WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity overview challenge

  1. Facing Tomorrow's Challenges - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural-science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet is an overview of the science strategy and describes how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  2. Overview of Constitutional Challenges to NSA Collection Activities and Recent Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    acquisition of foreign intelligence information went “well beyond garden -variety law enforcement” purposes.106 Furthermore, the court found a high degree of...the affected person may challenge the lawfulness of the acquisition.”). 127 See Charlie Savage , Federal Prosecutors, in a Policy Shift, Cite

  3. Past challenges faced: An overview of current educational activities of IUTOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybing, Erik; MacGregor, Judith; Malmfors, Torbjoern; Chipman, J. Kevin; Wright, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, educational programmes have been the main focus of the activities of the International Union of Toxicology (IUTOX). The IUTOX educational programmes are dynamic and have been growing in scope and frequency each year. It is envisaged that this growth will continue with guidance from our member societies and the continuing support of our sponsors. Presently, IUTOX is engaged in the following educational programmes: (1) International congresses that provide the opportunity for direct communication of current toxicological information. Fellowships are sponsored to facilitate attendance at these congresses for toxicologists in need. (2) Workshops that permit interaction on a more localised level of topics of more regional interest. Workshops have served to help stimulate formation of toxicology societies by bringing together sufficient scientists to facilitate these discussions. (3) Continuing educational (CE) programmes at member society meetings. Topics are prioritised based on input received from the local societies. Programmes often are those from CE courses given at meetings, such as conferences of the US Society of Toxicology (US SOT) and EUROTOX from the previous year. (4) Biennial Risk Assessment Summer School (RASS), an intensive week-long interaction between senior toxicologists who serve as faculty with attendees providing individual training. (5) Dissemination of donated printed toxicological books from publishers and syllabi from continuing education courses to regional locations. (6) Web-based interactive training programmes in regions where formal toxicological educational programmes are limited or lacking. (7) Preparation and distribution of monographs on selected topics of very current interest. Monographs on environmental oestrogens and genetically-modified foods have been published. The recent activities in each of these programmes are reviewed in this paper

  4. Cognitive Radio RF: Overview and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tam Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio system (CRS is a radio system which is aware of its operational and geographical environment, established policies, and its internal state. It is able to dynamically and autonomously adapt its operational parameters and protocols and to learn from its previous experience. Based on software-defined radio (SDR, CRS provides additional flexibility and offers improved efficiency to overall spectrum use. CRS is a disruptive technology targeting very high spectral efficiency. This paper presents an overview and challenges of CRS with focus on radio frequency (RF section. We summarize the status of the related regulation and standardization activities which are very important for the success of any emerging technology. We point out some key research challenges, especially implementation challenges of cognitive radio (CR. A particular focus is on RF front-end, transceiver, and analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog interfaces which are still a key bottleneck in CRS development.

  5. Which indicators for measuring the daily physical activity? An overview on the challenges and technology limits for Telehealth applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliente, Irene; Solvoll, Terje; Trieste, Leopoldo; De Cecco, Carlo N; Murgia, Fabrizio; Bella, Sergio

    2016-09-14

    Obesity is one of the biggest drivers of preventable chronic diseases and healthcare costs in Worldwide. Different prevention activities are suggested. By monitoring daily energy expenditure (EE) could be possible make personalized diets and programming physical activity. In this, physical inactivity is one of the most important public health problems. Some studies refer the effort of the international community in promoting physical activities. Physical activity can be promoted only by increasing citizens' empowerment on taking care of their health, and it passes from the improving of individual information. Technology can offer solutions and metrics for monitoring and measuring daily activity by interacting with individuals, sharing information and feedbacks. In this study we review indicators of total energy expenditure and weaknesses of available devices in assessing these parameters. Literature review and technology testing EuNetHta core model. For the clinical aspects, it is fundamental to take into account all the factor that can influence the personal energy expenditure as: heart rate, blood pressure and thermoregulation (influenced by the body temperature). In this study we focused the attention on the importance of tools to encourage the physical activity. We made an analysis of the factor that can influence the right analysis of energy expenditure and at the same time the energy regime. A punctual monitoring of the exercise regime could be helpful in Telemedicine application as Telemonitorig. More study are needed to value the impact of physical activity tracker in Telemonitorig protocols. On the assessment of the energy expenditure, critical issues are related to the physiological data acquisition. Sensors connected with mobile devices could be important tools for disease prevention and interventions affecting health behaviors. New devices applications are potential useful for telemedicine assistance, but security of data and the related communication

  6. Medical physics education and training: Opportunities and challenges - An overview of international activities for 'meeting the needs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroomand-Rad, A.

    2002-01-01

    ) members follow the European Commission's Medical Exposure Directive [97/43/EURATOM (MED), 1997] that requires the services of a qualified medical physicist at any radiation facility. Many professional organizations, including IOMP, concur with this Directive and recommend that it be adopted globally. In light of this increasing need for medical physicists and the growing responsibilities that have resulted from the ever-increasing complexity in biomedical and biophysics technology, proper education and training of medical physicists has become an extremely difficult challenge for many academic centers especially in developing countries. The existing academic and clinical residency programs in medical physics are not sufficient and/or adequate to meet the monotonically rising demand for qualified medical physicists worldwide. Initially, a few decades ago, medical physics was considered to be applied physics and was being taught at a few splinter physics departments. But now it is being considered as one of the most precise health sciences and is being taught at medical physics departments; some are affiliated to medical schools as well. A possible solution is to establish regional medical physics programs such as the one that is being developed by IAEA for Africa under the African Regional Cooperative Agreement (AFRA) for the Member States. Another possible solution is to provide training to the trainers

  7. HNSciCloud - Overview and technical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasthuber, Martin; Meinhard, Helge; Jones, Robert

    2017-10-01

    HEP is only one of many sciences with sharply increasing compute requirements that cannot be met by profiting from Moore’s law alone. Commercial clouds potentially allow for realising larger economies of scale. While some small-scale experience requiring dedicated effort has been collected, public cloud resources have not been integrated yet with the standard workflows of science organisations in their private data centres; in addition, European science has not ramped up to significant scale yet. The HELIX NEBULA Science Cloud project - HNSciCloud, partly funded by the European Commission, addresses these points. Ten organisations under CERN’s leadership, covering particle physics, bioinformatics, photon science and other sciences, have joined to procure public cloud resources as well as dedicated development efforts towards this integration. The HNSciCloud project faces the challenge to accelerate developments performed by the selected commercial providers. In order to guarantee cost efficient usage of IaaS resources across a wide range of scientific communities, the technical requirements had to be carefully constructed. With respect to current IaaS offerings, dataintensive science is the biggest challenge; other points that need to be addressed concern identity federations, network connectivity and how to match business practices of large IaaS providers with those of public research organisations. In the first section, this paper will give an overview of the project and explain the findings so far. The last section will explain the key points of the technical requirements and present first results of the experience of the procurers with the services in comparison to their’on-premise’ infrastructure.

  8. Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-28

    The Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps report, published by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) provides an overview of the current state of alternative aviation fuels, based upon findings from recent peer-reviewed studies, scientific working groups, and BETO stakeholder input provided during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Workshop.

  9. Presentation: Overview of Water Reuse Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Overview of Water Reuse Challenges and Opportunities, was given at the STAR Human and Ecological Health Impacts Associated with Water Reuse and Conservation Practices Kick-off Meeting and Webinar held on Oct. 26-27, 2016.

  10. An Overview of the Challenges and Opportunities for Globalization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is an overview of the existing challenges and opportunities of globalization of Nigerian libraries. It examine the challenges and opportunities for the establishment of viable information and communication. Technologies (ICTs) and recommends the way forward for interconnectivity of Nigerian libraries to facilitate ...

  11. Databases for neurogenetics: introduction, overview, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrido, María-Jesús; Cacheiro, Pilar; Carracedo, Angel; Bertram, Lars

    2012-09-01

    The importance for research and clinical utility of mutation databases, as well as the issues and difficulties entailed in their construction, is discussed within the Human Variome Project. While general principles and standards can apply to most human diseases, some specific questions arise when dealing with the nature of genetic neurological disorders. So far, publically accessible mutation databases exist for only about half of the genes causing neurogenetic disorders; and a considerable work is clearly still needed to optimize their content. The current landscape, main challenges, some potential solutions, and future perspectives on genetic databases for disorders of the nervous system are reviewed in this special issue of Human Mutation on neurogenetics. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Current overview on challenges in regenerative endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya; Mittal, Sunandan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Regenerative endodontics provides hope of converting the non-vital tooth into vital once again. It focuses on substituting traumatized and pathological pulp with functional pulp tissue. Current regenerative procedures successfully produce root development but still fail to re-establish real pulp tissue and give unpredictable results. There are several drawbacks that need to be addressed to improve the quality and efficiency of the treatment. Aim: The aim of this review article is to discuss major priorities that ought to be dealt before applications of regenerative endodontics flourish the clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A web-based research on MEDLINE was done using filter terms Review, published in the last 10 years and Dental journals. Keywords used for research were “regenerative endodontics,” “dental stem cells,” “growth factor regeneration,” “scaffolds,” and “challenges in regeneration.” This review article screened about 150 articles and then the relevant information was compiled. Results: Inspite of the impressive growth in regenerative endodontic field, there are certain loopholes in the existing treatment protocols that might sometimes result in undesired and unpredictable outcomes. Conclusion: Considerable research and development efforts are required to improve and update existing regenerative endodontic strategies to make it an effective, safe, and biological mode to save teeth. PMID:25657518

  13. Overview of Superconductivity and Challenges in Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flükiger, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved during the last few decades in the various fields of applied superconductivity, while the related low temperature technology has reached a high level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are so far the most successful applications, with tens of thousands of units worldwide, but high potential can also be recognized in the energy sector, with high energy cables, transformers, motors, generators for wind turbines, fault current limiters and devices for magnetic energy storage. A large number of magnet and cable prototypes have been constructed, showing in all cases high reliability. Large projects involving the construction of magnets, solenoids as well as dipoles and quadrupoles are described in the present book. A very large project, the LHC, is currently in operation, demonstrating that superconductivity is a reliable technology, even in a device of unprecedented high complexity. A project of similar complexity is ITER, a fusion device that is presently under construction. This article starts with a brief historical introduction to superconductivity as a phenomenon, and some fundamental properties necessary for the understanding of the technical behavior of superconductors are described. The introduction of superconductivity in the industrial cycle faces many challenges, first for the properties of the base elements, e.g. the wires, tapes and thin films, then for the various applied devices, where a number of new difficulties had to be resolved. A variety of industrial applications in energy, medicine and communications are briefly presented, showing how superconductivity is now entering the market.

  14. Content-centric networks an overview, applications and research challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Syed Hassan; Kim, Dongkyun

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces Content-Centric Networking (CCN), a networking paradigm that provides a simple and effective solution to the challenging demands of future wired and wireless communications. It provides an overview of the recent developments in the area of future internet technologies, bringing together the advancements that have been made in Information-Centric Networking (ICN) in general, with a focus on CCN. It begins with an introduction to the basics of CCN is followed by an overview of the current internet paradigm and its challenges. Next, an application perspective has been included, where the authors encompass the selected applications for CCN with recent refereed research and developments. These applications include Internet of Things (IoT), Smart Grid, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs), and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The book is a useful reference source for practising researchers, and can be used as supporting material for undergraduate and graduate level courses in computer science and...

  15. Integrated groundwater management: An overview of concepts and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, Anthony J.; Barreteau, Olivier; Hunt, Randall J.; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Ross, Andrew; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Barreteau, Olivier; Hunt, Randall J.; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Ross, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Managing water is a grand challenge problem and has become one of humanity’s foremost priorities. Surface water resources are typically societally managed and relatively well understood; groundwater resources, however, are often hidden and more difficult to conceptualize. Replenishment rates of groundwater cannot match past and current rates of depletion in many parts of the world. In addition, declining quality of the remaining groundwater commonly cannot support all agricultural, industrial and urban demands and ecosystem functioning, especially in the developed world. In the developing world, it can fail to even meet essential human needs. The issue is: how do we manage this crucial resource in an acceptable way, one that considers the sustainability of the resource for future generations and the socioeconomic and environmental impacts? In many cases this means restoring aquifers of concern to some sustainable equilibrium over a negotiated period of time, and seeking opportunities for better managing groundwater conjunctively with surface water and other resource uses. However, there are many, often-interrelated, dimensions to managing groundwater effectively. Effective groundwater management is underpinned by sound science (biophysical and social) that actively engages the wider community and relevant stakeholders in the decision making process. Generally, an integrated approach will mean “thinking beyond the aquifer”, a view which considers the wider context of surface water links, catchment management and cross-sectoral issues with economics, energy, climate, agriculture and the environment. The aim of the book is to document for the first time the dimensions and requirements of sound integrated groundwater management (IGM). The primary focus is on groundwater management within its system, but integrates linkages beyond the aquifer. The book provides an encompassing synthesis for researchers, practitioners and water resource managers on the concepts and

  16. Nuclear information: An overview of IAEA's activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesi, I.H.; Konstantinov, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    As stated in this overview of IAEA nuclear information activities the Agency's role in information services is rapidly evolving and multifaceted. The Agency maintains more than 200 computerized files of information. Some 60 of these are part of systems directly related to nuclear activities. Some of these are briefly profiled in this overview such as INIS, the IAEA Nuclear Data Programme, the IAEA Incident Reporting System, the IAEA Energy and Economic Databank, the IAEA Power Reactor Information System, the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System, and the International Uranium Geology Information System. Future directions are pointed out. Different ways to upgrade information systems are listed

  17. Fiscal Challenges in Multilayered Unions: An Overview and Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Aizenman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent research dealing with fiscal discipline and revisit the issues of fiscal control in federal systems, focusing on selective case studies covering the 2000s, before and after the global financial crisis (GFC. We start by contrasting the recent fiscal history of California to that of Greece, illustrating the different ways of dealing with fiscal deficiencies in a mature union, U.S., versus a young union, Eurozone. We continue with an overview of the fiscal developments in Brazil, illustrating the challenges facing federal systems in emerging markets, and possible ways to move forward in upgrading a country’s fiscal institutions. We conclude with the fiscal history of Iceland before and after the financial crisis—a standalone small country, assessed favorably by rating agencies prior to the GFC, and now recovering from a deep financial crisis.

  18. The European Activation System. EASY-2001 overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.A.

    2001-03-01

    This document gives an overview of the European Activation System (EASY) as released in 2001. EASY-2001 consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. It is designed to investigate fusion devices that will act as intense sources of high energy (14 MeV) neutrons and cause significant activation of the surrounding materials. However, the very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 20 MeV

  19. An Overview of Science Challenges Pertaining to our Understanding of Extreme Geomagnetically Induced Currents. Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti A.

    2018-01-01

    Vulnerability of man-made infrastructure to Earth-directed space weather events is a serious concern for today's technology-dependent society. Space weather-driven geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) can disrupt operation of extended electrically conducting technological systems. The threat of adverse impacts on critical technological infrastructure, like power grids, oil and gas pipelines, and communication networks, has sparked renewed interest in extreme space weather. Because extreme space weather events have low occurrence rate but potentially high impact, this presents a major challenge for our understanding of extreme GIC activity. In this chapter, we discuss some of the key science challenges pertaining to our understanding of extreme events. In addition, we present an overview of GICs including highlights of severe impacts over the last 80 years and recent U.S. Federal actions relevant to this community.

  20. CLOUD COMPUTING OVERVIEW AND CHALLENGES: A REVIEW PAPER

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Kumar*, Vishal Thakur, Payal Thakur, Ashok Kumar Kashyap

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing era is the most resourceful, elastic, utilized and scalable period for internet technology to use the computing resources over the internet successfully. Cloud computing did not provide only the speed, accuracy, storage capacity and efficiency for computing but it also lead to propagate the green computing and resource utilization. In this research paper, a brief description of cloud computing, cloud services and cloud security challenges is given. Also the literature review o...

  1. Soil fertility status and challenges in Burundi: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboneka, Salvator

    2015-04-01

    Landlocked and thousands miles away from international sea ports, Burundi is one of the poorest country in the world. 58% of the population suffers chronic malnutrition, 67% live in absolute poverty (MDG report 2012). 90% of the estimated 10 million people depends on subsistence agriculture, on about 3 million ha of cultivable land. The average size of a family farm is less than 0.5 ha which has to support a family of typically 7 people . As a consequence, fallow practices are no longer possible and continuous land cultivation leads to enormous soil losses by erosion. As much as 100-200 metric tons per hectare of soil losses have been reported on the hill sides of the Mumirwa region, whose landscape is currently so degraded that the local community now say that "stones grow" in the zone. In medium to high altitude areas, about 1 million of ha are acidic (pH poverty of the population is such that access to fertilizers and adoption of sustainable practices is very weak. We believe that the main challenge to soil productivity in Burundi is more socio-economic than technical, and farmers should be helped with simple tools that should be linked to their indigenous knowledge about soil fertility. Sustainable management of soil fertility is the key challenge for farmers to optimize a sustainable yield. Key words: micro nutrient, soil fertility, nutrient depletion, soil acidity.

  2. Green building challenge 2002 in Canada : an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The Green Building Challenge (GBC) in Canada was launched to help the building community meet environmental challenges and improve the environmental performance of buildings. Tools have been made available to the building industry to make informed environmental choices during the conception design stage of a project. The tools help architects, researchers and policy analysts in choosing material mixes and other design options that will minimize a building's potential life cycle environmental impacts and promote sustainable development. Green buildings involve the complete structure and envelope, including cladding, insulation, gypsum wall board, roofing and windows. The type of building and its location is also considered. Long term sustainability also considers energy use and emissions related to a building's energy system. This presentation described the following 3 projects which were selected for assessment in the GBC-2002: (1) the Mayo School in Mayo, Yukon Territory, (2) the Jackson-Triggs Winery in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, and (3) the Red River College in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The GBC-2002 Canadian Team nominated them as the best buildings being designed in Canada.10 figs.

  3. Overview of principles and challenges of fusion nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.

    2007-01-01

    Fusion offers very attractive features as a sustainable, broadly available energy source: no emissions of greenhouse gases, no risk of severe accident, and no long-lived radioactive waste. Significant advances in the science and technology of fusion have been realized in the past decades. Seven countries (EU, Japan, USA, Russia, S. Korea, China, and India) comprising about half the world population are constructing a major magnetic fusion facility, called ITER, in France. The objectives of ITER are to demonstrate self-sustaining burning fusion plasma and to test fusion technologies relevant to fusion reactor. Many challenges to the practical utilization of fusion energy remain ahead. Among these challenges is the successful development of Fusion Nuclear Technology (FNT). FNT includes those fusion system components circumscribing the plasma and responsible for tritium production and processing, heat removal at high temperature and power density, and high heat flux components. FNT components face a new and more challenging environment than experienced by any previous nuclear application. Beyond plasma physics, FNT has most of the remaining feasibility and attractiveness issues in the development of fusion as an energy source. The blanket, a key FNT component, determines the critical path to DEMO. The blanket is exposed to an intense radiation environment. Radioactivity and decay heat can be produced in the structure and other blanket elements. Hence, material choices have a large impact on safety and environmental attractiveness. The unique conditions of the fusion environment include high radiation flux, high surface heat flux, strong 3-D-component magnetic field with large gradients, and ultra-low vacuum. These conditions, together with the requirements for high-temperature operation and tritium self-sufficiency, make blanket design and development challenging tasks. The blanket concepts being considered worldwide can be classified into solid breeders and liquid

  4. Challenges in the analysis of complex systems: introduction and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Harold M.; Davidsen, Jörn; Leung, Henry

    2017-12-01

    One of the main challenges of modern physics is to provide a systematic understanding of systems far from equilibrium exhibiting emergent behavior. Prominent examples of such complex systems include, but are not limited to the cardiac electrical system, the brain, the power grid, social systems, material failure and earthquakes, and the climate system. Due to the technological advances over the last decade, the amount of observations and data available to characterize complex systems and their dynamics, as well as the capability to process that data, has increased substantially. The present issue discusses a cross section of the current research on complex systems, with a focus on novel experimental and data-driven approaches to complex systems that provide the necessary platform to model the behavior of such systems.

  5. Alignment methods: strategies, challenges, benchmarking, and comparative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löytynoja, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Comparative evolutionary analyses of molecular sequences are solely based on the identities and differences detected between homologous characters. Errors in this homology statement, that is errors in the alignment of the sequences, are likely to lead to errors in the downstream analyses. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic inference are tightly connected and many popular alignment programs use the phylogeny to divide the alignment problem into smaller tasks. They then neglect the phylogenetic tree, however, and produce alignments that are not evolutionarily meaningful. The use of phylogeny-aware methods reduces the error but the resulting alignments, with evolutionarily correct representation of homology, can challenge the existing practices and methods for viewing and visualising the sequences. The inter-dependency of alignment and phylogeny can be resolved by joint estimation of the two; methods based on statistical models allow for inferring the alignment parameters from the data and correctly take into account the uncertainty of the solution but remain computationally challenging. Widely used alignment methods are based on heuristic algorithms and unlikely to find globally optimal solutions. The whole concept of one correct alignment for the sequences is questionable, however, as there typically exist vast numbers of alternative, roughly equally good alignments that should also be considered. This uncertainty is hidden by many popular alignment programs and is rarely correctly taken into account in the downstream analyses. The quest for finding and improving the alignment solution is complicated by the lack of suitable measures of alignment goodness. The difficulty of comparing alternative solutions also affects benchmarks of alignment methods and the results strongly depend on the measure used. As the effects of alignment error cannot be predicted, comparing the alignments' performance in downstream analyses is recommended.

  6. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Propulsion Work in the Supersonic Cruise Efficiency Technical Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2012) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  7. The contemporary refugee crisis: an overview of mental health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Ventevogel, Peter; Rees, Susan

    2017-06-01

    There has been an unprecedented upsurge in the number of refugees worldwide, the majority being located in low-income countries with limited resources in mental health care. This paper considers contemporary issues in the refugee mental health field, including developments in research, conceptual models, social and psychological interventions, and policy. Prevalence data yielded by cross-sectional epidemiological studies do not allow a clear distinction to be made between situational forms of distress and frank mental disorder, a shortcoming that may be addressed by longitudinal studies. An evolving ecological model of research focuses on the dynamic inter-relationship of past traumatic experiences, ongoing daily stressors and the background disruptions of core psychosocial systems, the scope extending beyond the individual to the conjugal couple and the family. Although brief, structured psychotherapies administered by lay counsellors have been shown to be effective in the short term for a range of traumatic stress responses, questions remain whether these interventions can be sustained in low-resource settings and whether they meet the needs of complex cases. In the ideal circumstance, a comprehensive array of programs should be provided, including social and psychotherapeutic interventions, generic mental health services, rehabilitation, and special programs for vulnerable groups. Sustainability of services, ensuring best practice, evidence-based approaches, and promoting equity of access must remain the goals of future developments, a daunting challenge given that most refugees reside in settings where skills and resources in mental health care are in shortest supply. © 2017 World Psychiatric Association.

  8. The Zwicky Transient Facility: Overview and Commissioning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew; Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) Project Team

    2018-01-01

    The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) is the first of a new generation of LSST-scope sky surveys to be realized. It will employ a 47 square degree field-of-view camera mounted on the Samuel Oschin 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar Observatory to scan more than 3750 square degrees an hour to a depth of 20.5 – 21 mag. This will lead to unprecedented discovery rates for transients – a young supernova less than 24 hours after its explosion each night as well as rarer and more exotic sources. Repeated imaging of the Northern sky (including the Galactic Plane) will produce a photometric variability catalog with nearly 300 observations each year, ideal for studies of variable stars, binaries, AGN, and asteroids. ZTF represents a significant increase in scale relative to previous surveys in terms of both data volume and data complexity. It will be the first survey to produce one million alerts a night and the first to have a trillion row data archive. We will present an overview of the survey and its challenges and describe recent commissioning activities.

  9. General overview of nuclear activities in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karouani, K.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear activities have been introduced in Morocco since the early seventies. These activities concern the utilization of nuclear techniques in medicine, food and agriculture as well as training and research in nuclear physics. In 1984, Morocco decided to undertake a technical and economic feasibility study as well as the site study of the first nuclear power plant. Two years after, he decided to create the ''Centre National de l'Energie des Sciences et des Techniques Nucleaires'' as a technical and research support for the nuclear power program and as a promoting institute of nuclear techniques. Obviously, he also decided to set up a regulatory framework. (author)

  10. Overview of the Girls' Education Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, Lorelei; Heyman, Cory; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan; Leal, Angela; Saher, Najat Yamouri; Robles, Ana Maria; Mendoza, Johanna

    In 1996, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Girls' Education Activity (GEA). GEA's goal has been to assist host country governments and private sector and nongovernmental entities in formulating, institutionalizing, and implementing country initiatives for girls' education. These initiatives have been designed…

  11. Overview of expert systems applications in Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Expert system applications have been introduced in several nuclear fuel activities, including engineering and manufacturing. This technology has been successfully implemented on the manufacturing floors to provide on-line process control at zirconium tubing and fuel fabrication plants. This paper provides an overview of current applications at Westinghouse with respect to fuel fabrication, zirconium tubing, zirconium production, and core design

  12. The contact activation proteins: a structure/function overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, J. C.; McMullen, B. A.; Bouma, B. N.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, extensive knowledge has been obtained on the structure/function relationships of blood coagulation proteins. In this overview, we present recent developments on the structure/function relationships of the contact activation proteins: factor XII, high molecular weight kininogen,

  13. Overview of EXFOR activities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bawitlung, Lalremruata

    2015-01-01

    Regular EXFOR compilations have been started in India since 2006 through few voluntary compilers from Universities and through EXFOR workshops conducted every two years under the supervision of Nuclear Data Physics Centre of India (NDPCI) and Nuclear Data Section, IAEA. Such efforts have produced a remarkable outcome in terms of managing the nuclear data in the country. A brief history of EXFOR activities, along with the present status and future plan is discussed in brief. (author)

  14. Overview of decommissioning activities in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. has been involved the successful decontamination, decommissioning and reutilization of nuclear facilities for over 20 years. A number of commercial power plants in the United States have either completed their decommissioning, or will be in the next few years. In addition, the U.S. DOE has taken an aggressive approach to site remediation focusing on site closures so as to better utilize its financial resources. The U.S. initiative to deregulate the electrical generation industry to promote competition and presumably to reduce electricity prices to the consumer, is again in flux. Some utilities, facing the real or perceived threat of competition in its markets decided to shut down the 'costly' nuclear plants to alleviate the drain on their financial reserves. The older nuclear units experienced serious mechanical problems, entailing expensive repairs and replacements. Such difficulties have caused owner-operator utilities to decide to decommission these facilities rather than incur the expense of upgrading or repairing the plants to meet current regulatory and design criteria. Plants that were marginally cost-competitive, or not at all competitive, were shut down and decommissioned. Other utilities have bought some of the older nuclear plants in the Northeast (a high power demand region) to operate them and to extend their licenses for continued life. This paper will discuss the decommissioning lessons learned, management approaches, site characterization and challenges faced in disposition of radioactive waste and large components, contracting practice, and the status of several of these shut down reactor-decommissioning programs. The industry has proven that nuclear power plants can be cost effectively and safely decommissioned. (author)

  15. Cardiovascular-Active Venom Toxins: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello Horta, Carolina Campolina; Chatzaki, Maria; Rezende, Bruno Almeida; Magalhães, Bárbara de Freitas; Duarte, Clara Guerra; Felicori, Liza Figueiredo; Ribeiro Oliveira-Mendes, Bárbara Bruna; do Carmo, Anderson Oliveira; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-01-01

    Animal venoms are a mixture of bioactive compounds produced as weapons and used primarily to immobilize and kill preys. As a result of the high potency and specificity for various physiological targets, many toxins from animal venoms have emerged as possible drugs for the medication of diverse disorders, including cardiovascular diseases. Captopril, which inhibits the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), was the first successful venom-based drug and a notable example of rational drug design. Since captopril was developed, many studies have discovered novel bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) with actions on the cardiovascular system. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have also been found in animal venoms and used as template to design new drugs with applications in cardiovascular diseases. Among the anti-arrhythmic peptides, GsMTx-4 was discovered to be a toxin that selectively inhibits the stretch-activated cation channels (SACs), which are involved in atrial fibrillation. The present review describes the main components isolated from animal venoms that act on the cardiovascular system and presents a brief summary of venomous animals and their venom apparatuses.

  16. Overview of the Estonian Biofuels Association activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueues, Meelis

    2000-01-01

    Due to global warming and environment pollution because of widespread use of fossil fuels there are already tendencies to stabilize and decrease the consumption of these energy resources and take into use more renewable energy resources. Estonian Biofuels Association (EBA) is a non-profit association, which was founded on 8. of May 1998 in Tallinn. The EBA is an independent and voluntary alliance of its members. Fields of activity of the EBA are by biofuels research, developing and evaluation to engage environmental, biofuels and energy saving. EBA members are: energy consultants, scientists, as well as fuel suppliers, DH-companies, technology suppliers, energy service companies etc. The members of EBA are involved in different projects in Estonia, where biomass are produced and used for heating, where wood, waste, peat, rape oil and biogas resources are examined and put into use, and also projects which deal with energy saving and environment friendly equipment production for using biofuels. During our short experience we have noticed that people in Estonia have become more aware of biomass and their use, so the development of environment friendly and sustainable energetics will continue in Estonia. Available biofuels in Estonia could compete with fossil fuels if burnt rationally with high technology equipment. EBA members are convinced that biomass have perspective and that they could play an important role in improving Estonian economic and environmental situation. Modem biomass combustion devices are taken into use more the faster general wealth increases and EBA can raise people's awareness of bio fuel subject through special, courses and media. We want Estonian energy policy to develop towards widespread use of renewable energy resources, which would save energy and environment improve nation's foreign trade balance and create jobs mainly in rural areas

  17. Overview of the Novel Intelligent JAXA Active Rotor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shigeru; Kobiki, Noboru; Tanabe, Yasutada; Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Young, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    The Novel Intelligent JAXA Active Rotor (NINJA Rotor) program is a cooperative effort between JAXA and NASA, involving a test of a JAXA pressure-instrumented, active-flap rotor in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center. The objectives of the program are to obtain an experimental database of a rotor with active flaps and blade pressure instrumentation, and to use that data to develop analyses to predict the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of rotors with active flaps. An overview of the program is presented, including a description of the rotor and preliminary pretest calculations.

  18. Multi-hop routing in wireless sensor networks an overview, taxonomy, and research challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Rani, Shalli

    2016-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of recent developments in multi-hop routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). It introduces the various classifications of routing protocols and lists the pros and cons of each category, going beyond the conceptual overview of routing classifications offered in other books. Recently many researchers have proposed numerous multi-hop routing protocols and thereby created a need for a book that provides its readers with an up-to-date road map of this research paradigm.   The authors present some of the most relevant results achieved by applying an algorithmic approach to the research on multi-hop routing protocols. The book covers measurements, experiences and lessons learned from the implementation of multi-hop communication prototypes. Furthermore, it describes future research challenges and as such serves as a useful guide for students and researchers alike.

  19. Overview of EU activities on DEMO liquid metal breeder blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.; Malang, S.; Reimann, J.; Perujo, A.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of both design and experimental activities within the European Union (EU) concerning the development of liquid metal breeder blankets for DEMO. After several years of studies on breeding blankets, two blanket concepts are presently considered, both using the eutectic Pb-17Li: the dual-coolant concept and the water-cooled concept. The analysis of such concepts has permitted to identify the experimental areas where further data are required. Tritium control and MHD-issues are, at present, the activities on which is devoted the greatest effort within the EU. (authors). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 39 refs

  20. Overview of the critical disaster management challenges faced during Van 2011 earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolon, Mert; Yazgan, Ufuk; Ural, Derin N; Goss, Kay C

    2014-01-01

    On October 23, 2011, a M7.2 earthquake caused damage in a widespread area in the Van province located in eastern Turkey. This strong earthquake was followed by a M5.7 earthquake on November 9, 2011. This sequence of damaging earthquakes led to 644 fatalities. The management during and after these earthquake disaster imposed many critical challenges. In this article, an overview of these challenges is presented based on the observations by the authors in the aftermath of this disaster. This article presents the characteristics of 2011 Van earthquakes. Afterward, the key information related to the four main phases (ie, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery) of the disaster in Van is presented. The potential strategies that can be taken to improve the disaster management practice are identified, and a set of recommendations are proposed to improve the existing situation.

  1. Getting Australia more active: challenges and opportunities for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, A P; Street, S J; Harris, N

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that regular physical activity promotes health and assists in the prevention of non-communicable diseases but this is presently curtailed by low and unhealthy participation rates in Australia and comparable industrialised countries. Compounding the problem is knowledge that physical inactivity is independently associated with poor health outcomes. Despite physical activity being described as public health's 'best bet' or 'best buy', motivating individuals and groups to adopt and maintain physical activity continues to be a major challenge for health professionals. Global advocacy for prevention efforts must be operationalised through national to local strategies to promote and support physical activity in multiple settings including the home, schools and workplace. The Australian health promotion community has and continues to play a leadership role in physical activity promotion. However, there is an urgent need to continue to promote the importance of physical activity, along with its pivotal role in the prevention of non-communicable diseases, alongside related agendas including healthy diets, tobacco control and environmental sustainability. This commentary overviews the contemporary status of physical activity promotion in Australia and identifies key challenges and opportunities moving forward.

  2. Overview of coupled bunch active damper systems at FNAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimel, J.; Crisp, J.; Ma, Hengjie; Marriner, J.; McGinnis, D.

    1996-05-01

    Beam intensities in all of the accelerators at Fermilab will increase significantly when the Main Injector becomes operational and will cause unstable oscillations in transverse position and energy. Places where the coupled bunch oscillations could dilute emittances include the Booster, Main Injector, and Tevatron. This paper provides an overview of the active feedback system upgrades which will be used to counteract the problem. It will explain the similarities between all the systems and will also explain design differences between longitudinal and transverse systems, fast sweeping systems, and systems for partially filled machines. Results from operational systems will also be shown. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Factors governing dissolution process of lignocellulosic biomass in ionic liquid: current status, overview and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Kirtikumar C; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

    2015-02-01

    The utilisation of non-feed lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable bio-energy and synthesis of fine chemical products is necessary for the sustainable development. The methods for the dissolution of lignocellulosic biomass in conventional solvents are complex and tedious due to the complex chemical ultra-structure of biomass. In view of this, recent developments for the use of ionic liquid solvent (IL) has received great attention, as ILs can solubilise such complex biomass and thus provides industrial scale-up potential. In this review, we have discussed the state-of-art for the dissolution of lignocellulosic material in representative ILs. Furthermore, various process parameters and their influence for biomass dissolution were reviewed. In addition to this, overview of challenges and opportunities related to this interesting area is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. External cues challenging the internal appetite control system-Overview and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilman, Els; van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans

    2017-09-02

    Inadequate regulation of food intake plays an important role in the development of overweight and obesity, and is under the influence of both the internal appetite control system and external environmental cues. Especially in environments where food is overly available, external cues seem to override and/or undermine internal signals, which put severe challenges on the accurate regulation of food intake. By structuring these external cues around five different phases in the food consumption process this paper aims to provide an overview of the wide range of external cues that potentially facilitate or hamper internal signals and with that influence food intake. For each of the five phases of the food consumption process, meal initiation, meal planning, consumption phase, end of eating episode and time till next meal, the most relevant internal signals are discussed and it is explained how specific external cues exert their influence.

  5. The CRC 20 years: An overview of some of the major achievements and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doek, Jaap E

    2009-11-01

    On 20 November 1989, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). It entered into force on 2 September 1990 and has by now been ratified by 193 States, making the most universally ratified human rights treaty. This overview will present and discuss the impact of this treaty both at the international and the national level, an overview which necessarily has to be limited to some of the developments as a result of the implementation of the CRC. The first part of this paper will be devoted to the impact the CRC had and still has on the setting and development of the international agenda for the promotion and protection of the rights and welfare of children. Special attention will given to developments, achievements, and remaining challenges at the international level with regard to protection of children in armed conflict; prevention and the protection of children from sexual exploitation; and from all forms of violence. This will include some information on the impact of these international developments and actions at the national level, for example, in the area of legislation. The second part will focus on the impact at the national level. Given the wide scope of the CRC this part will be limited to some of the General Measures of Implementation (law reform, national programmes, and independent monitoring) and the General Principles (non-discrimination, best interest, right to be heard) of the CRC. This will be based on reports of States on the implementation of the CRC submitted to the CRC Committee and the Concluding Observations of this Committee and on a number of studies. The conclusion will provide remarks on poverty as one of the major remaining challenges for the implementation of children's rights.

  6. Offshore Hydrocarbons Extraction In Colombia: Legal Overview And Challenges Regarding The New Offshore Free Trade Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Acosta Ramos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Offshore extraction of hydrocarbons has increasingly become important in the context of the oil business. Thus, the Republic of Colombia has wanted to encourage the development of such operations in the country, despite the fact that it does not have at present time a harmonious legal framework to regulate the activity and/or to proper coordinate the governmental agencies involved in the approval of such operations. This article presents an overview of the problems associated with offshore activities in the world and analyzes – from a critical perspective - the role of local authorities in authorizing said operations as well as the new regime of customs-free zones created in the country.

  7. Overview of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) engineering design activities*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Y.

    1994-05-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1988), ITER Documentation Series, No. 1] project is a multiphased project, presently proceeding under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency according to the terms of a four-party agreement among the European Atomic Energy Community (EC), the Government of Japan (JA), the Government of the Russian Federation (RF), and the Government of the United States (US), ``the Parties.'' The ITER project is based on the tokamak, a Russian invention, and has since been brought to a high level of development in all major fusion programs in the world. The objective of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy for peaceful purposes. The ITER design is being developed, with support from the Parties' four Home Teams and is in progress by the Joint Central Team. An overview of ITER Design activities is presented.

  8. Overview of TBM R and D activities in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendra Kumar, E., E-mail: rajendrakumare@gmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Suri, A.K. [Materials Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2012-08-15

    In India, development of Lead-Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) blanket is being performed as the primary candidate of Test Blanket Module (TBM) towards DEMO reactor. The LLCB TBM will be tested from the first phase of ITER operation (H-H phase) in one-half of an ITER port no. 2. The Indian TBM R and D program is focused on the development of blanket materials and critical technologies: structural material (IN-RAFMS), breeding materials (Pb-Li, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}), development of technologies for Lead-Lithium cooling system (LLCS), helium cooling system (HCS), tritium extraction system (TES) and TBM related fabrication technologies. This paper will provide an overview of LLCB TBM R and D activities under progress in India.

  9. A review on human reinstatement studies: an overview and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaker, Jan; Golkar, Armita; Hermans, Dirk; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2014-09-01

    In human research, studies of return of fear (ROF) phenomena, and reinstatement in particular, began only a decade ago and recently are more widely used, e.g., as outcome measures for fear/extinction memory manipulations (e.g., reconsolidation). As reinstatement research in humans is still in its infancy, providing an overview of its stability and boundary conditions and summarizing methodological challenges is timely to foster fruitful future research. As a translational endeavor, clarifying the circumstances under which (experimental) reinstatement occurs may offer a first step toward understanding relapse as a clinical phenomenon and pave the way for the development of new pharmacological or behavioral ways to prevent ROF. The current state of research does not yet allow pinpointing these circumstances in detail and we hope this review will aid the research field to advance in this direction. As an introduction, we begin with a synopsis of rodent work on reinstatement and theories that have been proposed to explain the findings. The review however mainly focuses on reinstatement in humans. We first describe details and variations of the experimental setup in reinstatement studies in humans and give a general overview of results. We continue with a compilation of possible experimental boundary conditions and end with the role of individual differences and behavioral and/or pharmacological manipulations. Furthermore, we compile important methodological and design details on the published studies in humans and end with open research questions and some important methodological and design recommendations as a guide for future research. © 2014 Haaker et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This section describes the activities and accomplishments of the DOE research and development program offices. The Office of Energy Research (ER) manages fundamental science and basic energy research programs in several areas: high-energy physics; nuclear physics; the physical, biological, and mathematical sciences; magnetic fusion energy; and environmental and health effects. ER also supports many scientific user facilities that are used by universities and private-sector researchers and manages the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program and the R ampersand D Laboratory Technology Transfer Program. Brief descriptions of technology transfer accomplishments in each of these areas are given

  11. Overview of DOE's field screening technology development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, C.W.; Anderson, T.D.; Cooley, C.R.; Hain, K.E.; Lien, S.C.T.; Erickson, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has recently created the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, into which it consolidated those activities. Within this new organization, the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) activities aimed at meeting DOE cleanup goals, while minimizing cost and risk. Site characterization using traditional drilling, sampling, and analytical methods comprises a significant part of the environmental restoration efforts in terms of both cost and time to accomplish. It can also be invasive and create additional pathways for spread of contaminants. Consequently, DOE is focusing on site characterization as one of the areas in which significant technological advances are possible which will decrease cost, reduce risk, and shorten schedules for achieving restoration goals. DOE is investing considerably in R ampersand D and demonstration activities which will improve the abilities to screen chemical, radiological, and physical parameters in the field. This paper presents an overview of the program objectives and status and reviews some of the projects which are currently underway in the area. 1 ref

  12. A Brief overview of neutron activation analyses methodology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this talk is to present our new facility for Neutron Activation Analysis to the scientific and industrial societies and show its possibilities. Therefore my talk will handle the following main items: An overview of neutron activation analysis, The special interest of fast mono-energetic neutrons, The NAA method and its sensitivities, The Recent scientific and industrial applications using NAA, and o An illustrating example measured by using our facility is presented What is NAA? It is a sensitive analytical technique useful for performing both qualitative and quantitative multi-element analyses in samples. Worldwide application of NAA is so widespread; it is estimated that approximately several 10,000 samples undergo analysis each year from almost every conceivable field of scientific or technical interest. Why NAA? For many elements and applications, NAA: Offers sensitivities that are sometimes superior to those attainable by other methods, on the order of nano-gram level, It is accurate and reliable, NAA is generally recognized as the r eferee method o f choice when new procedures are being developed or when other methods yield results that do not agree. However, the activation analysis at En=14 MeV is limited by a few factors: Low value of flux, low cross-sections of threshold reactions, o Short irradiation time due to finite target life, Interfering reactions and gamma ray spectral interference

  13. From Subjective Trust to Objective Trustworthiness in On-line Social Networks: Overview and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zejda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays dozens of people share their content in the current Web 2.0 space, talk with friends in social networking sites such as Facebook and live on the Net in many other ways. They do all this quite naturally, forgetting the healthy cautiousness sometimes. In real life we rely on trusted people. Do we know how to reflect real-world trust mechanisms into on-line social software? In the article we focused to bring overview on state of the art in main ideas behind a trust processing in online social networking systems. What are common sources of subjective trust, how the trust emerges and what are the sources of trust dynamics? How can be trust captured into the systems, how can be explicit trust processed to infer indirect trust, the trust between users who do not know each other? And what are the ways to infer objective metrics of trust, the reputation or trustworthiness? Finally, we point out selected challenges related to the trust in current highly dynamic social networks.

  14. An Overview of NCRP Report No. 138 on Terrorist Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, John, Sr.

    2005-04-01

    In late 1998, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) convened Scientific Committee 46-14 to prepare a report on the radiological safety aspects of terrorist activities involving radioactivity. The work of this committee was funded through a contract with the Planning and Preparedness Division of the Office of Emergency Management of the Department of Energy. The committee was composed of a diverse group of individuals with expertise in many areas in addition to radiation safety and emergency response. These areas included law (both federal and state), public communications, and psychosocial aspects of such incidents. The statement of work focused the work of the committee, and the resulting report did not necessarily address all issues of such activities. One of the charges of the committee was to provide guidance as to necessary research and make recommendations regarding the present infrastructure with the responsibility for responding to such incidents. This presentation will provide an overview of NCRP Report No. 138 and focus on some of the critical issues raised in the report. These issues include recognition of the event, the interface between federal, state, and local authorities, exposure limits for the first-responders, clean-up criteria, training and resources, the psychosocial aspects of such events, and communications with the media and the public. This report represented the ``beginning'' of such considerations. It pointed the way for additional studies and research in this very important area.

  15. Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzanowski, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In spite of rather poor financing (18% lower than in the preceding year), we ended the year 2002 with 335 scientific publications in journals listed by the Philadelphia Institute for Science Information. Our most outstanding results are given below. Further progress was achieved in the studies of the see-saw mechanism and the structure of the neutrino mass matrix. A realistic model was proposed for masses and mixing between three active neutrinos assuming a large hierarchy for the Dirac masses of neutrinos, and the degenerate mass spectrum for the right-handed Majorana masses. A natural consequence of the model is the small size of the mixing angle Θ 13 . The masses of the active neutrinos are predicted to be about 3 meV, 7 meV and 50 meV respectively. So far, the theoretical predictions have been in agreement with all recent experimental results on neutrino oscillation including the KAMLAND experiment. Successful studies contained in the area of the energy dependence of particle multiplicities in central Au + Au collisions. Similarities to particle production in the p - p and e + e - collision in a broad energy range up to 200 GeV per nucleon or lepton pair were found, what indicating a common string breaking mechanism for particle production. The dependence on pseudorapidity and centrality of the collective flow of charged particles in the Au + Au collision at √s NN = 130 GeV was determined. The importance of those quantities for testing various QCD models of heavy ion collisions was indicated. A precise test of CP violation in the process of B 0 decay to φ+K 0 S was performed using the Belle detector. Wide applicability of the thermal model of particle production in relativistic heavy ion collisions was established. Inclusion of hadron resonance decays and of the hydrodynamic flow velocity allowed us to describe cross - sections for all mesons and baryons with one freezout temperature T chemical = T kinetic = 165 MeV, which was an important result

  16. Environmental challenges of deep water activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sande, Arvid

    1998-01-01

    In this presentation there are discussed the experiences of petroleum industry, and the projects that have been conducted in connection with the planning and drilling of the first deep water wells in Norway. There are also presented views on where to put more effort in the years to come, so as to increase the knowledge of deep water areas. Attention is laid on exploration drilling as this is the only activity with environmental potential that will take place during the next five years or so. The challenges for future field developments in these water depths are briefly discussed. 7 refs

  17. ATLAS Data Challenges - A Collaborative Worldwide Activity

    CERN Multimedia

    Poulard, G

    The goals of the ATLAS Data Challenges (DC) are the validation of the Computing Model, of the complete software suite, of the data model, and to ensure the correctness of the technical choices to be made. It is understood that these Data Challenges should be of increasing complexity and that their results will be used as input for a Computing TDR and for preparing an MoU in due time. A major feature of the current computing activities (DC1) in ATLAS is the preparation and deployment of the software required for the production of large event samples for the High Level Trigger (HLT) and physics communities, and the actual production of those samples. It should be noted that it is not an option to "run everything at CERN" even if we wanted to; the resources are not available at CERN to carry out the production on a reasonable time-scale. We have therefore had to face the great challenge of organising and then carrying out this large-scale production at a significant number of sites around the world. However, th...

  18. Automation and remote handling activities in BARC: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badodkar, D.N.

    2016-01-01

    Division of Remote Handling and Robotics, BARC has been working on design and development of various application specific remote handling and automation systems for nuclear front-end and back-end fuel cycle technologies. Division is also engaged in preservice and in-service inspection of coolant channels for Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors in India. Design and development of Reactor Control Mechanisms for Nuclear Research and Power Reactors (PHWRs and Compact LWRs) is another important activity carried out in this division. Robotic systems for Indoor and Outdoor surveillance in and around nuclear installations have also been developed. A line scan camera based system has been developed for measuring individual PHWR fuel pellet lengths as well as stack length. An industrial robot is used for autonomous exchange of pellets to achieve desired stack length. The system can be extended for active fuel pellets also. An automation system has been conceptualized for remote handling and transfer of spent fuel bundles from storage pool directly to the chopper unit of reprocessing plant. In case of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor which uses mixed oxides of (Th-Pu) and (Th-"2"3"3U ) as fuel, automation system for front-end fuel cycle has been designed, which includes Powder processing and pressing; Pellet handling and inspection; Pin handling and inspection; and Cluster assembly and dis-assembly in shielded facilities. System demonstration through fullscale mock-up facility is nearing completion. Above talk is presented on behalf of all the officers and staff of DRHR. The talk is mainly focused on development of an automated fuel fabrication facility for mixed oxides of (Th- Pu)/(Th-"2"3"3U ) fuel pins. An overview of divisional ongoing activities in the field of remote handling and automation are also covered. (author)

  19. Overview of Indian activities on fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Srikumar, E-mail: sbanerjee@barc.gov.in

    2014-12-15

    This paper on overview of Indian activities on fusion reactor materials describes in brief the efforts India has made to develop materials for the first wall of a tokamak, its blanket and superconducting magnet coils. Through a systematic and scientific approach, India has developed and commercially produced reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel that is comparable to Eurofer 97. Powder of low activation ferritic/martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened steel with characteristics desired for its application in the first wall of a tokamak has been produced on the laboratory scale. V–4Cr–4Ti alloy was also prepared in the laboratory, and kinetics of hydrogen absorption in this was investigated. Cu–1 wt%Cr–0.1 wt%Zr – an alloy meant for use as heat transfer elements for hypervapotrons and heat sink for the first wall – was developed and characterized in detail for its aging behavior. The role of addition of a small quantity of Zr in its improved fatigue performance was delineated, and its diffusion bonding with both W and stainless steel was achieved using Ni as an interlayer. The alloy was produced in large quantities and used for manufacturing both the heat transfer elements and components for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). India has proposed to install and test a lead–lithium cooled ceramic breeder test blanket module (LLCB-TBM) at ITER. To meet this objective, efforts have been made to produce and characterize Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles, and also improve the thermal conductivity of packed beds of these pebbles. Liquid metal loops have been set up and corrosion behavior of RAFM steel in flowing Pb–Li eutectic has been studied in the presence as well as absence of magnetic fields. To prevent permeation of tritium and reduce the magneto-hydro-dynamic drag, processes have been developed for coating alumina on RAFM steel. Apart from these activities, different approaches being attempted to make the U

  20. An overview of genetically modified crop governance, issues and challenges in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Johnny; Ismail, Normaz Wana; Djama, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    The application of agricultural biotechnology attracts the interest of many stakeholders. Genetically modified (GM) crops, for example, have been rapidly increasing in production for the last 20 years. Despite their known benefits, GM crops also pose many concerns not only to human and animal health but also to the environment. Malaysia, in general, allows the use of GM technology applications but it has to come with precautionary and safety measures consistent with the international obligations and domestic legal frameworks. This paper provides an overview of GM crop technology from international and national context and explores the governance and issues surrounding this technology application in Malaysia. Basically, GM research activities in Malaysia are still at an early stage of research and development and most of the GM crops approved for release are limited for food, feed and processing purposes. Even though Malaysia has not planted any GM crops commercially, actions toward such a direction seem promising. Several issues concerning GM crops as discussed in this paper will become more complex as the number of GM crops and varieties commercialised globally increase and Malaysia starts to plant GM crops. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. MO-D-BRB-01: Pediatric Treatment Planning I: Overview of Planning Strategies and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, A. [Childrens Hospital of LA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Most Medical Physicists working in radiotherapy departments see few pediatric patients. This is because, fortunately, children get cancer at a rate nearly 100 times lower than adults. Children have not smoked, abused alcohol, or been exposed to environmental carcinogens for decades, and of course, have not fallen victim to the aging process. Children get very different cancers than adults. Breast or prostate cancers, typical in adults, are rarely seen in children but instead a variety of tumors occur in children that are rarely seen in adults; examples are germinomas, ependymomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors, which require treatment of the child’s brain or neuroblastoma, requiring treatment in the abdomen. The treatment of children with cancer using radiation therapy is one of the most challenging planning and delivery problems facing the physicist. This is because bones, brain, breast tissue, and other organs are more sensitive to radiation in children than in adults. Because most therapy departments treat mostly adults, when the rare 8 year-old patient comes to the department for treatment, the physicist may not understand the clinical issues of his disease which drive the planning and delivery decisions. Additionally, children are more prone than adults to developing secondary cancers after radiation. For bilateral retinoblastoma for example, an irradiated child has a 40% chance of developing a second cancer by age 50. The dosimetric tradeoffs made during the planning process are complex and require careful consideration for children treated with radiotherapy. In the first presentation, an overview of childhood cancers and their corresponding treatment techniques will be given. These can be some of the most complex treatments that are delivered in the radiation therapy department. These cancers include leukemia treated with total body irradiation, medulloblastoma, treated with craniospinal irradiation plus a conformal boost to the posterior fossa

  2. Activities to Address Challenges in Digital Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Lund , Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Part 3: Structures and Networks; International audience; Based on a literature review, this paper identifies four socio-technical challenges relating to innovation actor’s interactions in digital innovation. Furthermore, the paper explores how these challenges can be addressed. The challenges are investigated in a case study of digital innovation. The study is based on a two year long research and development project where an e-newspaper concept and a demonstrator based on e-paper technology ...

  3. Wageningen UR Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility - Overview of activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeus, Harm; Keesstra, Saskia; Kooistra, Lammert; Suomalainen, Juha; Mucher, Sander; Kramer, Henk; Franke, Jappe

    2016-04-01

    around the world, while new camera systems are being planned such as LiDAR and a full frame hyperspectral camera. In the presentation we will give an overview of our activities, ranging from erosion studies, decision support for precision agriculture, determining leaf biochemistry and canopy structure in tropical forests to the mapping of coastal zones.

  4. Overview of the Italian activities in the field of life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pini, A.

    1994-01-01

    Overview of the Italian activities in the field of life management of nuclear power plants is presented, including the following issues: nuclear energy scenario in Italy, study of reactor pressure vessel, piping and containment integrity, seismic risk analysis

  5. Overview of the main challenges for the engineering design of the test facilities system of IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, J.; Nakamura, K.

    2009-01-01

    High intense radiation fields were demanded to IFMIF to address the lack of information on effects in materials due to radiation fields with fusion reactor features. Such intense radiation fields will also produce a number of unwanted effects in exposed materials and components. The main difficulties to achieve a reliable engineering design of the Test Facilities System during the Engineering Validation and the Engineering Design phase of IFMIF now under development are reviewed in this paper. The most challenging activities will be the design of the high flux test module, the creep fatigue test module, the test cell and the remote handling system. The intense radiation fields in the irradiation area and the high availability required for IFMIF (70%) are the main reasons for these difficulties.

  6. Introduction to Metagenomics at DOE JGI: Program Overview and Program Informatics (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, Susannah

    2011-10-12

    Susannah Tringe of the DOE Joint Genome Institute talks about the Program Overview and Program Informatics at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  7. Design Research with a Focus on Learning Processes: An Overview on Achievements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Susanne; Gravemeijer, Koeno; Confrey, Jere

    2015-01-01

    Design research continues to gain prominence as a significant methodology in the mathematics education research community. This overview summarizes the origins and the current state of design research practices focusing on methodological requirements and processes of theorizing. While recognizing the rich variations in the foci and scale of design…

  8. Writing for Journal Publication: An Overview of NNES Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Ismaeil

    2013-01-01

    After a brief discussion of the importance of publishing in academic journals, this paper provides an overview of studies on writing for publication of NNES (non-native English speaking) writers. Based on the related literature, different language problems facing NNES contributors, from the perspective of both NNES writers and journal editors, as…

  9. The CRC 20 Years: An Overview of Some of the Major Achievements and Remaining Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doek, Jaap E.

    2009-01-01

    On 20 November 1989, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). It entered into force on 2 September 1990 and has by now been ratified by 193 States, making the most universally ratified human rights treaty. This overview will present and discuss the impact of this treaty both at the…

  10. Overview of the present status and challenges of neutrino oscillation physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocioiu, Irina [Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    This is an overview of the current status of neutrino oscillation physics, including atmospheric, solar, reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments. After summarizing our present understanding of all data, I discuss the open questions and how they might be addressed in the future. I also discuss how neutrinos can be used to learn about new physics and astrophysics.

  11. An Overview of School Dropout in Central America: Unresolved Issues and New Challenges for Education Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Melissa A.; Székely, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    School dropout is a growing concern in Central America, and in Latin America as a whole, because of its consequences for economic productivity, the inclusiveness of growth, social cohesion, and increasing youth risks. This paper utilizes more than two decades of household survey data to construct a systematic overview of school dropout at the…

  12. Ethical Overview of Placebo Control in Psychiatric Research - Concepts and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćurković, Marko; Živković, Maja; Radić, Krešimir; Vilibić, Maja; Ćelić, Ivan; Bagarić, Dario

    2015-06-01

    Permissibility of placebo controls in psychiatric research is raising everlasting controversies. The main ethical issue remains: whether, when, under what conditions, and to what extent is it justifiable to disregard subject's present (best) interest for the presumably "greater" ones. In relation to this main ethical concern, two distinct arguments arose: proponents of placebo controls trials (placebo ortxodoxy) and proponents of active controls trials (active-control orthodoxy). More recently, in new ethical guidelines, Declaration of Helsinki and International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, a "middle way" approach was formulated, acceptable to both sides of the argument, saying placebo controls can be justified under certain conditions: when and only when, they firstly present undisputed methodological reasoning, and secondly, fulfill certain ethical considerations - mainly regarding the permissibility of accompanied risks. These ethical evaluations are inevitably contextual and evoke the need for the principle of proportionality. In scope of recent findings of substantial and progressively increasing placebo response in psychiatric research, contextual factors are identified and both theoretical and practical challenges are discussed.

  13. Indian Solar Cities Programme: An Overview of Major Activities and Accomplishments; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper details the Indian Solar City Programme, provides an overview of one city's Master Plan and implementation progress, describes NREL's support of the Indian Solar City Programme, and outlines synergies and differences between the Indian and American programs including unique challenges and opportunities India is facing.

  14. Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation Overview and Research Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auligne, T.

    2017-12-01

    In 2001 NOAA/NESDIS, NOAA/NWS, NOAA/OAR, and NASA, subsequently joined by the US Navy and Air Force, came together to form the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA) for the common purpose of accelerating the use of satellite data in environmental numerical prediction modeling by developing, using, and anticipating advances in numerical modeling, satellite-based remote sensing, and data assimilation methods. The primary focus was to bring these advances together to improve operational numerical model-based forecasting, under the premise that these partners have common technical and logistical challenges assimilating satellite observations into their modeling enterprises that could be better addressed through cooperative action and/or common solutions. Over the last 15 years, the JCSDA has made and continues to make major contributions to operational assimilation of satellite data. The JCSDA is a multi-agency U.S. government-owned-and-operated organization that was conceived as a venue for the several agencies NOAA, NASA, USAF and USN to collaborate on advancing the development and operational use of satellite observations into numerical model-based environmental analysis and forecasting. The primary mission of the JCSDA is to "accelerate and improve the quantitative use of research and operational satellite data in weather, ocean, climate and environmental analysis and prediction systems." This mission is fulfilled through directed research targeting the following key science objectives: Improved radiative transfer modeling; new instrument assimilation; assimilation of humidity, clouds, and precipitation observations; assimilation of land surface observations; assimilation of ocean surface observations; atmospheric composition; and chemistry and aerosols. The goal of this presentation is to briefly introduce the JCSDA's mission and vision, and to describe recent research activities across various JCSDA partners.

  15. Bringing gas prices to economic levels. An overview of some of the barriers and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorssen, R. van

    1996-01-01

    This presentation is a general overview of the situation in Central and Eastern Europe regarding gas pricing. The experience in Central and Eastern Europe shows that many countries have embarked on the road towards a sound gas pricing. The speed of this differs among countries, depending on their specific circumstances. It has been a difficult process, despite the fact that all market players will benefit: the industry, the governments and the end consumers

  16. An overview of cloud services adoption challenges in higher education institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Alharthi, Abdulrahman; Yahya, Fara; Walters, Robert John; Wills, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) plays an important role in enabling education services be delivered to users. Most education online services in universities have been run on the cloud to provide services to support students, lecturers, researchers and administration staff. These are enabled with the emergence of cloud computing in the world of IT. Cloud computing offers on demand Internet-based computing services. This paper presents an overview of cloud computing adoption in higher education, ma...

  17. Challenges in Personalizing and Decentralizing the Web: An Overview of GOSSPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermarrec, Anne-Marie

    Social networks and collaborative tagging systems have taken off at an unexpected scale and speed (Facebook, YouTube, Flickr, Last.fm, Delicious, etc). Web content is now generated by you, me, our friends and millions of others. This represents a revolution in usage and a great opportunity to leverage collaborative knowledge to enhance the user's Internet experience. The GOSSPLE project aims at precisely achieving this: automatically capturing affinities between users that are potentially unknown yet share similar interests, or exhibiting similar behaviors on the Web. This fully personalizes the search process, increasing the ability of a user to find relevant content. This personalization calls for decentralization. (1) Centralized servers might dissuade users from generating new content for they expose their privacy and represent a single point of attack. (2) The amount of information to store grows exponentially with the size of the system and centralized systems cannot sustain storing a growing amount of data at a user granularity. We believe that the salvation can only come from a fully decentralized user centric approach where every participant is entrusted to harvest the Web with information relevant to her own activity. This poses a number of scientific challenges: How to discover similar users, how to define the relevant metrics for such personalization, how to preserve privacy when needed, how to deal with free-riders and misheavior and how to manage efficiently a growing amount of data.

  18. An Overview of Metallic Nanowire Networks, Promising Building Blocks for Next Generation Transparent Conductors: Emergence, Fundamentals and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsalami, Sedigheh; Zebarjad, Seyed Mojtaba; Daneshmanesh, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Transparent conductors (TCs) have a wide range of applications in numerous electronic and optoelectronic devices. This review provides an overview of the emergence of metallic nanowire networks (MNNs) as promising building blocks for the next generation transparent conductors. The fundamental aspects, structure-property relations, fabrication techniques and the corresponding challenges are reviewed. Theoretical and experimental researches suggest that nanowires with smaller diameter, longer length and higher aspect ratio have higher performance. Yet, the development of an efficient synthesis technique for the production of MNNs has remained a challenge. The synthesis method is also crucial to the scalability and the commercial potential of these emerging TCs. The most promising techniques for the synthesis together with their advantages, limitations and the recent findings are here discussed. Finally, we will try to show the promising future research trends in MNNs to have an approach to design the next generation TCs.

  19. Planetary Cartography - Activities and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea; Di, Kaichang; Elgner, Stephan; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hare, Trent; Hargitai, Henrik; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kereszturi, Akos; Kersten, Elke; Kokhanov, Alexander; Manaud, Nicolas; Roatsch, Thomas; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Skinner, James, Jr.; Wählisch, Marita

    2018-05-01

    Maps are one of the most important tools for communicating geospatial information between producers and receivers. Geospatial data, tools, contributions in geospatial sciences, and the communication of information and transmission of knowledge are matter of ongoing cartographic research. This applies to all topics and objects located on Earth or on any other body in our Solar System. In planetary science, cartography and mapping have a history dating back to the roots of telescopic space exploration and are now facing new technological and organizational challenges with the rise of new missions, new global initiatives, organizations and opening research markets. The focus of this contribution is to introduce the community to the field of planetary cartography and its historic foundation, to highlight some of the organizations involved and to emphasize challenges that Planetary Cartography has to face today and in the near future.

  20. Alpha contamination assessment for D ampersand D activities: Technology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conaway, J.G.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    Instruments based on the principle of Long-Range Alpha Detection (LRAD) detect the ions created in ambient air by Ionizing radiation, particularly alpha radiation, interacting with air molecules. Using either an electrostatic field or forced convection, these ions can be transported to a detection grid where the ions produce a small current that is measured with a sensitive electrometer. LRAD-based instruments can give separate, simultaneous measurements of alpha-emitting solids and inert radioactive gases such as radon. LRAD-based instruments assess surface contamination on an entire object or large surface area in a single, rapid measurement, including relatively inaccessible areas such as interior surfaces of pipes and process equipment. The LRAD concept is well proven and has been developed into a range of different radiation detection devices. This paper presents an overview of the technology, while several associated papers explore specific applications in greater detail

  1. A century's challenges. Historical overview of radiation sources in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubenau, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    A historical overview of radiation sources in the USA, including lost or abandoned ones is given in this paper. The important lesson to be learned from operational experience with radiation sources is that periodic contacts by regulators with the users serve as reminders to them of the need to maintain control and countability of the sources, to properly dispose the sources when not needed, and to provide for their safe application. The historical perspective induces another lesson, when dealing with radiological protection issues, the knowledge learned from the past experience should not be ignored

  2. Recent trends, opportunities and challenges of biodiesel in Malaysia: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Steven; Teong, Lee Keat

    2010-01-01

    Energy supply and its security issues have been the topic of interest lately. With growing environmental awareness about the negative implications brought by excessive usage of fossil fuels, the race for finding alternative energy as their substitutions is getting heated up. For now, renewable energy from biodiesel has been touted as one of the most promising substitutions for petroleum-derived diesel. Combustion of biodiesel as fuel is more environment-friendly while retaining most of the positive engine properties of petroleum-derived diesel. Production of biodiesel is also a proven technology with established commercialization activities. The huge potential of biodiesel coupled with the abundance of palm oil which is one of the most cost-effective feedstocks for biodiesel is responsible for the pledging of Malaysia to become the leading producer of high quality biodiesel in the region. Currently, total approved installed capacity of biodiesel production in Malaysia equals to almost 92% of the world biodiesel production output in 2008. While Malaysia does indeed possessed materials, technologies and marketing superiority to vie for that position, many more challenges are still awaiting. The price restriction, provisions controversy, escalating non-tariff trade barriers and negligible public support need to be addressed appropriately. In this review, Malaysia's previous and current position in global biodiesel market, its future potential towards the prominent leading biodiesel status and major disrupting obstacles are being discussed. The feasibility of utilizing algae as the up-and-coming biodiesel feedstock in Malaysia is also under scrutiny. Lastly, several recommendations on the roles played by three major forces in Malaysia's biodiesel industry are presented to tackle the shortcomings in achieving the coveted status by Malaysia. It is hope that Malaysia's progress in biodiesel industry will not only benefit itself but rather as the role model to catalyst the

  3. TU-E-BRB-01: Overview of DIR Advantages/Challenges and Workflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geneser, S.

    2015-01-01

    Deformable image registration (DIR) is developing rapidly and is poised to substantially improve dose fusion accuracy for adaptive and retreatment planning and motion management and PET fusion to enhance contour delineation for treatment planning. However, DIR dose warping accuracy is difficult to quantify, in general, and particularly difficult to do so on a patient-specific basis. As clinical DIR options become more widely available, there is an increased need to understand the implications of incorporating DIR into clinical workflow. Several groups have assessed DIR accuracy in clinically relevant scenarios, but no comprehensive review material is yet available. This session will also discuss aspects of the AAPM Task Group 132 on the Use of Image Registration and Data Fusion Algorithms and Techniques in Radiotherapy Treatment Planning official report, which provides recommendations for DIR clinical use. We will summarize and compare various commercial DIR software options, outline successful clinical techniques, show specific examples with discussion of appropriate and inappropriate applications of DIR, discuss the clinical implications of DIR, provide an overview of current DIR error analysis research, review QA options and research phantom development and present TG-132 recommendations. Learning Objectives: Compare/contrast commercial DIR software and QA options Overview clinical DIR workflow for retreatment To understand uncertainties introduced by DIR Review TG-132 proposed recommendations

  4. TU-E-BRB-01: Overview of DIR Advantages/Challenges and Workflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geneser, S. [University of California San Francisco (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Deformable image registration (DIR) is developing rapidly and is poised to substantially improve dose fusion accuracy for adaptive and retreatment planning and motion management and PET fusion to enhance contour delineation for treatment planning. However, DIR dose warping accuracy is difficult to quantify, in general, and particularly difficult to do so on a patient-specific basis. As clinical DIR options become more widely available, there is an increased need to understand the implications of incorporating DIR into clinical workflow. Several groups have assessed DIR accuracy in clinically relevant scenarios, but no comprehensive review material is yet available. This session will also discuss aspects of the AAPM Task Group 132 on the Use of Image Registration and Data Fusion Algorithms and Techniques in Radiotherapy Treatment Planning official report, which provides recommendations for DIR clinical use. We will summarize and compare various commercial DIR software options, outline successful clinical techniques, show specific examples with discussion of appropriate and inappropriate applications of DIR, discuss the clinical implications of DIR, provide an overview of current DIR error analysis research, review QA options and research phantom development and present TG-132 recommendations. Learning Objectives: Compare/contrast commercial DIR software and QA options Overview clinical DIR workflow for retreatment To understand uncertainties introduced by DIR Review TG-132 proposed recommendations.

  5. Challenges of Hotel Branding. An Overview of the Romanian Seaside Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Daniela Moraru

    2016-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting several facets of branding in the hotel industry, and at brieflyasserting the current state and challenges faced by the Romanian Seaside hotel industry related tobranding.

  6. CEC paper on an overview of activities carried out by the WGCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinovart, J.

    1994-01-01

    The paper overviews the activities carried out by the WGCS (Working Group Codes and Standards). Summary of conclusions, established in some reports which were finalized in 1992, are outlined for three sub-groups of activity. Two tables summarize the LWR 1992-93 programs are attached. 2 tabs

  7. Overview of total beta activity index and beta rest in surface waters of the Spanish rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)

  8. Challenging a Home Country: A Preliminary Account of Indonesian Student Activism in Berlin, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafiq Hasyim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview on Indonesian student activism in Berlin, Germany. Based on documents (published and unpublished, interviews, and conversations with former and current student activists, the paper scrutinizes the trajectory of activism of Indonesian students in the capital of Germany since the 1960s and asks about the evolution of specific student organizations, the issues and topics they tackled, and their media and networking strategies. The article illustrates the activities of the PPI Berlin as a dominant example of Indonesian students’ political activism abroad and the activities of Indonesian Muslim students as a prominent example of religious-based activism which has gained significance since the fall of Suharto. These examples indicate the diversity of Indonesian student activists in Berlin that are nevertheless united in their aspirations to challenge politics back home.

  9. An Overview of Recent Automotive Applications of Active Vibration Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kowalczyk, K; Svaricek, F; Bohn, C; Karkosch, H

    2004-01-01

    .... Continental has developed and implemented prototypes of active mounting systems on various test vehicles and demonstrated that significant reductions in noise and vibration levels are achievable...

  10. Threats to Inclusive Education in Lesotho: An Overview of Policy and Implementation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosia, Paseka Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how the education of Learners with Special Education Needs (LSEN) has developed in Lesotho as a result of international policies on human rights and education. In particular, it explores various challenges to inclusive education such as proper understanding of inclusive education, the development of a policy on special and…

  11. LOGISTIC ACTIVITIES IN BELARUS: TRENDS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bozhanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Main results of investigations on logistics activities in the Republic of Belarus at year-end 2016 are presented in the paper. The paper identifies and analyzes basic components of this activity on the basis of economic evaluation of indices presented in annual State statistical reporting on logistics and transport and freight forwarding activities of the Republican organizations according to form 1-logistics (Mintrans – Ministry of Transport and Communications of the Republic of Belarus, a report of the Ministry of Transport and Communications of the Republic of Belarus on the results of the implementation of Republican Program for development of logistics systems and transit potential of the Republic of Belarus for the period of 2016–2020, World Bank reports on logistics performance index, some indices of logistics infrastructure position and also results of electronic questionnaire of the largest logistics centers of the Republic of Belarus. Methods of comparative analysis, generalization and economic analysis have been used in the process of research. The analysis has shown that a network of logistics centers with various specialization and forms of property are located and operating in all regions of the Republic of Belarus. Most of them are situated in the Minsk region near the II and IX trans-European transport corridors and in the Brest region near the border with Poland. Structure of the logistics centers includes temporary storage warehouses, customs warehouses, warehouses for general use, container terminals, car parking, customs clearance office, and automotive, railway and other cargo transport facilities. Indices of logistics activity in the Republic of Belarus demonstrate its development in 2016. Storage space of logistics centers and main financial and volumetric indices of logistics activity which are included in the State statistical reporting have been increased during in recent times. These facts testify to the demand for

  12. Nuclear activation analysis work at Analytical Chemistry Division: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.; Swain, K.K.; Remya Devi, P.S.; Dalvi, Aditi A.; Ajith, Nicy; Ghosh, M.; Chowdhury, D.P.; Datta, J.; Dasgupta, S.

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear activation analysis using neutron and charged particles is used routinely for analysis and research at Analytical Chemistry Division (ACD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). Neutron activation analysis at ACD, BARC, Mumbai, India has been pursued since late fifties using Apsara, CIRUS, Dhruva and Critical facility Research reactors, 239 Pu-Be neutron source and neutron generator. Instrumental, Radiochemical, Chemical and Derivative neutron activation analysis approaches are adopted depending on the analyte and the matrix. Large sample neutron activation analysis as well as k 0 -based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis is also used. Charged particle activation analysis at ACD, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata started in late eighties and is being used for industrial applications and research. Proton, alpha, deuteron and heavy ion beams from 224 cm room temperature Variable Energy Cyclotron are used for determination of trace elements, measurement of excitation function, thin layer activation and preparation of endohedral fullerenes encapsulated with radioactive isotopes. Analytical Chemistry Division regularly participates in Inter and Intra laboratory comparison exercises conducted by various organizations including International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the results invariably include values obtained by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  13. An overview on the activities of Pacific Nuclear Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mamoru

    2003-01-01

    Pacific Nuclear Council (PNC) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) for cooperation and exchange of information on the nuclear science and technologies and its use in the Pacific basin countries to be established in November, 1989. The charter members are Canadian Nuclear Society, Canada Nuclear Association, Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Korea Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., and Mexico Nuclear Society. The activities of PNC are stated as followings; a charter, rules, objects, construction, management, activities for a member organization, Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference, foreign activities, social trend as back ground and future activities. As the activities for a member organization, eight working groups such as training of people, nuclear safety, public acceptances, reorganization of system, control of radioactive waste, public information and out reach, next generation reactor and rules and standards had been worked and the last four groups are working now. (S.Y.)

  14. An Overview of CO{sub 2} capture technologies. What are the challenges ahead?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Stanley (IEA Greenhouse Gas R& amp; D Programme)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper it is described what the program of R&D of the International Energy Agency consists of, for the reduction of greenhouse effect gasses. Some of the factors that have impelled the policy of the development of technologies for the CO{sub 2} capture are synthesized. Also an overview is given of the 3 main technologies for the capture and storage of CO{sub 2} that are the capture post-combustion, the capture oxy-combustion and the capture pre-combustion; finally several aspects related to the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} are mentioned. [Spanish] En esta ponencia se describe en que consiste el programa de I&D para la reduccion de gases de efecto invernadero de la Agencia Internacional de Energia. Se sintetizan algunos de los factores que han impulsado a la politica del desarrollo de tecnologias para la captura de CO{sub 2}. Tambien se da un panorama de las 3 principales tecnologias para la captura y almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} que son la captura post-combustion, la captura oxi-combustion y la captura pre-combustion; finalmente se mencionan varios aspectos relacionados con la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2}.

  15. Overview of models allowing calculation of activity coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaussaud, C.; Sorel, C

    2004-07-01

    Activity coefficients must be estimated to accurately quantify the extraction equilibrium involved in spent fuel reprocessing. For these calculations, binary data are required for each electrolyte over a concentration range sometimes exceeding the maximum solubility. The activity coefficients must be extrapolated to model the behavior of binary supersaturated aqueous solution. According to the bibliography, the most suitable models are based on the local composition concept. (authors)

  16. Challenge Activities for the Physical Education Classroom: Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Emily; Tapps, Tyler; Fink, Kevin; Symonds, Matthew L.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide physical education teachers with the tools to develop and implement challenge course-like activities in their physical education classes. The article also covers environmental considerations for teachers who have the desire to create a challenge-based classroom setting in order to reach a wider and more…

  17. Packet Duplication in Dual Connectivity Enabled 5G Wireless Networks: Overview and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Aijaz, Adnan

    2018-01-01

    Enabling ultra-reliable low latency communications (uRLLC) over 5G wireless networks creates challenging design requirements, particularly on the air-interface. The stringent latency and reliability targets require enhancements at different layers of the protocol stack. On the other hand, the parallel redundancy protocol (PRP), wherein each data packet is duplicated and transmitted concurrently over two independent networks, provides a simple solution for improving reliability and reducing la...

  18. Measuring Kinase Activity-A Global Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Marissa L; McDonald, Ian M; East, Michael P; Johnson, Gary L; Graves, Lee M

    2017-11-01

    The kinase enzymes within a cell, known collectively as the kinome, play crucial roles in many signaling pathways, including survival, motility, differentiation, stress response, and many more. Aberrant signaling through kinase pathways is often linked to cancer, among other diseases. A major area of scientific research involves understanding the relationships between kinases, their targets, and how the kinome adapts to perturbations of the cellular system. This review will discuss many of the current and developing methods for studying kinase activity, and evaluate their applications, advantages, and disadvantages. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3595-3606, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. AN OVERVIEW AND ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CHALLENGES IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Cristina IRIMIE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the key energy challenges that Croatia faces, how those challenges are likely to evolve in the coming years, and some possible solutions to the issues presented. While there is a wide variety of issues that Croatia will need to address, this paper will address two of the most pressing: reliance on energy imports, and an inadequate power grid and energy infrastructure. After identifying current vulnerabilities that the country is facing, the analysis points out the trends and the ongoing challenges regarding the demand for energy in Croatia. Finally, this paper concludes with the recommendation that Croatia pursue a multi-pronged approach to renewable energy generation, emphasizing decentralized production as the most time and cost effective strategy until the national power grid can be sufficiently upgraded and integrated to support more centralized approaches. Its geographic location, immanent admission to the EU and potential for diverse domestic sources of renewable energy combine to set the stage for a bright future for Croatia’s economic development, as long as the Croatian authorities place a priority on a multi - pronged approach to energy sources on the one hand, while continuing to work to a unified energy infrastructure on the other.

  20. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashank; Pandey, Abhay K.

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production. PMID:24470791

  1. Methods of measuring Protein Disulfide Isomerase activity: a critical overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Monica; Laurindo, Francisco; Fernandes, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase is an essential redox chaperone from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is responsible for correct disulfide bond formation in nascent proteins. PDI is also found in other cellular locations in the cell, particularly the cell surface. Overall, PDI contributes to ER and global cell redox homeostasis and signaling. The knowledge about PDI structure and function progressed substantially based on in vitro studies using recombinant PDI and chimeric proteins. In these experimental scenarios, PDI reductase and chaperone activities are readily approachable. In contrast, assays to measure PDI isomerase activity, the hallmark of PDI family, are more complex. Assessment of PDI roles in cells and tissues mainly relies on gain- or loss-of-function studies. However, there is limited information regarding correlation of experimental readouts with the distinct types of PDI activities. In this mini-review, we evaluate the main methods described for measuring the different kinds of PDI activity: thiol reductase, thiol oxidase, thiol isomerase and chaperone. We emphasize the need to use appropriate controls and the role of critical interferents (e.g., detergent, presence of reducing agents). We also discuss the translation of results from in vitro studies with purified recombinant PDI to cellular and tissue samples, with critical comments on the interpretation of results.

  2. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  3. HAART (Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy : An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praful Pande

    2014-01-01

    activation, restoration of lymph node architecture, clinical improvement, prolonged survival, fewer opportunistic infections and HIV - associated malignancies. Problem with therapy are pill burden, non-availability of drugs, food and storage restrictions, drug-drug interactions, severe side-effects, reduction in quality of life measures, emergence of multiple drug resistance mutations.

  4. Human Research Program Science Management: Overview of Research and Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of research and development activities of NASA's Human Research Science Management Program is presented. The topics include: 1) Human Research Program Goals; 2) Elements and Projects within HRP; 3) Development and Maintenance of Priorities; 4) Acquisition and Evaluation of Research and Technology Proposals; and 5) Annual Reviews

  5. An overview of analytical activities of control laboratory in NFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji Rao, Y.; Subba Rao, Y.; Saibaba, N.

    2015-01-01

    As per the mandate of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) was established in 1971 for manufacturing Fuel Sub-assemblies for both PHWRs and BWRs operating in India on industrial scale. Control Laboratory (C.Lab) was envisaged as a centralized analytical facility to achieve the objectives of NFC on the similar lines of its predecessor, Analytical Chemistry Division at BARC. With highest ever production of 1200 MT of PHWR Fuel and 16 lakhs PHWR Fuel Tubes achieved during production year of 2014-15 and with increase in demand further for fuel requirements, NFC has got demanding situation in next year and accordingly, C. Lab has also geared up to meet the challenging demands of all the production plant. The average annual analytical load comes around 5 Lakhs estimations and to manage such a massive analytical load a proper synergy between good chemistry, process conditions and analytical methods is a necessity and laboratory is able to meet this important requirement consistently

  6. An overview on benzylisoquinoline derivatives with dopaminergic and serotonergic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabedo, N; Berenguer, I; Figadère, B; Cortes, D

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine and serotonin are important neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) involved in numerous physiological and behavioural disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression, anxiety, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Several natural and synthetic benzylisoquinoline derivatives have displayed affinity for dopamine and serotonin receptors in nanomolar or micromolar ranges. This review covers the last three decades of dopaminergic and serotonergic activities, and especially focuses on structure-activity relationships of natural and synthetic benzylisoquinoline derivatives. We have included aporphines, 1-benzyltetrahydroisoquinolines, bis-benzylisoquinolines, protoberberines, cularines and other structural analogues. Further molecular modelling calculations have been considered as important tools to not only obtain structural information of both neurotransmitter receptors, but to also identify their pharmacophore features. The development of selective potential ligands like benzylisoquinoline derivatives may help in the therapy of diseases related to CNS dysfunction.

  7. Overview of the PPPL International Experimental Stellarator Collaboration Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, David [Princeton University

    2012-03-28

    PPPL has initiated and strengthened collaborative experimental programs aimed at developing the required toolsets and scientific knowledge for advancing stellarators as a viable fusion energy source. In particular, activities at LHD and W7-X, the two large superconducting helical confinement systems in the world, have been expanded. The focus at LHD has been on diagnostic development and data analysis, since the device is a mature research facility with more than 20MW of heating power available. High beta stability experiments, ion and electron temperature measurements using a recently installed imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer, and 3D equilibrium reconstructions will be described. The focus on W7-X has been to develop hardware capabilities for divertor heat flux control, including plasma-facing components, error field correction coils, and power supplies. Progress on these and other activities will be presented.

  8. GRS current activities in East-European countries overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teske, H.; Janke, R.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the following items: agreement between the Federal Government and Utility Companies about the future utilization of the existing nuclear power plants in Germany, June 2001; GRS current activities in the Eastern European countries; science-technical co-operation with Russia; assessment of safety significance of the events for German NPP; Leningrad in-depth safety assessment, co-operation SEC NRS and GRS

  9. Overview of IRSN R and D activities on severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumont, B.; Raimond, E.; Dorsselaere, J.P. Van; Simondi-Teisseire, B.

    2009-01-01

    IRSN activities on SA include safety assessment for existing and future nuclear power plants and experimental reactors, level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), development of simulation codes and realization of experiments. R and D concerns the following phenomena: fission products behaviour, in particular iodine and ruthenium chemistry (CHIP and EPICUR experiments); core melting and reflooding of damaged cores (MOZART, BECARRE and PEARL experiments); Molten-Core-Concrete-Interaction; thermo-mechanical behaviour of the reactor coolant system and the vessel; direct containment heating, steam explosion; hydrogen distribution and combustion in containment. Other activities concern integration of knowledge into SA codes, validation of the codes, and benchmarking activities. The main codes developed at IRSN are the ASTEC integral code and the detailed codes such as M3CD for fuel coolant interaction and TONUS for hydrogen risk assessment. One essential application of the SA codes is the systematic analysis of the different possible scenarios in the frame of the development of level 2 PSA. (authors)

  10. Perspective of surface active agents in baking industry: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asif; Arshad, Nazish; Ahmed, Zaheer; Bhatti, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zahoor, Tahir; Anjum, Nomana; Ahmad, Hajra; Afreen, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Different researchers have previously used surfactants for improving bread qualities and revealed that these compounds result in improving the quality of dough and bread by influencing dough strength, tolerance, uniform crumb cell size, and improve slicing characteristics and gas retention. The objective of this review is to highlight the areas where surfactants are most widely used particularly in the bread industries, their role and mechanism of interaction and their contribution to the quality characteristics of the dough and bread. This review reveals some aspects of surface-active agents regarding its role physiochemical properties of dough that in turn affect the bread characteristics by improving its sensory quality and storage stability.

  11. Antiplasmodial and antimalarial activities of quinolone derivatives: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi-Lei; Cheng, Xiang-Wei; Wu, Jian-Bing; Liu, Min; Zhang, Feng-Zhi; Xu, Zhi; Feng, Lian-Shun

    2018-02-25

    Malaria remains one of the most deadly infectious diseases globally. Considering the growing spread of resistance, development of new and effective antimalarials remains an urgent priority. Quinolones, which are emerged as one of the most important class of antibiotics in the treatment of various bacterial infections, showed potential in vitro antiplasmodial and in vivo antimalarial activities, making them promising candidates for the chemoprophylaxis and treatment of malaria. This review presents the current progresses and applications of quinolone-based derivatives as potential antimalarials to pave the way for the development of new antimalarials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental overview and challenge in strangeness nuclear physics — strangeness in the past and coming decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    A great progress has been made in strangeness nuclear physics in the past decade. Examples are; 1) The "hyperfine" structure of hypernuclei were measured with the Hyperball, and ΛN spin dependent interactions in p-shell hypernuclei were determined. 2) The "complete measurements" of the weak decay of hypernuclei were made and the np ratio puzzle in the non-mesonic decay was solved. 3) The discovery of a clean event of "Lambpha" and determination of its binding energy concluded that the Λ-Λ interaction is weak attractive. However, we still have important questions to be answered in this field, especially in relation with QCD and nuclear physics. For the future strangeness nuclear physics, we have and will have facilities such as JLab, SPring-8, Daphne, J-PARC, FAIR. We discuss experimental challenges in the strangeness nuclear physics and related fields in the next decade. (author)

  13. Isothiocyanates: An Overview of Their Antimicrobial Activity against Human Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Romeo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant-derived products as antimicrobial agents has been investigated in depth. Isothiocyanates (ITCs are bioactive products resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates (GLs, the most abundant secondary metabolites in the botanical order Brassicales. Although the antimicrobial activity of ITCs against foodborne and plant pathogens has been well documented, little is known about their antimicrobial properties against human pathogens. This review collects studies that focus on this topic. Particular focus will be put on ITCs’ antimicrobial properties and their mechanism of action against human pathogens for which the current therapeutic solutions are deficient and therefore of prime importance for public health. Our purpose was the evaluation of the potential use of ITCs to replace or support the common antibiotics. Even though ITCs appear to be effective against the most important human pathogens, including bacteria with resistant phenotypes, the majority of the studies did not show comparable results and thus it is very difficult to compare the antimicrobial activity of the different ITCs. For this reason, a standard method should be used and further studies are needed.

  14. Argentina: Brief Overview of Argentina’s INIS Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavio, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Argentina works in close collaboration with the IAEA on its technical cooperation program, both on national projects within their national program plan, including its thematic areas, as well as on regional projects through the ARCAL agreement. In the field of horizontal cooperation, Argentina engages in technology transfer, training fellows and receiving scientific visits. Argentina has been a member of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) since 1970, and was among the first IAEA Member States to agree to participate in the system. As a member, we have been involved in the various activities carried out by the IAEA, disseminating the research and development of our researchers and scientists in nuclear and related subjects and promoting INIS activities. The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is the INIS National Center. Contributions to the INIS database nationwide are made through the CNEA's Information Centers: Eduardo Savino Information Center (CIES, Constituyentes Atomic Center), Leo Falicov Library (Bariloche Atomic Center) and the Library of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN)

  15. Overview of the present progress and activities on the CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuanxi; Li, Jiangang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Xiaolin; Chan, Vincent; Chen, Changan; Duan, Xuru; Fu, Peng; Gao, Xiang; Feng, Kaiming; Liu, Songlin; Song, Yuntao; Weng, Peide; Wan, Baonian; Wan, Farong; Wang, Heyi; Wu, Songtao; Ye, Minyou; Yang, Qingwei; Zheng, Guoyao; Zhuang, Ge; Li, Qiang; CFETR Team

    2017-10-01

    The China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is the next device in the roadmap for the realization of fusion energy in China, which aims to bridge the gaps between the fusion experimental reactor ITER and the demonstration reactor (DEMO). CFETR will be operated in two phases. Steady-state operation and self-sufficiency will be the two key issues for Phase I with a modest fusion power of up to 200 MW. Phase II aims for DEMO validation with a fusion power over 1 GW. Advanced H-mode physics, high magnetic fields up to 7 T, high frequency electron cyclotron resonance heating and lower hybrid current drive together with off-axis negative-ion neutral beam injection will be developed for achieving steady-state advanced operation. The recent detailed design, research and development (R&D) activities including integrated modeling of operation scenarios, high field magnet, material, tritium plant, remote handling and future plans are introduced in this paper.

  16. An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramírez, P; Shore, R F; van den Brink, N W; van Hattum, B; Bustnes, J O; Duke, G; Fritsch, C; García-Fernández, A J; Helander, B O; Jaspers, V; Krone, O; Martínez-López, E; Mateo, R; Movalli, P; Sonne, C

    2014-06-01

    Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment, PCB-induced altered reproductive impacts, and toxicity associated with lead in shot game. Authorisation of such releases and implementation of mitigation is now increasingly delivered through EU-wide directives but there is little established pan-European monitoring to quantify outcomes. We investigated the potential for EU-wide coordinated contaminant monitoring using raptors as sentinels. We did this using a questionnaire to ascertain the current scale of national activity across 44 European countries. According to this survey, there have been 52 different contaminant monitoring schemes with raptors over the last 50years. There were active schemes in 15 (predominantly western European) countries and 23 schemes have been running for >20years; most monitoring was conducted for >5years. Legacy persistent organic compounds (specifically organochlorine insecticides and PCBs), and metals/metalloids were monitored in most of the 15 countries. Fungicides, flame retardants and anticoagulant rodenticides were also relatively frequently monitored (each in at least 6 countries). Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), tawny owl (Strix aluco) and barn owl (Tyto alba) were most commonly monitored (each in 6-10 countries). Feathers and eggs were most widely analysed although many schemes also analysed body tissues. Our study reveals an existing capability across multiple European countries for contaminant monitoring using raptors. However, coordination between existing schemes and expansion of monitoring into Eastern Europe is needed. This would enable

  17. Overview of current Russian activities in P and T area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatkin, A.V.; Ignatiev, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The general policy of radioactive waste management is consistent with the long-term plans for nuclear power development adopted in each country. Russian activities aimed at setting up in the future a fuel cycle of nuclear power with reasonably minimized quantities of Radwaste subject disposal are being carried out by Minatom as part of the general Strategy for development of national nuclear power. Several key missions of this Strategy deserve special mention: in the next 20-40 years, construction of advanced thermal reactors which will run on enriched uranium until the economically acceptable reserves of natural uranium are exhausted; reprocessing of all spent fuel of thermal reactors to separate plutonium and long-lived nuclides; development of a new generation of fast reactors which will meet the requirements placed on innovative reactors for large-scale electricity production (economic efficiency, safety, minimized Radwaste, proliferation resistance); after 2030, deployment of a system of innovative fast reactors, using plutonium separated from spent fuel of thermal reactors, and solution with their help of the totality of problems associated with transmutation of long-lived nuclides. Task named ''Transmutation'' was set up in 2001, within the general Minatom programme, to develop a scenario for transition to the fuel cycle of future large-scale nuclear power as part of the above Strategy and to resolve the technological problems of minimising the quantities of long-lived nuclides generated in the closed fuel cycle and subject to final disposal. (author)

  18. Overview and challenges of molecular technologies in the veterinary microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Mónica V; Inácio, João

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial, aquatic, and aerial animals, either domestic or wild, humans, and plants all face similar health threats caused by infectious agents. Multifaceted anthropic pressure caused by an increasingly growing and resource-demanding human population has affected biodiversity at all scales, from the DNA molecule to the pathogen, to the ecosystem level, leading to species declines and extinctions and, also, to host-pathogen coevolution processes. Technological developments over the last century have also led to quantic jumps in laboratorial testing that have highly impacted animal health and welfare, ameliorated animal management and animal trade, safeguarded public health, and ultimately helped to "secure" biodiversity. In particular, the field of molecular diagnostics experienced tremendous technical progresses over the last two decades that significantly have contributed to our ability to study microbial pathogens in the clinical and research laboratories. This chapter highlights the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (or challenges) of molecular technologies in the framework of a veterinary microbiology laboratory, in view of the latest advances.

  19. Clinical and Pathophysiological Overview of Acinetobacter Infections: a Century of Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Travis B.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Pantapalangkoor, Paul; Luna, Brian; Spellberg, Brad

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Acinetobacter is a complex genus, and historically, there has been confusion about the existence of multiple species. The species commonly cause nosocomial infections, predominantly aspiration pneumonia and catheter-associated bacteremia, but can also cause soft tissue and urinary tract infections. Community-acquired infections by Acinetobacter spp. are increasingly reported. Transmission of Acinetobacter and subsequent disease is facilitated by the organism's environmental tenacity, resistance to desiccation, and evasion of host immunity. The virulence properties demonstrated by Acinetobacter spp. primarily stem from evasion of rapid clearance by the innate immune system, effectively enabling high bacterial density that triggers lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated sepsis. Capsular polysaccharide is a critical virulence factor that enables immune evasion, while LPS triggers septic shock. However, the primary driver of clinical outcome is antibiotic resistance. Administration of initially effective therapy is key to improving survival, reducing 30-day mortality threefold. Regrettably, due to the high frequency of this organism having an extreme drug resistance (XDR) phenotype, early initiation of effective therapy is a major clinical challenge. Given its high rate of antibiotic resistance and abysmal outcomes (up to 70% mortality rate from infections caused by XDR strains in some case series), new preventative and therapeutic options for Acinetobacter spp. are desperately needed. PMID:27974412

  20. Spray cooling heat transfer: Technology overview and assessment of future challenges for micro-gravity application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Eric A.; Golliher, Eric L.; Paneer Selvam, R.

    2008-01-01

    Advanced on-board flight systems for future NASA space exploration programs consist of components such as laser-diode arrays (LDA's) and multi-chip modules (MCM's). Thermal management of these systems require high heat flux cooling capability (≥100 W/cm 2 ), tight temperature control (approx. ±2 deg. C), reliable start-up (on demand) and long term stability. Traditional multiphase thermal control technologies for space flight (e.g., loop heat pipes, capillary pumped loops, etc.) satisfy the temperature control, start-up and stability requirements, but their heat flux removal capabilities are limited. Spray cooling can provide high heat fluxes in excess of 100 W/cm 2 using fluorinerts and over 1000 W/cm 2 with water while allowing tight temperature control at low coolant fluid flow rates. Spray cooling has been flight proven in an open loop configuration through the Space shuttle's flash evaporator system (FES). However, several closed system issues require investigation to further advance the technology to a technology readiness level (TRL) appropriate for closed system space flight application. This paper provides a discussion of the current status of spray cooling technology as well as NASA's goals, current direction, and challenges associated with the implementation and practice of this technology in the micro-gravity environment

  1. Overview on CO{sub 2} Valorization: Challenge of Molten Carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chery, Déborah; Lair, Virginie; Cassir, Michel, E-mail: michel.cassir@chimie-paristech.fr [Chimie ParisTech, CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, PSL Research University, Paris (France)

    2015-10-02

    The capture and utilization of CO{sub 2} is becoming progressively one of the significant challenges in the field of energetic resources. Whatever the energetic device, it is impossible to avoid completely the production of greenhouse gas, even parting from renewable energies. Transforming CO{sub 2} into a valuable fuel, such as alcohols, CO, or even C, could constitute a conceptual revolution in the energetic bouquet offering a huge application domain. Although several routes have been tested for this purpose, on which a general panorama will be given here, molten carbonates are attracting a renewed interest aiming at dissolving and reducing carbon dioxide in such melts. Because of their unique properties, molten carbonates are already used as electrolytes in molten carbonate fuel cells; they can also provoke a breakthrough in a new economy considering CO{sub 2} as an energetic source rather than a waste. Molten carbonates’ science and technology is becoming a strategic field of research for energy and environmental issues. Our aim in this review is to put in evidence the benefits of molten carbonates to valorize CO{sub 2} and to show that it is one of the most interesting routes for such application.

  2. PR Toxin – Biosynthesis, Genetic Regulation, Toxicological Potential, Prevention and Control Measures: Overview and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish K. Dubey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Out of the various mycotoxigenic food and feed contaminant, the fungal species belonging to Penicillium genera, particularly Penicillium roqueforti is of great economic importance, and well known for its crucial role in the manufacturing of Roquefort and Gorgonzola cheese. The mycotoxicosis effect of this mold is due to secretion of several metabolites, of which PR toxin is of considerable importance, with regard to food quality and safety challenges issues. The food products and silages enriched with PR toxin could lead into damage to vital internal organs, gastrointestinal perturbations, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, necrosis, and enzyme inhibition. Moreover, it also has the significant mutagenic potential to disrupt/alter the crucial processes like DNA replication, transcription, and translation at the molecular level. The high genetic diversities in between the various strains of P. roqueforti persuaded their nominations with Protected Geographical Indication (PGI, accordingly to the cheese type, they have been employed. Recently, the biosynthetic mechanism and toxicogenetic studies unraveled the role of ari1 and prx gene clusters that cross-talk with the synthesis of other metabolites or involve other cross-regulatory pathways to negatively regulate/inhibit the other biosynthetic route targeted for production of a strain-specific metabolites. Interestingly, the chemical conversion that imparts toxic properties to PR toxin is the substitution/oxidation of functional hydroxyl group (-OH to aldehyde group (-CHO. The rapid conversion of PR toxin to the other derivatives such as PR imine, PR amide, and PR acid, based on conditions available reflects their unstability and degradative aspects. Since the PR toxin-induced toxicity could not be eliminated safely, the assessment of dose-response and other pharmacological aspects for its safe consumption is indispensable. The present review describes the natural occurrences, diversity, biosynthesis

  3. PR Toxin - Biosynthesis, Genetic Regulation, Toxicological Potential, Prevention and Control Measures: Overview and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Manish K; Aamir, Mohd; Kaushik, Manish S; Khare, Saumya; Meena, Mukesh; Singh, Surendra; Upadhyay, Ram S

    2018-01-01

    Out of the various mycotoxigenic food and feed contaminant, the fungal species belonging to Penicillium genera, particularly Penicillium roqueforti is of great economic importance, and well known for its crucial role in the manufacturing of Roquefort and Gorgonzola cheese. The mycotoxicosis effect of this mold is due to secretion of several metabolites, of which PR toxin is of considerable importance, with regard to food quality and safety challenges issues. The food products and silages enriched with PR toxin could lead into damage to vital internal organs, gastrointestinal perturbations, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, necrosis, and enzyme inhibition. Moreover, it also has the significant mutagenic potential to disrupt/alter the crucial processes like DNA replication, transcription, and translation at the molecular level. The high genetic diversities in between the various strains of P. roqueforti persuaded their nominations with Protected Geographical Indication (PGI), accordingly to the cheese type, they have been employed. Recently, the biosynthetic mechanism and toxicogenetic studies unraveled the role of ari1 and prx gene clusters that cross-talk with the synthesis of other metabolites or involve other cross-regulatory pathways to negatively regulate/inhibit the other biosynthetic route targeted for production of a strain-specific metabolites. Interestingly, the chemical conversion that imparts toxic properties to PR toxin is the substitution/oxidation of functional hydroxyl group (-OH) to aldehyde group (-CHO). The rapid conversion of PR toxin to the other derivatives such as PR imine, PR amide, and PR acid, based on conditions available reflects their unstability and degradative aspects. Since the PR toxin-induced toxicity could not be eliminated safely, the assessment of dose-response and other pharmacological aspects for its safe consumption is indispensable. The present review describes the natural occurrences, diversity, biosynthesis, genetics

  4. PR Toxin – Biosynthesis, Genetic Regulation, Toxicological Potential, Prevention and Control Measures: Overview and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Manish K.; Aamir, Mohd; Kaushik, Manish S.; Khare, Saumya; Meena, Mukesh; Singh, Surendra; Upadhyay, Ram S.

    2018-01-01

    Out of the various mycotoxigenic food and feed contaminant, the fungal species belonging to Penicillium genera, particularly Penicillium roqueforti is of great economic importance, and well known for its crucial role in the manufacturing of Roquefort and Gorgonzola cheese. The mycotoxicosis effect of this mold is due to secretion of several metabolites, of which PR toxin is of considerable importance, with regard to food quality and safety challenges issues. The food products and silages enriched with PR toxin could lead into damage to vital internal organs, gastrointestinal perturbations, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, necrosis, and enzyme inhibition. Moreover, it also has the significant mutagenic potential to disrupt/alter the crucial processes like DNA replication, transcription, and translation at the molecular level. The high genetic diversities in between the various strains of P. roqueforti persuaded their nominations with Protected Geographical Indication (PGI), accordingly to the cheese type, they have been employed. Recently, the biosynthetic mechanism and toxicogenetic studies unraveled the role of ari1 and prx gene clusters that cross-talk with the synthesis of other metabolites or involve other cross-regulatory pathways to negatively regulate/inhibit the other biosynthetic route targeted for production of a strain-specific metabolites. Interestingly, the chemical conversion that imparts toxic properties to PR toxin is the substitution/oxidation of functional hydroxyl group (-OH) to aldehyde group (-CHO). The rapid conversion of PR toxin to the other derivatives such as PR imine, PR amide, and PR acid, based on conditions available reflects their unstability and degradative aspects. Since the PR toxin-induced toxicity could not be eliminated safely, the assessment of dose-response and other pharmacological aspects for its safe consumption is indispensable. The present review describes the natural occurrences, diversity, biosynthesis, genetics

  5. Transferring knowledge from observations and models to decision makers: an overview and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Nokra, Nada A.

    2004-02-01

    Over the last 25 years, a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such US, European Community, Japan, China and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, homeland security, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This paper surveys and examines a number such applications in terms of their architecture, maturity and economic applicability as they apply to the societal needs. A detailed analysis is also presented of various challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution,(4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the most critical element amongst all is

  6. Transferring Knowledge from Observations and Models to Decision Makers: An Overview and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Nokra, Nada Abu

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such US, European Community, Japan, China and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching to public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, security, air quality and public health can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This paper surveys and examines a number such applications in terms of their architecture, maturity and economic applicability as they apply to the societal needs. A detailed analysis is also presented of various challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the most critical element amongst all is the organizational

  7. Relationship challenges and relationship maintenance activities following disclosure of transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, C Aramburu

    2010-12-01

    • Transsexual persons are increasing their visibility in society, and health care providers and others (such as social workers) will be called upon to help with issues that transsexual persons face. Challenges that face transsexual persons often include issues involving relationships. Psychiatric and mental health nurses and other caregivers can increase their therapeutic skills in working with couples that include transsexual persons by becoming aware of these challenges and subsequent activities that can help with them. • This research study looks at couple relationships in which one partner reveals male-to-female transsexual identity. These are relationships that were established as man-woman and now will transition into relationships that include a male-to-female person and a female partner. • Common challenges for these couples include issues related to: (1) sexual identity and relationship uncertainty; (2) male-to-female transition decision making; and (3) presenting in public. • Relationship maintenance activities that helped the couples in the study maintain and strengthen their relationships through these challenges include: (1) communication; (2) self-talk (for example, putting the situation in perspective); (3) social networks; (4) positive interactions; (5) impression management (for example, managing displays of affection in public); and (6) social activism. This qualitative study describes the relational dynamics that help sustain relationships of couples that include male-to-female transsexual persons (MTF) and their natal female partners (NF) following disclosure of transsexualism. Relationship challenges and relationship maintenance activities are identified. Each partner in 17 MTF-NF couples participated in individual surveys and interviews. The data were coded for themes related to relationship challenges and activities. MTF-NF couples experience challenges within the contexts of their relationships and of society. These challenges

  8. [History, overview and challenges of the breast cancer movement in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza-Fernández, María Elena; Vecchi-Martini, Elda

    2009-01-01

    This essay describes the history of the civil society breast cancer movement in Mexico, the role played by breast cancer NGOs and the changes they must undergo for their activities to impact the quality of life of men and women dealing with this disease. The concept of civil society today has been transformed, regaining a degree of autonomy and being at the center of a participatory democracy. Civil society takes a lead role in key issues such as health, civil rights, and public welfare. Breast cancer organizations have the liberty to organize and promote initiatives that will help others' welfare and develop their full potential for the benefit of themselves and their community. These organizations must focus on promoting changes in the system that will result in better services and better quality of life for their constituents.

  9. Disability Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  10. Overview of recent endeavors on personal aerial vehicles: A focus on the US and Europe led research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolong; Kreimeier, Michael; Stumpf, Eike; Zhou, Yaoming; Liu, Hu

    2017-05-01

    Personal aerial vehicles, an innovative transport mode to bridge the niche between scheduled airliners and ground transport, are seen by aviation researchers and engineers as a solution to provide fast urban on-demand mobility. This paper reviews recent research efforts on the personal aerial vehicle (PAV), with a focus on the US and Europe led research activities. As an extension of the programmatic level overview, several enabling technologies, such as vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL), automation, distributed electric propulsion, which might promote the deployment of PAVs, are introduced and discussed. Despite the dramatic innovation in PAV concept development and related technologies, some challenging issues remain, especially safety, infrastructure and public acceptance. As such, further efforts by many stakeholders are required to enable the real implementation and application of PAVs.

  11. Surgical center: challenges and strategies for nurses in managerial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Fabiana Zerbieri; Dall'Agnoll, Clarice Maria

    2017-02-23

    Analyze the challenges and strategies of nurses performing managerial activities in a surgical center. Exploratory, descriptive study with a qualitative approach, involving six nurses by means of the Focus Group Technique, between April and August 2013. Data were submitted to thematic content analysis. The main challenges noted were deficiency of material resources, communication noise, adequacy of personnel downsizing, and relationships with the multidisciplinary team. Key strategies include construction of co-management spaces to promote integration among professionals, conflict resolution and exchange of knowledge. Managerial activities involve the promotion of dialogic moments to coordinate the different processes in the surgical center to provide inputs to expand safety and quality of services provided.

  12. Implementing Active Learning Reform in the Maldives: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biase, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Many countries are adopting child-centered active learning reforms as they strive to improve the quality of primary education. Consistent challenges can be found in the implementation of similar, global reforms. These issues are discussed here within the following framework: the cultural appropriateness of such reforms; the extent to which active…

  13. Using Challenge Course Activities to Teach Organizational Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Sonia M.; Hietapelto, Amy B.

    2006-01-01

    Few learning experiences give students immediate feedback on ethical and unethical behaviors and provide opportunities to repeatedly practice effective behaviors. This article describes how the authors have used challenge course activities to stimulate students to observe their own and others' ethical and unethical behaviors. Specifically, these…

  14. Overview of LWR severe accident research activities at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miassoedov, Alexei; Albrecht, Giancarlo; Foit, Jerzy-Jan; Jordan, Thomas; Steinbrück, Martin; Stuckert, Juri; Tromm, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The research activities in the light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents domain at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) are concentrated on the in- and ex-vessel core melt behavior. The overall objective is to investigate the core melt scenarios from the beginning of core degradation to melt formation and relocation in the vessel, possible melt dispersion to the reactor cavity and to the containment, corium concrete interaction and corium coolability in the reactor cavity, and hydrogen behaviour in reactor systems. The results of the experiments contribute to a better understanding of the core melt sequences and thus improve safety of existing and, in the long-term, of future reactors by severe accident mitigation measures and by safety installations where required. This overview paper describes the experimental facilities used at KIT for severe accident research and gives an overview of the main directions and objectives of the R&D work. (author)

  15. Development activities, challenges and prospects for the hydropower sector in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Beatrice; Hauer, Christoph; Habersack, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    This contribution intends to give an overview of hydropower development activities in Austria and deepen the knowledge on actual strategies and planning documents. Thereby, the focus is on a climate and energy policy based perspective, also analyzing economic trends at the hydropower sector due to energy market changes in the last years. This includes a comparison with other political strategies and programs dealing with hydropower exploitation based on selected countries. With respect to technology developments, a concise review on technological innovations, such as hydrokinetic energy conversion systems, and new constructive designs of conventional hydropower plants in Austria will be given. Moreover, potential impacts on environment and aquatic ecosystems are described. Finally, key challenges and prospects will be identified and discussed.

  16. Public Tourism Infrastructure: Challenges in the Development and Maintenance Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Shardy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the tourism sector is a major contributor to the nation’s development and is spearheaded by the government’s efforts in investing heavily towards providing sufficient and well-functioning public tourism infrastructure. This infrastructure should be ideally developed with a clear and systematic maintenance plan in hand. The challenge herein is not merely providing the necessary infrastructure to sustain tourism activities but rather a pro-active approach towards establishing and subsequently maintaining this infrastructure at its optimal level. The aim of this paper therefore is to identify critical aspects that need to be in place to further enhance the Malaysian tourism industry. The paper discusses the issues and challenges that need to be addressed as a precursor towards an effectively developed and maintained tourism infrastructure system. Development issues that have been identified revolve around the dimensions of quality, quantity and ability of the public agencies involved, particularly issues of inadequate infrastructure, quality of infrastructure and the capability of the agencies in undertaking efficient maintenance activities. These issues were found to lead towards challenges of working with resource constraints, lack of an effective maintenance culture and system as well as the need for clear and effective policies and strategies.

  17. An Overview of SASSCAL Activities Supporting Interdisciplinary Water Research in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmschrot, J.; Jürgens, N.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change will affect current water resources in sub-Saharan Africa. Considering projected climate scenarios, the overall challenge in the southern African region is to secure water at sufficient quality and quantity for both, the stability of ecosystems with their functions and services as well as for human well-being (potable water, irrigation water, and water for industrial use). Thus, improved understanding of the linkages between hydrological (including hydro-geological) components of ecosystems and society is needed as a precondition to develop sustainable management strategies for integrated water resources management in this data scarce region. Funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), 87 research projects of the SASSCAL Initiative (Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management) focus on providing information and services allowing for a better understanding and assessment of the impact of climate and land management changes in five thematic areas, namely climate, water, agriculture, forestry and biodiversity. Water-related research activities in SASSCAL aim to improve our knowledge on the complex interactions and feedbacks between surface and groundwater dynamics and resources as well as land surface processes in selected regions of the participating countries (Angola, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia). The main objective of this joint and integrated research effort is to develop reliable hydrological and hydro-geological baseline data along with a set of analytical methods to strengthen the research capacity of the water sector of the Southern African region. Thereby, SASSCAL contributes to the implemention of integrated water resources management strategies for improved trans-boundary river management and resources usage in the perspective of global climate and land management changes. Here, we present an overview and first results of ongoing studies conducted by various

  18. Overview of OECD-NEA Nuclear Science and Data Bank Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliford, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Overview: • NEA Areas of Work, Standing Committees; • Nuclear Science & the Data Bank: – Working Parties & Expert Groups; – integral experiments databases; – linked Data Bank/Nuclear Science products. • Reactor Physics and Criticality Integral Experiments: – ICSBEP& IRPhE evaluations; – Database tools (DICE, IDAT, SFCOMPO-X). • Other Activities related to Fast Reactors: – WPRS SFR Task Force; – Nuclear Data, WPEC sub-group on data adjustment; – Fuel Cycle and Materials. • Looking Ahead: – Uncertainty Analysis for transient modelling; – Russian Accession to the NEA and Data Bank; – Impact of Fukushima on Nuclear Science Programmes of Work

  19. CHALLENGING PROJECTS OF TEACHING ACTIVITIES IN SPEAKING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Sarosa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an alternative way of teaching speaking through challenging classroom activities. The abundant number of teaching techniques in speaking skill designed by linguists and English practitioners make English second-language teachers exultant in searching and designing classroom activities. Since teaching speaking could do with accuracy and fluency, teachers should provide a conducive atmosphere for students’ free will in expressing their thoughts without being afraid of making mistakes as well as a favorable condition for fostering students’ correctness in producing utterances. Designing challenging projects which encompass interactive activities can be used as an alternative model for developing learners’ fluency and repetitive doings can be used for fostering learners’ accuracy. Interactive activities involving information gap demand the second-language learners’ critical thinking in organizing the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion in order to keep the communication flows. Whereas the repetitive doings help second-language learners in producing appropriate utterances. Besides, the project upshots contribute contentments to students in appreciating theirs collaborative efforts.

  20. Constance Gunderson, Human Trafficking: The Trafficking of Women in Northern Germany for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation. Systematic Overview of Community Based Responses and Challenges (Bremen: Lit Verlag, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Meckl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the following book: Constance Gunderson, Human Trafficking: The Trafficking of Women in Northern Germany for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation. Systematic Overview of Community based responses and challenges (Bremen: Lit Verlag, Bremen 2012

  1. Active Debris Removal and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent modeling studies on the instability of the debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have underlined the need for active debris removal. A 2009 analysis by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office shows that, in order to maintain the LEO debris population at a constant level for the next 200 years, an active debris removal of about five objects per year is needed. The targets identified for removal are those with the highest mass and collision probability products in the environment. Many of these objects are spent upper stages with masses ranging from 1 to more than 8 metric tons, residing in several altitude regions and concentrated in about 7 inclination bands. To remove five of those objects on a yearly basis, in a cost-effective manner, represents many challenges in technology development, engineering, and operations. This paper outlines the fundamental rationale for considering active debris removal and addresses the two possible objectives of the operations -- removing large debris to stabilize the environment and removing small debris to reduce the threat to operational spacecraft. Technological and engineering challenges associated with the two different objectives are also discussed.

  2. An Overview of Residential Ventilation Activities in the Building America Program (Phase I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, D.

    2001-05-21

    This report provides an overview of issues involved in residential ventilation; provides an overview of the various ventilation strategies being evaluated by the five teams, or consortia, currently involved in the Building America Program; and identifies unresolved technical issues.

  3. Overview of nuclear data activities at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel-Sendis, F.; Dupont, E.; Gulliford, J.; Nordborg, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is a specialised agency within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The mission of the NEA is to assist its member countries in maintaining and further developing, through international co-operation, the scientific, technological and legal bases required for the safe, environmentally friendly and economical use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. All activities relevant to nuclear data measurements, evaluations and applications are managed by the NEA Nuclear Science Committee through the Nuclear Science section and the Data Bank, which work closely together. This paper gives an overview of current and planned nuclear data activities at the Nuclear Energy Agency through the program of work of the Data Bank in general and of the NEA Working Party on international nuclear data Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) in particular. (authors)

  4. Overview of Iodine Propellant Hall Thruster Development Activities at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Benavides, Gabriel; Haag, Thomas; Hickman, Tyler; Smith, Timothy; Williams, George; Myers, James; Polzin, Kurt; Dankanich, John; Byrne, Larry; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA is continuing to invest in advancing Hall thruster technologies for implementation in commercial and government missions. There have been several recent iodine Hall propulsion system development activities performed by the team of the NASA Glenn Research Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Busek Co. Inc. In particular, the work focused on qualification of the Busek BHT-200-I, 200 W and the continued development of the BHT-600-I Hall thruster propulsion systems. This presentation presents an overview of these development activities and also reports on the results of short duration tests that were performed on the engineering model BHT-200-I and the development model BHT-600-I Hall thrusters.

  5. Introduction to special section on Uncertainty Assessment in Surface and Subsurface Hydrology : An overview of issues and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montanari, A.; Shoemaker, C.A.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    This paper introduces the Water Resources Research special section on Uncertainty Assessment in Surface and Subsurface Hydrology. Over the past years, hydrological literature has seen a large increase in the number of papers dealing with uncertainty. In this article, we present an overview of the

  6. Materials challenges for ITER - Current status and future activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, V. [ITER International Team, Boltsmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: valdimir.barabash@iter.org; Peacock, A. [EFDA Close Support Unit, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fabritsiev, S. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kalinin, G. [ENES, P.O. Box 788, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zinkle, S. [Metals and Ceramics Division, ORNL, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6138 (United States); Rowcliffe, A. [Metals and Ceramics Division, ORNL, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6138 (United States); Rensman, J.-W. [NRG, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Tavassoli, A.A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Marmy, P. [CRPP, EPFL, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, 5232, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Karditsas, P.J. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Gillemot, F. [AEKI Atomic Research Institute, 1121 Budapest, (Hungary); Akiba, M. [JAEA, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)

    2007-08-01

    ITER will be the first experimental fusion facility, which brings together the key physical, material and technological issues related to development of fusion reactors. The design of ITER is complete and the construction will start soon. This paper discusses the main directions of the project oriented materials activity and main challenges related to selection of materials for the ITER components. For each application in ITER the main materials issues were identified and these issues were addressed in the dedicated ITER R and D program. The justification of materials performance was fully documented, which allows traceability and reliability of design data. Several examples are given to illustrate the main achievements and recommendations from the recently updated ITER Materials Properties Handbook. The main ongoing and future materials activities are described.

  7. The Black Sea one decade after the Bucharest Convention an overview of the international activities in the Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G.

    2002-01-01

    The catastrophic degradation of the Black Sea in a period of four decade has been the major concern of the Black Sea countries and international communities since Bucharest Convention signed in 1992. The Black Sea Region has became a challenging international arena for political scientific and socio-economic activities. Intensive international programmes and establishment of governmental and Non Governmental Organizational structures of the 1990s including Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), Black Sea Environmental Programme(BSEP), Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin, Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region Technical Cooperation Programme by the IAEA and establishment of the Black Sea Commission Permanent Secretariat are some of the major international efforts of the past decade that emphasizes the multi-nationality and large dimension of the Black Sea environmental management issues. The environmental degradation of the Black Sea is briefly reviewed based on the BSEP reports and data available for land based pollution sources. The environmental risk of marine vessel accidents are indicated and environmental safety concern is emphasized under the current conditions of intense energy transportation projects in the Black Sea and Caspian regions. The international policy actions, co-operation issues and scientific programmes of the past decade are overviewed with emphasis on the international achievements. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of continuation of the international commitments and sharing the political, scientific and socio-economic responsibility on the transboundary environmental pollution, rehabilitation and the safety issues of the Black Sea

  8. Environmental isotope applications in hydrology: an overview of the IAEA's activities, experiences, and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtsever, Y.; Araguas, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Development and applications of isotope methodologies in hydrology have been an integral part of the program component of the IAEA over the last three decades, within the framework of its overall activities related to peaceful nuclear applications. The use of environmental isotopes as a means of tracing water movement in the hydrology including surface and ground water is much of the Agency's work in this field. This paper provides an overview of the temporal and spatial variations of the above cited isotopes in precipitation based on the long-term data collected from the global network, and reviews the concepts and formulations of environmental isotope applications to specific problems in hydrology and hydrogeology. (Author)

  9. MACRO DEFECT FREE MATERIALS; THE CHALLENGE OF MECHANOCHEMICAL ACTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN DRÁBIK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Macro-defect-free (MDF materials belong, according to Odler’s categorisation, to the type of materials where polymers may be successfully combined with cements and water to produce also the parameters of technological novelty and interests. A challenge, which has not been followed or indicated by now, is the option to intensify mixing of dry cement and polymer. The mechanochemical pre-reactions of dry MDF raw mixes consisting of Portland cement and polyphosphate, together with the model of atomic-level interpretations of the formed functional interfaces are proposed, experimentally tested and discussed in the present paper. The results ultimately show the activation of studied system due to the mechanochemical treatment, which consists in the initiation and measurable formation of Al(Fe–O–P cross-links already in the treated raw mixes. The mechanochemical activation of raw mixes in the high energy planetary mill for the duration of 5 minutes is proposed as the specific mixing and activation / pre-reaction step within the entire MDF synthesis procedure.

  10. Active Nanomaterials to Meet the Challenge of Dental Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Laetitia; Offner, Damien; Schwinté, Pascale; Morand, David; Wagner, Quentin; Gros, Catherine; Bornert, Fabien; Bahi, Sophie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia; Fioretti, Florence

    2015-11-05

    The vitality of the pulp is fundamental to the functional life of the tooth. For this aim, active and living biomaterials are required to avoid the current drastic treatment, which is the removal of all the cellular and molecular content regardless of its regenerative potential. The regeneration of the pulp tissue is the dream of many generations of dental surgeons and will revolutionize clinical practices. Recently, the potential of the regenerative medicine field suggests that it would be possible to achieve such complex regeneration. Indeed, three crucial steps are needed: the control of infection and inflammation and the regeneration of lost pulp tissues. For regenerative medicine, in particular for dental pulp regeneration, the use of nano-structured biomaterials becomes decisive. Nano-designed materials allow the concentration of many different functions in a small volume, the increase in the quality of targeting, as well as the control of cost and delivery of active molecules. Nanomaterials based on extracellular mimetic nanostructure and functionalized with multi-active therapeutics appear essential to reverse infection and inflammation and concomitantly to orchestrate pulp cell colonization and differentiation. This novel generation of nanomaterials seems very promising to meet the challenge of the complex dental pulp regeneration.

  11. Active Nanomaterials to Meet the Challenge of Dental Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Keller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The vitality of the pulp is fundamental to the functional life of the tooth. For this aim, active and living biomaterials are required to avoid the current drastic treatment, which is the removal of all the cellular and molecular content regardless of its regenerative potential. The regeneration of the pulp tissue is the dream of many generations of dental surgeons and will revolutionize clinical practices. Recently, the potential of the regenerative medicine field suggests that it would be possible to achieve such complex regeneration. Indeed, three crucial steps are needed: the control of infection and inflammation and the regeneration of lost pulp tissues. For regenerative medicine, in particular for dental pulp regeneration, the use of nano-structured biomaterials becomes decisive. Nano-designed materials allow the concentration of many different functions in a small volume, the increase in the quality of targeting, as well as the control of cost and delivery of active molecules. Nanomaterials based on extracellular mimetic nanostructure and functionalized with multi-active therapeutics appear essential to reverse infection and inflammation and concomitantly to orchestrate pulp cell colonization and differentiation. This novel generation of nanomaterials seems very promising to meet the challenge of the complex dental pulp regeneration.

  12. Accelerator-driven nuclear synergetic systems-an overview of the research activities in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, H.; Baecklin, A.; Carius, S.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid development of the accelerator technology which enables the construction of reliable and very intense neutron sources has initiated a growing interest for accelerator driven transmutation systems in Sweden. After the Specialist Meeting on Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology for Radwaste and other Applications on 24-28 June 1991 at Saltsjoebaden, Sweden, the research activities oriented towards accelerator-driven systems have been started at several research centers in Sweden. Also the governmental agencies responsible for the spent fuel policy showed a positive attitude to these activities through a limited financial support, particularly for studies of the safety aspects of these systems. Also the nuclear power industry and utilities show a positive interest in the research on these concepts. The present paper presents an overview of the Swedish research activities on accelerator-driven systems and the proposed future coordination, organizations and prospects for this research in the context of the national nuclear energy and spent fuel policy. The Swedish perspective for international cooperation is also described

  13. Accelerator-driven nuclear synergetic systems-an overview of the research activities in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, H.; Baecklin, A.; Carius, S. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The rapid development of the accelerator technology which enables the construction of reliable and very intense neutron sources has initiated a growing interest for accelerator driven transmutation systems in Sweden. After the Specialist Meeting on Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology for Radwaste and other Applications on 24-28 June 1991 at Saltsjoebaden, Sweden, the research activities oriented towards accelerator-driven systems have been started at several research centers in Sweden. Also the governmental agencies responsible for the spent fuel policy showed a positive attitude to these activities through a limited financial support, particularly for studies of the safety aspects of these systems. Also the nuclear power industry and utilities show a positive interest in the research on these concepts. The present paper presents an overview of the Swedish research activities on accelerator-driven systems and the proposed future coordination, organizations and prospects for this research in the context of the national nuclear energy and spent fuel policy. The Swedish perspective for international cooperation is also described.

  14. An Overview of the Challenges with and Proposed Solutions for the Ingest and Distribution Processes For Airborne Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northup, E. A.; Beach, A. L., III; Early, A. B.; Kusterer, J.; Quam, B.; Wang, D.; Chen, G.

    2015-12-01

    The current data management practices for NASA airborne field projects have successfully served science team data needs over the past 30 years to achieve project science objectives, however, users have discovered a number of issues in terms of data reporting and format. The ICARTT format, a NASA standard since 2010, is currently the most popular among the airborne measurement community. Although easy for humans to use, the format standard is not sufficiently rigorous to be machine-readable, and there lacks a standard variable naming convention among the many airborne measurement variables. This makes data use and management tedious and resource intensive, and also create problems in Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) data ingest procedures and distribution. Further, most DAACs use metadata models that concentrate on satellite data observations, making them less prepared to deal with airborne data. There also exists a substantial amount of airborne data distributed by websites designed for science team use that are less friendly to users unfamiliar with operations of airborne field studies. A number of efforts are underway to help overcome the issues with airborne data discovery and distribution. The ICARTT Refresh Earth Science Data Systems Working Group (ESDSWG) was established to enable a platform for atmospheric science data providers, users, and data managers to collaborate on developing new criteria for the file format in an effort to enhance airborne data usability. In addition, the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) has developed the Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD) to provide web-based tools and centralized access to airborne in situ measurements of atmospheric composition. This presentation will discuss the aforementioned challenges and attempted solutions in an effort to demonstrate how airborne data management can be improved to streamline data ingest and discoverability to a broader user community.

  15. Overview of LLRF Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liepe, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    In the past two decades accelerator controls and feedback systems have changed dramatically. While in the past relative simple analog systems where used, present systems are highly complex, and all accelerators in planning or under construction heavily relay on advanced feedback and feedforward control schemes. The Low-Level-Radio-Frequency (LLRF) system not only stabilizes the field in the RF cavities, but also has to provide among other things frequency control, exception handling, extensive diagnostic, and performance and machine availability maximization. As manifold as the tasks are for the LLRF system, so are the challenges. Linac driven light sources require highest field stability, while pulsed machines or low beta linacs bring their own challenges for the LLRF system. This presentation reviews the challenges and demands on present and future LLRF systems, gives an overview of state-of-the-art solutions, and an introduction into a very active and exciting field of accelerator physics.

  16. Centennial Challenges Program Overview: How NASA Successfully Involves the General Public in the Solving of Current Technology Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Kim, Tony; Sudnik, Janet; Sivak, Amy; Porter, Molly; Cylar, Rosaling; Cavanaugh, Dominique; Krome, Kim

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Centennial Challenges Program, part of the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD), addresses key technology needs of NASA and the nation, while facilitating new sources of innovation outside the traditional community. This is done by the direct engagement of the public at large, through the offering of Congressional authorized prize purses and associated challenges developed by NASA and the aerospace community and set up as a competition awarding the prize money for achieving the specified technology goal.

  17. Modelling Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan

    This report provides an overview of the existing models of global manufacturing, describes the required modelling views and associated methods and identifies tools, which can provide support for this modelling activity.The model adopted for global manufacturing is that of an extended enterprise s...

  18. Challenges and Ideas to Achieve Wireless 100 Gb/s Transmission: An Overview of Challenges and Solutions within the German Research Foundation (DFG) Special Priority Program SPP1655

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Rolf

    2017-09-01

    Wireless communications is one of the fastest growing technology fields, driving numerous other innovations in electronics. One challenging research area within the wireless field is to achieve much higher transmission rates. First products with up to 3 Gb/s are in the market. In the coming years we predict this speed growing quickly up to and beyond 100 Gb/s. Today it is an open question how we can realize a wireless system at this speed. If we intend to use such systems in a mobile environment, we can only afford to spend approximately 1-10 pW/b for the end-to-end communication. This includes RF-transmission and all processing and protocol steps. The SPP1655 of the DFG was set up to investigate new paradigms for achieving the 100 Gb/s wireless transmission goal. Within 11 coordinated projects researchers from all over Germany are addressing several relevant issues ranging from the antennas and RF-Frontend, baseband-processing and error correction to protocol processing. A number of limitations of current approaches have to be investigated and new algorithms must be found in order to achieve the intended goal. One of the big challenges is finding the correct balance between analog and digital signal processing to achieve an extremely high performance at very low energy consumption. Another challenge is to find a good balance between bandwidth and bandwidth efficiency to achieve the 100 Gbps goal. Finally, protocol processing will need new approaches to decouple the central processor of a computer from the high-end input/output operations. Within this editorial we will address the main challenges and briefly outline the approaches of the running projects. The rest of this special issue will be devoted to more detailed descriptions and achievements of the individual projects of SPP1655.

  19. Goals, challenges, and successes of managing fusion activated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.; Massaut, V.; Zucchetti, M.; Tobita, K.; Cadwallader, L.

    2007-01-01

    After decades of designing magnetic and inertial fusion power plants, it is timely to develop a new framework for managing the activated materials generated during plant operation and after decommissioning - a framework that takes into account the lessons learned from numerous international fusion and fission studies and the environmental, political, and present reality in the U.S., EU, and Japan. Since the inception of the fusion projects in the early 1970s, the majority of power plant designs have focused on the disposal of active materials in geological repositories as the main option for handling the replaceable and life-of-plant components, adopting the preferred fission waste management approach. It is becoming evident that future regulations for geological burial will be upgraded to assure tighter environmental controls. Along with the political difficulty of constructing new repositories worldwide, the current reality suggests reshaping all aspects of handling the continual stream of fusion active materials. There is a growing international effort in support of this new trend. Beginning in the mid 1990s and continuing to the present, fusion designs developed in Europe, U.S., and Japan have examined replacing the disposal option with more environmentally attractive approaches, redirecting their attention to recycling and clearance while continuing the development of materials with low activation potential. These options became more technically feasible in recent years with the development of radiation-hardened remote handling (RH) tools and the introduction of the clearance category for slightly radioactive materials by national and international nuclear agencies. We applied all scenarios to selected fusion studies. While recycling and clearance appeared technically attractive and judged, in some cases, a must requirement to control the radwaste stream, the disposal scheme emerged as the preferred option for specific components for several reasons, including

  20. Engineering and Technology Challenges for Active Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    After more than fifty years of space activities, the near-Earth environment is polluted with man-made orbital debris. The collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009 signaled a potential collision cascade effect, also known as the "Kessler Syndrome", in the environment. Various modelling studies have suggested that the commonly-adopted mitigation measures will not be sufficient to stabilize the future debris population. Active debris removal must be considered to remediate the environment. This paper summarizes the key issues associated with debris removal and describes the technology and engineering challenges to move forward. Fifty-four years after the launch of Sputnik 1, satellites have become an integral part of human society. Unfortunately, the ongoing space activities have left behind an undesirable byproduct orbital debris. This environment problem is threatening the current and future space activities. On average, two Shuttle window panels are replaced after every mission due to damage by micrometeoroid or orbital debris impacts. More than 100 collision avoidance maneuvers were conducted by satellite operators in 2010 to reduce the impact risks of their satellites with respect to objects in the U.S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN) catalog. Of the four known accident collisions between objects in the SSN catalog, the last one, collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009, was the most significant. It was the first ever accidental catastrophic destruction of an operational satellite by another satellite. It also signaled the potential collision cascade effect in the environment, commonly known as the "Kessler Syndrome," predicted by Kessler and Cour-Palais in 1978 [1]. Figure 1 shows the historical increase of objects in the SSN catalog. The majority of the catalog objects are 10 cm and larger. As of April 2011, the total objects tracked by the SSN sensors were more than 22,000. However, approximately 6000 of

  1. Overview of the 1985 NASA Lewis Research Center SP-100 free-piston stirling engine activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaby, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the 1985 (NASA) Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities in support of the SP-100 Program is presented. The SP-100 program is being conducted in support of the Department of Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE), and NASA. This effort is keyed on the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of a 25 kW /SUB e/ Stirling space-power technology-feasibility demonstrator engine. Another facet of the SP-100 project covers the status of a 9000-hr goal endurance test conducted on a 2 kW /SUB e/ free-piston Stirling/ linear alternator system employing hydrostatic gas bearings. Dynamic balancing of the RE-1000 engine (a 1 kW /SUB e/ free-piston Stirling engine) using a passive dynamic absorber will be discussed along with the results of a parametric study showing the relationships of Stirling power converter specific weight and efficiency as functions of Stirling engine heater to cooler temperature ratio. Planned tests will be described covering a hydrodynamic gas bearing concept for potential SP-100 application

  2. Overview of nuclear safety activities performed by JRC-IE on Gen IV fast reactor concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsige-Tamirat, H.; Ammirabile, L.; D' Agata, E.; Fuetterer, M.; Ranguelova, V. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Westerduinweg 3, 1755LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    The European Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan recognizes the need to develop new energy technologies, in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and secure energy supply in Europe. Besides renewable energy and improved energy efficiency, a new generation of nuclear power plants and innovative nuclear power applications can play a significant role to achieve this goal. The JRC Institute for Energy 'Safety of Future Nuclear Reactors' (SFNR) Unit is engaged in experimental research, numerical simulation and modelling, scientific, feasibility and engineering studies on innovative nuclear reactor systems. This also represents a significant EURATOM contribution to the Generation IV International Forum. Its activities deal with, among others, the performance assessment of innovative fuels and materials, development of new reactor core concepts and safety solutions, and knowledge management and preservation. Special attention is given to fast reactor concepts, namely the sodium (SFR) and lead (LFR) cooled reactors. Recognizing the maturity of the SFR technology, the European Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) considers a prototype SFR to be built as a next-step towards the deployment of a first-of-a-kind Gen IV SFR. This paper gives an overview of current research preformed at JRC-IE with emphasis on the work performed in the Collaborative Project on European Sodium Fast Reactor (CP-ESFR) within the European Commission's Seventh Framework Program. (authors)

  3. Overview of nuclear safety activities performed by JRC-IE on Gen IV fast reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsige-Tamirat, H.; Ammirabile, L.; D'Agata, E.; Fuetterer, M.; Ranguelova, V.

    2010-01-01

    The European Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan recognizes the need to develop new energy technologies, in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and secure energy supply in Europe. Besides renewable energy and improved energy efficiency, a new generation of nuclear power plants and innovative nuclear power applications can play a significant role to achieve this goal. The JRC Institute for Energy 'Safety of Future Nuclear Reactors' (SFNR) Unit is engaged in experimental research, numerical simulation and modelling, scientific, feasibility and engineering studies on innovative nuclear reactor systems. This also represents a significant EURATOM contribution to the Generation IV International Forum. Its activities deal with, among others, the performance assessment of innovative fuels and materials, development of new reactor core concepts and safety solutions, and knowledge management and preservation. Special attention is given to fast reactor concepts, namely the sodium (SFR) and lead (LFR) cooled reactors. Recognizing the maturity of the SFR technology, the European Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) considers a prototype SFR to be built as a next-step towards the deployment of a first-of-a-kind Gen IV SFR. This paper gives an overview of current research preformed at JRC-IE with emphasis on the work performed in the Collaborative Project on European Sodium Fast Reactor (CP-ESFR) within the European Commission's Seventh Framework Program. (authors)

  4. An Overview of Propulsion Concept Studies and Risk Reduction Activities for Robotic Lunar Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Story, George; Burnside, Chris; Kudlach, Al

    2010-01-01

    In support of designing robotic lunar lander concepts, the propulsion team at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), with participation from industry, conducted a series of trade studies on propulsion concepts with an emphasis on light-weight, advanced technology components. The results suggest a high-pressure propulsion system may offer some benefits in weight savings and system packaging. As part of the propulsion system, a solid rocket motor was selected to provide a large impulse to reduce the spacecraft s velocity prior to the lunar descent. In parallel to this study effort, the team also began technology risk reduction testing on a high thrust-to-weight descent thruster and a high-pressure regulator. A series of hot-fire tests was completed on the descent thruster in vacuum conditions at NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) in New Mexico in 2009. Preparations for a hot-fire test series on the attitude control thruster at WSTF and for pressure regulator testing are now underway. This paper will provide an overview of the concept trade study results along with insight into the risk mitigation activities conducted to date.

  5. Has the question of e-waste opened a Pandora's box? An overview of unpredictable issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhiyi, Bouchra; Gravel, Sabrina; Ceballos, Diana; Flynn, Michael A; Zayed, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Despite regulatory efforts and position papers, electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) remains ill-managed as evidenced by the extremely low rates of proper e-waste recycling (e-recycling) worldwide, ongoing illegal shipments to developing countries and constantly reported human health issues and environmental pollution. The objectives of this review are, first, to expose the complexity of e-waste problems, and then to suggest possible upstream and downstream solutions. Exploring e-waste issues is akin to opening a Pandora's box. Thus, a review of prevailing e-waste management practices reveals complex and often intertwined gaps, issues and challenges. These include the absence of any consistent definition of e-waste to date, a prevalent toxic potential still involving already banned or restricted hazardous components such as heavy metals and persistent and bioaccumulative organic compounds, a relentless growth in e-waste volume fueled by planned obsolescence and unsustainable consumption, problematic e-recycling processes, a fragile formal e-recycling sector, sustained and more harmful informal e-recycling practices, and more convoluted and unpredictable patterns of illegal e-waste trade. A close examination of the e-waste legacy contamination reveals critical human health concerns, including significant occupational exposure during both formal and informal e-recycling, and persistent environmental contamination, particularly in some developing countries. However, newly detected e-waste contaminants as well as unexpected sources and environmental fates of contaminants are among the emerging issues that raise concerns. Moreover, scientific knowledge gaps remain regarding the complexity and magnitude of the e-waste legacy contamination, specifically, a comprehensive characterization of e-waste contaminants, information on the scale of legacy contamination in developing countries and on the potential environmental damage in developed countries, and a stronger body

  6. An overview of past and present CFD activities within the framework of WGAMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.L.; Mahaffy, J.H.; Bestion, D.; Zigh, G.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, three Writing Groups (WG1, WG2, WG3) were established within the Working Group on Analysis and Management of Accidents (WGAMA) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The groups had the responsibility of summarising the state-of-the-art in the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to items of concern in nuclear reactor safety. The Best Practice Guidelines (BPGs) drawn up by the WG1 group defined the procedures which need to be followed to produce trustworthy results from a CFD simulation. The WG2 group itemised the assessment base which underpins single-phase CFD as an established technology. The WG3 group focused on the challenges that still need to be faced before two-phase CFD may be regarded as a mature science. The background to the activity, method of approach, documented evidence, status and current activities are described under appropriate section headings in this paper. (author)

  7. Overview of the design approach and prioritization of R&D activities towards an EU DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, G., E-mail: gianfranco.federici@euro-fusion.org [EUROfusion Consortium, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching 85748 (Germany); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion Consortium, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching 85748 (Germany); Biel, W. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Boccaccini, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Campus Nord Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Cismondi, F.; Ciattaglia, S.; Coleman, M. [EUROfusion Consortium, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching 85748 (Germany); Day, C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Campus Nord Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Diegele, E.; Franke, T. [EUROfusion Consortium, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching 85748 (Germany); Grattarola, M. [Ansaldo Nucleare, Corso Perrone 25, 16152 Genova (Italy); Hurzlmeier, H. [EUROfusion Consortium, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching 85748 (Germany); Ibarra, A. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Loving, A. [CCFE Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14-3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom); Maviglia, F.; Meszaros, B.; Morlock, C. [EUROfusion Consortium, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching 85748 (Germany); Rieth, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Campus Nord Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Shannon, M. [EUROfusion Consortium, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching 85748 (Germany); Taylor, N. [CCFE Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14-3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • An important objective of the EU fusion roadmap Horizon 2020 is to lay the foundation of a DEMO Fusion Power Reactor to follow ITER. • This paper describes the progress of the DEMO design and R&D activities in Europe in the EUROfusion Consortium. • Focus is on a systems engineering/design integration approach to identify technology & physics R&D requirements and address design challenges. • Preliminary design choices/sensitivity studies to explore the design space and identify/select attractive design points are described. • Initial results of work conducted by distributed project teams involving EU labs, universities, and industries in Europe are presented. - Abstract: This paper describes the progress of the DEMO design and R&D activities in Europe. The focus is on a systems engineering and design integration approach, which is recognized to be essential from an early stage to identify and address the engineering and operational challenges, and the requirements for technology and physics R&D. We present some of the preliminary design choices/sensitivity studies to explore and narrow down the design space and identify/select attractive design points. We also discuss some of the initial results of work being executed in the EUROfusion Consortium by a geographically distributed project team involving many EU laboratories, universities, and industries in Europe.

  8. Spent fuel management overview: a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonne, A.; Crijns, M.J.; Dyck, P.H.; Fukuda, K.; Mourogov, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper defines the main spent fuel management strategies and options, highlights the challenges for spent fuel storage and gives an overview of the regional balances of spent fuel storage capacity and spent fuel arising. The relevant IAEA activities in the area of spent fuel management are summarised. (author)

  9. A historical overview of leprosy epidemiology and control activities in Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cunha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is an ancient infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. According to comparative genomics studies, this disease originated in Eastern Africa or the Near East and spread with successive human migrations. The Europeans and North Africans introduced leprosy into West Africa and the Americas within the past 500 years. In Brazil, this disease arrived with the colonizers who disembarked at the first colonies, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and Recife, at the end of the sixteenth century, after which it was spread to the other states. In 1854, the first leprosy cases were identified in State of Amazonas in the north of Brazil. The increasing number of leprosy cases and the need for treatment and disease control led to the creation of places to isolate patients, known as leprosaria. One of them, Colonia Antônio Aleixo was built in Amazonas in 1956 according to the most advanced recommendations for isolation at that time and was deactivated in 1979. The history of the Alfredo da Matta Center (AMC, which was the first leprosy dispensary created in 1955, parallels the history of leprosy in the state. Over the years, the AMC has become one of the best training centers for leprosy, general dermatology and sexually transmitted diseases in Brazil. In addition to being responsible for leprosy control programs in the state, the AMC has carried out training programs on leprosy diagnosis and treatment for health professionals in Manaus and other municipalities of the state, aiming to increase the coverage of leprosy control activities. This paper provides a historical overview of leprosy in State of Amazonas, which is an endemic state in Brazil.

  10. Overview of the performance of the JET active gas handling system during and after DTE1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laesser, R.; Atkins, G.; Bell, A.

    1999-02-01

    The JET Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) was designed, built and commissioned to handle safely radioactive tritium gas mixtures, to supply tritium (T 2 ) and deuterium (D 2 ) to the JET torus, to process the exhaust gases with the main purpose to enrich and re-use T 2 and D 2 , to detritiate tritiated impurities and to keep discharges far below the approved daily release limits. In addition, the AGHS had to supply the necessary ventilation air streams during maintenance or repair inside or outside of the AGHS building. During the first Deuterium-Tritium Experiment (DTE1) at JET in 1997 the AGHS fulfilled all these tasks in an excellent manner. No unauthorised or unplanned tritium releases occurred and no operational delays were caused by the AGHS. In fact, this was the first true demonstration that quantities of tritium in the tens of grams range can be processed and recycled safely and efficiently in a large fusion device. At the start of DTE1 20 g of tritium were available on the JET site. About 100 g of tritium were supplied from the AGHS to the users which necessitated the recycling of tritium at least five times. Approximately 220 tritium plasma shots were performed during DTE1. Large amounts of tritium were temporarily trapped in the torus. This overview presents the performance of the whole AGHS during DTE1 as well as general aspects such as the preparation for DTE1; the quantities of gases supplied from the AGHS to the users and pumped back to the AGHS; tritium accountancy; interlock systems; failure of equipment; and gives detailed information of the gas processing in each subsystem of the AGHS. As a consequence of the performance of the AGHS during DTE1 we can state confidently that the AGHS is ready for further Deuterium-Tritium Experiments. (author)

  11. An Overview of Recent Geostationary Fire Monitoring Activities and Applications in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, D. J.; Conard, S. G.; Ivanova, G. A.; Sukhinin, A. I.; Hao, W. M.; Koutzenogii, K. P.; Prins, E. M.; Schmidt, C. C.; Feltz, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    Over the past twenty years the international scientific research and environmental monitoring communities have recognized the vital role environmental satellites can play in detecting and monitoring active fires both regionally and around the globe for hazards applications and to better understand the extent and impact of biomass burning on the global environment. Both groups have stressed the importance of utilizing operational satellites to produce routine fire products and to ensure long-term stable records of fire activity for applications such as land-use/land cover change analyses and global climate change research. The current NOAA GOES system provides the unique opportunity to detect fires throughout the Western Hemisphere every half-hour from a series of nearly identical satellites for a period of 15+ years. This presentation will provide an overview of the GOES biomass burning monitoring program at UW-Madison Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) with an emphasis on recent applications of the new GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA). For the past 8 years, CIMSS has utilized the GOES-8 imager to monitor biomass burning trends in South America. Since September 2000, CIMSS has been producing half-hourly fire products in real-time for most of the Western Hemisphere. The WF_ABBA half-hourly fire product is providing new insights into diurnal, spatial, seasonal and interannual fire dynamics in North, Central, and South America. In North America these products are utilized to detect and monitor wildfires in northerly and remote locations. In South America the diurnal GOES fire product is being used as an indicator of land-use and land-cover change and carbon dynamics along the borders between Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia. The Navy is assimilating the Wildfire ABBA fire product into the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) to analyze and predict aerosol loading and transport as part of the NASA

  12. Physical activity and exercise for chronic pain in adults: an overview of Cochrane Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneen, Louise J; Moore, R Andrew; Clarke, Clare; Martin, Denis; Colvin, Lesley A; Smith, Blair H

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%. For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning. Physical activity and exercise programmes are increasingly being promoted and offered in various healthcare systems, and for a variety of chronic pain conditions. It is therefore important at this stage to establish the efficacy and safety of these programmes, and furthermore to address the critical factors that determine their success or failure. Objectives To provide an overview of Cochrane Reviews of adults with chronic pain to determine (1) the effectiveness of different physical activity and exercise interventions in reducing pain severity and its impact on function, quality of life, and healthcare use; and (2) the evidence for any adverse effects or harm associated with physical activity and exercise interventions. Methods We searched theCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on the Cochrane Library (CDSR 2016, Issue 1) for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), after which we tracked any included reviews for updates, and tracked protocols in case of full review publication until an arbitrary cut-off date of 21 March 2016 (CDSR 2016, Issue 3). We assessed the methodological quality of the reviews using the AMSTAR tool, and also planned to analyse data for each painful condition based on quality of the evidence. We extracted data for (1) self-reported pain severity, (2) physical function (objectively or subjectively measured), (3

  13. Offshore wind energy. An overview on the activities in Germany; Offshore-Windenergie. Ein Ueberblick ueber die Aktivitaeten in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worm, Anja [media consulta Deutschland GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    The brochure under consideration provides an overview of the activities of offshore wind energy in Germany. The first offshore wind farms are built and generate more electricity than expected. The offshore wind farms serve as a field of learning for new technologies. The power of offshore wind farms opened new prospects for the economy. The northern Federal States of Germany as well as the traditional locations for mechanical engineering and steel production benefit from offshore wind energy.

  14. Strategies to Address Common Challenges When Teaching in an Active Learning Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christina I.; Gorman, Kristen S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides practical strategies for addressing common challenges that arise for teachers in active learning classrooms. Our strategies come from instructors with experience teaching in these environments.

  15. The municipalities of the Northwest region of the Czech Republic adapt to climate change: overview of barriers and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Adam; Krkoška Lorencová, Eliška; Vačkář, David

    2017-04-01

    The municipalities of the Czech Republic have been facing negative impacts of changing climate in the past decades - especially floods (1997, 2002, 2010, 2013), droughts and heat waves (2013, 2015), claiming lives, material damages and economic losses up to several % of GDP. Reflecting these events, climate change adaptation should represent major issue in strategical planning on all administrative levels, which is actually not fully met nowadays. Sectoral National Adaptation Strategy (NAS) was approved by the Government of the Czech Republic in autumn 2015 and the implementation action plan is currently being approved. Adaptation strategies on lower administrative level (adaptation strategies of individual municipalities) are, however, still quite rare. In this contribution, we analyse barriers and challenges for: (i) the development of climate change adaptation strategies on administrative level of individual municipalities in the Northwest region, Czech Republic; and (ii) implementation of adaptation measures into the decision-making processes. Based on participatory seminars with key stakeholders organised in pilot municipalities, it was shown that municipalities are (at least partly) able to cope with existing risks such as floods, but are not well-prepared for expected regionally "new" risks such as long lasting heat waves, insufficient water retention and flash floods. Linking the goals of adaptation strategy with urban planning seems to be challenging task but also potentially powerfull tool to implement specific adaptation measures. It emerged, that complicated ownership relations often cause obstacles for implementation of adaptation measures, highlighting the potential of stimulation and motivation tools from the side of the municipality. On the other hand, it was also shown that despite experiencing its negative impacts, climate change is often neglected or percepted as a marginal issue by some municipalities and developing adaptation strategy is

  16. Overview of EU research activities in transmutation and innovative reactor systems within the Euratom framework programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, V.

    2009-01-01

    European Community (EC) (currently 27 Member States) shared-cost research has been organised in Framework Programmes (FP) of durations of 4 - 5 years since 1984. The 6th European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) Framework Programme (2002 - 06) and the current 7th FP (2007 - 11) have been allocated a fission research budget respectively of 209 and 287 Million Euro from the EC. There are 10 projects (total budget 70 M Euro, EC contribution 38 M Euro) in all aspects of transmutation ranging from road-mapping exercise to large integrated projects on accelerator driven systems, lead-cooled fast critical systems for waste transmutation, technology, fuel, accelerator facilities for nuclear data etc. In Innovative Reactor concepts, there are about half-a-dozen projects (total budget 30 M Euro, EC contribution 16 M Euro) including High Temperature Reactors, Gas-cooled Fast reactors, road-mapping exercise on sodium fast reactors etc. The main research and training activities in FP7 are: management of radioactive waste, reactor systems, radiation protection, infrastructures, human resources and mobility and training. In the two call for proposals (2007 and 2008) in FP7, 8 projects have been accepted in transmutation and innovative reactor concepts (total budget 53 M Euro, EC contribution 32 M Euro). These research projects cover activities ranging from materials, fuels, treatment of irradiated graphite waste, European sodium fast reactor to the establishment of a Central Design Team of a fast-spectrum transmutation device in Europe. The third call for proposals is underway requesting proposals on nuclear data, thermal hydraulics, gas and lead-cooled fast reactor systems with a total EC budget of 20 M Euro. International collaboration is an important element of the EU research policy. This overview paper will present elements of the strategy of EURATOM research and training in waste management including accelerator driven transmutation systems and Innovative reactor concepts

  17. Food for Thought: A Critical Overview of Current Practical and Conceptual Challenges in Trace Element Analysis in Natural Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Filella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The practical and conceptual challenges faced by the analysis of trace elements present in natural waters are not merely, as is often thought, an endless race towards lower detection limits or to the development of techniques allowing the determination of any possible chemical species formed by all chemical elements. Rather, as discussed in this paper, they include the development of (i robust, cheap, and reliable methods that could also be used by laypeople (the experience gained in the development of field kits for As is discussed as an example from which similar developments for other elements may be drawn; (ii more environmentally-friendly methods (the current guiding criteria probably being too simplistic; and (iii methods making it possible to follow diel concentration changes and sharp concentration variations caused by the probable increase of heavy rainfall events. This paper also claims that neither the measurement of total concentrations (reliable methods are lacking for many elements of the periodic table of trace elements, as illustrated through the cases of Bi, Te, and Sb, nor chemical speciation analysis, are as mature as often thought. In particular, chemical speciation studies demand the development of a better, comprehensive conceptual framework. A trial is carried out to lay the basis of such a framework.

  18. An Overview of Turkish Healthcare System after Health Transformation Program: Main Successes, Performance Assessment, Further Challenges, and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir GÜRSOY

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkish healthcare system has been stated to show significant improvements regarding wider access to healthcare facilities, and the quality and efficiency through the introduction of Health Transformation Program launched in 2003. While the old system relied on differing provisions and financing and lacked behind many developed nations in terms of health outcomes, the new system achieved nearly universal coverage and many health outcomes enhanced significantly. Health expenditures rose to 5.4% of GDP in 2013 from 4.8% in 1998. Furthermore, Turkey provided both better financial protection for the poor against high health expenditures, and equity in access to health care across the population. However, Turkey still faces new challenges to catch other developed countries to have better health and further improve financial sustainability. To reach these targets, Turkey needs to further implement new policy options for reform such as combating informal economy, allocating more on health resources, designing incentive- based payment methods, adopting gate keeping system and referral chain, developing capacity to deploy health technology assessments in reimbursement decisions, and ensuring the hospital autonomy.

  19. Methodological challenges for the evaluation of clinical effectiveness in the context of accelerated regulatory approval: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolacott, Nerys; Corbett, Mark; Jones-Diette, Julie; Hodgson, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Regulatory authorities are approving innovative therapies with limited evidence. Although this level of data is sufficient for the regulator to establish an acceptable risk-benefit balance, it is problematic for downstream health technology assessment, where assessment of cost-effectiveness requires reliable estimates of effectiveness relative to existing clinical practice. Some key issues associated with a limited evidence base include using data, from nonrandomized studies, from small single-arm trials, or from single-center trials; and using surrogate end points. We examined these methodological challenges through a pragmatic review of the available literature. Methods to adjust nonrandomized studies for confounding are imperfect. The relative treatment effect generated from single-arm trials is uncertain and may be optimistic. Single-center trial results may not be generalizable. Surrogate end points, on average, overestimate treatment effects. Current methods for analyzing such data are limited, and effectiveness claims based on these suboptimal forms of evidence are likely to be subject to significant uncertainty. Assessments of cost-effectiveness, based on the modeling of such data, are likely to be subject to considerable uncertainty. This uncertainty must not be underestimated by decision makers: methods for its quantification are required and schemes to protect payers from the cost of uncertainty should be implemented. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Satellite Telecommunications in Education: An Overview of Related Organizations and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneller, Paul

    An overview is presented of the organizations, institutions, and projects involved in the educational use of satellite communications. This paper is intended for use as a reference tool for educators rather than a means to discuss the implications of satellite communications for individuals and society. A description of the major components of…

  1. Self-Organization Activities of College Students: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmurygina, Natalia; Bazhenova, Natalia; Bazhenov, Ruslan; Nikolaeva, Natalia; Tcytcarev, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The article provides the analysis of self-organization activities of college students related to their participation in youth associations activities. The purpose of research is to disclose a degree of students' activities demonstration based on self-organization processes, assessment of existing self-organization practices of the youth,…

  2. Activity theory as a challenge to systems design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1991-01-01

    This paper suggests an improvement of the theoretical foundation of information systems research of the 1990s. This foundation is found in human activity theory. The paper deals with how human activity theory can help systems design change, theoretically and practically. Applying activity theory...

  3. Cell therapy for heart failure: a comprehensive overview of experimental and clinical studies, current challenges, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanganalmath, Santosh K; Bolli, Roberto

    2013-08-30

    Despite significant therapeutic advances, the prognosis of patients with heart failure (HF) remains poor, and current therapeutic approaches are palliative in the sense that they do not address the underlying problem of the loss of cardiac tissue. Stem cell-based therapies have the potential to fundamentally transform the treatment of HF by achieving what would have been unthinkable only a few years ago-myocardial regeneration. For the first time since cardiac transplantation, a therapy is being developed to eliminate the underlying cause of HF, not just to achieve damage control. Since the initial report of cell therapy (skeletal myoblasts) in HF in 1998, research has proceeded at lightning speed, and numerous preclinical and clinical studies have been performed that support the ability of various stem cell populations to improve cardiac function and reduce infarct size in both ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless, we are still at the dawn of this therapeutic revolution. Many important issues (eg, mechanism(s) of action of stem cells, long-term engraftment, optimal cell type(s), and dose, route, and frequency of cell administration) remain to be resolved, and no cell therapy has been conclusively shown to be effective. The purpose of this article is to critically review the large body of work performed with respect to the use of stem/progenitor cells in HF, both at the experimental and clinical levels, and to discuss current controversies, unresolved issues, challenges, and future directions. The review focuses specifically on chronic HF; other settings (eg, acute myocardial infarction, refractory angina) are not discussed.

  4. An Overview of the Challenges With and Proposed Solutions for the Ingest and Distribution Processes for Airborne Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Aubrey; Northup, Emily; Early, Amanda; Wang, Dali; Kusterer, John; Quam, Brandi; Chen, Gao

    2015-01-01

    The current data management practices for NASA airborne field projects have successfully served science team data needs over the past 30 years to achieve project science objectives, however, users have discovered a number of issues in terms of data reporting and format. The ICARTT format, a NASA standard since 2010, is currently the most popular among the airborne measurement community. Although easy for humans to use, the format standard is not sufficiently rigorous to be machine-readable. This makes data use and management tedious and resource intensive, and also create problems in Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) data ingest procedures and distribution. Further, most DAACs use metadata models that concentrate on satellite data observations, making them less prepared to deal with airborne data.

  5. Challenges for sustainability of home based economic activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors accountable for successful and sustainable home based economic activities were determined. Impacts of home based economic activities were found to be significant in the education of the children, income security and social welfare of families. The study emphasized home economic entrepreneurial education, ...

  6. Physical activity and exercise for chronic pain in adults: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneen, Louise J; Moore, R Andrew; Clarke, Clare; Martin, Denis; Colvin, Lesley A; Smith, Blair H

    2017-04-24

    Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning.Physical activity and exercise programmes are increasingly being promoted and offered in various healthcare systems, and for a variety of chronic pain conditions. It is therefore important at this stage to establish the efficacy and safety of these programmes, and furthermore to address the critical factors that determine their success or failure. To provide an overview of Cochrane Reviews of adults with chronic pain to determine (1) the effectiveness of different physical activity and exercise interventions in reducing pain severity and its impact on function, quality of life, and healthcare use; and (2) the evidence for any adverse effects or harm associated with physical activity and exercise interventions. We searched theCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on the Cochrane Library (CDSR 2016, Issue 1) for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), after which we tracked any included reviews for updates, and tracked protocols in case of full review publication until an arbitrary cut-off date of 21 March 2016 (CDSR 2016, Issue 3). We assessed the methodological quality of the reviews using the AMSTAR tool, and also planned to analyse data for each painful condition based on quality of the evidence.We extracted data for (1) self-reported pain severity, (2) physical function (objectively or subjectively measured), (3) psychological function, (4) quality of

  7. Challenges of Measuring a Faculty Member Activity in Medical Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, A; Mojtahedzadeh, R; Emami Razavi, S H

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the features of Mission Based Management is measuring the activities of faculty members and departments and their contributions to the school's mission. As it is important to assess the school's readiness for such a system, in this study we assessed the view points of Tehran Medical School's department chairs about faculty members’ activities. Methods We used focus group technique to identify participants' view points. We divided 30 department chairs into homogenous groups o...

  8. The Synapse Project: Engagement in mentally challenging activities enhances neural efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Ian M; Haber, Sara; Bischof, Gérard N; Park, Denise C

    2015-01-01

    Correlational and limited experimental evidence suggests that an engaged lifestyle is associated with the maintenance of cognitive vitality in old age. However, the mechanisms underlying these engagement effects are poorly understood. We hypothesized that mental effort underlies engagement effects and used fMRI to examine the impact of high-challenge activities (digital photography and quilting) compared with low-challenge activities (socializing or performing low-challenge cognitive tasks) on neural function at pretest, posttest, and one year after the engagement program. In the scanner, participants performed a semantic-classification task with two levels of difficulty to assess the modulation of brain activity in response to task demands. The High-Challenge group, but not the Low-Challenge group, showed increased modulation of brain activity in medial frontal, lateral temporal, and parietal cortex-regions associated with attention and semantic processing-some of which were maintained a year later. This increased modulation stemmed from decreases in brain activity during the easy condition for the High-Challenge group and was associated with time committed to the program, age, and cognition. Sustained engagement in cognitively demanding activities facilitated cognition by increasing neural efficiency. Mentally-challenging activities may be neuroprotective and an important element to maintaining a healthy brain into late adulthood.

  9. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: Challenges, explanations, and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference worksh...

  10. Building vs. Borrowing: The Challenge of Actively Constructing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marc S.; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the tension between passive and active learning among master's degree students working on their teaching certificate in science. Emphasizes the developmental nature of learning and that constructionist pedagogies need to be clearly integrated in university courses, especially those focused on teaching. (EV)

  11. Challenges and motivators to physical activity faced by retired men when ageing: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredland, Ebba Langum; Söderström, Sylvia; Vik, Kjersti

    2018-05-15

    Active ageing reflects the message from World Health Organisation about addressing the challenge faced by the rapidly ageing population. Knowledge about barriers and facilitators to an active lifestyle must be given more attention. In addition, men seem to participate less in cultural activities and less in fall-prevention groups than women do. When mostly women work with the elderly in primary care, one might question whether the activities offered to older men meet their activity preferences. The aim of this study is to provide new knowledge about challenges and motivators encountered by retired men in maintaining physical activity when ageing. Nine retired men, aged between 66 and 83, wrote a Time Geographic Diary for 7 days each. Two focus group discussions with the men were held. A Systemic Text Condensation was used to analyse the data. The analyses identified three categories to describe challenges in being physical active: differences between men and women; meaningful physical activity; and environmental - especially socio-cultural - constraints. Motivating conditions were seen as: new activities to get younger friends, and more information about how to cope. To achieve the aim of active ageing, service providers as well as local authorities need to have a better understanding of the challenges retired men encounter when ageing. This study highlights vital aspects of the challenges faced by retired men in maintaining their physical activity level.

  12. Overview of NORM and activities by a NORM licensed permanent decontamination and waste processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirro, G.A. [Growth Resources, Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of issues related to handling NORM materials, and provides a description of a facility designed for the processing of NORM contaminated equipment. With regard to handling NORM materials the author discusses sources of NORM, problems, regulations and disposal options, potential hazards, safety equipment, and issues related to personnel protection. For the facility, the author discusses: description of the permanent facility; the operations of the facility; the license it has for handling specific radioactive material; operating and safety procedures; decontamination facilities on site; NORM waste processing capabilities; and offsite NORM services which are available.

  13. FINANCING ACTIVITIES OF MODERN UNIVERSITIES - APPROACHES, CHALLENGES, PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    BOJINOV B.V.

    2017-01-01

    The article examined the main approaches to the funding of universities and possible mechanisms for their subsequent efficient financial management. The main sources of funding for modern universities, are usually a mix of state funding other targeted grants, tuition fees and revenues from economic activity. The declining targeted budgetary resources for the financing of universities, and linking it to performance (quality, rating realization), forcing universities to seek alternative sources...

  14. Active Nanomaterials to Meet the Challenge of Dental Pulp Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Laetitia; Offner, Damien; Schwint?, Pascale; Morand, David; Wagner, Quentin; Gros, Catherine; Bornert, Fabien; Bahi, Sophie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia; Fioretti, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The vitality of the pulp is fundamental to the functional life of the tooth. For this aim, active and living biomaterials are required to avoid the current drastic treatment, which is the removal of all the cellular and molecular content regardless of its regenerative potential. The regeneration of the pulp tissue is the dream of many generations of dental surgeons and will revolutionize clinical practices. Recently, the potential of the regenerative medicine field suggests that it would be p...

  15. Goals, challenges, and successes of managing fusion activated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.; Massaut, V.; Tobita, K.; Cadwallader, L.

    2008-01-01

    After decades of designing magnetic and inertial fusion power plants, it is timely to develop a new framework for managing the activated (and contaminated) materials that will be generated during plant operation and after decommissioning-a framework that takes into account the lessons learned from numerous international fusion and fission studies and the environmental, political, and present reality in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. This will clearly demonstrate that designers developing fusion facilities will be dealing with the back end of this type of energy production from the beginning of the conceptual design of power plants. It is becoming evident that future regulations for geological burial will be upgraded to assure tighter environmental controls. Along with the political difficulty of constructing new repositories worldwide, the current reality suggests reshaping all aspects of handling the continual stream of fusion active materials. Beginning in the mid 1980s and continuing to the present, numerous fusion designs examined replacing the disposal option with more environmentally attractive approaches, redirecting their attention to recycling and clearance while continuing the development of materials with low activation potential. There is a growing international effort in support of this new trend. In this paper, recent history is analyzed, a new fusion waste management scheme is covered, and possibilities for how its prospects can be improved are examined

  16. Nanotechnology overview: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the science of manipulating matter at the nanometer scale in order to discover new properties and possibly produce new products. For the past 30 years, a considerable amount of scientific interest and R&D funding devoted to nanotechnology has led to rapid developmen...

  17. Overview of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency scientific activities on the nuclear fuel cycle - 5301

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornet, S.; Chauvin, N.

    2015-01-01

    As part of its role in encouraging international collaboration, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency is coordinating a series of projects related to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) Working Party on Scientific Issues of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (WPFC) comprises five different expert groups covering scientific aspects of the fuel cycle from front to back-end. Ongoing projects include fuel cycle scenarios, fuels, materials, physics and chemical separations. Members of the expert groups cooperate to share recent research advancements at an international level and help identify gaps and needs in the field. Current activities focus on current and advanced nuclear systems in particular the challenges associated with the adoption of new materials and fuels such as for example cladding materials, fuels containing minor actinides, or the use of liquid metal as coolants. The Expert Group on Innovative Fuels has recently prepared a report on MA bearing fuels looking at different type of fuels and examining the technical issues associated with their fabrication, characterization, irradiation performance, and design and safety criteria. Experts of the group on Heavy Liquid Metal (HLM) technologies are compiling and editing the second version of the LBE (Lead Bismuth Eutectic) Handbook to include new experimental data. The Expert Group on Advanced Fuel Cycle Scenarios has undertaken a study to evaluate the effects of uncertainties of input parameters on the outcomes of fuel scenario studies to provide guidance on which uncertainties are more significant. At the back-end of the fuel cycle, separation technologies (aqueous and pyrochemical) are being assessed by the Expert Group on Fuel recycling Chemistry. (authors)

  18. Nevada Operations overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview is given of weapon test site decontamination activities carried out by Nevada Operations Office. Tabulated data is given of event name, date, location, year of cleanup, and radioisotopes that were present, activity levels, and cost of cleanup

  19. An overview of research activities on materials for nuclear applications at the INL Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderoni, P., E-mail: Pattrick.Calderoni@inl.gov [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-7113 (United States); Sharpe, J.; Shimada, M.; Denny, B.; Pawelko, B.; Schuetz, S.; Longhurst, G. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-7113 (United States); Hatano, Y.; Hara, M. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Oya, Y. [Radioscience Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Otsuka, T.; Katayama, K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Konishi, S.; Noborio, K.; Yamamoto, Y. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    The Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility at the Idaho National Laboratory is a US Department of Energy National User Facility engaged in various aspects of materials research for nuclear applications related to fusion and advanced fission systems. Research activities are mainly focused on the interaction of tritium with materials, in particular plasma facing components, liquid breeders, high temperature coolants, fuel cladding, cooling and blanket structures and heat exchangers. Other activities include validation and verification experiments in support of the Fusion Safety Program, such as beryllium dust reactivity and dust transport in vacuum vessels, and support of Advanced Test Reactor irradiation experiments. This paper presents an overview of the programs engaged in the activities, which include the US-Japan TITAN collaboration, the US ITER program, the Next Generation Power Plant program and the tritium production program, and a presentation of ongoing experiments as well as a summary of recent results with emphasis on fusion relevant materials.

  20. An overview of research activities on materials for nuclear applications at the INL Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderoni, P.; Sharpe, J.; Shimada, M.; Denny, B.; Pawelko, B.; Schuetz, S.; Longhurst, G.; Hatano, Y.; Hara, M.; Oya, Y.; Otsuka, T.; Katayama, K.; Konishi, S.; Noborio, K.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility at the Idaho National Laboratory is a US Department of Energy National User Facility engaged in various aspects of materials research for nuclear applications related to fusion and advanced fission systems. Research activities are mainly focused on the interaction of tritium with materials, in particular plasma facing components, liquid breeders, high temperature coolants, fuel cladding, cooling and blanket structures and heat exchangers. Other activities include validation and verification experiments in support of the Fusion Safety Program, such as beryllium dust reactivity and dust transport in vacuum vessels, and support of Advanced Test Reactor irradiation experiments. This paper presents an overview of the programs engaged in the activities, which include the US-Japan TITAN collaboration, the US ITER program, the Next Generation Power Plant program and the tritium production program, and a presentation of ongoing experiments as well as a summary of recent results with emphasis on fusion relevant materials.

  1. Water activity and the challenge for life on early Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosca, Nicholas J; Knoll, Andrew H; McLennan, Scott M

    2008-05-30

    In situ and orbital exploration of the martian surface has shown that acidic, saline liquid water was intermittently available on ancient Mars. The habitability of these waters depends critically on water activity (aH2O), a thermodynamic measure of salinity, which, for terrestrial organisms, has sharply defined limits. Using constraints on fluid chemistry and saline mineralogy based on martian data, we calculated the maximum aH2O for Meridiani Planum and other environments where salts precipitated from martian brines. Our calculations indicate that the salinity of well-documented surface waters often exceeded levels tolerated by known terrestrial organisms.

  2. Overview of stakeholders issues and activities: report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forinash, Betsy

    2004-01-01

    Over the past year, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has implemented a new, more interactive stakeholder program in preparation for conducting a comprehensive technical update of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) after its first five years of operation. As the national repository for long-lived transuranic radioactive waste from U.S. defense activities and site clean-up, the facility continues to be of great interest both locally and nationally. We have worked actively with stakeholders since Congress established EPA as the regulator at WIPP in 1992. Early on, we visited with local communities near WIPP to understand their concerns and information needs. In response, we established toll-free telephone information lines and developed numerous public documents. During the technical review and regulatory decision regarding WIPP's safety, we provided numerous public hearings and solicited written comments on important topics. Ultimately, we issued the WIPP certification decision (1998), finding WIPP in compliance with EPA's radioactive waste disposal regulations and allowing it to open (1999). During 'lessons learned' assessments afterwards, we found that stakeholders appreciated some aspects of our program but were frustrated with the lack of two-way dialogue and were interested in getting clearer information on technical issues. We are using the 'lessons learned' in formulating our stakeholder activities for WIPP's first re-certification review, begun in March 2004. The re-certification review is intended to confirm that the WIPP continues to comply with EPA's regulations, taking into account the changes and new information gained over its first five years of operation. Key aspects of the stakeholder program are summarized below: - Define the goals for public information and participation. Our goal is to gain public acceptance, not necessarily full agreement, of our actions. We want to foster in the public

  3. Struggles Against Bilateral FTAs: Challenges for Transnational Global Justice Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Choudry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen major movements and mobilizations against the new crop of bilateral free trade and investment agreements being pursued by governments in the wake of the failure of global (World Trade Organization and regional (e.g. Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and the defeat of an attempted Multilateral Agreement on Investment in the 1990s.  However, in spite of much scholarly, non-governmental organization (NGO and activist focus on transnational global justice activism, many of these movements, such as the major multi-sectoral popular struggle over the recently-concluded US-Korea Free Trade Agreement, are hardly acknowledged in North America and Europe.  With a shift in emphasis pushing liberalization and deregulation of trade and investment increasingly favouring lower-profile bilateral agreements, this article maps the resistance movements to these latest shifts in global free market capitalist relations and discusses the disconnect between these (mainly Southern struggles and dominant scholarly and NGO conceptions of global justice and the global justice movement as well as questions of knowledge production arising from these movements.

  4. The future of physical activity research: funding, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernhall, Bo; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Babu, Abraham S

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide impact of physical activity (PA) on health consequences has received increasing attention. At this point in time, there is little disagreement that increasing levels of PA is an important aspect of public health worldwide. The world literature on PA, exercise and fitness has also grown exponentially since the early 1990's. It is clear that there is a voluminous literature in this area of research and the exponential increase in the number of manuscripts has gained substantial momentum since the year 2000. Given the importance of PA research in regards to health outcomes, and apparent popularity of such research (based on the number of manuscripts published), one could argue that the viability and future of PA are indeed bright. However, one could also assume a different view, that although the field is popular, it is saturated and we already know what we need to know regarding the impact of PA on public health. Much of the future viability of PA research will also be dependent on funding sources available. It is also possible that the impact of PA may vary around the world, thus the "global" impact of PA research may be dependent on location. This review will discuss what we perceive as the current landscape and the future of PA research in three select areas of the world, the United States, South America and Asia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrogen Codes and Standards: An Overview of U.S. DOE Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James M Ohi

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with the help of leading standards and model code development organizations, other national laboratories, and key stakeholders, are developing a coordinated and collaborative government-industry effort to prepare, review, and promulgate hydrogen codes and standards needed to expedite hydrogen infrastructure development. The focus of this effort is to put in place a coordinated and comprehensive hydrogen codes and standards program at the national and international levels. This paper updates an overview of the U.S. program to facilitate and coordinate the development of hydrogen codes and standards that was presented by the author at WHEC 15. (authors)

  6. Graves' disease: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges (multimedia activity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahaly, George J; Grebe, Stefan K G; Lupo, Mark A; McDonald, Nicole; Sipos, Jennifer A

    2011-06-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the United States. Graves' disease occurs more often in women with a female:male ratio of 5:1 and a population prevalence of 1% to 2%. A genetic determinant to the susceptibility to Graves' disease is suspected because of familial clustering of the disease, a high sibling recurrence risk, the familial occurrence of thyroid autoantibodies, and the 30% concordance in disease status between identical twins. Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disorder characterized by the infiltration of immune effector cells and thyroid antigen-specific T cells into the thyroid and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor expressing tissues, with the production of autoantibodies to well-defined thyroidal antigens, such as thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin, and the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor. The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor is central to the regulation of thyroid growth and function. Stimulatory autoantibodies in Graves' disease activate the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor leading to thyroid hyperplasia and unregulated thyroid hormone production and secretion. Below-normal levels of baseline serum thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, normal to elevated serum levels of T4, elevated serum levels of T3 and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor autoantibodies, and a diffusely enlarged, heterogeneous, hypervascular (increased Doppler flow) thyroid gland confirm diagnosis of Graves' disease (available at: http://supplements.amjmed.com/2010/hyperthyroid/faculty.php). This Resource Center is also available through the website of The American Journal of Medicine (www.amjmed.com). Click on the “Thyroid/Graves' Disease” link in the “Resource Centers” section, found on the right side of the Journal homepage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. FENTON-DRIVEN REGENERATION OF GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON: A TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Fenton-driven mechanism for regenerating spent granular activated carbon (GAC) involves the combined, synergistic use of two reliable and well established treatment technologies - adsorption onto activated carbon and Fenton oxidation. During carbon adsorption treatment, enviro...

  8. Experimental overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    1992-01-01

    Five years ago the first heavy-ion beams were accelerated at both the BNL-AGS and the CERN-SPS. This conference is the 5th anniversary in the experimental field. Currently, four experimental groups (E802/E859, E810, E814, E858) are taking data at BNL and eight groups (NA34-3, NA44, NA45, NA35, NA36, NA38, WA80/WA93, WA85) at CERN. Au and Pb beams are about to come, and a lot of activities are going on for RHIC and LHC. The purpose of this talk is to overview where we are, in particular, by looking at the past data. In this talk, the data of proton rapidity distributions are reviewed first to study nuclear transparency, then, the data of energy spectra and slopes, HBT and anti d production are discussed in connection with the evolution of the collision. Third, the data of strangeness production are described. Finally, the status of J/ψ and that of soft photons and electron pairs are briefly overviewed. (orig.)

  9. Separations in back-end of nuclear fuel cycle: overview of R and D activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, N.K.; Chitnis, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses various areas in back-end of nuclear fuel cycle where R and D activities in separation science are actively pursued. Solvent extraction and ion-exchange are the main techniques where maximum developmental activities are underway. In addition to actual techniques, article also discusses the status of the studies especially where the process has been applied on larger scale. (author)

  10. Electricity research programme - Overview report on activities in 2005; Programm Elektrizitaet. Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueniger, R.

    2006-07-01

    This overview-report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the work done in 2005 in the various research areas covered by the Swiss Electricity Research programme. Work done in the programme's two main areas - technologies and efficient applications - is reviewed. In the technologies area, high-temperature superconductivity - and especially its use in power-generation facilities - is looked at, as are the topics of energy conversion and thermo-electric power generation. Further, energy storage using compressed-air is discussed. Power distribution and the use of controllable storage in the low-voltage mains is briefly commented on, as is distributed power generation. Information and communications technologies are reviewed, as is work done in the electrical drives area. Work in other areas summarised includes lighting and uninterruptible power-supplies. Co-operation with Swiss institutions and international organisations such as the IEA is reviewed. Implementation work in the pilot and demonstration area is commented on. This includes work in various areas ranging from set-top boxes through to the optimisation of compressed-air systems and electrical drives as well as codes of conduct and agreements for water-dispensers and cooling systems in retail applications and the optimisation of wastewater treatment plant. The report is completed with a list of current research and development projects.

  11. Earth as Building Material – an overview of RILEM activities and recent Innovations in Geotechnics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyncke Johan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the different earth building techniques, the latest innovations and the normative aspects. The oldest man made earth constructions known to exist date back to 10 000 BC. Since then, earth has remained a popular building material throughout history. With time, different techniques evolved, starting from sundried adobe blocks to cob constructions, rammed earth walls and compressed earth bricks. Today these techniques are still being optimized and alternative binders, specifically adapted admixtures and surface treatments are being developed. Even though nearly one third of the world’s population lives in an earth construction, few specific building standards and testing methods exist. Many of the tests used today are based on tests for concrete and thus do not take into account the complex nature of earth constructions, such as their sensitivity to water. RILEM, the union of Laboratories and Experts in Construction Materials, Systems and Structures, set up a new Technical Committee in 2016: TC TCE (Testing and Characterisation of Earth-based building materials and elements. This committee, consisting of an international group of experts on the topic, aim to define testing procedures for earth as a building construction material. To end with, this paper also gives a short introduction to “Deep soil mixing”, an “earth” building technique dedicated to geotechnical engineering.

  12. Math Games 180 Reproducible Activities to Motivate, Excite, and Challenge Students, Grades 6-12

    CERN Document Server

    Muschla, Judith A

    2011-01-01

    Math Games offers a dynamic collection of 180 reproducible activity sheets to stimulate and challenge your students in all areas of math - from whole numbers to data analysis - while emphasizing problem solving, critical thinking, and the use of technology for today's curriculum! Each of the book's activities can help you teach students in grades 6 through 12 how to think with numbers, recognize relationships, and make connections between mathematical concepts. You pick the activity appropriate for their needs . . . encourage the use of a calculator . . . or provide further challenges with act

  13. Activity-Based Management System Implementation in Higher Education Institution: Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Noor Azizi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how activity-based costing (ABC) technique can be applied in the context of higher education institutions. It also discusses the obstacles and challenges to the successful implementation of activity-based management (ABM) in the higher education environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper…

  14. 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members: Overview Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    SARCs (64% for women and 43% for men), a chaplain (63% for women and 43% for men), and SVCs/ VLCs (62% for women 38% for men). Compared to women, men...than half of women indicated they were provided information on their right to consult a Special Victims’ Counsel (SVC)/Victims’ Legal Counsel ( VLC ...strategies to eliminate retaliatory behaviors such as ostracism, presents some challenges to the Department. For example, enacting prohibitions against

  15. Overview of NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine technology activities applicable to space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Jack G.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of the development and technological activities of the free-piston Stirling engine. The engine started as a small scale fractional horsepower engine which demonstrated basic engine operating principles and the advantages of being hermetically sealed, highly efficient, and simple. It eventually developed into the free piston Stirling engine driven heat pump, and then into the SP-100 Space Reactor Power Program from which came the Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE). The SPDE successfully operated for over 300 hr and delivered 20 kW of PV power to an alternator plunger. The SPDE demonstrated that a dynamic power conversion system can, with proper design, be balanced; and the engine performed well with externally pumped hydrostatic gas bearings.

  16. Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure: an overview of objective measures

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew P Hills; Andrew P Hills; Najat eMokhtar; Nuala M Byrne

    2014-01-01

    The ability to assess energy expenditure and estimate physical activity in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity) and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that physical activity and energy expenditure are different constructs with physical activity defined as any bodily movement that results in energy expenditure and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of physical activit...

  17. Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure: an overview of objective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Hills

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess energy expenditure and estimate physical activity in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that physical activity and energy expenditure are different constructs with physical activity defined as any bodily movement that results in energy expenditure and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of physical activity. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labelled water technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate physical activity in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of physical activity and their relationship with energy expenditure. The measures discussed include those based on energy expenditure or oxygen uptake including doubly labelled water, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures.

  18. Active placebo control groups of pharmacological interventions were rarely used but merited serious consideration: a methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob Solgaard; Bielefeldt, Andreas Ørsted; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2017-07-01

    Active placebos are control interventions that mimic the side effects of the experimental interventions in randomized trials and are sometimes used to reduce the risk of unblinding. We wanted to assess how often randomized clinical drug trials use active placebo control groups; to provide a catalog, and a characterization, of such trials; and to analyze methodological arguments for and against the use of active placebo. An overview consisting of three thematically linked substudies. In an observational substudy, we assessed the prevalence of active placebo groups based on a random sample of 200 PubMed indexed placebo-controlled randomized drug trials published in October 2013. In a systematic review, we identified and characterized trials with active placebo control groups irrespective of publication time. In a third substudy, we reviewed publications with substantial methodological comments on active placebo groups (searches in PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and HighWirePress). The prevalence of trials with active placebo groups published in 2013 was 1 out of 200 (95% confidence interval: 0-2), 0.5% (0-1%). We identified and characterized 89 randomized trials (published 1961-2014) using active placebos, for example, antihistamines, anticholinergic drugs, and sedatives. Such trials typically involved a crossover design, the experimental intervention had noticeable side effects, and the outcomes were patient-reported. The use of active placebos was clustered in specific research settings and did not appear to reflect consistently the side effect profile of the experimental intervention, for example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were compared with active placebos in pain trials but not in depression trials. We identified and analyzed 25 methods publications with substantial comments. The main argument for active placebo was to reduce risk of unblinding; the main argument against was the risk of unintended therapeutic effect. Pharmacological

  19. Overview of the activities of the OECD/NEA/NSC working party on nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri, A.; Blomquist, R.; Bradyraap, M.; Briggs, B.; Cousinou, P.; Nomura, Y.; Weber, W.

    2003-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) started dealing with criticality-safety related subjects back in the seventies. In the mid-nineties, several activities related to criticality-safety were grouped together into the Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety. This working party has since been operating and reporting to the Nuclear Science Committee. Six expert groups co-ordinate various activities ranging from experimental evaluations to code and data inter-comparisons for the study of static and transient criticality behaviours. The paper describes current activities performed in this framework and the achievements of the various expert groups. (author)

  20. Cumulative Risk Assessment: Overview of Agency Guidance, Practice and Current Major Research Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powerpoint presentation that includes the EPA's definition of CRA, relevant publications already in existence, the CRA Guidelines effort, science issues where research is still needed, program office practices related to CRA, and EPA research activities.

  1. Overview of European Community (Activity 3) work on materials properties of fast reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.S.

    The Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee set up in 1974 the Working Group Codes and Standards, and organized its work into four main activities: Manufacturing standards, Structural analysis, Materials and Classification of components. The main purpose of materials activity is to compare and contrast existing national specifications and associated properties relevant to structural materials in fast reactors. Funds are available on a yearly basis for tasks to be carried out through Study Contracts. At present about four Study Contract Reports are prepared each year

  2. Pervasive Computing Support for Hospitals: An Overview of the Activity-Based Computing Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Bardram, Jakob E

    2007-01-01

    The activity-based computing project researched pervasive computing support for clinical hospital work. Such technologies have potential for supporting the mobile, collaborative, and disruptive use of heterogeneous embedded devices in a hospital......The activity-based computing project researched pervasive computing support for clinical hospital work. Such technologies have potential for supporting the mobile, collaborative, and disruptive use of heterogeneous embedded devices in a hospital...

  3. Physical activity is associated with retained muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with palmitate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, C J; Bunprajun, T; Pedersen, B K

    2013-01-01

    in satellite cells challenged with palmitate. Although the benefits of physical activity on whole body physiology have been well investigated, this paper presents novel findings that both diet and exercise impact satellite cells directly. Given the fact that satellite cells are important for muscle maintenance......  The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity is associated with preserved muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with saturated fatty acids. Human muscle satellite cells were isolated from sedentary or active individuals and differentiated into myocytes in culture...... and correlated positively to JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, muscle satellite cells retain metabolic differences associated with physical activity. Physical activity partially protects myocytes from fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and inactivity is associated with dysregulation of metabolism...

  4. An overview of currently available methods and future trends for physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kiško

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methodological limitations make comparison of various instruments difficult, although the number of publications on physical activity assessment has extensively increased. Therefore, systematization of techniques and definitions is essential for the improvement of knowledge in the area. Objective: This paper systematically describes and compares up-to-date methods that assess habitual physical activity and discusses main issues regarding the use and interpretation of data collected with these techniques. Methods: A general outline of the measures and techniques described above is presented in review form, along with their respective definition, usual applications, positive aspects and shortcomings. Results and conclusions: The various factors to be considered in the selection of physical activity assessment methods include goals, sample size, budget, cultural and social/environmental factors, physical burden for the subject, and statistical factors, such as accuracy and precision. It is concluded that no single current technique is able to quantify all aspects of physical activity under free-living conditions, requiring the use of complementary methods. In not too distant future, devices will take advantage of consumer technologies, such as mobile phones, GPS devices. It is important to perform other activities, such as detecting and responding to physical activity in a real time, creating new opportunities in measurement, remote compliance monitoring, data-driven discovery and intervention.

  5. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  6. Bulgaria: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djingova, Rumyana

    2012-01-01

    Neutron tomography has recently found new applications in many different fields like for example in Biology, Medicine, Geology, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage. One of the reasons is the fast development in digital image recording and processing, which enables the computation of tomographic reconstructions from high-resolution images at a reasonable timescale. The development of new detectors with better signal-to-noise characteristics and faster read-out electronics has allowed the overcoming of some of the spatial and time resolution limitations of conventional neutron radiography and tomography. Nevertheless the quantification of neutron tomographic data is a challenging task in many cases. The diverse experimental conditions at different facilities (beam spectrum, collimation, background, etc.) hinder the distinct relation between attenuation coefficient and single material. In this case complementary methods should be used for determination of the chemical composition in multicomponent samples which can be related later to the obtained matrix of attenuation coefficients from the neutron tomographic measurement

  7. [Clinical research activity of the French cancer cooperative network: Overview and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Claire; Morin, Franck; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Langlais, Alexandra; Seitz, Jean-François; Girault, Cécile; Salles, Gilles; Haioun, Corinne; Deschaseaux, Pascal; Casassus, Philippe; Mathiot, Claire; Pujade-Lauraine, Éric; Votan, Bénédicte; Louvet, Christophe; Delpeut, Christine; Bardet, Étienne; Vintonenko, Nadejda; Hoang Xuan, Khê; Vo, Maryline; Michon, Jean; Milleron, Bernard

    The French Cancer Plan 2014-2019 stresses the importance of strengthening collaboration between all stakeholders involved in the fight against cancer, including cancer cooperative groups and intergroups. This survey aimed to describe the basics characteristics and clinical research activity among the Cancer Cooperative Groups (Groupes coopérateurs en oncologie). The second objective was to identify facilitators and barriers to their research activity. A questionnaire was sent to all the clinicians involved in 2014 as investigators in a clinical trial sponsored by one of the ten members of the Cancer Cooperative Groups network. The questions were related to their profile, research activity and the infrastructure existing within their healthcare center to support clinical research and related compliance activities. In total, 366 investigators responded to our survey. The academic clinical trials sponsored by the Cancer Cooperative Groups represented an important part of the research activity of the investigators in France in 2014. These academic groups contributed to the opening of many research sites throughout all regions in France. Factors associated with a higher participation of investigators (more than 10 patients enrolled in a trial over a year) include the existing support of healthcare professionals (more than 2 clinical research associate (CRA) OR=11.16 [3.82-32.6] compared to none) and the practice of their research activity in a University Hospital Center (CHU) rather than a Hospital Center (CH) (OR=2.15 [1.20-3.83]). This study highlighted factors that can strengthen investigator clinical research activities and subsequently improve patient access to evidence-based new cancer therapies in France. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. An overview of the AECB's strategy for regulating radioactive waste management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.; Smythe, W.D.; Duncan, R.M.; Coady, J.R.

    1982-07-01

    The goal of the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board in regulating the management of radioactive wastes is to ensure the protection of people and the environment. A program of cooperation with other agencies, identification and adoption of baselines for describing radioactive wastes, development of explicit criteria and requirements, publication of related regulatory documents, establishment of independent consultative processes with technical experts and the public, and maintenance of awareness and compatibility with international activities is underway. Activities related to high-level radioactive waste, uranium mine and mill tailings, low- and medium-level wastes, radioactive effluents from nuclear facilities, and decommissioning and decontamination are described

  9. Overview of CSIR’s activities towards smart sustainable energy for rural communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available , activities have included thermal efficiency of building design, solar water heating and the evaluation of photovoltaic installations. CSIR has developed and established electronic databases that provide information on South Africa’s eco-system and that can...

  10. An overview of Test Techniques for Characterizing Active Phased Array Antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, W.P.M.N.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a review will be given of the microwave testing of active phased anay antennas. It will be shown that due to the application of Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules in such antennas considerable more tests have to be performed to characterise completely their microwave performance than for

  11. Overview of CERN Technology Transfer Strategy and Accelerator-Related Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Chesta, E; Wuensch, W; Sgobba, S; Stora, T; Chiggiato, P; Taborelli, M

    2013-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is actively engaged in identifying technologies developed for its accelerator complex that could be profitably used by partner research organizations or commercial companies in applications with potentially high socio-economic impact beyond pure fundamental physics research. \

  12. Overview of approaches to sustain forest productivity during forest road development and timber harvesting activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Blinn; Rick Dahlamn; James A. Mattson; Michael A. Thompson

    1999-01-01

    Various approaches are available to minimize impacts on forest productivity during forest road building and timber harvesting activities. These approaches include a variety of practices and technologies. They include practices such as reducing road and trail development, using designated trails, and leaving slash at the stump on nutrient deficient sites. Technology...

  13. Overview on hydrogen risk research and development activities: Methodology and open issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentaib, Ahmed; Meynet, Nicolas; Bleyer, Alexande [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Severe Accident Department, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2015-02-15

    During the course of a severe accident in a light water nuclear reactor, large amounts of hydrogen can be generated and released into the containment during reactor core degradation. Additional burnable gases [hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO)] may be released into the containment in the corium/concrete interaction. This could subsequently raise a combustion hazard. As the Fukushima accidents revealed, hydrogen combustion can cause high pressure spikes that could challenge the reactor buildings and lead to failure of the surrounding buildings. To prevent the gas explosion hazard, most mitigation strategies adopted by European countries are based on the implementation of passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs). Studies of representative accident sequences indicate that, despite the installation of PARs, it is difficult to prevent at all times and locations, the formation of a combustible mixture that potentially leads to local flame acceleration. Complementary research and development (R and D) projects were recently launched to understand better the phenomena associated with the combustion hazard and to address the issues highlighted after the Fukushima Daiichi events such as explosion hazard in the venting system and the potential flammable mixture migration into spaces beyond the primary containment. The expected results will be used to improve the modeling tools and methodology for hydrogen risk assessment and severe accident management guidelines. The present paper aims to present the methodology adopted by Institut de Radioprotection et de Su.

  14. Overview of non-pharmacological intervention for dementia and principles of brain-activating rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Maki, Yohko; Yamagami, Tetsuya

    2010-12-01

    Non-pharmacological interventions for dementia are likely to have an important role in delaying disease progression and functional decline. Research into non-pharmacological interventions has focused on the differentiation of each approach and a comparison of their effects. However, Cochrane Reviews on non-pharmacological interventions have noted the paucity of evidence regarding the effects of these interventions. The essence of non-pharmacological intervention is dependent of the patients, families, and therapists involved, with each situation inevitably being different. To obtain good results with non-pharmacological therapy, the core is not 'what' approach is taken but 'how' the therapists communicate with their patients. Here, we propose a new type of rehabilitation for dementia, namely brain-activating rehabilitation, that consists of five principles: (i) enjoyable and comfortable activities in an accepting atmosphere; (ii) activities associated with empathetic two-way communication between the therapist and patient, as well as between patients; (iii) therapists should praise patients to enhance motivation; (iv) therapists should try to offer each patient some social role that takes advantage of his/her remaining abilities; and (v) the activities should be based on errorless learning to ensure a pleasant atmosphere and to maintain a patient's dignity. The behavioral and cognitive status is not necessarily a reflection of pathological lesions in the brain; there is cognitive reserve for improvement. The aim of brain-activating rehabilitation is to enhance patients' motivation and maximize the use of their remaining function, recruiting a compensatory network, and preventing the disuse of brain function. The primary expected effect is that patients recover a desire for life, as well as their self-respect. Enhanced motivation can lead to improvements in cognitive function. Amelioration of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and improvements in

  15. Aging, physical activity and sports injuries. An overview of common sports injuries in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallinen, M; Markku, A

    1995-07-01

    Illness and aging both cause many structural and functional alterations in the human body, rendering elderly people liable to overloading of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. It should, however, be kept in mind that immobilisation and inactivity have even more deleterious effects on structures and functions in the elderly than in younger adults. Most physically active elderly people are selected individuals with respect to their superior health and physical capacity compared with inactive persons of the same age, thus making it possible to further improve their physical capacity. They will, however, be affected by some of the drawbacks of physical overloading, mostly due to the diminished ability of aging body systems to adapt to high levels of loading. The safety margin of an exercise dose tends to decline with aging. Exertional injuries are common among the elderly, and are connected mostly with degenerative aging processes. Acute injuries are common in those elderly people participating in sport activities which demand high coordination, reaction time, and balance capabilities, such as ball games, down-hill skiing, and gymnastics. Muscle has been reported to be the most commonly acutely injured tissue among active elderly athletes. The lower extremities are the most susceptible to injury. A large proportion of injuries (acute and exertional) are mild and can be treated by brief cessation of training and competition activities. Some of the injuries are, however, long term and cause disability not only during training and competition, but also in the normal activities of daily living. It is important that these injuries are treated as soon as possible and in the most effective way, similarly to injuries suffered by younger people. In treating elderly people, it is most important to avoid the detrimental effects of immobilisation; this requires active treatment and rehabilitation with compensatory exercise therapy. The best 'treatment' for sports

  16. A comprehensive overview about the influence of different admixtures and additives on the properties of alkali-activated fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, Alaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PVA fiber changed the impact failure mode from brittle pattern to ductile pattern. • Superplasticizer of lignosulphonates-based improved the workability. • Slag in AAFA decreased workability and increased shrinkage and compressive strength. • MK in AAFA improved workability and compressive strength and prolonged setting time. • 5% Gypsum in AAFA increased compressive strength, but FGDG decreased it. - Abstract: The development of new binders, as an alternative to Portland cement (PC), by alkaline activation, is a current researchers interest. Alkali-activated fly ash (AAFA) binder is obtained by a manufacturing process less energy-intensive than PC and involves lower greenhouse gasses emission. Utilizing AAFA system as binder material can limit the consumption of virgin materials (limestone and sand) required in PC manufacture. AAFA belongs to be prospective material in the field of Civil Engineering where it can resist aggressive acids, resist sulfate attacks, resist aggregate alkali reaction, and resist elevated temperatures. Researchers have employed different fibers, chemical admixtures, mineral admixtures, additives and other materials in AAFA system aiming to modify special properties of this system. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the previous works carried out on using different admixtures and additives in AAFA system

  17. Overview of the current and planned activities in the French underground research laboratory at Bure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delay, J.

    2006-01-01

    In November 1999 Andra began building an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) on the border of the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments in eastern France. The research activities of the URL are dedicated to reversible, deep geological disposal of high-activity, long-lived radioactive wastes in an argillaceous host rock. The studies covered four complementary aspects: acquisition of data (waste packages, material behaviour and clay medium), repository design and reversibility studies, analysis of the long term behaviour of the repository, safety analyses. For the next phase starting in 2007, Andra will carry out integrated tests of a technological scope, i.e. trial drift, demonstrator of current drift. The results should make it possible to assess the safety of a disposal over several tens and even hundreds of thousands of years and submit in 2015 a file for permission request for the HLW and ILW deep disposal. (author)

  18. Reduced-activation materials for fusion reactors: An overview of the proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Packan, N.H.; Gelles, D.S.; Okada, M.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the most serious safety and environmental concerns for future fusion reactors involve induced radioactivity in the first wall and blanket structures. One problem caused by the induced radioactivity in a reactor constructed from the conventional austenitic and ferritic steels presently being considered as structural materials would be the disposal of the highly radioactive structures after their service lifetimes. To simplify the waste-disposal process, ''low-activation'' or ''reduced-activation'' alloys are being developed. The objective for such materials is that they qualify for shallow land burial, as opposed to the much more expensive deep geologic disposal. This paper reviews these classes of materials for this purpose: austenitic stainless steels, ferritic steels, and vanadium alloys

  19. Physical activity at altitude: challenges for people with diabetes: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, P. de; Vries, S.T. de; Koning, E.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Bilo, H.J.; Tack, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing number of subjects with diabetes take part in physical activities at altitude such as skiing, climbing, and trekking. Exercise under conditions of hypobaric hypoxia poses some unique challenges on subjects with diabetes, and the presence of diabetes can complicate safe and

  20. Physical Activity at Altitude : Challenges for People With Diabetes A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Tack, Cees J.

    BACKGROUND A growing number of subjects with diabetes take part in physical activities at altitude such as skiing, climbing, and trekking. Exercise under conditions of hypobaric hypoxia poses some unique challenges on subjects with diabetes, and the presence of diabetes can complicate safe and

  1. Challenges in application of Active Cold Loads for microwave radiometer calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.; Skou, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Two Active Cold Loads (ACLs) for microwave radiometer calibration, operating at X-band, are evaluated with respect to important stability parameters. Using a stable radiometer system as test bed, absolute levels of 77 K and 55 K are found. This paper identifies and summarizes potential challenges...

  2. Overview of IAEA year 2000 activities in the Department of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitumbo, K.

    1999-01-01

    The IAEA Department of Safeguards established a project in 1996 for the year 2000 (Y2K) conversion activities. This project covered assessment, conversion and testing of the software applications, instrument evaluation software, embedded systems and Personal Computer (PC) hardware attached to various equipment. Significant progress has been made in converting the applications and instruments to be year 2000 compliant. At the same time Member states have made an effort as well in converting the systems used jointly at the facilities

  3. Introduction to the Halden project and a short overview of the MMS activities at the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owre, F.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation discusses the Man Machine System (MMS) research within the Halden Reactor Project located in Norway. This project is an International collaboration and the mission of this project is to improve safety at operating nuclear plants. The research activities include human reliability, knowledge management, design and evaluation of human system interfaces and control rooms, virtual reality for design, planning and training, operation and maintenance in a competitive electricity market as well as digital system safety research

  4. Overview of German R and D activities relevant to life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillot, R.

    1998-01-01

    Life management issues of German NPPs include measures for qualifying continuous operation of NPPs and research activities related to materials behaviour under operating conditions. Plant management for life extension demand use of on-line monitoring systems for load (mechanical and thermal); vibration; leakage; water chemistry; neutron irradiation as well as replacement of systems, structures and components. The main goals to be achieved under international cooperation are increased safety, increased plant availability, extension of operating lifetime and improvement of plant economics

  5. Overview of maintenance principles and regulatory supervision of maintenance activities at nuclear power plants in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohar, S.; Cepcek, S.

    1997-01-01

    The maintenance represents one of the most important tools to ensure safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The emphasis of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic to the maintenance issue is expressed by requirements in the regulations. The current practice of maintenance management in operated nuclear power plants in Slovak Republic is presented. Main aspects of maintenance, as maintenance programme, organization of maintenance, responsibilities for maintenance are described. Activities of nuclear regulatory authority in maintenance process are presented too. (author)

  6. Overview of LLCB TBM design and R&D activities in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, E. Rajendra, E-mail: rajendrakumare@gmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Vyas, K.N. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2016-11-01

    The Lead-Lithium Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module (LLCB-TBM) is the Indian TBM representing the DEMO breeding blanket, to be installed in ITER radial port no-2 for testing in ITER. The conceptual design of LLCB TBM systems and their engineering design are under progress. The neutronic analysis and engineering design of LLCB TBM set (TBM + TBM Shield) is undergoing optimization. The LLCB TBS auxiliary systems; Helium cooling systems, Lead-Lithium Cooling System and Tritium Extraction Systems design are conceptualized and detail design is under progress. The system arrangements in port cell area, Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) vault and Tritium building along with interface requirements have been worked out within the allocated space. LLCB TBS related R&D activities are under progress at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar in association with Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai and Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam. The major research and development areas are liquidmetal technologies, lithium ceramic pebbles, lead-lithium eutectic alloy, India specific Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steels (IN-RAFMS) development and fabrication technologies development. This paper will highlight the current LLCB TBM set and axillary systems design and status of R&D activities in various areas.

  7. An Overview of the Thermal Calculation and the Cooling Technology for Active Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yu, Meiyun; Luo, Yanyan; Liu, Jun; Ren, Yafeng

    2017-10-01

    The cooling process of AMB is that the energy loss is sent out to the outside world when the system is operating. The energy loss transfers to the surrounding medium in the form of heat, which leads to raise the temperature of system components and influences the performance of the system. So it is necessary to study the internal loss of the magnetic bearing system and thermal calculation method. Three kinds of thermal calculation methods are compared, which is important for the design and calculation of cooling. At the same time, the cooling way, the cooling method, and the cooling system is summarized on the basis of cooling technology of active magnetic bearing, and the design method of the cooling system is studied. But for the active magnetic bearing system, when designing the cooling system, heat dissipation of the motor can not be ignored. It is important not only for the performance of the active magnetic bearing system and stable operation, and but also for the improvement of the cooling technology.

  8. Overview of the burnup credit activities at OECD/NEA/NSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady Raap, M.C.; Nomura, Y.; Sartori, E.

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes activities of the OECD/NEA Burnup Credit Expert Panel, a subordinate group to the Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety (WPNCS). The WPNCS of the OECD/NEA coordinates and carries out work in the domain of criticality safety at the international level. Particular attention is devoted to establishing sound databases required in this area and to addressing issues of high relevance such as burnup credit. The activities of the expert panel are aimed toward improving safety and identifying economic solutions to issues concerning the back-end of the fuel cycle. The main objective of the activities of the OECD/NEA Burnup Credit Expert Panel is to demonstrate that the available criticality safety calculational tools are appropriate for application to burned fuel systems and that a reasonable safety margin can be established. The method established by the expert panel for investigating the physics and predictability of burnup credit is based on the specification and comparison of calculational benchmark problems. A wide range of fuel types, including PWR, BWR, MOX, and VVER fuels, has been or are being addressed by the expert panel. The objective and status of each of these benchmark problems is reviewed in this article. It is important to note that the focus of the expert panel is the comparison of the results submitted by each participant to assess the capability of commonly used code systems, not to quantify the physical phenomena investigated in the comparisons or to make recommendations for licensing action. (author)

  9. Enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity after bronchial challenge in subjects with grain dust-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Jung, K S

    1998-03-01

    There have been few reports suggesting involvement of neutrophils in induction of bronchoconstriction after inhalation of grain dust. To understand the role of neutrophils in pathogenesis of grain dust-induced asthma. We observed serum neutrophil chemotactic activity during grain dust-bronchoprovocation tests in six asthmatic subjects with positive bronchial challenges (group I). They were compared with those of six symptomatic subjects from the same workplace with negative bronchial challenges (group II). After grain dust inhalation, serum neutrophil chemotactic activity significantly increased at 30 minutes (P = .028), and then decreased to baseline level at 240 minutes (P = .028) in five subjects of group I having isolated early asthmatic responses. Enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity was persistent for up to 240 minutes in one asthmatic subject having both early and late asthmatic responses. There was, however, no significant change in serum neutrophil chemotactic activity during bronchial challenges in subjects of group II. Pre-incubation of sera with anti-interleukin-8 (IL-8) antibody did not affect the neutrophil chemotactic activity results of group I subjects. These results suggest that enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity distinct from IL-8 may contribute to significant bronchoconstriction induced by grain dust.

  10. Can the London 2012 Olympics 'inspire a generation' to do more physical or sporting activities? An overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtani, Kamal Ram; Protheroe, Joanne; Slight, Sarah Patricia; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Blakeman, Thomas; Barton, Christopher A; Brijnath, Bianca; Roberts, Nia

    2013-01-07

    To examine if there is an increased participation in physical or sporting activities following an Olympic or Paralympic games. Overview of systematic reviews. We searched the Medline, Embase, Cochrane, DARE, SportDISCUS and Web of Knowledge databases. In addition, we searched for 'grey literature' in Google, Google scholar and on the International Olympic Committee websites. We restricted our search to those reviews published in English. We used the AMSTAR tool to assess the methodological quality of those systematic reviews included. The primary outcome was evidence for an increased participation in physical or sporting activities. Secondary outcomes included public perceptions of sport during and after an Olympic games, barriers to increased sports participation and any other non-sporting health benefits. Our systematic search revealed 844 citations, of which only two matched our inclusion criteria. The quality of these two reviews was assessed by three independent reviewers as 'good' using the AMSTAR tool for quality appraisal. Both reviews reported little evidence of an increased uptake of sporting activity following an Olympic Games event. Other effects on health, for example, changes in hospital admissions, suicide rates and drug use, were cited although there was insufficient evidence to see an overall effect. There is a paucity of evidence to support the notion that hosting an Olympic games leads to an increased participation in physical or sporting activities for host countries. We also found little evidence to suggest other health benefits. We conclude that the true success of these and future games should be evaluated by high-quality, evidence-based studies that have been commissioned before, during and following the completion of the event. Only then can the true success and legacy of the games be established.

  11. Overview of Twenty Years of Radiation and Tissue Banking Activity in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairiyama, E.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of human tissues in Argentina was a consequence of health care products sterilization by gamma radiation. Radiation technology was implemented in 1970 when the first multipurpose gamma facility was built at the Ezeiza Atomic Centre of CNEA. Organ and tissue transplantation is a well established effective therapy that saves lives and significantly improves the quality of life. Ionizing radiation is used for sterilization in order to provide clinically safe tissue for therapeutic purposes of implantation in every patient in need. Argentina radiation and tissue banking activity started in 1993 with the establishment of two tissue banks using radiation under the IAEA programme of technical cooperation, a skin bank and a bone one. Additionally to this start, other tissue banks have adopted tissue sterilization by irradiation. The compatible tissues sterilized with this methodology are mainly skin (frozen, glycerolized), bone (lyophilized, frozen), and amniotic membrane (glycerolized, frozen, dehydrated). The donation and transplant of human organ, tissue and cells is regulated and coordinated by the National Institute Unique Central Coordinator of Ablation and Implant (INCUCAI). In regards to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues are regulated and contorted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN). Eight tissue banks use gamma radiation for sterilization of human tissues (6 musculoskeletal, 1 skin and 1 amniotic membrane). Argentina has participated actively in several IAEA projects regarding radiation and tissue banking program, and it has been selected by the IAEA to host the Regional Training Centre for the Latin American region. The following activities were implemented: regional training courses in Buenos Aires, face to face (five) and virtual (four) modalities; collaboration on several materials related to tissue banking and radiation sterilization of tissue allograft, codes of practice for

  12. Overview of R and D activities on tritium processing and handling technology in JAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko, E-mail: yamanishi.toshihiko@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakamura, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yasunori; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Oyaidsu, Makoto; Yamada, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takumi; Hayashi, Takumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tritium technologies have been studied at Tritium Process Laboratory of JAEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A monitoring method for the blanket system of a fusion reactor have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Basic studies on the tritium behavior in confinement system have been carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Studies on the detritiation have been carried out as another significant activity. - Abstract: In JAEA, the tritium processing and handling technologies have been studied at TPL (Tritium Process Laboratory). The main R and D activities are: the tritium processing technology for the blanket recovery systems; the basic tritium behavior in confinement materials; and detritiation and decontamination. The R and D activities on tritium processing and handling technologies for a demonstration reactor (DEMO) are also planned to be carried out in the broader approach (BA) program by JAEA with Japanese universities. The ceramic proton conductor has been studied as a possible tritium processing method for the blanket system. The BIXS method has also been studied as a monitoring of tritium in the blanket system. The hydrogen transfer behavior from water to metal has been studied as a function of temperature. As for the behavior of high concentration tritium water, it was observed that the formation of the oxidized layer was prevented by the presence of tritium in water (0.23 GBq/cc). A new hydrophobic catalyst has been developed for the conversion of tritium to water. The catalyst could convert tritium to water at room temperature. A new Nafion membrane has also been developed by gamma ray irradiation to get the strong durability for tritium.

  13. The ORNL Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center: Overview of Activities 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    The Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center (CFADC) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory continued operation aimed at collecting, evaluating, and disseminating atomic, molecular, and particle-surface interaction (AM and PSI) data needed by both the U.S. and international plasma science communities. This work has been carried out within an overarching atomic physics research group which produces much of the required data through an active experimental and theoretical science program. The production of an annotated bibliography of AM and PSI literature relevant to plasma science continues to be among the most important activities of the data center, forming the basis for the CFADC on-line bibliographic search engine and a significant part of the IAEA A+M Data Unit's 'International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion.' Also chief among the data center's activities are responses to specific data requests from the plasma science community, leading to either rapid feedback using existing data resources or long term data production projects, as well as participation in IAEA Coordinated Research Programs including recently 'Data for Surface Composition Dynamics Relevant to Erosion Processes' and 'Atomic and Molecular Data for Plasma Modeling.' Highlights of recent data production projects include the following: Experimental and theoretical data for inelastic electron-hydrocarbon reactions, large scale computational results for particle reflection from surfaces, measurements of chemical sputtering from carbon, inaugural experiments considering molecular ion collisions with neutral hydrogen, and expansion of the database of elastic and related transport cross sections calculated for intrinsic and extrinsic impurities in hydrogen plasmas. Progress is being hampered owing to news from the US Department of Energy that it plans to close out the program after a ramp down of funding in 2012, following a distinguished 52 year history of contributions to the US and

  14. Linde FUSRAP Site Remediation: Engineering Challenges and Solutions of Remedial Activities on an Active Industrial Facility - 13506

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, Christopher M.; Fort, E. Joseph; Boyle, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The Linde FUSRAP Site (Linde) is located in Tonawanda, New York at a major research and development facility for Praxair, Inc. (Praxair). Successful remediation activities at Linde combines meeting cleanup objectives of radiological contamination while minimizing impacts to Praxair business operations. The unique use of Praxair's property coupled with an array of active and abandoned utilities poses many engineering and operational challenges; each of which has been overcome during the remedial action at Linde. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District (USACE) and CABRERA SERVICES, INC. (CABRERA) have successfully faced engineering challenges such as relocation of an aboveground structure, structural protection of an active water line, and installation of active mechanical, electrical, and communication utilities to perform remediation. As remediation nears completion, continued success of engineering challenges is critical as remaining activities exist in the vicinity of infrastructure essential to business operations; an electrical substation and duct bank providing power throughout the Praxair facility. Emphasis on engineering and operations through final remediation and into site restoration will allow for the safe and successful completion of the project. (authors)

  15. Linde FUSRAP Site Remediation: Engineering Challenges and Solutions of Remedial Activities on an Active Industrial Facility - 13506

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beres, Christopher M.; Fort, E. Joseph [Cabrera Services, Inc., 473 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT 06118 (United States); Boyle, James D. [United States Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo, 1776 Niagara Street, Buffalo, NY 14207 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Linde FUSRAP Site (Linde) is located in Tonawanda, New York at a major research and development facility for Praxair, Inc. (Praxair). Successful remediation activities at Linde combines meeting cleanup objectives of radiological contamination while minimizing impacts to Praxair business operations. The unique use of Praxair's property coupled with an array of active and abandoned utilities poses many engineering and operational challenges; each of which has been overcome during the remedial action at Linde. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District (USACE) and CABRERA SERVICES, INC. (CABRERA) have successfully faced engineering challenges such as relocation of an aboveground structure, structural protection of an active water line, and installation of active mechanical, electrical, and communication utilities to perform remediation. As remediation nears completion, continued success of engineering challenges is critical as remaining activities exist in the vicinity of infrastructure essential to business operations; an electrical substation and duct bank providing power throughout the Praxair facility. Emphasis on engineering and operations through final remediation and into site restoration will allow for the safe and successful completion of the project. (authors)

  16. Improving radioactive waste management: an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency's low-activity waste effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheisz, Daniel J; Czyscinski, Kenneth S; Klinger, Adam D

    2006-11-01

    Radioactive waste disposal in the United States is marked by a fragmented regulatory system, with requirements that often focus on the origin or statutory definition of the waste, rather than the hazard of the material in question. It may be possible to enhance public protection by moving toward a system that provides disposal options appropriate for the hazard presented by the waste in question. This paper summarizes aspects of an approach focusing on the potential use, with appropriate conditions, of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle-C hazardous waste landfills for disposal of "low-activity" wastes and public comments on the suggested approach.

  17. An Overview of Neolignans of the Genus Piper L.: Isolation Methods and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Arthur Ladeira; Dos Santos, Thais Carvalho Costa; Valverde, Alessandra Leda; Moreira, Davyson de Lima; Vasconcelos, Thatyana Rocha Alves

    2017-01-01

    The genus Piper L. has the shikimic acid pathway predominantly expressed, biosynthesizing many cinnamic acid derivatives (CAD). Neolignans comprise an important class of CAD that exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, antitumor, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, smooth muscle relaxant, neuroprotective, antiprotozoal and against platelet aggregation factor. These substances have been extracted and isolated from Piper species using different technics. The present review aims to summarize extraction and isolation methods and biological activities of the different types of neolignans covering the period from 1968 to January 2016. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Overview of soil and groundwater research activities of the American Petroleum Institute (API)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, B.

    1992-01-01

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) is a trade association for the domestic petroleum industry in the USA, with over 2000 corporate and 5000 individual members. Subsurface research activities are managed by the API soil/groundwater technical task force, a committee made up of over 25 member company engineers, hydrologists, soil scientists, and chemists representing both the research and operations sectors of the petroleum industry. The research areas of the group have been divided into five principle areas: biodegradation processes, fate and transport, remediation, decision making tools for remediation, and detection/analytical methods. A summary of each of the current projects in these subject areas is presented

  19. Egypt: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongy, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) is a pool-type reactor with an open water surface and variable core arrangement. The core power is 22 MWth cooled by light water, moderated by water and with beryllium reflectors. The design concept is based on the requirement of being a reactor of versatile utilizations, It has been mainly designed for: Basic and applied research in reactor physics and nuclear engineering, neutron radiography for research and industrial purpose, radioisotope production for medical and industrial purposes, beam hole experimentation for neutron scattering experiments and neutron radiography, material testing, material irradiation, activation analysis and training of scientific and technical personnel

  20. Headache Associated With Sexual Activity: A Current Overview Accompanied By Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akyol

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the last classification of the International Headache Society (IHS, primary headache associated with sexual activity (PHASA begins as dull bilateral pain with sexual stimulation and suddenly condenses with orgasm in the absence of any intracranial disorder. The differential diagnosis includes various pathologies such as reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, arterial dissection, glaucoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysmal rupture, and pheochromocytoma. PHASA is not subdivided into preorgasmic or orgasmic subforms, but it was accepted as a single entity with variable presentation in this last classification [International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition, beta version (ICHD-III ]. It is mandatory to exclude possible secondary pathology, even in cases with typical clinical presentation (middle age, male, normal neurological examination. We found an underlying secondary pathology in only one of the three cases (internal carotid artery aneurysm. We considered it appropriate to present three cases to increase the awareness of clinicians in terms of secondary pathology. All three patients received indomethacin for preemptive therapy (50mg, intake 30-60 minute prior to sexual activity with good results.

  1. Overview and status of the Next European Dipole Joint Research Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A; Baudouy, B; Baynham, D E

    2006-01-01

    The Next European Dipole (NED) Joint Research Activity was launched on 1 January 2004 to promote the development of high-performance Nb 3 Sn conductors in collaboration with European industry (aiming at a non-copper critical current density of 1500 A mm -2 at 4.2 K and 15 T) and to assess the suitability of Nb 3 Sn technology to the next generation of accelerator magnets (aiming at an aperture of 88 mm and a conductor peak field of ∼15 T). It is part of the Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) project, which involves eight collaborators, and is half-funded by the European Union. After briefly recalling the Activity organization, we report the main progress achieved over the last year, which includes: the manufacturing of a double-bath He II cryostat for heat transfer measurements through Nb 3 Sn conductor insulation, detailed quench computations for various NED-like magnet configurations, the award of two industrial subcontracts for Nb 3 Sn conductor development, the first results of a cross-calibration programme of test facilities for Nb 3 Sn wire characterization, detailed investigations of the mechanical properties of heavily cold-drawn Cu/Nb/Sn composite wires, and the preliminary assessment of a new insulation system based on polyimide-sized glass fibre tapes. Last, we briefly review the efforts of an ongoing Working Group on magnet design and optimization

  2. Overview and status of the Next European Dipole (NED) joint research activity

    CERN Document Server

    Devred, Arnaud; Baynham, D Elwyn; Boutboul, T; Canfer, S; Chorowski, M; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Félice, H; Fessia, P; Fydrych, J; Granata, V; Greco, Michela; Greenhalgh, J; Leroy, D; Loveridge, P W; Matkowski, M; Michalski, G; Michel, F; Oberli, L R; den Ouden, A; Pedrini, D; Pietrowicz, S; Polinski, J; Previtali, V; Quettier, L; Richter, D; Rifflet, J M; Rochford, J; Rondeaux, F; Sanz, S; Scheuerlein, C; Schwerg, N; Sgobba, Stefano; Sorbi, M; Toral-Fernandez, F; Van Weelderen, R; Védrine, P; Volpini, G

    2006-01-01

    The Next European Dipole (NED) Joint Research Activity was launched on 1st January 2004 to promote the development of high performance Nb$_{3}$Sn conductors in collaboration with European industry (aiming at a non-copper critical current density of 1500 A/mm2 at 4.2 K and 15 T) and to assess the suitability of Nb$_{3}$Sn technology to the next generation of accelerator magnets (aiming at an aperture of 88 mm and a conductor peak field of ~ 15 T). It is part of the Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) project, involves eight collaborators and is half-funded by the European Union. After briefly recalling the Activity organization, we report the main progress achieved over the last year, which includes: the manufacturing of a double-bath He II cryostat for heat transfer measurements through Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor insulation, detailed quench computations for various NED-like magnet configurations, the award of two industrial subcontracts for Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor development, the first results of a cros...

  3. Overview of current activities relevant to structural analysis on LMFBR in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimiya, Masakazu

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the structural analysis activities on LMFBR in Japan. The structural analysis activities on LMFBR in Japan have been made mainly toward the validation of the rules of high temperature structural design guide which is to be used for the design of Class 1 components for elevated temperature service of the prototype fast breeder reactor, Monju. Main features of these analyses are as follows. (1) Since the design by elastic analysis is intended in the high temperature structural design guide of Monju, a large progress has been made in the bounding technique for high temperature inelastic behaviors, particularly the elastic follow-up. (2) There has been a progress in the clarification of the creep behavior in order to evaluate creep damage adequately. (3) Analysis techniques and design rules for piping have been developed with considerable emphasis. In addition, buckling analyses were performed considering the thin structures with low internal pressure in Monju components. Further test and analysis were made on ratcheting. (author)

  4. An overview of the International Electrotechnical Commission's activities on quality assurance in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, H.W.; Ammers, H. van; Henshaw, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    In 1981, the International Electrotechnical Commission Sub-committee 62B set up a Working Group to deal with quality assurance in diagnostic X-ray departments and, more specifically, to develop international standards describing procedures to test the constancy of parameters of diagnostic X-ray Departments, four draft standards on specific topics, seven more documents are in advanced stage, and several others under consideration. According to the approach adopted by the Working Group, these documents are meant to assist in establishing quality assurance programmes in hospitals and provide guidance on how to perform tests and interpret results. This paper reveals the general philosophy behind the activities of the Working Group as well as some details of the standards produced so far, with emphasis on physical parameters of diagnostic X-ray installations and proposed criteria for satisfactory performance. (author)

  5. Innovative nuclear technologies based on radiation induced surface activation (RISA). 1. The project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Kyosuke; Morooka, Shinichi; Hishida, Mamoru

    2004-01-01

    This research of the Innovative nuclear technologies based on Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) is due to start from 2003 and to be ended to 2006, and performed fund by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) Japan. One of the innovative technologies is to develop a high performance corrosion-proof film to prevent the surface of reactor internals from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), the other one is to develop the film for improving the heat transfer performance a high performance of the nuclear fuel rod. Both of these properties are derived under gamma ray irradiation by the RISA effect. This paper reports about the summary of this subsidy enterprise by METI. (author)

  6. Lower thermosphere (80-100 km) dynamics response to solar and geomagnetic activity: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimirovsky, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    The variations of solar and geomagnetic activity may affect the thermosphere circulation via plasma heating and electric fields, especially at high latitudes. The possibility exists that the energy involved in auroral and magnetic storms can produce significant changes of mesosphere and lower thermosphere wind systems. A study of global radar measurements of winds at 80 to 100 km region revealed the short term effects (correlation between wind field and geomagnetic storms) and long term variations over a solar cycle. It seems likely that the correlation results from a modification of planetary waves and tides propagated from below, thus altering the dynamical regime of the thermosphere. Sometimes the long term behavior points rather to a climatic variation with the internal atmospheric cause than to a direct solar control

  7. Overview of French activities on neutron radiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillaud, C [Electricite de France (EDF), 37 - Tours (France); Keroulas, F de [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Pichon, C [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Teissier, A [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Courbevoie (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes recent developments in France`s pressure vessel surveillance program, particularly aimed at assessing the irradiation-caused embrittlement of EDF`s PWRs. The first part presents surveillance program results for base metal, weld metal and heat-affected zones for 74 capsules removed from 34 units. Fluence ranges from 0.3.10{sup 19} n.cm{sup -2} to 5.5.10{sup 19} n.cm{sup -2}. The second part considers research and development activities in this area: these include the metallurgical structure effects of segregated bands on mechanical properties and the embrittlement rate under irradiation, as well as the effect of irradiation parameters such as flux and neutron spectrum on irradiation embrittlement, and more especially to obtain the best damage assessment. (authors). 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. An overview of environmental surveillance of waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.H.; Chew, E.W.; Hedahl, T.G.; Mann, L.J.; Pointer, T.F.; Wiersma, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in southeastern Idaho, is a principal center for nuclear energy development for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Navy. Fifty-two reactors have been built at the INEL, with 15 still operable. Extensive environmental surveillance is conducted at the INEL by DOE's Radiological Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), EG&G Idaho, Inc., and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). Surveillance of waste management facilities radiation is integrated with the overall INEL Site surveillance program. Air, warer, soil, biota, and environmental radiation are monitored or sampled routinely at INEL. Results to date indicate very small or no impacts from INEL on the surrounding environment. Environmental surveillance activities are currently underway to address key environmental issues at the INEL.

  9. Overview of environmental surveillance of waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Hedahl, T.G.; Wiersma, G.B.; Chew, E.W.; Mann, L.J.; Pointer, T.F.

    1986-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in southeastern Idaho, is a principal center for nuclear energy development for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Nuclear Navy. Fifty-two reactors have been built at the INEL, with 15 still operable. Extensive environmental surveillance is conducted at the INEL by DOE's Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), the US Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), EG and G Idaho, Inc., and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). Surveillance of waste management facilities is integrated with the overall INEL Site surveillance program. Air, water, soil, biota, and environmental radiation are monitored or sampled routinely at the INEL. Results to date indicate very small or no impacts from the INEL on the surrounding environment. Environmental surveillance activities are currently underway to address key environmental issues at the INEL. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Emerging applications of advanced fuels for energy generation and transmutation. Overview of IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pong Eil Juhn; Arkhipov, V.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear power generation is an established part of the world's electricity mix. However, the highly radioactive waste generated during power production is of great concern of public perception of nuclear energy. In order for nuclear power to realize its full potential as a major energy source for the entire world, there must be a safe and effective way to deal with this waste. Therefore, science must come to the rescue in the form of new, more effective technology aimed at reducing the amount of long-lived radioactive waste and eliminating nuclear weapons' grade material through transmutation of these isotopes in fission reactors or accelerators. In the framework of IAEA activities on the use of this new technologies the Agency has periodically review and assess the current status of the new fuel cycles, its applications worldwide, its economic benefits, and its perceived advantages vis-a-vis other nuclear fuel cycles. (author)

  11. Review-An overview of Pistacia integerrima a medicinal plant species: Ethnobotany, biological activities and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Yamin; Zia, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Pistacia integerrima with a common name crab's claw is an ethnobotanically important tree native to Asia. Traditionally plant parts particularly its galls have been utilized for treatment of cough, asthma, dysentery, liver disorders and for snake bite. Plant mainly contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and sterols in different parts including leaf, stem, bark, galls and fruit. A number of terpenoids, sterols and phenolic compounds have been isolated from Pistacia integerrima extracts. Plant has many biological activities including anti-microbial, antioxidant, analgesic, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity due to its chemical constituents. This review covers its traditional ethnomedicinal uses along with progresses in biological and phytochemical evaluation of this medicinally important plant species and aims to serve as foundation for further exploration and utilization.

  12. Overview of JSC “NIKIET” activity on ITER Procurement Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leshukov, A.Yu., E-mail: leshu@nikiet.ru [Joint-Stock Company “N.A. Dollezhall Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering”, (JSC “NIKIET”), 107140, Malaya Krasnoselskaya 2/8, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dragunov, Yu. G.; Strebkov, Yu. S.; Kirillov, S.Yu.; Makarov, S.V.; Trofimovich, P.D.; Dubinin, G.V.; Maksimov, V.A.; Sviridenko, M.N.; Razmerov, A.V.; Parshutin, E.V.; Khomyakov, S.E.; Kolganov, V.Yu.; Zhmakin, A.V. [Joint-Stock Company “N.A. Dollezhall Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering”, (JSC “NIKIET”), 107140, Malaya Krasnoselskaya 2/8, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belyakov, V.A.; Mazul, I.V.; Gervash, A.A. [JSC “NIIEFA” (D.V. Efremov Institute), 189631, Doroga na Metallostroy, 3, S. Peterburg (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M.; Romannikov, A.N. [Institution “Project Center ITER”,123182, Square of Academic Kurchatov 1, Moscow (Russian Federation); Eaton, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon CS 90 046 − 13067 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); and others

    2016-11-01

    The two following ITER blanket-relevant Procurement Arrangements (PA) were signed by Russian Federation and ITER Organization in 2014: 1)1.6.P1ARF.01 “Blanket First Wall” (signed on 14-th of February, 2014); 2)1.6.P3.RF.01 “Blanket Module Connections” (signed on 19-th of December, 2014). The first PA is devoted to the development, manufacturing, testing and procuring to ITER site of 179 Enhanced Heat Flux (EHF) First Wall (FW) Panels. These FW panels are intended to withstand the heat flux from plasma up to 4.7 MW/m{sup 2}, and there are two institutions in Russian Federation responsible for the manufacturing, testing and delivering of these panels on the ITER site: JSC “NIIEFA” (Efremov Institute) and JSC “NIKIET”. JSC “NIIEFA” (Efremov Institute) will manufacture the plasma-facing components (PFC) of EHF FW Panels and perform the final assembling of the panels while JSC “NIKIET” will manufacture the FW beam structures, load-bearing structures of PFC and the all the elements of panel attachment system. As for the second PA (“Blanket Module Connectors”) the JSC “NIKIET” is the alone official Supplier and will manufacture and procure blanket flexible supports, electrical insulating key pads and shield block/vacuum vessel electrical connectors. This article briefly describes the joint activity of JSC “NIKIET” and Efremov Institute in the framework of 1.6.P1ARF.01 “Blanket First Wall” Procurement Arrangement and the material on the activity on the second PA. The main achievements on both PAs (during the period of 2014–2015) are presented and also critical issues and plans are underlined.

  13. NRC Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Program: Overview of Consultation and Monitoring Activities at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Savannah River Site - What We Have Learned - 12470

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suber, Gregory [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In 2005 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) began to implement a new set of responsibilities under the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) of Fiscal Year 2005. Section 3116 of the NDAA requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consult with the NRC for certain non-high level waste determinations and also requires NRC to monitor DOE's disposal actions related to those determinations. In Fiscal Year 2005, the NRC staff began consulting with DOE and completed reviews of draft waste determinations for salt waste at the Savannah River Site. In 2006, a second review was completed on tank waste residuals including sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm at the Idaho National Laboratory. Monitoring Plans were developed for these activities and the NRC is actively monitoring disposal actions at both sites. NRC is currently in consultation with DOE on the F-Area Tank Farm closure and anticipates entering consultation on the H-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site. This paper presents, from the NRC perspective, an overview of how the consultation and monitoring process has evolved since its conception in 2005. It addresses changes in methods and procedures used to collect and develop information used by the NRC in developing the technical evaluation report and monitoring plan under consultation and the implementation the plan under monitoring. It will address lessons learned and best practices developed throughout the process. The NDAA has presented significant challenges for the NRC and DOE. Past and current successes demonstrate that the NDAA can achieve its intended goal of facilitating tank closure at DOE legacy defense waste sites. The NRC believes many of the challenges in performing the WD reviews have been identified and addressed. Lessons learned have been collected and documented throughout the review process. Future success will be contingent on each agencies commitment to

  14. Business trends report 2006. High oil prices ensure high activity level; What are the challenges?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The first in a series of annual business trends reports which The Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) has decided to publish. The report highlights features in the development of the global economy and the energy markets, and presents an analysis of the level of activity on the Norwegian Shelf through to 2010. It also gives a status report and outlines the challenges that lie within three important areas for the oil industry: the relationship with the external environment, health, safety and working environment, and personnel and competence requirements within the industry. The main message contained in the report is summarised as follows: 'While prospects for the immediate future look good, we foresee a lack of new, important and technically challenging projects in the longer term. Discoveries made on the Norwegian Shelf during recent years have been small. Exploration activity must be intensified and its results must be improved. The most important and effective stimulus in this connection is new prospective exploration acreage. The Comprehensive Management Plan for Lofoten and the Barents Sea will be revised in 2010. By that time the knowledge gaps in the plan have to be filled so that the decision-making basis is as good as possible. Even though the level of activity looks as if it will continue to be high in the medium term, we have no time to lose.' Environmental status and challenges are briefly reviewed, as well as the industry's future recruitment challenges (author) (ml)

  15. Overview of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center's urban research and development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundquist, J K; Sugiyama, G A; Nasstrom, J

    2007-01-01

    Administration (NOAA), U.S. Navy, and U.S. Air Force, as well as an in-house mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. NARAC provides an easy-to-use Geographical Information System (GIS) for display of plume predictions with affected population counts and detailed maps, and the ability to export plume predictions to other standard GIS capabilities. Data collection and product distribution is provided through a variety of communication methods, including dial-up, satellite, and wired and wireless networks. Ongoing research and development activities will be highlighted. The NARAC scientific support team is developing urban parameterizations for use in a regional dispersion model (see companion paper by Delle Monache). Modifications to the numerical weather prediction model WRF to account for characteristics of urban dynamics are also in progress, as is boundary-layer turbulence model development for simulations with resolutions greater than 1km. The NARAC building-resolving computational fluid dynamics capability, FEM3MP, enjoys ongoing development activities such as the expansion of its ability to model releases of dense gases. Other research activities include sensor-data fusion, such as the reconstruction of unknown source terms from sparse and disparate observations

  16. Overview of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center's Urban Research and Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Sugiyama, G.; Nasstrom, J.

    2007-12-01

    Administration (NOAA), U.S. Navy, and U.S. Air Force, as well as an in-house mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. NARAC provides an easy-to-use Geographical Information System (GIS) for display of plume predictions with affected population counts and detailed maps, and the ability to export plume predictions to other standard GIS capabilities. Data collection and product distribution is provided through a variety of communication methods, including dial-up, satellite, and wired and wireless networks. Ongoing research and development activities will be highlighted. The NARAC scientific support team is developing urban parameterizations for use in a regional dispersion model (see companion paper by Delle Monache). Modifications to the numerical weather prediction model WRF to account for characteristics of urban dynamics are also in progress, as is boundary-layer turbulence model development for simulations with resolutions greater than 1km. The NARAC building-resolving computational fluid dynamics capability, FEM3MP, enjoys ongoing development activities such as the expansion of its ability to model releases of dense gases. Other research activities include sensor-data fusion, such as the reconstruction of unknown source terms from sparse and disparate observations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. The Department of Homeland Security sponsored the production of this material under the Department of Energy contract for the management and operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. UCRL-PROC-234355

  17. Overview of the testing activities on ITER sub-scale pre-compression rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.rossi@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Capobianchi, Mario; Crescenzi, Fabio; Massimi, Alberto; Mugnaini, Giampiero; Pizzuto, Aldo [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Knaster, Juan [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115, St. Paul lez Durance (France); Rajainmaki, Hannu [FUSION FOR ENERGY, Josep Pla no. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ENEA developed a high strength glass fiber-epoxy composite for ITER pre-compression rings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High UTS values were obtained at RT on linear specimens (2200 MPa) and on scaled ring mock-ups (1550 MPa). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Creep tests showed very low creep strain and creep rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long term tests showed no significant stress relaxation on the ring mock-ups. - Abstract: After a first R and D and testing activity to develop and characterize by tensile and creep tests a high strength glass fiber-epoxy composite as reference material for the manufacture of ITER pre-compression rings, ENEA designed and manufactured a dedicated testing facility and different sub-scale composite ring mock-ups in order to characterize their mechanical properties. The paper reports the results of the overall testing activities performed during the last years on a total number of eleven sub-scale pre-compression ring mock-ups manufactured by winding S2 glass fibers on a diameter of 1 m (1/5 of the full scale) both by vacuum pressure epoxy impregnation (VPI) and filament wet winding techniques (WW). The first three rings were manufactured by ENEA Frascati thanks to a particular VPI technique; one of them was used as base composite material to manufacture different sets of specimens for shear, compression and non destructive tests (NDT). Then, five other mock-ups were manufactured following ENEA VPI process and three using WW technique by two different industrial companies. The rings were tested in ENEA Frascati in a dedicated hydraulic testing machine consisting of 18 radial actuators working in position control with a total load capability of 1000 tons. The complete testing campaign consisted of six ultimate tensile strength (UTS) tests and four stress relaxation (SR) tests. The tests demonstrated that the composite (S2 glass-epoxy) is a valid and viable solution for the ITER pre

  18. Italy: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Materials characterization, through non-invasive techniques, represents an important strategic tool in the non-destructive quantitative analysis of artefacts of archaeological and historical interest. In fact, thanks to the high penetration power of thermal neutrons in dense matter, bulk analysis of massive findings, characteristic of archaeological activity, can be nowadays carried out in an almost straightforward way, especially on metal samples. By means of neutron diffraction, it is possible to obtain, without any need of sampling, the average bulk phase composition of the specimen and to reveal the hidden presence of mineralisation phases, which, in turn, gives a deep information on its preservation status. Moreover, a detailed analysis of the peak shape, can shed light on smelting and smithing methods, as well as on the amount of mechanical work that was originally carried out on the sample. Neutron imaging techniques, have developed to such an extent that, today, it is possible to reconstruct tomographic images down to ≅30 μm space resolution. In addition, thanks to the developing techniques of energy selective neutron imaging and tomography the scenario opens over a wealth of futuristic applications, thanks to the enhanced contrast inherent in this technique. At present, these energy selective techniques are only limited by the performances of the device needed to select the energy (and wavelength) of the incident neutron beam: i.e. a rotating disk velocity selector and double monochromator. The possibility of enhancing this technique by fully exploiting the Time of Flight technique could improve dramatically the energy resolution and consequently the range of possible “contrast enhancement” possibilities. What we propose is a research activity using energy selective neutron imaging, applied to cultural heritage metal artefacts, to study the historical evolution of iron production on a world basis, i.e. including European, middle-east, Indian, and

  19. An overview of the International Electrotechnical Commission's activities on quality assurance in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, H.W.; Ammers, H. van; Henshaw, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    In 1981, the International Electrotechnical Commission Sub-committee 62B set up a Working Group (WG 10) to deal with quality assurance in diagnostic X-ray departments and, more specifically, to develop international standards describing procedures to test the constancy of parameters of diagnostic X-ray installations. Since then, the working group has produced a report on General Aspects of Quality Assurance in Diagnostic X-ray Departments and four draft standards on specific topics, while seven more documents are in advanced drafting stage. Several others are presently under consideration. According to the approach adopted by the Working Group, these documents are meant to assist in establishing quality assurance programmes in hospitals and provide guidance on how to perform the tests and interpret their results. This paper reveals the general philosophy behind the activities of the Working Group as well as some details of the standard produced so far, with emphasis on the physical parameters of diagnostic X-ray installations and their proposed criteria for satisfactory performance. (author)

  20. Brazil: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliesi, Reynaldo

    2012-01-01

    The neutron imaging is a set of non - destructive testing techniques commonly employed to inspect the internal structure of objects. Because of the neutron - matter interaction characteristics, these techniques are largely employed to inspect hydrogenous substances (water, organic fibers, adhesives, etc) even wrapped by thick metal layers. The Brazilian culture is surrounded by a rich cultural heritage, mainly left by Indians and slaves. Many of the old objects and tools they have used, were manufactured by using clay, wood, organic fibers as well as bones. These materials and the ones used for their restoration are manufactured of several types of hydrogenous substances and hence the use of neutron imaging techniques are very adequate to study such objects. The neutron imaging activities at IPEN - CNEN/SP began in 1988 and the primary objective of the working group was to design and to construct an operational facility for neutron imaging, to be installed in the beam-hole - 08 of the 5MW IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor. From 1992 to 1997, the group has developed several 2D imaging techniques

  1. Russia: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlenko, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The development of neutron imaging techniques as a tool for non-destructive analysis of the internal structure, defects and processes in industrial products, functional materials, objects of cultural heritage attracts considerable attention at the present time. The dedicated instruments are available at the many neutron sources. The IBR-2M high flux pulsed reactor is one of the most powerful pulsed neutron sources in the world with the average power 2 MW, power per neutron pulse 1850 MW and neutron flux in pulse of 5·10 15 n/cm 2 /s. During the period December 2006 – December 2010 the reactor was on modernization for replacement of the reactor vessel and fuel elements. During 2011, the successful physical and power start-up of IBR-2M were performed. Now reactor is operational and can be used for research and development activities using neutron scattering techniques in next 25 years prospective. However, no instruments dedicated for neutron imaging is installed at IBR-2M so far. Moreover, in Russian Federation there is no dedicated neutron imaging facility for cultural heritage research at the moment

  2. An overview of activities of nuclear data physics centre of India (NDPCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Alok

    2015-01-01

    India has a three stage nuclear power programme which requires accurate inputs of nuclear data for design and safe operation of existing as well as for the design of new and innovative reactors. Apart from that nuclear data is required for accelerator shield design, personal dosimetry, radiation safety, production of radioisotopes, radiation damage studies, waste transmutation etc. To cater to various needs of department, the Nuclear Data Physics Centre of India (NDPCI) was formed in 2010-11 to provide a platform for coordinated efforts in all aspects of nuclear data, viz., measurements, analysis, compilation and evaluation involving national laboratories and universities in India. The NDPCI has projects / collaborations with universities and various units of department of atomic energy (DAE) across India involving physicist, radio-chemists, reactor physicists and computer engineers. A number of projects have been awarded under NDPCI to various universities to involve faculties and students in nuclear reactions, nuclear structure and EXFOR compilations. The NDPCI is presently a virtual centre under Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences of DAE and functions through two committees namely Program Implementation Committee and Program Review Committee involving scientists and faculties from various divisions of DAE units and universities. A brief account of NDPCI activities carried out by our researchers is described in this report

  3. Bufadienolides of Kalanchoe species: an overview of chemical structure, biological activity and prospects for pharmacological use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Stochmal, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Toad venom is regarded as the main source of bufadienolides; however, synthesis of these substances takes also place in a variety of other animal and plant organisms, including ethnomedicinal plants of the Kalanchoe genus. Chemically, bufadienolides are a group of polyhydroxy C-24 steroids and their glycosides, containing a six-membered lactone (α-pyrone) ring at the C-17β position. From the pharmacological point of view, bufadienolides might be a promising group of steroid hormones with cardioactive properties and anticancer activity. Most of the literature concerns bufadienolides of animal origin; however, the medicinal use of these compounds remains limited by their narrow therapeutic index and the risk of development of cardiotoxic effects. On the other hand, plants such as Kalanchoe are also a source of bufadienolides. Kalanchoe pinnata (life plant, air plant, cathedral bells), Kalanchoe daigremontiana (mother of thousands) and other Kalanchoe species are valuable herbs in traditional medicine of Asia and Africa. The present review focuses on the available data on chemical structures of 31 compounds, biological properties and prospects for therapeutic use of bufadienolides from Kalanchoe species. Furthermore, it presents some new investigational trends in research on curative uses of these substances.

  4. An overview of the RCA/IAEA activities in the Australasian region using nuclear analysis techniques for monitoring air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwitz, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) via the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) has identified air particulate matter pollution as a major transboundary environmental issue in the Australasian region. Sixteen countries in the region spanning from Pakistan to the Philippines and from China to New Zealand are participating in the regional programme RAS/7/013-Improved information of urban air quality management in the RCA region' that started in 1997. New Zealand is the lead-country for this programme in which nuclear analytical techniques, such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) are used to measure key elements in PM 2.5-0 and PM 10-2.5 filters from GENT stacked samplers collected twice weekly. Major sources of air particulate matter pollution are identified using statistical source apportionment techniques. To identify transboundary air particulate matter pollution events, the data is collated in a large database. Additionally, the data is used by end-users of the participating countries in the programme. An overview is presented. (author)

  5. Overview of the Activities on Radiation Processing of Polymeric Materials in Bangladesh. Chapter 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, M.; Dafader, N. C.; Sultana, S.; Mollah, M. Z.I. [Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry Division, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Mandal, M. M.A. [Crop Physiology Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, BAU Campus, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)

    2014-07-15

    Natural polymers processed through radiation are used in agriculture, health care, and environmental protection. The process of chitosan extraction from prawn/shrimp shells has been established. The method used in determining the molecular weight of chitosan had previously been standardized during the harmonization program of protocol for molecular weight determination organized by IAEA in cooperation with Poland and UK during which Bangladesh was a participant. Increased yield of several crops over the control was achieved using chitosan as plant growth promoter: up to 13% for rice when chitosan with 50 ppm concentration was applied two times, up to 56% for summer tomato when chitosan with a concentration of 75 ppm was sprayed one time, up to 30% for mungbean when 50 ppm chitosan was applied two times, and up to 24% for maize when 100 ppm chitosan was applied three times. Field tests covering three seasons to confirm any increase in the yield of tomato and maize are still being conducted. Funding from the CRP helped carry out these activities to a great extent. Through the IAEA TC project, radiation processing laboratories were enhanced with new equipment, chemicals/monomers/polymers, and the capability of staff members was improved through additional training, expert assistance and scientific visits. One PhD student and several MSc students were able to complete their theses and had them published. Super Water Absorbent (SWA) hydrogel was prepared using 5%Acrylamide blended with 3% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and irradiating at 25 kGy. It was applied on tomato plants as soil conditioner and positive results were obtained. Government funding aided in the establishment of a pilot plant that eventually became a full-fledged institute for radiation processing. (author)

  6. Systematic review and technological overview of the antimicrobial activity of Tagetes minuta and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Daniela Coelho Dos; Schneider, Lara Rodrigues; da Silva Barboza, Andressa; Diniz Campos, Ângela; Lund, Rafael Guerra

    2017-08-17

    The antimicrobial potential of Tagetes minuta was correlated with its traditional use as antibacterial, insecticidal, biocide, disinfectant, anthelminthic, antifungal, and antiseptic agent as well as its use in urinary tract infections. This study aimed to systematically review articles and patents regarding the antimicrobial activity of T. minuta and give rise to perspectives on this plant as a potential antimicrobial agent. A literature search of studies published between 1997 and 2015 was conducted over five databases: MedLine (PubMed), Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, Portal de Periódicos Capes and SciFinder, grey literature was explored using the System for Information on Dissertations database, and theses were searched using the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Full text database and the Periódicos Capes Theses database. Additionally, the following databases for patents were analysed: United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), Google Patents, National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI) and Espacenet patent search (EPO). The data were tabulated and analysed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010. After title screening, 51 studies remained and this number decreased to 26 after careful examinations of the abstracts. The full texts of these 26 studies were assessed to check if they were eligible. Among them, 3 were excluded for not having full text access, and 11 were excluded because they did not fit the inclusion criteria, which left 10 articles for this systematic review. The same process was conducted for the patent search, resulting in 4 patents being included in this study. Recent advances highlighted by this review may shed light on future directions of studies concerning T. minuta as a novel antimicrobial agent, which should be repeatedly proven in future animal and clinical studies. Although more evidence on its specificity and clinical efficacy are necessary to support its clinical use, T. minuta is expected to be a highly effective

  7. RETRAN overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agee, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The RETRAN code has become the industry standard with respect to NSSS transient analysis. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of important RETRAN-related events since the second International meeting in April of 1982. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part addresses the current status of the code with emphasis on the design review of RETRAN-02 MOD002 and the goal of RETRAN-02 in the Reactor Analysis Support Package (RASP). These activities are being undertaken to simplify the use of RETRAN for safety analysis and reload application which may be part of an NRC submittal. The second part of the paper describes significant applications of RETRAN. In the analysis section, special emphasis is placed on validation analyses which compare the code to actual plant data or experimental facilities. The third section briefly describes the pre-release version of RETRAN and the developmental goals for the next version of RETRAN. One major limitation of all state-of-the-art thermal-hydraulic codes is the determination of the structure of the fluid. A brief description of research needs in this are indicated

  8. The Challenge Posed by Geomagnetic Activity to Electric Power Reliability: Evidence From England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Kevin F.; St. Cyr, O. C.

    2017-10-01

    This paper addresses whether geomagnetic activity challenged the reliability of the electric power system during part of the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Operations by National Grid in England and Wales are examined over the period of 11 March 2003 through 31 March 2005. This paper examines the relationship between measures of geomagnetic activity and a metric of challenged electric power reliability known as the net imbalance volume (NIV). Measured in megawatt hours, NIV represents the sum of all energy deployments initiated by the system operator to balance the electric power system. The relationship between geomagnetic activity and NIV is assessed using a multivariate econometric model. The model was estimated using half-hour settlement data over the period of 11 March 2003 through 31 December 2004. The results indicate that geomagnetic activity had a demonstrable effect on NIV over the sample period. Based on the parameter estimates, out-of-sample predictions of NIV were generated for each half hour over the period of 1 January to 31 March 2005. Consistent with the existence of a causal relationship between geomagnetic activity and the electricity market imbalance, the root-mean-square error of the out-of-sample predictions of NIV is smaller; that is, the predictions are more accurate, when the statistically significant estimated effects of geomagnetic activity are included as drivers in the predictions.

  9. Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The program overview describes the following resources and facilities; laser facilities, main laser room, target room, energy storage, laboratory area, building support systems, general plant project, and the new trailer complex

  10. Vulvovaginitis - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000897.htm Vulvovaginitis - overview To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Vulvovaginitis or vaginitis is swelling or infection of the ...

  11. An overview of past and present activities in the severe accident domain within the framework of WGAMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guentay, S.

    2011-01-01

    was introduced in 2005 to set-up the priorities and timeline of new activities. As a result, selection of the currently running activities was established by a careful review of all relevant severe accident issues and considering the status of research being conducted in 2006-2007. Several severe accident issues that have potential to be tackled by means of the standard OECD tools were identified and grouped under 11 main titles. The appropriate activity type was assigned to each issue under the main title, their risk and regulatory relevance was determined based on responses of WGAMA members and possible activities in the short, mid and long term were defined. Currently (2010-2011), the screening process is repeated since many of the international severe accident projects have been completed or are well advanced. The present paper will provide a brief overview of the WGAMA activities carried out in the last three decades in the severe accident field. It will highlight the results achieved in fission product release, transport, deposition and retention behavior, in-vessel behavior of degraded cores and in-vessel protection, containment behavior and containment protection, as well as in reaching a common understanding of severe accident management measures and their treatment in risk assessment. (author)

  12. Challenges Encountered in Creating Personalised Learning Activities to Suit Students Learning Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Eileen; Wade, Vincent; Sharp, Mary; O'Donnell, Liam

    2013-01-01

    This book chapter reviews some of the challenges encountered by educators in creating personalised e-learning activities to suit students learning preferences. Technology-enhanced learning (TEL) alternatively known as e-learning has not yet reached its full potential in higher education. There are still many potential uses as yet undiscovered and other discovered uses which are not yet realisable by many educators. TEL is still predominantly used for e-dissemination and e-administration. This...

  13. Complement activation cascade triggered by PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines and carbon nanotubes: The challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Hashemi, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    reactions to certain PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines in both experimental animals and man. These reactions are classified as pseudoallergy and may be associated with cardiopulmonary disturbance and other related symptoms of anaphylaxis. Recent studies suggest that complement activation may be a contributing......, but not a rate limiting factor, in eliciting hypersensitivity reactions to such nanomedicines in sensitive individuals. This is rather surprising since PEGylated structures are generally assumed to suppress protein adsorption and blood opsonization events including complement. Here, we examine the molecular...... basis of complement activation by PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines and carbon nanotubes and discuss the challenges ahead....

  14. Medication safety activities of hospital pharmacists in Ghana; challenges and perceived impact on patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Franklin; Bruce, Elizabeth; Anto, Berko Panyin

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacists by their training have the competences and skills to promote safe use of medicines which is an essential component of patient safety. This study explored the perceptions of hospital pharmacists' role in medication safety in Ghana, identified their attendant challenges and ways of enhancing such roles in the future. A self-administered questionnaire was delivered to 200 pharmacists selected conveniently from the 10 regions of Ghana. Questions in the questionnaire were based on a systematic literature review that had catalogued and summarised all the activities of hospital pharmacists related to medication safety. A total of 176 (88% response rate) questionnaires were completed and returned. Almost all pharmacists (97.7%) believed that they were involved in medication safety activities in their daily routine. The frequently performed activities were counselling of out-patient (91.8%), training pharmacy and other clinical students (72.2%), reporting on medication errors (70%), and reconciling medications (69.2%). The mean weekly time spent on the activities ranged from 6.5 to 19.8 hours. Participants who had clinical pharmacy related additional qualifications (χ2 = 37.749; p = 0.049) and worked in tertiary care hospitals (χ2 = 26.6; p = 0.377) undertook more medication safety activities than those without. The cited challenges faced by participants included inadequate time available (62.7%), spending most time in managerial activities (47.3%), lack of formal structures of engagement (43.8%), lack of motivation by superiors (34.9%), and no formal schedule by supervisor (32%). Only 7.7% stated they lack interest in performing those activities. Pharmacists undertake many medication safety activities routinely that they perceive to have impact on patient care outcomes. Restructuring of their managerial roles will contribute to freeing time for pharmacists to engage more in those activities.

  15. The interplanetary causes of geomagnetic activity during the 7–17 March 2012 interval: a CAWSES II overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsurutani Bruce T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This overview paper presents/discusses the major solar, interplanetary, magnetospheric, and ionospheric features of the CAWSES II interval of study: 7–17 March 2012. Magnetic storms occurred on 7, 9, 12, and 15 March with peak SYM-H intensities of −98 nT, −148 nT, −75 nT (pressure corrected, and −79 nT, respectively. These are called the S1, S2, S3, and S4 events. Although three of the storm main phases (S1, S3, and S4 were caused by IMF Bsouth sheath fields and the S2 event was associated with a magnetic cloud (MC, the detailed scenario for all four storms were different. Two interplanetary features with unusually high temperatures and intense and quiet magnetic fields were identified located antisunward of the MCs (S2 and S3. These features are signatures of either coronal loops or coronal sheaths. A high speed stream (HSS followed the S4 event where the presumably southward IMF Bz components of the Alfvén waves extended the storm “recovery phase” by several days. The ICME-associated shocks were particularly intense. The fast forward shock for the S2 event had a magnetosonic Mach number of ~9.4, the largest in recorded history. All of the shocks associated with the ICMEs created sudden impulses (SI+s at Earth. The shocks preceding the S2 and S3 magnetic storms caused unusually high SI+ intensities of ~60 and 68 nT, respectively. Many further studies on various facets of this active interval are suggested for CAWSES II researchers and other interested parties.

  16. Overview of the NASA/RECON educational, research, and development activities of the Computer Science Departments of the University of Southwestern Louisiana and Southern University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    This document presents a brief overview of the scope of activities undertaken by the Computer Science Departments of the University of Southern Louisiana (USL) and Southern University (SU) pursuant to a contract with NASA. Presented are only basic identification data concerning the contract activities since subsequent entries within the Working Paper Series will be oriented specifically toward a detailed development and presentation of plans, methodologies, and results of each contract activity. Also included is a table of contents of the entire USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series.

  17. A community computational challenge to predict the activity of pairs of compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Mukesh; Yang, Jichen; Karan, Charles; Menden, Michael P; Costello, James C; Tang, Hao; Xiao, Guanghua; Li, Yajuan; Allen, Jeffrey; Zhong, Rui; Chen, Beibei; Kim, Minsoo; Wang, Tao; Heiser, Laura M; Realubit, Ronald; Mattioli, Michela; Alvarez, Mariano J; Shen, Yao; Gallahan, Daniel; Singer, Dinah; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Xie, Yang; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Califano, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Recent therapeutic successes have renewed interest in drug combinations, but experimental screening approaches are costly and often identify only small numbers of synergistic combinations. The DREAM consortium launched an open challenge to foster the development of in silico methods to computationally rank 91 compound pairs, from the most synergistic to the most antagonistic, based on gene-expression profiles of human B cells treated with individual compounds at multiple time points and concentrations. Using scoring metrics based on experimental dose-response curves, we assessed 32 methods (31 community-generated approaches and SynGen), four of which performed significantly better than random guessing. We highlight similarities between the methods. Although the accuracy of predictions was not optimal, we find that computational prediction of compound-pair activity is possible, and that community challenges can be useful to advance the field of in silico compound-synergy prediction.

  18. How Gamification Affects Physical Activity: Large-scale Analysis of Walking Challenges in a Mobile Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameli, Ali; Althoff, Tim; Saberi, Amin; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-04-01

    Gamification represents an effective way to incentivize user behavior across a number of computing applications. However, despite the fact that physical activity is essential for a healthy lifestyle, surprisingly little is known about how gamification and in particular competitions shape human physical activity. Here we study how competitions affect physical activity. We focus on walking challenges in a mobile activity tracking application where multiple users compete over who takes the most steps over a predefined number of days. We synthesize our findings in a series of game and app design implications. In particular, we analyze nearly 2,500 physical activity competitions over a period of one year capturing more than 800,000 person days of activity tracking. We observe that during walking competitions, the average user increases physical activity by 23%. Furthermore, there are large increases in activity for both men and women across all ages, and weight status, and even for users that were previously fairly inactive. We also find that the composition of participants greatly affects the dynamics of the game. In particular, if highly unequal participants get matched to each other, then competition suffers and the overall effect on the physical activity drops significantly. Furthermore, competitions with an equal mix of both men and women are more effective in increasing the level of activities. We leverage these insights to develop a statistical model to predict whether or not a competition will be particularly engaging with significant accuracy. Our models can serve as a guideline to help design more engaging competitions that lead to most beneficial behavioral changes.

  19. Pediatric Expression of Mast Cell Activation Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Carter, Melody; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard

    2018-01-01

    , anaphylaxis, mastocytosis, and other conditions where MC activation is contributing to the pathogenesis. This article focuses on clinical presentations, challenges, and controversies in pediatric mastocytosis and gives an overview of current knowledge and areas in need of further research....

  20. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : European electricity generating facilities: an overview of European regulatory requirements and standardization efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, L.

    2002-06-01

    Several factors are affecting power generating facilities, such as the opening of both electricity and gas markets, and the pressure applied on generators and governments to ensure a steady energy supply for consumers. An additional factor is the pressure for the closing of nuclear power facilities. European siting and emissions requirements for coal-fired and natural gas generating facilities were presented in this background paper. In addition, the author provided an overview of the standardization process in place in Europe. The European Union and its functioning were briefly described, as well as a listing of relevant organizations. The current trends were examined. The document first introduced the European Union, and the next section dealt with Regulatory regime: the internal energy market. The third section examined the issue of Regulatory regime: generation and environmental regulations. Section four presented environmental management systems, followed by a section on standardization. Section six discussed European organizations involved in electricity issues, while the following section dealt with European commission programs. The last section briefly looked at the trends in the electricity sector, broaching topics such as compliance, electricity generation, and emissions trading. 52 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Overview of research activities associated with the World Health Organization: results of a survey covering 2006/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Robert F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the first comprehensive effort to provide an overview of the research associated with the World Health Organization (WHO headquarters in 2006/07. Methods Information was obtained by questionnaire and interviews with senior staff operating at WHO headquarters in Geneva. Research type, purpose and resources (both financial and staff were defined and compared for each of the 37 departments identified and a comparative analysis was made with the global burden of disease as expressed by Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY. Results Research expenditure in 2006/07 was estimated at US$215 million. WHO is involved in more than 60 research networks/partnerships and often WHO itself is the network host. Using the DALY model, 84% of the funding WHO allocates to research goes to DALY Type I diseases (communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional diseases which represents 40% of DALY. 4% is allocated to Daly Type II (non-communicable diseases which contributes to 48% of DALY. 45% of WHO permanent staff are involved with health research and the WHO's approach to research is predominantly focused on policy, advocacy, health systems and population based research. The Organization principally undertakes secondary research using published data and commissions others to conduct this work through contracts or research grants. This approach is broadly in line with the stated strategy of the Organization. Conclusions The difficulty in undertaking this survey highlights the complexity of obtaining an Organization-wide assessment of research activity in the absence of common standards for research classification, methods for priority setting and a mechanism across WHO, or within the governance of global health research more generally, for managing a research portfolio. This paper presents a strategic birds-eye view of the WHO research portfolio using methodologies that, with further development, may provide the strategic

  2. An overview of the challenges in designing, integrating, and delivering BARD: a public chemical biology resource and query portal across multiple organizations, locations, and disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Andrea; Bittker, Joshua; Lahr, David; Brudz, Steve; Chatwin, Simon; Oprea, Tudor I.; Waller, Anna; Yang, Jeremy; Southall, Noel; Guha, Rajarshi; Schurer, Stephan; Vempati, Uma; Southern, Mark R.; Dawson, Eric S.; Clemons, Paul A.; Chung, Thomas D.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Recent industry-academic partnerships involve collaboration across disciplines, locations, and organizations using publicly funded “open-access” and proprietary commercial data sources. These require effective integration of chemical and biological information from diverse data sources, presenting key informatics, personnel, and organizational challenges. BARD (BioAssay Research Database) was conceived to address these challenges and to serve as a community-wide resource and intuitive web portal for public-sector chemical biology data. Its initial focus is to enable scientists to more effectively use the NIH Roadmap Molecular Libraries Program (MLP) data generated from 3-year pilot and 6-year production phases of the Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network (MLPCN), currently in its final year. BARD evolves the current data standards through structured assay and result annotations that leverage the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) and other industry-standard ontologies, and a core hierarchy of assay definition terms and data standards defined specifically for small-molecule assay data. We have initially focused on migrating the highest-value MLP data into BARD and bringing it up to this new standard. We review the technical and organizational challenges overcome by the inter-disciplinary BARD team, veterans of public and private sector data-integration projects, collaborating to describe (functional specifications), design (technical specifications), and implement this next-generation software solution. PMID:24441647

  3. An Overview of the Challenges in Designing, Integrating, and Delivering BARD: A Public Chemical-Biology Resource and Query Portal for Multiple Organizations, Locations, and Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Andrea; Bittker, Joshua A; Lahr, David L; Brudz, Steve; Chatwin, Simon; Oprea, Tudor I; Waller, Anna; Yang, Jeremy J; Southall, Noel; Guha, Rajarshi; Schürer, Stephan C; Vempati, Uma D; Southern, Mark R; Dawson, Eric S; Clemons, Paul A; Chung, Thomas D Y

    2014-06-01

    Recent industry-academic partnerships involve collaboration among disciplines, locations, and organizations using publicly funded "open-access" and proprietary commercial data sources. These require the effective integration of chemical and biological information from diverse data sources, which presents key informatics, personnel, and organizational challenges. The BioAssay Research Database (BARD) was conceived to address these challenges and serve as a community-wide resource and intuitive web portal for public-sector chemical-biology data. Its initial focus is to enable scientists to more effectively use the National Institutes of Health Roadmap Molecular Libraries Program (MLP) data generated from the 3-year pilot and 6-year production phases of the Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network (MLPCN), which is currently in its final year. BARD evolves the current data standards through structured assay and result annotations that leverage BioAssay Ontology and other industry-standard ontologies, and a core hierarchy of assay definition terms and data standards defined specifically for small-molecule assay data. We initially focused on migrating the highest-value MLP data into BARD and bringing it up to this new standard. We review the technical and organizational challenges overcome by the interdisciplinary BARD team, veterans of public- and private-sector data-integration projects, who are collaborating to describe (functional specifications), design (technical specifications), and implement this next-generation software solution. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  4. Introductory Overviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakeman, A.J.; Hamilton, S.H.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Pierce, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Introductory Overview articles are designed to provide introductory level background to key themes and topics that caters to the eclectic readership of EMS. It is envisaged that these articles will help to break down barriers to shared understanding and dialogue within multidisciplinary teams, and

  5. Conference overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It had 17 plenary talks and as a new feature it also had 8 short talks which ..... absence of black holes, long-term simulations are possible and quantitative .... [3] For a brief overview, see The Nag Memorial Lecture by Ashoke Sen at the Inst-.

  6. Developing technology-enhanced active learning for medical education: challenges, solutions, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Lise; Pettit, Robin K; Lewis, Joy H; Bennett, Thomas; Carrasco, Noel; Brysacz, Stanley; Makin, Inder Raj S; Hutman, Ryan; Schwartz, Frederic N

    2015-04-01

    Growing up in an era of video games and Web-based applications has primed current medical students to expect rapid, interactive feedback. To address this need, the A.T. Still University-School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (Mesa) has developed and integrated a variety of approaches using technology-enhanced active learning for medical education (TEAL-MEd) into its curriculum. Over the course of 3 years (2010-2013), the authors facilitated more than 80 implementations of games and virtual patient simulations into the education of 550 osteopathic medical students. The authors report on 4 key aspects of the TEAL-MEd initiative, including purpose, portfolio of tools, progress to date regarding challenges and solutions, and future directions. Lessons learned may be of benefit to medical educators at academic and clinical training sites who wish to implement TEAL-MEd activities.

  7. Antipsychotic activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora Cordifolia in amphetamine challenged mice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu nee Giri Jain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia is reported to have CNS active principle and is used for the treatment of various neurological disorders. Hence, the effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia was investigated for its putative antipsychotic activity using amphetamine challenged mice model. Haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p. was administered acutely to mice as standard drug. Control animals received vehicle (10% DMSO. The in vivo receptor binding studies were carried out to correlate the antipsychotic activity of the extract with its capacity to bind to the DAD2 receptor. The results in SLA showed that the hydro alcoholic extract of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia at a dose level of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed no significant antipsychotic activity in amphetamine induced hyperactivity in mice when compared to standard. Extract alone treated group at a dos level of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed a decreased in locomotor activity when compared to the control. The plant extract increased the DAD2 receptor binding in a dose dependent manner in treated mice compared to the control group.

  8. GABAergic inhibition through synergistic astrocytic neuronal interaction transiently decreases vasopressin neuronal activity during hypoosmotic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Feng; Sun, Min-Yu; Hou, Qiuling; Hamilton, Kathryn A

    2013-04-01

    The neuropeptide vasopressin is crucial to mammalian osmotic regulation. Local hypoosmotic challenge transiently decreases and then increases vasopressin secretion. To investigate mechanisms underlying this transient response, we examined the effects of hypoosmotic challenge on the electrical activity of rat hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) vasopressin neurons using patch-clamp recordings. We found that 5 min exposure of hypothalamic slices to hypoosmotic solution transiently increased inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) frequency and reduced the firing rate of vasopressin neurons. Recovery occurred by 10 min of exposure, even though the osmolality remained low. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor blocker, gabazine, blocked the IPSCs and the hypoosmotic suppression of firing. The gliotoxin l-aminoadipic acid blocked the increase in IPSC frequency at 5 min and the recovery of firing at 10 min, indicating astrocytic involvement in hypoosmotic modulation of vasopressin neuronal activity. Moreover, β-alanine, an osmolyte of astrocytes and GABA transporter (GAT) inhibitor, blocked the increase in IPSC frequency at 5 min of hypoosmotic challenge. Confocal microscopy of immunostained SON sections revealed that astrocytes and magnocellular neurons both showed positive staining of vesicular GATs (VGAT). Hypoosmotic stimulation in vivo reduced the number of VGAT-expressing neurons, and increased co-localisation and molecular association of VGAT with glial fibrillary acidic protein that increased significantly by 10 min. By 30 min, neuronal VGAT labelling was partially restored, and astrocytic VGAT was relocated to the ventral portion while it decreased in the somatic zone of the SON. Thus, synergistic astrocytic and neuronal GABAergic inhibition could ensure that vasopressin neuron firing is only transiently suppressed under hypoosmotic conditions. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. New Biomarkers and Diagnostic Tools for the Management of Fever in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Overview of the Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escadafal, Camille; Nsanzabana, Christian; Archer, Julie; Chihota, Violet; Rodriguez, William; Dittrich, Sabine

    2017-07-21

    A lack of simple, inexpensive, and rapid diagnostic tests for febrile illnesses other than malaria leads to overtreatment with antibiotics for those who test negative for malaria, and contributes to the global rise in antimicrobial resistance. New tests for the detection of host biomarkers provide promising tools to differentiate bacterial from non-bacterial infections in febrile patients. However, most available biomarker tests are not currently used in resource-limited settings, and very few evaluations have been performed in low- and middle-income country populations with non-severe febrile illness. As a result, our knowledge of the performance of these tests in settings with high prevalence of infectious and poverty-related diseases such as malaria, HIV, malnutrition and intestinal parasites is poor. This paper describes challenges faced during the process of getting to an approved test, including difficulties in selecting the most appropriate fever biomarkers; suitable study designs and sites for test evaluations; lack of available reference tests to evaluate the performance of new tests; and lack of clear regulatory pathways to introduce such tests. As many new biomarker assays are in development, understanding these challenges will better enable those working in this area to address them during product development.

  10. New Biomarkers and Diagnostic Tools for the Management of Fever in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Overview of the Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Escadafal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A lack of simple, inexpensive, and rapid diagnostic tests for febrile illnesses other than malaria leads to overtreatment with antibiotics for those who test negative for malaria, and contributes to the global rise in antimicrobial resistance. New tests for the detection of host biomarkers provide promising tools to differentiate bacterial from non-bacterial infections in febrile patients. However, most available biomarker tests are not currently used in resource-limited settings, and very few evaluations have been performed in low- and middle-income country populations with non-severe febrile illness. As a result, our knowledge of the performance of these tests in settings with high prevalence of infectious and poverty-related diseases such as malaria, HIV, malnutrition and intestinal parasites is poor. This paper describes challenges faced during the process of getting to an approved test, including difficulties in selecting the most appropriate fever biomarkers; suitable study designs and sites for test evaluations; lack of available reference tests to evaluate the performance of new tests; and lack of clear regulatory pathways to introduce such tests. As many new biomarker assays are in development, understanding these challenges will better enable those working in this area to address them during product development.

  11. Challenges of the Unemployment Protection System and Active Policies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Pino, Eloísa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  12. International Year of Planet Earth - Accomplishments, Activities, Challenges and Plans in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Alaniz-Alvarez, S.

    2009-12-01

    The International Year of Planet Earth started as a joint initiative by UNESCO and IUGS with the participation of several geosciences organizations, and developed into a major international geosciences program for the triennium 2007-2009, with the inclusion and participation of national and regional committees. In this presentation we focus on current activities and plans in our country and the participation in international activities. Mexican community has been part of international programs since the International Geophysical Year, continuing through its participation in other programs, e.g., Upper Mantle, Geodynamics, Lithosphere, IHY, IPY and eGY. IYPE activities have concentrated in publications, OneGeology, radio/TV programs, organization of conferences, meetings and outreach events. A book series on Earth Science Experiments for Children has been edited, with first books published on “Atmospheric Pressure and Free Fall of Objects”, “Light and Colors”, “Standing on Archimedes”, “Foucault and Climate” and “Earth and its Waves “. Books are distributed to schools, with tens of thousand copies distributed nationwide and new editions underway. Other publications include leaflets, books and special El Faro issues (edited by the National University) and articles in other journals. In 2007 the AGU Joint Assembly with international participation from US, Canada, Europe and Latin America was held in Acapulco. Current plans include an electronic open-access journal, additional publications of the Planet Earth series, articles and special issues in journals and magazines, plus events on selected themes from the IYPE science program, particularly on Megacities, Hazards, Resources and Biodiversity. Mexico City metropolitan area, with > 22 million inhabitants presents special challenges, being at high altitude within an active tectonic and volcanic area requiring major efforts in water supply, water control, rains and waste disposal and management

  13. Recent advances in the production of value added chemicals and lipids utilizing biodiesel industry generated crude glycerol as a substrate - Metabolic aspects, challenges and possibilities: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Narisetty; Sindhu, Raveendran; Madhavan, Aravind; Anju, Alphonsa Jose; Castro, Eulogio; Faraco, Vincenza; Pandey, Ashok; Binod, Parameswaran

    2017-09-01

    One of the major ecological concerns associated with biodiesel production is the generation of waste/crude glycerol during the trans-esterification process. Purification of this crude glycerol is not economically viable. In this context, the development of an efficient and economically viable strategy would be biotransformation reactions converting the biodiesel derived crude glycerol into value added chemicals. Hence the process ensures the sustainability and waste management in biodiesel industry, paving a path to integrated biorefineries. This review addresses a waste to wealth approach for utilization of crude glycerol in the production of value added chemicals, current trends, challenges, future perspectives, metabolic approaches and the genetic tools developed for the improved synthesis over wild type microorganisms were described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Illicit Financial Flows and their Developmental Impacts: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Herkenrath, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Illicit financial flows — cross-border capital movements for the purposes of concealing illegal activities and evading taxes — pose major challenges to developing countries. They deprive the country concerned of urgently needed resources for private and public investment, thereby hampering infrastructure building and economic growth. This research overview shows that illicit financial flows also favour political changes that go hand in hand with the weakening of state institutions and growing...

  15. Operationalising UN security council resolution 1540: an overview of select practical activities in the chemical and biological weapon-related areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.

    2009-01-01

    The UN member states are continuing to take measures to inter alia establish and effectively implement controls to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and their means of delivery in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004). The resolution also encourages enhanced international cooperation on such efforts, including by working through the 1540 Committee. Most analyses on the implementation of the resolution have focused on nuclear issues. This presentation provides an overview of select practical activities in the chemical and biological weapon-related areas, including chemical product classification and identification, biosafety and biosecurity practices and criminal prosecutions for unauthorised chemical transfers.(author)

  16. Fuel performance in aging CANDU reactors - a quick overview of the CNSC regulatory oversight activities of the past 15 years and of the lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, M.

    2013-01-01

    development work was aimed at either increasing safety margins by physical changes such as the introduction of new fuel designs and/or by showing, through the removal of certain conservatisms that were used in past evaluations, that the safety margins for those DBAs are in fact larger than initially thought, and therefore pushing at a later date the need to derate in order to compensate for the negative impact of HTS aging on fuel dryout powers. HTS aging could also impact fuel performance in normal operations. A recent example is the 'black deposits' on fuel that have been observed in Pickering reactors, and which have led the CNSC to de-rate unit 1 in order to ensure that adequate safety margins are maintained until corrective measures are implemented, and shown to be successful. In this presentation, a quick overview of the CNSC's fuel oversight program will be given with a focus on past and more recent CNSC activities related to fuel performance in aging CANDU rectors. Some of the challenges that the CNSC has been faced in evaluating the technical basis of the safety margins claimed by the licensees, and the lesson learned will be mentioned. Fuel related R and D activities that would contribute to a better characterization of safety margins in aging CANDU reactors will also be briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Fuel performance in aging CANDU reactors - a quick overview of the CNSC regulatory oversight activities of the past 15 years and of the lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, M. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    development work was aimed at either increasing safety margins by physical changes such as the introduction of new fuel designs and/or by showing, through the removal of certain conservatisms that were used in past evaluations, that the safety margins for those DBAs are in fact larger than initially thought, and therefore pushing at a later date the need to derate in order to compensate for the negative impact of HTS aging on fuel dryout powers. HTS aging could also impact fuel performance in normal operations. A recent example is the 'black deposits' on fuel that have been observed in Pickering reactors, and which have led the CNSC to de-rate unit 1 in order to ensure that adequate safety margins are maintained until corrective measures are implemented, and shown to be successful. In this presentation, a quick overview of the CNSC's fuel oversight program will be given with a focus on past and more recent CNSC activities related to fuel performance in aging CANDU rectors. Some of the challenges that the CNSC has been faced in evaluating the technical basis of the safety margins claimed by the licensees, and the lesson learned will be mentioned. Fuel related R and D activities that would contribute to a better characterization of safety margins in aging CANDU reactors will also be briefly discussed. (author)

  18. Overview of the JHP project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hironobu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    The new Research Organization (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization; KEK) started its activity on 1 April, 1997. The new KEK is now responsible for JHP. The present plan of JHP is overviewed. (author)

  19. Building Applications, Opportunities and Challenges of Active Shading Systems: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joud Al Dakheel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Active shading systems in buildings have emerged as a high performing shading solution that selectively and optimally controls daylight and heat gains. Active shading systems are increasingly used in buildings, due to their ability to mainly improve the building environment, reduce energy consumption and in some cases generate energy. They may be categorized into three classes: smart glazing, kinetic shading and integrated renewable energy shading. This paper reviews the current status of the different types in terms of design principle and working mechanism of the systems, performance, control strategies and building applications. Challenges, limitations and future opportunities of the systems are then discussed. The review highlights that despite its high initial cost, the electrochromic (EC glazing is the most applied smart glazing due to the extensive use of glass in buildings under all climatic conditions. In terms of external shadings, the rotating shading type is the predominantly used one in buildings due to its low initial cost. Algae façades and folding shading systems are still emerging types, with high initial and maintenance costs and requiring specialist installers. The algae façade systems and PV integrated shading systems are a promising solution due to their dual benefits of providing shading and generating electricity. Active shading systems were found to save 12 to 50% of the building cooling electricity consumption.

  20. A reading of the crisis of prevention activities: current paradoxes and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia Vilela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The activity of occupational health and safety professionals is in a paradoxical situation considering, among other aspects, the productivity context, which gives low priority to safety and health, the limitation imposed by the hegemonic conceptual references in the field, the limitation of these professionals’ power to act and the highly conflicting and complex character of the occupational world. Objective: In essay form, the article, in dialog with the literature of the field, proposes to reflect on the impasses and challenges of the prevention field. Method: The reflections are based on the experience of the authors both in the practical area as also in research, teaching and extension activities in the field of health surveillance and workers’ safety. Results: Even though this field of activity has been recognized as a specialized and legal area for more than 40 years in the country, the magnitude of the data concerning occupational and industrial accidents reveals the limitations and difficulties that these professionals face, and justifies the importance of the analysis of current practices in order to understand the contradictions that lie at the root of the difficulties to achieve prevention. Conclusion: Citizens could pressure corporations to improve their safety practices and concepts. State can also be pressured to create new safety policies.

  1. Challenges in safety regulation of R and D activities for advanced technologies in DAE units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    DAE is engaged in intensive research and developmental activities, especially for advanced technologies such as accelerators, lasers, supercomputers, advanced materials and instrumentation. The starting point of an R and D project might be a hypothesis to be tested, problem to be solved, or the performance of an item to be improved, and there may be many possible solutions and technologies that could be used. R and D is quite different from designing, constructing, operating a plant. In these, precisely described result can be defined from the beginning and can be described in design specifications, process descriptions and procedures. However, while established procedures may be available to begin an R and D project, deviation from these procedures may occur often as a legitimate component of the conduct of R and D. Nevertheless, the R and D activities have to be performed in a manner which provides assurance that safety requirements are adequately addressed. Hence, the regulatory approach for enforcing the safety regulation in such facilities is also not as rigid as those for an operating industry. This paper is aimed to discuss some of the key challenges in regulating such R and D activities and also attempts to suggest a way forward. (author)

  2. Safety-Related Contractor Activities at Nuclear Power Plants. New Challenges for Regulatory Oversight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chockie, Alan [Chockie Group International, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2005-09-15

    The use of contractors has been an integral and important part of the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants. To ensure the safe and efficient completion of contracted tasks, each nuclear plant licensee has developed and refined formal contract management processes to meet their specific needs and plant requirements. Although these contract management processes have proven to be effective tools for the procurement of support and components tailored to the needs of nuclear power plants, contractor-related incidents and accidents have revealed some serious weaknesses with the implementation of these processes. Identifying and addressing implementation problems are becoming more complicated due to organizational and personnel changes affecting the nuclear power industry. The ability of regulators and licensees to effectively monitor and manage the safety-related performance of contractors will likely be affected by forthcoming organization and personnel changes due to: the aging of the workforce; the decline of the nuclear industry; and the deregulation of nuclear power. The objective of this report is to provide a review of current and potential future challenges facing safety-related contractor activities at nuclear power plants. The purpose is to assist SKI in establishing a strategy for the proactive oversight of contractor safety-related activities at Swedish nuclear power plants and facilities. The nature and role of contractors at nuclear plants is briefly reviewed in the first section of the report. The second section describes the essential elements of the contract management process. Although organizations have had decades of experience with the a contract management process, there remain a number of common implantation weaknesses that have lead to serious contractor-related incidents and accidents. These implementation weaknesses are summarized in the third section. The fourth section of the report highlights the

  3. Safety-Related Contractor Activities at Nuclear Power Plants. New Challenges for Regulatory Oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockie, Alan

    2005-09-01

    The use of contractors has been an integral and important part of the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants. To ensure the safe and efficient completion of contracted tasks, each nuclear plant licensee has developed and refined formal contract management processes to meet their specific needs and plant requirements. Although these contract management processes have proven to be effective tools for the procurement of support and components tailored to the needs of nuclear power plants, contractor-related incidents and accidents have revealed some serious weaknesses with the implementation of these processes. Identifying and addressing implementation problems are becoming more complicated due to organizational and personnel changes affecting the nuclear power industry. The ability of regulators and licensees to effectively monitor and manage the safety-related performance of contractors will likely be affected by forthcoming organization and personnel changes due to: the aging of the workforce; the decline of the nuclear industry; and the deregulation of nuclear power. The objective of this report is to provide a review of current and potential future challenges facing safety-related contractor activities at nuclear power plants. The purpose is to assist SKI in establishing a strategy for the proactive oversight of contractor safety-related activities at Swedish nuclear power plants and facilities. The nature and role of contractors at nuclear plants is briefly reviewed in the first section of the report. The second section describes the essential elements of the contract management process. Although organizations have had decades of experience with the a contract management process, there remain a number of common implantation weaknesses that have lead to serious contractor-related incidents and accidents. These implementation weaknesses are summarized in the third section. The fourth section of the report highlights the

  4. PHOBOS Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, David J.; Phobos Collaboration; Bbback; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Kwoźniak; Wysłouch, B.

    2006-11-01

    A brief overview of the current results and conclusions from the PHOBOS experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is given. No evidence is found for non-monotonic behavior of observables measured by PHOBOS in the RHIC energy region. Convincing evidence is found that we have created a state of matter with high energy-density, that is nearly net-baryon free and is strongly interacting. The data are found to exhibit "simple" scaling behaviors, which include extended longitudinal scaling and scaling with the number of participating nucleons. The Au+Au collision charged particle data also exhibit a remarkable factorization of collision energy and geometry.

  5. 75 FR 2546 - Opportunity for Co-Sponsorship of the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ...The President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports published a document in the Federal Register of December 28, 2009, concerning the opportunity for non-Federal entities to co-sponsor and administer a series of financially self-sustaining activities related to the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards Program. The document contained incorrect addresses and contact information.

  6. Challenges with diagnosing and investigating suspected active tuberculosis disease in military trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, David; Webber, Bryant J; Hetrick, Steven M; Owen, Jerry B; Blasi, Audra A; Steele, Bernadette M; Yun, Heather C

    2017-08-01

    Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2016, a total of 14 U.S. and international military personnel in training at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, TX, were hospitalized due to suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB); of these, five personnel were diagnosed with active TB disease. Only one TB case had pulmonary symptoms, but these symptoms were not suggestive of TB. The incidence rate in the training population was 1.89 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 0.81, 4.42), with a higher rate when restricted to international military students attending the Defense Language Institute English Language Center. No instances of TB transmission were identified. The variety of atypical presentations and their resulting diagnostic and public health challenges prompted this retrospective review of all hospitalized cases. This case series highlights both the importance of a high index of clinical suspicion when TB is being considered in close congregate settings as well as the risk of overreliance on acid-fast bacilli staining and nucleic acid amplification testing for ruling out active pulmonary disease in young, otherwise healthy trainees. Practical solutions are suggested.

  7. Manufacturing of reliable actively cooled fusion components - a challenge for non-destructive inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reheis, N.; Zabernig, A.; Ploechl, L.

    1994-01-01

    Actively cooled in-vessel components like divertors or limiters require high quality and reliability to ensure safe operation during long term use. Such components are subjected to very severe thermal and mechanical cyclic loads and high power densities. Key requirements for materials in question are e.g. high melting point and thermal conductivity and low atomic mass number. Since no single material can simultaneously meet all of these requirements the selection of materials to be combined in composite components as well as of manufacturing and non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods is a particularly challenging task. Armour materials like graphite intended to face the plasma and help to maintain its desired properties, are bonded to metallic substrates like copper, molybdenum or stainless steel providing cooling and mechanical support. Several techniques such as brazing and active metal casting have been developed and successfully applied for joining materials with different thermophysical properties, pursuing the objective of sufficient heat dissipation from the hot, plasma facing surface to the coolant. NDI methods are an integral part of the manufacturing schedule of these components, starting in the design phase and ending in the final inspection. They apply all kinds of divertor types (monobloc and flat-tile concept). Particular focus is put on the feasibility of detecting small flaws and defects in complex interfaces and on the limits of these techniques. Special test pieces with defined defects acting as standards were inspected. Accompanying metallographic investigations were carried out to compare actual defects with results recorded during NDI

  8. Active debris removal GNC challenges over design and required ground validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenarejo, Pablo; Avilés, Marcos; di Sotto, Emanuele

    2015-06-01

    Because of the exponential growth of space debris, the access to space in the medium-term future is considered as being seriously compromised, particularly within LEO polar Sun-synchronous orbits and within geostationary orbits. The active debris removal (ADR) application poses new and challenging requirements on: first, the new required Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) technologies and, second, how to validate these new technologies before being applied in real missions. There is no doubt about the strong safety and collision risk aspects affecting the real operational ADR missions. But it shall be considered that even ADR demonstration missions will be affected by significant risk of collision during the demonstration, and that the ADR GNC systems/technologies to be used shall be well mature before using/demonstrating them in space. Specific and dedicated on-ground validation approaches, techniques and facilities are mandatory. The different ADR techniques can be roughly catalogued in three main groups (rigid capture, non-rigid capture and contactless). All of them have a strong impact on the GNC system of the active vehicle during the capture/proximity phase and, particularly, during the active vehicle/debris combo control phase after capture and during the de-orbiting phase. The main operational phases on an ADR scenario are: (1) ground controlled phase (ADR vehicle and debris are far), (2) fine orbit synchronization phase (ADR vehicle to reach debris ±V-bar), (3) short range phase (along track distance reduction till 10-100 s of metres), (4) terminal approach/capture phase and (5) de-orbiting. While phases 1-3 are somehow conventional and already addressed in detail during past/on-going studies related to rendezvous and/or formation flying, phases 4-5 are very specific and not mature in terms of GNC needed technologies and HW equipment. GMV is currently performing different internal activities and ESA studies/developments related to ADR mission, GNC and

  9. Anti-IL-5 attenuates activation and surface density of β2-integrins on circulating eosinophils after segmental antigen challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mats W.; Gunderson, Kristin A.; Kelly, Elizabeth A. B.; Denlinger, Loren C.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2013-01-01

    Background IL-5 activates αMβ2 integrin on blood eosinophils in vitro. Eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) following segmental antigen challenge have activated β2-integrins. Objective To identify roles for IL-5 in regulating human eosinophil integrins in vivo. Methods Blood and BAL eosinophils were analyzed by flow cytometry in ten subjects with allergic asthma who underwent a segmental antigen challenge protocol before and after anti-IL-5 administration. Results Blood eosinophil reactivity with monoclonal antibody (mAb) KIM-127, which recognizes partially activated β2-integrins, was decreased after anti-IL-5. Before anti-IL-5, surface densities of blood eosinophil β2, αM, and αL integrin subunits increased modestly post-challenge. After anti-IL-5, such increases did not occur. Before or after anti-IL-5, surface densities of β2,αM, αL, and αD and reactivity with KIM-127 and mAb CBRM1/5, which recognizes high-activity αMβ2, were similarly high on BAL eosinophils 48 h post-challenge. Density and activation state of β1-integrins on blood and BAL eosinophils were not impacted by anti-IL-5, even though anti-IL-5 ablated a modest post-challenge increase on blood or BAL eosinophils of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), a receptor for P-selectin that causes activation of β1-integrins. Forward scatter of blood eosinophils post-challenge was less heterogeneous and on the average decreased after anti-IL-5; however, anti-IL-5 had no effect on the decreased forward scatter of eosinophils in post-challenge BAL compared to eosinophils in blood. Blood eosinophil KIM-127 reactivity at the time of challenge correlated with the percentage of eosinophils in BAL post-challenge. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance IL-5 supports a heterogeneous population of circulating eosinophils with partially activated β2-integrins and is responsible for upregulation of β2-integrins and PSGL-1 on circulating eosinophils following segmental antigen challenge but has

  10. Assessing Challenges and Opportunities for Education and Communication Activities for International Polar Year 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, M. S.

    2005-05-01

    Considerable planning has gone into identifying ways to maximize International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) as a global event that will facilitate the integration of research and education inherent in IPY, and draw the interest and involvement of people around the world. Documents developed through the IPY planning process, including NRC Reports (2004), and drafts reports on education and outreach from the ICSU IPY Planning Group in the Fall of 2004, and the Bridging the Poles workshop of June, 2004, articulate the tremendous potential for IPY beyond the formal research agenda and goals. With less that two years before the start of IPY and fewer than fours years before the activities are completed, these and emerging opportunities face a number of challenges. In addition to the limited time frame remaining to prepare for these activities, participants involved with IPY education and outreach will also need to consider factors such as: uncertain funding for such activities; the lack of established international networks for geoscience education; the need for high level coordination of IPY education and communication; and the creative and intellectual challenge of making the polar regions relevant to people around the world. The planning process has identified six constituencies as key audiences of IPY communication efforts: i) the scientific/research community, ii) young and potentially new polar researchers, iii) the pre-university education community, iv) arctic communities, iv) the general public, and v) decision-makers. Understanding and meeting these audiences' expectations through on-going evaluation and engagement will be key to successful IPY education and outreach efforts. A number of distinct education and outreach projects have been proposed to the ICSU-WMO IPY planning process, such as courses and workshops on specific aspects of IPY, including efforts to address the social and cultural dimension of Arctic peoples. To help meet the challenges, achieve the

  11. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  12. Secrecy vs. the need for ecological information: challenges to environmental activism in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandl, T

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies the lessons learned from the Nikitin case study in Russia. The Nikitin case involves the analysis of sources of radioactive contamination in several Russian counties and in the Russian Northern Fleet. Norway was interested in the issue due to proximity to the storage sites. The issue involved national security and environmental protection. It was learned that mixing national security issues with environmental issues offers dangerous and multiple challenges. Environmental groups must build relationships with a wide audience. International security policy must include the issues of globalization of trade and the spread of environmental problems into the global commons (oceans and atmosphere). The risk of an environmentally dangerous accident as a consequence of Cold War activities is greater than the risk of nuclear war. Secrecy in military affairs is not justified when there is inadequate storage of nuclear weapons and contaminated materials. In Russia, the concern is great due to their economic transition and shortages of funds for even the most basic needs, which excludes nuclear waste clean up. The Bellona Foundation studied the extent of nuclear pollution from military nuclear reactors in the Kola peninsula of northwest Russia, in 1994 and 1996. Russian security police arrested one of the report authors for alleged national security violations. A valuable lesson learned was that local Russian environmental groups needed international support. The military nuclear complex poses an enormous hazard. Limiting inspections is an unacceptable national security risk. The new Russian law on state secrets is too broad.

  13. Assessment of bilingual children with inattention, over activity and impulsivity –Challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Özerk

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ADHD is one of the widespread neurological disorders among children. While a substantial amount of research have addressed the issues related to assessment practices and diagnosis criteria among majority language speaking children, ADHD among bilingual children or linguistic minority children has not yet been addressed and discussed so much in the research circles. The percentage of bilingual children with immigrant background in main stream schools in many countries is quite high. Despite this global demographic tendency, underdiagnostisation and assessment of bilingual children with inattention, over activity and impulsivity are being considered to be a psychiatric, psychological and educational challenge. In this paper we address several critical aspects of the assessment practices and medical diagnosis of bilingual children with immigrant background based on a research project. The paper presents also some solutions as an alternative to one-sided intelligence-test based approaches. We stress the importance of multidimensional, multisource and bilingual assessment model for identifying the knowledge-related and language-related elements of the academic learning gap that these children usually experience prior to and during the assessment period.

  14. Making time for storytelling; the challenges of community building and activism in a rural locale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Copeland

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The uneven projection of voices from or within a community can be addressed, in part, by methods such as digital storytelling in a technology and media-savvy society. Whilst the use of digital storytelling to facilitate constructive dialogue has proved successful for those who participate, instilling a sense of motivation to become involved at the outset can pose a challenge. Members of different types of community groups, whether geo-physical or practice-based, will not necessarily be drawn to involvement in social action through group workshops without prior personal engagement. This paper considers which other participatory media techniques can be employed to encourage involvement in community digital storytelling workshops to inspire activism, and examines barriers to participation, with emphasis on the necessity of mandate, for project success. To help answer these issues, one particular workshop in a case study in North Yorkshire, UK will be used to identify the importance of place and incorporation of methods when undertaking community digital storytelling.

  15. Basophil activation test: food challenge in a test tube or specialist research tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alexandra F; Lack, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Oral food challenge (OFC) is the gold-standard to diagnose food allergy; however, it is a labour and resource-intensive procedure with the risk of causing an acute allergic reaction, which is potentially severe. Therefore, OFC are reserved for cases where the clinical history and the results of skin prick test and/or specific IgE do not confirm or exclude the diagnosis of food allergy. This is a significant proportion of patients seen in Allergy clinics and results in a high demand for OFC. The basophil activation test (BAT) has emerged as a new diagnostic test for food allergy. With high diagnostic accuracy, it can be particularly helpful in the cases where skin prick test and specific IgE are equivocal and may allow reducing the need for OFC. BAT has high specificity, which confers a high degree of certainty in confirming the diagnosis of food allergy and allows deferring the performance of OFC in patients with a positive BAT. The diagnostic utility of BAT is allergen-specific and needs to be validated for different allergens and in specific patient populations. Standardisation of the laboratory methodology and of the data analyses would help to enable a wider clinical application of BAT.

  16. Overview of total beta activity index and beta rest in surface waters of the Spanish rivers; Vision general del indice de actividad beta total y beta resto en las aguas superficiales de los rios espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, L.; Payeras, J.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to give an overview of the index of total beta activity and the activity index beta rest in surface waters of the main Spanish rivers. These indices are a parameter over water quality that CEDEX comes determined by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in water policy. (Author)

  17. Autonomic nervous system function, activity patterns, and sleep after physical or cognitive challenge in people with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvejic, Erin; Sandler, Carolina X; Keech, Andrew; Barry, Benjamin K; Lloyd, Andrew R; Vollmer-Conna, Uté

    2017-12-01

    To explore changes in autonomic functioning, sleep, and physical activity during a post-exertional symptom exacerbation induced by physical or cognitive challenge in participants with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Thirty-five participants with CFS reported fatigue levels 24-h before, immediately before, immediately after, and 24-h after the completion of previously characterised physical (stationary cycling) or cognitive (simulated driving) challenges. Participants also provided ratings of their sleep quality and sleep duration for the night before, and after, the challenge. Continuous ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG) and physical activity was recorded from 24-h prior, until 24-h after, the challenge. Heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV, as high frequency power in normalized units) was derived from the ECG trace for periods of wake and sleep. Both physical and cognitive challenges induced an immediate exacerbation of the fatigue state (pfatigue in a well-defined group of participants with CFS. Larger studies employing challenge paradigms are warranted to further explore the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of post-exertional fatigue in CFS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sympathetic nervous system activity measured by skin conductance quantifies the challenge of walking adaptability tasks after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David J; Chatterjee, Sudeshna A; McGuirk, Theresa E; Porges, Eric C; Fox, Emily J; Balasubramanian, Chitralakshmi K

    2018-02-01

    Walking adaptability tasks are challenging for people with motor impairments. The construct of perceived challenge is typically measured by self-report assessments, which are susceptible to subjective measurement error. The development of an objective physiologically-based measure of challenge may help to improve the ability to assess this important aspect of mobility function. The objective of this study to investigate the use of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity measured by skin conductance to gauge the physiological stress response to challenging walking adaptability tasks in people post-stroke. Thirty adults with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis performed a battery of seventeen walking adaptability tasks. SNS activity was measured by skin conductance from the palmar surface of each hand. The primary outcome variable was the percent change in skin conductance level (ΔSCL) between the baseline resting and walking phases of each task. Task difficulty was measured by performance speed and by physical therapist scoring of performance. Walking function and balance confidence were measured by preferred walking speed and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, respectively. There was a statistically significant negative association between ΔSCL and task performance speed and between ΔSCL and clinical score, indicating that tasks with greater SNS activity had slower performance speed and poorer clinical scores. ΔSCL was significantly greater for low functioning participants versus high functioning participants, particularly during the most challenging walking adaptability tasks. This study supports the use of SNS activity measured by skin conductance as a valuable approach for objectively quantifying the perceived challenge of walking adaptability tasks in people post-stroke. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Glial cell activity is maintained during prolonged inflammatory challenge in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, B.C.; Rorato, R.; Antunes-Rodrigues, J.; Elias, L.L.K. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-04

    We evaluated the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamine synthetase (GS), ionized calcium binding adaptor protein-1 (Iba-1), and ferritin in rats after single or repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, which is known to induce endotoxin tolerance and glial activation. Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) received ip injections of LPS (100 µg/kg) or saline for 6 days: 6 saline (N = 5), 5 saline + 1 LPS (N = 6) and 6 LPS (N = 6). After the sixth injection, the rats were perfused and the brains were collected for immunohistochemistry. After a single LPS dose, the number of GFAP-positive cells increased in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC; 1 LPS: 35.6 ± 1.4 vs control: 23.1 ± 2.5) and hippocampus (1 LPS: 165.0 ± 3.0 vs control: 137.5 ± 2.5), and interestingly, 6 LPS injections further increased GFAP expression in these regions (ARC = 52.5 ± 4.3; hippocampus = 182.2 ± 4.1). We found a higher GS expression only in the hippocampus of the 6 LPS injections group (56.6 ± 0.8 vs 46.7 ± 1.9). Ferritin-positive cells increased similarly in the hippocampus of rats treated with a single (49.2 ± 1.7 vs 28.1 ± 1.9) or repeated (47.6 ± 1.1 vs 28.1 ± 1.9) LPS dose. Single LPS enhanced Iba-1 in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN: 92.8 ± 4.1 vs 65.2 ± 2.2) and hippocampus (99.4 ± 4.4 vs 73.8 ± 2.1), but had no effect in the retrochiasmatic nucleus (RCA) and ARC. Interestingly, 6 LPS increased the Iba-1 expression in these hypothalamic and hippocampal regions (RCA: 57.8 ± 4.6 vs 36.6 ± 2.2; ARC: 62.4 ± 6.0 vs 37.0 ± 2.2; PVN: 100.7 ± 4.4 vs 65.2 ± 2.2; hippocampus: 123.0 ± 3.8 vs 73.8 ± 2.1). The results suggest that repeated LPS treatment stimulates the expression of glial activation markers, protecting neuronal activity during prolonged inflammatory challenges.

  20. Overview and Categorization of Robots Supporting Independent Living of Elderly People: What Activities Do They Support and How Far Have They Developed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaf, Sandra; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; De Witte, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, many robots for the elderly have been developed, supporting different activities of elderly people. A systematic review in four scientific literature databases and a search in article references and European projects was performed in order to create an overview of robots supporting independent living of elderly people. The robots found were categorized based on their development stage, the activity domains they claim to support, and the type of support provided (i.e., physical, non-physical, and/or non-specified). In total, 107 robots for the elderly were identified. Six robots were still in a concept phase, 95 in a development phase, and six of these robots were commercially available. These robots claimed to provide support related to four activity domains: mobility, self-care, interpersonal interaction & relationships, and other activities. Of the many robots developed, only a small percentage is commercially available. Technical ambitions seem to be guiding robot development. To prolong independent living, the step towards physical support is inevitable and needs to be taken. However, it will be a long time before a robot will be capable of supporting multiple activities in a physical manner in the home of an elderly person in order to enhance their independent living.

  1. Overview of Superconductivity and Challenges in Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flükiger, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved during the last few decades in the various fields of applied superconductivity, while the related low temperature technology has reached a high level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are so far the most successful applications, with tens of thousands of units worldwide, but high potential can also be recognized in the energy sector, with high energy cables, transformers, motors, generators for wind turbines, fault current limiters and devices for magnetic energy storage. A large number of magnet and cable prototypes have been constructed, showing in all cases high reliability. Large projects involving the construction of magnets, solenoids as well as dipoles and quadrupoles are described in the present book. A very large project, the LHC, is currently in operation, demonstrating that superconductivity is a reliable technology, even in a device of unprecedented high complexity. A project of similar complexity is ITER, a fusion device...

  2. ACA Risk Adjustment - Overview, Context, and Challenges

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Volume 4, Issue 3 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research Review includes three articles describing the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) developed risk...

  3. TELECOMMUTING: Overview of Challenges Facing Federal Agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    RObertson, Robert

    2001-01-01

    .... Last spring, the House Majority Leader asked us to identify potential regulatory, tax, and liability barriers that concern private sector employers considering telecommuting programs for their employees...

  4. Progresses and challenges in supporting activities toward a license to operate European TBM systems in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitevin, Y., E-mail: yves.poitevin@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Ricapito, I.; Zmitko, M. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Tavassoli, F. [CEA, DEN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thomas, N. [ATMOSTAT, F-94815 Villejuif (France); De Dinechin, G. [CEA, DEN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bucci, Ph. [CEA DRT, 38000 Grenoble (France); Rey, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Postfach 3640, Karlsruhe (Germany); Ibarra, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Panayotov, D. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Giancarli, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Calderoni, P.; Galabert, J.; Vallory, J. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Aiello, A. [C.R. ENEA Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • First EUROFER steel design limits have been introduced in RCC-MRx. • Preliminary fabrication/welding procedure specifications for the European TBM box are under standardization. • Post irradiation examination (PIE) of beryllium pebbles irradiated at 17% of DEMO fluence target has been achieved. • Dynamic modeling of the TBM Systems with EcosimPro{sup ®} has been developed. - Abstract: Licensing a pressurized nuclear equipment like the European Test Blanket Modules (TBM) Systems and, on the longer term, breeder blankets of a fusion demonstration reactor (DEMO), will require presenting to the Regulator and the Agreed Notified Body, along with design and safety analyses, supporting data like consolidated materials data and design limits, qualified fabrication procedures specifications and validated modeling tools that go often over today's state-of-the-art of nuclear industry. TBM systems feature indeed a newly developed structural material and advanced fabrication processes that were not referenced in any nuclear construction codes before, new type of functional materials, complex structures geometry and many interconnected sub-systems exchanging tritium by permeation or fluid mass transfer. For many years now, Europe has structured its development activities on TBM Systems toward the preparation of licensing. First tangible results are now arising: the EUROFER structural material has been introduced in the RCC-MRx nuclear code, supported by a database of several thousands of test records; TBM box fabrication procedure specifications are under standardization by industry in view of their qualification; a modeling tool for accurate simulation of tritium transport in TBM systems has been developed in view of refining conservative inventory data published in preliminary safety reports and optimizing waste management. Remaining challenges are identified and discussed.

  5. AFOSR Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    alloy and tailor micro- structure for turbine blade RZ – Development of scramjet propulsion RW - Developing new fuse and sensors technologies RB...High peak power, ultrashort laser ablation of solids 5. Sustainable alloy design: Rare earth materials challenge 6. Catalytic reactions in...Structural materials & mechanics • Decrease emphasis: – Bioenergy/Biofuels – Thermosetting polymers/surface adherents – Adaptive, self-healing

  6. Overview of ACTYS project on development of indigenous state-of-the-art code suites for nuclear activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhash, P.V.; Tadepalli, Sai Chaitanya; Deshpande, Shishir P.; Kanth, Priti; Srinivasan, R.

    2017-01-01

    Rigorous activation calculations are warranted for safer and efficient design of future fusion machines. Suitable activation codes, which yield accurate results with faster performance yet include all fusion relevant reactions are a prerequisite. To meet these, an indigenous project called ACTYS-Project is initiated and as a result, four state-of-art codes are developed so far. The goal of this project is to develop indigenous state-of-the-art code suites for nuclear activation analysis

  7. 5-2-1-0 Activity and Nutrition Challenge for Elementary Students: New, Evidence-Based, Promising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Cynthia Miller

    2018-01-01

    Obesity prevention in youth is a health priority, and teaching healthy habits toward this end is one of a school nurse's many responsibilities. A school nurse developed and implemented a school-wide, 2-week-long Activity and Nutrition Challenge (ANC) using the evidence-based 5-2-1-0 initiative to prevent and fight childhood obesity. Despite…

  8. "The Boys Won't Let Us Play:" Fifth-Grade Mestizas Challenge Physical Activity Discourse at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kimberly L.; Hamzeh, Manal

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on feminist, critical, and poststructural theories, the purpose of this research was: (a) to understand fifth-grade mestizas self-identified barriers to physical activity, and (b) to work with them to develop strategies for challenging these barriers. Data were collected over the 2005-06 school year. Our interpretations are divided into…

  9. Future nuclear regulatory challenges. A report by the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Future challenges are considered that may arise from technical, socio-economic and political issues; organizational, management and human aspects; and international issues. The perceived challenges have been grouped into four categories, each covered by a chapter. Technical issues are addressed that many present regulatory challenges in the future: ageing nuclear power plants. External changes to industry are considered next that have an effect on regulators, privatization, cost reduction consequences, commercialization etc. It is followed by the impacts of internal changes: organizational, managerial, human-resources, licensing, staff training etc. Finally, international issues are discussed with potential regulatory impact. (R.P.)

  10. An Energy Overview of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Argentina. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  11. An Energy Overview of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is India. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  12. An Energy Overview of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Slovenia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resource s permit

  13. An Energy Overview of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Mexico. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  14. An Energy Overview of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Romania. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  15. An Energy Overview of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Brazil. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  16. An overview of R and D activities for the Cu-Cl, cycle with emphasis on the hydrolysis reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.A.; Ferrandon, M.S.; Tatterson, D.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the development effort for the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle. Most of the recent work has been focused on the hydrolysis reaction, which is challenging because of the need for excess steam to achieve high yields. Two types of spray reactors were tested and the ultrasonic nozzle gave excellent results. The conceptual process design for the overall process now includes a spray reactor. Engineering methods to increase efficiency are proposed. Preliminary values for the efficiency and capital costs for producing hydrogen using the Cu-Cl cycle have been calculated. (authors)

  17. Sequential activation of microglia and astrocyte cytokine expression precedes increased Iba-1 or GFAP immunoreactivity following systemic immune challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norden, Diana M; Trojanowski, Paige J; Villanueva, Emmanuel; Navarro, Elisa; Godbout, Jonathan P

    2016-02-01

    Activation of the peripheral immune system elicits a coordinated response from the central nervous system. Key to this immune to brain communication is that glia, microglia, and astrocytes, interpret and propagate inflammatory signals in the brain that influence physiological and behavioral responses. One issue in glial biology is that morphological analysis alone is used to report on glial activation state. Therefore, our objective was to compare behavioral responses after in vivo immune (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) challenge to glial specific mRNA and morphological profiles. Here, LPS challenge induced an immediate but transient sickness response with decreased locomotion and social interaction. Corresponding with active sickness behavior (2-12 h), inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression was elevated in enriched microglia and astrocytes. Although proinflammatory cytokine expression in microglia peaked 2-4 h after LPS, astrocyte cytokine, and chemokine induction was delayed and peaked at 12 h. Morphological alterations in microglia (Iba-1(+)) and astrocytes (GFAP(+)), however, were undetected during this 2-12 h timeframe. Increased Iba-1 immunoreactivity and de-ramified microglia were evident 24 and 48 h after LPS but corresponded to the resolution phase of activation. Morphological alterations in astrocytes were undetected after LPS. Additionally, glial cytokine expression did not correlate with morphology after four repeated LPS injections. In fact, repeated LPS challenge was associated with immune and behavioral tolerance and a less inflammatory microglial profile compared with acute LPS challenge. Overall, induction of glial cytokine expression was sequential, aligned with active sickness behavior, and preceded increased Iba-1 or GFAP immunoreactivity after LPS challenge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA in induced sputum of asthma patients after allergen challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Moniuszko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and its inhibitor (PAI-1 are involved in tiisue remodeling and repair processes associated with acute and chronic inflammation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of allergen challenge on concentration of uPA and PAI-1 in induced sputum of house dust mite allergic asthmatics (HDM-AAs. Thirty HDM-AAs and ten healthy persons (HCswere recruited for the study. In 24 HDM-AAs bronchial challenge with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp and in 6 HDM-AAs sham challenege with saline were performed. In HDM-AAs sputum was induced 24 hours before (T0 and 24 hours (T24 after the challenge. Concentration of uPA and PAI-1 in induced sputum were determined using immunoenzymatic assays. At T0 in HDM-AAs mean sputum uPA (151 Âą 96 pg/ml and PAI-1 (4341 Âą 1262 pg/ml concentrations were higher than in HC (18.8 Âą 6.7 pg/ml; p=0.0002 and 596 Âą 180 pg/ml; p<0.0001; for uPA and PAI-1 respectively. After allergen challenge further increase in sputum uPA (187 Âą 144 pg/ml; p=0.03 and PAI-1 (6252 Âą 2323 pg/ml; p<0.0001 concentrations were observed. Moreover, in Dp challenged, but not in saline challenged HDM-AAs the mean uPA/PAI-1 ratio decreased significantly at T24. No significant increase in the studied parameters were found in sham challenged patients. In HDM-AAs allergen exposure leads to activation of the plasmin system in the airways. Greater increase of the PAI-1 concentration than uPA concentration after allergen challenge may promote airway remodeling and play an important role in the development of bronchial hyperreactivity.

  19. An overview of structure-activity relationship studies of curcumin analogs as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Laiba; Haque, Md Areeful; Abbas Bukhari, Syed Nasir; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Curcumin, extracted mainly from Curcuma longa rhizomes, has been reported to possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Although safe at higher doses and exhibiting multiple biological activities, curcumin still has the problem of poor bioavailability which has been an attractive area of research over the last few years. A number of efforts have been made by modifying structural features of curcumin. This review highlights the structurally modified and more stable newly synthesized curcumin analogs that have been screened against antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Also the structure-activity relationship to gain insight into future guidelines for scheming new compounds has been discussed, and further these analogs being more stable may serve as promising agents for use in different pathological conditions.

  20. DRUG USAGE AND DISPOSAL: OVERVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP AND POLLUTION PREVENTION (WITH AN EMPHASIS ON ACTIVITIES IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides the background for understanding the many complex variables that combine to cause pollution of the environment with the active ingredients from pharmaceuticals. It also summarizes the many approaches that could potentially reduce this pollution. Significan...

  1. Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) and Its Active Constituent, Thymoquinone: An Overview on the Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Bahareh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    For many centuries, seeds of Nigella sativa (black cumin), a dicotyledon of the Ranunculaceae family, have been used as a seasoning spice and food additive in the Middle East and Mediterranean areas. Traditionally, the plant is used for asthma, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, cough, bronchitis, headache, eczema, fever, dizziness, and gastrointestinal disturbances. The literature regarding the biological activities of seeds of this plant is extensive, citing bronchodilative, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antibacterial, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. The active ingredients of N. sativa are mainly concentrated in the fixed or essential oil of seeds, which are responsible for most health benefits. This review will provide all updated reported activities of this plant with an emphasis on the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Results of various studies have demonstrated that the oil, extracts, and their active ingredients, in particular, thymoquinone, possess antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, supporting the common folk perception of N. Sativa as a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. Many protective properties are attributed to reproducible radical scavenging activity as well as an interaction with numerous molecular targets involved in inflammation, including proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. However, there is a need for further investigations to find out the precise mechanisms responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of this plant and its active constituents. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. An Overview of Thermal Measurements (IR) at the Summit of Piton de la Fournaise Active Volcano and Inferences on the Structure and Dynamics of its Hydrothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, F.; Peltier, A.; Kowalski, P.; Di Muro, A.; Villeneuve, N.; Ferrazzini, V.; Staudacher, T.

    2017-12-01

    Piton de la Fournaise, located on La Réunion Island in the South East Indian Ocean, is one of the most active basaltic volcanoes (hotspot) of the world with a mean eruption frequency 100×106 m3) on the island, led to the formation of a 400-m-deep, 1000-m-large, funnel-shaped summit caldera. Since then, the floor and inner flanks of this summit depression hosting hot grounds and active fumaroles, are monitored using an infra-red camera device permanently installed on the caldera rim.This thermal dataset constitutes the first opportunity to understand the structure and dynamics of the hydrothermal system and its ability to relay deep-seated heat and mass perturbations. We present in this communication an overview of this thermal datasets focusing on ground/fumaroles temperature evolution during volcanic crisis and rest periods and analyzing correlations with the other permanently acquired data such as the temporal evolution of gas geochemistry (CO2, SO2, H2S), ground deformation and micro-seismic activity. We finally propose a conceptual model of fluid flow architecture within the edifice which paves the way for future quantitative models of hydrothermal heat and mass transfers.

  3. Modelling and mapping long-term risks due to reactive nitrogen effects: An overview of LRTAP convention activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spranger, T.; Hettelingh, J.-P.; Slootweg, J.; Posch, M.

    2008-01-01

    Long-range transboundary air pollution has caused severe environmental effects in Europe. European air pollution abatement policy, in the framework of the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) and the European Union Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) programme, has used critical loads and their exceedances by atmospheric deposition to design emission abatement targets and strategies. The LRTAP Convention International Cooperative Programme on Modelling and Mapping Critical Loads and Levels and Air Pollution Effects, Risks and Trends (ICP M and M) generates European critical loads datasets to enable this work. Developing dynamic nitrogen flux models and using them for a prognosis and assessment of nitrogen effects remains a challenge. Further research is needed on links between nitrogen deposition effects, climate change, and biodiversity. - Sustainable targets for European air pollution abatement policy are defined using critical loads in an effects-based approach

  4. How, with whom and when: an overview of CD147-mediated regulatory networks influencing matrix metalloproteinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, G Daniel; Toole, Bryan P

    2015-11-24

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a family of 23 zinc-dependent enzymes involved in various pathologic and physiologic processes. In cancer, MMPs contribute to processes from tumour initiation to establishment of distant metastases. Complex signalling and protein transport networks regulate MMP synthesis, cell surface presentation and release. Earlier attempts to disrupt MMP activity in patients have proven to be intolerable and with underwhelming clinical efficacy; thus targeting ancillary proteins that regulate MMP activity may be a useful therapeutic approach. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) was originally characterized as a factor present on lung cancer cells, which stimulated collagenase (MMP-1) production in fibroblasts. Subsequent studies demonstrated that EMMPRIN was identical with several other protein factors, including basigin (Bsg), all of which are now commonly termed CD147. CD147 modulates the synthesis and activity of soluble and membrane-bound [membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs)] in various contexts via homophilic/heterophilic cell interactions, vesicular shedding or cell-autonomous processes. CD147 also participates in inflammation, nutrient and drug transporter activity, microbial pathology and developmental processes. Despite the hundreds of manuscripts demonstrating CD147-mediated MMP regulation, the molecular underpinnings governing this process have not been fully elucidated. The present review summarizes our present knowledge of the complex regulatory systems influencing CD147 biology and provides a framework to understand how CD147 may influence MMP activity. © 2016 Authors.

  5. How, with whom and when: an overview of CD147-mediated regulatory networks influencing matrix metalloproteinase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, G. Daniel; Toole, Bryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a family of 23 zinc-dependent enzymes involved in various pathologic and physiologic processes. In cancer, MMPs contribute to processes from tumour initiation to establishment of distant metastases. Complex signalling and protein transport networks regulate MMP synthesis, cell surface presentation and release. Earlier attempts to disrupt MMP activity in patients have proven to be intolerable and with underwhelming clinical efficacy; thus targeting ancillary proteins that regulate MMP activity may be a useful therapeutic approach. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) was originally characterized as a factor present on lung cancer cells, which stimulated collagenase (MMP-1) production in fibroblasts. Subsequent studies demonstrated that EMMPRIN was identical with several other protein factors, including basigin (Bsg), all of which are now commonly termed CD147. CD147 modulates the synthesis and activity of soluble and membrane-bound [membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs)] in various contexts via homophilic/heterophilic cell interactions, vesicular shedding or cell-autonomous processes. CD147 also participates in inflammation, nutrient and drug transporter activity, microbial pathology and developmental processes. Despite the hundreds of manuscripts demonstrating CD147-mediated MMP regulation, the molecular underpinnings governing this process have not been fully elucidated. The present review summarizes our present knowledge of the complex regulatory systems influencing CD147 biology and provides a framework to understand how CD147 may influence MMP activity. PMID:26604323

  6. Depression - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hopeless or helpless Repeated thoughts of death or suicide Lack of pleasure in activities you usually enjoy, including sex Remember that children may have different symptoms than adults. Watch for ...

  7. An Overview of Mode of Action and Analytical Methods for Evaluation of Gas Phase Activities of Flame Retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifah A. Salmeia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The latest techniques used to prove, describe and analyze the gas phase activity of a fire retardant used in polymeric materials are briefly reviewed. Classical techniques, such as thermogravimetric analysis or microscale combustion calorimetry, as well as complex and advanced analytical techniques, such as modified microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC, molecular beam mass spectroscopy and vacuum ultra violet (VUV photoionization spectroscopy coupled with time of flight MS (TOF-MS, are described in this review. The recent advances in analytical techniques help not only in determining the gas phase activity of the flame-retardants but also identify possible reactive species responsible for gas phase flame inhibition. The complete understanding of the decomposition pathways and the flame retardant activity of a flame retardant system is essential for the development of new eco-friendly-tailored flame retardant molecules with high flame retardant efficiency.

  8. Overview of the recovery and processing of 233U from the Oak Ridge molten salt reactor experiment (MSRE) remediation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Icenhour, A.S.; Simmons, D.W.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.; Dai, S.

    2001-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1965 to 1969 to test the concept of a high-temperature, homogeneous, fluid-fueled reactor. The discovery that UF 6 and F 2 migrated from the storage tanks into distant pipes and a charcoal bed resulted in significant activities to remove and recover the 233 U and to decommission the reactor. The recovered fissile uranium will be converted into uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ), which is a suitable form for long-term storage. This publication reports the research and several new developments that were needed to carry out these unique activities. (author)

  9. EDM forum supplement overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonge, Ned

    2012-07-01

    The Agency for Health Research and Quality funded the Electronic Data Methods Forum (EDM Forum) to share the experiences and learnings from 11 research teams funded through three different grant programs, each of which involve the use of electronic clinical data in Comparative Effectiveness Research and Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. This overview is meant to describe the context in which the EDM forum was created and to introduce the set of papers in this supplement to Medical Care that describe the challenges and approaches to the use of electronic clinical data in the three key areas of analytic methods, clinical informatics and data governance. The participants in the EDM Forum are providing innovative approaches to generate information that can support the building of a "learning health care system." The compilation of papers presented in this supplement should serve as a resource to others working to develop the infrastructure for collecting, validating and using electronic data for research.

  10. Pathological gambling: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambling activities are popular as a form of recreation and have been a source of income for many people worldwide. Although gambling has been common across continents and time, and a subset of individuals experience problems with gambling. This review attempts to provide an overview of problem gambling for clinicians who are likely to encounter such patients in their practice. The review discusses the relevance, nosology, and epidemiology of gambling. We also discuss the associated comorbidities and principles of management of pathological gambling.

  11. Concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA in induced sputum of asthma patients after allergen challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kowal,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and its inhibitor (PAI-1 are involved in tiisue remodeling and repairprocesses associated with acute and chronic inflammation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of allergen challengeon concentration of uPA and PAI-1 in induced sputum of house dust mite allergic asthmatics (HDM-AAs. ThirtyHDM-AAs and ten healthy persons (HCswere recruited for the study. In 24 HDM-AAs bronchial challenge with Dermatophagoidespteronyssinus (Dp and in 6 HDM-AAs sham challenege with saline were performed. In HDM-AAs sputumwas induced 24 hours before (T0 and 24 hours (T24 after the challenge. Concentration of uPA and PAI-1 in induced sputumwere determined using immunoenzymatic assays. At T0 in HDM-AAs mean sputum uPA (151±96 pg/ml and PAI-1(4341±1262 pg/ml concentrations were higher than in HC (18.8±6.7 pg/ml; p=0.0002 and 596±180 pg/ml; p<0.0001; foruPA and PAI-1 respectively. After allergen challenge further increase in sputum uPA (187±144 pg/ml; p=0.03 and PAI-1(6252±2323 pg/ml; p<0.0001 concentrations were observed. Moreover, in Dp challenged, but not in saline challengedHDM-AAs the mean uPA/PAI-1 ratio decreased significantly at T24. No significant increase in the studied parameters werefound in sham challenged patients. In HDM-AAs allergen exposure leads to activation of the plasmin system in the airways.Greater increase of the PAI-1 concentration than uPA concentration after allergen challenge may promote airway remodelingand play an important role in the development of bronchial hyperreactivity.

  12. Integrated Modeling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project: Structural Analysis Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John; Mosier, Mark; Howard, Joe; Hyde, Tupper; Parrish, Keith; Ha, Kong; Liu, Frank; McGinnis, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs about structural analysis activities and integrated modeling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The topics include: 1) JWST Overview; 2) Observatory Structural Models; 3) Integrated Performance Analysis; and 4) Future Work and Challenges.

  13. The Manhattan Project: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cameron

    2017-01-01

    August 2017 will mark the 75th anniversary of the establishment of the United States Army's Manhattan Engineer District, which oversaw the development and deployment of the first generation of nuclear weapons during World War II. In this talk I give an overview of the Manhattan Project, touching on its historical context, genesis, organization, facilities, accomplishments, challenges encountered, and legacies. I will also comment briefly on some of its lesser-known aspects and the persistent popular mythologies that still surround it.

  14. An overview of the Environmental Response Team's air surveillance procedures at emergency response activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.D.; Campagna, P.R. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (USA))

    The Safety and Air Surveillance Section of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Response Team responds to emergency air releases such as tire fires and explosions. The air surveillance equipment and procedures used by the organization are described, and case studies demonstrating the various emergency response activities are presented. Air response activities include emergency air responses, occupational and human health air responses and remedial air responses. Monitoring and sampling equipment includes photoionization detectors, combustible gas meters, real-time aerosol monitors, personal sampling pumps, and high flow pumps. Case histories presented include disposal of dioxane from a cotton plant, response to oil well fires in Kuwait, disposal of high pressure cylinders in American Samoa, and response to hurricane Hugo. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  15. An Overview of Chemical Profiles, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Commercial Vegetable Edible Oils Marketed in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangqiang, Gu; Quy, Tran Ngoc; Khanh, Tran Dang

    2018-01-01

    This study analyzed chemical components and investigated the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of fourteen vegetable edible oils marketed in Japan. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify principal phenolic acids and flavonoids. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, sunflower, safflower, canola, soybean, Inca inchi, sesame, and rice bran showed markedly greater activity, whilst the percentage of lipid peroxidation inhibition (LPI%) in sunflower, canola, cotton, grape, flax, perilla, Inca inchi, perillartine, and rice bran were significantly higher than other oils. Maximum total phenol content (TPC) was recorded in flax, followed by perillartine, rice bran, and perilla, whereas total flavonoid content (TFC) was the greatest in Inca inchi and sesame. Benzoic acid was the most common constituent, followed by vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid. On the other hand, luteolin was the most abundant flavonoid, followed by esculetin, myricetin, isoquercetin, and kaempferol, while fisetin was detected only in sunflower. In general, all of the edible oils showed antimicrobial activity, but the growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli of cotton, grape, chia, sesame, and rice bran were greater than other oils. PMID:29439420

  16. Overview of SSC accelerator requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper will present a general overview of the requirements of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) accelerators. Each accelerator in the injector chain will be discussed separately, followed by a discussion of the collider itself. In conclusion, the top level requirements of the overall accelerator system will be presented. For each accelerator, the primary operating parameters will be presented in tabular form. A brief narrative discussion of the principal technical features of each machine will be given. Finally, the principal technical design challenges for the machine will be noted, together with the currently planned solution to these challenges

  17. Can the London 2012 Olympics ‘inspire a generation’ to do more physical or sporting activities? An overview of systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtani, Kamal Ram; Protheroe, Joanne; Slight, Sarah Patricia; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Blakeman, Thomas; Barton, Christopher A; Brijnath, Bianca; Roberts, Nia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine if there is an increased participation in physical or sporting activities following an Olympic or Paralympic games. Design Overview of systematic reviews. Methods We searched the Medline, Embase, Cochrane, DARE, SportDISCUS and Web of Knowledge databases. In addition, we searched for ‘grey literature’ in Google, Google scholar and on the International Olympic Committee websites. We restricted our search to those reviews published in English. We used the AMSTAR tool to assess the methodological quality of those systematic reviews included. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was evidence for an increased participation in physical or sporting activities. Secondary outcomes included public perceptions of sport during and after an Olympic games, barriers to increased sports participation and any other non-sporting health benefits. Results Our systematic search revealed 844 citations, of which only two matched our inclusion criteria. The quality of these two reviews was assessed by three independent reviewers as ‘good’ using the AMSTAR tool for quality appraisal. Both reviews reported little evidence of an increased uptake of sporting activity following an Olympic Games event. Other effects on health, for example, changes in hospital admissions, suicide rates and drug use, were cited although there was insufficient evidence to see an overall effect. Conclusion There is a paucity of evidence to support the notion that hosting an Olympic games leads to an increased participation in physical or sporting activities for host countries. We also found little evidence to suggest other health benefits. We conclude that the true success of these and future games should be evaluated by high-quality, evidence-based studies that have been commissioned before, during and following the completion of the event. Only then can the true success and legacy of the games be established. PMID:23299112

  18. Overview of the INEX 2008 Book Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazai, Gabriella; Doucet, Antoine; Landoni, Monica

    This paper provides an overview of the INEX 2008 Book Track. Now in its second year, the track aimed at broadening its scope by investigating topics of interest in the fields of information retrieval, human computer interaction, digital libraries, and eBooks. The main topics of investigation were defined around challenges for supporting users in reading, searching, and navigating the full texts of digitized books. Based on these themes, four tasks were defined: 1) The Book Retrieval task aimed at comparing traditional and book-specific retrieval approaches, 2) the Page in Context task aimed at evaluating the value of focused retrieval approaches for searching books, 3) the Structure Extraction task aimed to test automatic techniques for deriving structure from OCR and layout information, and 4) the Active Reading task aimed to explore suitable user interfaces for eBooks enabling reading, annotation, review, and summary across multiple books. We report on the setup and results of each of these tasks.

  19. Influence of climate change and human activity on water resources in arid region of Northwest China: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jie Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the latest progress in research on climate change and water resources in the arid region of Northwest China, analyzes the cause of water resource changes within the region from the perspective of climate change and human activities, and summarizes future likely changes in water resources and associated adaptation strategies. The research shows that the climate in the region has experienced warming and wetting with the most significant warming in winter and the highest increase in summer precipitation since 1961. Areas with the most significant warming trends include the Qaidam Basin, the Yili River Valley, and Tacheng. Spatially, the increasing trend in precipitation becomes increasingly significant from the southeast to the northwest, and northern Xinjiang experienced the highest increase. Studies have shown a decrease in headwater of Shiyang River because runoff is mainly based on precipitation which shows a decrease trend. But an increase in western rivers was observed such as Tarim River and Shule River as well as Heihe River due to rapid glacier shrinkage and snowmelt as well as precipitation increase in mountain area. Meanwhile unreasonable human activities resulted in decrease of runoff in the middle and lower reaches of Haihe River, Shiyang River and Kaidu River. Finally, recommendations for future studies are suggested that include characteristics of changes in extreme weather events and their impacts on water resources, projections of future climate and water resource changes, climate change attribution, the selection of adaptation strategies relating to climate change and social economic activities, and use of scientific methods to quantitatively determine water resource allocation.

  20. Physical activity of adult population in the Czech republic: overview of basic indicators for the period 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Mitáš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central European countries belonging to the former "communist bloc" show specificities and even unique things which should not be ignored in research and preventive measures. In addressing health issues it is desirable to observe the developmental patterns in economically developed countries to avoid easily predictable negative aspects in the development of population health. Therefore it is necessary to specify associations between gender, age, occupational classification, education, etc., and lifestyles in different conditions and environments. Simultaneously it is necessary maintain specific features of environment that are consistent with active lifestyles and encourage people to maintain high walkability. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze physical activity of the Czech population with regard to the size of the community and observe regional differences in physical activity (PA in men and women. METHODS: To determine the weekly level of PA we used randomized data set of 8256 inhabitants of the Czech Republic (3678 men and 4578 women. All respondents were reached personally by trained distributors (college students to participate in a research study using the Czech version of the IPAQ questionnaire (also as a part of ANEWS. Data collection was carried out regularly in Spring (March-May and Autumn (September- November periods from 2005 to 2009. Region of the Capital City of Prague has been excluded from the regional analysis. RESULTS: Regional comparisons of total weekly PA shows the minimum differences within the Czech Republic [H(15, 8256 = 103,55; p < 0,001; η2 = 0,01]. The lowest level of PA show both men and women in Ustecky and Moravskoslezsky region, highest level of PA represent population of the region consisted from regions Pardubicky, Kralovehradecky and Vysocina. Size of the community has a significant impact on the overall weekly PA in adult population of the Czech Republic. The results confirm the trend that

  1. How to Tackle Key Challenges in the Promotion of Physical Activity among Older Adults (65+): The AEQUIPA Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forberger, Sarah; Bammann, Karin; Bauer, Jürgen; Boll, Susanne; Bolte, Gabriele; Brand, Tilman; Hein, Andreas; Koppelin, Frauke; Lippke, Sonia; Meyer, Jochen; Pischke, Claudia R.; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-01-01

    The paper introduces the theoretical framework and methods/instruments used by the Physical Activity and Health Equity: Primary Prevention for Healthy Ageing (AEQUIPA) prevention research network as an interdisciplinary approach to tackle key challenges in the promotion of physical activity among older people (65+). Drawing on the social-ecological model, the AEQUIPA network developed an interdisciplinary methodological design including quantitative/qualitative studies and systematic reviews, while combining expertise from diverse fields: public health, psychology, urban planning, sports sciences, health technology and geriatrics. AEQUIPA tackles key challenges when promoting physical activity (PA) in older adults: tailoring of interventions, fostering community readiness and participation, strengthening intersectoral collaboration, using new technological devices and evaluating intervention generated inequalities. AEQUIPA aims to strengthen the evidence base for age-specific preventive PA interventions and to yield new insights into the explanatory power of individual and contextual factors. Currently, the empirical work is still underway. First experiences indicate that the network has achieved a strong regional linkage with communities, local stakeholders and individuals. However, involving inactive persons and individuals from minority groups remained challenging. A review of existing PA intervention studies among the elderly revealed the potential to assess equity effects. The results will add to the theoretical and methodological discussion on evidence-based age-specific PA interventions and will contribute to the discussion about European and national health targets. PMID:28375177

  2. How to Tackle Key Challenges in the Promotion of Physical Activity among Older Adults (65+: The AEQUIPA Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Forberger

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the theoretical framework and methods/instruments used by the Physical Activity and Health Equity: Primary Prevention for Healthy Ageing (AEQUIPA prevention research network as an interdisciplinary approach to tackle key challenges in the promotion of physical activity among older people (65+. Drawing on the social-ecological model, the AEQUIPA network developed an interdisciplinary methodological design including quantitative/qualitative studies and systematic reviews, while combining expertise from diverse fields: public health, psychology, urban planning, sports sciences, health technology and geriatrics. AEQUIPA tackles key challenges when promoting physical activity (PA in older adults: tailoring of interventions, fostering community readiness and participation, strengthening intersectoral collaboration, using new technological devices and evaluating intervention generated inequalities. AEQUIPA aims to strengthen the evidence base for age-specific preventive PA interventions and to yield new insights into the explanatory power of individual and contextual factors. Currently, the empirical work is still underway. First experiences indicate that thenetwork has achieved a strong regional linkage with communities, local stakeholders and individuals. However, involving inactive persons and individuals from minority groups remained challenging. A review of existing PA intervention studies among the elderly revealed the potential to assess equity effects. The results will add to the theoretical and methodological discussion on evidence-based age-specific PA interventions and will contribute to the discussion about European and national health targets.

  3. How to Tackle Key Challenges in the Promotion of Physical Activity among Older Adults (65+): The AEQUIPA Network Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forberger, Sarah; Bammann, Karin; Bauer, Jürgen; Boll, Susanne; Bolte, Gabriele; Brand, Tilman; Hein, Andreas; Koppelin, Frauke; Lippke, Sonia; Meyer, Jochen; Pischke, Claudia R; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-04-04

    The paper introduces the theoretical framework and methods/instruments used by the Physical Activity and Health Equity: Primary Prevention for Healthy Ageing (AEQUIPA) prevention research network as an interdisciplinary approach to tackle key challenges in the promotion of physical activity among older people (65+). Drawing on the social-ecological model, the AEQUIPA network developed an interdisciplinary methodological design including quantitative/qualitative studies and systematic reviews, while combining expertise from diverse fields: public health, psychology, urban planning, sports sciences, health technology and geriatrics. AEQUIPA tackles key challenges when promoting physical activity (PA) in older adults: tailoring of interventions, fostering community readiness and participation, strengthening intersectoral collaboration, using new technological devices and evaluating intervention generated inequalities. AEQUIPA aims to strengthen the evidence base for age-specific preventive PA interventions and to yield new insights into the explanatory power of individual and contextual factors. Currently, the empirical work is still underway. First experiences indicate that thenetwork has achieved a strong regional linkage with communities, local stakeholders and individuals. However, involving inactive persons and individuals from minority groups remained challenging. A review of existing PA intervention studies among the elderly revealed the potential to assess equity effects. The results will add to the theoretical and methodological discussion on evidence-based age-specific PA interventions and will contribute to the discussion about European and national health targets.

  4. TC overview

    CERN Multimedia

    Nessi, M

    In line with the decision taken by the September Collaboration Board, we started the process of reorganizing the technical co-ordination (TCn). The detector construction project has been subdivided into 8 activities, each one managed by an activity manager (AM). For some activities the mandate of TCn is to monitor the progress of the work, for other tasks the construction responsibility is direct. AMs, system and subsystem Project Leaders and Project engineers form a new technical management structure (TMB), which deals with the day-by-day problems. The TMB meets the day before the Executive Board (EB), takes decisions and reports to the EB for major changes. This new operation mode has been in place for 4 months and seems to work. In the last few months a big effort was made to re-baseline the various schedules and the detector parameters. Since March we have a new LHC schedule, which targets the start of the machine commissioning at the end of 2005. By that time the initial detector configuration must be i...

  5. ATLAS off-Grid sites (Tier 3) monitoring. From local fabric monitoring to global overview of the VO computing activities

    CERN Document Server

    PETROSYAN, A; The ATLAS collaboration; BELOV, S; ANDREEVA, J; KADOCHNIKOV, I

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing activities have so far concentrated in the "central" part of the experiment computing system, namely the first 3 tiers (the CERN Tier0, 10 Tier1 centers and over 60 Tier2 sites). Many ATLAS Institutes and National Communities have deployed (or intend to) deploy Tier-3 facilities. Tier-3 centers consist of non-pledged resources, which are usually dedicated to data analysis tasks by the geographically close or local scientific groups, and which usually comprise a range of architectures without Grid middleware. Therefore a substantial part of the ATLAS monitoring tools which make use of Grid middleware, cannot be used for a large fraction of Tier3 sites. The presentation will describe the T3mon project, which aims to develop a software suite for monitoring the Tier3 sites, both from the perspective of the local site administrator and that of the ATLAS VO, thereby enabling the global view of the contribution from Tier3 sites to the ATLAS computing activities. Special attention in p...

  6. Cataract: A major secondary complication of diabetes, its epidemiology and an overview on major medicinal plants screened for anticataract activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel DK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cataract is a visual impairment caused due to opacification or optical dysfunction of crystallin lens affecting more than 17 million people around the world. Even though the incidences of cataract are increasing day by day among the elderly persons but, still except surgery no other ways of treatment have been successfully developed so far. Thus, the aim of writing the present review is to provide an insight over the pathophysiological and etiological aspects of cataract along with discussing the remedies available for the disorder. The review also describes different experimental models with their relevant mechanism and significance such as galactose-induced, naphthalene-induced and selenite-induced cataract models which are mainly used for evaluating the anticataract activity of a particular drug (mainly of natural origin. The review includes list of plants and their phytoconstituents which have been so far evaluated pharmacologicaly for the treatment of cataract. From the survey, it was confirmed that the antioxidant property of plants phytoconstituents are basically responsible for their effective anticataract activity. Thus, the valuable information provided in the present review will help researches in developing an alternative method rather than surgery for the treatment of cataract which will minimize the rate of blindness due to cataract thus, benefiting and extending protective aspects of eyes, an integral part of human body.

  7. Challenges for an Active Role of Women in Physics in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Paola; Guaño, Sonia; Apolo, Alberto Celi

    2009-04-01

    The social reality of Ecuador is not far from the experience of most countries of the Andean region in South America. Many factors contribute to a preference for short-learning-curve or business-oriented careers, and also make traditional and time-demanding careers less appealing. Physics is one of the least attractive professions in a country like Ecuador. However, in the last few years, the number of bachelor's-degree candidates in physics has increased significantly. This result, together with the new postgraduate courses offered inland, show promising changes for the future of this career. Developed countries face challenges that involve mainly gender issues in the scientific daily routine, whereas in Ecuador the challenge is still to attract students to this scientific path regardless of their gender.

  8. Activation of innate immune genes in caprine blood leukocytes after systemic endotoxin challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvesen, Øyvind; Reiten, Malin R; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2016-01-01

    observed peaking at 2 h, corroborating the increasing evidence that ISGs respond immediately to bacterial endotoxins. A slower response was manifested by four extrahepatic acute phase proteins (APP) (SAA3, HP, LF and LCN2) reaching maximum levels at 5 h. We report an immediate induction of ISGs...... insights into the dynamic regulation of innate immune genes, as well as raising new questions regarding the importance of ISGs and extrahepatic APPs in leukocytes after systemic endotoxin challenge....

  9. Measurement of activity in social media – a challenge for contemporary marketing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Płuciennik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Popularity of social media among Internet users resulted in popularity of this medium among companies looking for contact with the participants of the community. Social media became as well a marketing research area of interest. Challenges social media researchers are facing, such as a combination of quantitative and qualitative aspects, and the problem of complexity and the selection of indicators, demonstrate the need to systematize the knowledge in this area.

  10. Overview of Activities in U.S. Related to Continued Service of Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, Dan J.

    2011-01-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant concrete structures are described and commentary on continued service assessments of these structures is provided. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The license renewal process in the U.S. is outlined and its current status noted. A summary of operating experience related to U.S. nuclear power plant concrete structures is presented. Several candidate areas are identified where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of NPP concrete structures. Finally current ORNL activities related to aging-management of concrete structures are outlined: development of operating experience database, application of structural reliability theory, and compilation of elevated temperature concrete material property data and information.

  11. An overview of process instrumentation, protective safety interlocks and alarm system at the JET facilities active gas handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, N.; Brennan, P.; Brown, K.; Gibbons, C.; Jones, G.; Knipe, S.; Manning, C.; Perevezentsev, A.; Stagg, R.; Thomas, R.; Yorkshades, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) Facilities Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) comprises ten interconnected processing sub-systems that supply, process and recover tritium from gases used in the JET Machine. Operations require a diverse range of process instrumentation to carry out a multiplicity of monitoring and control tasks and approximately 500 process variables are measured. The different types and application of process instruments are presented with specially adapted or custom-built versions highlighted. Forming part of the Safety Case for tritium operations, a dedicated hardwired interlock and alarm system provides an essential safety function. In the event of failure modes, each hardwired interlock will back-up software interlocks and shutdown areas of plant to a failsafe condition. Design of the interlock and alarm system is outlined and general methodology described. Practical experience gained during plant operations is summarised and the methods employed for routine functional testing of essential instrument systems explained

  12. ''State of art of power for telecommunications in Brazil: An overview of the impact in the market trends and R and D activities after the Telebras privatization''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarite, J.E. [Fundacao Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Telecomunicacoes (Brazil); Univ. Paulista - UNIP (Brazil); Rosolem, M.F.N.C.; Beck, R. [Fundacao Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Telecomunicacoes (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an idea about the main market players, its products and services and the R and D activities at Universities, R and D Centers, R and D Foundations and manufactory laboratories, as long as, an overview about trends for telecom energy products in Brazil after the strong change on market characteristics after the Telebras privatization process. CPqD's activities will be described. (orig.)

  13. 5 CFR 2635.801 - Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overview. 2635.801 Section 2635.801 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Outside Activities § 2635.801 Overview. (a) This subpart contains provisions...

  14. The Flipped Classroom: An active teaching and learning strategy for making the sessions more interactive and challenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Amber Shamim

    2018-04-01

    Flipping the classroom is a pedagogical model that employs easy to use, readily accessible technology based resources such as video lectures, reading handouts, and practice problems outside the classroom, whereas interactive group-based, problem-solving activities conducted in the classroom. This strategy permits for an extended range of learning activities during the session. Using class time for active learning provides greater opportunity for mentoring and peer to peer collaboration. Instead of spending too much time on delivering lectures, class time can best be utilized by interacting with students, discussing their concerns related to the particular topic to be taught, providing real life examples relevant to the course content, challenging students to think in a broader aspect about complex process and encouraging different team based learning activities.

  15. Cortical Activation during a Cognitive Challenge in Patients with Chronic Temporal Lobe Epilepsy—A Dynamic SPECT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Kirkpatrick

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In a pilot group of six patients suffering from chronic temporal lobe epilepsy, single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT has been used to image the changes in relative cerebral blood flow between rest (static scan and conditions of cognitive activation (activated scan. The cognitive challenge used during activation comprised a test of word memory, and the performance was expressed as a word memory score (WMS for each individual. An activation index (AI was calculated from the mean normalized density counts in specific regions of interest (ROIs, and values obtained were analysed for correlation with the WMS. The mean AI was increased significantly in the right lateral temporal cortex, the right and left inferior frontal regions, the left temporal pole, and the right medial temporal cortex. A positive correlation with the WMS was found in the medial temporal cortices, and this relationship was significant for the right medial temporal ROI.

  16. Cloud Computing: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Sarga

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As cloud computing is gaining acclaim as a cost-effective alternative to acquiring processing resources for corporations, scientific applications and individuals, various challenges are rapidly coming to the fore. While academia struggles to procure a concise definition, corporations are more interested in competitive advantages it may generate and individuals view it as a way of speeding up data access times or a convenient backup solution. Properties of the cloud architecture largely preclude usage of existing practices while achieving end-users’ and companies’ compliance requires considering multiple infrastructural as well as commercial factors, such as sustainability in case of cloud-side interruptions, identity management and off-site corporate data handling policies. The article overviews recent attempts at formal definitions of cloud computing, summarizes and critically evaluates proposed delimitations, and specifies challenges associated with its further proliferation. Based on the conclusions, future directions in the field of cloud computing are also briefly hypothesized to include deeper focus on community clouds and bolstering innovative cloud-enabled platforms and devices such as tablets, smart phones, as well as entertainment applications.

  17. CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING INNOVATION ACTIVITY AND CHALLENGES IN DEFINING IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Volkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents polemically the peculiarities of using the indicators of innovation activity for evaluating the state and outcomes of the organization’s operation, including Higher Learning Institutions in the areas of development and learning new types of techniques and technology. There is considered a possible structure of a system of balanced innovation activity indicators. There is substantiated a necessity to change statistical reporting on the innovation activity.

  18. TACIS Belarus - an overview of results and planned activities in the field of radiation protection, emergency preparedness and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, L. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Since 1996 the nuclear safety authorities of the Republic of Belarus were assisted with TACIS activities entitled: 'Transfer of Western European Regulatory Methodology and Practices to the Nuclear Safety Authorities of Belarus'. Considering the results of the Exploratory Mission which was arranged in 1996 the Regulatory Assistance Projects BE/RA/01 and BE/RA/02 were successful realised in 1998/1999 and in 2003/2004, respectively. These projects were financed by the Commission of the European Communities (EC) and implemented by a consortium of Technical Support Organisations (TSOs) from France (IRSN (former IPSN)), Germany (GRS) and Sweden (SSI) led by Riskaudit IRSN/GRS International. Beneficiary of the projects were Promatomnadzor at the beginning and later the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus each in connection with the Republican Centre of Radiation Control and Monitoring (RCRCM). The actual project BE/RA/03 'Regulatory Assistance to Belarus in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection including Radiological Emergency Preparedness' was started by the end of August 2006. (author)

  19. An overview of advanced reduction processes for bromate removal from drinking water: Reducing agents, activation methods, applications and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qian; Yu, Shuili; Li, Lei; Wang, Ting; Liao, Xinlei; Ye, Yubing

    2017-02-15

    Bromate (BrO 3 - ) is a possible human carcinogen regulated at a strict standard of 10μg/L in drinking water. Various techniques to eliminate BrO 3 - usually fall into three main categories: reducing bromide (Br - ) prior to formation of BrO 3 - , minimizing BrO 3 - formation during the ozonation process, and removing BrO 3 - from post-ozonation waters. However, the first two approaches exhibit low degradation efficiency and high treatment cost. The third workaround has obvious advantages, such as high reduction efficiency, more stable performance and easier combination with UV disinfection, and has therefore been widely implemented in water treatment. Recently, advanced reduction processes (ARPs), the photocatalysis of BrO 3 - , have attracted much attention due to improved performance. To increase the feasibility of photocatalytic systems, the focus of this work concerns new technological developments, followed by a summary of reducing agents, activation methods, operational parameters, and applications. The reaction mechanisms of two typical processes involving UV/sulfite homogeneous photocatalysis and UV/titanium dioxide heterogeneous photocatalysis are further summarized. The future research needs for ARPs to reach full-scale potential in drinking water treatment are suggested accordingly. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. TACIS Belarus - an overview of results and planned activities in the field of radiation protection, emergency preparedness and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, L.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1996 the nuclear safety authorities of the Republic of Belarus were assisted with TACIS activities entitled: 'Transfer of Western European Regulatory Methodology and Practices to the Nuclear Safety Authorities of Belarus'. Considering the results of the Exploratory Mission which was arranged in 1996 the Regulatory Assistance Projects BE/RA/01 and BE/RA/02 were successful realised in 1998/1999 and in 2003/2004, respectively. These projects were financed by the Commission of the European Communities (EC) and implemented by a consortium of Technical Support Organisations (TSOs) from France (IRSN (former IPSN)), Germany (GRS) and Sweden (SSI) led by Riskaudit IRSN/GRS International. Beneficiary of the projects were Promatomnadzor at the beginning and later the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus each in connection with the Republican Centre of Radiation Control and Monitoring (RCRCM). The actual project BE/RA/03 'Regulatory Assistance to Belarus in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection including Radiological Emergency Preparedness' was started by the end of August 2006. (author)

  1. Overview of results of the first phase of validation activities for the IFMIF High Flux Test Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeiter, Frederik, E-mail: frederik.arbeiter@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Chen Yuming; Dolensky, Bernhard; Freund, Jana; Heupel, Tobias; Klein, Christine; Scheel, Nicola; Schlindwein, Georg [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach for application in the IFMIF High Flux Test Module. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of prototypes of the irradiation capsules of the IFMIF High Flux Test Module. - Abstract: The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) is projected to create an experimentally validated database of material properties relevant for fusion reactor designs. The IFMIF High Flux Test Module is the dedicated experiment to irradiate alloys in the temperature range 250-550 Degree-Sign C and up to 50 displacements per atom per irradiation cycle. The High Flux Test Module is developed to maximize the specimen payload in the restricted irradiation volume, and to minimize the temperature spread within each specimen bundle. Low pressure helium mini-channel cooling is used to offer a high integration density. Due to the demanding thermo-hydraulic and mechanical conditions, the engineering design process (involving numerical neutronic, thermo-hydraulic and mechanical analyses) is supported by extensive experimental validation activities. This paper reports on the prototype manufacturing, thermo-hydraulic modeling experiments and component tests, as well as on mechanical testing. For the testing of the 1:1 prototype of the High Flux Test Module, a dedicated test facility, the Helium Loop Karlsruhe-Low Pressure (HELOKA-LP) has been taken into service.

  2. Overview of results of the first phase of validation activities for the IFMIF High Flux Test Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeiter, Frederik; Chen Yuming; Dolensky, Bernhard; Freund, Jana; Heupel, Tobias; Klein, Christine; Scheel, Nicola; Schlindwein, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach for application in the IFMIF High Flux Test Module. ► Fabrication of prototypes of the irradiation capsules of the IFMIF High Flux Test Module. - Abstract: The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) is projected to create an experimentally validated database of material properties relevant for fusion reactor designs. The IFMIF High Flux Test Module is the dedicated experiment to irradiate alloys in the temperature range 250–550 °C and up to 50 displacements per atom per irradiation cycle. The High Flux Test Module is developed to maximize the specimen payload in the restricted irradiation volume, and to minimize the temperature spread within each specimen bundle. Low pressure helium mini-channel cooling is used to offer a high integration density. Due to the demanding thermo-hydraulic and mechanical conditions, the engineering design process (involving numerical neutronic, thermo-hydraulic and mechanical analyses) is supported by extensive experimental validation activities. This paper reports on the prototype manufacturing, thermo-hydraulic modeling experiments and component tests, as well as on mechanical testing. For the testing of the 1:1 prototype of the High Flux Test Module, a dedicated test facility, the Helium Loop Karlsruhe-Low Pressure (HELOKA-LP) has been taken into service.

  3. Overview of decommissioning and decontamination technical information support activities funded by the US Department of Energy's remedial action programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    In 1979 the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide technical information support to the Surplus Facilities Management Program, DOE's national decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) program which is managed by DOE's Richland Operations Office and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc., and to the other DOE remedial action programs. Specific information activities that RAPIC performs to support the DOE's programs and the D and D community include: maintaining a computerized bibliographic database containing about 4500 annotated citations (about 2000 on D and D) and a database of 1800 contacts involved with remedial action work at radioactively contaminated sites; publishing an annual bibliography, ''Nuclear Facility Decommissioning and Site Remedial Actions, A Selected Bibliography,'' ORNL/EIS-154 (six volumes published); maintaining a document repository and providing copies of requested publications; and performing manual and computerized searches of the technical literature. The most significant RAPIC function is serving as a focal point for D and D information. With the extensive resources at its command, RAPIC is in a unique position to provide a comprehensive information base to the D and D community. DOE makes these services available to foster good public relations and promote cooperation and information exchange

  4. An overview of remedial action technical information support activities funded by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.

    1990-01-01

    In 1979 the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide technical information support to the DOE's Remedial Action Programs, which comprise: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), and Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP). Specific information activities that RAPIC performs to support the DOE's programs include: maintaining a computerized bibliographic database containing approximately 7000 annotated references relevant to remediation work at radioactively contaminated sites; publishing an annual bibliography, Nuclear Facility Decommissioning and Site Remedial Actions, A Selected Bibliography, ORNL/EIS-154; maintaining a document repository and providing copies of requested publications; and performing manual and computerized searches of the technical literature. The most important RAPIC function is serving as a focal point for remedial action information. With these extensive resources at its command, RAPIC is in a unique position to provide a comprehensive information base to the remedial action and environmental restoration community

  5. From Radio with Love: An Overview of the Role of Radio Observations in Understanding High-Energy Emission from Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Roopesh

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-ray satellite Fermi and the ground based TeV facilities MAGIC, VERITAS and HESS have ushered in a new era in the observation of high-energy emission from active galaxies. The energy budgets of these objects have a major contribution from gamma-rays and it is simply not possible to understand their physics without high-energy observations. Though the exact mechanisms for high-energy production in galaxies remains an open question, gamma-rays typically result from interactions between high-energy particles. Via different interactions these same particles can produce radio emission. Thus the non-thermal nature of gamma-ray emission practically guarantees that high-energy emitters are also radio loud. Aside from their obvious role as a component of multiwavelength analysis, radio observations provide two crucial elements essential to understanding the source structure and physical processes of high-energy emitters: very high timing resolution and very high spatial resolution. A brief overview of the unique role played by radio observations in unraveling the mysteries of the high energy Universe as presented here.

  6. Uranium from Africa - An overview on past and current mining activities: Re-appraising associated risks and chances in a global context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winde, Frank; Brugge, Doug; Nidecker, Andreas; Ruegg, Urs

    2017-05-01

    In 2003, nuclear power received renewed interest as a perceived climate-neutral way to meet high energy demands of large industrialized countries, such as China, India, Russia and the USA. It triggered a growing demand for uranium (U) as nuclear fuel. Dubbed the 'nuclear renaissance', the U-price rose over tenfold before the global credit crisis dampend the rush. Many efforts to capitalise on the renewed demand focused on Africa. This paper provides an overview on the type and extent of uranium mining, production and exploration on the African continent and discusses the economic benefits as well as the potential environmental and health risks and the long-term needs for remediation of legacy sites. The actual historical results of uranium mining activities in more than thirty African countries provide data against which to assess the existing risks of uranium development. The already existing uraniferous waste in several African countries threatens scarce water resources and the health of adjacent residents. Responsibility should rest with the governments and the companies to ensure that these threats are not realized.

  7. ITER overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.; Aymar, R.; Chuyanov, V.; Huguet, M.; Parker, R.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes technical works of six years done by the ITER Joint Central Team and Home Teams under terms of Agreement of the ITER Engineering Design Activities. The major products are as follows: complete and detailed engineering design with supporting assessments, industrial-based cost estimates and schedule, non-site specific comprehensive safety and environmental assessment, and technology R and D to validate and qualify design including proof of technologies and industrial manufacture and testing of full size or scalable models of key components. The ITER design is at an advanced stage of maturity and contains sufficient technical information for a construction decision. The operation of ITER will demonstrate the availability of a new energy source, fusion. (author)

  8. ITER Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.; Aymar, R.; Chuyanov, V.; Huguet, M.; Parker, R.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes technical works of six years done by the ITER Joint Central Team and Home Teams under terms of Agreement of the ITER Engineering Design Activities. The major products are as follows: complete and detailed engineering design with supporting assessments, industrial-based cost estimates and schedule, non-site specific comprehensive safety and environmental assessment, and technology R and D to validate and qualify design including proof of technologies and industrial manufacture and testing of full size or scalable models of key components. The ITER design is at an advanced stage of maturity and contains sufficient technical information for a construction decision. The operation of ITER will demonstrate the availability of a new energy source, fusion. (author)

  9. Current activities and challenges of the European network for inspection and qualification (ENIQ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Oliver [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Petten (Netherlands). Institute for Energy and Transport (IET); Martin, Etienne [EDF, St Denis (France). Direction Production Ingenierie; Booler, Russ [AMEC Clean Energy Europe, Warrington (United Kingdom); Zetterwall, Tommy [Swedish Qualification Centre, Taeby (Sweden); Walker, Tony [Rolls-Royce Submarines, Derby (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    This article describes the development of the European Network for Inspection and Qualification (ENIQ) since the previous presentation of the network in the 2011 April/May edition of this journal, covering mainly the new technical challenges facing the network and resulting projects as well as the establishment of the new Task Group for Inspection Qualification Bodies. ENIQ is a utility-driven network dealing with the reliability and effectiveness of non-destructive testing (NDT) for nuclear power plants (NPP). ENIQ is recognised as one of the main contributors to today's global qualification codes and guidelines for in-service inspection (ISI) and has published nearly 50 documents. Among them are the 'European Methodology for Qualification of Non-Destructive Testing', the first qualification methodology based on technical justifications, the 'European Framework Document for Risk-Informed In-Service Inspection (RI-ISI)', and various recommend practices. In addition ENIQ has carried out two pilot studies and a number of surveys. In 2012, ENIQ joined the European based R and D association on Gen II and III reactors, NUGENIA, making ENIQ its 8{sup th} technical area. Following the entry into NUGENIA, ENIQ members have updated the ENIQ roadmap and included a number of new technical challenges facing its members in the near future. Also ENIQ established a third task group in 2013, the Task Group for Inspection Qualification Bodies (TGIQB), which should serve as an exchange forum for inspection qualification bodies. ENIQ is currently preparing or performing new projects and studies to tackle these challenges and new recommended practices and reports are likely to evolve from these projects, which will enable ENIQ to maintain its role as one of the main contributors to today's global qualification codes and guidelines for ISI.

  10. Current activities and challenges of the European network for inspection and qualification (ENIQ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Oliver; Martin, Etienne; Zetterwall, Tommy; Walker, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development of the European Network for Inspection and Qualification (ENIQ) since the previous presentation of the network in the 2011 April/May edition of this journal, covering mainly the new technical challenges facing the network and resulting projects as well as the establishment of the new Task Group for Inspection Qualification Bodies. ENIQ is a utility-driven network dealing with the reliability and effectiveness of non-destructive testing (NDT) for nuclear power plants (NPP). ENIQ is recognised as one of the main contributors to today's global qualification codes and guidelines for in-service inspection (ISI) and has published nearly 50 documents. Among them are the 'European Methodology for Qualification of Non-Destructive Testing', the first qualification methodology based on technical justifications, the 'European Framework Document for Risk-Informed In-Service Inspection (RI-ISI)', and various recommend practices. In addition ENIQ has carried out two pilot studies and a number of surveys. In 2012, ENIQ joined the European based R and D association on Gen II and III reactors, NUGENIA, making ENIQ its 8 th technical area. Following the entry into NUGENIA, ENIQ members have updated the ENIQ roadmap and included a number of new technical challenges facing its members in the near future. Also ENIQ established a third task group in 2013, the Task Group for Inspection Qualification Bodies (TGIQB), which should serve as an exchange forum for inspection qualification bodies. ENIQ is currently preparing or performing new projects and studies to tackle these challenges and new recommended practices and reports are likely to evolve from these projects, which will enable ENIQ to maintain its role as one of the main contributors to today's global qualification codes and guidelines for ISI.

  11. An Overview of the Dynamics of the Volcanic Paroxysmal Explosive Activity, and Related Seismicity, at Andesitic and Dacitic Volcanoes (1960–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav M. Zobin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding volcanic paroxysmal explosive activity requires the knowledge of many associated processes. An overview of the dynamics of paroxysmal explosive eruptions (PEEs at andesitic and dacitic volcanoes occurring between 1960 and 2010 is presented here. This overview is based mainly on a description of the pre-eruptive and eruptive events, as well as on the related seismic measurements. The selected eruptions are grouped according to their Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI. A first group includes three eruptions of VEI 5-6 (Mount St. Helens, 1980; El Chichón, 1982; Pinatubo, 1991 and a second group includes three eruptions of VEI 3 (Usu volcano, 1977; Soufriere Hills Volcano (SHV, 1996, and Volcán de Colima, 2005. The PEEs of the first group have similarity in their developments that allows to propose a 5-stage scheme of their dynamics process. Between these stages are: long (more than 120 years period of quiescence (stage 1, preliminary volcano-tectonic (VT earthquake swarm (stage 2, period of phreatic explosions (stage 3 and then, PEE appearance (stage 4. It was shown also that the PEEs of this group during their Plinian stage “triggered” the earthquake sequences beneath the volcanic structures with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes proportional to the volume of ejecta of PEEs (stage 5. Three discussed PEEs of the second group with lower VEI developed in more individual styles, not keeping within any general scheme. Among these, one PEE (SHV may be considered as partly following in development to the PEEs of the first group, having stages 1, 3, and 4. The PEEs of Usu volcano and of Volcán de Colima had no preliminary long-term stages of quiescence. The PEE at Usu volcano came just at the end of the preceding short swarm of VT earthquakes. At Volcán de Colima, no preceding swarm of VT occurred. This absence of any regularity in development of lower VEI eruptions may refer, among other reasons, to different conditions of opening

  12. Why are their physical activity levels so low?: An overview of the literature into the facilitators and barriers to physical activity in people with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Leontien; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Aim: It is generally acknowledged that being physically active is important for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) because of the positive effects on physical and mental health. However, physical activity seems to be a minor part of the support provided to people with ID, especially in those

  13. Report: EPA Prepared to Implement Strategic Human Capital Management Activities But Challenges Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2004-P-00024, September 20, 2004. EPA’s headquarters and regional offices are prepared to implement strategic human capital management activities, but an alignment of office-level activities to the Agency’s Strategy for Human Capital is lacking.

  14. Physical Activity in Intermediate Schools: The Interplay of School Culture, Adolescent Challenges, and Athletic Elitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQuarrie, Colleen; Murnaghan, Donna; MacLellan, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    The intervention potential of physical activity programs for intermediate schools (grades 7-9), could be enhanced by an understanding of how students engage with and disengage from physical activity. This study provides an interpretation of how adolescents, parents, teachers, and principals perceive students' involvement in physical activity…

  15. Overview of the Mechanics of the Active Mai'iu Low Angle Normal Fault (Dayman Dome), Southeastern Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, T. A.; Boulton, C. J.; Webber, S. M.; Mizera, M.; Oesterle, J.; Ellis, S. M.; Norton, K. P.; Wallace, L.; Biemiller, J.; Seward, D.; Boles, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Mai'iu Fault is a corrugated low-angle normal fault (LANF) that has slipped >24 km. It emerges near sea level at 21° N dip, and flattens southward over the dome crest at 3000 m. This reactivated Paleogene suture is slipping at up to 1 cm/year based on previous GPS data and preliminary 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure scarp dating. An alignment of microseismicity (Eilon et al. 2015) suggests a dip of 30° N at 15-25 km depth. Pseudotachylites are abundant in lower, mylonitic parts of the footwall. One vein yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages of 1.9-2.2 Ma, implying seismicity at 8-10 km depth at the above slip rate. Widespread, antithetic normal faults in the footwall are attributed to rolling-hinge controlled yielding during exhumation. A single rider block is downfolded into synformal megamullion. Unconformities within this block, and ductile folding and conjugate strike-slip faulting of mylonitic footwall fabrics record prolonged EW shortening and constriction. Many normal and strike-slip faults cut the metabasaltic footwall recording Andersonian stresses and flipping between σ1 and σ2. To exhume the steep faults, the LANF must have remained active despite differential stress being locally high enough to initiate well-oriented faults—relationships that bracket the frictional strength of the LANF. Quantitative XRD on mafic and serpentinitic gouges reveal the Mai'iu fault core is enriched in weak clays corrensite and saponite. Hydrothermal friction experiments were done at effective normal stresses of 30-210 MPa, and temperatures of 50-450oC. At shallow depths (T≤200 oC), clay-rich fault gouges are frictionally weak (μ=0.13-0.15 and 0.20-0.28) and velocity-strengthening. At intermediate depths (T>200 oC), the footwall is frictionally strong (μ=0.71-0.78 and 0.50-0.64) and velocity-weakening. Velocity-strengthening is observed at T≥400 oC. The experiments provide evidence for deep unstable slip, consistent with footwall pseudotachylites and microseismicity at

  16. A systematic overview of the coincidences of river sinuosity changes and tectonically active structures in the Pannonian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovszki, Judit; Székely, Balázs; Timár, Gábor

    2012-12-01

    As tectonic movements change the valley slope (low-gradient reaches of valleys, in sedimentary basins), the alluvial rivers, as sensitive indicators, respond to these changes, by varying their courses to accommodate this forcing. In our study sinuosity values, a commonly used characteristic parameter to detect river pattern changes, were studied for the major rivers in the Pannonian Basin in order to reveal neotectonic influence on their planform shape. Our study area comprises the entire Pannonian Basin (330,000 km2) located in eastern Central-Europe, bounded by the Alps, Carpathians and Dinarides. The studied rivers were mostly in their natural meandering state before the main river regulations of the 19th century. The last quasi-natural, non-regulated river planforms were surveyed somewhat earlier, during the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire. Using the digitized river sections of that survey, the sinuosities of the rivers were calculated with different sample section sizes ranging from 5 km to 80 km. Depending on the bank-full discharge, also a 'most representative' section size is given, which can be connected to the neotectonic activity. In total, the meandering reaches of 28 rivers were studied; their combined length is 7406 km. The places where the river sinuosity changed were compared to the structural lines of the "Atlas of the present-day geodynamics of the Pannonian Basin" (Horváth et al., 2006). 36 junctions along 26 structural lines were identified where the fault lines of this neotectonic map crossed the rivers. Across these points the mean sinuosity changed. Depending on the direction of the relative vertical movements, the sinuosity values increased or decreased. There were some points, where the sinuosity changed in an opposite way. Along these sections, the rivers belong to the range of unorganized meandering or there are lithological margins. Assuming that the rivers indicate on-going faulting accurately, some places were found

  17. Gritty people try harder: grit and effort-related cardiac autonomic activity during an active coping challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J; Eddington, Kari M; Beaty, Roger E; Nusbaum, Emily C; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2013-05-01

    Grit, a recently proposed personality trait associated with persistence for long-range goals, predicts achievement in a wide range of important life outcomes. Using motivational intensity theory, the present research examined the physiological underpinnings of grit during an active coping task. Forty young adults completed the Short Grit Scale and worked on a self-paced mental effort task. Effort-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity was assessed using impedance cardiography, which yielded measures of sympathetic activity (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic activity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA). Multilevel models revealed that people high on the Perseverance of Effort subscale showed autonomic coactivation: both PEP and RSA became stronger during the task, reflecting higher activity of both ANS divisions. The Consistency of Interest subscale, in contrast, predicted only weaker sympathetic activity (slower PEP). Taken together, the findings illuminate autonomic processes associated with how "gritty" people pursue goals, and they suggest that more attention should be paid to the facets' distinct effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... we are What we do Programs and activities Work with us Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural ...

  19. Overview of Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) and high-speed cruise capability of the NASA Large Civil Tilt-Rotor (LCTR) notional vehicle is envisaged to enable increased throughput in the national airspace. A key challenge of the LCTR is the requirement to vary the main rotor speeds from 100% at take-off to near 50% at cruise as required to minimize mission fuel burn. The variable-speed power-turbine (VSPT), driving a fixed gear-ratio transmission, provides one approach for effecting this wide speed variation. The key aerodynamic and rotordynamic challenges of the VSPT were described in the FAP Conference presentation. The challenges include maintaining high turbine efficiency at high work factor, wide (60 deg.) of incidence variation in all blade rows due to the speed variation, and operation at low Reynolds numbers (with transitional flow). The PT -shaft of the VSPT must be designed for safe operation in the wide speed range required, and therefore poses challenges associated with rotordynamics. The technical challenges drive research activities underway at NASA. An overview of the NASA SRW VSPT research activities was provided. These activities included conceptual and preliminary aero and mechanical (rotordynamics) design of the VSPT for the LCTR application, experimental and computational research supporting the development of incidence tolerant blading, and steps toward component-level testing of a variable-speed power-turbine of relevance to the LCTR application.

  20. Work relating to defect assessment undertaken by activity group 2 of the European Commission's working group on codes and standards. WGCS overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.; Guinovart, J.

    1995-01-01

    For about twenty years, the Working Group on Codes and Standards has been an Advisory Group of the European Commission and three sub-groups AG1, AG2 and AG3, were formed to consider manufacture and inspection, structural mechanics and materials topics respectively. Representation on the Working Group and its sub-groups comes from designers, utilities and atomic energy agencies in those member States with active nuclear power programmes. There has also been a very valuable input from universities and research organisations in the countries concerned. The method of working is to identify topics on which there is a difference of opinion; projects are set up to review the up to date scientific and technological knowledge. The investigations are undertaken collaboratively by specialists from as many countries as can contribute and there is an obligation to reach conclusions which can be put to practical use by engineers. While the Working group and its sub-groups are not directly involved in the production of standards, there is a very important input to the pre-standardization process. The work produced by AG2 covered a wide range of subjects associated with structural integrity, mainly concerning the Fast Breeder Reactors. Since 1991 the Group has progressively set up Light Water Reactor programmes. Currently, most of efforts are devoted to Thermal Reactors with a minor extent to Fast Breeder Reactors. The present paper is mainly concerned with those aspects of the AG2 activities which have a bearing on defect assessment. Although work was initiated as part of the FBR programme, it must be remembered that the greater part of it can be extended to a wide range of high temperature plants. Concerning the LWR programmes, an overview on current selected studies is being provided in this paper. (authors). 23 refs

  1. An Energy Overview of Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2003-08-13

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy maintained a web site that was meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consisted of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There were also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these was a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Bolivia.

  2. Racemic ketamine decreases muscle sympathetic activity but maintains the neural response to hypotensive challenges in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienbaum, P.; Heuter, T.; Michel, M. C.; Peters, J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular stimulation and increased catecholamine plasma concentrations during ketamine anesthesia have been attributed to increased central sympathetic activity as well as catecholamine reuptake inhibition in various experimental models. However, direct recordings of efferent

  3. Active labour market programmes for women with a partner: Challenge or replication of traditional gender roles

    OpenAIRE

    Kopf, Eva; Zabel, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    A major unemployment and welfare benefit reform took place in Germany in 2005. One objective of this reform was to more strongly encourage an adult worker model of the family, with an emphasis on activating the formerly inactive. Our hypothesis is, however, that assignments to activation programmes, such as training or workfare, will in practice still tend to replicate patterns for the division of labour in the household that couples have become accustomed to. The views of case workers in emp...

  4. Political Activism: Post-communist Challenges and Opportunities in East Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Iancu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to standard narratives on the declining function of parties in fostering political participation, this article argues that far from abandoning the cause of participation, post-communist political parties diversified the understanding of the party as a mobilizing agency by adapting their internal organizations. On the basis of a mid-range number of cases (e.g. Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia the study identified different patterns of evolution within a complex interaction effect between participation and organizational development. The peculiarity of the parties’ organization and functions has shaped political participation both as an opportunity structure (legitimizing the political system and increasing citizens’ involvement in politics and as a democratic challenge (increasing the pro-pensity of parties towards populism, ‘seasonal’ membership, corruption and clientelism.

  5. Challenging the Southern Boundary of Active Rock Glaciers in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, K.; Abermann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Rock glaciers are permafrost features abundant in mountainous environments and are characterized as `steadily creeping perennially frozen and ice-rich debris on non-glacierised mountain slopes'. Previous studies investigated both the climatic significance and the dynamics of rock glaciers in Greenland, however, there do not exist studies as far south as the Godthåbsfjord area. We recently found evidence of a active rock glacier near Nuuk, around 250 km further south than the previously suggested southern active limit. It shows no signs of pioneer vegetation, which supports its likely dynamic activity. The rock glacier covers an area of ca. 1 km2and its lowest point is at an elevation of about 250 m a.s.l. Here we present the results of a two year field campaign designed to (I) confirm or reject active rock glacier occurrence in the Godthåbsfjord area with innovative methods, (II) study their dynamic regime and (III) investigate the climatic boundary conditions necessary for active rock glacier occurrence in the Sub-Arctic. We use a number of methods to determine the state of the rock glacier. Movement of the landform is assessed using repeat GPS surveying of marked stones and feature tracking based on ortho-photos and DEMs from repeat UAV deployments. Bottom temperature of snow cover (BTS) measurements give an independent first-order estimate of permafrost occurrence. An air temperature sensor deployed near the snout and recording hourly gives a first order estimate of the temperature gradients between Nuuk and the rock glacier, allowing us to assess the climatic boundary conditions required for rock glacier occurrence. BTS measurements show a clear drop in temperatures over the rock glacier compared to the surrounding areas suggesting an active landform with a well demarcated thermal regime. We will assess this independently with the repeat GPS and UAV surveys and will thus be able to confirm or reject the hypothesis of activity by the end of summer 2017.

  6. The Challenges in Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The Challenges in Communication. The conflict between connection oriented and connectionless. The seamless integration needs of broadcast, unicast and multicast in the midst growing security concerns. Like Indian roads – need to carry voice, internet traffic, video ...

  7. Challenging effective public outreach activities for increasing mutual understanding of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Ikuko

    2006-01-01

    An outreach activity is two-way communication for communicating information. The public outreach activities of USA and Japan for increasing mutual understanding of nuclear energy, and the effective outreach activities are stated. On USA, many communicators in the member of ANS (American Nuclear Society) play an active part in the outreach activities for the policy makers, educators, students, and stakeholders. NEI (Nuclear Energy Institute, USA) provides people with useful information such as benefits and safety control system of nuclear energy, and it has carried out an attitude survey. FPL (Florida Power and Light Company) selected the communicators by ten evaluation items and they made a group and a clear grasp of the goal, needs, and plans and then communicated residents, and sent out questionnaires. Some examples of the special education program for training the communicators in USA are described. In Japan, JAEA gave lessons of nuclear energy, radiation and disaster prevention at the primary, junior high and high schools, friendly talks with local residents, preparing the teaching materials with residents and training of communicators. (S.Y.)

  8. Ophthalmic antiviral chemotherapy : An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athmanathan Sreedharan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral drug development has been slow due to many factors. One such factor is the difficulty to block the viral replication in the cell without adversely affecting the host cell metabolic activity. Most of the antiviral compounds are analogs of purines and pyramidines. Currently available antiviral drugs mainly inhibit viral nucleic acid synthesis, hence act only on actively replicating viruses. This article presents an overview of some of the commonly used antiviral agents in clinical ophthalmology.

  9. Sustainability Activities In The Mining Sector: Current Status And Challenges Ahead Limestone Mining In Nusakambangan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuningrum, Theresia Vika; Purnaweni, Hartuti

    2018-02-01

    Potential Karst area in Nusakambangan has an important role in maintaining the balance of nature. But with the existence of mining activities, will automatically change the environmental conditions there. In order for the utilization of resources to meet the rules of optimization between the interests of mining and sustainability of the environment so in every mining sector activities required a variety of environmental studies. The purpose of this study is to find out how the analysis of environmental management due to limestone mining activities in Nusakambangan so that it can be known the management of mining areas are optimal, wise based on ecological principles, and sustainability. In qualitative research methods, data analysis using description percentage, with the type of data collected in the form of primary data and secondary data.

  10. Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis: A Challenge in Cultural Heritage Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatelatos, I.E.; Tzika, F.

    2007-01-01

    Large sample neutron activation analysis compliments and significantly extends the analytical tools available for cultural heritage and authentication studies providing unique applications of non-destructive, multi-element analysis of materials that are too precious to damage for sampling purposes, representative sampling of heterogeneous materials or even analysis of whole objects. In this work, correction factors for neutron self-shielding, gamma-ray attenuation and volume distribution of the activity in large volume samples composed of iron and ceramic material were derived. Moreover, the effect of inhomogeneity on the accuracy of the technique was examined

  11. Nuclear data: IAEA activity overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchezi, A.Kh.; Konstantinov, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    The IAEA data banks, aimed at expanding information exchange and maintaining science and technology development in the whole world are briefly described. The following items are are considered: INIS; power reactor information system (PRIS); NPP incident information system (IRS); research reactor data base (RRDB); nuclear fuel cycle information system (NFCIS); nuclear data system (NDS); International uranium geology information system (INTURGEO); power engineering and economy data bank (PEEDB); radioactive material shipment data base; isotopic hydrology data base

  12. Physiological and bodily changes associated with endurance athletic activities and challenges during peri-operative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh K Dash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletic activities, which requires top level cardio respiratory system fitness are recently becoming popular in the various parts of the country. Armed Forces are forefront in participation of those sporting activities, like marathon running, prolonged swimming or cycling. It has been found to have various long term beneficial effect in body function as a result of prolonged endurance activities, but it has also found that there are various bodily changes which may affect in anaesthetising the individual during emergency and elective surgeries. Literature review of various journals related to endurance sporting activities has described those bodily changes and effects of anaesthesia and pain on those changes. Based upon the available literature a guideline has been formulated for perioperative management of those patients. Most of those available literatures are from countries other than our country. The time has come for venturing in for carrying out further studies in our scenario, especially in Armed Forces in this new horizon of anaesthesia and critical care

  13. Young Children as Active Citizens in Local Government: Possibilities and Challenges from an Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Clare; Gregoric, Carolyn; Krieg, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable research and discussion regarding children and young people's rights and citizenship, the participation of young children in community decision-making is still limited. In this exploratory research, a case study is reported on how ideas about young children as active citizens are interpreted within one local government…

  14. Challenges to Evaluating Physical Activity Programs in American Indian/Alaska Native Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Erica Blue; Butler, James; Green, Kerry M.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of evaluation to successful programming, a lack of physical activity program (PAP) evaluation for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) programs exists, which is significant given the high rates of obesity and diabetes in this population. While evaluation barriers have been identified broadly among AI/AN programs, challenges…

  15. Responding to the Challenges of Active Citizenship through the Revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2013-01-01

    The revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) now places a stronger emphasis on personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as one of its three prime areas. PSED has three characteristics of learning: active learning, creating and thinking critically, and playing and exploring. These aspects of the revised EYFS closely align with the…

  16. Long Term Preservation of Earth Observation Data in Europe - Challenge and Cooperation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molch, K.; Albani, M.

    2014-12-01

    Earth observation data are unique snapshots of the Earth and the atmosphere. As such they constitute a humankind asset in their importance for monitoring changes in global environmental conditions. With spaceborne Earth observation (EO) missions dating back to the 1970s, 40 years worth of observations are now available in EO data archives worldwide. Data holdings are growing exponentially, e.g. with the Sentinel series of high resolution EO satellites of the European Copernicus Program - which introduces a new dimension of data volumes to be handled. As other EO data holders around the globe, the European Space Agency (ESA) and its member states are committed to keeping the valuable EO data assets safe, accessible, and useable for an unlimited timespan. Rapidly evolving information technology and changing user requirements call for a dedicated and coordinated approach to EO data long term preservation. In Europe collaborative EO data stewardship activities are coordinated by ESA within the ESA long term data preservation (LTDP) program. With a view to the entire data set life cycle of historic and current missions an active LTDP working group addresses a wide range of relevant technical and organizational topics. Studies investigate archiving and access technologies, user expectations, or applicable standards; guidelines and best practices recommend preservation workflows, steps to take in curating individual data sets, the composition of the preserved data set, or concepts for introducing persistent identifiers. Fostering an active international exchange, the activities and documents developed within this European LTDP framework extend beyond Europe by being introduced to the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The paper describes the European LTDP cooperation framework, discusses individual focus areas and current activities, and highlights the interaction with global data stewardship initiatives.

  17. Value addition activities and challenges of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa farmers in Enegu state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Iwuchukwu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the value addition practices and challenges of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa farmers in Enugu State of Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was adopted in selecting a total of seventy-two (72 respondents used for the study. Results revealed that all (100% of the respondents processed African yam bean through sun drying, husking/hulling and preservation/storage while about 88.9% of the respondents processed the crop through frying/baking while 87.5% and 70.8% of the respondents indicated they were involved in winnowing and grinding. Lack of basic physical infrastructure (M=2.39, lack/poor technology on processing, preservation etc (2.35, difficulty in accessing loan (M=2.28 and lack of technology/innovation on production of the crop (M=2.28 were among the constraining factors to value addition in African yam bean. It is recommended that policy makers should work towards providing the necessary technology and basic infrastructure to farmers in order to increase their productivity, income and commercialization of this underutilized but important crop. Research efforts are also required to improve its agronomic characteristics and promote its cultivation.

  18. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  19. Preventing radiological terrorism - opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, Maegon E.

    2016-01-01

    The Office of Radiological Security (ORS), within the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, enhances global security by preventing high activity radioactive materials from use in acts of terrorism. This is a challenging task considering that high activity radiological materials are ubiquitous, constantly moving and mostly found in operational civil facilities. The implementation of the ORS mission is based on a three pillar strategy - protect, remove and reduce. ORS works both domestically and internationally with government authorities, law enforcement, and businesses to protect radioactive sources used for vital medical, research, and commercial purposes, remove and dispose of disused radioactive sources, and reduce the global reliance on radioactive sources through the promotion of viable non-isotopic alternative technologies. ORS has active engagement in all 50 States and in over 80 countries. This presentation will provide an overview of ORS protect, remove, and reduce strategy, as well as security challenges and opportunities

  20. From Surveillance to Intervention: Overview and Baseline Findings for the Active City of Liverpool Active Schools and SportsLinx (A-CLASS Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola McWhannell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the implementation of a programme of work that started with the development of a population-level children’s health, fitness and lifestyle study in 1996 (SportsLinx leading to selected interventions one of which is described in detail: the Active City of Liverpool, Active Schools and SportsLinx (A-CLASS Project. The A-CLASS Project aimed to quantify the effectiveness of structured and unstructured physical activity (PA programmes on children’s PA, fitness, body composition, bone health, cardiac and vascular structures, fundamental movement skills, physical self-perception and self-esteem. The study was a four-arm parallel-group school-based cluster randomised controlled trial (clinical trials no. NCT02963805, and compared different exposure groups: a high intensity PA (HIPA group, a fundamental movement skill (FMS group, a PA signposting (PASS group and a control group, in a two-schools-per-condition design. Baseline findings indicate that children’s fundamental movement skill competence levels are low-to-moderate, yet these skills are inversely associated with percentage body fat. Outcomes of this project will make an important contribution to the design and implementation of children’s PA promotion initiatives.

  1. From Surveillance to Intervention: Overview and Baseline Findings for the Active City of Liverpool Active Schools and SportsLinx (A-CLASS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhannell, Nicola; Henaghan, Jayne L.

    2018-01-01

    This paper outlines the implementation of a programme of work that started with the development of a population-level children’s health, fitness and lifestyle study in 1996 (SportsLinx) leading to selected interventions one of which is described in detail: the Active City of Liverpool, Active Schools and SportsLinx (A-CLASS) Project. The A-CLASS Project aimed to quantify the effectiveness of structured and unstructured physical activity (PA) programmes on children’s PA, fitness, body composition, bone health, cardiac and vascular structures, fundamental movement skills, physical self-perception and self-esteem. The study was a four-arm parallel-group school-based cluster randomised controlled trial (clinical trials no. NCT02963805), and compared different exposure groups: a high intensity PA (HIPA) group, a fundamental movement skill (FMS) group, a PA signposting (PASS) group and a control group, in a two-schools-per-condition design. Baseline findings indicate that children’s fundamental movement skill competence levels are low-to-moderate, yet these skills are inversely associated with percentage body fat. Outcomes of this project will make an important contribution to the design and implementation of children’s PA promotion initiatives.

  2. Active wavefront control challenges of the NASA Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.; Manhart, Paul K.; Hochberg, Eric B.

    1989-01-01

    The 20-m Large Deployable Reflector will have a segmented primary mirror. Achieving diffraction-limited performance at 50 microns requires correction for the errors of tilt and piston of the primary mirror. This correction can be obtained in two ways, the use of an active primary or a correction at a demagnified pupil of the primary. A critical requirement is the means for measurement of the wavefront error and maintaining phasing during the observation of objects that may be too faint for determining the error. Absolute phasing can only be determined using a cooperative source. Maintenance of phasing can be done with an on-board source. A number of options are being explored as discussed below. The many issues concerning the assessment and control of an active segmented mirror will be addressed with an early construction of the Precision Segmented Reflector testbed.

  3. Active wavefront control challenges of the NASA Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.; Manhart, Paul K.; Hochberg, Eric B.

    1989-09-01

    The 20-m Large Deployable Reflector will have a segmented primary mirror. Achieving diffraction-limited performance at 50 microns requires correction for the errors of tilt and piston of the primary mirror. This correction can be obtained in two ways, the use of an active primary or a correction at a demagnified pupil of the primary. A critical requirement is the means for measurement of the wavefront error and maintaining phasing during the observation of objects that may be too faint for determining the error. Absolute phasing can only be determined using a cooperative source. Maintenance of phasing can be done with an on-board source. A number of options are being explored as discussed below. The many issues concerning the assessment and control of an active segmented mirror will be addressed with an early construction of the Precision Segmented Reflector testbed.

  4. Intelligent Electric Power Systems with Active-Adaptive Electric Networks: Challenges for Simulation Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufa Ruslan A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of the presented research is based on the needs for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of intelligent electric power systems with active-adaptive electric networks (IES including Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS devices. The key requirements for the simulation were formed. The presented analysis of simulation results of IES confirms the need to use a hybrid modelling approach.

  5. Outdoor physical activity for older people-the senior exercise park: Current research, challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Pazit; Sales, Myrla; Polman, Remco; Haines, Terry; Dow, Briony; Biddle, Stuart J H; Duque, Gustavo; Hill, Keith D

    2018-03-14

    Exercising outdoors provide beneficial effect on mental and physical health for all ages. However, few older people exercise outdoors other than walking. While outdoor gyms have become increasingly common in Australia, limited outdoor exercise equipment specifically designed for older people is available in public spaces. We have set up and evaluated a unique purpose-built outdoor exercise park for older people in the community setting and demonstrated positive physical and well-being outcomes associated with the provision of this unique exercise mode and social programme. This study is a reflective narrative describing this innovative exercise approach and reports challenges associated with establishment of the exercise park, conducting the randomised trial, strategies adopted to address these challenges and recommendations for future implementation of this approach in the community. Many challenges were encountered, including securing appropriate land to locate the exercise park, control of environmental factors for safety (non-slippery ground and equipment) as well as logistics in running the exercise programme itself. Several adjustments in the equipment were also required to ensure safe use by older people. The inclusion of outdoor equipment for older people in public spaces or urban parks is important and careful consideration needs to be taken by local/public authorities to provide access, amenities and safety for all as well as activities to suit all ages. SO WHAT?: Seniors' exercise parks can be installed in public places and may provide an enjoyable and effective approach to engage older individuals in a more active and healthier lifestyle. © 2018 The Authors. Health Promotion Journal of Australia published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Health Promotion Association.

  6. Increasing high school girls' exposure to computing activities with e-textiles: challenges and lessons learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsotti, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    ; stereotypes about computing as a ‘male’ domain; widespread lack of pre-college CS education and perceptions of computing as not socially relevant. STEAM activities have often been used to bridge the gender gap and to broaden the appeal of computing among children and youth. This contribution examines a STEAM......The number of female students in computer science degrees has been rapidly declining in Denmark in the past 40 years, as in many other European and North-American countries. The main reasons behind this phenomenon are widespread gender stereotypes about who is best suited to pursue a career in CS...

  7. ParticipACTION: the future challenges for physical activity promotion in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavill Nick

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary is the concluding piece of a series of papers about the Canadian ParticipACTION initiative. It describes the resurgence of the new ParticipACTION as a national communications initiative in Canada, and sets this in an international context. The set of ParticipACTION papers in this issue establish benchmarks and provide baseline and initial impact data for the evaluation and monitoring of ParticipACTION, using qualitative and quantiative research methods. As a set, they describe a comprehensive approach to setting up evaluations of national social marketing efforts to promote physical activity.

  8. Generative Adversarial Networks: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Antonia; White, Tom; Dumoulin, Vincent; Arulkumaran, Kai; Sengupta, Biswa; Bharath, Anil A.

    2018-01-01

    Generative adversarial networks (GANs) provide a way to learn deep representations without extensively annotated training data. They achieve this through deriving backpropagation signals through a competitive process involving a pair of networks. The representations that can be learned by GANs may be used in a variety of applications, including image synthesis, semantic image editing, style transfer, image super-resolution and classification. The aim of this review paper is to provide an overview of GANs for the signal processing community, drawing on familiar analogies and concepts where possible. In addition to identifying different methods for training and constructing GANs, we also point to remaining challenges in their theory and application.

  9. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  10. Simulation Exploration Experience 2018 Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialonga, Stephen; Elfrey, Priscilla; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2018-01-01

    The Simulation Exploration Experience (SEE) joins students, industry, professional associations, and faculty together for an annual modeling and simulation (M&S) challenge. SEE champions collaborative collegiate-level modeling and simulation by providing a venue for students to work in highly dispersed inter-university teams to design, develop, test, and execute simulated missions associated with space exploration. Participating teams gain valuable knowledge, skills, and increased employability by working closely with industry professionals, NASA, and faculty advisors. This presentation gives and overview of the SEE and the upcoming 2018 SEE event.

  11. Lurking: a challenge or a fruitful strategy? A comparison between lurkers and active participants in an online corporate community of practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirjam, Neelen; Sibren, Fetter

    2011-01-01

    Neelen, M., & Fetter, S. (2010). Lurking: a challenge or a fruitful strategy? A comparison between lurkers and active participants in an online corporate community of practice. International Journal of Knowledge and Learning, 6(4), 269-284.

  12. Fundamental understanding and practical challenges of anionic redox activity in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assat, Gaurav; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2018-05-01

    Our increasing dependence on lithium-ion batteries for energy storage calls for continual improvements in the performance of their positive electrodes, which have so far relied solely on cationic redox of transition-metal ions for driving the electrochemical reactions. Great hopes have recently been placed on the emergence of anionic redox—a transformational approach for designing positive electrodes as it leads to a near-doubling of capacity. But questions have been raised about the fundamental origins of anionic redox and whether its full potential can be realized in applications. In this Review, we discuss the underlying science that triggers a reversible and stable anionic redox activity. Furthermore, we highlight its practical limitations and outline possible approaches for improving such materials and designing new ones. We also summarize their chances for market implementation in the face of the competing nickel-based layered cathodes that are prevalent today.

  13. Chronic Diseases Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plan Templates All Chronic Surveillance Systems Communications Center Social Media Press Room Press Release Archives Multimedia Communication Campaigns Publications Chronic Disease Overview 2016–2017 At A ...

  14. Overview of service oriented architecture: definition, use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overview of service oriented architecture: definition, use in healthcare ... of service oriented architecture in Healthcare with focus on the pros and cons of its use as ... technologies adapted the required healthcare standards and challenges and ...

  15. Functional-Based Assessment of Social Behavior: Introduction and Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Sugai, George

    1994-01-01

    This introduction to and overview of a special issue on social behavior assessment within schools discusses the impact of function-based methodologies on assessment and intervention practices in identification and remediation of challenging social behaviors. (JDD)

  16. Educational Activities and a Competency Framework for Meeting New Challenges in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Jæger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In his article we explore how educational institutions are faced with changes in the modern global business environment, and how this leads to need for changes in curricula for business schools and information systems schools. Most of academia still uses a strict disciplinary model of education resulting in a high degree of specialization within each discipline while the modern business environments require knowledge workers who can address problems that cut across disciplines on an increasingly global scale. Research papers and governmental reports call for more emphasis on particularly three interdisciplinary topics; 1 competencies in globalization issues, 2 communication/working in team, and 3 information literacy. The disciplines of business and in particular information systems education have received much attention in this respect with several calls for change. How to bring about such a change is, however, still an open question. This paper proposes to address this issue in two ways; by suggesting two new educational activities and by proposing a new educational interdisciplinary competency framework to guide curriculum development when including interdisciplinary topics.

  17. Issues and challenges for pedestrian active safety systems based on real world accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdane, Hédi; Serre, Thierry; Masson, Catherine; Anderson, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze real crashes involving pedestrians in order to evaluate the potential effectiveness of autonomous emergency braking systems (AEB) in pedestrian protection. A sample of 100 real accident cases were reconstructed providing a comprehensive set of data describing the interaction between the vehicle, the environment and the pedestrian all along the scenario of the accident. A generic AEB system based on a camera sensor for pedestrian detection was modeled in order to identify the functionality of its different attributes in the timeline of each crash scenario. These attributes were assessed to determine their impact on pedestrian safety. The influence of the detection and the activation of the AEB system were explored by varying the field of view (FOV) of the sensor and the level of deceleration. A FOV of 35° was estimated to be required to detect and react to the majority of crash scenarios. For the reaction of a system (from hazard detection to triggering the brakes), between 0.5 and 1s appears necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of the ‘reformpool’-activity in Austria: is the challenge met?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czypionka, Thomas; Röhrling, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Aim The purpose of our study is to analyse the activities initiated by the foundation of the reformpools on the regional level. We wanted to see not only what projects have emerged from these funds, but also how the incentives of this special way of funding influence the activity and what overall impact can be expected on health services delivery in the future. Context In Austria, all expenses in the outpatient sector are borne by the statutory health insurance. But in the inpatient sector, SHI just co-finances about 45% of all costs incurred by patients, with the rest contributed by the federal, regional and municipal level. This, however, leads to a number of problems in today's epidemiological situation with patients in need of many different interventions in the course of their chronic disease. Originally with the aim of finding solutions to these interface problems between inpatient and outpatient care, the healthcare reform 2005 instated the instrument of the reformpool. The reformpool unites funds from social health insurance and regions to finance projects that develop new ways of health services delivery across the sectors. In the course of recent reforms, it became explicitly possible to sponsor projects of integrated care, which had de facto already been the case before. Theory The reform pool has various disincentives or wrong incentives compared to e.g. the German ‘Anschubfinanzierung’ for IC-contracts, which was probably a role-model for the Austrian reformpool, because of the underlying differences in the healthcare system and the distinct differences in the regulation. For example, the ‘Anschubfinanzierung’ in Germany withdraws money from the available funds for contract physicians to finance IC-projects, whereas in Austria, their fees are fixed. So in Austria, there is no incentive to retrieve money by participating in such projects. For the stakeholders supplying the pool, mainly the sickness funds and the regions, many projects inflict

  19. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths ...

  20. β3-Adrenergic receptors, adipokines and neuroendocrine activation during stress induced by repeated immune challenge in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanova, Agnesa; Hlavacova, Natasa; Hasiec, Malgorzata; Pokusa, Michal; Prokopova, Barbora; Jezova, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    The main hypothesis of the study is that stress associated with repeated immune challenge has an impact on β 3 -adrenergic receptor gene expression in the brain. Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for five consecutive days. LPS treatment was associated with body weight loss and increased anxiety-like behavior. In LPS-treated animals of both sexes, β 3 -receptor gene expression was increased in the prefrontal cortex but not the hippocampus. LPS treatment decreased β 3 -receptor gene expression in white adipose tissue with higher values in males compared to females. In the adipose tissue, LPS reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, leptin and adiponectin gene expression, but increased interleukin-6 expression, irrespective of sex. Repeated immune challenge resulted in increased concentrations of plasma aldosterone and corticosterone with higher values of corticosterone in females compared to males. Concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in plasma were unaffected by LPS, while DHEA levels in the frontal cortex were lower in the LPS-treated animals compared to the controls. Thus, changes of DHEA levels in the brain take place irrespective of the changes of this neurosteroid in plasma. We have provided the first evidence on stress-induced increase in β 3 -adrenergic receptor gene expression in the brain. Greater reduction of β 3 -adrenergic receptor expression in the adipose tissue and of the body weight gain by repeated immune challenge in male than in female rats suggests sex differences in the role of β 3 -adrenergic receptors in the metabolic functions. LPS-induced changes in adipose tissue regulatory factors and hormone concentrations might be important for coping with chronic infections.

  1. The challenge of measuring investments and identifying investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Hain, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    , there are several types of flaws and difficulties related to getting a statistical overview of investments in innovation in the energy sector; it is not just a matter of increasing the existing statistical efforts and precision, there are more generic difficulties. Obviously, activity indicators of energy...... innovation (cf. other chapters in this volume) are closely related to indicators of investments in energy innovation. Hence, a number of general measurement challenges, such as separating innovation and activities, apply to investment measurement as well. Furthermore, any kinds of outcome measures...... in the energy realm, and elsewhere, are by nature interdependent with investment activities. We will in this chapter focus on the challenges that are special to the investment activities and on the mapping of investors. The measurement challenges may be approached from a ‘receiver’ perspective, i...

  2. SKIING ON GLACIERS – A MODERN TREND OF ACTIVE HOLIDAYS AND EXTREME SPORTS CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukan Vujović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Skiing on the glaciers has emerged as one more of the prominent and interesting representatives of unusual and relatively young extreme discipline. His appearance has reflected at the same time on the direction of the tourist group, which are rightfully called the adrenaline lovers or adventurers (in the broadest sense. All this has contributed to expanding the current tourism and sports exploited space, stirring the limits of human movement high, ie. deep in the untouched area of permafrost. In the paper are noted the facts of the genesis of the glacier, the conditions that prevailing at this height (ie. improvised tracks, and of numerous effects that the presence of visitors leave on this particularly sensitive and specific eco-system. In the framework of the paper was conducted a research about the possible interest and awareness of domestic tourists (in the area of Novi Sad for this kind of active rest. The idea was to present data which suggest to a certain conclusions on these issues, with the aim of determining the relationship of citizens of Serbia to the current trends in the field of sports and recreational tourism (having in mind the objective possibility of taking an participate in the category of special travel arrangements, material restrictions and difficulties in implementation of the same by the tour. A general task of the paper was to draw the attention of respondents to the chosen topic indirectly, and that among the educated and professionally qualified persons from the world of sports and tourism, additionally promote the new direction of global interest in the domain of extreme and adventure sports. Viewed from another aspect, it is about desire to foster thinking on the possibilities and purposes of further commercialization of worldwide trend in our area (at a higher level than the existing one.

  3. Determining the constraints and challenges of vermicompost technology development: the case of active sites in Kermanshah Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mariyeh sahraie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial enterprises have the potential to create new business opportunities and provide alternative income sources for rural populations. Vermicompost production provides diversified income for farmers using livestock manure as well as agricultural residues and household wastes. The economic, social, cultural, and environmental importance of vermicompost technology has made it a unique opportunity for rural households to maintain food security and sustainable livelihood. However, this technology has not yet been diffused across rural population in the Kermanshah Province. Therefore, the purpose of this design was to determine the constraints and challenges of vermicompost technology development in the case of active sites in the Kermanshah Province by using a qualitative study and a well-established theoretical approach. The population for this study comprised of all vermicompost producers in the Kermanshah province (N=52. A purposeful sample of 21 producers with a minimum of two years of experience in vermicompost production participated in the study. Data was collected using deep and semi-structured interviews. Open, axial, and selective coding was used to analyze the data. The results revealed that the following constraints and challenges impede the development of vermicompost technology: low production during the winter, high prices for the customers, lack of technical and marketing skills among the producers, lack of efficient support and monitoring, weak adoption process due to cultural beliefs, and inefficient extension and diffusion by public institutions.

  4. Proposed Activities to Address Regulatory Gaps and Challenges for Licensing Advanced Reactors Using Seismic Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kammerer, Annie M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Whittaker, Andrew S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Over the last decade, particularly since implementation of the certified design regulatory approaches outlined in 10 CFR 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” interest has been increasing in the use of seismic isolation (SI) technology to support seismic safety in nuclear facilities. In 2009, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated research activities to develop new guidance targeted at isolated facilities because SI is being considered for nuclear power plants in the U.S. One product of that research, which was developed around a risk-informed regulatory approach, is a draft NRC NUREG series (NUREG/CR) report that investigates and discusses considerations for use of SI in otherwise traditionally founded large light water reactors (LWRs). A coordinated effort led to new provisions for SI of LWRs in the American Society of Civil Engineers standard ASCE/SEI 4-16, “Seismic Analysis of Safety Related Nuclear Structures.” The risk-informed design philosophy that underpinned development of the technical basis for these documents led to a set of proposed performance objectives and acceptance criteria intended to serve as the foundation for future NRC guidance on the use of SI and related technology. Although the guidance provided in the draft SI NUREG/CR report and ASCE/SEI 4 16 provides a sound basis for further development of nuclear power plant designs incorporating SI, these initial documents were focused on surface-founded or near-surface-founded LWRs and were, necessarily, limited in scope. For example, there is limited information in both the draft NUREG/CR report and ASCE/SEI 4-16 related to nonlinear analysis of soil-structure systems for deeply-embedded reactors, the isolation of components, and the use of vertical isolation systems. Also not included in the draft SI NUREG/CR report are special considerations for licensing of isolated facilities using the certified design approach in 10 CFR

  5. Proposed Activities to Address Regulatory Gaps and Challenges for Licensing Advanced Reactors Using Seismic Isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Justin Leigh; Kammerer, Annie M.; Whittaker, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, particularly since implementation of the certified design regulatory approaches outlined in 10 CFR 52, 'Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,' interest has been increasing in the use of seismic isolation (SI) technology to support seismic safety in nuclear facilities. In 2009, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated research activities to develop new guidance targeted at isolated facilities because SI is being considered for nuclear power plants in the U.S. One product of that research, which was developed around a risk-informed regulatory approach, is a draft NRC NUREG series (NUREG/CR) report that investigates and discusses considerations for use of SI in otherwise traditionally founded large light water reactors (LWRs). A coordinated effort led to new provisions for SI of LWRs in the American Society of Civil Engineers standard ASCE/SEI 4-16, 'Seismic Analysis of Safety Related Nuclear Structures.' The risk-informed design philosophy that underpinned development of the technical basis for these documents led to a set of proposed performance objectives and acceptance criteria intended to serve as the foundation for future NRC guidance on the use of SI and related technology. Although the guidance provided in the draft SI NUREG/CR report and ASCE/SEI 4 16 provides a sound basis for further development of nuclear power plant designs incorporating SI, these initial documents were focused on surface-founded or near-surface-founded LWRs and were, necessarily, limited in scope. For example, there is limited information in both the draft NUREG/CR report and ASCE/SEI 4-16 related to nonlinear analysis of soil-structure systems for deeply-embedded reactors, the isolation of components, and the use of vertical isolation systems. Also not included in the draft SI NUREG/CR report are special considerations for licensing of isolated facilities using the certified design

  6. Open challenges in structure-based virtual screening: Receptor modeling, target flexibility consideration and active site water molecules description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrakis, Francesca; Cavasotto, Claudio N

    2015-10-01

    Structure-based virtual screening is currently an established tool in drug lead discovery projects. Although in the last years the field saw an impressive progress in terms of algorithm development, computational performance, and retrospective and prospective applications in ligand identification, there are still long-standing challenges where further improvement is needed. In this review, we consider the conceptual frame, state-of-the-art and recent developments of three critical "structural" issues in structure-based drug lead discovery: the use of homology modeling to accurately model the binding site when no experimental structures are available, the necessity of accounting for the dynamics of intrinsically flexible systems as proteins, and the importance of considering active site water molecules in lead identification and optimization campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The management challenge for household waste in emerging economies like Brazil: realistic source separation and activation of reverse logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, M

    2014-09-01

    Business opportunities in the household waste sector in emerging economies still evolve around the activities of bulk collection and tipping with an open material balance. This research, conducted in Brazil, pursued the objective of shifting opportunities from tipping to reverse logistics in order to close the balance. To do this, it illustrated how specific knowledge of sorted waste composition and reverse logistics operations can be used to determine realistic temporal and quantitative landfill diversion targets in an emerging economy context. Experimentation constructed and confirmed the recycling trilogy that consists of source separation, collection infrastructure and reverse logistics. The study on source separation demonstrated the vital difference between raw and sorted waste compositions. Raw waste contained 70% biodegradable and 30% inert matter. Source separation produced 47% biodegradable, 20% inert and 33% mixed material. The study on collection infrastructure developed the necessary receiving facilities. The study on reverse logistics identified private operators capable of collecting and processing all separated inert items. Recycling activities for biodegradable material were scarce and erratic. Only farmers would take the material as animal feed. No composting initiatives existed. The management challenge was identified as stimulating these activities in order to complete the trilogy and divert the 47% source-separated biodegradable discards from the landfills. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Overview of spin physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1992-01-01

    Spin physics activities at medium and high energies became significantly active when polarized targets and polarized beams became accessible for hadron-hadron scattering experiments. My overview of spin physics will be inclined to the study of strong interaction using facilities at Argonne ZGS, Brookhaven AGS (including RHIC), CERN, Fermilab, LAMPF, an SATURNE. In 1960 accelerator physicists had already been convinced that the ZGS could be unique in accelerating a polarized beam; polarized beams were being accelerated through linear accelerators elsewhere at that time. However, there was much concern about going ahead with the construction of a polarized beam because (i) the source intensity was not high enough to accelerate in the accelerator, (ii) the use of the accelerator would be limited to only polarized-beam physics, that is, proton-proton interaction, and (iii) p-p elastic scattering was not the most popular topic in high-energy physics. In fact, within spin physics, π-nucleon physics looked attractive, since the determination of spin and parity of possible πp resonances attracted much attention. To proceed we needed more data beside total cross sections and elastic differential cross sections; measurements of polarization and other parameters were urgently needed. Polarization measurements had traditionally been performed by analyzing the spin of recoil protons. The drawbacks of this technique are: (i) it involves double scattering, resulting in poor accuracy of the data, and (ii) a carbon analyzer can only be used for a limited region of energy

  9. Waste Generation Overview Refresher, Course 21464

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-13

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Refresher (COURSE 21464), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to- grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL.

  10. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  11. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and nuclear security. Overview of safeguards requirements for States with limited nuclear material and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodding, J.; Ribeiro, B.

    2006-06-01

    This booklet provides an overview of safeguards obligations that apply to States which are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) that have no nuclear facilities and only limited quantities of nuclear material. Most State parties to the NPT have no nuclear facilities and only limited quantities of nuclear material. For such States, safeguards implementation is expected to be simple and straightforward. This booklet provides an overview of the safeguards obligations that apply to such States. It is hoped that a better understanding of these requirements will facilitate the conclusion and implementation of safeguards agreements and additional protocols, and thereby contribute to the strengthening of the IAEA?s safeguards system and of collective security

  12. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and nuclear security. Overview of Safeguards requirements for States with limited nuclear material and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodding, J.; Ribeiro, B.

    2006-06-01

    This booklet provides an overview of safeguards obligations that apply to States which are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) that have no nuclear facilities and only limited quantities of nuclear material. Most State parties to the NPT have no nuclear facilities and only limited quantities of nuclear material. For such States, safeguards implementation is expected to be simple and straightforward. This booklet provides an overview of the safeguards obligations that apply to such States. It is hoped that a better understanding of these requirements will facilitate the conclusion and implementation of safeguards agreements and additional protocols, and thereby contribute to the strengthening of the IAEA?s safeguards system and of collective security

  13. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkhoff, Lee; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-01-01

    Uranium contaminated groundwaters are a legacy concern for the U.S. Department of Energy. Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Challenge (IFC) site have demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduces the ambient soluable uranium concentration, sequestering the radionuclide as uraninite. However, questions remain regarding which microorganism(s) are consuming this acetate and if active groundwater microorganisms are different from active particle-associated bacteria. In this report, 13-C acetate was used to assess the active microbes that synthesize DNA on 3 size fractions (coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 micron), groundwater (0.2-8 micron)) over a 24 -day time frame. Results indicated a stronger signal from 13-C acetate associated with the 'fines' fraction compared with smaller amounts of 13-C uptake on the sand fraction and groundwater samples during the SIP incubations. TRFLP analysis of this 13-C-labeled DNA, indicated 31+ 9 OTU's with 6 peaks dominating the active profiles (166, 187, 210, 212, and 277 bp peaks using MnlI). Cloning/sequencing of the amplification products indicated a Geobacter-like group (187, 210, 212 bp) primarily synthesized DNA from acetate in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium (166 bp) primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. (277 bp) utilized much of the 13C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria during field-scale acetate addition and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  14. Coming Out in Class: Challenges and Benefits of Active Learning in a Biology Classroom for LGBTQIA Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katelyn M; Brownell, Sara E

    As we transition our undergraduate biology classrooms from traditional lectures to active learning, the dynamics among students become more important. These dynamics can be influenced by student social identities. One social identity that has been unexamined in the context of undergraduate biology is the spectrum of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) identities. In this exploratory interview study, we probed the experiences and perceptions of seven students who identify as part of the LGBTQIA community. We found that students do not always experience the undergraduate biology classroom to be a welcoming or accepting place for their identities. In contrast to traditional lectures, active-learning classes increase the relevance of their LGBTQIA identities due to the increased interactions among students during group work. Finally, working with other students in active-learning classrooms can present challenges and opportunities for students considering their LGBTQIA identity. These findings indicate that these students' LGBTQIA identities are affecting their experience in the classroom and that there may be specific instructional practices that can mitigate some of the possible obstacles. We hope that this work can stimulate discussions about how to broadly make our active-learning biology classes more inclusive of this specific population of students. © 2016 K. M. Cooper and S. E. Brownell. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. Overview of past activities for the use of short-lived radionuclides and the role of the Bureau of Radiological Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paras, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Bureau of Radiological Health has developed a national program to control unnecessary medical radiation exposures to man and to assure the safe and effective use of radiation. The continuing interest and the role of the Bureau in the use of short-lived radionuclides (SLR's) are emphasized. An overview of the Bureau's SLR program, past accomplishments, and the status of production and use of iodine-123 are presented

  16. Agile Software Development: An Introduction and Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingsøyr, Torgeir; Dybå, Tore; Moe, Nils Brede

    Agile software development is an important topic in software engineering and information systems. This chapter provides a characterization and definition of agile software development, an overview of research through a summary of existing overview studies, an analysis of the research literature so far, and an introduction to the main themes of this book. The first part of the book provides foundations and background of agile development. The second part describes findings from studies of agile methods in practice. The third part identifies principal challenges and discusses new frontiers that agile development methods will meet in the future.

  17. A review: Potential and challenges of biologically activated carbon to remove natural organic matter in drinking water purification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotta-Gamage, Shashika Madushi; Sathasivan, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    The use of biologically activated carbon (BAC) in drinking water purification is reviewed. In the past BAC is seen mostly as a polishing treatment. However, BAC has the potential to provide solution to recent challenges faced by water utilities arising from change in natural organic matter (NOM) composition in drinking water sources - increased NOM concentration with a larger fraction of hydrophilic compounds and ever increasing trace level organic pollutants. Hydrophilic NOM is not removed by traditional coagulation process and causes bacterial regrowth and increases disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation during disinfection. BAC can offer many advantages by removing hydrophilic fraction and many toxic and endocrine compounds which are not otherwise removed. BAC can also aid the other downstream processes if used as a pre-treatment. Major drawback of BAC was longer empty bed contact time (EBCT) required for an effective NOM removal. This critical review analyses the strategies that have been adopted to enhance the biological activity of the carbon by operational means and summarises the surface modification methods. To maximize the benefit of the BAC, a rethink of current treatment plant configuration is proposed. If the process can be expedited and adopted appropriately, BAC can solve many of the current problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-21

    Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  19. Challenges for decommissioning policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riotte, H.

    2007-01-01

    In the coming years, OECD member countries will be increasingly faced with the need to make appropriate provisions, in terms of policy, finance and management, for all aspects of decommissioning. Decommissioning requires regulatory approval and oversight, the directions of which are guided by national policy. In several instances, governments have only recently begun to address their approaches to decommissioning policy and regulation in national legislation, and international overviews of such approaches, which may eventually lead to international harmonization, are only now beginning to emerge. In parallel, policy and regulation have been evolving and a broadened competence has developed in relevant regulatory authorities. The challenge lying ahead is to establish a framework that will allow for the growth of nuclear industrial activities in competitive, globalized markets, while maintaining and assuring the safety of decommissioning for the public and for workers. Within this context, institutional arrangements, stakeholder issues, costs and funding, waste management and policies for release from regulatory control, as well as the availability of technologies and skills, need to be reviewed. (author)

  20. Clostridium difficile chimeric toxin receptor binding domain vaccine induced protection against different strains in active and passive challenge models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing-Hui; Glenn, Gregory; Flyer, David; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Ye; Sullivan, Eddie; Wu, Hua; Cummings, James F; Elllingsworth, Larry; Smith, Gale

    2017-07-24

    Clostridium difficile is the number one cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in developed countries. Historically, pathogenesis was attributed two homologous glucosylating toxins, toxin-A (TcdA) and toxin-B (TcdB). Over the past decade, however, highly virulent epidemic strains of C. difficile (B1/NAP1/027) have emerged and are linked to an increase in morbidity and mortality. Increased virulence is attributed to multiple factors including: increased production of A- and B-toxins; production of binary toxin (CDT); and the emergence of more toxic TcdB variants (TcdB (027) ). TcdB (027) is more cytotoxicity to cells; causes greater tissue damage and toxicity in animals; and is antigenically distinct from historical TcdB (TcdB (003) ). Broadly protective vaccines and therapeutic antibody strategies, therefore, may target TcdA, TcdB variants and CDT. To facilitate the generation of multivalent toxin-based C. difficile vaccines and therapeutic antibodies, we have generated fusion proteins constructed from the receptor binding domains (RBD) of TcdA, TcdB (003) , TcdB (027) and CDT. Herein, we describe the development of a trivalent toxin (T-toxin) vaccine (CDTb/TcdB (003) /TcdA) and quadravalent toxin (Q-toxin) vaccine (CDTb/TcB (003) /TcdA/TcdB (027) ) fusion proteins that retain the protective toxin neutralizing epitopes. Active immunization of mice or hamsters with T-toxin or Q-toxin fusion protein vaccines elicited the generation of toxin neutralizing antibodies to each of the toxins. Hamsters immunized with the Q-toxin vaccine were broadly protected against spore challenge with historical C. difficile 630 (toxinotype 0/ribotype 003) and epidemic NAP1 (toxinotype III/ribotype 027) strains. Fully human polyclonal antitoxin IgG was produced by immunization of transgenic bovine with these fusion proteins. In passive transfer studies, mice were protected against lethal toxin challenge. Hamsters treated with human antitoxin IgG were completely protected when

  1. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronauts Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2016-01-01

    membrane structure (EIMS) in both charged and uncharged configurations. The amount of charge shielding behind and around the EIMS was studied for different combinations of membrane structure voltages and electron energies. Both passive and active shielding were observed, with active shielding capable of deflecting nearly all incoming electrons. The pattern of charge distribution around the structure was studied as well as the stability of the structures in the charge flow. The charge deflection experiments illustrate that the EIMS remain inflated during charge deflection, but will experience small amplitude oscillations. Investigations were performed to determine a potential cause of the vibrations. It is postulated these vibrations are due to the charge flux causing local membrane charge distribution changes. As the membrane structure inflation pressure is changed, the shape responds, and causes the observed sustained vibration. Having identified this phenomenon is important when considering electrostatically inflated membrane structures (EIMS) in a space environment. Additionally, this project included a study of membrane material impacts, specifically the impact of membrane thickness. Extremely thin materials presented new challenges with vacuum preparation techniques and rapid charging. The thinner and lighter membrane materials were successfully inflated using electrostatic forces in a vacuum chamber. However, care must be taken when varying the potentials of such lighter structures as the currents can cause local heating and melting of the very thin membranes. Lastly, a preliminary analysis is performed to study rough order of magnitude power requirements for using EIMS for radiation shielding. The EIMS power requirement becomes increasingly more challenging as the spacecraft voltage is increased. As a result, the emphasis is on the deflection of charges away from the spacecraft rather than totally stopping them. This significantly alleviates the initial power

  2. Older people and 'active ageing': Subjective aspects of ageing actively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Paul; McFarquhar, Tara; Bowling, Ann

    2011-04-01

    Following a critical overview of the active ageing concept, a thematic decomposition of 42 transcribed interviews with British people aged 72 years and over indicates that active ageing is understood in relation to physical, cognitive, psychological and social factors, but that these co-exist in complex combinations. The notion of activity in active ageing is grasped in relation to an active/passive distinction which emphasizes the enhancement or diminishment of concrete powers of activity. A 'challenge and response' framework is suggested for future research on active ageing.

  3. Integrated process status overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.; Gaudio, P. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes findings to date with the IPSO, a large plant status overview currently under development at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. As part of a joint Halden and Combustion Engineering project, the overview is being tested in part to determine whether the large screen overview concept being entertained for use in the nuclear power plant (NPP) industry will facilitate operator performance. To this end an interactive simulation technique was used to establish a proof-of-principle test for the IPSO. Process control, operations, and human factors experts at Halden participated in the test and evaluation

  4. An Energy Overview of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is the Czech Republic. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need an d resources permit

  5. Africa tomorrow: The challenge of the future; Overview of a gas Africa; Energy for all; The impact of world energetic transformations on the Algerian economy; Towards a gas Eldorado? To cook and to live; 1,2,3... biogas, the AFG in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icart, Laura

    2016-01-01

    A set of articles first proposes a brief overview of the energetic challenge faced by Africa for its development, and then an overview and discussion of gas production and consumption in North Africa, in Sub-Saharan Africa, in West Africa, in Central Africa, and in South Africa. As access to energy has been defined as a priority for the 2014-2024 decade and is part of the Millennium objectives for development, a third article comments this issue: unequal and vital access, struggle against energy poverty, how Total, Engie and EDF are concerned and involved. The opportunity of gas-cogeneration is evoked. An article discusses the impact of world energetic transformations on the Algerian economy (influence of price decrease on Sonatrach incomes and on trade balance, Algerian strategy in front of energy transition, improvement of energy efficiency, development of renewable energies, possibility of exploitation of shale gas, possibility of a global reform). The next article comments the expected strong increase of the share of natural gas in the African energy mix, and the fact that the Sub-Saharan natural gas production is predicted to be higher than the Russian one in 2040. An article then comments the issue of energy poverty, health risks related to the use of solid fuels in housing for cooking, and the possible alternative provided by LPG. The last articles outline the high potential represented by biogas, notably in rural and isolated areas, and the commitment of AFG's subsidiaries in Africa

  6. EURO HAWK Project Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    Briefing charts from presentation on a EURO HAWK project overview; an airborne system with stand-off capability for wide-area intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance meeting European NATO countries' ISR requirements...

  7. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  8. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  9. Research Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEER logo Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center home about peer news events research products laboratories publications nisee b.i.p. members education FAQs links research Research Program Overview Tall Buildings Initiative Transportation Research Program Lifelines Program Concrete Grand

  10. Overview of Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Delirium Additional Content Medical News Overview of Movement Disorders By Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD, Professor ... Neurology, HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente; Movement Disorders Clinic, Neurology at IMSS Alberto Espay, MD, ...

  11. Chemical Emergencies Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Chemical Emergencies Overview Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... themselves during and after such an event. What chemical emergencies are A chemical emergency occurs when a ...

  12. Wind energy program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication

  13. HAMMLAB 2000 overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvalem, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the form of a collection of overheads, this is an overview of HAMMLAB 2000. It also covers project organization, advisory groups, research agenda, status of simulators, status of software systems, VR Centre, Petro Hammlab and physical planning

  14. Suppressing active replication of a live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine does not abrogate protection from challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Benjamin; Fiebig, Uwe; Hohn, Oliver [Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin (Germany); Plesker, Roland; Coulibaly, Cheick; Cichutek, Klaus; Mühlebach, Michael D. [Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Langen (Germany); Bannert, Norbert; Kurth, Reinhard [Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin (Germany); Norley, Stephen, E-mail: NorleyS@rki.de [Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Although safety concerns preclude the use of live attenuated HIV vaccines in humans, they provide a useful system for identifying the elusive correlates of protective immunity in the SIV/macaque animal model. However, a number of pieces of evidence suggest that protection may result from prior occupancy of susceptible target cells by the vaccine virus rather than the immune response. To address this, we developed a Nef-deletion variant of an RT-SHIV whose active replication could be shut off by treatment with RT-inhibitors. Groups of macaques were inoculated with the ∆Nef-RT-SHIV and immune responses allowed to develop before antiretroviral treatment and subsequent challenge with wild-type SIVmac239. Vaccinated animals either resisted infection fully or significantly controlled the subsequent viremia. However, there was no difference between animals undergoing replication of the vaccine virus and those without. This strongly suggests that competition for available target cells does not play a role in protection. - Highlights: • A Nef-deleted RT-SHIV was used as a live attenuated vaccine in macaques. • Vaccine virus replication was shut down to investigate its role in protection. • Ongoing vaccine virus replication did not appear to be necessary for protection. • An analysis of T- and B-cell responses failed to identify a correlate of protection.

  15. Suppressing active replication of a live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine does not abrogate protection from challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, Benjamin; Fiebig, Uwe; Hohn, Oliver; Plesker, Roland; Coulibaly, Cheick; Cichutek, Klaus; Mühlebach, Michael D.; Bannert, Norbert; Kurth, Reinhard; Norley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Although safety concerns preclude the use of live attenuated HIV vaccines in humans, they provide a useful system for identifying the elusive correlates of protective immunity in the SIV/macaque animal model. However, a number of pieces of evidence suggest that protection may result from prior occupancy of susceptible target cells by the vaccine virus rather than the immune response. To address this, we developed a Nef-deletion variant of an RT-SHIV whose active replication could be shut off by treatment with RT-inhibitors. Groups of macaques were inoculated with the ∆Nef-RT-SHIV and immune responses allowed to develop before antiretroviral treatment and subsequent challenge with wild-type SIVmac239. Vaccinated animals either resisted infection fully or significantly controlled the subsequent viremia. However, there was no difference between animals undergoing replication of the vaccine virus and those without. This strongly suggests that competition for available target cells does not play a role in protection. - Highlights: • A Nef-deleted RT-SHIV was used as a live attenuated vaccine in macaques. • Vaccine virus replication was shut down to investigate its role in protection. • Ongoing vaccine virus replication did not appear to be necessary for protection. • An analysis of T- and B-cell responses failed to identify a correlate of protection.

  16. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  17. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders

  18. The Cost of Improved Overview: An analysis of the Use of Electronic Whiteboards in Emergency Departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2017-01-01

    current. Performing these changes takes an estimated 6647 hours a year in each ED. While the whiteboard is well-like and has improved the clinicians’ overview, our cost-of-overview estimation shows that it consumes substantial staff resources. This reflects the value the clinicians assign to having......Forming and maintaining an overview of an information space is key to competent action in many situations and often supported by overview displays. We investigate the cost of the improved overview associated with the introduction of electronic whiteboards in four emergency departments (EDs...... an overview but also reveals the amount of resources removed from other activities to maintain this overview....

  19. Non-drug treatments for symptoms in dementia: an overview of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological interventions in the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms and challenging behaviours in patients with dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Erens, B; Dickson, Kelly; Lafortune, Louise; Kavanagh, Josephine; Thomas, James; Mays, N

    2012-01-01

    In order to fill this gap in evidence, PIRU was commissioned by the Department of Health to carry out a systematic review of the effectiveness of non-pharmacological treatments or therapies for managing neuropsychiatric and challenging behaviours in patients with dementia. Given the vast literature on this topic, PIRU carried out an ‘overview’ of reviews which involved examining thirty recent systematic reviews\\ud in order to summarise their results on the effectiveness of alternative treatme...

  20. The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haerer, H.A.; Freshley, M.D.; Gilbert, R.O.; Morgan, L.G.; Napier, B.A.; Rhoads, R.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, researchers began a multiyear effort to estimate radiation doses that people could have received since 1944 at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The study was prompted by increasing concern about potential health effects to the public from more than 40 yr of nuclear activities. We will provide an overview of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project and its technical approach. The work has required development of new methods and tools for dealing with unique technical and communication challenges. Scientists are using a probabilistic, rather than the more typical deterministic, approach to generate dose distributions rather than single-point estimates. Uncertainties in input parameters are reflected in dose results. Sensitivity analyses are used to optimize project resources and define the project's scope. An independent technical steering panel directs and approves the work in a public forum. Dose estimates are based on review and analysis of historical data related to operations, effluents, and monitoring; determination of important radionuclides; and reconstruction of source terms, environmental conditions that affected transport, concentrations in environmental media, and human elements, such as population distribution, agricultural practices, food consumption patterns, and lifestyles. A companion paper in this volume, The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Technical Approach, describes the computational framework for the work