over the entire time period of the landing phase. EMG vectors consisted of the {vastus medialis(VM,vastus lateralis(VL}, {vastus medialis(VM,hamstring medialis(HM}, {hamstring medialis(HM,hamstring lateralis(HL} and the {vastus lateralis(VL,hamstring lateralis(HL}. To estimate the contribution of each individual muscle, linear regressions were also conducted using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping.The peak knee flexion angle was significantly positively associated with the amplitudes of the {VM,HM} and {HM,HL} during the preparatory and initial contact phase and with the {VL,HL} vector during the peak loading phase (p<0.05. Small peak knee flexion angles were significantly associated with higher HM amplitudes during the preparatory and initial contact phase (p<0.001. The amplitudes of the {VM,VL} and {VL,HL} were significantly positively associated with the peak hip flexion angle during the peak loading phase (p<0.05. Small peak hip flexion angles were significantly associated with higher VL amplitudes during the peak loading phase (p = 0.001. Higher external knee abduction and flexion moments were found in participants landing with less flexed knee and hip joints (p<0.001.This study demonstrated clear associations between neuromuscular activation patterns and landing kinematics in the sagittal plane during specific parts of the landing. These findings have indicated that an erect landing pattern, characterized by less hip and knee flexion, was significantly associated with an increased medial and posterior

  6. Muscle activation patterns of the upper and lower extremity during the windmill softball pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Plummer, Hillary A; Keeley, David W

    2011-06-01

    Fast-pitch softball has become an increasingly popular sport for female athletes. There has been little research examining the windmill softball pitch in the literature. The purpose of this study was to describe the muscle activation patterns of 3 upper extremity muscles (biceps, triceps, and rhomboids [scapular stabilizers]) and 2 lower extremity muscles (gluteus maximus and medius) during the 5 phases of the windmill softball pitch. Data describing muscle activation were collected on 7 postpubescent softball pitchers (age 17.7 ± 2.6 years; height 169 ± 5.4 cm; mass 69.1 ± 5.4 kg). Surface electromyographic data were collected using a Myopac Jr 10-channel amplifier (RUN Technologies Scientific Systems, Laguna Hills, CA, USA) synchronized with The MotionMonitor™ motion capture system (Innovative Sports Training Inc, Chicago IL, USA) and presented as a percent of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Gluteus maximus activity reached (196.3% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]), whereas gluteus medius activity was consistent during the single leg support of phase 3 (101.2% MVIC). Biceps brachii activity was greatest during phase 4 of the pitching motion. Triceps brachii activation was consistently >150% MVIC throughout the entire pitching motion, whereas the scapular stabilizers were most active during phase 2 (170.1% MVIC). The results of this study indicate the extent to which muscles are activated during the windmill softball pitch, and this knowledge can lead to the development of proper preventative and rehabilitative muscle strengthening programs. In addition, clinicians will be able to incorporate strengthening exercises that mimic the timing of maximal muscle activation most used during the windmill pitching phases.

  7. Patterns and Associated Factors of Physical Activity among Adolescents in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale L Oyeyemi

    Full Text Available Understanding the context where adolescents' physical activity (PA takes place could impact a more targeted approach to implement PA promotion and interventions in Africa. However, standardized data on adolescents' PA behaviour is lacking in Nigeria. We described PA patterns in the various domains (home, school, transport, leisure-time and intensity categories (light-intensity PA, moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity [MVPA] and total PA, and their associations with sociodemographic factors and socioeconomic status (SES among secondary school adolescents in Nigeria.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative sample of 1006 secondary school adolescents (12-18 years, 50.4% girls in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Self-reported PA was assessed with an adapted version of the Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Young Adults. Outcomes were weekly minutes (min/wk of PA spent in the various domains and intensity categories. Multivariate ANOVA was used to examine associations of PA scores (domains and intensity levels with adolescents' sociodemographic characteristics and SES, and track differences in PA scores between subgroups.The total sample reported most PA at school (1525 min/wk, the least during active transportation (210 min/wk, and only 37% engaged in 60 min of MVPA daily. Boys reported significantly more leisure-time PA (P<0.001, active transportation (P<0.001, MVPA (P = 0.023 and total PA (P = 0.003 than girls, while girls reported more school-based PA (P = 0.009, home-based PA (P<0.001 and light-intensity PA (P<0.001 than boys. Moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.024 and total PA (P = 0.049 were significantly higher in younger age group than in older group. Household car ownership was associated with less active transportation (P = 0.009, less moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.048 and with more leisure-time PA (P = 0.013. High parental SES was associated with more leisure-time PA (P = 0.002, more MVPA (P = 0.047 and less active

  8. Improved Volitional Recall of Motor-Imagery-Related Brain Activation Patterns Using Real-Time Functional MRI-Based Neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarinao, Epifanio; Yoshida, Akihiro; Ueno, Mika; Terabe, Kazunori; Kato, Shohei; Isoda, Haruo; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2018-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI), a covert cognitive process where an action is mentally simulated but not actually performed, could be used as an effective neurorehabilitation tool for motor function improvement or recovery. Recent approaches employing brain-computer/brain-machine interfaces to provide online feedback of the MI during rehabilitation training have promising rehabilitation outcomes. In this study, we examined whether participants could volitionally recall MI-related brain activation patterns when guided using neurofeedback (NF) during training. The participants' performance was compared to that without NF. We hypothesized that participants would be able to consistently generate the relevant activation pattern associated with the MI task during training with NF compared to that without NF. To assess activation consistency, we used the performance of classifiers trained to discriminate MI-related brain activation patterns. Our results showed significantly higher predictive values of MI-related activation patterns during training with NF. Additionally, this improvement in the classification performance tends to be associated with the activation of middle temporal gyrus/inferior occipital gyrus, a region associated with visual motion processing, suggesting the importance of performance monitoring during MI task training. Taken together, these findings suggest that the efficacy of MI training, in terms of generating consistent brain activation patterns relevant to the task, can be enhanced by using NF as a mechanism to enable participants to volitionally recall task-related brain activation patterns.

  9. Improved Volitional Recall of Motor-Imagery-Related Brain Activation Patterns Using Real-Time Functional MRI-Based Neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epifanio Bagarinao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI, a covert cognitive process where an action is mentally simulated but not actually performed, could be used as an effective neurorehabilitation tool for motor function improvement or recovery. Recent approaches employing brain–computer/brain–machine interfaces to provide online feedback of the MI during rehabilitation training have promising rehabilitation outcomes. In this study, we examined whether participants could volitionally recall MI-related brain activation patterns when guided using neurofeedback (NF during training. The participants’ performance was compared to that without NF. We hypothesized that participants would be able to consistently generate the relevant activation pattern associated with the MI task during training with NF compared to that without NF. To assess activation consistency, we used the performance of classifiers trained to discriminate MI-related brain activation patterns. Our results showed significantly higher predictive values of MI-related activation patterns during training with NF. Additionally, this improvement in the classification performance tends to be associated with the activation of middle temporal gyrus/inferior occipital gyrus, a region associated with visual motion processing, suggesting the importance of performance monitoring during MI task training. Taken together, these findings suggest that the efficacy of MI training, in terms of generating consistent brain activation patterns relevant to the task, can be enhanced by using NF as a mechanism to enable participants to volitionally recall task-related brain activation patterns.

  10. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...

  11. Waste governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available of governance in Africa. The next section focuses on regulation, and the status of the regulatory frameworks in different African countries. Shortcomings in the regulatory framework are highlighted through examples in various countries. Specific policy...

  12. Patterns of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet in U.S. adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Ronald J; Wang, Jing

    2013-08-01

    To identify patterns in adolescents' obesogenic behaviors and their relations to physical and psychological health. A nationally representative sample of 9,174 U.S. adolescents ages 11 to 16 years was surveyed on physical activity (PA), screen-based sedentary behavior (SB), frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy food items, weight status, weight control behavior, depression, physical symptoms, body dissatisfaction, overall health, and life satisfaction. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of PA, SB, and diet. A model with three latent classes best fit the data: Class 1 with high PA and high fruit and vegetable intake and low SB and intake of sweets, soft drinks, chips, and fries; Class 2 with high SB and high intake of sweets, soft drinks, chips, and fries; and Class 3 with low PA, low fruit and vegetable intake, and low intake of sweets, chips, and fries. Membership in the three classes was related to age, gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. In addition, members of Class 1 (26.5%) were more likely to be of normal weight status and to fare well on most of the other health indices; of Class 2 (26.4%) were less likely to be trying to lose weight but scored poorly on the mental health indices; and of Class 3 (47.2%) were less likely to be underweight and reported greater body dissatisfaction. Three prevalent patterns of adolescent obesogenic behaviors were identified and these patterns related to weight status, depression, and other indicators of physical and psychological health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  14. Thermal ecology and activity patterns of the lizard community of the Restinga of Jurubatiba, Macaé, RJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, F H; Vrcibradic, D; Galdino, C A; Cunha-Barros, M; Rocha, C F; Van Sluys, M

    2001-05-01

    We analyzed the thermal ecology and activity patterns of the lizard community from the Restinga of Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The broadest activity was that of Tropidurus torquatus, a sit-and-wait forager, while the active foraging teiid Cnemidophorus littoralis had the shortest activity. The nocturnal gekkonid Hemidactylus mabouia was found active during the day only during early morning and late afternoon, when environmental temperatures are low. Body temperature was highest for Cnemidophorus littoralis and lowest for the two Mabuya species. The patterns found here are discussed and compared to those of congeneric species in other habitats in Brazil.

  15. Comparison of PET and fMRI activation patterns during declarative memory processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottaghy, F.M.; Krause, B.J.; Schmidt, D.; Hautzel, H.; Mueller-Gaertner, H.-W.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N.J.; Halsband, U.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: In this study neuronal correlates of encoding and retrieval in paired association learning were compared using two different neuroimaging methods: Positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: 6 right-handed normal male volunteers took part in the study. Each subject underwent six 0-15-butanol PET scans and an fMRI study comprising four single epochs on a different day. The subjects had to learn and retrieve 12 word pairs which were visually presented (highly imaginable words, not semantically related). Results: Mean recall accuracy was 93% in the PET as well as in the fMRI experiment. During encoding and retrieval we found anterior cingulate cortex activation, and bilateral prefrontal cortex activation in both imaging modalities. Furthermore, we demonstrate the importance of the precuneus in episodic memory. With PET the results demonstrate frontopolar activations whereas fMRI fails to show activations in this area probably due to susceptibility artifacts. In fMRI we found additionally parahippocampal activation and due to the whole-brain coverage cerebellar activation during encoding. The distance between the center-of-mass activations in both modalities was 7.2±6.5 mm. Conclusion: There is a preponderance of commonalities in the activation patterns yielded with fMRI and PET. However, there are also important differences. The decision to choose one or the other neuroimaging modality should among other aspects depend on the study design (single subject vs. group study) and the task of interest. (orig.) [de

  16. Reconstruction of human brain spontaneous activity based on frequency-pattern analysis of magnetoencephalography data

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    Rodolfo R Llinas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the analysis and localization of brain activity has been developed, based on multichannel magnetic field recordings, over minutes, superimposed on the MRI of the individual. Here, a high resolution Fourier Transform is obtained over the entire recording period, leading to a detailed multi-frequency spectrum. Further analysis implements a total decomposition of the frequency components into functionally invariant entities, each having an invariant field pattern localizable in recording space. The method, addressed as functional tomography, makes it possible to find the distribution of magnetic field sources in space. Here, the method is applied to the analysis of simulated data, to oscillating signals activating a physical current dipoles phantom, and to recordings of spontaneous brain activity in ten healthy adults. In the analysis of simulated data, 61 dipoles are localized with 0.7 mm precision. Concerning the physical phantom the method is able to localize three simultaneously activated current dipoles with 1 mm precision. Spatial resolution 3 mm was attained when localizing spontaneous alpha rhythm activity in ten healthy adults, where the alpha peak was specified for each subject individually. Co-registration of the functional tomograms with each subject’s head MRI localized alpha range activity to the occipital and/or posterior parietal brain region. This is the first application of this new functional tomography to human brain activity. The method successfully provides an overall view of brain electrical activity, a detailed spectral description and, combined with MRI, the localization of sources in anatomical brain space.

  17. Distinctive Left Ventricular Activations Associated With ECG Pattern in Heart Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derval, Nicolas; Duchateau, Josselin; Mahida, Saagar; Eschalier, Romain; Sacher, Frederic; Lumens, Joost; Cochet, Hubert; Denis, Arnaud; Pillois, Xavier; Yamashita, Seigo; Komatsu, Yuki; Ploux, Sylvain; Amraoui, Sana; Zemmoura, Adlane; Ritter, Philippe; Hocini, Mélèze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre; Bordachar, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    In contrast to patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB), heart failure patients with narrow QRS and nonspecific intraventricular conduction delay (NICD) display a relatively limited response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. We sought to compare left ventricular (LV) activation patterns in heart failure patients with narrow QRS and NICD to patients with LBBB using high-density electroanatomic activation maps. Fifty-two heart failure patients (narrow QRS [n=18], LBBB [n=11], NICD [n=23]) underwent 3-dimensional electroanatomic mapping with a high density of mapping points (387±349 LV). Adjunctive scar imaging was available in 37 (71%) patients and was analyzed in relation to activation maps. LBBB patients typically demonstrated (1) a single LV breakthrough at the septum (38±15 ms post-QRS onset); (2) prolonged right-to-left transseptal activation with absence of direct LV Purkinje activity; (3) homogeneous propagation within the LV cavity; and (4) latest activation at the basal lateral LV. In comparison, both NICD and narrow QRS patients demonstrated (1) multiple LV breakthroughs along the posterior or anterior fascicles: narrow QRS versus LBBB, 5±2 versus 1±1; P =0.0004; NICD versus LBBB, 4±2 versus 1±1; P =0.001); (2) evidence of early/pre-QRS LV electrograms with Purkinje potentials; (3) rapid propagation in narrow QRS patients and more heterogeneous propagation in NICD patients; and (4) presence of limited areas of late activation associated with LV scar with high interindividual heterogeneity. In contrast to LBBB patients, narrow QRS and NICD patients are characterized by distinct mechanisms of LV activation, which may predict poor response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Patterns of cortical activity during the observation of Public Service Announcements and commercial advertisings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; Cincotti, Febo; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Sorrentino, Domenica M; Mattia, Donatella; Salinari, Serenella; Bianchi, Luigi; Toppi, Jlena; Aloise, Fabio; Babiloni, Fabio

    2010-06-03

    In the present research we were interested to study the cerebral activity of a group of healthy subjects during the observation a documentary intermingled by a series of TV advertisements. In particular, we desired to examine whether Public Service Announcements (PSAs) are able to elicit a different pattern of activity, when compared with a different class of commercials, and correlate it with the memorization of the showed stimuli, as resulted from a following subject's verbal interview. We recorded the EEG signals from a group of 15 healthy subjects and applied the High Resolution EEG techniques in order to estimate and map their Power Spectral Density (PSD) on a realistic cortical model. The single subjects' activities have been z-score transformed and then grouped to define four different datasets, related to subjects who remembered and forgotten the PSAs and to subjects who remembered and forgotten cars commercials (CAR) respectively, which we contrasted to investigate cortical areas involved in this encoding process. The results we here present show that the cortical activity elicited during the observation of the TV commercials that were remembered (RMB) is higher and localized in the left frontal brain areas when compared to the activity elicited during the vision of the TV commercials that were forgotten (FRG) in theta and gamma bands for both categories of advertisements (PSAs and CAR). Moreover, the cortical maps associated with the PSAs also show an increase of activity in the alpha and beta band. In conclusion, the TV advertisements that will be remembered by the experimental population have increased their cerebral activity, mainly in the left hemisphere. These results seem to be congruent with and well inserted in the already existing literature, on this topic, related to the HERA model. The different pattern of activity in different frequency bands elicited by the observation of PSAs may be justified by the existence of additional cortical networks

  19. Distinct ontogenic patterns of overt and latent DGAT activities of rat liver microsomes.

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    Waterman, Ian J; Price, Nigel T; Zammit, Victor A

    2002-09-01

    We have studied the ontogeny of the two functional diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) activities (overt and latent) during postnatal development in rat liver. We find that the ontogenic patterns of the two are highly distinct. Overt DGAT shows a transient rise in activity up to day 4 postnatally, after which it declines until weaning; thereafter, it increases steadily to reach high adult values that may contribute to the high rates of turnover of cytosolic triacylglycerol (TAG). By contrast, latent DGAT activity increases continuously during the suckling period but falls sharply upon weaning onto chow but not onto a high-fat diet. Rates of TAG secretion by hepatocytes are higher than in the adult during the first 7 days after birth, and are largely dependent on the mobilization of the abundant intrahepatocyte TAG as a source of acyl moieties. When the hepatic steatosis is cleared (after day 7) the TAG secretion rate declines by 80% to reach adult values. Quantification of the content of mRNA for the DGAT1 and DGAT2 genes does not show correlation with either of the DGAT activities. We conclude that post-translational modification may play an important role in the overt and latent distribution of DGAT activity in the liver microsomal membrane.

  20. Muscle activation patterns in the Nordic hamstring exercise: Impact of prior strain injury.

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    Bourne, M N; Opar, D A; Williams, M D; Al Najjar, A; Shield, A J

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine: (a) the spatial patterns of hamstring activation during the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE); (b) whether previously injured hamstrings display activation deficits during the NHE; and (c) whether previously injured hamstrings exhibit altered cross-sectional area (CSA). Ten healthy, recreationally active men with a history of unilateral hamstring strain injury underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging of their thighs before and after six sets of 10 repetitions of the NHE. Transverse (T2) relaxation times of all hamstring muscles [biceps femoris long head (BFlh); biceps femoris short head (BFsh); semitendinosus (ST); semimembranosus (SM)] were measured at rest and immediately after the NHE and CSA was measured at rest. For the uninjured limb, the ST's percentage increase in T2 with exercise was 16.8%, 15.8%, and 20.2% greater than the increases exhibited by the BFlh, BFsh, and SM, respectively (P hamstring muscles (n = 10) displayed significantly smaller increases in T2 post-exercise than the homonymous muscles in the uninjured contralateral limb (mean difference -7.2%, P = 0.001). No muscles displayed significant between-limb differences in CSA. During the NHE, the ST is preferentially activated and previously injured hamstring muscles display chronic activation deficits compared with uninjured contralateral muscles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Diel Behavioral Activity Patterns in Adult Solitarious Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål

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    Sidi Ould Ely

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The responses of adult solitarious desert locust to odors from a host plant were evaluated in a two-choice wind tunnel. Solitarious desert locusts collected from the field (Red Sea Coast were more attracted to volatiles from potted Heliotropium ovalifolium in scotophase than in photophase. The attraction towards the host plant odors rather than to clean air, in both photophase and scotophase, concurs with previous observations on oviposition preferences near these plants. Diel behavioral activity patterns of adult solitarious desert locusts Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål that were collected from the field in Port Sudan were investigated by monitoring, scanning, resting, taking off, and walking/running in a wind tunnel. Solitarious locusts that had been propagated in the laboratory for 20 generations were also observed for comparison. In both groups of locusts, insects were significantly more active after sunset and this activity attained peak level at 1-2 hours after dusk. Of the two groups, solitarious locusts collected from the field were significantly more active. In the scotophase, the former traversed distances that were about seven times those covered by laboratory-reared locusts. Overall, the results show that the repertoire of behavioral activities of solitarious locusts is maintained in laboratory-reared insects, albeit at a lower level. The implications of these observations in the behavioral ecology of the desert locust are discussed.

  2. Cultured Neural Networks: Optimization of Patterned Network Adhesiveness and Characterization of their Neural Activity

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    W. L. C. Rutten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One type of future, improved neural interface is the “cultured probe”. It is a hybrid type of neural information transducer or prosthesis, for stimulation and/or recording of neural activity. It would consist of a microelectrode array (MEA on a planar substrate, each electrode being covered and surrounded by a local circularly confined network (“island” of cultured neurons. The main purpose of the local networks is that they act as biofriendly intermediates for collateral sprouts from the in vivo system, thus allowing for an effective and selective neuron–electrode interface. As a secondary purpose, one may envisage future information processing applications of these intermediary networks. In this paper, first, progress is shown on how substrates can be chemically modified to confine developing networks, cultured from dissociated rat cortex cells, to “islands” surrounding an electrode site. Additional coating of neurophobic, polyimide-coated substrate by triblock-copolymer coating enhances neurophilic-neurophobic adhesion contrast. Secondly, results are given on neuronal activity in patterned, unconnected and connected, circular “island” networks. For connected islands, the larger the island diameter (50, 100 or 150 μm, the more spontaneous activity is seen. Also, activity may show a very high degree of synchronization between two islands. For unconnected islands, activity may start at 22 days in vitro (DIV, which is two weeks later than in unpatterned networks.

  3. Patterns of participation in recreational and leisure activities among children with complex physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary; King, Gillian; King, Susanne; Kertoy, Marilyn; Hurley, Patricia; Rosenbaum, Peter; Young, Nancy; Hanna, Steven

    2006-05-01

    Children with physical disabilities are at increased risk of limitations to participation in everyday activities. This study describes research examining the participation of children in day-to-day formal and informal activities (excluding mandated academic schooling). Using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) measure, data on participation patterns were collected from 427 children (229 males, 198 females; mean age 10 y [SD 2 y 4 mo]; range 6-14 y) with physical limitations and from their families. The primary types of physical disability in the sample included cerebral palsy, spina bifida, acquired brain injury, and musculoskeletal limitations. Findings indicate a broad range of diversity and intensity of participation, with proportionately greater involvement in informal rather than formal activities. Significant differences in participation and enjoyment were found between males and females, and for children more than 12 years of age. Children's participation was less diverse in families reporting lower income, single-parent status, and lower respondent parent education. These findings provide a foundation for an improved understanding of the participation of children with physical disabilities, which can assist families and service providers in planning activities that fit with their child's preferences and ensure active participation.

  4. Temporal and environmental patterns of sedentary and active behaviors during adolescents' leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J H; Marshall, Simon J; Gorely, Trish; Cameron, Noel

    2009-01-01

    There is great interest in young people's overweight and obesity. Few data, however, describe when sedentary and physically active behaviors are likely to occur during the day or how these behaviors are related to location. The purpose of this study was to describe sedentary and active leisure-time behaviors of adolescents across the day and setting. Adolescents (male n = 579, female n = 967; aged 13-16 years) completed time-use diaries for three weekdays and one weekend day. At 15 min intervals, participants recorded what they were doing and where they were. TV viewing and sports/exercise peaked at different times in the day, although TV viewing was two to three times more likely to occur than sports/exercise. TV viewing was most likely to occur during the middle to late evening. The playing of computer games was low, particularly for girls. Weekend data showed TV viewing was the most reported activity throughout the day. For boys, "being in the garden" was highly predictive of engaging in sports/exercise, but this declined rapidly with age. Motorized travel to school was reported twice as often as active travel. Momentary assessments of behavior, in conjunction with contemporaneous reports of environmental factors, describe important patterns of leisure-time active and sedentary behaviors in youth.

  5. Biomechanical effects of robot assisted walking on knee joint kinematics and muscle activation pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Pavithra; Vidhya, S; Li, Junhua; Chew, Effie; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Yu, Haoyong

    2017-07-01

    Since manual rehabilitation therapy can be taxing for both the patient and the physiotherapist, a gait rehabilitation robot has been built to reduce the physical strain and increase the efficacy of the rehabilitation therapy. The prototype of the gait rehabilitation robot is designed to provide assistance while walking for patients with abnormal gait pattern and it can also be used for rehabilitation therapy to restore an individual's normal gait pattern by aiding motor recovery. The Gait Rehabilitation Robot uses gait event based synchronization, which enables the exoskeleton to provide synchronous assistance during walking that aims to reduce the lower-limb muscle activation. This study emphasizes on the biomechanical effects of assisted walking on the lower limb by analyzing the EMG signal, knee joint kinematics data that was collected from the right leg during the various experimental conditions. The analysis of the measured data shows an improved knee joint trajectory and reduction in muscle activity with assistance. The result of this study does not only assess the functionality of the exoskeleton but also provides a profound understanding of the human-robot interaction by studying the effects of assistance on the lower limb.

  6. Patterns of Expression of Vaginal T-Cell Activation Markers during Estrogen-Maintained Vaginal Candidiasis

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    Al-Sadeq Ameera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunosuppressive activity of estrogen was further investigated by assessing the pattern of expression of CD25, CD28, CD69, and CD152 on vaginal T cells during estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis. A precipitous and significant decrease in vaginal fungal burden toward the end of week 3 postinfection was concurrent with a significant increase in vaginal lymphocyte numbers. During this period, the percentage of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD152+, and CD28+ vaginal T cells gradually and significantly increased. The percentage of CD3+ and CD3+CD4+ cells increased from 43% and 15% at day 0 to 77% and 40% at day 28 postinfection. Compared with 29% CD152+ vaginal T cells in naive mice, > 70% of vaginal T cells were CD152+ at day 28 postinfection. In conclusion, estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis results in postinfection time-dependent changes in the pattern of expression of CD152, CD28, and other T-cell markers, suggesting that T cells are subject to mixed suppression and activation signals.

  7. Behavioural sampling techniques and activity pattern of Indian Pangolin Manis crassicaudata (Mammalia: Manidae in captivity

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    R.K. Mohapatra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on six Indian Pangolins Manis crassicaudata observed in captivity at the Pangolin Conservation Breeding Centre, Nandankanan, Odisha, India over 1377 hours of video recordings for each pangolin between 1500hr and 0800hr on 81 consecutive observational days. Video recordings were made through digital systems assisted by infrared enabled CCTV cameras. The data highlights patterns relate to 12 different behaviour and enclosure utilization. Different interval periods for sampling of instantaneous behaviour from video recordings have been evaluated to develop optimal study methods for the future. The activity budgets of pangolins displayed natural patterns of nocturnal activity with a peak between 20:00-21:00 hr. When out of their burrow, they spent about 59% of the time walking in the enclosure, and 14% of the time feeding. The repeatability of the behaviours has a significant negative correlation with the mean time spent in that behaviour. Focal behavioural samples significantly correlated with instantaneous samples up to 15 minutes interval. The correlation values gradually decreased with the increase in sampling interval. The results indicate that results obtained from focal sampling and instantaneous sampling with relatively shorter intervals (=5 minutes are about equally reliable. The study suggests use of focal sampling, instead of instantaneous sampling to record behaviour relating to social interactions.

  8. A glasses-type wearable device for monitoring the patterns of food intake and facial activity

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    Chung, Jungman; Chung, Jungmin; Oh, Wonjun; Yoo, Yongkyu; Lee, Won Gu; Bang, Hyunwoo

    2017-01-01

    Here we present a new method for automatic and objective monitoring of ingestive behaviors in comparison with other facial activities through load cells embedded in a pair of glasses, named GlasSense. Typically, activated by subtle contraction and relaxation of a temporalis muscle, there is a cyclic movement of the temporomandibular joint during mastication. However, such muscular signals are, in general, too weak to sense without amplification or an electromyographic analysis. To detect these oscillatory facial signals without any use of obtrusive device, we incorporated a load cell into each hinge which was used as a lever mechanism on both sides of the glasses. Thus, the signal measured at the load cells can detect the force amplified mechanically by the hinge. We demonstrated a proof-of-concept validation of the amplification by differentiating the force signals between the hinge and the temple. A pattern recognition was applied to extract statistical features and classify featured behavioral patterns, such as natural head movement, chewing, talking, and wink. The overall results showed that the average F1 score of the classification was about 94.0% and the accuracy above 89%. We believe this approach will be helpful for designing a non-intrusive and un-obtrusive eyewear-based ingestive behavior monitoring system.

  9. Analysis on Residents’ Travel Activity Pattern in Historic Urban Areas: A Case Study of Historic Urban Area of Yangzhou, China

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    Mao Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel behaviors and activity patterns in the historic urban area of a city are expected to be different from the overall situations in the city area. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the residents’ travel activity patterns in historic urban area. Based on survey data conducted in the historic urban area of Yangzhou, the travel activities of local residents in a whole day were classified into five types of patterns. The multinomial logit (MNL model was developed to evaluate the impacts of explanatory variables on the choices of activity patterns. The results showed that the choice of activity pattern was significantly impacted by five contributing factors including the gender, age, occupation, car ownership, and number of electric bikes in household. The other variables, which were the family population, preschoolers, number of conventional bikes in household, motorcycle ownership, and income, were found to be not significantly related to the choice of activities. The results of this study from historic urban area were compared to findings of previous studies from overall urban area. The comparison showed that the impacts of factors on activity pattern in the historic urban area were different from those in the overall area. Findings of this study provide important suggestions for the policy makings to improve the traffic situations in historic urban areas of cities.

  10. Dietary Behaviour Pattern and Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Egyptian Mothers: Relationships with Their Children's Body Mass Index

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    Nayera E. Hassan

    2016-09-01

    CONCLUSION: Improper dietary patterns, nonworking mothers and big family size are associated with obesity among Egyptian women. Emphasis should be given to increasing physical activity and encourage healthier diets among Egyptian mothers and their children.

  11. Privacy and Open Government

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    Teresa Scassa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to balance privacy with transparency and accountability in the context of “public” personal information. The second challenge flows from the disruption of traditional approaches to privacy based on a collapse of the distinctions between public and private sector actors. The third challenge is that of the potential for open government data—even if anonymized—to contribute to the big data environment in which citizens and their activities are increasingly monitored and profiled.

  12. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns are associated with selected adolescent health risk behaviors.

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    Nelson, Melissa C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about how physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and various adolescent health risk behaviors are associated. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between PA and sedentary behavior patterns and an array of risk behaviors, including leading causes of adolescent morbidity/mortality. Nationally representative self-reported data were collected (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health; wave I: 1994-1995; II: 1996; N = 11957). Previously developed and validated cluster analyses identified 7 homogeneous groups of adolescents sharing PA and sedentary behaviors. Poisson regression predicted the relative risk of health risk behaviors, other weekly activities, and self-esteem across the 7 PA/sedentary behavior clusters controlling for demographics and socioeconomic status. Main outcome measures were adolescent risk behaviors (eg, truancy, cigarette smoking, sexual intercourse, delinquency), other weekly activities (eg, work, academic performance, sleep), self-esteem. Relative to high television (TV) and video viewers, adolescents in clusters characterized by skating and video gaming, high overall sports and sports participation with parents, using neighborhood recreation center, strict parental control of TV, reporting few activities overall, and being active in school were less likely to participate in a range of risky behaviors, ranging from an adjusted risk ratio (ARR) of 0.42 (outcome: illegal drug use, cluster: strict parental control of TV) to 0.88 (outcome: violence, cluster: sports with parents). Active teens were less likely to have low self-esteem (eg, adolescents engaging in sports with parents, ARR: 0.73) and more likely to have higher grades (eg, active in school, ARR: 1.20). Participation in a range of PA-related behaviors, particularly those characterized by high parental sports/exercise involvement, was associated with favorable adolescent risk profiles. Adolescents with high TV/video viewership were less

  13. Diurnal patterns of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartini, Claudio; Wannamethee, S Goya; Iliffe, Steve; Morris, Richard W; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy; Whincup, Peter H; Jefferis, Barbara J

    2015-07-04

    Physical activity (PA) levels among older adults are generally low and sedentary behaviour (SB) very common; increasing PA and reducing SB levels could have appreciable health benefits. Quantifying PA and SB patterns through the day could help in defining strategies for change. We examined within day variations in PA and SB and whether these varied by demographic factors and health status. Men aged 71-91 years participating in an established UK population-based cohort study were invited to wear a GT3x Actigraph accelerometer over the hip for one week in 2010-12. Percentages of time spent in sedentary (SB, 1040 CPM) were derived. Multilevel models were used to estimate the associations between demographic factors and health status and SB, LIPA and MVPA. 1455 of 3137 men invited (46.4 %) participated and provided adequate data. Men spent 73 % of the day in SB, 23 % in LIPA and 4.5 % in MVPA (619, 197 and 39 min per day respectively). The percentage of time spent in MVPA was highest in the morning, peaking at 10-11 am (8.4 %), and then declining until the evening, with the exception of a small increase at 2-3 pm. LIPA followed a similar pattern. Conversely, SB levels were lowest in the morning and increased throughout the day, peaking at 9 pm (88 %). Men who were older, did not use active transport, had mobility limitations, were obese, depressed, had more chronic health conditions, and were smokers had lower levels of MVPA. The impacts of older age, obesity, mobility limitations and chronic diseases on LIPA, MVPA and SB were more marked in the morning than in the afternoon and evening. Levels of MVPA and LIPA are highest in the morning (peak at 10-11 am) and decrease during the day. SB increases through the course of the day to peak in the evening. Interventions to encourage older men to be physically active may need to take account of current PA patterns, aiming to prolong active morning bouts of PA and/or reducing SB in the afternoon and evening hours.

  14. Sedimentary organic matter distributions, burrowing activity, and biogeochemical cycling: Natural patterns and experimental artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Emma; Aller, Robert, C.; Stora, Georges

    2010-11-01

    The coupling between biogenic reworking activity and reactive organic matter patterns within deposits is poorly understood and often ignored. In this study, we examined how common experimental treatments of sediment affect the burrowing behavior of the polychaete Nephtys incisa and how these effects may interact with reactive organic matter distributions to alter diagenetic transport - reaction balances. Sediment and animals were recovered from a subtidal site in central Long Island Sound, USA. The upper 15 cm of the sediment was sectioned into sub-intervals, and each interval separately sieved and homogenized. Three initial distributions of sediment and organic substrate reactivity were setup in a series of microcosms: (1) a reconstituted natural pattern with surface-derived sediment overlying sediment obtained from progressively deeper material to a depth of 15 cm (Natural); (2) a 15 cm thick sediment layer composed only of surface-derived sediment (Rich); and (3) a 15 cm thick layer composed of uniformally mixed sediment from the original 15 cm sediment profile (Averaged). The two last treatments are comparable to that used in microcosms in many previous studies of bioturbation and interspecific functional interaction experiments. Sediment grain size distributions were 97.5% silt-clay and showed no depth dependent patterns. Sediment porosity gradients were slightly altered by the treatments. Nepthys were reintroduced and aquariums were X-rayed regularly over 5 months to visualize and quantify spatial and temporal dynamics of burrows. The burrowing behaviour of adult populations having similar total biovolume, biomass, abundance, and individual sizes differed substantially as a function of treatment. Burrows in sediment with natural property gradients were much shallower and less dense than those in microcosms with altered gradients. The burrow volume/biovolume ratio was also lower in the substrate with natural organic reactivity gradients. Variation in food

  15. Continuous High Frequency Activity: A peculiar SEEG pattern related to specific brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melani, Federico; Zelmann, Rina; Mari, Francesco; Gotman, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective While visually marking the high frequency oscillations in the stereo-EEG of epileptic patients, we observed a continuous/semicontinuous activity in the ripple band (80–250 Hz), which we defined continuous High Frequency Activity (HFA). We aim to analyze in all brain regions the occurrence and significance of this particular pattern. Methods Twenty patients implanted in mesial temporal and neocortical areas were studied. One minute of slow-wave sleep was reviewed. The background was classified as continuous/semicontinuous, irregular, or sporadic based on the duration of the fast oscillations. Each channel was classified as inside/outside the seizure onset zone (SOZ) or a lesion. Results The continuous/semicontinuous HFA occurred in 54 of the 790 channels analyzed, with a clearly higher prevalence in hippocampus and occipital lobe. No correlation was found with the SOZ or lesions. In the occipital lobe the continuous/semicontinuous HFA was present independently of whether eyes were open or closed. Conclusions We describe what appears to be a new physiological High Frequency Activity, independent of epileptogenicity, present almost exclusively in the hippocampus and occipital cortex but independent of the alpha rhythm. Significance The continuous HFA may be an intrinsic characteristic of specific brain regions, reflecting a particular type of physiological neuronal activity. PMID:23768436

  16. Knee and Hip Joint Kinematics Predict Quadriceps and Hamstrings Neuromuscular Activation Patterns in Drop Jump Landings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfait, Bart; Dingenen, Bart; Smeets, Annemie; Staes, Filip; Pataky, Todd; Robinson, Mark A; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Verschueren, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to assess if variation in sagittal plane landing kinematics is associated with variation in neuromuscular activation patterns of the quadriceps-hamstrings muscle groups during drop vertical jumps (DVJ). Fifty female athletes performed three DVJ. The relationship between peak knee and hip flexion angles and the amplitude of four EMG vectors was investigated with trajectory-level canonical correlation analyses over the entire time period of the landing phase. EMG vectors consisted of the {vastus medialis(VM),vastus lateralis(VL)}, {vastus medialis(VM),hamstring medialis(HM)}, {hamstring medialis(HM),hamstring lateralis(HL)} and the {vastus lateralis(VL),hamstring lateralis(HL)}. To estimate the contribution of each individual muscle, linear regressions were also conducted using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping. The peak knee flexion angle was significantly positively associated with the amplitudes of the {VM,HM} and {HM,HL} during the preparatory and initial contact phase and with the {VL,HL} vector during the peak loading phase (phamstrings medialis activity) during the preparatory and initial contact phase and an increased lateral neuromuscular activation (dominant vastus lateralis activity) during the peak loading phase.

  17. The cortical activation pattern by a rehabilitation robotic hand: a functional NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pyung-Hun; Lee, Seung-Hee; Gu, Gwang Min; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Jin, Sang-Hyun; Yeo, Sang Seok; Seo, Jeong Pyo; Jang, Sung Ho

    2014-01-01

    Clarification of the relationship between external stimuli and brain response has been an important topic in neuroscience and brain rehabilitation. In the current study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we attempted to investigate cortical activation patterns generated during execution of a rehabilitation robotic hand. Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. Passive movements of the right fingers were performed using a rehabilitation robotic hand at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. We measured values of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO), deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR) and total-hemoglobin (HbT) in five regions of interest: the primary sensory-motor cortex (SM1), hand somatotopy of the contralateral SM1, supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor cortex (PMC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). HbO and HbT values indicated significant activation in the left SM1, left SMA, left PMC, and left PFC during execution of the rehabilitation robotic hand (uncorrected, p < 0.01). By contrast, HbR value indicated significant activation only in the hand somatotopic area of the left SM1 (uncorrected, p < 0.01). Our results appear to indicate that execution of the rehabilitation robotic hand could induce cortical activation.

  18. The Daily Pattern of Main Activities in the Gelada Baboon (Theropithecus gelada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Filipčík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to observe and analyse the main daily activities in the group of geladas kept in the Zlín Zoo. The experimental group was formed by three males (one of them was a dominant alfa male and four females who were in the reproductive cycle at the observation period. The behavioural study included five recurrent observations which took place in March 2014. The observations revealed that geladas spent most of the time feeding (44.1% and performing comfort behaviour (24.6%. About 7.7–10.4% of the total time the geladas spent moving, resting and observing the neighbourhoods. The settled and stable social hierarchy within the group prevented greater incidence (0.7% of aggressive behaviour. Occurrence of other types of activities was low – play (1.7%, climbing the trees (0.5% and sexual behaviour (2.3%. The work also studied how the incidence of a particular type of behaviour changed over time within the day. A certain pattern in behavioural activities was apparent because their incidence tended to be similar on all observation days. Foraging activities were the greatest (44.80 ± 3.64 observations between 15.00 and 16.00, resting (8.00–9.80 observations between 12.00 and 14.00 and comfort behaviour (23.20 ± 2.82 observations in the morning.

  19. Kernel-Based Relevance Analysis with Enhanced Interpretability for Detection of Brain Activity Patterns

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    Andres M. Alvarez-Meza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Enhanced Kernel-based Relevance Analysis (EKRA that aims to support the automatic identification of brain activity patterns using electroencephalographic recordings. EKRA is a data-driven strategy that incorporates two kernel functions to take advantage of the available joint information, associating neural responses to a given stimulus condition. Regarding this, a Centered Kernel Alignment functional is adjusted to learning the linear projection that best discriminates the input feature set, optimizing the required free parameters automatically. Our approach is carried out in two scenarios: (i feature selection by computing a relevance vector from extracted neural features to facilitating the physiological interpretation of a given brain activity task, and (ii enhanced feature selection to perform an additional transformation of relevant features aiming to improve the overall identification accuracy. Accordingly, we provide an alternative feature relevance analysis strategy that allows improving the system performance while favoring the data interpretability. For the validation purpose, EKRA is tested in two well-known tasks of brain activity: motor imagery discrimination and epileptic seizure detection. The obtained results show that the EKRA approach estimates a relevant representation space extracted from the provided supervised information, emphasizing the salient input features. As a result, our proposal outperforms the state-of-the-art methods regarding brain activity discrimination accuracy with the benefit of enhanced physiological interpretation about the task at hand.

  20. Muscle activation patterns in acceleration-based phases during reach-to-grasp movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Keisuke; Lee, Bumsuk; Shiihara, Yasufumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Wada, Naoki; Shirakura, Kenji; Watanabe, Hideomi

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] An earlier study divided reaching activity into characteristic phases based on hand velocity profiles. By synchronizing muscle activities and the acceleration profile, a phasing approach for reaching movement, based on hand acceleration profiles, was attempted in order to elucidate the roles of individual muscle activities in the different phases of the acceleration profile in reaching movements. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy volunteer subjects participated in this study. The aim was to electromyographically evaluate muscles around the shoulder, the upper trapezius, the anterior deltoid, the biceps brachii, and the triceps brachii, most of which have been used to evaluate arm motion, as well as the acceleration of the upper limb during simple reaching movement in the reach-to-grasp task. [Results] Analysis showed the kinematic trajectories of the acceleration during a simple biphasic profile of the reaching movement could be divided into four phases: increasing acceleration (IA), decreasing acceleration (DA), increasing deceleration (ID), and decreasing deceleration (DD). Muscles around the shoulder showed different activity patterns, which were closely associated with these acceleration phases. [Conclusion] These results suggest the important role of the four phases, derived from the acceleration trajectory, in the elucidation of the muscular mechanisms which regulate and coordinate the muscles around the shoulder in reaching movements.