WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity meters

  1. Instrument Qualification of Custom Fabricated Water Activity Meter for Hot Cell Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoskey, Jacob K.

    2014-01-22

    This report describes a custom fabricated water activity meter and the results of the qualification of this meter as described in the laboratory test plan LAB-PLN-11-00012, Testing and Validation of an Enhanced Acquisition and Control System. It was calibrated against several NaOH solutions of varying concentrations to quantify the accuracy and precision of the instrument at 20 °C and 60 °C. Also, a schematic and parts list of the equipment used to make the water activity meter will be presented in this report.

  2. An ex ante analysis on the use of activity meters for automated estrus detection, to invest or not to invest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, C.J.; Steeneveld, W.; Inchaisri, C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2014-01-01

    The technical performance of activity meters for automated detection of estrus in dairy farming has been studied, and such meters are already used in practice. However, information on the economic consequences of using activity meters is lacking. The current study analyzes the economic benefits of a

  3. Coriolis mass-flow meter with integrated multi-DOF active vibration isolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, A.; Hakvoort, W.B.J.; Brouwer, D.M.; Dijk, van J.; Lotters, J.C.; Boer, de A.

    2016-01-01

    Vibration isolation of more than 40 dB is achieved for a Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter (CMFM) with integrated Active Vibration Isolation. A CMFM is an active device based on the Coriolis force principle for direct mass-flow measurements independent of fluid properties. The mass-flow measurement is derive

  4. Active vibration isolation feedback control for Coriolis Mass-Flow Meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, van de L.; Beijen, M.A.; Hakvoort, W.B.J.; Dijk, van J.; Lötters, J.C.; Boer, de A.

    2014-01-01

    Active Vibration Isolation Control (AVIC) can be used to reduce the transmissibility of external vibrations to internal vibrations. In this paper a proposal is made for integrating AVIC in a Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter (CMFM). Acceleration feedback, virtual mass and virtual skyhook damping are added to

  5. Vibration Isolation by an Actively Compliantly Mounted Sensor Applied to a Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, van de L.; Hakvoort, W.B.J.; Dijk, van J.; Lötters, Joost C.; Boer, de A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a vibration isolated design of a Coriolis mass-flow meter (CMFM) is proposed by introducing a compliant connection between the casing and the tube displacement sensors, with the objective to obtain a relative displacement measurement of the fluid conveying tube, dependent on the tube

  6. GIPL1.3 simulated maximum active layer thickness (ALT) in meters averaged for particular decade for the entire Alaskan permafrost domain. NAD83, Alaska Albers projection

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This raster, created in 2010, is output from the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab (GIPL) model and represents simulated active layer thickness (ALT) in meters...

  7. An evaluation of the active fracture concept with modelingunsaturated flow and transport in a fractured meter-sized block ofrock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Ito, Kazumasa

    2003-05-30

    Numerical simulation is an effective and economical tool for optimally designing laboratory experiments and deriving practical experimental conditions. We executed a detailed numerical simulation study to examine the active fracture concept (AFC, Liu et al., 1998) using a cubic meter-sized block model. The numerical simulations for this study were performed by applying various experimental conditions, including different bottom flow boundaries, varying injection rates, and different fracture-matrix interaction (by increasing absolute matrix permeability at the fracture matrix boundary) for a larger fracture interaction under transient or balanced-state flow regimes. Two conceptual block models were developed based on different numerical approaches: a two-dimensional discrete-fracture-network model (DFNM) and a one-dimensional dual continuum model (DCM). The DFNM was used as a surrogate for a natural block to produce synthetic breakthrough curves of water and tracer concentration under transient or balanced-state conditions. The DCM is the approach typically used for the Yucca Mountain Project because of its computational efficiency. The AFC was incorporated into the DCM to capture heterogeneous flow patterns that occur in unsaturated fractured rocks. The simulation results from the DCM were compared with the results from the DFNM to determine whether the DCM could predict the water flow and tracer transport observed in the DFNM at the scale of the experiment. It was found that implementing the AFC in the DCM improved the prediction of unsaturated flow and that the flow and transport experiments with low injection rates in the DFNM were compared better with the AFC implemented DCM at the meter scale. However, the estimated AFC parameter varied from 0.38 to 1.0 with different flow conditions, suggesting that the AFC parameter was not a sufficient to fully capture the complexity of the flow processes in a one meter sized discrete fracture network.

  8. Quality control tests of an activity meter to be used as reference for an in situ calibration methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Eduardo de L.; Kuahara, Lilian T.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A., E-mail: educorrea1905@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Medicine is a medical speciality involving the application of radioactive isotopes in diagnosis and/or treatment of disease. In order to ensure that the radiation dose applied to the patient is adequate, the radiopharmaceutical activity must be adequately measured. This work was performed to analyze the behavior of an activity meter Capintec NPL-CRC to be used as a reference for the implementation of a methodology for in situ calibration of nuclear medicine equipment. It were made the daily quality control tests, such as auto zero, background, system test, accuracy test and constancy test, and determination of repeatability and intermediate measurement precision using {sup 137}Cs, {sup 57}Co and {sup 133}Ba sources.Furthermore, this equipment was used to confirm the check sources activities produced at IPEN and used by the laboratory that produces the radiopharmaceuticals sent to the nuclear medicine services. The results showed a good behavior of this equipment. The maximum variation obtained in the accuracy test was of 1.81% for the {sup 57}Co source. For {sup 137}Cs this variation was of 4.59%, and for {sup 133}Ba, 11.83%. The high value obtained for the last case, indicates the needs of a correction that can be obtained by calibration methods. The result obtained using different reference sources showed a great repeatability with maximum variation of 1.38%. (author)

  9. Your Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test and record how much sugar (called glucose) is in your ...

  10. Optical cycle power meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A bicycle power meter for measuring power generated when riding a bicycle, the power meter comprising a position-sensitive radiation detector (409) attachable to a component of a crank set (404) of bicycle, and a radiation source (408) attachable to the component of the crank set and configured t...

  11. Ride-Quality Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.; Clevenson, S. A.; Stephens, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Single- and combined-Axis discomfort are corrected by effects of noise and vibration to yield measure of total discomfort experienced by rider. Three modules transform mathematically-weighted rms accelerations, which represent physical vibration characteristics, into subjective discomfort units. Portable "ride-quality" meter measures passenger discomfort and acceptability of vehicle interior noise and vibration. Meter especially suited for determining vehicle comfort and design tradeoffs and for comparing ride quality of vehicles.

  12. Arrival Metering Precision Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  13. Neutron formation temperature gauge and neutron activation analysis brine flow meter. Final report, October 1, 1976--March 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagelatos, N.; Steinman, D.K.; John, J.

    1978-03-31

    Feasibility studies of nuclear techniques applicable to the determination of geothermal formation temperature and two-phase brine flow downhole have been performed. The formation temperature gauging technique involves injection of fast neutrons into the formation and analysis of the moderated slow neutron energy distribution by appropriately filtered neutron detectors. The scientific feasibility of the method has been demonstrated by analytical computational and experimental evaluation of the system response. A data analysis method has been developed to determine unambiguously the temperature, neutron absorption cross section and neutron moderating power of an arbitrary medium. The initial phase of a program to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of the technique has been performed. A sonde mockup was fabricated and measurements have been performed in a test stand designed to simulate a geothermal well. The results indicate that the formation temperature determined by this method is independent of differences between the temperature in the borehole fluid and the formation, borehole fluid density, and borehole fluid salinity. Estimates of performance specifications for a formation temperature sonde have been made on the basis of information obtained in this study and a conceptual design of a logging system has been developed. The technique for the determination of fluid flow in a well is based on neutron activation analysis of elements present in the brine. An analytical evaluation of the method has been performed. The results warrant further, experimental evaluation.

  14. Unique Activity-Meter with Piezoelectric Poly(vinylidene difluoride) Films and Self Weight of the Sensor Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Hirofumi; Okada, Hironao; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Maeda, Ryutaro; Itoh, Toshihiro

    2013-09-01

    We have developed piezoelectric switches for application in ultra low-power wireless sensor nodes to monitor the health condition of chickens. Using Pb(Zr0.52,Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin films, we have developed S-shaped PZT cantilevers with proof masses. Since the resonant frequency of PZT devices is approximately 24 Hz, we have utilized their superharmonic resonance to detect chicken movements with frequencies as low as 5-15 Hz. By attaching sensor nodes to chickens, we successfully measured the activity of chickens. However, the PZT devices of other sensor nodes broke down. S-shaped PZT devices are adequate for low vibrations, but are beset by the structural problems of fragmentation upon impact. To address these problems, we examine a method of utilizing poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) films, which are tough and generate high piezoelectric output voltages under a large stress, as piezoelectric switches. We suggest that the self-weight of sensor nodes be used as the mass of the cantilevers of the PVDF films. One end of a PVDF film is fixed to the case of a sensor node, and the other end is attached to the sensor node. Since PVDF films are subjected to force generated by the self-weight of sensor nodes, high output voltages are expected. A result of measuring output voltages, we confirm the output voltages to be approximately the same as those of PZT devices below 15 Hz at 0.5 m/s2 vibration, which is close to chicken movements. Thus, we consider that we have successfully fabricated a tough wireless sensor node for chickens, utilizing the features of PVDF films.

  15. 连续式微波干燥活性米设备的研究%Research on the Continuous Microwave Drying Equipment of Activity Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 张艳哲; 于洁; 王彦宇; 刘成海; 郑先哲

    2016-01-01

    为了提高活性米干燥效率及干后品质,基于现有隧道式微波干燥机,设计了一种新型的微波干燥设备.该设备以微波作为干燥热源,由定量进料装置、微波干燥装置、缓苏装置及控制装置等部分组成,实现了微波干燥的连续性;通过分粮板、铺料刷等装置将物料以规则薄层铺放到输送带上,提高了干燥的均匀性;在连续干燥过程中加入缓苏装置,并通过控制系统精确控制干燥的目标含水率;分析确定了搅龙、输送装置、干燥仓、缓苏仓等关键部件的结构参数及具体尺寸. 试验结果表明:该设备工作效率约为1 t/h,爆腰率20%以下,适用于连续式活性米干燥,提高了微波干燥效率,且干燥品质良好,高度保持了活性米的色香味及热敏性营养成分.%In order to enhance the activity of rice drying efficiency and quality of dry products , based on the existing tun-nel microwave drying machine , we designed a new type of microwave drying equipment , which as a microwave drying heat source , the quantitative feeding apparatus , microwave drying equipment , tempering part of the device , the control device , to achieve a continuous microwave drying , through the sub-grain boards , decking and other means to brush a thin layer of material to the rules laid onto the conveyor belt , to improve the uniformity of drying , continuous drying process Join tempering equipment , and precise control of the drying of the target moisture content by the control system . Analysis identified auger conveyor means , dry container , slow structural parameters and specific dimensions and other key components of the Soviet positions .Experimental results show that the efficiency of the device is about 1 t /h, fis-suring rate of 20%or less,suitable for continuous drying activity meters to improve the efficiency of microwave drying ,drying and good quality , highly maintained active meter color , flavor and heat-sensitive vitamins

  16. Ride quality meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.; Clevenson, S. A.; Stephens, D. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A ride quality meter is disclosed that automatically transforms vibration and noise measurements into a single number index of passenger discomfort. The noise measurements are converted into a noise discomfort value. The vibrations are converted into single axis discomfort values which are then converted into a combined axis discomfort value. The combined axis discomfort value is corrected for time duration and then summed with the noise discomfort value to obtain a total discomfort value.

  17. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  18. Smart metering design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  19. Direct reading inductance meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, R. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

  20. The Curing Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2006-01-01

    Curing technology concerns adjustment and control of temperature and moisture conditions in hardening structures and elements of concrete. The curing technology comprises e.g. measurement, adjustment and control of the moisture conditions during the early hardening phase of the concrete to achiev...... from concrete surfaces in the early hardening phase. The Concrete Curing Meter is designed for simple and reliable monitoring of water loss from a wet surface of fresh concrete. This new measuring technique has been tested with several prototypes of the Curing Meter.......Curing technology concerns adjustment and control of temperature and moisture conditions in hardening structures and elements of concrete. The curing technology comprises e.g. measurement, adjustment and control of the moisture conditions during the early hardening phase of the concrete to achieve...... an optimal development of properties in the hardening concrete – so-called "moisture curing". Proper moisture curing is vital to concrete but laborious to accomplish and difficult to control at the construction site with present methods. This paper concerns a new method for site measurement of evaporation...

  1. How to use your peak flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak flow meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak flow meter ... If your airways are narrowed and blocked due to asthma, your peak flow values drop. You can ...

  2. Micro-gen metering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elland, J.; Dickson, J.; Cranfield, P.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to investigate the regulation of domestic electricity metering work and identify the most economic options for micro-generator installers to undertake work on electricity meters. A micro-generation unit is defined as an energy conversion system converting non-electrical energy into electrical energy and can include technologies such as photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines, micro-hydroelectric systems, and combined heat and power systems. Details of six tasks are given and cover examination of the existing framework and legal documentation for metering work, the existing technical requirements for meter operators, meter operator personnel accreditation, appraisal of options for meter changes and for micro-generation installation, document change procedures, industry consultation, and a review of the costs implications of the options.

  3. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    with the complexity of data processing and data analytics. The system offers an information integration pipeline to ingest smart meter data; scalable data processing and analytic platform for pre-processing and mining big smart meter data sets; and a web-based portal for visualizing data analytics results. The system......Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social......-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis...

  4. Improving the operation of the metering section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagoruiko, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The metering section of the coal preparation division at OKhMK (Orsk-Khali-lovo Integrated Iron and Steel Works) has 18 silos each with volume of 780 tons, situated in two rows. Each silo is equipped with a type LDA-100 automatic metering device, consisting of an electromagnetic vibratory feeder and a scale belt conveyor. At a capacity of the charge supply system of 400-450 ton/hr and operation on a 4-component charge practically all the silos are in operation. The absence of reserve capacity and the impossibility of shutdown of any metering device for maintenance created certain difficulties in maintaining an uninterrupted supply of coal charge to the coking division. Stabilizing the operation of the metering section posed the problem of increasing the capacity of the existing metering devices. For this purpose a number of changes were made in their design. A new reducer was installed on the drive of the scale belt conveyor with a more powerful electric motor; the rotation speed of the drive drum rose to 35-40 rpm (the diameter of the drive drum was also increased from 220 to 272 mm). This, in turn, permitted an increase in the belt speed by a factor of 1.5-2.0 times, without a change in its active length.

  5. A more intelligent meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuru, B.

    1996-09-01

    A utility systems analyst viewing a multicolor graph on a computer screen sees something awry in a customer`s home. The furnace is running in the midst of summer. The customer is notified and finds the problem, an air conditioner vent blowing on a thermostat. Next the analyst finds a refrigerator using excessive amounts of electricity. This time it was a leaky gasket and clogged heat exchanger fins. Later a flooded basement is avoided by discovering a faulty sump pump. The analyst was using the Non-Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System (NIALMS). As the name implies, NIALMS allows utilities to learn more about where and when customers use electrical power and how much without entering their homes to install monitoring devices on each appliance. It was developed under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute with assistance from Empire State Electric Energy Research Corp., New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Consolidated Edison Co. and Rochester Gas & Electric Co. The meter is described.

  6. Acoustic Ground-Impedance Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Helmoltz resonator used in compact, portable meter measures acoustic impedance of ground or other surfaces. Earth's surface is subject of increasing acoustical investigations because of its importance in aircraft noise prediction and measurment. Meter offers several advantages. Is compact and portable and set up at any test site, irrespective of landscape features, weather or other environmental condition.

  7. Wireless MSEB Meter Reading Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja U.Shinde

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The electricity is very essential in day to day life. Most of industries are running with electricity. In commercial areas also electricity plays very vital role and hence electricity is backbone of any developing nation. To measure the consumed electricity and generate Electricity bill, the energy meters are provided to each and every consumer. This project is use to take meter reading wirelessly by using transceiver which provides accuracy and speed in MSEB meter reading. In this work, Micro controller plays the main role. This circuit contains the LCD, RF transmitter, RF receiver, Energy meter, switch, RS 232 etc. This project uses one Microcontroller, LCD, RF transceiver module, energy meter and relay for connecting load. Meter reading is the technology of automatically collecting data from energy meter and transferring that data to a central database for billing and/or analyzing. This saves employee trips and means that billing can be based on actual consumption rather than on an estimate based on previous consumption, giving customers better control of their use of electric energy. The Transmitter is connected to the meter and it counts the pulses from it and displays it over the LCD. It transmits the data over radio frequency. This network technology overcome all the difficulties of earlier billing system and become more advantageous and accurate.

  8. Smart Metering System for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are the cornerstone in the new conception of the electrical network or Smart Grid (SG), providing detailed information about users' energy consumption and allowing the suppliers to remotely collect data for billing. Nevertheless, their features are not only useful for the energy...... will expose an example of Smart Meters integration in a Microgrid scenario, which is the Intelligent Microgrid Lab of Aalborg University (AAU). To do this, first the installation available in the Microgrid Lab will be introduced. Then, three different test scenarios and their respective results...... will be presented, regarding the capabilities of this system and the advantages of integration the Smart Meters information in the Microgrid control....

  9. The Portable Metal Detecting Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using backscatter principle of ray, one kind of the portable metal detecting meters, which comprises five parts, i.e., a ray-emitter, a ray acceptor, discriminating and forming pulse circuits, storing and processing data units, a light and sound alarm device, and a power supply, had been invented. It can judge existence of danger articles as weapons and daggers hided inside luggages, pracels, or clothing of passengers or persons without opening packing. The detecting distance between the meter and danger objects, at present, is about one meter, but can be extended adopting improvement for key parts. For comparison, up to now, in the whole world, known information

  10. The One-Meter Dash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Mattie J.

    1977-01-01

    A game for two teams employs dice, meter sticks, and Cuisenaire rods. The game gives practice in number facts, regrouping, and use of rods; it can also serve as an introduction to the metric system. (SD)

  11. Healthcare Energy Metering Guidance (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This brochure is intended to help facility and energy managers plan and prioritize investments in energy metering. It offers healthcare-specific examples of metering applications, benefits, and steps that other health systems can reproduce. It reflects collaborative input from the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories and the health system members of the DOE Hospital Energy Alliance's Benchmarking and Measurement Project Team.

  12. The Savonius Water Current Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-11-03

    the author visited the David Taylor Model Basin for the purpose of calibrating five (5) Savonius water current ,meter rotors in the range of .1 to 1...Iastitution of Oceanography. Figure 1 is a block diagram of the water current meter and its associated equipment. The details of the Savonius rotor are...an amplifier. The Savonius rotor functions as a salt water switch which varies the r-. coupling of the transformer thus it awplitude modulates the 100

  13. Mark IVA DSN 26-meter Subnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Office of Space Tracking and Data Systems' Networks Consolidation Program (NCP), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), includes the implementation of a 26-meter Tracking and Communications Subnet as a part of the Mark IV A Deep Space Network (DSN). The incorporatin of this subnet into the DSN will contribute to the NCP goal of consolidating the two NASA ground tracking networks into one tracking network. The 26-meter Tracking and Communication Subnet was designed to provide the capability to support, at each Deep Space Communication Complex, the tracking and data communication requirements of the earth-orbital missions that cannot be supported by the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System when it becomes operational. Implementation activities and planned capabilities of the subnet are discussed.

  14. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nm.gov.my; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muzakkir, Amir [Sinaran Utama Teknologi Sdn Bhd, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  15. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Muzakkir, Amir; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr-1). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr-1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  16. Metering in the gas supply sector; Metering in der Gasversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernekinck, U. [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems, Recklinghausen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The new conditions of competition in the gas supply sector have strongly increased the requirements on gas grid operators. Mainly an exact gas metering and -accouting will become more and more important. The systems and procedures are presented in detail in this contribution. (GL)

  17. Effluent metering and liquid gas ratio analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, L.M. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Howell, K. [Intricate Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Industry Measurement Group (IMG) launched a 2 year initiative in 2007 focused on creating technically based regulations to improve the economics on low pressure, low liquid gas plays in western Canada. The IMG is the liaison between the petroleum industry and regulatory agencies in the development of industry accepted standards for measuring activities. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) supported the IMG's initiative, which led to a joint CAPP/IMG review of effluent metering applications and the associated testing requirements for gas wells in British Columbia and Alberta. The primary objectives of the joint CAPP/IMG review were to bring all parties together to form a common framework for effluent metering application and testing expectations, based on a risk and volumetric approach; and to support an economical approach to the continued development of unconventional gas resource plays in Alberta and British Columbia, with a focus on well-site infrastructure and operational cost optimization. This paper focused primarily on the well testing requirements and discussed the benefits of creating technically based, pragmatic regulations. Existing regulations were used to help the CAPP/IMG project team to develop a new practical and pragmatic regulatory framework and policy for effluent metering and well testing. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  18. Automated monitoring of milk meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Andre, G.

    2009-01-01

    Automated monitoring might be an alternative for periodic checking of electronic milk meters. A computer model based on Dynamic Linear Modelling (DLM) has been developed for this purpose. Two situations are distinguished: more milking stands in the milking parlour and only one milking stand in the m

  19. Direct-reading inductance meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbly, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Meter indicates from 30 nH to 3 micro H. Reference inductor of 15 micro H is made by winding 50 turns of Number 26 Formvar wire on Micrometal type 50-2 (or equivalent) core. Circuit eliminates requirement for complex instrument compensation prior to taking coil inductance measurement and thus is as easy to operate as common ohmmeter.

  20. Smart metering. Conformance tests for electricity meters; Smart Metering. Konformitaetstests an Stromzaehlern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormann, Matthias; Pongratz, Siegfried [VDE Pruef- und Zertifizierungsinstitut, Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Introduction of communication technologies into today's energy network enables the interworking between the domains of smart metering, smart grid, smart home and e-mobility as well as the creation and provisioning of new innovative services such as efficient load adjustment. Due to this convergence the new energy networks are becoming increasingly complex. Ensuring the interworking between all network elements (e.g. electricity meters, gateways) in these smart energy networks is of utmost importance. To this end conformance and interoperability tests have to be defined to ensure that services work as expected. (orig.)

  1. Squid based beam current meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1983-11-25

    A SQUID based beam current meter has the capability of measuring the current of a beam with as little as 30 x 155 antiprotons (with a signal to noise ratio of 2). If low noise dc current is used to cancel most of the beam or an up-down counter is used to count auto-resets this sensitivity will be available at any time in the acumulation process. This current meter will therefore be a unique diagnostic tool for optimizing the performance of several Tev I components. Besides requiring liquid helium it seems that its only drawback is not to follow with the above sensitivity a sudden beam change larger than 16 ..mu..A, something that could be done using a second one in a less sensitive configuration.

  2. Federal Building Metering Guidance (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(e), Metering of Energy Use)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    Guidance defines which federal buildings are appropriate to meter, provides metering prioritization recommendations for agencies with limited resources, and discusses the requirement for agencies to submit metering implementation plans to the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. Dry calibration of ultrasonic gas flow meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, G.; Lansing, J.

    1997-07-01

    At present in most European countries it is customary that turbine meters, or the newer ultrasonic gas flow meters, when used in fiscal metering or custody transfer metering applications, are calibrated in a test facility by comparison to standards or reference devices. For reason of practical and operational drawbacks, costs involved and availability of only a limited number of calibration facilities, another way of meter verification is advantageous. For orifice metering the practice of dry calibration is well established; that is, meter verification is based upon examination of the geometry and installation of the orifice plate and a function check of the read out devices. Although for turbine meters a flow (wet) calibration may be a necessity, it will be shown that ultrasonic gas flow meters can be dry calibrated in the same way as orifice meters. As a basis for the acceptance of a dry calibration procedure for ultrasonic gas flow meters, a sensitivity analysis of the relevant variables with respect to the meter's accuracy is presented. Further test results are presented that demonstrate the feasibility of the concept of dry calibration applied to ultrasonic gas flow meters. (author)

  4. 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arundel, Samantha T.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Phillips, Lori A.; Roche, Brittany L.; Constance, Eric W.

    2015-10-21

    In January 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center began producing the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model data product. This new product was developed to provide high resolution bare-earth digital elevation models from light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data and other elevation data collected over the conterminous United States (lower 48 States), Hawaii, and potentially Alaska and the U.S. territories. The 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model consists of hydroflattened, topographic bare-earth raster digital elevation models, with a 1-meter x 1-meter cell size, and is available in 10,000-meter x 10,000-meter square blocks with a 6-meter overlap. This report details the specifications required for the production of the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model.

  5. Chinese Meter in Translating English Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温荣芬

    2009-01-01

    <正>Translation is not easy and poetry translation is troublesome,while meter poetry translation is the most difficult. This paper will focus on the meter in translating English poetry into Chinese. From the review of translation history to

  6. Embedded solution for a microwave moisture meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter is based on the free-space transmission measurement technique and uses low-intensity microwaves to measure the attenuation and p...

  7. Implementing Project-based Learning in making a weight meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muliawan, W.; Nahar, W. S.; Sebastian, C. E.; Yuliza, E.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Project-based learning (PjBL) is an activity, which can be done individually or in groups, that goes on over a period of time and its objective can be a product, presentation, or performance. It can make students develop their skills and become more engaged in learning because they can solve problems that are met in real life through a project. The project was a weight meter using a d.c. deflection-type bridge circuit and a VU meter, which was realized by a group of three students (the first three authors). We were of the 2nd year of undergraduate physics program that are taking the Measurement and Data Processing Techniques course in the period of January to April 2015. We worked together with our lecturer and tutor as our advisers. In making the weight meter, we have done the following roles in PjBL: 1. Planning the project and setting a timeline, 2. Doing research, 3. Creating first draft, 4. Rewriting the project report, and 5. Submitting the project. Under the guidance of timeline, the project has been completed timely. A force sensing resistor (FSR) sensor was employed to convert a body mass to resistance of the bridge circuit and the VU meter was modified to be a display of the weight meter. The weight meter could be used to measure a body mass up to 5 kg.

  8. Is beat induction innate or learned? Probing emergent meter perception in adults and newborns using event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Ladinig, Olivia; Háden, Gábor P; Winkler, István

    2009-07-01

    Meter is considered an important structuring mechanism in the perception and experience of rhythm in music. Combining behavioral and electrophysiological measures, in the present study we investigate whether meter is more likely a learned phenomenon, possibly a result of musical expertise, or whether sensitivity to meter is also active in adult nonmusicians and newborn infants. The results provide evidence that meter induction is active in adult nonmusicians and that beat induction is already functional right after birth.

  9. Multitasking metering enhances generation, transmission operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, E.

    2008-11-15

    The Dairyland Power Cooperative (DPC) which operates from La Crosse, Wisconsin has the capacity to generate and transmit 1000 MW of power to 25 member cooperatives and 20 municipalities who serve over 500,000 customers. When DPC was experiencing diminished service within its analog cellular-based data communications system, it was presented with an opportunity to install a new automated telecommunications system that would provide secure collection of meter readings from all of its substations. DPC decided to evaluate an advanced multifunctional digital meter from Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The SEL-734 Revenue Metering System offers complete instantaneous metering functions, including voltages, currents, power, energy and power factor. Other capabilities include predictive demand, time-of-use metering, automatic voltage monitoring, harmonics metering and synchrophasor measurement. From a metering perspective, DPC wanted to perform daily load profiles and interval-by-interval metering of their delivery points for billing purposes. They also wanted to provide real-time monitoring of electricity being delivered for both generation and transmission purposes and to make that information available to a distribution SCADA system for their members. The SEL-734 Revenue Meter was well suited to those needs. The SEL-734 provides very high-accuracy energy metering, load profile data collection, instantaneous power measurements, power quality monitoring, and communicates simultaneously over a modem, serial ports, and wide area networks (WAN). The meter is backed with a ten-year warranty as well as field support engineers. 5 figs.

  10. On the induction phase three-element active energy meter wiring and common errors result%浅析感应式三相三元件有功电能表常见错误接线及结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦桂丘

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the national economy, the widespread use of electricity in all walks of life, the power consumption required to pay electricity meter is a measure of power users consume electricity meter, is the basis for the user to pay electricity bills. If incorrectly installed wiring can cause abnormal meter count. This paper focuses on three components of the three-phase induction watthour meter wiring common errors are analyzed and launched the wrong reasons meter wiring caused the abnormal count.%随着国民经济的飞速发展,电能普遍使用于各行各业中,消费电能需要交纳电费,电能表是计量电力用户消耗电能的仪表,是用户交纳电费的依据。如果安装接线不正确会造成电能表记数异常。文章主要对感应式三相三元件有功电能表常见错误接线进行了分析,并推出错误接线造成电能表不正常记数的原因。

  11. Long Island Smart Metering Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-03-30

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) Smart Meter Pilots provided invaluable information and experience for future deployments of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), including the deployment planned as part of LIPA's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000220). LIPA will incorporate lessons learned from this pilot in future deployments, including lessons relating to equipment performance specifications and testing, as well as equipment deployment and tracking issues. LIPA ultimately deployed three AMI technologies instead of the two that were originally contemplated. This enabled LIPA to evaluate multiple systems in field conditions with a relatively small number of meter installations. LIPA experienced a number of equipment and software issues that it did not anticipate, including issues relating to equipment integration, ability to upgrade firmware and software over the air (as opposed to physically interacting with every meter), and logistical challenges associated with tracking inventory and upgrade status of deployed meters. In addition to evaluating the technology, LIPA also piloted new Time-of-Use (TOU) rates to assess customer acceptance of time-differentiated pricing and to evaluate whether customers would respond by adjusting their activities from peak to non-peak periods. LIPA developed a marketing program to educate customers who received AMI in the pilot areas and to seek voluntary participation in TOU pricing. LIPA also guaranteed participating customers that, for their initial year on the rates, their electricity costs under the TOU rate would not exceed the amount they would have paid under the flat rates they would otherwise enjoy. 62 residential customers chose to participate in the TOU rates, and every one of them saved money during the first year. 61 of them also elected to stay on the TOU rate without the cost guarantee at the end of that year. The customer who chose not to continue on the rate was also the one who achieved the

  12. Balanced Flow Meters without Moving Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R.; VanBuskirk, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Balanced flow meters are recent additions to an established class of simple, rugged flow meters that contain no moving parts in contact with flow and are based on measurement of pressure drops across objects placed in flow paths. These flow meters are highly accurate, minimally intrusive, easily manufacturable, and reliable. A balanced flow meter can be easily mounted in a flow path by bolting it between conventional pipe flanges. A balanced flow meter can be used to measure the flow of any of a variety of liquids or gases, provided that it has been properly calibrated. Relative to the standard orifice-plate flow meter, the balanced flow meter introduces less turbulence and two times less permanent pressure loss and is therefore capable of offering 10 times greater accuracy and repeatability with less dissipation of energy. A secondary benefit of the reduction of turbulence is the reduction of vibration and up to 15 times less acoustic noise generation. Both the balanced flow meter and the standard orifice-plate flow meter are basically disks that contain holes and are instrumented with pressure transducers on their upstream and downstream faces. The most obvious difference between them is that the standard orifice plate contains a single, central hole while the balanced flow meter contains multiple holes. The term 'balanced' signifies that in designing the meter, the sizes and locations of the holes are determined in an optimization procedure that involves balancing of numerous factors, including volumetric flow, mass flow, dynamic pressure, kinetic energy, all in an effort to minimize such undesired effects as turbulence, pressure loss, dissipation of kinetic energy, and non-repeatability and nonlinearity of response over the anticipated range of flow conditions. Due to proper balancing of these factors, recent testing demonstrated that the balanced flow-meter performance was similar to a Venturi tube in both accuracy and pressure recovery, but featured reduced

  13. Vibration isolation for Coriolis Mass-Flow meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, van de Lubbert

    2015-01-01

    A Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter (CMFM) is an active device based on the Coriolis force principle for direct mass-flow measurements, with high accuracy, range-ability and repeatability. The working principle of a CMFM is as follows: a fluid conveying tube is actuated to oscillate at a low amplitude. A flu

  14. Hardware Design of a Smart Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters are electronic measurement devices used by utilities to communicate information for billing customers and operating their electric systems. This paper presents the hardware design of a smart meter. Sensing and circuit protection circuits are included in the design of the smart meter in which resistors are naturally a fundamental part of the electronic design. Smart meters provides a route for energy savings, real-time pricing, automated data collection and eliminating human errors due to manual readings which would ultimately reduce labour costs, diagnosis and instantaneous fault detection. This allows for predictive maintenance resulting in a more efficient and reliable distribution network.

  15. Off-level corrections for gravity meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebauer, T. M.; Blitz, Thomas; Constantino, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Gravity meters must be aligned with the local gravity at any location on the surface of the earth in order to measure the full amplitude of the gravity vector. The gravitational force on the sensitive component of the gravity meter decreases by the cosine of the angle between the measurement axis and the local gravity vector. Most gravity meters incorporate two horizontal orthogonal levels to orient the gravity meter for a maximum gravity reading. In order to calculate a gravity correction it is often necessary to estimate the overall angular deviation between the gravity meter and the local gravity vector using two measured horizontal tilt meters. Typically this is done assuming that the two horizontal angles are independent and that the product of the cosines of the horizontal tilts is equivalent to the cosine of the overall deviation. These approximations, however, break down at large angles. This paper derives analytic formulae to transform angles measured by two orthogonal tilt meters into the vertical deviation of the third orthogonal axis. The equations can be used to calibrate the tilt sensors attached to the gravity meter or provide a correction for a gravity meter used in an off-of-level condition.

  16. Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

    2009-04-01

    State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC’s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

  17. CT reclassification system cuts costs of grid metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doig, P. [Schneider Electric, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    New regulatory requirements demand that utilities meter previously un-metered locations on the power network with accurate revenue metering equipment. Utilities are now exploring the possibility of re-using existing relay-class transformers (CTs) for metering applications. However, the true accuracy of the existing CTs is often unknown. This paper presented details of a new CT reclassification system. The system uses a highly accurate current sensor for use in live-line methods in a high voltage environment. The system analyzes the accuracy of an existing CT and calculates its characteristic performance. Corresponding error correction parameters are then obtained and programmed into an advanced revenue meter in order to enable dynamic accuracy reclassification of the existing CT while it is operational. The sensor is based on a split-core active CT design. In a typical installation, 3 primary sensors are installed on the high-side bus in a high voltage substation in series with the circuit breaker containing the existing relay-class CTs under test. The sensors each wirelessly stream data to a computer workstation in a nearby substation control building. The sensors and the advanced revenue meter are equipped with a global positioning system (GPS) receiver that support accurate time-stamping and synchronization of all data sent to the computer for analysis. Software is used to compare data from the sensors to the respective 3-phase data collected from the meter and to calculate the appropriate ratio correction factors and phase angle correction factors for each test point. Correction parameters are then programmed into the revenue meter which provides dynamic correction for the ratio and phase angle errors of the relay-class CT over its operational range. The revenue meter is left in place after the sensors are removed in order to measure highly accurate energy data which is reported back to the utility data collection and billing system. Details of a test conducted

  18. Simplified Processing Method for Meter Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colotelo, Alison H. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Downs, Janelle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ham, Kenneth D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Sadie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vernon, Christopher R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Simple/Quick metered data processing method that can be used for Army Metered Data Management System (MDMS) and Logistics Innovation Agency data, but may also be useful for other large data sets. Intended for large data sets when analyst has little information about the buildings.

  19. The effects of meter orientation downstream of a short radius elbow on electromagnetic flow meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justensen, Jared C.

    Electromagnetic flowmeters (known as magnetic flow meters) are a widely used type of flowmeter. The accuracy of magnetic flow meters are a function of several factors, not the least of which is the flow condition inside the pipe. It has been shown that disturbances in the velocity profile affects the accuracy of a magnetic flow meter (Luntta, 1998). Accordingly, manufacturers of magnetic flow meters give installation guidelines. These guidelines help prevent the user from installing the meter in a pipe configuration that is likely to cause the meter to produce inaccurate results. Although most manufacturers provide recommendations about the amount of straight pipe that is necessary upstream of the meter, little is said about the orientation of the meter in relation to upstream disturbances. This study examines the performance of magnetic flow meters when positioned at two different orientations: EIP (electrodes in plane with an upstream 90-degree short radius elbow) and EOP (electrodes out of plane). Four different meters were included in the study in which a baseline straight pipe test was first performed using over fifty diameters of straight pipe upstream of each meter. The straight pipe test was used to determine the baseline accuracy of each of the meters over a velocity range that is typical for the size and function of the meters. Meters were then installed at five different locations downstream from a 90-degree short-radius elbow. At each location the meters were tested in two orientations at five different flow rates. The intent of the research is to show that the orientation of a magnetic flow meter affects the meter's ability to produce accurate flow readings when it is installed downstream of a flow disturbance. The results from this research showed a significant shift in measurement accuracy when the meter was in EIP and EOP orientations. All of the meters in the study produced accuracy readings at one point of another that were outside the specified

  20. On Calibration of pH Meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ming Zhu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of pH meters including the pH glass electrode, ISE electrodes,buffers, and the general background for calibration are reviewed. Understanding of basicconcepts of pH, pOH, and electrode mechanism is emphasized. New concepts of pH, pOH,as well as critical examination of activity, and activity coefficients are given. Theemergence of new solid state pH electrodes and replacement of the salt bridge with aconducting wire have opened up a new horizon for pH measurements. A pH buffer solutionwith a conducting wire may be used as a stable reference electrode. The misleadingunlimited linear Nernstian slope should be discarded. Calibration curves with 3 nonlinearportions for the entire 0—14 pH range due to the isoelectric point change effect areexplained. The potential measurement with stirring or unstirring and effects by double layer(DL and triple layer (TL will be discussed.

  1. USGS Digital Orthophoto Quad (DOQ) - 3 meter

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data files are a collection of the USGS standard DOQs that have been resampled to a 3-meter cell resolution and mosaiced into quad format vs quarter quad...

  2. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  3. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... devices in their costumers household e.g. heat pumps. With these smart services, utility companies can do load balancing on the grid by shifting load using resources the customers have. The problem investigated in this paper is what bandwidth require-ments can be expected when implementing such network...... to utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...

  4. SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter (CIB-10) is a collection of orthorectified panchromatic (grayscale) images. The data were acquired between 1986 and 1993 by the...

  5. New consumer services provided by smart metering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminov Ildar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issues of smart metering market and considers different services provided by smart metering from consumer point of view. Firstly, smart metering deployment challenges emerging and conventional tariffs, which modify a consumer behavior and thus, the entire electric energy market can be optimized since the customer is motivated to consume less energy. Secondly, the authors illustrate changes in electricity quality, which have an impact on consumer relations with utility. Additionally, two main indices of grid resilience – SAIDI and SAIFI – are exemplified to reveal the improvement potential of smart metering implementation in certain regions of Russia that also influence the consumer. Finally, in-home display and privacy problem directly reflect the consumer’s behavior, thus the private life rights should not be violated as they are guaranteed by law.

  6. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1. Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model...

  7. Informatics Solutions for Smart Metering Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper different aspects regarding smart metering systems integration have been depicted. Smart metering systems, renewable energy sources integration and advanced tariff systems implementation require informatics solution that could automatically collect and process data, forecast the behavior of electricity consumers, analyze trends regarding electricity prices, optimize the consumption of consumers, provide friendly interfaces, etc. They are advanced technologies that represent solutions for insufficient conventional primary energy sources, gas emissions, dependency on energy sources located outside European Union and issues related to energy efficiency. This paper mainly describes several informatics solutions correlated with operational requirements for smart metering system and our proposal for simplified architecture of smart metering systems, with three distinct levels (base level, middle level and top level and load profile calculation methods.

  8. Solid state recording current meter conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Wang, Lichen

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the conversion of an Endeco-174 current meter to a solid-state recording current meter. A removable solid-state module was designed to fit in the space originally occupied by an 8-track tape cartridge. The module contains a CPU and 128 kilobytes of nonvolatile CMOS memory. The solid-state module communicates with any terminal or computer using an RS-232C interface at 4800 baud rate. A primary consideration for conversion was to keep modifications of the current meter to a minimum. The communication protocol was designed to emulate the Endeco tape translation unit, thus the need for a translation unit was eliminated and the original data reduction programs can be used without any modification. After conversion, the data recording section of the current meter contains no moving parts; the storage capacity of the module is equivalent to that of the original tape cartridge.

  9. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Stewart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc. as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly “pilot or demonstration scale” with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation.

  10. Smart meters. Smart metering. A solution module for a future-oriented energy system; Intelligente Zaehler. Smart Metering. Ein Loesungsbaustein fuer ein zukunftsfaehiges Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Nadia; Seidl, Hans (comps.)

    2011-12-15

    The German Energy Agency GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on smart metering as a solution module for a future-oriented energy system by means of the following contributions: (1) Key role for smart meters; (2) What is smart metering? (3) Implementation of smart metering in Europe; (4) The market development to date in Germany; (5) Practical experiences with smart metering in Germany; (6) Frequently asked questions; (7) Smart metering in intelligent networks; (8) Legal framework conditions; (9) Data security and data protection in the utilisation of smart meters; (10) Ongoing information; (11) Efficient energy systems.

  11. The functionality of canoeists specializing in competitive distance 200 meters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Penchen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the importance of reactive properties to realize the potential of canoeist of south-east Asia specializing in the 200 meters established on a specialized focus of the training process sprinter. The parameters of functionality of athletes based on integrated aerobic and anaerobic ensure competitive distance of 200 m. They are based on assessing level of aerobic power and capacity of energy supply and properties of the cardiorespiratory system in actively increasing metabolic acidosis.

  12. Anti-Theft Automatic Metering Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Das

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electricity is now more than a necessity and its need is increasing day by day resulting in power theft and power scarcity. The purpose of this project is to provide automatic control and monitoring of the Domestic Energy Meter enabling the Electricity Department to read meter readings without anyone visiting each house and also prevent electricity theft .This can be achieved by the use of a Microcontroller Unit that continuously monitors and records the Energy Meter readings in its permanent memory location. This system also makes use of a GSM module for remote monitoring and control of Energy Meter with the help of an interfacing circuitry. The Microcontroller based system continuously records the readings and the live meter reading can be sent to the Electricity department after a count period or on request. This system also can be used to disconnect the power supply to the house in case of non-payment of electricity bills. The Substation will be the receiving end. The data received is fed to a microcontroller at the Substation which will automatically calculate the bill based on tariff provider and display it.

  13. Computation of flow through Venturi meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattery, J.A.; Reader-Harris, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) work on Venturi meters reported in this paper was part of a large project for Shell Exploration and Production to investigate the application of Venturi meters to gas flow measurement. The majority of the experimental findings were reported in 'Unpredicted behaviour of Venturi flowmeters in gas at high Reynolds numbers' presented in the 1996 North Sea Flow Metering Workshop. CFD has been used to model the flow through Venturi tubes and thereby gain understanding of how the discharge coefficient is affected by the vital parameters of diameter ratio, pipe Reynolds number and roughness. It has also been used to calculate the effect of manufacturing tolerance. The discharge coefficients obtained from the calibration of Venturi meters have been used to validate the CFD predictions. The CFD results have also been compared with experimental results from the 1950s and 1960s with surprisingly good agreement. This work forms the basis of further possible research using CFD on the effect of upstream and Venturi surface roughness on the performance of these meters. The knowledge gained on the effect of surface roughness may also be applicable to ultrasonic flowmeters. (author)

  14. Diagnostic Flow Metering using Ultrasound Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sejong; Yoon, Byung-Ro; Lee, Kwang-Bock; Paik, Jong-Seung

    2010-06-01

    Flow meters, which are used for transferring water or crude oil through pipelines, require well-defined flow conditions for accurate flow rate monitoring. Even though all the installation conditions for the flow meters are satisfied, there could be unexpected flow disturbances, such as abrupt increase of upstream pressure, affecting on the performance of flow meters. To investigate any differences between measured and actual flow rates, flow velocity profiles inside the pipeline must be known. Ultrasound tomography is a means of reconstructing flow profiles from line-averaged velocities by Radon transformation. Diagnostic parameters are then extracted from the reconstructed flow profiles to give information whether the flow conditions are appropriate for accurate flow metering. In the present study, flow profiles downstream of a mass flow meter and a butterfly valve are reconstructed. Flow diagnostic parameters are defined using statistical moments such as mean value, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. The measured diagnostic parameters in the above-mentioned flow conditions are compared with those of fully-developed laminar and turbulent flow profiles to validate their usefulness.

  15. Multiphase flow metering: 4 years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, G.; Hewitt, G.F.; Alimonti, C.; Harrison, B.

    2005-07-01

    Since the authors' last review in 2001 [1], the use of Multiphase Flow Metering (MFM) within the oil and gas industry continues to grow apace, being more popular in some parts of the world than others. Since the early 1990's, when the first commercial meters started to appear, there have been more than 1,600 field applications of MFM for field allocation, production optimisation and mobile well testing. As the authors predicted, wet gas metering technology has improved to such an extent that its use has rapidly increased worldwide. A ''who's who'' of the MFM sector is provided, which highlights the mergers in the sector and gives an insight into the meters and measurement principles available today. Cost estimates, potential benefits and reliability in the field of the current MFM technologies are revisited and brought up to date. Several measurements technologies have resurfaced, such as passive acoustic energy patterns, infrared wavelengths, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT), and they are becoming commercial. The concept of ''virtual metering'', integrated with ''classical MFM'', is now widely accepted. However, sometimes the principles of the MFM measurements themselves are forgotten, submerged in the sales and marketing hype. (author) (tk)

  16. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  17. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  18. Investigation and Comparison of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Skoubo, Tobias;

    2014-01-01

    multivariable control strategies for SMISMO control of a single axis hydraulic system with a differential cylinder, when not taking other measures to improve performance. The paper first presents an experimentally verified model of the system considered, from which a linear model is derived. Based on the model......In the later years, there has been an increased focus on new valve types, which yield the possibility to do Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out (SMISMO) control. This includes both digital valves, but proportional valves with separate metering spools and build in pressure sensors are also emerging....... The possibility to independently control the meter-in and meter-out side not only increase the functionality of the system, but also opens up for better performance and/or lowered energy consumption. The focus of the current paper is therefore on investigation and comparison of what may be obtained using...

  19. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G.; TMT Project

    2004-12-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project is engaged in a design and development phase. TMT is proposed as a private-public partnership of the California Institute of Technology and the University of California (partners in the earlier CELT design study), AURA (designers of the earlier GSMT concept), and the Canadian ACURA consortium (designers of the VLOT concept). The partners are developing a 30 meter diameter, finely segmented filled aperture telescope with seeing-limited and diffraction-limited capabilities to address the broad range of GSMT science goals. The paper will present the status of the project development and telescope and instrument design.

  20. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  1. A comparative study on the metering accuracy for given installation conditions of metering facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Her, Jae Young; Lee, Seung Jun; Ha, Young Cheol; Ahn, Seung Hee; Lee, Cheol Gu [R and D Center, Korea Gas Co., (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The object of this study is to improve metering facilities of Korea Gas Corporation(KOGAS) metering station which are being operated in unfavorable straight pipe length condition (metropolitan area). For experiment, a test facilities was modeled based on Dogsan metering station (one of KOGAS metering stations) which has the most unfavorable conditions in metropolitan area. The test facilities was set up in Jungdong metering station (one of KOGAS metering stations) supplying natural gas to a power plant and city gas companies. The tests were performed with flowconditioner which was installed in the former straight pipe of a turbine meter and an Orifice meter, and the tests keep going with changing both diameter ratio({beta} = d/D) and flowrate(Q{sub v}). In other words, the tests were performed according to flowrate change for fixed diameter ratio. After the test was completed, the diameter ratio was increased by 0.1 and the same procedures were conducted again. The test was conducted for diameter ratio from 0.3 to 0.7. For Orifice meter, the error showed 0.4 %(Test maximum flowrate=3,030 Nm{sup 3}/h) and 0.8 %(Test maximum flowrate=9,204 Nm{sup 3}/h) for {beta}=0.3 and 0.7, respectively. For Turbine meter, the error showed -0.5 %(Test maximum flowrate=3,030 Nm{sup 3}/h) and -0.1 %(Test maximum flowrate=9,204 Nm{sup 3}/h) for {beta}=0.3 and 0.7, respectively. 44 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. Wideband bioimpedance meter with the adaptive selection of frequency grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Mosiychuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For the diagnosis of functional state and structure of biological objects with weakly expressed irregularities it is important quickly and accurately to determine the amplitude- and phase-frequency characteristics. Therefore, the purpose of the article is a representation of the results of the development of biological objects high-speed impedance meter with the ability to select adaptive grid measuring frequencies in the extended band. Structure of the impedance meter. Developed instrument is designed to measure the impedance of the object on four-electrode method. The device uses a frequency synthesizer amplitude-phase detector integrally fabricated and active electrodes, by which the voltage controlled current source and the input buffer amplifiers with low input capacitance, are located in close proximity to the studied bioobject. This allowed to make measurements at frequencies up to 5 MHz. Instruments characteristics. To test the device characteristics the frequency characteristics of the test object (RC-chain impedance were measured. It is composed of 5 precision resistors and capacitors. Parameters of the elements were measured preliminarily by laboratory inductance, capacitance and resistance meter E7-12. The dependence of the measurement errors of the developed device in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 5 MHz is not more than 5% of the modulus of the impedance and not more than 2° of the phase.

  3. Improvised Energy Meter Supporting Wireless Data Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aravind

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to design a prototype model of an energy meter which has the ability of wireless data transfer such as sending emails and SMS. In the current energy monitoring scenario, manual energy meter monitoring is a cumbersome and tedious process for the electricity boards. It involves huge manpower and higher expenditure for a simple task. Manual energy meter monitoring is highly erroneous and amounts to great losses for both the consumers and the electricity boards. In this conventional technique, losing the bills and delay in the arrival of the official to note down the reading are common affairs. Complete digitalization of bill delivery and transaction processes eliminates such uneventful circumstances. The manual reading method is inefficient to meet the raising power demands. The invention described here has the potential to wipe of manual energy meter reading from the scene and replace it with a sophisticated automated system facilitating remote monitoring of energy consumption. In this proposed system, the Raspberry Pi performs all the essential functions of a microcontroller and supports features like sending emails and SMS with the aid of Wi-Fi dongle and GSM modem. This automated system enables continuous monitoring of energy consumption.

  4. Pico meter metrology for the GAIA mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.A.; Nijenhuis, J.N.; Vink, R.J.P.; Kamphues, F.G.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Coatantiec, C.

    2009-01-01

    To measure the relative motions of GAIA's telescopes, the angle between the telescopes is monitored by an all Silicon Carbide Basic Angle Monitoring subsystem (BAM OMA). TNO is developing this metrology system. The stability requirements for this metrology system go into the pico meter and pico radi

  5. Numerical modeling of fluidic flow meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, D.; Patel, B. R.

    1992-05-01

    The transient fluid flow in fluidic flow meters has been modeled using Creare.x's flow modeling computer program FLUENT/BFC that solves the Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. The numerical predictions of fluid flow in a fluidic flow meter have been compared with the available experimental results for a particular design, termed the PC-4 design. Overall flow structures such as main jet bending, and primary and secondary vortices predicted by FLUENT/BFC are in excellent agreement with flow visualization results. The oscillation frequencies of the PC-4 design have been predicted for a range of flow rates encompassing laminar and turbulent flow and the results are in good agreement with experiments. The details of the flow field predictions reveal that an important factor that determines the onset of oscillations in the fluidic flow meter is the feedback jet momentum relative to the main jet momentum. The insights provided by the analysis of the PC-4 fluidic flow meter design have led to an improved design. The improved design has sustained oscillations at lower flow rates compared with the PC-4 design and has a larger rangeability.

  6. Microcontroller Based Single Phase Digital Prepaid Energy Meter for Improved Metering and Billing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mejbaul Haque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single phase digital prepaid energy meter based on two microcontrollers and a single phase energy meter IC. This digital prepaid energy meter does not have any rotating parts. The energy consumption is calculated using the output pulses of the energy meter chip and the internal counter of microcontroller (ATmega32. A microcontroller (ATtiny13 is used as a smart card and the numbers of units recharged by the consumers are written in it. A relay system has been used which either isolates or establishes the connection between the electrical load and energy meter through the supply mains depending upon the units present in the smart card.Energy consumption (kWh, maximum demand (kW, total unit recharged (kWh and rest of the units (kWh are stored in the ATmega32 to ensure the accurate measurement even in the event of an electrical power outage that can be easily read from a 20×4 LCD. As soon as the supply is restored, energy meter restarts with the stored values. A single phase prepaid energy meter prototype has been implemented to provide measurement up to 40A load current and 230V line to neutral voltage.Necessary program for microcontrollers are written in c-language and compiled by Win-AVR libc compiler.

  7. BCM6: New Generation of Boron Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirat, P. [Rolls-Royce Civil Nuclear SAS (France)

    2010-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of boron meter, based on more than 30 years of experience. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter provides Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators with the boron concentration of the primary circuit. The meter provides continuous and safe measurements with no manual sampling and no human contact. In this paper, technical features, advantages and customer benefits of the use of the new generation of Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter will be detailed. Values and associated alarms are provides over different media: 4-20 mA outputs, relays, displays in the main control room and in the chemical lab, and digital links. A special alarm avoids unexpected homogeneous dilution of the primary circuit, which is a critical operational parameter. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter is fully configurable over a set of parameters allowing adaptation to customer needs. It has a differential capability, thus eliminating neutronic noise and keeping measurements accurate, even in the case of fuel clad rupture. Measurements are accurate, reliable, and have a quick response time. Equipment meets state-of-the-art qualification requests. Designed in 2008, the BCM6 boron meter is the newest equipment of Rolls-Royce boron meters product line. It has been chosen to equip the French EPR NPP and complies with the state-of-the-art of the technology. Rolls-Royce has more than 30 years of experience in Instrumentation and Controls with more than 75 NPP units operating worldwide. All of this experience return has been put in this new generation of equipment to provide the customer with the best operation. About Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce is a global business providing integrated power systems for use on land, at sea and in the air. The Group has a balanced business portfolio with leading market positions. Rolls-Royce has a broad range of civil nuclear expertise, including work related to licensing and safety reviews, engineering design

  8. A robust and scalable microfluidic metering method that allows protein crystal growth by free interface diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Carl L.; Skordalakes, Emmanuel; Berger, James M.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Producing robust and scalable fluid metering in a microfluidic device is a challenging problem. We developed a scheme for metering fluids on the picoliter scale that is scalable to highly integrated parallel architectures and is independent of the properties of the working fluid. We demonstrated the power of this method by fabricating and testing a microfluidic chip for rapid screening of protein crystallization conditions, a major hurdle in structural biology efforts. The chip has 480 active...

  9. Energy metering, management and accounting; Comptage, gestion, et comptabilite de l`energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucherand, P. [Agence de l`environnement et de la maitrise de l`energie, Rhone-Alpes (France)

    1996-12-31

    The activities of the French Energy Conservation Agency (ADEME) in the field of energy management and conservation through energy metering in industrial plants, and more especially in mechanical and metal industries, are presented. Audit and diagnostic procedures and information/awareness measures are presented and discussed with the example of a regional program, and two operations conducted in a mechanical industrial plant and a foundry where metering systems were installed

  10. Cubic meter volume optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, ZHAO; POTSAID, BENJAMIN; CHEN, LONG; DOERR, CHRIS; LEE, HSIANG-CHIEH; NIELSON, TORBEN; JAYARAMAN, VIJAYSEKHAR; CABLE, ALEX E.; SWANSON, ERIC; FUJIMOTO, JAMES G.

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful three-dimensional (3D) imaging modality with micrometer-scale axial resolution and up to multi-GigaVoxel/s imaging speed. However, the imaging range of high-speed OCT has been limited. Here, we report 3D OCT over cubic meter volumes using a long coherence length, 1310 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and silicon photonic integrated circuit dual-quadrature receiver technology combined with enhanced signal processing. We achieved 15 µm depth resolution for tomographic imaging at a 100 kHz axial scan rate over a 1.5 m range. We show 3D macroscopic imaging examples of a human mannequin, bicycle, machine shop gauge blocks, and a human skull/brain model. High-bandwidth, meter-range OCT demonstrates new capabilities that promise to enable a wide range of biomedical, scientific, industrial, and research applications. PMID:28239628

  11. Numerical simulation of flow through orifice meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, J. J.; Sheikholeslami, M. Z.; Patel, B. R.

    1992-05-01

    The FLUENT and FLUENT/BFC computer programs have been used to numerically model turbulent flow through orifice meters. These simulations were based on solution of the Navier-Stokes equations incorporating a k-epsilon turbulence model. For ideal installations, trends in the discharge coefficient with Reynolds number, beta ratio, and surface roughness have been reproduced, and the value of the discharge coefficient has been computed to within 2 percent. Nonideal installations have also been simulated, including the effects of expanders, reducers, valves, and bends. Detailed modeling of flow through a bend has yielded results in good agreement with experimental data. The trend in discharge coefficient shifts for orifice meters downstream of bends has been predicted reasonably well.

  12. Definition and Verification of Shape Meter Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two experimental methods were adopted to verify the correctness and practicability of the shape meter method: one is to roll aluminum plate, calculate the shape stiffness of mill and rolled piece, and then measure aluminum plate crown to verify shape stiffness equation; the other is to calculate the measured off-line data of hot continuous roll and verify the shape mathematical model for measuring and controlling by self-adaptation method.

  13. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  14. Resonant speed meter for gravitational wave detection

    CERN Document Server

    Nishizawa, Atsushi; Sakagami, Masa-aki

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational-wave detectors have been well developed and operated with high sensitivity. However, they still suffer from mirror displacement noise. In this paper, we propose a resonant speed meter, as a displacement noise-canceled configuration based on a ring-shaped synchronous recycling interferometer. The remarkable feature of this interferometer is that, at certain frequencies, gravitational-wave signals are amplified, while displacement noises are not.

  15. Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Urrutia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Voltage (LV electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.

  16. Multi-Antenna Data Collector for Smart Metering Networks with Integrated Source Separation by Spatial Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quednau, Philipp; Trommer, Ralph; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter

    2016-03-01

    Wireless transmission systems in smart metering networks share the advantage of lower installation costs due to the expandability of separate infrastructure but suffer from transmission problems. In this paper the issue of interference of wireless transmitted smart meter data with third party systems and data from other meters is investigated and an approach for solving the problem is presented. A multi-channel wireless m-bus receiver was developed to separate the desired data from unwanted interferers by spatial filtering. The according algorithms are presented and the influence of different antenna types on the spatial filtering is investigated. The performance of the spatial filtering is evaluated by extensive measurements in a realistic surrounding with several hundreds of active wireless m-bus transponders. These measurements correspond to the future environment for data-collectors as they took place in rural and urban areas with smart gas meters equipped with wireless m-bus transponders installed in almost all surrounding buildings.

  17. Measurement strategies for downhole multiphase metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Erling A.; Johansen, Geir Anton; Tollefsen, Jarle; Aabro, Eirik [Bergen Univ.(Norway)

    1997-07-01

    There will be an increasing demand for multiphase subsea and downhole meters in the future. Both at the sea bottom and downhole the flow regimes in the production pipes or in the manifolds at the templates, may differ from the ideal homogeneous mixture. Further, in line mixers should be avoided to reduce pressure drops and maintenance costs. The next generation multiphase meters will therefore call for flow regime independent and non-intrusive sensor systems. Since all sensor principles used in multiphase flowmeters today are highly dependent on the distribution of the components in the mixture, and thus make the measurement range limited, multi-sensor principles may be the solution to obtain better accuracy for larger ranges of component fractions and applications. Both the capacitance-, conductance-, microwave- and gamma-principles can be used in multi-sensor arrangement to provide cross-sectional information about the component distribution. Hence, the meter can be used at all types of flow regimes and at any position without mixers or separators. (author)

  18. A study of the Lute Metering Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, James W.

    1992-12-01

    Two Metering Structure configurations were investigated. The first case was the traditional style metering structure which is larger than the outside diameter of the primary mirror. The second case investigated was the center support concept in which the outside diameter of the structure is less than the inside diameter of the primary mirror. Beryllium was used as the baseline material for this study. Four other materials were considered as candidates for the metering structure. These materials are: Graphite Epoxy, Aluminum, Titanium, and Invar. The loading conditions used for this study were estimated to be: Quasi Static: 6.0 G (all three directions); and Random Vibration: 30.0 G (applied 1 axis at a time). Taking advantage of symmetry, it was necessary to apply the lateral loading to only one axis. These loads were applied to both concepts and to all material configurations. The loadings as described above were based on the best available information and is felt to be adequate for this study since it was consistently used for all configurations. A load factor 2.00 was applied to both quasi static and random vibration loads. The allowable stresses are conservatively based yield strength of the material, except for the struts which are controlled by elastic stability. The stresses determined from each individual loading direction were conservatively combined by the absolute sum method.

  19. E-Park: Automated-Ticketing Parking Meter System

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesza, Mateusz J.

    2015-01-01

    E-Park is an electronic parking meter system which enables real-time ticketing of illegally parked vehicles. The system is a drop-in replacement for existing curb-side parking meters. It consists of lowpower front-end parking meter hardware and a back-end server that handles the information database management. Wireless network communication enables the parking meter to accept electronic payment, enforce parking regulation, and ticket parking violators by capturing an image of the vehicle lic...

  20. Calibration of Results of Water Meter Test Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Andrius Bončkus; Gediminas Gediminas

    2011-01-01

    The results of water meter test facility calibration are presented. More than 30 test facilities are used in Lithuania nowadays. All of them are certificated for water meter of class 2 verification. The results of inter-laboratory comparison of multi-jet water meter calibration at flow rate Q = 5 m3/h are presented. Lithuanian Energy Institute was appointed as reference laboratory for the comparison. Twelve water meter verification and calibration laboratories from Lithuania participated in t...

  1. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  2. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  3. Static energy meter errors caused by conducted electromagnetic interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Keyer, Cees; Melentjev, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Static, or electronic, energy meters are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. Consumers are some-times complaining about higher energy readings and billing after the change to a static meter, but there is not a clear common or root cause at present. Electromagnetic interference has b

  4. State of the Art and Trends Review of Smart Metering in Electricity Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Uribe-Pérez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, awareness of energy efficiency, new trends in electricity markets, the obsolescence of the actual electricity model, and the gradual conversion of consumers to prosumer profiles are the main agents of progressive change in electricity systems towards the Smart Grid paradigm. The introduction of multiple distributed generation and storage resources, with a strong involvement of renewable energies, exposes the necessity of advanced metering or Smart Metering systems, able to manage and control those distributed resources. Due to the heterogeneity of the Smart Metering systems and the specific features of each grid, it is easy to find in the related literature a wide range of solutions with different features. This work describes the key elements in a Smart Metering system and compiles the most employed technologies and standards as well as their main features. Since Smart Metering systems can perform jointly with other activities, these growing initiatives are also addressed. Finally, a revision of the main trends in Smart Metering uses and deployments worldwide is included.

  5. Dynamic range meter for radiofrequency amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozd S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The new measurement setup having increased on 20…30 dB the own dynamic range in comparison with the standard circuit of the dynamic range meter is offered and the rated value of an error bringing by setup in the worst case does not exceed ± 2,8 dB. The measurement setup can be applied also to determinate levels of intermodulation components average power amplifiers and powerful amplifiers of a low-frequency at replacement of the quartz filter on meeting low-frequency the LC-filter and the spectrum analyzer.

  6. Weak measurements with a qubit meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...... of the weak value. We present compact expressions for the weak value of single qubit observables and of product observables on qubit pairs. Experimental studies of the results are suggested with cold trapped ions....

  7. Smart metering: strategy and implementation in Germany; Smart-Metering: Strategie und Umsetzung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Torsten [Logica Deutschland (Germany). Energy and Utilities; Energie-Service-Alliance (ENSEA e.V.) (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    While a number of publications and lectures on smart metering have already provided detailed coverage of the legal requirements, this is not the case for its implementation strategies. Coherent concepts for this task are still virtually inexistent. Any promising strategy to this end must take account of the fact that there are motives and interests involved which go far beyond the views currently prevailing in the sector. Despite the national differences, experiences gained in other European countries can offer important insights for the implementation of smart metering in Germany.

  8. Energy saving by smart metering with consumption feedback; Energieeinsparung durch Smart Metering mit Verbrauchs-Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Patrick [Institut fuer ZukunftsEnergieSysteme (IZES), Saarbruecken (Germany); Friedrich, Malte [Institut fuer Soziologische Meinungsforschung (IsoMe), Berlin (Germany); Kerber-Clasen, Stefan [Institut fuer Sozialforschung und Sozialwirtschaft e.V., Saarbruecken (Germany); Frey, Guenther

    2012-08-15

    While the German legislative, e.g. in the EnWG (Power Industry Act) assumes that electricity consumption metering will contribute to energy conservation in any case, many studies have arrived at a different contribution: Only a combination of consumption metering and direct feedback methods will result in significant energy savings. A recent research project (''Moderne Energiesparsysteme fuer Haushalte'') analysed an energy conservation system of this type. The findings will provide socio-economic insight into the background of successful energy conservation, and they will show how feedback methods can be optimised.

  9. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office sponsored two separate, independent solar sail system design and development demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L' Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators.

  10. Automatic ranging circuit for a digital panel meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Theodore R.; Ross, Harley H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a range changing circuit that operates in conjunction with a digital panel meter of fixed sensitivity. The circuit decodes the output of the panel meter and uses that information to change the gain of an input amplifier to the panel meter in order to insure that the maximum number of significant figures is always displayed in the meter. The circuit monitors five conditions in the meter and responds to any of four combinations of these conditions by means of logic elements to carry out the function of the circuit.

  11. Electronic meter with custom integrated circuit for electric energy measurement; Medidor eletronico de energia eletrica com circuito integrado dedicado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Roberto Pereira

    1990-04-01

    The design and implementation of an electrical energy electronic meter for operation at low voltages, according to two steps of development carried out in Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica - CEPEL is described. In the first step, an electronic meter with discrete commercial components has been developed, in order to demonstrate to the Brazilian power suppliers the feasibility of such a device for electrical energy metering and charging. The second step was constituted by the design of an integrated circuit, aiming the reduction of the cost of the meter as well as the enhancement of its reliability. Several techniques of electrical energy measurement are presented. The meter with discrete components makes use of a time division multiplier (TDM), in order to determine the active power in the load. Voltage and current levels have been reduced through the use of voltage and current sensors compatible with the TDM's inputs. A V-F converter employing continuos integration, has been used for the determination of the energy consumed by the load through the integration of the TDM's output signal. Most of the discrete components of the meter have been replaced by the dedicated integrated circuit. The TDM has remained essentially the same, but the V-F converter has been changed into a dual-slope one, which is more adequate for implementation in a single chip. The tests performed with the prototypes of the meter including both the meter with discrete components and the meter with the custom-made integrated circuit have presented measurement errors of less the 0,2 %. The initial goal, according to Brazilian specifications of electromechanical meters and international specifications for electronic meters, was 1 %. (author)

  12. Portable fluorescence meter with reference backscattering channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilin, Dmitriy V.; Grishanov, Vladimir N.; Zakharov, Valery P.; Burkov, Dmitriy S.

    2016-09-01

    Methods based on fluorescence and backscattering are intensively used for determination of the advanced glycation end products (AGE) concentration in the biological tissues. There are strong correlation between the AGE concentration and the severity of such diseases like diabetes, coronary heart disease and renal failure. This fact can be used for diagnostic purposes in medical applications. Only few investigations in this area can be useful for development of portable and affordable in vivo AGE meter because the most of them are oriented on using spectrometers. In this study we describe the design and the results of tests on volunteers of portable fluorescence meter based on two photodiodes. One channel of such fluorimeter is used for measurement of the autofluorescence (AF) intensity, another one - for the intensity of elastically scattered radiation, which can be used as a reference. This reference channel is proposed for normalization of the skin autofluorescence signal to the human skin photo type. The fluorimeter, that was developed is relatively compact and does not contain any expensive optical and electronic components. The experimental results prove that proposed tool can be used for the AGE estimation in human skin.

  13. A hybrid ICT-solution for smart meter data analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    Smart meters are increasingly used worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 min. Smart meter data are typically bundled with social economic data in analytics, such as meter geographic locations, weather...... conditions and user information, which makes the data sets very sizable and the analytics complex. Data mining and emerging cloud computing technologies make collecting, processing, and analyzing the so-called big data possible. This paper proposes an innovative ICT-solution to streamline smart meter data...... analytics. The proposed solution offers an information integration pipeline for ingesting data from smart meters, a scalable platform for processing and mining big data sets, and a web portal for visualizing analytics results. The implemented system has a hybrid architecture of using Spark or Hive for big...

  14. Modal Test of Six-Meter Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nijo; Buehrle, Ralph; Templeton, Justin; Lindell, Mike; Hancock, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    A modal test was performed on the six-meter Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) test article to gain a firm understanding of the dynamic characteristics of the unloaded structure within the low frequency range. The tests involved various configurations of the HIAD to understand the influence of the tri-torus, the varying pressure within the toroids and the influence of straps. The primary test was conducted utilizing an eletrodynamic shaker and the results were verified using a step relaxation technique. The analysis results show an increase in the structure's stiffness with respect to increasing pressure. The results also show the rise of coupled modes with the tri-torus configurations. During the testing activity, the attached straps exhibited a behavior that is similar to that described as fuzzy structures in the literature. Therefore extensive tests were also performed by utilizing foam to mitigate these effects as well as understand the modal parameters of these fuzzy sub structures. Results are being utilized to update the finite element model of the six-meter HIAD and to gain a better understanding of the modeling of complex inflatable structures.

  15. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Skidmore, Warren; Fukugawa, Misato; Goswami, Aruna; Hao, Lei; Jewitt, David; Laughlin, Greg; Steidel, Charles; Hickson, Paul; Simard, Luc; Schöck, Matthias; Treu, Tommaso; Cohen, Judith; Anupama, G C; Dickinson, Mark; Harrison, Fiona; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lu, Jessica R; Macintosh, Bruce; Malkan, Matt; Mao, Shude; Narita, Norio; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tian, Feng; A'Hearn, Michael; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ali, Babar; Aoki, Wako; Bagchi, Manjari; Barth, Aaron; Bhalerao, Varun; Bradac, Marusa; Bullock, James; Burgasser, Adam J; Chapman, Scott; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Chiba, Masashi; Cooray, Asantha; Crossfield, Ian; Currie, Thayne; Das, Mousumi; Dewangan, G C; de Grijs, Richard; Do, Tuan; Dong, Subo; Evslin, Jarah; Fang, Taotao; Fang, Xuan; Fassnacht, Christopher; Fletcher, Leigh; Gaidos, Eric; Gal, Roy; Ghez, Andrea; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grady, Carol A; Greathouse, Thomas; Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Ho, Luis; Hasan, Priya; Herczeg, Gregory J; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Imanishi, Masa; Inanmi, Hanae; Iye, Masanori; Kamath, U S; Kane, Stephen; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kasliwal, Mansi; Kirby, Vishal KasliwalEvan; Konopacky, Quinn M; Lepine, Sebastien; Li, Di; Li, Jianyang; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Michael C; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrigue; Lotz, Jennifer; Lubin, Philip; Macri, Lucas; Maeda, Keiichi; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Marscher, Alan; Martin, Crystal; Matsuo, Taro; Max, Claire; McConnachie, Alan; McGough, Stacy; Melis, Carl; Meyer, Leo; Mumma, Michael; Muto, Takayuki; Nagao, Tohru; Najita, Joan R; Navarro, Julio; Pierce, Michael; Prochaska, Jason X; Oguri, Masamune; Ojha, Devendra K; Okamoto, Yoshiko K; Orton, Glenn; Otarola, Angel; Ouchi, Masami; Packham, Chris; Padgett, Deborah L; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Pilachowsky, Catherine; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Primack, Joel; Puthiyaveettil, Shalima; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Reddy, Naveen; Rich, Michael; Richter, Matthew J; Schombert, James; Sen, Anjan Ananda; Shi, Jianrong; Sheth, Kartik; Srianand, R; Tan, Jonathan C; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tanner, Angelle; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tytler, David; U, Vivian; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yiping; Wilson, Gillian; Wright, Shelley; Wu, Chao; Wu, Xufeng; Xu, Renxin; Yamada, Toru; Yang, Bin; Zhao, Gongbo; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the Universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ),...

  16. Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing I: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Schoeck, M; Riddle, R; Skidmore, W; Travouillon, T; Blum, R; Bustos, E; Chanan, G; Djorgovski, S G; Gillett, P; Gregory, B; Nelson, J; Otarola, A; Seguel, J; Vasquez, J; Walker, A; Walker, D; Wang, L

    2009-01-01

    As part of the conceptual and preliminary design processes of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the TMT site testing team has spent the last five years measuring the atmospheric properties of five candidate mountains in North and South America with an unprecedented array of instrumentation. The site testing period was preceded by several years of analyses selecting the five candidates, Cerros Tolar, Armazones and Tolonchar in northern Chile; San Pedro Martir in Baja California, Mexico and the 13 North (13N) site on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Site testing was concluded by the selection of two remaining sites for further consideration, Armazones and Mauna Kea 13N. It showed that all five candidates are excellent sites for an extremely large astronomical observatory and that none of the sites stands out as the obvious and only logical choice based on its combined properties. This is the first article in a series discussing the TMT site testing project.

  17. Portable fluorescence meter for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilin, Dmitriy V.; Grishanov, Vladimir N.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, there are great deals of skin fluorescence studies for diagnostic purposes in medicine. Measurement of the intensity of autofluorescence (AF) is suitable method for diagnostic, because it does not require traumatic procedures. Skin AF is widely used by doctors in order to assess the concentration of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE). There are no in vivo fluorescence meters made in Russia, which are affordable, portable, easy-to-use and easily replicable. This paper is devoted to study of the fluorimeter and its mathematical model of spectral characteristics that were developed by authors. Fluorimeter and its software are fully operational and they were given to doctors for testing in the real clinic conditions in order to get a set of AF statistics for patients.

  18. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-27

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the monitored chemical. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. In April 2016 the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted an operationally-oriented assessment of MGMs. Five MGMs were assessed by emergency responders. The criteria and scenarios used in this assessment were derived from the results of a focus group of emergency responders with experience in using MGMs. The assessment addressed 16 evaluation criteria in four SAVER categories: Usability, Capability, Maintainability, and Deployability.

  19. Topside and subsea experience with the Framo Multiphase Flow Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torkildsen, B.H.; Helmers, P.B.; Kanstad, S.K. [Framo Engineering A/S, (Norway); Letton, W.

    1997-07-01

    Multiphase flow meters have been in regular service onshore and offshore for several years, and operators are achieving some level of comfort with the technology. A significant amount of experience has been gained with the Framo Multiphase Flow Meter both topside and subsea. Typical applications are well testing, well management and allocation metering. For topside applications, the principal advantage of the meter remains the elimination of the test separator and all its associated hardware and maintenance. For subsea applications, the advantage is even greater as separate test lines and in some cases even entire platforms can be eliminated. The Framo Multiphase Flow Meter concept which combines the Framo Flow Mixer with a Multi Energy Gamma Meter and a Venturi Meter offer the optimum in precise estimation of oil, water and gas flow rates and has at the same time proved to be a particular robust concept. True reproducibility and high accuracy combined with built-in features such as simple calibration and a separate gas and liquid sampling arrangement solve many of the operational problems that are encountered with alternative methods. Operational experience with Framo Multiphase Flow Meters installed around the world, both topside and subsea, will be reviewed. Special attention will be paid to the difficult issues peculiar to subsea meters, such as their remote installation, retrieval, calibration, and maintenance. Finally, future trends in multiphase metering will be explored, particular will the challenges of introducing this technology into more routine applications be addressed. (author)

  20. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40-180 km h-1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology.

  1. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

    2012-01-15

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  2. Thirty Meter Telescope science instruments: a status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Luc; Ellerbroek, Brent; Bhatia, Ravinder; Radovan, Matthew; Chisholm, Eric

    2016-08-01

    An overview of the current status of the science instruments for the Thirty Meter Telescope is presented. Three first-light instruments as well as a science calibration unit for AO-assisted instruments are under development. Developing instrument collaborations that can design and build these challenging instruments remains an area of intense activity. In addition to the instruments themselves, a preliminary design for a facility cryogenic cooling system based on gaseous helium turbine expanders has been completed. This system can deliver a total of 2.4 kilowatts of cooling power at 65K to the instruments with essentially no vibrations. Finally, the process for developing future instruments beyond first light has been extensively discussed and will get under way in early 2017.

  3. Design and Implementation of Intel ligent Water Meter Reading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao-tao

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of intelligent residential housing project and the implement of intelligent meter reading system, the four become the typical representative at the same time , they also become the short board of the old residential intelligent direction and constraints .As one of the four meter is an important measurement tool to save water resources .In the process of the development of society and technology , different types of meter reading methods have been derived , but there are still many problems , such as difficulty , time consuming , error copy , misreading .With the current mature image processing technology , the Internet technology and the rapid development of handheld intelligent terminal , the paper develop a meter reading system base on the Android system.The system can reduce the work intensity and the cost of meter reading , and it can make up the blank which old district and the mechanical meter reading can not be intelligent .

  4. Method and apparatus for reading meters from a video image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, T.J.; Ferguson, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    A method and system enable acquisition of data about an environment from one or more meters using video images. One or more meters are imaged by a video camera and the video signal is digitized. Then, each region of the digital image which corresponds to the indicator of the meter is calibrated and the video signal is analyzed to determine the value indicated by each meter indicator. Finally, from the value indicated by each meter indicator in the calibrated region, a meter reading is generated. The method and system offer the advantages of automatic data collection in a relatively non-intrusive manner without making any complicated or expensive electronic connections, and without requiring intensive manpower.

  5. Advanced Metering Installations – A Perspective from Federal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earni, Shankar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-02

    This report is intended to provide guidance to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal agencies to highlight some of the existing practices related to advanced building metering systems. This study identified some of the existing actions related to advanced meter data and proposes how advanced metered data can be employed to develop robust cost effective measurement and verification (M&V) strategies. This report proposes an integrated framework on how advanced meter data can be used to identify energy conservation opportunities and to develop proactive M&V strategies to ensure that the savings for energy projects are being realized. This information will help improve metering, feedback, and dashboard implementations for reducing energy use at DOE facilities, based on lessons learned from various advanced metering implementations.

  6. De Minimis Thresholds for Federal Building Metering Appropriateness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by statute and Presidential Memorandum to establish guidelines for agencies to meter their Federal buildings for energy (electricity, natural gas, and steam) and water. See 42 U.S.C. § 8253(e). DOE issued guidance in February 2006 on the installation of electric meters in Federal buildings. A recent update to the 2006 guidance accounts for more current metering practices within the Federal Government. The updated metering guidance specifies that all Federal buildings shall be considered “appropriate” for energy or water metering unless identified for potential exclusion. In developing the updated guidance to carry out the statue, Congress also directed DOE to (among other things) establish exclusions from the metering requirements based on the de minimis quantity of energy use of a Federal building, industrial process, or structure. This paper discusses the method used to identify de minimis values.

  7. Automatic Meter Reading and Theft Control System by Using GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rakesh Malhotra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with automatic meter reading and theft control system in energy meter. Current transformer is used to measure the total power consumption for house or industrial purpose. This recorded reading is transmitted to the electricity board for every 60 days once. For transmitting the reading of energy meter GSM module is used. To avoid theft, infrared sensor is placed in the screw portion of energy meter seal. If the screw is removed from the meter a message is sent to the electricity board. The measuring of energy meter and monitoring of IR sensor is done with a PIC microcontroller.The informative system will be helpful for the electricity board to monitor the entire supply and the correct billing accordingly without any mishap. This model reduces the manual manipulation work andtheft control.

  8. The Impact of Sub-Metering on Condominium Electricity Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Donald N. Dewees; Trevor Tombe

    2010-01-01

    Growing concern about the environmental effects of electricity generation is renewing demands for electricity conservation and efficient usage. With a substantial fraction of the population insulated from energy price signals in bulk-metered apartment and condominium buildings, some jurisdictions are considering mandatory metering of individual suites. This study analyses data from a Toronto condominium building to assess the impacts of suite (or sub-) metering. We estimate the aggregate redu...

  9. FUSION OF VENTURI AND ULTRASONIC FLOW METER FOR ENHANCED FLOW METER CHARACTERISTICS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Santhosh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique for measurement of liquid flow using venturi and ultrasonic flow meter(UFM to have following objectives a to design a multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF architecture for using both the sensors, b improve sensitivity and linearity of venturi and ultrasonic flow meter, and c detect and diagnosis of faults in sensor if any. Fuzzy logic algorithm is used to fuse outputs of both the sensor and train the fuzzy block to produces output which has an improved characteristics in terms of both sensitivity and linearity. For identification of sensor faults a comparative test algorithm is designed. Once trained proposed technique is tested in real life, results show successful implementation of proposed objectives.

  10. How today's USM diagnostics solve metering problems[Ultrasonic meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, John

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into today's electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identified in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9. However, some provide advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper is based upon the Daniel USM design and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other manufacturers. (author) (tk)

  11. Radiofrequency energy exposure from the Trilliant smart meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Tell, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews radiofrequency (RF) field levels produced by electric utility meters equipped with RF transceivers (so-called Smart Meters), focusing on meters from one manufacturer (Trilliant, Redwood City, CA, USA, and Granby, QC, Canada). The RF transmission levels are summarized based on publicly available data submitted to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission supplemented by limited independent measurements. As with other Smart Meters, this meter incorporates a low powered radiofrequency transceiver used for a neighborhood mesh network, in the present case using ZigBee-compliant physical and medium access layers, operating in the 2.45 GHz unlicensed band but with a proprietary network architecture. Simple calculations based on a free space propagation model indicate that peak RF field intensities are in the range of 10 mW m or less at a distance of more than 1-2 m from the meters. However, the duty cycle of transmission from the meters is very low (Smart Meter technology. The RF transmitters in wireless-equipped Smart Meters operate at similar power levels and in similar frequency ranges as many other digital communications devices in common use, and their exposure levels are very far below U.S. and international exposure limits.

  12. Calibration of Results of Water Meter Test Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Bončkus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of water meter test facility calibration are presented. More than 30 test facilities are used in Lithuania nowadays. All of them are certificated for water meter of class 2 verification. The results of inter-laboratory comparison of multi-jet water meter calibration at flow rate Q = 5 m3/h are presented. Lithuanian Energy Institute was appointed as reference laboratory for the comparison. Twelve water meter verification and calibration laboratories from Lithuania participated in the ILC. The deviations from reference values were described by the normalized deviation En.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering for Environmental Benefits Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the concept of Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering (COTM), which provides environmental benefits without sacrificing throughput. In current...

  14. Application of Intelligent Agents in Wireless Prepaid Energy Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Sankaranarayanan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prepaid meter (PM is getting very popular especially in developing countries. There are many advantages to use prepaid meter as opposed to postpaid meter both to the utility provider and to the consumer. Brunei has adopted PM but it is not intelligent and not wireless enabled. Reading meters and topping up balance are still done manually. Utility provider does not have information on the usage statistics and has only limited functionalities in the grid control. So accordingly an intelligent agent based wireless prepaid energy meter been developed using JADE-LEAP Agent development kit allowing agent from utility provider to query wireless energy meter for energy values for every household. These statistics can be used for statistical computation of the power consumed and for policy and future planning. Agent from consumers’ mobile devices can query the energy meter to study the power consumed and for topping up the balance. When the meter reaches the threshold, agent at energy meter would also send messages to alert consumers for topping up through mobile handset and failing to do so will lead to power being cut automatically

  15. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edward E.; Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office has been sponsoring 2 separate, independent system design and development hardware demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L'Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter ground demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators. Descriptions of the system designs for both the ATK and L'Garde systems will be presented. Changes, additions and evolution of the system designs will be highlighted. A description of the modeling and analyses activities performed by both teams, as well as testing conducted to raise the TRL of solar sail technology will be presented. A summary of the results of model correlation activities will be presented. Finally, technology gaps identified during the assessment and gap closure plans will be presented, along with "lessons learned", subsequent planning activities and validation flight opportunities for solar sail propulsion technology.

  16. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Warren; TMT International Science Development Teams; Science Advisory Committee, TMT

    2015-12-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Cover image: artist's rendition of the TMT International Observatory on Mauna Kea opening in the late evening before beginning operations.

  17. The nasal distribution of metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S P; Morén, P F; Clarke, S W

    1987-02-01

    The intranasal distribution of aerosol from a metered dose inhaler has been assessed using a radiotracer technique. Inhalers were prepared by adding 99Tcm-labelled Teflon particles (simulating the drug particles) to chlorofluorocarbon propellants, and scans of the head (and chest) taken with a gamma camera. Ten healthy subjects (age range 19-29 years) each performed two radioaerosol studies with the inhaler held in two different ways: either in a single position (vial pointing upwards) or in two positions (vial pointing upwards and then tilted by 30 degrees in the sagittal plane). The vast majority of the dose (82.5 +/- 2.8 (mean +/- SEM) per cent and 80.7 +/- 3.1 per cent respectively for one-position and two-position studies) was deposited on a single localized area in the anterior one-third of the nose, the initial distribution pattern being identical for each study. No significant radioaerosol was detected in the lungs. Only 18.0 +/- 4.7 per cent and 15.4 +/- 4.1 per cent of the dose had been removed by mucociliary action after 30 minutes, and it is probable that the remainder had not penetrated initially beyond the vestibule. Since the deposition pattern was highly localized and more than half the dose probably failed to reach the turbinates it is possible that the overall effect of nasal MDIs is suboptimal for the treatment of generalized nasal disorders.

  18. REM meter for pulsed sources of neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorngate, J.E.; Hunt, G.F.; Rueppel, D.W.

    1980-08-13

    A rem meter was constructed specifically for measuring neutrons produced by fusion experiments for which the source pulses last 10 ms or longer. The detector is a /sup 6/Li glass scintillator, 25.4 mm in diameter and 3.2 mm thick, surrounded by 11.5 cm of polyethylene. This detector has a sensitivity of 8.5 x 10/sup 4/ counts/mrem. The signals from this fast scintillator are shaped using a shorted delay line to produce pulses that are only 10 ns long so that dose equivalent rates up to 12 mrem/s can be measured with less than a 1% counting loss. The associated electronic circuits store detector counts only when the count rate exceeds a preset level. When the count rate returns to background, a conversion from counts to dose equivalent is made and the results are displayed. As a means of recording the number of source pulses that have occurred, a second display shows how many times the preset count rate has been exceeded. Accumulation of detector counts and readouts can also be controlled manually. The unit will display the integrated dose equilavent up to 200 mrem in 0.01 mrem steps. A pulse-height discriminator rejects gamma-ray interactions below 1 MeV, and the detector size limits the response above that energy. The instrument can be operated from an ac line or will run on rechargeable batteries for up to 12 hours.

  19. Two-Phase Quality/Flow Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A quality and/or flow meter employs a capacitance probe assembly for measuring the dielectric constant of flow stream, particularly a two-phase flow stream including liquid and gas components.ne dielectric constant of the flow stream varies depending upon the volume ratios of its liquid and gas components, and capacitance measurements can therefore be employed to calculate the quality of the flow, which is defined as the volume ratio of liquid in the flow to the total volume ratio of gas and liquid in the flow. By using two spaced capacitance sensors, and cross-correlating the time varying capacitance values of each, the velocity of the flow stream can also be determined. A microcontroller-based processing circuit is employed to measure the capacitance of the probe sensors.The circuit employs high speed timer and counter circuits to provide a high resolution measurement of the time interval required to charge each capacitor in the probe assembly. In this manner, a high resolution, noise resistant, digital representation of each of capacitance value is obtained without the need for a high resolution A/D converter, or a high frequency oscillator circuit. One embodiment of the probe assembly employs a capacitor with two ground plates which provide symmetry to insure that accurate measurements are made thereby.

  20. A metering rotary nanopump for microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Scott G; Moore, Matthew R; Friedlander, Troy A; Schaffer, David K; Reiserer, Ron S; Wikswo, John P; Seale, Kevin T

    2010-12-07

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfabricated metering rotary nanopump for the purpose of driving fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The miniature peristaltic pump is composed of a set of microfluidic channels wrapped in a helix around a central camshaft in which a non-cylindrical cam rotates. The cam compresses the helical channels to induce peristaltic flow as it is rotated. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanopump design is able to produce intermittent delivery or removal of several nanolitres of fluid per revolution as well as consistent continuous flow rates ranging from as low as 15 nL min(-1) to above 1.0 µL min(-1). At back pressures encountered in typical microfluidic devices, the pump acts as a high impedance flow source. The durability, biocompatibility, ease of integration with soft-lithographic fabrication, the use of a simple rotary motor instead of multiple synchronized pneumatic or mechanical actuators, and the absence of power consumption or fluidic conductance in the resting state all contribute to a compact pump with a low cost of fabrication and versatile implementation. This suggests that the pump design may be useful for a wide variety of biological experiments and point of care devices.

  1. Measuring methods in power metering 2013; Elektrizitaetsmesstechnik 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahmann, Martin; Zayer, Peter (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The book addresses technical and economic issues of power metering, data communication and data processing. Smart metering is the key issue discussed in all 14 contributions: 1. The perspective of Smart Metering in Europe through 2020; 2. Introduction of Smart Metering in Austria; 3. Metering after the amended EnWG 2011; 4. The FNN project ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Technological requirements of Smart Grid and Smart Market; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomic Aspects of Smart Grids and Electromobility''; 7. Load management as a key element of energy transition; 8. Added value in Smart Metering as a result of Smart Home applications, 9. The main cost factors of the new metering systems; 10. BSI protection profile: Smart Meter Gateway certification; 11. The influence of new boundary conditions in metering on intercompany processes; 12. Reliable time allotment via internet; 13. Recommendations of the EEG Clearing Authority on metering problems; 14. Outline quality management manual for state-authorized test services for electric power, gas, water, and heat. [German] Dieses Buch richtet seinen Blick sowohl auf technische wie auch auf energiewirtschaftliche Themen rund um das Thema Mess- und Zaehltechnik sowie die inzwischen immer bedeutsamer werdende zugehoerige Datenkommunikations- und Datenverarbeitungstechnik. Eine zunehmende Betrachtung des Smart Metering als einen Teilaspekt des grossen Themas Smart Grid bildet die gemeinsame Klammer um die Beitraege. Die Themen der 14 Beitraege sind: 1. Perspektive Smart Metering in Europa bis 2020; 2. Smart-Meter-Einfuehrung in Oesterreich; 3. Das Messwesen nach der EnWG-Novelle 2011; 4. Das FNN-Projekt ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Anforderungen durch Smart Grid und Smart Market an die intelligente Messtechnik; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomie-Aspekte zu Smart Grid und Elektromobilitaet''; 7. Lastverschiebung als Baustein der Energiewende; 8. Mehrwerte beim Smart

  2. Liquid Flow Meter based on a Thermal Anemometer Microsensor

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Sazhin

    2016-01-01

    An analytical model of a thermal anemometer sensor is developed. A thermal anemometer microsensor utilizing doped polycrystalline silicon is created. A liquid flow meter prototype based on a thermal anemometer microsensor is designed. Results of the flow meter testing are presented.

  3. Integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin; Hsiao, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information to "feeling" music, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter-recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, "duple" (march-like rhythms) and "triple" (waltz-like rhythms), presented in three conditions: (1) unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone); (2) various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts; and (3) bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70-85 %) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70-90 %) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60 % when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90 %). Performance dropped dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10 %), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60 %), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. These observations support the notion that meter perception is a cross-modal percept with tactile inputs underlying the perception of "feeling" music.

  4. Real time Aanderaa current meter data collection system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    in laboratory. In this paper a method is described to read the real time current meter data and display/print/store on cartridge. For this, binary coded electrical signal available at the top end plate of the current meter is connectEd. by underwater cable...

  5. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decisionmaking...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air... § 1065.205. This may include a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, a... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter....

  7. Design and Development of Electrochemical Oxygen Meter in Liquid Sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Mi; DONG; Jing-ya; MI; Zheng-feng; FU; Xiao-gang

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen concentration is of particular importance in characterizing sodium attack,so an accurate means of measuring and controlling oxygen is crucial.China Institute of Atomic Energy has been developing online oxygen meter for liquid sodium since last year.Oxygen meter can

  8. Microwave moisture meter for in-shell peanut kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    . A microwave moisture meter built with off-the-shelf components was developed, calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in the field for nondestructive and instantaneous in-shell peanut kernel moisture content determination from dielectric measurements on unshelled peanut pod samples. The meter ...

  9. Development of a novel vortex flow meter for downhole use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiferli, W.; Cheng, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of oil and gas wells, the demand for instrumentation to measure conditions inside well tubing below the surface is growing rapidly. A robust meter was designed to measure liquid flows at downhole conditions. The meter is based on a specially-designed bluff body to de

  10. The Early Development of Electronic pH Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Wallis G.; de Levie, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A 19-year-old undergraduate at the University of Chicago, Kenneth Goode, in 1921 came up with the idea of an electronic pH meter, worked out some of its initial problems, and set in motion an international scientific effort that culminated in the current, wide availability of electronic pH meters. Except for the replacement of vacuum tubes by…

  11. TOW Engagement in the Active Defense -- 3000 Meters or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-09

    development. Even the farm lands are segmented by linear treelines and natural growth. Most of the forest trees are coniferous (evergreen) or deciduous...defense? We can best determine the answer to this question by assessing the climatic evaluation for the region. 2 2 Maritime air masses, which are more

  12. Combining smart metering with successful marketing; Smart Metering mit erfolgreichem Marketing verbinden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckhardt, Sina [EVB Energie AG, Velbert (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Smart metering can be implemented in various ways. Apart from data transmission via powerline cables, also teletransmission via GPRS may be advantageous. A current project investigates both communication strategies which can also be used in parallel, especially by major utilities with the appropriate infrastructure. In the case of concrete implementation, it has been found that the communication with users must be clear in order to give them an idea of the advantages of the new technologies, and that an appropriate marketing strategy must be developed for successful rollout. (orig.)

  13. EU data protection and smart metering. Legal boundary conditions; EU-Datenschutz und Smart Metering. Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladjk, Joerg [Praxisgruppe European Data Protection and Privacy, Hunton and Williams, Bruessel (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    With the introduction of smart metering, the problem of data protection arises. The independent Article 29 Data Protection Group of the European Commission drew up an expert opinion with the intention of explaining the applicable EU data protection regulations for the smart metering technology in the power supply sector. (orig.)

  14. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  15. Dual-frequency feed system for 26-meter antenna conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    New cassegrain feed cone assemblies were designed as part of the upgrade of three 26-meter diameter antennas to 34-meter diameter with improved performance. The new dual-frequency feed cone (SXD) will provide both S- and X-band feed systems and traveling wave masers, with a reflex reflector system to permit simultaneous operation analogous to the 64-meter antennas. Tasks involved in adding the X-band receiving capability and improving the S-band feed performance in support of Voyager and later missions described in.

  16. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    The chief aims in THE SPHINX PROJECT are research of super lepton physics and new detector experiments. At the second phase of THE SPHINX PROJECT, a hybrid TLC-PAIR METER was designed for measuring high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV) and measuring muon group (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of PAIR METER has been already proposed. In this TLC-PAIR METER, electromagnetic shower induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using TL (Thermoluminescence) sheets with position counters.

  17. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  18. Federal metering data analysis needs and existing tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Agencies have been working to improve their metering data collection, management, and analysis efforts over the last decade (since EPAct 2005) and will continue to address these challenges as new requirements and data needs come into place. Unfortunately there is no “one-size-fits-all” solution. As agencies continue to expand their capabilities to use metered consumption data to reducing resource use and improve operations, the hope is that shared knowledge will empower others to follow suit. This paper discusses the Federal metering data analysis needs and some existing tools.

  19. Human brain basis of musical rhythm perception: common and distinct neural substrates for meter, tempo, and pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Parsons, Lawrence M

    2014-06-17

    Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure.

  20. Human Brain Basis of Musical Rhythm Perception: Common and Distinct Neural Substrates for Meter, Tempo, and Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Thaut

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus. Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas. These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure.

  1. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decisionmaking....... Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world data set as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns...

  2. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and In-ternet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decision......-making. Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world dataset as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns along...

  3. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  4. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  5. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Hawaii, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  6. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Alaska, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  7. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  8. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  9. Smart Meter Data Analytics: Systems, Algorithms and Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Golab, Lukasz; Golab, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Smart electricity meters have been replacing conventional meters worldwide, enabling automated collection of fine-grained (e.g., every 15 minutes or hourly) consumption data. A variety of smart meter analytics algorithms and applications have been proposed, mainly in the smart grid literature......-line feature extraction and model building as well a framework for on-line anomaly detection that we propose. Second, since obtaining real smart meter data is difficult due to privacy issues, we present an algorithm for generating large realistic data sets from a small seed of real data. Third, we implement......). We compare the five platforms in terms of application development effort and performance on a multicore machine as well as a cluster of 16 commodity servers....

  10. Tweeting : Smart meters raise awareness of energy consumption in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-11-15

    The University of Mississippi (UM) will monitor, analyze and report on energy consumption in its campus buildings in real-time using SmartSynch Smart Meters. The technology uses smart meter data to help identify a detailed pattern of electricity usage with the objective of finding methods to alter behaviour to reduce electricity usage and carbon emissions. SmartSynch installed 16 Smart Meters on campus with additional deployments being planned. The technology will enable the university to monitor energy consumption, track building power performance over time, compare building energy usage, and review the impact of the weather on energy use while reducing its carbon footprint. Additionally, UM will use Facebook, Twitter and an RSS feed to provide regular public updates on its buildings' energy consumption based on SmartSynch Smart Meter data. Each building will have its own profile on the social networking sites. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  11. Radiofrequency fields associated with the Itron smart meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R A; Sias, G G; Vazquez, A; Sahl, J; Turman, J P; Kavet, R I; Mezei, G

    2012-08-01

    This study examined radiofrequency (RF) emissions from smart electric power meters deployed in two service territories in California for the purpose of evaluating potential human exposure. These meters included transmitters operating in a local area mesh network (RF LAN, ∼250 mW); a cell relay, which uses a wireless wide area network (WWAN, ∼1 W); and a transmitter serving a home area network (HAN, ∼70 mW). In all instances, RF fields were found to comply by a wide margin with the RF exposure limits established by the US Federal Communications Commission. The study included specialised measurement techniques and reported the spatial distribution of the fields near the meters and their duty cycles (typically smart meters as deployed. However, the results are restricted to a single manufacturer's emitters.

  12. Color Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED is...

  13. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Hawaii. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker green...

  14. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Alaska. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker green...

  15. Grayscale Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  16. Color Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED is...

  17. Grayscale Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  18. Cloud-Based Software Platform for Smart Meter Data Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utility companies to forecast energy loads and improve services, and help households to manage energy usage and save money. As this regard, the proposed paper focuses on building an innovative software platform for smart......Today smart meters are increasingly used in the worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time in- terval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizeable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social...... their knowledge; scalable data analytics platform for data mining over big data sets for energy demand forecasting and consumption discovering; data as the service for other applications using smart meter data; and a portal for visualizing data analytics results. The design will incorporate hybrid clouds...

  19. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II effort will be an affordable demonstrated full-scale design for a thermally stable multi-meter submillimeter reflector. The Phase I...

  20. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  1. Electric Power Substitute Meter Management via Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Rodelas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available EPSMvMA is composed of Digital Sub-Meter connected to different components namely the GSM module, Bluetooth module, Power Analyzer Module, LCD Module, Relay Module and Main Microcontroller module. The connection via Mobile is made possible by the modules mentioned. The software that the proponents will be dealing with in the study is C++ language, which will be used in programming the Main Microcontroller module and Visual Basic Language for the Android Phones. The Bluetooth module can access the Android Phones and connect to the digital sub-meter in a limited distance. The users will be at ease since a code embedded to the microcontroller will make the utility sub-meter produce the desired value of electricity (KWH and wherein the computed Sub-meter reading can be viewed through the LCD. This project is accommodating to those person that is always on the go and prudent.

  2. Minnesota Digital Elevation Model - Tiled 93 Meter Resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at a resolution of 93 meters. Original data resolution was 3 arc seconds which corresponds (approximately) to a matrix of points at a...

  3. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  4. One-Meter Class Drilling for Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposed effort is to understand and characterize the fundamental limitations of drilling one to three meters into challenging materials which may...

  5. A review of neutron scattering correction for the calibration of neutron survey meters using the shadow cone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang In; Kim, Bong Hwan; Kim, Jang Lyul; Lee, Jung Il [Health Physics Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The calibration methods of neutron-measuring devices such as the neutron survey meter have advantages and disadvantages. To compare the calibration factors obtained by the shadow cone method and semi-empirical method, 10 neutron survey meters of five different types were used in this study. This experiment was performed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI; Daejeon, South Korea), and the calibration neutron fields were constructed using a {sup 252}Californium ({sup 252}Cf) neutron source, which was positioned in the center of the neutron irradiation room. The neutron spectra of the calibration neutron fields were measured by a europium-activated lithium iodide scintillator in combination with KAERI's Bonner sphere system. When the shadow cone method was used, 10 single moderator-based survey meters exhibited a smaller calibration factor by as much as 3.1 - 9.3% than that of the semi-empirical method. This finding indicates that neutron survey meters underestimated the scattered neutrons and attenuated neutrons (i.e., the total scatter corrections). This underestimation of the calibration factor was attributed to the fact that single moderator-based survey meters have an under-ambient dose equivalent response in the thermal or thermal-dominant neutron field. As a result, when the shadow cone method is used for a single moderator-based survey meter, an additional correction and the International Organization for Standardization standard 8529-2 for room-scattered neutrons should be considered.

  6. Wideband bioimpedance meter with the adaptive selection of frequency grid

    OpenAIRE

    V. S. Mosiychuk; G. V. Timoshenko; O. B. Sharpan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. For the diagnosis of functional state and structure of biological objects with weakly expressed irregularities it is important quickly and accurately to determine the amplitude- and phase-frequency characteristics. Therefore, the purpose of the article is a representation of the results of the development of biological objects high-speed impedance meter with the ability to select adaptive grid measuring frequencies in the extended band. Structure of the impedance meter. Develope...

  7. Microwave component time delays for the 70-meter antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, R.

    1987-05-01

    The X-band feed assemblies in the 64 meter antennas were redesigned to accommodate the upgrading to 70 meters and the associated surface reshaping. To maintain time delay data logs, new calculations were made of the microwave component delays for the XRO Mod IV X-band (8.4 to 8.45 GHz) feed assembly that was installed at DSS-63, and will soon be implemented at DSS-43 and DSS-14.

  8. The Efficiency of the Smoke Meter at Characterizing Engine Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, Jonathan D.

    1997-01-01

    The effectiveness of a smoke meter's ability to characterize the particulate emissions of a jet fuel combustor was evaluated using the University of Missouri-Rolla Mobile Aerosol Sampling System (UMR-MASS). A burner simulating an advanced jet engine combustor design was used to generate typical combustion particulates, which were then analyzed by the smoke meter. The same particulates were then size discriminated to ascertain the effective impact of aerosol diameter on smoke number readings.

  9. The Program of Getting the Data from the Vacuum Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGYang; CHENLiaoyuan; LIQiang

    2003-01-01

    In HL-2A tokamak, a program to get the data from the vacuum meter has been developed in 2003. The program is used to read and record the data of the neutral gas pressure during the experiment. So how to communicate between a local computer and the vacuum meter via serial-port communication is introduced in this paper. The architecture of the system is shown in Fig. 1.

  10. Five hundred meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAN; Rendong

    2006-01-01

    Five hundred meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST) will be the largest radio telescope in the world. The innovative engineering concept and design pave a new road to realizing a huge single dish in the most effective way. Three outstanding features of the telescope are the unique karst depressions as the sites, the active main reflector which corrects spherical aberration on the ground to achieve full polarization and a wide band without involving a complex feed system, and the light focus cabin driven by cables and servomechanism plus a parallel robot as secondary adjustable system to carry the most precise parts of the receivers. Being the most sensitive radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jumpstart many of the science goals, for example, the neutral hydrogen line surveying in distant galaxies out to very large redshifts, looking for the first shining star, detecting thousands of new pulsars, etc. Extremely interesting and exotic objects may yet await discovery by FAST. As a multi-science platform, the telescope will provide treasures to astronomers, as well as bring prosperity to other research, e.g. space weather study, deep space exploration and national security. The construction of FAST itself is expected to promote the development in high technology of relevant fields.

  11. Noise in two-color electronic distance meter measurements revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J.

    2004-01-01

    Frequent, high-precision geodetic data have temporally correlated errors. Temporal correlations directly affect both the estimate of rate and its standard error; the rate of deformation is a key product from geodetic measurements made in tectonically active areas. Various models of temporally correlated errors are developed and these provide relations between the power spectral density and the data covariance matrix. These relations are applied to two-color electronic distance meter (EDM) measurements made frequently in California over the past 15-20 years. Previous analysis indicated that these data have significant random walk error. Analysis using the noise models developed here indicates that the random walk model is valid for about 30% of the data. A second 30% of the data can be better modeled with power law noise with a spectral index between 1 and 2, while another 30% of the data can be modeled with a combination of band-pass-filtered plus random walk noise. The remaining 10% of the data can be best modeled as a combination of band-pass-filtered plus power law noise. This band-pass-filtered noise is a product of an annual cycle that leaks into adjacent frequency bands. For time spans of more than 1 year these more complex noise models indicate that the precision in rate estimates is better than that inferred by just the simpler, random walk model of noise.

  12. Research on the calibration of ultraviolet energy meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fangsheng; Yin, Dejin; Li, Tiecheng; Lai, Lei; Xia, Ming

    2016-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a kind of non-lighting radiation with the wavelength range from 100nm to 400nm. Ultraviolet irradiance meters are now widely used in many areas. However, as the development of science and technology, especially in the field of light-curing industry, there are more and more UV energy meters or UV-integrators need to be measured. Because the structure, wavelength band and measured power intensity of UV energy meters are different from traditional UV irradiance meters, it is important for us to take research on the calibration. With reference to JJG879-2002, we SIMT have independently developed the UV energy calibration device and the standard of operation and experimental methods for UV energy calibration in detail. In the calibration process of UV energy meter, many influencing factors will affect the final results, including different UVA-band UV light sources, different spectral response for different brands of UV energy meters, instability and no uniformity of UV light source and temperature. Therefore we need to take all of these factors into consideration to improve accuracy in UV energy calibration.

  13. Accuracy and functionality of hand held wood moisture content meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsen, H.; Tarvainen, V. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Materials and Products, Wood Technology

    2000-09-01

    The main task of VTT in this EU project was to test and improve the reliability and performance of moisture content meters. A total of 16 resistance type and 6 capacitance type hand-held moisture meters were included in the test series. Test samples of the most important European species (pine, spruce, birch, oak, beech, alder, larch) were obtained from all over Europe. The total survey included about 2,700 pieces for comparative testing. The test material was conditioned to three different moisture contents (8 - 10%, 12 - 14% and 16 - 18%). The moisture gradients in the test specimens were small due to the long conditioning time lasting at least 1 year. The effects of various factors, such as moisture content, species, and temperature, on the electrical resistance of conditioned wood were studied. In the laboratory tests, the resistance - moisture content curves for different species from different countries were determined using conditioned wood material. The species corrections (resistance curves) are quite similar for different counties. Only the resistance curve for Maritime Pine differs clearly from the other resistance curves for the pine species originating from the different countries. The wood temperature corrections are about 0.1 - 0.15% units/deg C which has to be considered when the moisture content of wood is measured at temperatures other than 20 deg C. The other properties of wood, such as sapwood/heartwood and density, do not have a significant effect on resistance values. There were no significant resistance differences related to the type of electrodes, distances between electrodes, and different measuring direction. The commercial instruments for the determination of wood moisture content were tested with respect to accuracy, reliability and ergonomy. The moisture meters were tested both under laboratory and industrial conditions. Most of the resistance meters show a systematic deviation from the actual moisture content because of incorrect MC

  14. 300 GHz Imaging System with 8 Meter Stand-off Distance and One-Dimensional Synthetic Image Reconstruction for Remote Detection of Material Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Andreas; Peuser, Jörn; Loeffler, Torsten;

    2011-01-01

    .5 meters. Range and intensity information of the object are obtained using an active FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) radar principle. Data acquisition time for one line is as short as 1 ms. Synthetic image reconstruction is achieved in real-time by an embedded GPU (Graphical Processing Unit......An active stand-off imaging system operating at 230–320 GHz is presented. Imaging is achieved by combining a line array consisting of 8 sources and 16 detectors with a scanning cylindrical mirror system. The stand-off distance is 8 meters and the effective aperture of the system is 0.5 meters by 0...

  15. The AGS Ggamma Meter and Calibrating the Gauss Clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, Leif [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-03-31

    During AGS Polarized Proton acceleration periods, one output from the AGS Ggamma Meter, namely the energy (or Ggamma) calculated from the magnetic field in the AGS main magnets and the beam radius- both measured in particular instant, is used to figure out the times in the AGS magnet acceleration cycle when the beam passes through a particular set of depolarizing resonances. The resonance set occur whenever a particle’s Ggamma (energy*(G/m) becomes nearly equal to n*Qx (i.e. any integer multiplied by the horizontal betatron tune). This deliverable is why the machinery is referred to as the ''Ggamma Meter'' rather than the AGS energy meter. The Ggamma Meter takes as inputs a set of measurements of frequency (F(t)), radius (r(t)), and gauss clock counts (GCC(t)). The other energy (GgammaBr) assumes the field when the gauss clock starts counting is known. The change in field to time t is given by the measured accumulated gauss clock counts multiplied by the gauss clock calibration (gauss/GCC). In order to deal with experimental data, this calibration factor gets an added ad hoc complication, namely a correction dependent on the rate of change the counting rate. The Ggamma meter takes GCC(t) and together with the past history for this cycle calculates B(t).

  16. Modelling and calibration of a ring-shaped electrostatic meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jianyong [University of Teesside, Middlesbrough TS1 3BA (United Kingdom); Zhou Bin; Xu Chuanlong; Wang Shimin, E-mail: zhoubinde1980@gmail.co [Southeast University, Sipailou 2, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2009-02-01

    Ring-shaped electrostatic flow meters can provide very useful information on pneumatically transported air-solids mixture. This type of meters are popular in measuring and controlling the pulverized coal flow distribution among conveyors leading to burners in coal-fired power stations, and they have also been used for research purposes, e.g. for the investigation of electrification mechanism of air-solids two-phase flow. In this paper, finite element method (FEM) is employed to analyze the characteristics of ring-shaped electrostatic meters, and a mathematic model has been developed to express the relationship between the meter's voltage output and the motion of charged particles in the sensing volume. The theoretical analysis and the test results using a belt rig demonstrate that the output of the meter depends upon many parameters including the characteristics of conditioning circuitry, the particle velocity vector, the amount and the rate of change of the charge carried by particles, the locations of particles and etc. This paper also introduces a method to optimize the theoretical model via calibration.

  17. Strategies for Power Line Communications Smart Metering Network Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sendin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids are becoming a reality all over the world. Nowadays, the research efforts for the introduction and deployment of these grids are mainly focused on the development of the field of Smart Metering. This emerging application requires the use of technologies to access the significant number of points of supply (PoS existing in the grid, covering the Low Voltage (LV segment with the lowest possible costs. Power Line Communications (PLC have been extensively used in electricity grids for a variety of purposes and, of late, have been the focus of renewed interest. PLC are really well suited for quick and inexpensive pervasive deployments. However, no LV grid is the same in any electricity company (utility, and the particularities of each grid evolution, architecture, circumstances and materials, makes it a challenge to deploy Smart Metering networks with PLC technologies, with the Smart Grid as an ultimate goal. This paper covers the evolution of Smart Metering networks, together with the evolution of PLC technologies until both worlds have converged to project PLC-enabled Smart Metering networks towards Smart Grid. This paper develops guidelines over a set of strategic aspects of PLC Smart Metering network deployment based on the knowledge gathered on real field; and introduces the future challenges of these networks in their evolution towards the Smart Grid.

  18. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S. [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J. [Helsinki Energy Board, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this presentation the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customer or his automation system. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems the situation can be detected with a suitable portable quality meter. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This presentation also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter

  19. Aesthetic and emotional effects of meter and rhyme in poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eObermeier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metrical patterning and rhyme are frequently employed in poetry but also in infant-directed speech, play, rites, and festive events. Drawing on four line-stanzas from 19th and 20th German poetry that feature end rhyme and regular meter, the present study tested the hypothesis that meter and rhyme have an impact on aesthetic liking, emotional involvement, and affective valence attributions. Hypotheses that postulate such effects have been advocated ever since ancient rhetoric and poetics, yet they have barely been empirically tested. More recently, in the field of cognitive poetics, these traditional assumptions have been readopted in a general cognitive framework. In the present experiment, we tested the influence of meter and rhyme as well as their interaction with lexicality in the aesthetic and emotional perception of poetry. Participants listened to stanzas that were systematically modified with regard to meter and rhyme and rated them. Both rhyme and regular meter led to enhanced aesthetic appreciation, higher intensity in processing, and more positively perceived and felt emotions, with latter finding being mediated by lexicality. Together these findings clearly show that both features significantly contribute to the aesthetic and emotional perception of poetry and thus confirm assumptions about their impact put forward by cognitive poetics. The present results are explained within the theoretical framework of cognitive fluency, which links structural features of poetry with aesthetic and emotional appraisal.

  20. An analysis of a QND speed-meter interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Purdue, P

    2002-01-01

    In the quest to develop viable designs for third-generation optical interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (e.g. LIGO-III and EURO), one strategy is to monitor the relative momentum or speed of the test-mass mirrors, rather than monitoring their relative position. This paper describes and analyzes the most straightforward design for a {\\it speed meter interferometer} that accomplishes this -- a design (due to Braginsky, Gorodetsky, Khalili and Thorne) that is analogous to a microwave-cavity speed meter conceived by Braginsky and Khalili. A mathematical mapping between the microwave speed meter and the optical interferometric speed meter is developed and is used to show (in accord with the speed being a Quantum Nondemolition [QND] observable) that {\\it in principle} the interferometric speed meter can beat the gravitational-wave standard quantum limit (SQL) by an arbitrarily large amount, over an arbitrarily wide range of frequencies, and can do so without the use of squeezed vacuum or any auxiliary filt...

  1. Dual-Resonator Speed Meter for a Free Test Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Braginsky, V B; Khalili, F Ya; Thorne, K S; Braginsky, Vladimir B.; Gorodetsky, Mikhail L.; Khalili, Farid Ya.; Thorne, Kip S.

    2000-01-01

    A description and analysis are given of a ``speed meter'' for monitoring a classical force that acts on a test mass. This speed meter is based on two microwave resonators (``dual resonators''), one of which couples evanescently to the position of the test mass. The sloshing of the resulting signal between the resonators, and a wise choice of where to place the resonators' output waveguide, produce a signal in the waveguide that (for sufficiently low frequencies) is proportional to the test-mass velocity (speed) rather than its position. This permits the speed meter to achieve force-measurement sensitivities better than the standard quantum limit (SQL), both when operating in a narrow-band mode and a wide-band mode. A scrutiny of experimental issues shows that it is feasible, with current technology, to construct a demonstration speed meter that beats the wide-band SQL by a factor 2. A concept is sketched for an adaptation of this speed meter to optical frequencies; this adaptation forms the basis for a possib...

  2. Photovoltaic characteristics of polymer solar cells fabricated by pre-metered coating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoungchoo; Han, Mi-Young

    2009-08-03

    We present the results of a study of flat and uniform poly(3-hexylthiophene):methanofullerene bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic (PV) layers that were produced by a simple pre-metered horizontal-dipping process for the fabrication of polymer solar cells (PSCs). It is shown that this process can produce high quality and thin films by utilizing the downstream meniscus of the solution, which can be controlled by adjusting experimental parameters of the gap height and the carrying speed. It is also shown that the produced PV film exhibits high power conversion efficiency of ca. 4.2% with a large active area. It was demonstrated that this pre-metered process for solution coating may be promising for achieving highly efficient, reliable, and large-area PSCs.

  3. A robust and scalable microfluidic metering method that allows protein crystal growth by free interface diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Carl L.; Skordalakes, Emmanuel; Berger, James M.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Producing robust and scalable fluid metering in a microfluidic device is a challenging problem. We developed a scheme for metering fluids on the picoliter scale that is scalable to highly integrated parallel architectures and is independent of the properties of the working fluid. We demonstrated the power of this method by fabricating and testing a microfluidic chip for rapid screening of protein crystallization conditions, a major hurdle in structural biology efforts. The chip has 480 active valves and performs 144 parallel reactions, each of which uses only 10 nl of protein sample. The properties of microfluidic mixing allow an efficient kinetic trajectory for crystallization, and the microfluidic device outperforms conventional techniques by detecting more crystallization conditions while using 2 orders of magnitude less protein sample. We demonstrate that diffraction-quality crystals may be grown and harvested from such nanoliter-volume reactions. PMID:12486223

  4. A robust and scalable microfluidic metering method that allows protein crystal growth by free interface diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Carl L.; Skordalakes, Emmanuel; Berger, James M.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2002-12-01

    Producing robust and scalable fluid metering in a microfluidic device is a challenging problem. We developed a scheme for metering fluids on the picoliter scale that is scalable to highly integrated parallel architectures and is independent of the properties of the working fluid. We demonstrated the power of this method by fabricating and testing a microfluidic chip for rapid screening of protein crystallization conditions, a major hurdle in structural biology efforts. The chip has 480 active valves and performs 144 parallel reactions, each of which uses only 10 nl of protein sample. The properties of microfluidic mixing allow an efficient kinetic trajectory for crystallization, and the microfluidic device outperforms conventional techniques by detecting more crystallization conditions while using 2 orders of magnitude less protein sample. We demonstrate that diffraction-quality crystals may be grown and harvested from such nanoliter-volume reactions.

  5. Design, construction, and utilization of a space station assembled from 5-meter erectable struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Bush, Harold G.

    1987-01-01

    The primary characteristics of the 5-meter erectable truss is presented, which was baselined for the Space Station. The relatively large 5-meter truss dimension was chosen to provide a deep beam for high bending stiffness yet provide convenient mounting locations for space shuttle cargo bay size payloads which are approx. 14.5 ft (4.4 m) in diameter. Truss nodes and quick attachment erectable joints are described which provide for evolutionary three dimensional growth and for simple maintenance and repair. A mobile remote manipulator system is described which is provided to assist in station construction and maintenance. A discussion is also presented of the construction of the Space Station and the associated extravehicular active (EVA) time.

  6. Advanced Metering Implementations - A Perspective from Federal Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaarni, Shankar

    2014-08-11

    Federal mandate (EPACT 2005) requires that federal buildings install advanced electrical meters-meters capable of providing data at least daily and measuring the consumption of electricity at least hourly. This work presents selected advanced metering implementations to understand some of the existing practices related to data capture and to understand how the data is being translated into information and knowledge that can be used to improve building energy and operational performance to meet federal energy reduction mandates. This study highlights case studies to represent some of the various actions that are being taken based on the data that are being collected to improve overall energy performance of these buildings. Some of these actions include- individualized tenant billing and energy forecasting, benchmarking, identifying energy conservation measures, measurement and verification.

  7. Smart Meter Data Analytics: Systems, Algorithms and Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Golab, Lukasz; Golab, Wojciech;

    2016-01-01

    the proposed benchmark using five representative platforms: a traditional numeric computing platform (Matlab), a relational DBMS with a built-in machine learning toolkit (PostgreSQL/MADlib), a main-memory column store (“System C”), and two distributed data processing platforms (Hive and Spark/Spark Streaming......Smart electricity meters have been replacing conventional meters worldwide, enabling automated collection of fine-grained (e.g., every 15 minutes or hourly) consumption data. A variety of smart meter analytics algorithms and applications have been proposed, mainly in the smart grid literature......). We compare the five platforms in terms of application development effort and performance on a multicore machine as well as a cluster of 16 commodity servers....

  8. Field tests of a tissue-equivalent beta survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, D.E.; Johnson, L.O.; Rich, B.L.; Daniel, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent survey meter for monitoring the (dD/dt)(0.07) and (dD/dt)(10) dose rates produced by betas and photons has been designed and tested. The very thin tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator closely simulates the critical skin tissue layer between 4 mg.cm/sup -2/ and 9 mg.cm/sup -2/. The meter is calibrated to read the (dD/dt)(0.07) dose rate directly, and the (dD/dt)(10) dose rate behind a filter. Laboratory measurements of calibrated sources and field tests have demonstrated tissue-equivalent response of the survey meter to betas between 70 keV and 2500 keV and to photons with energies greater than about 30 keV.

  9. A microcomputer based system for current-meter data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting current measurements as part of an interdisciplinary study of the San Francisco Bay estuarine system. The current meters used in the study record current speed, direction, temperature, and conductivity in digital codes on magnetic tape cartridges. Upon recovery of the current meters, the data tapes are translated by a tape reader into computer codes for further analyses. Quite often the importance of the data processing phase of a current-measurement program is underestimated and downplayed. In this paper a data-processing system which performs the complete data processing and analyses is described. The system, which is configured around an LSI-11 microcomputer, has been assembled to provide the capabilities of data translation, reduction, and tabulation and graphical display immediately following recovery of current meters. The flexibility inherent in a microcomputer has made it available to perform many other research functions which would normally be done on an institutional computer.

  10. Apparatus for metering the angle of inclination of construction projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaripov, M.F.; Kovshov, G.N.; Lavrov, B.V.

    1980-08-30

    A design is submitted for an apparatus to be used in metering the inclination angle of construction projects such as wells. This apparatus consists of a hinged universal joint, both internal and external frames, a pendulum with a ferromagnetic probe mounted on the internal frame, two sources for the formation of a controlled magnetic field, magnetic posts which are in-line with the frame axis, and a conversion-metering circuit. A two-phase current generator is mounted on the external frame and a ferromagnetic probe is placed at a 45-degree angle to the rotation axis for the internal frame, perpendicular to the vertical posts. Such a configuration serves to improve the metering accuracy by removing error and instability in the magnetic field source current.

  11. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilguun, Amarsaikhan, E-mail: bilguun@pes.ee.tut.ac.jp; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi, E-mail: takikawa@ee.tut.ac.jp [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Habarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Tanoue, Hideto [Kitakyushu National College of Technology, 5-20-1, Kokuraminami, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-0985 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD.

  12. Design of a Calibration System for Heat Flux Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpino, F.; Dell'Isola, M.; Ficco, G.; Iacomini, L.; Fernicola, V.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate heat flux measurements are needed to gain a better knowledge of the thermal performance of buildings and to evaluate the heat exchange among various parts of a building envelope. Heat flux meters (HFMs) are commonly used both in laboratory applications and in situ for measuring one-dimensional heat fluxes and, thus, estimating the thermal transmittance of material samples and existing buildings components. Building applications often requires heat flux measurements below 100 W · m-2. However, a standard reference system generating such a low heat flux is available only in a few national metrology institutes (NMIs). In this work, a numerical study aimed at designing an HFM calibration apparatus operating in the heat flux range from 5 W·m-2 to 100 W · m-2 is presented. Predictions about the metrological performance of such a calibration system were estimated by numerical modeling exploiting a commercial FEM code (COMSOL®). On the basis of the modeling results, an engineered design of such an apparatus was developed and discussed in detail. The system was designed for two different purposes: (i) for measuring the thermal conductivity of insulators and (ii) for calibrating an HFM with an absolute method (i.e., by measuring the applied power from the heater and its active cross section) or by a relative method (i.e., by measuring the temperature drop across a reference material of known thickness and thermal conductivity). The numerical investigations show that in order to minimize the uncertainty of the generated heat flux, a fine temperature control on the thermal guard is needed. The predicted standard uncertainty is within 2% at 10W·m-2 and within 0.5% at 100 W · m-2.

  13. Pharmaceutical Product Development: Intranasal Scopolamine (INSCOP) Metered Dose Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Crady, Camille; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Motion sickness (MS) has been a problem associated with space flight, the modern military and commercial air and water transportation for many years. Clinical studies have shown that scopolamine is the most effective medication for the prevention of motion sickness (Dornhoffer et al, 2004); however, the two most common methods of administration (transdermal and oral) have performance limitations that compromise its utility. Intranasal administration offers a noninvasive treatment modality, and has been shown to counter many of the problems associated with oral and transdermal administration. With the elimination of the first pass effect by the liver, intranasal delivery achieves higher and more reliable bioavailability than an equivalent oral dose. This allows for the potential of enhanced efficacy at a reduced dose, thus minimizing the occurrence of untoward side effects. An Intranasal scopolamine (INSCOP) gel formulation was prepared and tested in four ground-based clinical trials under an active Investigational New Drug (IND) application with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Although there were early indicators that the intranasal gel formulation was effective, there were aspects of formulation viscosity and the delivery system that were less desirable. The INSCOP gel formulation has since been reformulated into an aqueous spray dosage form packaged in a precise, metered dose delivery system; thereby enhancing dose uniformity, increased user satisfaction and palatability, and a potentially more rapid onset of action. Recent reports of new therapeutic indications for scopolamine has prompted a wide spread interest in new scopolamine dosage forms. The novel dosage form and delivery system of INSCOP spray shows promise as an effective treatment for motion sickness targeted at the armed forces, spaceflight, and commercial sea, air, and space travel markets, as well as prospective psychotherapy for mental and emotional disorders.

  14. Development and Evaluation of an Ultrasonic Groundwater Seepage Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, R. J.; Smith, C. F.; O'Rourke, D.; Wong, T.; Bokuniewicz, H.

    2001-05-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge can influence significantly the near-shore transport and flux of chemicals into the oceans. Quantification of the sources and rates of such discharge requires a groundwater seepage meter that provides continuous measurements at high resolution over an extended period of time. An ultrasonic flow meter has been adapted for such measurements in the submarine environment. Connected to a steel collection funnel, the meter houses two piezoelectric transducers mounted at opposite ends of a cylindrical flow tube. By monitoring the perturbations of fluid flow on the propagation of sound waves inside the flow tube, the ultrasonic meter can measure both forward and reverse fluid flows in real time. Laboratory and field calibrations show that the ultrasonic meter can resolve groundwater discharges on the order of 0.1 μ m/s, and it is sufficiently robust for deployment in the field for several days. Data from West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, New York elucidate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of submarine groundwater discharge and its interplay with tidal loading. A negative correlation between the discharge and tidal elevation was generally observed. A methodology was also developed whereby data for the sound velocity as a function of temperature can be used to infer the salinity and source of the submarine discharge. Independent measurements of electrical conductance were performed to validate this methodology. This meter has also been deployed as part of an international groundwater seepage intercomparison experiment with Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) / Land-Ocean Interaction in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Working Group 112. Results are in good agreement with other methodologies developed to quantify submarine groundwater discharge.

  15. Optimal leaf positions for chlorophyll meter measurement in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofeng eYuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter is one of the most commonly used diagnostic tools to measure crop nitrogen status. However, the measurement method of the meter could significantly affect the accuracy of the final estimation. Thus, this research was undertaken to develop a new methodology to optimize SPAD meter measurements in rice (Oryza sativa L.. A flatbed color scanner was used to map the dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes. Calculus algorithm was adopted to estimate the potential positions for SPAD meter measurement along the leaf blade. Data generated by the flatbed color scanner and SPAD meter were analysed simultaneously. The results suggested that a position 2/3 of the distance from the leaf base to the apex (2/3 position could represent the chlorophyll content of the entire leaf blade, as indicated by the relatively low variance of measurements at that positon. SPAD values based on di-positional leaves and the extracted chlorophyll a and b contents were compared. This comparison showed that the 2/3 position on the lower leaves tended to be more sensitive to changes in chlorophyll content. Finally, the 2/3 position and average SPAD values of the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top were compared with leaf nitrogen concentration. The results showed the 2/3 position on that leaf was most suitable for predicting the nitrogen status of rice. Based on these results, we recommend making SPAD measurements at the 2/3 position on the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top. The coupling of dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes information can provide a promising approach for the calibration of SPAD meter measurement, which can further benefit the in situ nitrogen management by providing reliable estimation of crops nitrogen nutrition status.

  16. Attacks and their Defenses for Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lighari, Sheeraz Niaz; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    The smart grid is the digitized, modernized, updated version of archaic traditional electric grid. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is an imperative part of the smart grid. It has replaced legacy metering, as it reports the energy consumption to the utility automatically through communication...... is a very important concern to take real advantage of this technology. In this paper, first we analyze the security threats faced by AMI components and then propose the countermeasures to tackle them. The aim is to visualize the possible threats in the context of confidentiality, integrity and availability...

  17. A New Method for Optimal Harmonic Meter Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ketabi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a new method based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD is proposed to solve the problem of optimal placement of meters for static estimation of harmonic sources in a power system. Also, the Binary Genetic Algorithm (BGA is used to solve the problem of optimization. IEEE 14-bus test system is provided to validate the measurement placement algorithm. It has been observed that the quality of estimation is improved and the Number of Observable Variable (NOV is increased. Moreover, the BGA-based meter placement strategy yields the same solution as obtained from the complete enumeration technique but in shorter time.

  18. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S. [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J. [Helsinki Energy Board (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In this chapter the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customers or their automation systems. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems it is possible to go there with a portable quality meter that is suitable for the case and inspect the situation. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This article also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter. Dynamic tariffs and free electricity markets require two way communication with the utility and the customer and measurement of the time variations of the energy consumption. The customers or their energy management system must receive the energy prices from the utility and calculate the energy costs and decide upon the energy consumption control actions. Some alternative ways to meet these customer interface requirements are compared. Remote reading of kWh-meters requires a certain investment in meters and their data communication with the utility. Because smart meters can have some additional memory and calculating capacity and are capable of measuring various electric quantities, it is possible to share the costs with other applications that use the same hardware and data

  19. Thermal emissivity analysis of a GEMINI 8-meter telescopes design

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The GEMINI 8-meter Telescopes Project is designing twin 8-meter telescopes to be located in Hawaii and Chile. The GEMINI telescopes will have interchangeable secondary mirrors for use in the visible and IR. The APART/PADE program is being used to evaluate the effective IR emissivity of the IR configuration plus enclosure as a function of mirror contamination at three IR wavelengths. The goal is to design a telescope whose effective IR emissivity is no more than 2 percent when the mirrors are clean.

  20. Current meter and temperature profile data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from 10 September 1970 - 27 October 1980 (NODC Accession 8600320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using moored current meter - PCM casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from September 10, 1970 to October...

  1. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific (limit - 180) from 12 June 1992 - 20 June 1994 (NODC Accession 9700237)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific (limit - 180) from June 12, 1992 to June 20, 1994. Data were submitted by...

  2. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of California from 12 April 1981 - 01 April 1983 (NODC Accession 8400159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of California from April 12, 1981 to April 1, 1983. Data were submitted by...

  3. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminov, Ildar; Tarasova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Tatyana; Avazov, Artur

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  4. Look at the Beat, Feel the Meter:Top-down Effects of Meter Induction on Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eCelma-Miralles

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated top-down effects on meter induction in the auditory modality. However, little is known about these effects in the visual domain, especially without the involvement of motor acts such as tapping. In the present study, we aim to assess whether the projection of meter on auditory beats is also present in the visual domain. We asked sixteen musicians to internally project binary (i.e. a strong-weak pattern and ternary (i.e. a strong-weak-weak pattern meter onto separate, but analogue, visual and auditory isochronous stimuli. Participants were presented with sequences of tones or blinking circular shapes (i.e. flashes at 2.4 Hz while their electrophysiological responses were recorded. A frequency analysis of the elicited steady-state evoked potentials allowed us to compare the frequencies of the beat (2.4 Hz, its first harmonic (4.8 Hz, the binary subharmonic (1.2 Hz, and ternary subharmonic (0.8 Hz within and across modalities. Taking the amplitude spectra into account, we observed an enhancement of the amplitude at 0.8 Hz in the ternary condition for both modalities, suggesting meter induction across modalities. There was an interaction between modality and voltage at 2.4 and 4.8 Hz. Looking at the power spectra, we also observed significant differences from zero in the auditory, but not in the visual, binary condition at 1.2 Hz. These findings suggest that meter processing is modulated by top-down mechanisms that interact with our perception of rhythmic events and that such modulation can also be found in the visual domain. The reported cross-modal effects of meter may shed light on the origins of our timing mechanisms, partially developed in primates and allowing humans to synchronize across modalities accurately.

  5. iPhysioMeter: a smartphone photoplethysmograph for measuring various physiological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kenta; Rolfe, Peter; Yamakoshi, Takehiro

    2015-01-01

    iPhysioMeter is a new smartphone application ("App") for the Apple iPhone and iPod touch that allows photoplethysmography (PPG) to be implemented without the need for any additional devices. The resulting signal, the photoplethysmogram, allows the calculation of basic but valuable and frequently used physiological indices such as heart rate (HR) and pulse volume (PV). The design of iPhysioMeter has very much been influenced by a consideration of usability, as is immediately evident from ones first experience with it. However, its apparent simplicity in use should not disguise the need for correct operation, which otherwise might lead to collection of invalid or inaccurate data. There are several unexpected pitfalls that might not only produce inaccurate values, but, under some circumstances, could also damage the device or present a hazard to the user or subject. We therefore describe here, firstly, the core technology that makes it possible to perform PPG and to calculate HR and normalized PV (NPV) from the photoplethysmogram using only a smartphone, secondly, the correct and optimum methods and procedures for using iPhysioMeter that will help to ensure safety and the derivation of valid data under real operational conditions. We hope that these descriptions will help facilitate any activities related to physiological measurement when using only a smartphone.

  6. 100-Meter Resolution Land Cover of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains land cover data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The land cover data were derived from...

  7. 100-Meter Resolution Land Cover of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains land cover data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The land cover data were derived from...

  8. Hoku Kea - Educational 1meter Telescope on Mauna Kea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, John; Fox, R.

    2008-03-01

    Hoku Ke'a is the newest (and smallest) telescope to join the pantheon of great telescopes on Mauna Kea. A one-meter class telescope will be installed at the current site of the University of Hawaii - Manoa (UHM) Institute for Astronomy (IfA) 0.6-meter (24") telescope. The building and dome will be replaced with a similar sized facility and a 0.9-meter (36") reflector installed. Equinox Interscience of Golden Colorado is the manufacturer and installer. Operated by the University of Hawaii - Hilo (UHH), this 0.9 meter reflector will be a remotely operated facility solely dedicated to teaching undergraduate astronomy majors the skills and practices of observational astronomy. This is in contrast to all other observatories on Mauna Kea, where research opportunities to select user communities are made available. Learning by doing: Students (under UHH faculty direction) will perform research on a variety of sources, such as variable stars, supernovae, asteroids, etc. Incorporation of the telescope into the academic curriculum is currently underway, making the telescope a central focus of most of the courses offered by the UHH Department of Physics and Astronomy. Collaborations and instrument sharing with other institutions will be available, as well as time-sharing arrangements. We would like to acknowledge and thank the National Science Foundation for its support and funding of this project.

  9. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT): An International Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gary H. Sanders

    2013-06-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be the first truly global ground-based optical/infrared observatory. It will initiate the era of extremely large (30-meter class) telescopes with diffraction limited performance from its vantage point in the northern hemisphere on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA. The astronomy communities of India, Canada, China, Japan and the USA are shaping its science goals, suite of instrumentation and the system design of the TMT observatory. With large and open Nasmyth-focus platforms for generations of science instruments, TMT will have the versatility and flexibility for its envisioned 50 years of forefront astronomy. The TMT design employs the filled-aperture finely-segmented primary mirror technology pioneered with the W.M. Keck 10-meter telescopes. With TMT’s 492 segments optically phased, and by employing laser guide star assisted multi-conjugate adaptive optics, TMT will achieve the full diffraction limited performance of its 30-meter aperture, enabling unprecedented wide field imaging and multi-object spectroscopy. The TMT project is a global effort of its partners with all partners contributing to the design, technology development, construction and scientific use of the observatory. TMT will extend astronomy with extremely large telescopes to all of its global communities.

  10. Performance evaluation of cognitive radio in advanced metering infrastructure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Yik-Kuan; Mohd Aripin, Norazizah; Din, Norashidah Md

    2016-03-01

    Smart grid is an intelligent electricity grid system. A reliable two-way communication system is required to transmit both critical and non-critical smart grid data. However, it is difficult to locate a huge chunk of dedicated spectrum for smart grid communications. Hence, cognitive radio based communication is applied. Cognitive radio allows smart grid users to access licensed spectrums opportunistically with the constraint of not causing harmful interference to licensed users. In this paper, a cognitive radio based smart grid communication framework is proposed. Smart grid framework consists of Home Area Network (HAN) and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), while AMI is made up of Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN). In this paper, the authors only report the findings for AMI communication. AMI is smart grid domain that comprises smart meters, data aggregator unit, and billing center. Meter data are collected by smart meters and transmitted to data aggregator unit by using cognitive 802.11 technique; data aggregator unit then relays the data to billing center using cognitive WiMAX and TV white space. The performance of cognitive radio in AMI communication is investigated using Network Simulator 2. Simulation results show that cognitive radio improves the latency and throughput performances of AMI. Besides, cognitive radio also improves spectrum utilization efficiency of WiMAX band from 5.92% to 9.24% and duty cycle of TV band from 6.6% to 10.77%.

  11. Demonstration and Validation of a Fractured Rock Passive Flux Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    FRPFM alcohol tracers. 3.5.1. DATA REQUIREMENTS FRPFM measures of water and contaminant fluxes were compared to measured /calculated fluxes from...Analysis. All samples were analyzed at laboratories at the University of Florida. Volatile organics, including alcohol tracers, were analyzed by...Fractured Rock Passive flux Meter (FRPFM) Figure 32. Measured cumulative water discharge by FRPFM alcohol tracers

  12. Index of Refraction Measurements Using a Laser Distance Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Romulo; Fiorillo, Richard; Ochoa, Cris

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple method to determine the refractive indices of transparent media using a laser distance meter. Indices of refraction have been obtained by measuring the speed of light in materials. Some speed of light techniques use time-of-flight measurements in which pulses are emitted by lasers and the time interval is measured for the pulse…

  13. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reading expenses. 367.9020 Section 367.9020 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading expenses. (a) This account must include the cost of labor, materials used and expenses incurred in...

  14. Comparison of magnetic field meters used for Elf exposure measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, I. [Electricite de France (EDF/RD), 77 - Moret sur Loing (France); Azoulay, A. [Supelec, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Lambrozo, J.; Souques, M. [Gaz de France (EDF/GDF), SEM, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Objective The question of the biological effects of E.L.F. electromagnetic fields (50/60 Hz) has lead to many experimental and epidemiological works, in occupational exposure and in residential exposure. One of the main difficulties is to integrate the maximum of information about the environmental exposures during the everyday life without limitation to the exposure of the home. The objective of this study is to analyse experimentally the metrology associated with human exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field, in the optic of a study of the French population exposure. Method 4 meters were tested: the E.M.D.E.X. II, currently used in epidemiological studies, the E.M.D.E.X. L.I.T.E., which is more recent, the H.T.300, an Italian meter, and the F.D.3, which is made by Combinova A calibration was performed with an Helmoltz coil. The immunity of these meters to GSM signal was also tested. The influence of the sample rate was evaluated. Results and conclusion The meter chosen for performing the measurements of the exposure study will be selected in function of the following criteria: - easiness of use - precision - low sample rate - memory size and reliability of data stocking - immunity to GSM perturbations. (authors)

  15. Photogrammetry research for FAST eleven-meter reflector panel surface shape measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rongwei; Zhu, Lichun; Li, Weimin; Hu, Jingwen; Zhai, Xuebing

    2010-10-01

    In order to design and manufacture the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) active reflector measuring equipment, measurement on each reflector panel surface shape was presented, static measurement of the whole neutral spherical network of nodes was performed, real-time dynamic measurement at the cable network dynamic deformation was undertaken. In the implementation process of the FAST, reflector panel surface shape detection was completed before eleven-meter reflector panel installation. Binocular vision system was constructed based on the method of binocular stereo vision in machine vision, eleven-meter reflector panel surface shape was measured with photogrammetry method. Cameras were calibrated with the feature points. Under the linearity camera model, the lighting spot array was used as calibration standard pattern, and the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters were acquired. The images were collected for digital image processing and analyzing with two cameras, feature points were extracted with the detection algorithm of characteristic points, and those characteristic points were matched based on epipolar constraint method. Three-dimensional reconstruction coordinates of feature points were analyzed and reflective panel surface shape structure was established by curve and surface fitting method. The error of reflector panel surface shape was calculated to realize automatic measurement on reflector panel surface shape. The results show that unit reflector panel surface inspection accuracy was 2.30mm, within the standard deviation error of 5.00mm. Compared with the requirement of reflector panel machining precision, photogrammetry has fine precision and operation feasibility on eleven-meter reflector panel surface shape measurement for FAST.

  16. Commercial building end-use energy metering inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidell, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Reilly, R.W.

    1985-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a comprehensive inventory of end-use metered data. The inventory did not discover many sources of metered end-use data; however, research into existing data bases and extensive discussions with professionals associated with building energy conservation have enabled a clear characterization to be developed of the types of metered data that are required to further energy conservation in commercial buildings. Based on the results of the inventory and this clarification of data requirements, the adequacy of existing data bases has been assessed, and recommendations have been developed for future federal data collection efforts. A summary of sources of existing metered end-use data is provided in Section 2.1 and its adequacy has been summarized. Collection of further end-use metered data is both desirable and valuable for many areas of building energy conservation research. Empirical data are needed to address many issues which to date have been addressed using only simulation techniques. The adequacy of using simulation techniques for various purposes needs to be assessed through comparison with measured data. While these data are expensive to acquire, it is cost-effective to do so in the long run, and the need is not being served by the private market. The preceding conclusion based on results from the inventory of existing data highlights two important facts: First, although the data are widely desired in the private sector, they are not widely available. Second, where suitable data are publicly available and contain the desired supporting information, their collection has generally been funded by government-sponsored research.

  17. Potentials and framework conditions for a comprehensive use of Smart Metering for public utilities; Potentiale und Rahmenbedingungen fuer einen flaechendeckenden Einsatz von Smart Metering fuer Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolka, Thomas [STAWAG Netz GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Dederichs, Thomas; Goedde, Markus; Schnettler, Armin [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochspannungstechnik

    2011-07-01

    The active customer participation in future electricity markets promises new potentials for an optimized control of the consumer behaviour in response to an increasingly volatile, renewable energy based electricity supply. The derivation of necessary incentive systems in future models and technical requirements for an active customer participation requires an mandatory implementation of field tests in order to derive the necessary framework conditions and in order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the technology infrastructure solutions. With this in mind, the authors of the contribution under consideration describe the current requirements for smart metering for public utilities. Opportunities and challenges are discussed. In addition to the identification of the technical and economic framework conditions for public utilities potentials for a technical customer management and load transfer are analyzed based on a probabilistic modeling of household loads and decentralized units of energy conversion.

  18. Improved method to label beta-2 agonists in metered-dose inhalers with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, J.R.; Calcutt, L.E.; Hodder, R.V.; Proulx, A.; Gulenchyn, K.Y. (Ottawa Civic Hospital, Ottawa (Canada). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Respiratory Unit)

    1993-01-01

    Labelling beta-2 agonists in a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with technetium-99m allows imaging of the deposition of the aerosol in the respiratory tract. We have developed an improved labeling method in which anhydrous pertechnetate is dissolved in a small volume of ethanol, diluted with a fluorocarbon, and introduced into a commercial MDI. Imaging the MDI demonstrated that the [sup 99m]Tc was associated with the active ingredient, not just the propellant. The method has been used successfully with salbutamol and fenoterol MDIs and should be directly applicable to other MDIs which contain hydrophilic drugs. (Author).

  19. Dance, Music, Meter and Groove: A Forgotten Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-01-01

    I argue that core aspects of musical rhythm, especially "groove" and syncopation, can only be fully understood in the context of their origins in the participatory social experience of dance. Musical meter is first considered in the context of bodily movement. I then offer an interpretation of the pervasive but somewhat puzzling phenomenon of syncopation in terms of acoustic emphasis on certain offbeat components of the accompanying dance style. The reasons for the historical tendency of many musical styles to divorce themselves from their dance-based roots are also briefly considered. To the extent that musical rhythms only make sense in the context of bodily movement, researchers interested in ecologically valid approaches to music cognition should make a more concerted effort to extend their analyses to dance, particularly if we hope to understand the cognitive constraints underlying rhythmic aspects of music like meter and groove.

  20. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Market Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the chemical monitored. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. To provide emergency responders with information on handheld multi-gas meters, the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted a market survey. This market survey report is based on information gathered between November 2015 and February 2016 from vendors, Internet research, industry publications, an emergency responder focus group, and a government issued Request for Information (RFI) that was posted on the Federal Business Opportunities website.

  1. Dance, Music, Meter and Groove: A Forgotten Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Tecumseh eFitch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available I argue that core aspects of musical rhythm, especially groove and syncopation, can only be fully understood in the context of their origins in the participatory social experience of dance. Musical meter is first considered in the context of bodily movement. I then offer an interpretation of the pervasive but somewhat puzzling phenomenon of syncopation in terms of acoustic emphasis on certain offbeat components of the accompanying dance style. The reasons for the historical tendency of many musical styles to divorce themselves from their dance-based roots are also briefly considered. To the extent that musical rhythms only make sense in the context of bodily movement, researchers interested in ecologically valid approaches to music cognition should make a more concerted effort to extend their analyses to dance, particularly if we hope to understand the cognitive constraints underlying rhythmic aspects of music like meter and groove.

  2. Speed limit and ramp meter control for traffic flow networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goatin, Paola; Göttlich, Simone; Kolb, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The control of traffic flow can be related to different applications. In this work, a method to manage variable speed limits combined with coordinated ramp metering within the framework of the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) network model is introduced. Following a 'first-discretize-then-optimize' approach, the first order optimality system is derived and the switch of speeds at certain fixed points in time is explained, together with the boundary control for the ramp metering. Sequential quadratic programming methods are used to solve the control problem numerically. For application purposes, experimental setups are presented wherein variable speed limits are used as a traffic guidance system to avoid traffic jams on highway interchanges and on-ramps.

  3. Towards Privacy-Preserving Web Metering Via User-Centric Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Alarfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Privacy is a major issue today as more and more users are connecting and participating in the Internet. This paper discusses privacy issues associated with web metering schemes and explores the dilemma of convincing interested parties of the merits of web metering results with sufficient detail, and still preserving users’ privacy. We analyse different categories of web metering schemes using an established privacy guideline and show how web metering can conflict with privacy. We propose a web metering scheme utilising user-centric hardware to provide web metering evidence in an enhanced privacy-preserving manner.

  4. Measuring Groundwater and Contaminant Flux: Passive Flux Meter Field Applications and Issues with Alcohol Degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bondehagen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The passive flux meter (PFM developed at the University of Florida is an innovative device that is inserted into a well in order to measure groundwater and contaminant flux. The in-situ device consists of an activated carbon matrix impregnated with known amounts of alcohols that are desorbed at rates proportional to the groundwater flux through the device. After exposure the sorbent is extracted to quantify the contaminant mass intercepted and the resident alcohol mass remaining. Since the alcohols employed in bioactive sites are degradable, studies were conducted to investigate biodegradation issues and microbial acclimation times in field application. Also, silver-impregnated activated carbon was compared to unamended activated carbon in batch and column studies to determine silver ion effects on degradation. The studies confirm degradation and microbial acclimation occurrence, and demonstrate that silver impregnated activated carbon does inhibit degradation. Issues remain with biofilm/biofouling observed in the field as well as column studies.

  5. Data acquisition and meter unit based in wifi communication protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Cázarez Ayala

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Without doubt, the competitive fast rhythm of the industries is one of the main causes helped bring to the accelerated growth of the electronic technology and the communication. The need to develop new products with a best quality, cheaper and faster as assure and increase the quality of the products in the international markets, requires of new technologies to the metering, monitoring and control of their production processes, of which finality is to improve the processes to guaranteed their products in the market in the less time possible, the best quality and low cost for the final consumer. This work is based in the design and implementation of a Wireless Data Acquisition Unit based in WiFi protocol, which is oriented to meter, monitoring and the control of processes in the industry, commercial and the home automation applications, using one of the wirelessprotocols with the biggest acceptance in the market, with the main objective of to take advantage of the installed physical infrastructure in the place of the application, like industry, company or house. The Unit is based in the RN-131G, a Roving Network company module, which is able to work in stand-alone mode with ultralow power consummation and supporting the IEEE 802.11b/g protocols, in which is possible to achieve transfer rates of up to 11 Mbps and 54 Mbps in /b & /g specifications respectively. Whit this unit is possible to meter up to 5 analogs signals with 14 bits precision and has include a temperature and relative humidity sensors. This unit can meter two digital signals and act mean two digitals outputs, and gas include an USB port for communication and programming tasks.

  6. HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS OF NANO-METER MICROPOROUS ZINC FERRITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling Hu; Ping Guan; Xin Yan

    2004-01-01

    Nano-meter microporous zinc ferrite was prepared by a hydrothermal method, using triethylamine as a template. Adsorption curves showed that the product had a microporous structure. The effects of precursor pH, reaction temperature and reaction time on the preparation were studied, yielding optimal conditions: pH=11,448 K, 360 min. The morphology of zinc ferrite as observed by TEM, showed that zinc ferrite was well-crystallized and well-dispersed with little conglomeration.

  7. Optimized Information Transmission Scheduling Strategy Oriented to Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Weiming Tong; Xianji Jin; Lei Lu

    2013-01-01

    Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is considered to be the first step in constructing smart grid. AMI allows customers to make real-time choices about power utilization and enables power utilities to increase the effectiveness of the regional power grids by managing demand load during peak times and reducing unneeded power generation. These initiatives rely heavily on the prompt information transmission inside AMI. Aiming at the information transmission problem, this paper researches the ...

  8. 32 Meter Radio Telescopes in the Arabian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M.

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents the importance of building two new radio telescopes of diameter 32 meters to work in the frequency range from 1.4 to 43 GHz, one in the South of Egypt (Abu-Simbel), and the other in the South of the Arabian Peninsula. Both telescopes would be of great interest for the International Radio Astronomy Community from the beginning, especially for EVN.

  9. Lessons learnt from mining meter data of residential consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Blazakis, K; Davarzani, S; G. Stavrakakis; Pisica, I

    2016-01-01

    Tracking end-users' usage patterns can enable more accurate demand forecasting and the automation of demand response execution. Accordingly, more advanced applications, such as electricity market design, integration of distributed generation and theft detection can be developed. By employing data mining techniques on smart meter recordings, the suppliers can efficiently investigate the load patterns of consumers. This paper presents applications where data mining of energy usage can derive us...

  10. Development of geo-electrical meter based on networking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan-wei; ZHAO Jia-liu

    2008-01-01

    Further development of earthquake equipments is closely associated with that of computer technology. Because Embedded PC104 module has the equivalent functions of PC, it has been widely used in recent years, and can provide a new and flexible hardware design environment, but its applications in observation instruments of earthquake precursor are rare. The present paper introduces in detail the realization of a networked geo-electrical meter by applying the low price, high reliability embedded PC 104 industrial computer.

  11. PELATIHAN LARI INTERVAL 4 X 50 METER DI PANTAI BERPASIR LEBIH MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN LARI 100 METER DARIPADA PELATIHAN LARI INTERVAL 4 X 50 METER DI LAPANGAN PADA SISWA KELAS XSMK N KAKULUK MESAK NTT.

    OpenAIRE

    Benediktus Nahak; Alex Pangkahila; Susy Purnawati

    2014-01-01

    The speed is one of the biomotoriccomponents which dominantin the run race100 meters. 100 meters run is part of athletics which has a short duration, highintensity and anaerobic systems develop. The purpose of this study was todetermine the increasing of 100 meter run speed, therefore this research is anexperimental study was conducted in SMK N Kakulukmesak Belu regency NTT,for 6 months from March - May 2014, with the frequency of exercise 3 times aweek. This study uses two types of training,...

  12. Comprehensive Flow Meter for All Materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-15

    The electromagnetic flowmeter is obstructionless and insensitive to the metered stuff's constitutive properties. For low zero-point drift, EM flowmeters employ a low frequency alternating induction, usually with square waveshape. With conventional signal conditioning, high frequency induction leads to excessive zero-point drift for the instrument. The conventional instrument is usable with electrically conductive fluids, where there is no triboelectric noise. Nonconductive fluids have substantial triboelectric noise, with spectral density experimentally measured to be f{sup {minus}2.6}. Here we use an electromagnet and signal conditioner that allows high frequency induction, where the noise is low, but eliminates the heretofore excessive drift--such that the EM flowmeter can be used to meter any stuff, whether conductive or insulating, that can be pumped, blown or extruded through a pipe. Designs and test hardware are shown. An injury occurred, with slow recovery: the principal investigator could not do all the flow test stand work desired. As an option, the flow testing has been simulated on a computer. Using characteristics of transformer oil as the metered fluid, the new signal conditioner has produced: (1) signal/noise/drift behavior experienced in prior published work, and (2) signal--without noise and drift--with performance of today's commercial EM flowmeters.

  13. Unlocking the potential for efficiency and demand response throughadvanced metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Roger; Herter, Karen; Wilson, John

    2004-06-30

    Reliance on the standard cumulative kilowatt-hour meter substantially compromises energy efficiency and demand response programs. Without advanced metering, utilities cannot support time-differentiated rates or collect the detailed customer usage information necessary to (1)educate the customer to the economic value of efficiency and demand response options, or (2) distribute load management incentives proportional to customer contribution. These deficiencies prevent the customer feedback mechanisms that would otherwise encourage economically sound demand-side investments and behaviors. Thus, the inability to collect or properly price electricity usage handicaps the success of almost all efficiency and demand response options. Historically, implementation of the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) necessary for the successful efficiency and demand response programs has been prevented by inadequate cost-benefit analyses. A recent California effort has produced an expanded cost-effectiveness methodology for AMI that introduces previously excluded benefits. In addition to utility-centric costs and benefits, the new model includes qualitative and quantitative costs and benefits that accrue to both customers and society.

  14. Accidental Cutaneous Burns Secondary to Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  15. Variable classifications of glycemic index determined by glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Hsueh Amanda; Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Jenshinn

    2010-07-01

    THE STUDY EVALUATED AND COMPARED THE DIFFERENCES OF GLUCOSE RESPONSES, INCREMENTAL AREA UNDER CURVE (IAUC), GLYCEMIC INDEX (GI) AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF GI VALUES BETWEEN MEASURED BY BIOCHEMICAL ANALYZER (FUJI AUTOMATIC BIOCHEMISTRY ANALYZER (FAA)) AND THREE GLUCOSE METERS: Accue Chek Advantage (AGM), BREEZE 2 (BGM), and Optimum Xceed (OGM). Ten healthy subjects were recruited for the study. The results showed OGM yield highest postprandial glucose responses of 119.6 +/- 1.5, followed by FAA, 118.4 +/- 1.2, BGM, 117.4 +/- 1.4 and AGM, 112.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl respectively. FAA reached highest mean IAUC of 4156 +/- 208 mg x min/dl, followed by OGM (3835 +/- 270 mg x min/dl), BGM (3730 +/- 241 mg x min/dl) and AGM (3394 +/- 253 mg x min/dl). Among four methods, OGM produced highest mean GI value than FAA (87 +/- 5) than FAA, followed by BGM and AGM (77 +/- 1, 68 +/- 4 and 63 +/- 5, pOGM are more variable methods to determine IAUC, GI and rank GI value of food than FAA. The present result does not necessarily apply to other glucose meters. The performance of glucose meter to determine GI value of food should be evaluated and calibrated before use.

  16. Broadband PLC for Clustered Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Ikpehai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI subsystems monitor and control energy distribution through exchange of information between smart meters and utility networks. A key challenge is how to select a cost-effective communication system without compromising the performance of the applications. Current communication technologies were developed for conventional data networks with different requirements. It is therefore necessary to investigate how much of existing communication technologies can be retrofitted into the new energy infrastructure to cost-effectively deliver acceptable level of service. This paper investigates broadband power line communications (BPLC as a backhaul solution in AMI. By applying the disparate traffic characteristics of selected AMI applications, the network performance is evaluated. This study also examines the communication network response to changes in application configurations in terms of packet sizes. In each case, the network is stress-tested and performance is assessed against acceptable thresholds documented in the literature. Results show that, like every other communication technology, BPLC has certain limitations; however, with some modifications in the network topology, it indeed can fulfill most AMI traffic requirements for flexible and time-bounded applications. These opportunities, if tapped, can significantly improve fiscal and operational efficiencies in AMI services. Simulation results also reveal that BPLC as a backhaul can support flat and clustered AMI structures with cluster size ranging from 1 to 150 smart meters.

  17. Long Term Stability of Coriolis Flow Meters: DESY experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, T.; Bozhko, Y.; Escherich, K.; Petersen, B.; Putselyk, S.; Schnautz, T.; Sellmann, D.; Zhirnov, A.

    2017-02-01

    The measurement of coolant flow is important operational parameter for reliable operation of cryogenic system with superconducting magnets or cavities as well as for the system diagnostics in case of non-steady-state operation, e.g. during cool-down/warm-up or other transients. Proper flowmeter is chosen according to the different parameters, e.g. turn-down, operating temperature range, leak-tightness, pressure losses, long-term stability, etc. For helium cryogenics, the Venturi tube or Orifice, as well as Coriolis flow meters are often applied. For the present time, the orifices are usually used due to their simplicity and low costs, however, low turn-down range, large pressure drop, restriction of flow area, susceptibility to thermoacoustic oscillations limit their useful operation range. Operational characteristics of Venturi tubes is substantially improved in comparison to orifices, however, relative high costs and susceptibility to thermoacoustic oscillations still limit their application to special cases. The Coriolis flow meters do not have typical drawbacks of Venturi tube and orifices, however long-term stability over many years was not demonstrated yet. This paper describes the long-term behaviour of Coriolis flow meters after many years of operation at AMTF and XMTS facilities.

  18. Investigation of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies for Systems with Over Centre Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Rico Hjerm;

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally most mobile hydraulic systems are fitted with over centre valves for safety measures. However, it is a well known that over centre valves in combination with flow control valves may lead to oscillatory and unstable system behaviour if not designed correctly. There are several means...... to overcome this problem, but it typically implies higher energy consumption and/or decreased control performance. With the development of robust sensors and new valve types with separate meter-in, separate meter-out control it is, however, possible to overcome these stability problems in a much more......-centre valve included. The paper first presents a general model of the system considered, which is experimentally verified. This is followed by a discussion of different control strategies and their implications. For each of the control strategies controllers are described, taking into account the dynamics...

  19. Inter-comparison between Aanderaa and Potok current meters deployed during INDEX programme

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Pednekar, S.M.; Vethamony, P.

    of currents for seven consecutive 10-day ensembles of both Aanderaa and Potok current meters revealed the presence of a meridional flow, with both the Aanderaa and Potok current meters generally showing the identical ensemble averaged northerly/ southerly...

  20. Smart Metering in public utilities at Celle; In Celle spielt die (Zukunfts-) Musik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiede, Ingo; Gottschling, Florian; Luckhardt, Sina [EVB Energie AG, Velbert (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Public utilities at Celle have start-up a pilot project to introduce Smart Metering. Presented is the system Meterus of EVB Energie AG by which meter data of power meters can be registered automatically during short time intervals and transmitted via the power grid. It is possible to integrate four meters in the system by the RF system ''M-bus RF receiver E''. (GL)

  1. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminov Ildar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  2. Status of Net Metering: Assessing the Potential to Reach Program Caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Gelman, R.; Bird, L.

    2014-09-01

    Several states are addressing the issue of net metering program caps, which limit the total amount of net metered generating capacity that can be installed in a state or utility service territory. In this analysis, we examine net metering caps to gain perspective on how long net metering will be available in various jurisdictions under current policies. We also surveyed state practices and experience to understand important policy design considerations.

  3. Status of Net Metering: Assessing the Potential to Reach Program Caps (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.; Gelman, R.

    2014-10-01

    Several states are addressing the issue of net metering program caps, which limit the total amount of net metered generating capacity that can be installed in a state or utility service territory. In this analysis, we examine net metering caps to gain perspective on how long net metering will be available in various jurisdictions under current policies. We also surveyed state practices and experience to understand important policy design considerations.

  4. Effect of meter-scale heterogeneities inside 67P nucleus on CONSERT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarletti, Valérie; Lasue, Jérémie; Lemonnier, Florentin; Kofman, Wlodek; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Herique, Alain; Guiffaut, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    Since their arrival at comet 67P in August 2014, a number of instruments onboard Rosetta's main spacecraft and Philae lander have been observing the surface of the nucleus and revealed details of amazing surficial structures (hundreds of meters deep pits and cliffs, surface roughness of the order of a couple of meters in size, non-continuous apparent layers on both lobes of the comet). After two years of observations, the activity of the comet has also been better constrained, while the origin of sporadic jet activities remains debated. This surficial information is complemented by relevant measurements assessing the nucleus internal structure that have been collected by the CONSERT (Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission) experiment in order to constrain the nucleus formation and evolution.The CONSERT experiment is a bistatic radar with receivers and transmitters on-board both Rosetta's main spacecraft and the Philae lander. The instrument transmits electromagnetic waves at 90 MHz (10 MHz bandwidth) between Philae and Rosetta. The signal propagated through the small lobe of 67P over distances ranging from approximately 200 to 800 meters depending on the spacecraft location and probed a maximum depth of about one hundred meters in the vicinity of the final landing site Abydos. The CONSERT data have been used to obtain an estimate of the permittivity mean value. Thanks to the 10 MHz frequency bandwidth of the signal used by the instrument, a spatial resolution around 10m is obtained inside the sounded volume of the nucleus.In this work, we analyze the effect of internal heterogeneities of 67P on the CONSERT data by simulating the propagation of the signal through a fractal model of the comet interior. We considered for the simulations a range of realistic permittivity values and characteristic sizes of the material heterogeneities. The different parameters values used have an impact on the width of the signal propagating through the modeled

  5. Radio frequency and microwave subsystems section. Dual-frequency feed cone assemblies for 34-meter antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    New Cassegrain cone assemblies were designed for the upgrade of three 26 meter-diameter antennas to 34 meter-diameter with improved performance. The new dual-frequency feed cone (SXD) provided both S- and X-band feed systems and traveling wave masers with a reflex reflector system to permit simultaneous operation analogous to the 64-meter antennas.

  6. Metering Plan: Monitoring Energy and Potable Water Use in PNNL EMS4 Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Jason E.

    2012-07-25

    This Plan presents progress toward the metering goals shared by all national laboratories and discusses PNNL's contemporary approach to the installation of new meters. In addition, the Plan discusses the data analysis techniques with which PNNL is working to mature using endless data streams made available as a result of increased meter deployment.

  7. Downhole multiphase metering in wells by means of soft-sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leskens, M.; Kruif, B. de; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Smeulers, J.P.M.; Gryzlov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Multiphase flow meters are indispensable tools for achieving optimal operation and control of wells as these meters deliver real-time information about their performance. For example, multiphase flow meters located downhole can improve the production of multilateral and multizone wells by timely all

  8. Application of Micro-channel Plate (MCP) in Magnetic Spectra Meter of Hot Electrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The interaction between ultra-short pulse laser and solid target generates hot electrons. Owing to lowenergy of laser (10 J), there are not so many electrons. In order to improve resoling power of spectra meter,the solid angle of spectra meter must be very little. So the number of entering into the meter is very few.

  9. FLUID CHARACTERISTICS OF ROTARY WING HEAT METER WITH SINGLE-CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Guang-sheng; Liu Zheng-gang; LI Li; LIU Yong-hui; MA Yong-kun; MENG Liang

    2008-01-01

    Fluid characteristics of a rotary wing heat meter with single-channel were studied through theretical analysis, numerical simulation and experiments. The obtained results show that the number of vanes can obviously influence the heat meter, but the water temperature seldom influence the meter , and the optimal number of vane is 6-8.

  10. The Spatial Distribution of Thermal Emission from Baghdad Sulcus, Enceladus, at 100 meter Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John R.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Howett, C. J. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Albright, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has been observing endogenic thermal emission from the south pole of Enceladus since 2005. Best spatial resolution from conventional scans is about 1km, usually from distances > 2000 km. When Cassini is closer to Enceladus, the spacecraft cannot rotate fast enough to track the surface, and the 5 seconds required to obtain a CIRS spectrum produces many kilometers of smear. However, higher-resolution mapping can be done from much closer range by exploiting the 20 msec sampling of the CIRS raw interferograms. On April 14th 2012, Cassini made a gravity pass of Enceladus at a range of 74 km. Spacecraft orientation was inertially fixed, and chosen so that the active tiger stripe Baghdad Sulcus passed through the CIRS and VIMS fields of view during the flyby. In the 7 to 17 µm region, CIRS uses linear arrays of ten detectors with IFOV of 0.29 mrad, which were oriented roughly perpendicular to the groundtrack and operated in pairs, giving five cross-track spatial resolution elements, each 43 meters wide. Along-track spatial resolution, defined by the 20 msec interferogram sampling time and the flyby speed of 7.5 km/sec, was 150 meters. At longer wavelengths, CIRS obtained a single-detector scan with a spatial resolution of 300 meters. The brief passage of the intense tiger stripe thermal emission through the field of view produced complex spikes in the CIRS interferograms. Though spectra cannot be reconstructed, we can use knowledge of the interferogram temporal response to reconstruct the time history of the incoming radiation and thus its spatial distribution. The resulting image will map tiger stripe thermal emission along a small part of Baghdad Sulcus at about ten times the spatial resolution of the best previous Cassini thermal images.

  11. Performance of Virtual Current Meters in Hydroelectric Turbine Intakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, Samuel F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Romero-Gomez, Pedro D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Richmond, Marshall C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group

    2016-04-30

    Standards provide recommendations for the best practices in the installation of current meters for measuring fluid flow in closed conduits. These include PTC-18 and IEC-41 . Both of these standards refer to the requirements of the ISO Standard 3354 for cases where the velocity distribution is assumed to be regular and the flow steady. Due to the nature of the short converging intakes of Kaplan hydroturbines, these assumptions may be invalid if current meters are intended to be used to characterize turbine flows. In this study, we examine a combination of measurement guidelines from both ISO standards by means of virtual current meters (VCM) set up over a simulated hydroturbine flow field. To this purpose, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to model the velocity field of a short converging intake of the Ice Harbor Dam on the Snake River, in the State of Washington. The detailed geometry and resulting wake of the submersible traveling screen (STS) at the first gate slot was of particular interest in the development of the CFD model using a detached eddy simulation (DES) turbulence solution. An array of virtual point velocity measurements were extracted from the resulting velocity field to simulate VCM at two virtual measurement (VM) locations at different distances downstream of the STS. The discharge through each bay was calculated from the VM using the graphical integration solution to the velocity-area method. This method of representing practical velocimetry techniques in a numerical flow field has been successfully used in a range of marine and conventional hydropower applications. A sensitivity analysis was performed to observe the effect of the VCM array resolution on the discharge error. The downstream VM section required 11–33% less VCM in the array than the upstream VM location to achieve a given discharge error. In general, more instruments were required to quantify the discharge at high levels of accuracy when the STS was

  12. Ramp Metering by Limitation of Density and Queue Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Boumediene; Benasser, Amar; Jolly, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    As shown by many works and studies, the control of traffic flow remains the best and the efficient solution of the congestion problems. The ramp metering is a means to reduce congestion effects, it has shown his effectiveness to improve the flow and consequently to reduce the total time spent (TTS) by the vehicles in the network. In Kamel et al. [2008] the concept of flatness-based control was applied to regulate the flow at the mainline section of the road on the traffic flow model LWR. This work was preceded by Abouaïssa et al. [2006]. In this article we have proceeded the same way to set the flat output for a second order model METANET. Unfortunately we were unable to prove that the system is flat and therefore define density as flat output, but we manage to define the control laws in order to respect constraints on density and queue length at the on-ramp. The idea is to express the control variable (the outflow of the on-ramp) according to the output (density or queue length at the on-ramp), then inject it in the system. We use this control method in the ramp metering case. The first aim of the control is to keep the density in the segment where the on-ramp is connected below a density (called the target density YT) for which we have the lowest TTS, and the second aim is to keep the queue length at the on-ramp below a maximum value. In order to evaluate the controller's efficiency and applicability, a comparison is made with traditional ALINEA based controller. We illustrate this approach by comparing the cases 'no control' and 'ramp metering' for a simple network.

  13. Compound-taper feedhorn for the DSN 70-meter antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshadi, F.; Hartop, R.

    1987-08-01

    A novel X-band feedhorn was designed for the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-meter antennas. The feedhorn is a compound-taper structure consisting of a corrugated flared section and a corrugated straight section. This feedhorn is designed to closely initiate the characteristics of the standard feedhorn, while providing the proper phase center location, without adding any significant loss to the system. The use of the existing feedhorn and the ease of manufacturing the corrugated straight section have resulted in major overall cost savings.

  14. Methane metering devices and systems for continuous measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gralewski, K.; Krupa, M.

    1982-01-01

    Brief characteristics are presented for the advantages and shortcomings of the existing methane devices and systems developed in the Polish People's Republic, FRG, Great Britain, United States, CSSR and USSR. Among the main requirements made for the modern methane metering devices designed for continuous measurements of methane concentration in the coal mines, requirements such as rapid reaction to the spasmodic change in methane concentration, resistance to contamination of the catalyst, low consumed power etc. are named. Trends are outlined for improvement in the coal industry of the Polish People's Republic.

  15. Smart Grid Security A Smart Meter-Centric Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Yuksel, Ender; Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana

    2012-01-01

    The electricity grid is a key infrastructure for our society, therefore its security is a critical public concern. This physical system is becoming more and more complex as it is coupled with a cyber layer carrying information about power usage and control instructions for intelligent appliances......, leading to what is known as the Smart Grid. The development of this Cyber-Physical System introduces new security issues, thus calling for efforts in studying possible attacks and devising suitable countermeasures. In this paper, we review a generic model for the Smart Grid, and present possible attacks...... and countermeasures focusing on a key component of the Smart Grid: the Smart Meter....

  16. A simplified oil-film skin-friction meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1988-01-01

    The oil-film method of skin friction measurement, which does not require calibration, nevertheless entails that interferometric measurements of the oil film be obtained. The oil-film method is presently simplified by eliminating interferometry and its requisite polished surface, by taking direct and dynamic measurements of the oil-film slope with a small position-sensing photodiode. This technique has undergone verification in incompressible turbulent and laminar flows in flat-plate boundary layers and pipe flows; the meter is judged to be inexpensive, simple, and robust.

  17. The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2001-11-20

    The KFM is a homemade fallout meter that can be made using only materials, tools, and skills found in millions of American homes. It is an accurate and dependable electroscope-capacitor. The KFM, in conjunction with its attached table and a watch, is designed for use as a rate meter. Its attached table relates observed differences in the separations of its two leaves (before and after exposures at the listed time intervals) to the dose rates during exposures of these time intervals. In this manner dose rates from 30 mR/hr up to 43 R/hr can be determined with an accuracy of {+-}25%. A KFM can be charged with any one of the three expedient electrostatic charging devices described. Due to the use of anhydrite (made by heating gypsum from wallboard) inside a KFM and the expedient ''dry-bucket'' in which it can be charged when the air is very humid, this instrument always can be charged and used to obtain accurate measurements of gamma radiation no matter how high the relative humidity. The heart of this report is the step-by-step illustrated instructions for making and using a KFM. These instructions have been improved after each successive field test. The majority of the untrained test families, adequately motivated by cash bonuses offered for success and guided only by these written instructions, have succeeded in making and using a KFM. NOTE: ''The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter'', was published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory report in1979. Some of the materials originally suggested for suspending the leaves of the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM) are no longer available. Because of changes in the manufacturing process, other materials (e.g., sewing thread, unwaxed dental floss) may not have the insulating capability to work properly. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has not tested any of the suggestions provided in the preface of the report, but they have been used by other groups. When using these

  18. The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Pan, Zhichen

    2016-07-01

    The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese megascience project funded by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) of the People's Republic of China. The National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) is in charge of its construction and subsequent operation. Upon its expected completion in September 2016, FAST will surpass the 305 m Arecibo Telescope and the 100 m Green Bank Telescope in terms of absolute sensitivity in the 70 MHz to 3 GHz bands. In this paper, we report on the project, its current status, the key science goals, and plans for early science.

  19. THE MOISTURE METER OF THE DOUGH SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kvasnikov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the article a new method and device of measuring of humidity of semi-finished products isoffered from a test which is based on measuring of free falling time of purveyance from a dough in an airenvironment under the action of gravity. The basic factors of external environment, influencing on humidityof purveyances of tests - pressure and temperature, are marked. By a mathematical design the analysis ofinfluencing of atmospheric pressure and temperature is conducted on humidity of purveyances from thedough.Keywords: humidity meters, oscillation transformer, products from a dough, simulation.

  20. Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring system based on a modern kWh-meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihala, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-01

    Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is a fairly new method to estimate load profiles of individual electric appliances in a small building, like a household, by monitoring the whole load at a single point with one recording device without sub-meters. Appliances have special electrical characteristics, the positive and negative active and reactive power changes during the time they are switched on or off. These changes are called events and are detected with a monitoring device called an event recorder. Different NIALM-concepts developed in Europe and in the United States are generally discussed. The NIALM-concept developed in this study is based on a 3-phase, power quality monitoring kWh-meter and unique load identification algorithms. This modern kWh-meter with a serial data bus to a laptop personal computer is used as die event recorder. The NIALM-concept of this presentation shows for the first time how a kWh-meter can be used at the same time for billing, power quality and appliance end-use monitoring. An essential part of the developed NIALM-system prototype is the software of load identification algorithms which runs in an off-line personal computer. These algorithms are able to identify, with a certain accuracy, both two-state and multi-state appliances. This prototype requires manual-setup in which the naming of appliances is performed. The results of the prototype NIALMS were verified in a large, single family detached house and they were compared to the results of other prototypes in France and the United States, although this comparison is difficult because of different supply systems, appliance stock and number of tested sites. Different applications of NIALM are discussed. Gathering of load research data, verification of DSM-programs, home automation, failure analysis of appliances and security surveillance of buildings are interesting areas of NIALM. Both utilities and customers can benefit from these applications. It is possible to

  1. PELATIHAN LARI INTERVAL 4 X 50 METER DI PANTAI BERPASIR LEBIH MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN LARI 100 METER DARIPADA PELATIHAN LARI INTERVAL 4 X 50 METER DI LAPANGAN PADA SISWA KELAS XSMK N KAKULUK MESAK NTT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benediktus Nahak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The speed is one of the biomotoriccomponents which dominantin the run race100 meters. 100 meters run is part of athletics which has a short duration, highintensity and anaerobic systems develop. The purpose of this study was todetermine the increasing of 100 meter run speed, therefore this research is anexperimental study was conducted in SMK N Kakulukmesak Belu regency NTT,for 6 months from March - May 2014, with the frequency of exercise 3 times aweek. This study uses two types of training, and were divided into two treatmentgroups, ie group one is the training of interval run 4 x 50 meter on the sandybeach 4 reps 3 sets andgroup twois the interval run 4 x 50 meter in the yard 4 reps3 sets, implemented in the afternoon at 15.30 to 17.00 pm in the yard of SMK NKakulukmesak and Atapupu Beach, Belu regency - NTT. Sample was 20 people,chosen simple randomly from a population of 53 people who meet therequirements of inclusion and exclusion. The number of samples for each group is10 people. The speed of 100 meter run was measured using stopwatch, while the100-meter dash speed data before and after training in both groups, were testedwith parametric statistical analysis. With a paired t-test of mean difference testsobtained the 100 meter dash speed after training on each group with p <0.05. Themean speed of 100 meters before training in the group one is 16.06 seconds and13.01 seconds after training. Means increased speed of 3:05 seconds, or at =19:02%. While the average running speed of 100 meters in group two beforetraining is 16.02 seconds and after training is 13.95 seconds, the increasing ofspeed is 12.91%. This shows that the average speed of 100 meters before and aftertraining on each group there is a significant difference, with value p<0.05. Thusthe training of group 1is interval run 4 x 50 meter on the sandy beach and intervaltraining run 4 x 50 meters in the yard, after training is equal to increase the speedof the 100 meterin 10th grade

  2. The one meter shop concept: e-CORCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antikidis, J.-P.; Favier, J.-J.; Jeanjean, H.; Husson, A.

    2008-07-01

    The pressing need for dispatched information anytime anywhere has until now fueled technology and economy beyond any prospect. Needless to recall, mobile telephony success or GPS navigation kits come close to becoming standard equipment for any production cars. Space imagery is in turn close to meeting its "killing application" thanks to the advent of mass geocoded portals of information fully dependent on their ability to show the whole globe to the meter resolution or close for the comfort of the worldwide Intranet community. Space industry is at stake and is facing a new challenge, not only technical but also economical that could be called "the one meter shop". The question now raised is: can we provide a massive and automated representation of the whole Earth with 1-m resolution and on a daily basis? The presentation will introduce the e-CORCE constellation project, and the disruptive technological avenues that are today contemplated for its realization. Based on a three-layer concept associating the virtues of low cost and simplified constellations, advanced decentralized telecom systems and information GRIDs tuned to the need of internauts, the revolutionary e-CORCE project is paving the way for a novel approach, integrating space and Web information handled in a unified shell.

  3. Analysis of wavefront reconstruction in 8 meter ring solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yichun; Jin, Zhenyu

    2016-07-01

    Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) is the next generation infrared and optical solar telescope of China, which is proposed and pushed by the solar astronomy community of China and listed into the National Plans of Major Science and Technology Infrastructures. CGST is currently proposed to be an 8 meter Ring Solar Telescope (RST) with width of 1 meter, the hollow and symmetric structure of such an annular aperture facilitates the thermal control and high precision magnetic field measurement for a solar telescope. Adaptive optics (AO) is an indispensable tool of RST to obtain diffraction limited observations. How to realize AO involved wavefront sensing and correcting, and the degree of compensating in a narrow annular aperture is the primary problem of AO implementation of RST. Wavefront reconstruction involved problems of RST are first investigated and discussed in this paper using end to end simulation based on Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing (SHWFS). The simulation results show that performance of zonal reconstruction with measurement noise no more than 0.05 arc sec can meets the requirement of RST for diffraction-limited imaging at wavelength of 1μm, which satisfies most science cases of RST in near infrared waveband.

  4. Hydro One smart meter/smart grid : realizing the vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Ontario's Hydro One Networks has been installing smart meters as part of its smart grid plan since 2007. The smart grid plan forms part of the utility's overall aim to create an energy conservation culture across the province. The utility now has over 1 million installed meters over a 640,000{sup 2} km territory. The smart grid planning team has adopted the use of an upgraded open protocol standards-based communications as part of its 2-way high bandwidth network. The utility is using a 1.8 Ghz worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) spectrum designed specifically for the protection of electric utility infrastructure. The utility is now incorporating proof-of-concept applications including automated reclosers, remote terminal units, demand management devices and mobile technologies for use in its smart grid procedures. Various smart zone business scenarios were also described in this power point presentation, as well as details of Hydro One's integration plans for vendors and other power systems. tabs., figs.

  5. LLNL current meter array--concept and system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantrom, D.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    A measurement capability using a horizontal array of 10 S4 current meters mounted on a stiff floating structure with 35 m aperture has been developed to support interpretation of radar imaging of surface effects associated with internal waves. This system has been fielded three times and most recently, has collected data alongside the sea-surface footprint of a land-fixed radar imaging ship-generated internal waves. The underlying need for this measurement capability is described. The specifications resulting from this need are presented and the engineering design and deployment procedures of the platform and systems that resulted are described The current meter data are multiplexed along with meteorological and system status data on board the floating platform and are telemetered to a shore station and on to a data acquisition system. The raw data are recorded, and are then processed to form space-time images of current and strain rate (a spatial derivative of the current field). Examples of raw and processed data associated with ship-generated internal waves are presented.

  6. The Thirty-Meter Telescope project design and development phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Larry M.; Strom, Stephen E.

    2004-07-01

    The U.S. National Observatories have responded to the call of the astronomy decadal survey committee to develop a Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope by forming the AURA New Initiatives Office. Drawing on the engineering and scientific staffs of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory and the Gemini Observatory, NIO has for the past 30 months carried out studies aimed at: understanding the key science drivers for a thirty-meter telescope; developing a feasible point design that is responsive to the science goals; and identifying key technical issues that must be solved in order to successfully build such a telescope. In parallel, NIO has followed the charge of the decadal survey to identify potential private and international partners to fulfill the committee vision of a public-private partnership to build and operate this facility. NIO has now joined with two other groups -- the CELT Development Corporation (a partnership between the University of California and the California Institute of Technology) and the Association of Canadian Unviersities for Research In Astronomy (ACURA) -- to initiate the next step, the design & development (D & D) phase of a joint project that is being called the Thirty-Meter Telescope (TMT) Project. This paper reviews the plans for the TMT D & D phase, including the organizational structure, science requirements, and plans for conceptual design studies, technology development, and site selection.

  7. Meter scale plasma source for plasma wakefield experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Shaw, J. L.; Marsh, K. A.; Joshi, C.; Hogan, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    High accelerating gradients generated by a high density electron beam moving through plasma has been used to double the energy of the SLAC electron beam [1]. During that experiment, the electron current density was high enough to generate its own plasma without significant head erosion. In the newly commissioned FACET facility at SLAC, the peak current will be lower and without pre-ionization, head erosion will be a significant challenge for the planned experiments. In this work we report on our design of a meter scale plasma source for these experiments to effectively avoid the problem of head erosion. The plasma source is based on a homogeneous metal vapor gas column that is generated in a heat pipe oven [2]. A lithium oven over 30 cm long at densities over 1017 cm-3 has been constructed and tested at UCLA. The plasma is then generated by coupling a 10 TW short pulse Ti:Sapphire laser into the gas column using an axicon lens setup. The Bessel profile of the axicon setup creates a region of high intensity that can stretch over the full length of the gas column with approximately constant diameter. In this region of high intensity, the alkali metal vapor is ionized through multi-photon ionization process. In this manner, a fully ionized meter scale plasma of uniform density can be formed. Methods for controlling the plasma diameter and length will also be discussed.

  8. Meter scale plasma source for plasma wakefield experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Shaw, J. L.; Marsh, K. A.; Joshi, C.; Hogan, M. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    High accelerating gradients generated by a high density electron beam moving through plasma has been used to double the energy of the SLAC electron beam [1]. During that experiment, the electron current density was high enough to generate its own plasma without significant head erosion. In the newly commissioned FACET facility at SLAC, the peak current will be lower and without pre-ionization, head erosion will be a significant challenge for the planned experiments. In this work we report on our design of a meter scale plasma source for these experiments to effectively avoid the problem of head erosion. The plasma source is based on a homogeneous metal vapor gas column that is generated in a heat pipe oven [2]. A lithium oven over 30 cm long at densities over 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} has been constructed and tested at UCLA. The plasma is then generated by coupling a 10 TW short pulse Ti:Sapphire laser into the gas column using an axicon lens setup. The Bessel profile of the axicon setup creates a region of high intensity that can stretch over the full length of the gas column with approximately constant diameter. In this region of high intensity, the alkali metal vapor is ionized through multi-photon ionization process. In this manner, a fully ionized meter scale plasma of uniform density can be formed. Methods for controlling the plasma diameter and length will also be discussed.

  9. Metering, settlement and export reward options for micro-generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme to evaluate the costs and benefits of various metering, settlement and export reward opportunities for both renewable and non-renewable forms of microgeneration based on existing projections to 2020. The technologies studied included single and three-phase applications of: solar photovoltaic (rated at 1 kW per installation); small-scale wind generation (rated at 1 kW per installation); micro-CHP (combined heat and power) (rated at 1.1 kW per installation); and micro-hydropower (rated at 3.7 and 6.4 kW per installation). The report outlines a number of different options for metering, settlement and export rewards, and describes the development of an economic model to quantify their costs and benefits. This model is then used to predict the future costs and benefits of the various options. The potential value of the options to the UK economy and any environmental benefits are discussed and a commentary on possible barriers to implementation is provided.

  10. Security Challenges in Smart-Grid Metering and Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid is a next-generation power system that is increasingly attracting the attention of government, industry, and academia. It is an upgraded electricity network that depends on two-way digital communications between supplier and consumer that in turn give support to intelligent metering and monitoring systems. Considering that energy utilities play an increasingly important role in our daily life, smart-grid technology introduces new security challenges that must be addressed. Deploying a smart grid without adequate security might result in serious consequences such as grid instability, utility fraud, and loss of user information and energy-consumption data. Due to the heterogeneous communication architecture of smart grids, it is quite a challenge to design sophisticated and robust security mechanisms that can be easily deployed to protect communications among different layers of the smart grid-infrastructure. In this article, we focus on the communication-security aspect of a smart-grid metering and control system from the perspective of cryptographic techniques, and we discuss different mechanisms to enhance cybersecurity of the emerging smart grid. We aim to provide a comprehensive vulnerability analysis as well as novel insights on the cybersecurity of a smart grid.

  11. Raman spectroscopy for the process analysis of the manufacturing of a suspension metered dose inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, James; de la Cruz, Luis; DiTonno, Jason; DeBoyace, Kevin; Ewing, Gary; Donovan, Brent; Medendorp, Joseph

    2011-04-05

    The purpose of this research was to demonstrate the utility of Raman spectroscopy for process analysis of a suspension metered dose inhaler manufacturing process. Chemometric models were constructed for the quantification of ethanol and active pharmaceutical ingredient such that both could be monitored in real-time during the compounding and filling operations via tank measurements and recirculation line flow-cell measurements. Different spectral preprocessing techniques were used to delineate the effects of mixing speed and temperature changes from actual concentration effects. Raman spectroscopy offers advantages in time savings and quality of information over the standard methods of analysis for respiratory formulations, such as a drug content assay via HPLC and ethanol testing via GC. The successful implementation of this work will allow formulation scientists to quantitatively assess both the formulation (e.g., the concentration of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and ethanol), as well as the manufacturing process (e.g., determination of mixing endpoints) in real-time.

  12. Preparation and the Biopharmaceutical Evaluation for the Metered Dose Transdermal Spray of Dexketoprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangding Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to develop a metered dose transdermal spray (MDTS formulation for transdermal delivery of dexketoprofen (DE. DE release from a series of formulations was assessed in vitro. Various qualitative and quantitative parameters like spray pattern, pump seal efficiency test, average weight per metered dose, and dose uniformity were evaluated. The optimized formulation with good skin permeation and an appropriate drug concentration and permeation enhancer (PE content was developed incorporating 7% (w/w, % DE, 7% (v/v, % isopropyl myristate (IPM, and 93% (v/v, % ethanol. In vivo pharmacokinetic study indicated that the optimized formulation showed a more sustainable plasma-concentration profile compared with the Fenli group. The antiinflammatory effect of DE MDTS was evaluated by experiments involving egg-albumin-induced paw edema in rats and xylene-induced ear swelling in mice. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction was used to evaluate the anti-nociceptive actions of DE MDTS. Pharmacodynamic studies indicated that the DE MDTS has good anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. Besides, skin irritation studies were performed using rat as an animal model. The results obtained show that the MDTS can be a promising and innovative therapeutic system used in transdermal drug delivery for DE.

  13. The Five-Hundred-Meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Nan, Rendong; Jin, Chengjin; Wang, Qiming; Zhu, Lichun; Zhu, Wenbai; Zhang, Haiyan; Yue, Youling; Qian, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. Its innovative engineering concept and design pave a new road to realize a huge single dish in the most effective way. FAST also represents Chinese contribution in the international efforts to build the square kilometer array (SKA). Being the most sensitive single dish radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jump-start many science goals, for example, surveying the neutral hydrogen in the Milky Way and other galaxies, detecting faint pulsars, looking for the first shining stars, hearing the possible signals from other civilizations, etc. The idea of sitting a large spherical dish in a karst depression is rooted in Arecibo telescope. FAST is an Arecibo-type antenna with three outstanding aspects: the karst depression used as the site, which is large to host the 500-meter telescope and deep to allow a zenith angle of 40 degrees; the active main re...

  14. Reciprocity and its utilization in ultrasonic flow meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunde, Per; Vestrheim, Magne; Boe, Reidar; Smoergrav, Skule; Abrahamsen, Atle K.

    2005-07-01

    In ultrasonic transit time flow meters for gas and liquid (USMs), the flow direction, the flow velocity and the sound velocity are estimated from the measured up- and downstream transit times. At no-flow conditions, the up- and downstream transit times of such meters should ideally be the same, or the difference should be negligible. This may not be the case unless special precautions are made. In order to reduce the possibility of the meter to detect a false flow at no-flow conditions, USMs are typically ''dry calibrated'' before being installed in the field. ''Dry calibration'' (which may be made in different ways), in general involves measurement of (a) the time delays due to electronics, cables and transducers, (b) the so called ''{delta}t-correction'' (for each acoustic path, also denoted ''zero flow offset factor''), and (c) geometrical parameters. Various {delta}t-correction approaches may be used by different manufacturers, but these are basically similar and have the same purpose: to reduce the false flow detection and improve the accuracy at low and no-flow conditions (''zero flow adjustment''), without significantly affecting the accuracy at the high velocity measurements. The AGA-9 report and the API MPMS Ch. 5.8 standard both prescribe need for ''zero flow verification test (zero test)'' or ''zeroing the meter'', for gas and liquid USMs, respectively. Advances in USM technology based on the electro acoustic reciprocity principle have provided methods for reduction or even neglect ion of the need for ''{delta} t-correction'' of USMs. That means, if the USM measurement system is reciprocal, and operated in a ''sufficiently reciprocal'' way, the ''{delta}t-correction'' may be negligibly small over the operational range of pressure and temperature, and

  15. PELATIHAN LARI SAMBUNG BACK TO BACK 20 METER ENAM REPETISI EMPAT SET DAN LARI SAMBUNG BACK TO BACK 30 METER EMPAT REPETISI EMPAT SET MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN LARI 80 METER SISWA PUTRA SMP DHARMA PRAJA BADUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimbar Adiputra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Type of 80 meters ran is one of the numbers on athletics competed in early age of child. In early age, the physical condition and mind can still be developed continuously and systematically. The exercise in early age should be an element of play and competition, thus this exercise is attempted to develop the speed by two types of exercise: back to back relay run of 20 meters six reps four sets and back to back relay run of 30 meters four reps four sets. The aim of research is to know the increasing of 80 meters speed of run. The exercise was conducted for six weeks with a frequency of three times a week with the aim to increasing the speed. The numbered of sample was 24 people selected randomly from junior high school students of Dharma Praja Badung that meets the requirements of inclusion and exclusion. The numbered of each group consists of twelve people. Each group was given a different treatment i.e. group I was treated by back to back relay run of 20 meters six reps and four sets and group II treated by back to back relay run of 30 meters four reps four sets. Data derived from the duration time of 80 meters ran before and after exercise, with t paired test to determine the difference average speed of duration time before and after exercise in each group. The t Unpaired test for the difference average of increased speed between two groups with significance limit of 0.05. The differences of speed in 80 meters ran after exercise in both groups showed significant differences, i.e. p = 0.000 (p <0.05. The average of duration time of 80 meters ran in Group I before exercise was 13.51 sec and after exercise was 12.31 sec by difference of 1.16 seconds show significant differences, while Group 2 the average of duration time in 80 meters ran before exercise and after exercise was 13.66 and after 12, 67 by a difference of 0.98 seconds showed significant differences due to differences in distance and number of repetitions between Group I and Group II

  16. Curl-meter of Electrical Fields In The Ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, S. M.; Maibuk, Z.-Ju. Ja.; Nikiforova, N. N.

    A special instrument U curl-meter was designed and manufactured in the Institute of Physics of the Earth of RAS for measuring of variable electric fields during alternation of stressedly-deformed state in rock mass. The instrument consist the four-electrode unit and a circuit of analogue signal processing for separation of E U circulations or according to the StokesSs theorem, Curl E in absence of indirect sources. Four electrodes are laied out in rocks on angles of square and they are affixed by ring-type circuit to uninverting inputs of precision operational amplifiers. First input is connected to electrode N1, the second one is connected to N2 and so on. The independent inputs are grounded to a arbitrary point (the fifth electrode is SzeroT). The transmission factors of the circuit are set by resistors accurate to within 0.25 %. First and third, and also second and fourth outputs of the amplifiers are connected to the grad EX and grad EY calculation circuit (deduction circuits). So, if the vector components have different signs of both two EX values and two values EY, the gradient calculation circuit generates signal extremums. If in this case the signs inside pairs are identical , that means that the signal not- ring-type and it is absent on output (difference of the equal values with equal signs). The signals from outputs of the gradient calculations act into adding device for calculation of Curl E (circulation). Curl-meter differs by high security from clutters and from cues on any of inputs rather of "zero point" (ground) reacting only on a ring-type current, thus it is essential (on the order) the noise level and drift of operational amplifiers is moderated. Curl-meter works in a complex of measuring devices on Obninsk seismological polygon for study of behavior of superlow frequency of tectonic genesis electromagnetic emission. Through four inputs (electrode spacing 7x7 2, resistance between welding rods 0.8 - 1.1 kOm), manufactured from fine- dyspersated

  17. Astrometry in the Galactic Center with the Thirty Meter Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Yelda, Sylvana; Ghez, Andrea; Do, Tuan

    2013-01-01

    We report on the expected astrometric performance of the Thirty Meter Telescope's InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) as determined using simulated images of the Galactic center. This region of the Galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole and a dense nuclear stellar cluster, thus providing an ideal laboratory for testing crowded-field astrometry with the IRIS imager. Understanding the sources of astrometric error is also important for making precision measurements of the short-period stars orbiting the supermassive black hole in order to probe the curvature of space-time as predicted by General Relativity. Various sources of error are investigated, including read-out and photon noise, spatially variable point spread functions, confusion, static distortion for the IRIS imager, and the quadratic probe arm distortion. Optical distortion is the limiting source of error for bright stars (K < 15), while fainter sources will be limited by the effects of source confusion. A detailed astrometric error budget for t...

  18. NFIRAOS First Facility AO System for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Herriot, Glen; Atwood, Jenny; Boyer, Corinne; Byrnes, Peter; Caputa, Kris; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Hill, Alexis; Ljusic, Zoran; Pazder, John; Rosensteiner, Matthias; Smith, Malcolm; Spano, Paolo; Szeto, Kei; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Wevers, Ivan; Wang, Lianqi; Wooff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    NFIRAOS, the Thirty Meter Telescope's first adaptive optics system is an order 60x60 Multi-Conjugate AO system with two deformable mirrors. Although most observing will use 6 laser guide stars, it also has an NGS-only mode. Uniquely, NFIRAOS is cooled to -30 C to reduce thermal background. NFIRAOS delivers a 2-arcminute beam to three client instruments, and relies on up to three IR WFSs in each instrument. We present recent work including: robust automated acquisition on these IR WFSs; trade-off studies for a common-size of deformable mirror; real-time computing architectures; simplified designs for high-order NGS-mode wavefront sensing; modest upgrade concepts for high-contrast imaging.

  19. Water supply network district metering theory and case study

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nardo, Armando; Di Mauro, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The management of a water supply network can be substantially improved defining permanent sectors or districts that enhances simpler water loss detection and pressure management. However, the water network partitioning may compromise water system performance, since some pipes are usually closed to delimit districts in order not to have too many metering stations, to decrease costs and simplify water balance. This may reduce the reliability of the whole system and not guarantee the delivery of water at the different network nodes. In practical applications, the design of districts or sectors is generally based on empirical approaches or on limited field experiences. The book proposes a design support methodology, based on graph theory principles and tested on real case study. The described methodology can help water utilities, professionals and researchers to define the optimal districts or sectors of a water supply network.

  20. Recent Developments and Qualification of Cryogenic Helium Flow Meters

    CERN Document Server

    Bézaguet, Alain-Arthur; Serio, L

    2002-01-01

    Flow measurement of cryogenic fluids is a useful diagnostic tool not only to assess thermal performance of superconducting devices and related components but also for early diagnosis of faulty components/systems and to assure the correct sharing of cryogenic power. It is mainly performed on the recovery at room temperature of vapor from liquid boil-off due to lack of commercially available robust and precise cryogenic mass flow meters. When high-accuracy or fast-time response is needed, or individual gas recovery at room temperature is not available, it is necessary to measure directly the fluid feed at cryogenic temperature. The results of extensive testing of industrially available and in-house developed flowmeters outlining characteristics and advantages of each measuring method are presented.

  1. Quantum Metrology: Towards an alternative definition for the meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zois, Ioannis P.

    2016-08-01

    The motivation for this work came from an attempt to give an alternative definition for the meter, the SI unit for measuring length. As a starting point towards this goal we present the underlying theory behind our approach which uses ideas from quantum field theory and non-commutative geometry, in particular the notion of an odd K-cycle which is based on the Dirac operator (and its inverse, the Dirac propagator). Using physics terminology, the key point in our strategy is this: instead of measuring ordinary length in space-time we measure the “algebraic (or spectral) length” in the space of quantum states of some fermion acted upon by the Dirac propagator.

  2. Development of an intelligent adapter for metered dose inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Mingrong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To better coordinate the interaction of inhalation and aerosol release, an intelligent adapter (IA was developed for metered dose inhalers (MDIs. The adapter included three main units: a signal acquisition device, a micro-control-unit (MCU, and an actuation mechanism. To fully study the effectiveness of the intelligent adapter, an inhalation simulation experiment was done, and two bands of MDI were used for the experiment. The results indicated that, when inhalation, the intelligent adapter can press down the MDI automatically; moreover, this intelligent adapter could achieve an aerosol-release time Tr of 0.4 s for MDI A and 0.60 s for MDI B, which compares very well with the existing pure mechanical systems at 0.8 s and 1.0 s.

  3. Segment handling system prototype progress for Thirty Meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuku, Satoru; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nakaoji, Toshitaka; Takaki, Junji; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Haruna, Masaki; Kim, Ieyoung; Fukushima, Kazuhiko; Domae, Yukiyasu; Hatta, Toshiyuki; Yoshitake, Shinya; Hoshino, Hayato

    2016-07-01

    Segment Handling System (SHS) is the subsystem that is planned to be permanently implemented on Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) telescope structure that enables fast, efficient, semi-automatic exchange of M1 segments. TMT plans challenging segment exchange (10 segments per 10 hours a day). To achieve these, MELCO develops innovative SHS by accommodating Factory Automation (FA) technology such as force control system and machine vision system into the system. Force control system used for install operation, achieves soft handling by detecting force exerted to mirror segment and automatically compensating the position error between handling segments and primary mirror. Machine vision system used for removal operation, achieves semi-automatic positioning between SHS and mirror segments to be handled. Prototype experience proves soft (extraneous force 300N) and fast ( 3 minutes) segment handling. The SHS will provide upcoming segmented large telescopes for cost-efficient, effortless, and safe segment exchange operation.

  4. Anthocyanin contribution to chlorophyll meter readings and its correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavinka, Jan; Nauš, Jan; Špundová, Martina

    2013-12-01

    Leaf chlorophyll content is an important physiological parameter which can serve as an indicator of nutritional status, plant stress or senescence. Signals proportional to the chlorophyll content can be measured non-destructively with instruments detecting leaf transmittance (e.g., SPAD-502) or reflectance (e.g., showing normalized differential vegetation index, NDVI) in red and near infrared spectral regions. The measurements are based on the assumption that only chlorophylls absorb in the examined red regions. However, there is a question whether accumulation of other pigments (e.g., anthocyanins) could in some cases affect the chlorophyll meter readings. To answer this question, we cultivated tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) for a long time under low light conditions and then exposed them for several weeks (4 h a day) to high sunlight containing the UV-A spectral region. The senescent leaves of these plants evolved a high relative content of anthocyanins and visually revealed a distinct blue color. The SPAD and NDVI data were collected and the spectra of diffusive transmittance and reflectance of the leaves were measured using an integration sphere. The content of anthocyanins and chlorophylls was measured analytically. Our results show that SPAD and NDVI measurement can be significantly affected by the accumulated anthocyanins in the leaves with relatively high anthocyanin content. To describe theoretically this effect of anthocyanins, concepts of a specific absorbance and a leaf spectral polarity were developed. Corrective procedures of the chlorophyll meter readings for the anthocyanin contribution are suggested both for the transmittance and reflectance mode.

  5. An accurate and portable solid state neutron rem meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, T.M. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Bellinger, S.L. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Miller, W.H. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Missouri University Research Reactor, Columbia, MO (United States); Myers, E.R. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Fronk, R.G.; Cooper, B.W [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Sobering, T.J. [Electronics Design Laboratory, Kansas State University, KS (United States); Scott, P.R. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Ugorowski, P.; McGregor, D.S; Shultis, J.K. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Caruso, A.N., E-mail: carusoan@umkc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2013-08-11

    Accurately resolving the ambient neutron dose equivalent spanning the thermal to 15 MeV energy range with a single configuration and lightweight instrument is desirable. This paper presents the design of a portable, high intrinsic efficiency, and accurate neutron rem meter whose energy-dependent response is electronically adjusted to a chosen neutron dose equivalent standard. The instrument may be classified as a moderating type neutron spectrometer, based on an adaptation to the classical Bonner sphere and position sensitive long counter, which, simultaneously counts thermalized neutrons by high thermal efficiency solid state neutron detectors. The use of multiple detectors and moderator arranged along an axis of symmetry (e.g., long axis of a cylinder) with known neutron-slowing properties allows for the construction of a linear combination of responses that approximate the ambient neutron dose equivalent. Variations on the detector configuration are investigated via Monte Carlo N-Particle simulations to minimize the total instrument mass while maintaining acceptable response accuracy—a dose error less than 15% for bare {sup 252}Cf, bare AmBe, an epi-thermal and mixed monoenergetic sources is found at less than 4.5 kg moderator mass in all studied cases. A comparison of the energy dependent dose equivalent response and resultant energy dependent dose equivalent error of the present dosimeter to commercially-available portable rem meters and the prior art are presented. Finally, the present design is assessed by comparison of the simulated output resulting from applications of several known neutron sources and dose rates.

  6. Reciprocity and its utilization in ultrasonic flow meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunde, Per; Vestrheim, Magne; Boe, Reidar; Smoergrav, Skule; Abrahamsen, Atle K.

    2005-07-01

    In ultrasonic transit time flow meters for gas and liquid (USMs), the flow direction, the flow velocity and the sound velocity are estimated from the measured up- and downstream transit times. At no-flow conditions, the up- and downstream transit times of such meters should ideally be the same, or the difference should be negligible. This may not be the case unless special precautions are made. In order to reduce the possibility of the meter to detect a false flow at no-flow conditions, USMs are typically ''dry calibrated'' before being installed in the field. ''Dry calibration'' (which may be made in different ways), in general involves measurement of (a) the time delays due to electronics, cables and transducers, (b) the so called ''{delta}t-correction'' (for each acoustic path, also denoted ''zero flow offset factor''), and (c) geometrical parameters. Various {delta}t-correction approaches may be used by different manufacturers, but these are basically similar and have the same purpose: to reduce the false flow detection and improve the accuracy at low and no-flow conditions (''zero flow adjustment''), without significantly affecting the accuracy at the high velocity measurements. The AGA-9 report and the API MPMS Ch. 5.8 standard both prescribe need for ''zero flow verification test (zero test)'' or ''zeroing the meter'', for gas and liquid USMs, respectively. Advances in USM technology based on the electro acoustic reciprocity principle have provided methods for reduction or even neglect ion of the need for ''{delta} t-correction'' of USMs. That means, if the USM measurement system is reciprocal, and operated in a ''sufficiently reciprocal'' way, the ''{delta}t-correction'' may be negligibly small over the operational range of pressure and temperature, and

  7. The use of an Ultrasonic ''Transfer reference meter'' to investigate differences of two gas meters in series in fiscal natural gas measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Volker; Dietz, Toralf; Ehrlich, Andreas; Stoll, Peter; Slawig, Heiko

    2005-07-01

    This paper introduces the use of an Ultrasonic 8 path ''Transfer reference meter'' and a reference meter of another technology to investigate differences as high as 0,8% in a German custody transfer station. This method can be used much more effectively since none of the meters under question needs to be taken out of operation or sent back. Additionally, using the more detailed profile information gained from an 8 path meter it is possible to investigate installation effects and detect sources of the deviations. First results of the investigation of the above mentioned station will be shown and discussed. Possible ways of using transfer reference meters of different technologies and their advantages and drawbacks are also considered. Conclusion: The use of a reference meter section integrating different measuring technologies for diagnosing installation-conditional deviations under operational conditions has proven to be very successful. The combination of metrological experience of the manufacturers, the application-engineering competence of the operator, and the utilization of the diagnostic capabilities of state-of-the-art measuring methods, such as the ultrasonic and the Coriolis measuring technique, allows an in depth study of the behaviour of the measuring section. Taking this as a basis, it is possible to optimise station layouts, reduce the cost for additional high-pressure calibrations, and ensure reliable operation. The plan for the future is to examine the offset between ultrasonic/turbine gas meter and Coriolis gas meter by extended tests. Among other things, the entire package will be tested once again both under high-pressure and low-pressure conditions. At the same time, a statement will be made as to the long-term behaviour of the relative deviations. As an additional intellectual approach, the idea has arisen to examine whether a sole low-pressure calibration and/or water calibration for meters may be sufficient in the future

  8. Metering Best Practices, A Guide to Achieving Utility Resource Efficiency, Release 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Greg; Hunt, W. D.; Pugh, Ray; Sandusky, William F.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2011-08-31

    This release is an update and expansion of the information provided in Release 1.0 of the Metering Best Practice Guide that was issued in October 2007. This release, as was the previous release, was developed under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The mission of FEMP is to facilitate the Federal Government's implementation of sound cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. Each of these activities is directly related to achieving requirements set forth in the Energy Policy Acts of 1992 and 2005, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, and the goals that have been established in Executive Orders 13423 and 13514 - and also those practices that are inherent in sound management of Federal financial and personnel resources.

  9. Meters and systems for future. Meters fit for retrofitting with a communication module; Zaehler und Systeme fuer die Zukunft. Mit Kommunikationsmodul nachruestbare Zaehler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Martin [Itron GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany). Marketing Gas Germany; Sievers, Marco [Allmess GmbH, Oldenburg (Germany). Marketing und Vertrieb Systeme, Wasser- und Waermewirtschaft

    2011-04-18

    The contribution looks at the situation of smart meters in view of the German government's decision of 2007, which required that smart meters should be installed within a period of six years. However, there is no market-compatible strategy for their introduction, and legal regulations are still lacking. For example, the EnWG demands the obligatory installation of smart meters from 1 January 2010 only in newly constructed or extensively modernized buildings and also on the user's demand.

  10. The Research on Metrological Characteristics of House Water Meters during Transitional Flow Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Briliūtė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find the influence of transitional flow regimes on inlet water meters. Four construction types of mechanical inlet water meters (each capacity Q = 10 m3/h were investigated. The biggest additional volume 0,12–0,26% when Q = 0,2…2 m3/h shows single-jet vane wheel meter. This additional volume is less 0,06–0,13% for the multi-jet concentric water meter. The minimum influence of transitional flow regimes was for turbine water meters till 0,1% for all flow range. The volumetric meters are not sensitive for this effect.Article in Lithuanian

  11. What Can Wireless Cellular Technologies Do about the Upcoming Smart Metering Traffic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Madueño, Germán Corrales; Pratas, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of smart electricity meters with cellular radio interface puts an additional load on the wireless cellular networks. Currently, these meters are designed for low duty cycle billing and occasional system check, which generates a low-rate sporadic traffic. As the number...... and higher rates per device. In this paper, we characterize the current traffic generated by smart electricity meters and supplement it with the potential traffic requirements brought by introducing enhanced Smart Meters, i.e., meters with PMU-like capabilities. Our study shows how GSM/GPRS and LTE cellular...... system performance behaves with the current and next generation smart meters traffic, where it is clearly seen that the PMU data will seriously challenge these wireless systems. We conclude by highlighting the possible solutions for upgrading the cellular standards, in order to cope with the upcoming...

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT DESIGN PARAMETERS AND WORKING CONDITIONS ON CHARACTERISTICS OF HEAT METERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-hui; DU Guang-sheng; LIU Zheng-gang; WANG You-yuan

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the UDF technology in Fluent software is used to simulate three-dimensional flow fields and to obtain various flow parameters. The standard k-ε model and the RNG k-εmodel are both used to calculate the inner flow field of the basal meter, and a comparison of the calculated results between two models shows that RNG k-εmodel is more effective for calculations of the inner flow of rotary wing mechanism. The influence of tip clearance on the characteristics of the basal meter is studied. The influence of the bottom ribs on the heat meter is evaluated by the numerical simulation method. This article also simulates the flow of disturbance located at the inlet of the basal meter, and shows that a swirl located at the front of the basal meter can affect the stability of the heat meter.

  13. Vision and Strategy for India’s Electricity Metering Infrastructure of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogeeta H. Relan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the country like India with over millions of kilometers of transmission lines and billions of consumers, task of collecting information related to energy consumption of every consumer is a critical job. The meter reader has to travel a long distance and take reading manually to collect the data. This reading is then feed in a central database. Then the bill gets generated later with help of software. This project intends to reduce this tedious work by automating the process of collecting data from consumer’s electricity meter. This would be done by implementing Advanced Metering Infrastructure that unites all the various metering devices of a building in one network and provides the metering data in real-time, locally and from remote. Here, AMI uses ZigBee to build up high-rise building area network of connected metering devices.

  14. Compensation of impedance meters when using an external front-end amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Torrents Dolz, Josep M.; Pallàs Areny, Ramon

    2002-01-01

    Four-terminal impedance meters based on pseudo-bridges yield unexpected uncertainties when using high-contact-impedance electrodes. Adding a front-end amplifier to the impedance meter and rearranging the connection of the meter terminals overcome the contact impedance problem. However, because the compensation provisions in the instrument are meant to compensate only impedance residuals of test fixtures, by either an open/short or an open/short/load correction procedure, the external fr...

  15. Navigation Hydraulics Research Program: Evaluation of Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute Physical Model Current Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    readout circuit CURRENT VELOCITY / DIRECTION SENSOR A mini-servomotor and a piece of fibre optic rod are installed at the base. The rod is turned by...34Description. of The Fibre - Optic Type Miniature Propetler Velocity Meter" for detal Is) THE OPERATION OF THE COMBINED CURRENT VELOCITY ’ DIRECTION METER 1. Plug...of The Fibre - Optic Type Miniature propeller Velocity Meter" for details. Front Panel: Ma /jj (tPj ) Current Direction Readout (Degree) Sensitivity

  16. Comparative analysis of volumetric flow meters used for mass flow estimation in multiphase and multidensity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedone, Richard; Korman, Valentin; Wiley, John T.

    2006-05-01

    Accurate and reliable multiphase flow measurements are needed for liquid propulsion systems. Existing volumetric flow meters are adequate for flow measurements with well-characterized, clean liquids and gases. However, these technologies are inadequate for multiphase environments, such as cryogenic fluids. Although, properly calibrated turbine flow meters can provide highly accurate and repeatable data, problems are still prevalent with multiphase flows. Limitations are thus placed on the applicability of intrusive turbine flow meters.

  17. Resistance moisture meter correction factors for four tropical wood species. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, W.T.

    1994-03-01

    Connection factors were determined for an electrical resistance-type moisture meter for African celtis (Celtis sp.), dahoma (Piptadeniastrum africanum), ramon (Brosimun alicastrum), and danto (Vatairea lundellii). For all species, correction factors were negative for most of the moisture content range, meaning that the meter readings were generally greater than the true moisture content. The 95-percent confidence intervals for true moisture content as a function of meter reading are given. The time drift of the true moisture content estimated from the corrected meter readings is also given.

  18. Voltage Harmonics Monitoring in a Microgrid Based on Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are the main part of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and are usually able to provide detailed information on customers’ energy consumptions, voltage variations and interruptions. In addition, these meters are potentially able to provide more information about power quality (PQ......) disturbances. This paper will address the monitoring of voltage harmonics utilizing the features of smart meters and AMI system. To do this, the first step is to select proper indices to quantify the distortion. An important point which should be considered in this regard is the limited processing power...

  19. Optimal Dimensioning of FiWi Networks over Advanced Metering Infrastructure for the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inga, Esteban; Peralta-Sevilla, Arturo; Hincapié, Roberto;

    2015-01-01

    —In this paper, we propose a hybrid wireless mesh network infrastructure which connects the smart meters of each consumer with the data aggregation points (DAP). We suppose a set of smart meters that need to send information, and receive information from a central office on electrical enterprises...... through of the meter data management system (MDMS), and so forming the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) stage of smart grids. We consider a multi-hop system, where information is routed through several nodes which act as DAP. Wireless mesh networks are known to extend coverage and increase...

  20. Allocation of Power Meters for Online Load Distribution Estimation in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    The electrification of heating and transportation along with the penetration of renewable energy in electricity networks has necessitated the evolution of low voltage distribution grids into smart grids. Contemporary, smart grids are realised by smart meter installations to electricity end users....... In the literature, these meters aim at online metering of the grid status. Depending on this status, proactive and/or reactive load management can subsequently be conducted. In reality however, many smart grids perform this metering offline due to excessive data problems. As such, grid operators have reduced...

  1. Wireless Communication with a Microprocessor Based Ultrasonic Meter for Flow Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although the traditional metering system and method for controlling flow is generally safe, reliable and robust, it does suffer certain drawbacks, such as limited accuracy and the ability to implement complex reactive rate designs. Hence, there is a need for a circuit and method of increasing metering accuracy, as well as the position control accuracy for variable flow rates, without further reliance on mechanical tolerances. An essential component for an electronic meter is a database and method of communication to obtain the required measurements and to program the meter for any additional needed values. Flexibility is added to such meters by using wireless communication circuits and protocols, which will enable reading of multi-devices from the same source point. Approach: To collect data, critical quality of service and carry out analysis, wireless flow meter reading system is designed, tested and implemented. The hardware and software in the designed system work together, to wirelessly receive readings from meters and then process it in order to obtain an accurate reading for the measured flow. The system makes use of modern communication algorithms and techniques. Also, the system allows for history tracing and analysis. The interfacing hardware uses two-way wireless optical interface to flow meter device. Results: The Hardware and Communication Protocol tested successfully and provided sufficient and accurate data for flow measurements analysis, presented in this research. Conclusion: Such hardware-software arrangement is considered a core for mobile meter reading and control with possibility to add intelligent security algorithms.

  2. A glucose meter evaluation co-designed with both health professional and consumer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Harmony; Chan, Huan; Logan, Florence J; Heenan, Helen F; Taylor, Lynne; Murray, Chris; Florkowski, Christopher M; Frampton, Christopher M A; Lunt, Helen

    2013-11-22

    Health consumer's input into assessment of medical device safety is traditionally given either as part of study outcome (trial participants) or during post marketing surveillance. Direct consumer input into the methodological design of device assessment is less common. We discuss the difference in requirements for assessment of a measuring device from the consumer and clinician perspectives, using the example of hand held glucose meters. Around 80,000 New Zealanders with diabetes recently changed their glucose meter system, to enable ongoing access to PHARMAC subsidised meters and strips. Consumers were most interested in a direct comparison of their 'old' meter system (Accu-Chek Performa) with their 'new' meter system (CareSens brand, including the CareSens N POP), rather than comparisons against a laboratory standard. This direct comparison of meter/strip systems showed that the CareSens N POP meter read around 0.6 mmol/L higher than the Performa system. Whilst this difference is unlikely to result in major errors in clinical decision making such as major insulin dosing errors, this information is nevertheless of interest to consumers who switched meters so that they could maintain access to PHARMAC subsidised meters and strips. We recommend that when practical, the consumer perspective be incorporated into study design related to medical device assessment.

  3. STUDY ON MECHANISM OF HYDRODYNAMIC OSCILLATION IN VORTEX PRECESSION METER USING LARGE EDDY SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve the anti-jamming performance of a vortex precession meter, the disciplinarian of the vortex precession and the mechanism of hydrodynamic oscillation inside the vortex precession meter are numerically investigated by using the large eddy simulation. The results show that the periodical eccentric motion of the vortexes initiates a hydrodynamic oscillation inside the vortex precession meter. The visualized time dependent flow fields indicate that the pressures at axisymmetric points oscillate with a same intensity and frequency but 180° phase shift. By using differential sensing technique,a new prototype of double-sensor vortex precession meter,aimed to improve measurement accuracy, is developed.

  4. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al

    2005-07-01

    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  5. Consumers’ Perspective on Full-Scale Adoption of Smart Meters: A Case Study in Västerås, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Vassileva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale deployment of reliable smart electricity metering networks has been considered as the first step towards a smart, integrated and efficient grid. On the consumer’s side, however, the real impact is still uncertain and limited. This paper evaluates the consumer’s perspective in the city of Västerås, Sweden, where full implementation of smart meters has been reached. New services, such as consumption feedback and the possibility to choose dynamic electricity pricing contracts, have been available from the adoption of this infrastructure. A web-based survey evaluating customers’ perception of these new services was carried out. The survey included consumers’ personal information, preferences about the type of information and the frequency of delivery and the preference for electricity pricing contracts. The results showed that the electricity consumption information offered by distribution system operators (DSOs today is not detailed enough for customers to react accordingly. Additionally, while variable pricing contracts are becoming more popular, the available pricing schemes do not encourage customers to increase their consumption flexibility. Therefore, more detailed information from the smart meters should be made available, including disaggregated electricity consumption per appliance that would allow consumers to have more control over their energy consumption activities.

  6. Current meter and other data from current meter in the Beaufort Inlet, NC from 01 February 1976 - 31 May 1976 (NODC Accession 8400038)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — No digital representation of these data are available from NODC at this time. Direction and other data collected from current meter between February 1 to May 31,...

  7. In-situ calibration of clinical built-in KAP meters with traceability to a primary standard using a reference KAP meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusek, A.; Helmrot, E.; Sandborg, M.; Grindborg, J.-E.; Alm Carlsson, G.

    2014-12-01

    The air kerma-area product (KAP) is used for settings of diagnostic reference levels. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends that doses in diagnostic radiology (including the KAP values) be estimated with an accuracy of at least ±7% (k = 2). Industry standards defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) specify that the uncertainty of KAP meter measurements should be less than +/- 25% (k = 2). Medical physicists willing to comply with the IAEA’s recommendation need to apply correction factors to KAP values reported by x-ray units. The aim of this work is to present and evaluate a calibration method for built-in KAP meters on clinical x-ray units. The method is based on (i) a tandem calibration method, which uses a reference KAP meter calibrated to measure the incident radiation, (ii) measurements using an energy-independent ionization chamber to correct for the energy dependence of the reference KAP meter, and (iii) Monte Carlo simulations of the beam quality correction factors that correct for differences between beam qualities at a standard laboratory and the clinic. The method was applied to the KAP meter in a Siemens Aristos FX plus unit. It was found that values reported by the built-in KAP meter differed from the more accurate values measured by the reference KAP meter by more than 25% for high tube voltages (more than 140 kV) and heavily filtered beams (0.3 mm Cu). Associated uncertainties were too high to claim that the IEC’s limit of 25% was exceeded. Nevertheless the differences were high enough to justify the need for a more accurate calibration of built-in KAP meters.

  8. 自动抄表系统中电能表的设计%Design of Energy Meter in Automatic Meter Reading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宇

    2011-01-01

    Automatic meter reading system is an integral part of automation for the electricity sector, and energy meter plays an important part of the terminal equipment in the system. Using electricity metering technologies, embedded control technology, power line carrier communication technology and infrared communication technology, a multi-function energy meter is designed. The energy meter can measure accurately, with a remote meter reading and meter-reading function of the infrared proximity to the structure of the balance between a variety of power line carrier, easy to choose a different approach to realize long-distance carrier communications, and higher development efficiency of energy meter under a different means of communication are achieved.%自动抄表系统是电力部门实现自动化的组成部分,电能表又是该系统中重要的终端设备.利用电量计量技术、嵌入式控制技术、电力线载波通信技术和红外通信技术,完成了多功能电能表的设计.该电能表计量准确,具有远程抄表和近距离红外抄表功能,在结构上兼顾多种电力线载波方式,便于选择不同载波方式来实现远程通信,提高了不同通信方式下电能表的开发效率.

  9. Size aspects of metered-dose inhaler aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C S; Trujillo, D; Sackner, M A

    1985-07-01

    The aerodynamic size distribution of several bronchodilator and corticosteroid metered-dose inhaler (MDI) aerosols was estimated in both dry and humid (90% RH) air environments with a six-stage cascade impactor. The distribution of aerosol size that penetrated into a simulated lung model were also measured. The size distributions were approximately log-normal and ranged from 2.4 to 5.5 micron in mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.7 to 2.5 in a dry environment. In humid air, MMAD increased from 1 to 26% above the dry air state, but GSD remained unchanged. The size of aerosol delivered by MDI that penetrated into a simulated lung model fell to 2.4 to 2.8 micron in MMAD (GSD, 1.9 to 2.2). In contrast to aerosols produced by MDI, MMAD of an aerosol of cromolyn sodium powder dispersed by a Spinhaler increased rapidly with increasing humidity, 5.6 +/- 0.3 micron in dry air and 10.1 +/- 0.8 micron in 90% RH air. Finally, the factors influencing size of MDI-delivered aerosols, including formulation, canister pressure, physicochemical properties of propellants, and design of the valve and actuator orifices are discussed. Effective delivery of MDI-generated aerosols into the lung is highly dependent on particle dynamics and jet flow, and no single parameter can produce a unique particle size and jet pattern.

  10. Twenty Meter Space Telescope Based on Diffractive Fresnel Lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J; Hyde, R; Baron, R

    2003-06-26

    Diffractive lenses offer two potential advantages for very large aperture space telescopes; very loose surface-figure tolerances and physical implementation as thin, flat optical elements. In order to actually realize these advantages one must be able to build large diffractive lenses with adequate optical precision and also to compactly stow the lens for launch and then fully deploy it in space. We will discuss the recent fabrication and assembly demonstration of a 5m glass diffractive Fresnel lens at LLNL. Optical performance data from smaller full telescopes with diffractive lens and corrective optics show diffraction limited performance with broad bandwidths. A systems design for a 20m space telescope will be presented. The primary optic can be rolled to fit inside of the standard fairings of the Delta IV vehicle. This configuration has a simple deployment and requires no orbital assembly. A twenty meter visible telescope could have a significant impact in conventional astronomy with eight times the resolution of Hubble and over sixty times the light gathering capacity. If the light scattering is made acceptable, this telescope could also be used in the search for terrestrial planets.

  11. Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing VI: Turbulence Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Els, S G; Schoeck, M; Riddle, R; Skidmore, W; Seguel, J; Bustos, E; Walker, D

    2009-01-01

    The results on the vertical distribution of optical turbulence above the five mountains which were investigated by the site testing for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) are reported. On San Pedro Martir in Mexico, the 13 North site on Mauna Kea and three mountains in northern Chile Cerro Tolar, Cerro Armazones and Cerro Tolonchar, MASS-DIMM turbulence profilers have been operated over at least two years. Acoustic turbulence profilers - SODARs - were also operated at these sites. The obtained turbulence profiles indicate that at all sites the lowest 200m are the main source of the total seeing observed, with the Chilean sites showing a weaker ground layer than the other two sites. The two northern hemisphere sites have weaker turbulence at altitudes above 500m, with 13N showing the weakest 16km turbulence, being responsible for the large isoplanatic angle at this site. The influence of the jetstream and wind speeds close to the ground on the clear sky turbulence strength throughout the atmosphere are discussed...

  12. Electricity Submetering on the Cheap: Stick-on Electricity Meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven; Lorek, Michael; Pister, Kristofer

    2014-08-17

    We demonstrate a low-cost, 21 x 12 mm prototype Stick-on Electricity Meter (SEM) to replace traditional in-circuit-breaker-panel current and voltage sensors for building submetering. A SEM sensor is installed on the external face of a circuit breaker to generate voltage and current signals. This allows for the computation of real and apparent power as well as capturing harmonics created by non-linear loads. The prototype sensor is built using commercially available components, resulting in a production cost of under $10 per SEM. With no highvoltage install work requiring an electrician, home owners or other individuals can install the system in a few minutes with no safety implications. This leads to an installed system cost that is much lower than traditional submetering technology.. Measurement results from lab characterization as well as a real-world residential dwelling installation are presented, verifying the operation of our proposed SEM sensor. The SEM sensor can resolve breaker power levels below 10W, and it can be used to provide data for non-intrusive load monitoring systems at full sample rate.

  13. Optimized Information Transmission Scheduling Strategy Oriented to Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Tong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI is considered to be the first step in constructing smart grid. AMI allows customers to make real-time choices about power utilization and enables power utilities to increase the effectiveness of the regional power grids by managing demand load during peak times and reducing unneeded power generation. These initiatives rely heavily on the prompt information transmission inside AMI. Aiming at the information transmission problem, this paper researches the communication scheduling strategy in AMI at a macroscopic view. First, the information flow of AMI is analyzed, and the power users are classified into several grades by their importance. Then, the defect of conventional information transmission scheduling strategy is analyzed. On this basis, two optimized scheduling strategies are proposed. In the wide area, an optimized scheduling strategy based on user importance and time critical is proposed to guarantee the important power users’ information transmission being handled promptly. In the local area, an optimized scheduling strategy based on device and information importance and time critical is proposed to guarantee the important devices and information in AMI user end system being handled promptly. At last, the two optimized scheduling strategies are simulated. The simulation results show that they can effectively improve the real-time performance and reliability of AMI information transmission.

  14. Meter Accuracy Seafloor Geodesy using Repeated Multibeam Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSanto, J. B.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    Ship-board multibeam surveys are a useful tool in measuring tectonic deformation of the seafloor, having been used to measure the ~50 m of surface slip along the Japan trench during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake with an uncertainty of 20 m (Fujiwara et al, 2011, Science). In this study, we investigate the improvement in positioning accuracy obtainable when comparing multibeam and sidescan surveys repeated along the same track to within 1/10 of the critical baseline and taken at a slow ship speed of 1 knot. We compare two surveys of the Juan de Fuca Ridge axis fitting these criteria with two coincident surveys of the Cocos Ridge, taken at 11 knots. Both pairs of surveys were collected using a Simrad EM120 sonar system aboard the RV Roger Revelle. We find the multibeam surveys of the Juan de Fuca ridge axis sufficient to measure displacements accurate to better than 2 m, a marked improvement over the 50 m accuracy of the Cocos ridge surveys. Likewise, we can measure displacement accurate to 2 m using the sidescan data from the Juan de Fuca surveys. This accuracy is sufficient to observe meter-level horizontal movements on the deep ocean associated with large earthquakes and landslides.

  15. Extreme Adaptive Optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, B; al., e

    2006-05-02

    Direct detection of extrasolar Jovian planets is a major scientific motivation for the construction of future extremely large telescopes such as the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). Such detection will require dedicated high-contrast AO systems. Since the properties of Jovian planets and their parent stars vary enormously between different populations, the instrument must be designed to meet specific scientific needs rather than a simple metric such as maximum Strehl ratio. We present a design for such an instrument, the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) for TMT. It has four key science missions. The first is the study of newly-formed planets on 5-10 AU scales in regions such as Taurus and Ophiucus--this requires very small inner working distances that are only possible with a 30m or larger telescope. The second is a robust census of extrasolar giant planets orbiting mature nearby stars. The third is detailed spectral characterization of the brightest extrasolar planets. The final targets are circumstellar dust disks, including Zodiacal light analogs in the inner parts of other solar systems. To achieve these, PFI combines advanced wavefront sensors, high-order MEMS deformable mirrors, a coronagraph optimized for a finely-segmented primary mirror, and an integral field spectrograph.

  16. Smart Meter Driven Segmentation: What Your Consumption Says About You

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A; Rajagopal, R

    2013-11-01

    With the rollout of smart metering infrastructure at scale, demand-response (DR) programs may now be tailored based on users' consumption patterns as mined from sensed data. For issuing DR events it is key to understand the inter-temporal consumption dynamics as to appropriately segment the user population. We propose to infer occupancy states from consumption time series data using a hidden Markov model framework. Occupancy is characterized in this model by 1) magnitude, 2) duration, and 3) variability. We show that users may be grouped according to their consumption patterns into groups that exhibit qualitatively different dynamics that may be exploited for program enrollment purposes. We investigate empirically the information that residential energy consumers' temporal energy demand patterns characterized by these three dimensions may convey about their demographic, household, and appliance stock characteristics. Our analysis shows that temporal patterns in the user's consumption data can predict with good accuracy certain user characteristics. We use this framework to argue that there is a large degree of individual predictability in user consumption at a population level.

  17. Demand response, behind-the-meter generation and air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiyue; Zhang, K Max

    2015-02-03

    We investigated the implications of behind-the-meter (BTM) generation participating in demand response (DR) programs. Specifically, we evaluated the impacts of NOx emissions from BTM generators enrolled in the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO)'s reliability-based DR programs. Through analyzing the DR program enrollment data, DR event records, ozone air quality monitoring data, and emission characteristics of the generators, we found that the emissions from BTM generators very likely contribute to exceedingly high ozone concentrations in the Northeast Corridor region, and very likely account for a substantial fraction of total NOx emissions from electricity generation. In addition, a companion study showed that the emissions from BTM generators could also form near-source particulate matter (PM) hotspots. The important policy implications are that the absence of up-to-date regulations on BTM generators may offset the current efforts to reduce the emissions from peaking power plants, and that there is a need to quantify the environmental impacts of DR programs in designing sound policies related to demand-side resources. Furthermore, we proposed the concept of "Green" DR resources, referring to those that not only provide power systems reliability services, but also have verifiable environmental benefits or minimal negative environmental impacts. We argue that Green DR resources that are able to maintain resource adequacy and reduce emissions at the same time are key to achieving the cobenefits of power system reliability and protecting public health during periods with peak electricity demand.

  18. Improvement of PLL algorithm for the LEP Q-meter

    CERN Document Server

    Berrig, O E

    1998-01-01

    The PLL (Phase Locked Loop) has two modes: search mode and locking mode. The mode is determined by how far apart the internal frequency is from the external frequency. When the internal - and exter nal frequencies are close, the PLL is in locking mode. While locking on the external frequency, the PLL can largely be expressed as a linear term superimposed with a small "noise" term. We can t herefore calculate a transfer function that will completely describe the performance of the PLL apart from the precision, which is determined by the noise term. Two ideas are presented on how to re duce the noise term. The first idea is to compensate the noise term with an equal value of opposite sign. This completely removes the noise when the PLL locks on a steady frequency. Unfortunately it can not be used for the LEP Q-meter which is plagued by the presence of satellite frequencies. For other equipment with cleaner spectra, the method can improve their precision dramatically. T he second idea reduces the noise level wit...

  19. Humidity affects the morphology of particles emitted from beclomethasone dipropionate pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, James W; Bhambri, Pallavi; Church, Tanya K; Lewis, David A; McDermott, Mark T; Elbayomy, Shereen; Finlay, Warren H; Vehring, Reinhard

    2017-03-30

    The effects of propellant type, cosolvent content, and air humidity on the morphology and solid phase of the particles produced from solution pressurized metered dose inhalers containing the corticosteroid beclomethasone dipropionate were investigated. The active ingredient was dissolved in the HFA propellants 134a and 227ea with varying levels of the cosolvent ethanol and filled into pressurized metered dose inhalers. Inhalers were actuated into an evaporation chamber under controlled temperature and humidity conditions and sampled using a single nozzle, single stage inertial impactor. Particle morphology was assessed qualitatively using field emission scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam-helium ion microscopy. Drug solid phase was assessed using Raman microscopy. The relative humidity of the air during inhaler actuation was found to have a strong effect on the particle morphology, with solid spheroidal particles produced in dry air and highly porous particles produced at higher humidity levels. Air humidification was found to have no effect on the solid phase of the drug particles, which was predominantly amorphous for all tested formulations. A critical level of air relative humidity was required to generate porous particles for each tested formulation. This critical relative humidity was found to depend on the amount of ethanol used in the inhaler, but not on the type of propellant utilized. The results indicate that under the right circumstances water vapor saturation followed by nucleated water condensation or ice deposition occurs during particle formation from evaporating propellant-cosolvent-BDP droplets. This finding reveals the importance of condensed water or ice as a templating agent for porosity when particle formation occurs at saturated conditions, with possible implications on the pharmacokinetics of solution pMDIs and potential applications in particle engineering for drug delivery.

  20. PELATIHAN RENANG GAYA DADA 8 KALI 25 METER 4 SET LEBIH MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN RENANG 100 METER GAYA DADA DARIPADA 4 KALI 50 METER 4 SET PADA RENANG PEMULA PUTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Suarta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sports pool in Indonesia are well known to the public, which is reduced when driving (after the end of the recovery to begin hand pull another hand, the breaststroke is the style of the most interesting because it does not quickly tiring when compared with other styles, because the process of respiration take place with ease, making them easier use in long-distance swim, at the start to affect the pace to continue this next movement needs to get training and a variety of training models, especially at students aged 10-12 years. Training pool 8 times 25 times 50 meters and 4 meters is one of the training methods that can speed up travel time. The best training model has not been encountered in the data. So do the research to find a model training 25 meter pool 8 times and 4 times 4 sets of 50 meters. The study was conducted with pretest-postes group design. Samples taken from the novice swimmer Toya Ening on Dalung Badung, as many as 26 people were randomly selected simple. Samples were divided into 2 groups each group totaled 13 people. Both groups were equally give training in the first group to pool 8 by 25 feet 4 sets, and 4 times the second group of 4 sets of 50 meters. 0.05 ab. Differences in results were analyzed statistically with  The data analyzed were age, height, weight, leg length and physical fitness.  13.49 seconds.± 107.69, and 126.38 ±The mean test results of the final 100 meter breaststroke swimming in a row 12.14 seconds  F count the results obtained respectively by 0.95 seconds with p = 0.59 and 0.93 seconds with a value of p = 0.34. Data showed significant differences significant (p> 0.05. These results indicate that the training of swimming the breaststroke 8 by 25 feet 4 sets is better than 4 times in 4 sets of 50 meter speed up travel time 100-meter breaststroke swimming novice men (p <0.05. Suggested the use of breaststroke swimming training method 8 by 25 feet 4 sets to be intensified to provide training pool at 100

  1. [A portable impedance meter for monitoring liquid compartments of human body under space flight conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, V B; Nikolaev, D V; Tuĭkin, S A; Kozharinov, V I; Grachev, V A

    2007-01-01

    A portable two-frequency tetrapolar impedance meter was developed to study the state of liquid compartments of human body under zero-gravity conditions. The portable impedance meter makes it possible to monitor the hydration state of human body under conditions of long-term space flight on board international space station.

  2. Design and Realization of a Condition Management System for the Gateway Electrical Energy Metering Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the construction of firm and intelligent power grid in China, it is difficult for the traditional management method of electrical energy metering device to meet the prospecting requirements. Using the computer and internet techniques to realize the information and intelligentization of the electrical energy metering management has become a necessary guarantee of improving power supply ability, marketing control, and customer service. This paper introduced a kind of large and intelligent condition management system of the gateway electrical energy metering device. The key technologies and realize process were analyzed. Moreover, a detailed description of the application modules such as the GIS smart display of metering point, the condition management of metering devices and the visual monitoring of metering point was presented. The trial operation in the selected transformer substations and the power stations of Chongqing Power Electrical Corp. indicated that, the condition management system is very open, safety and efficient. According to the data exchange with the production and scheduling platform, the system improved the efficient operation of the electrical energy metering devices. Meanwhile, combined with the real-time visual monitoring, the condition management system improved the prevention ability of electricity filching, realized the unified automatic large-scale management of electrical energy metering devices.

  3. 46 CFR 162.050-27 - Oil content meter: Approval tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) of this section are repeated. (2) If the meter has a positive displacement mixture pump, the mixture... content reading is obtained and recorded. (3) If the meter has a positive displacement mixture pump, the... provided in a specific test, the centrifugal pump shown in Figure 162.050-19 in § 162.050-19 must...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1860 - Peak-flow meter for spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peak-flow meter for spirometry. 868.1860 Section 868.1860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spirometry. (a) Identification. A peak-flow meter for spirometry is a device used to measure a...

  5. Pilot project SPINOZA - branch-integrated metering; Pilotprojekt SPINOZA - spartenintegrierte Zaehlerauslesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenz, Werner [Stadtwerke Karlsruhe Netze GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Ruoff, Erwin [Stadtwerke Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    Public utilities Karlsruhe GmbH has started in August 2008 the Smart Meter Pilot project SPINOZA (field integrated on-line metering). The aim is to collect experiences for the utilization of advanced technologies, which are required up to 2010 at least for power and gas supply. (orig./GL)

  6. Infants Use Meter to Categorize Rhythms and Melodies: Implications for Musical Structure Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, E.E.; Johnson, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about whether infants perceive meter, the underlying temporal structure of music. We employed a habituation paradigm to examine whether 7-month-old infants could categorize rhythmic and melodic patterns on the basis of the underlying meter, which was implied from event and accent frequency of occurrence. In Experiment 1, infants…

  7. Agreement of Power Measures between Garmin Vector and SRM Cycle Power Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Andrew R.; Dascombe, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if the Garmin Vector (Schaffhausen, Switzerland) power meter produced acceptable measures when compared with the Schoberer Rad Messetechnik (SRM; Julich, Germany) power meter across a range of high-intensity efforts. Twenty-one well-trained cyclists completed power profiles (seven maximal mean efforts between 5 and…

  8. Acceptance of Privacy-Sensitive Technologies: Smart Metering Case in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alabdulkarim, L.O.; Lukszo, Z.; Fens, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Over recent years there have been several initiatives around the world that aim to roll out smart metering systems, especially within North America and member states of the European Union. Smart metering systems, giving essential conditions for smart grids in the energy sector, can offer services ai

  9. Privacy-Preserving Smart Metering with Authentication in a Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Beom Hur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional security objectives of smart grids have been availability, integrity, and confidentiality. However, as the grids incorporate smart metering and load management, user and corporate privacy is increasingly becoming an issue in smart grid networks. Although transmitting current power consumption levels to the supplier or utility from each smart meter at short intervals has an advantage for the electricity supplier’s planning and management purposes, it threatens user privacy by disclosing fine-grained consumption data and usage behavior to utility providers. In this study, we propose a distributed incremental data aggregation scheme where all smart meters on an aggregation path are involved in routing the data from the source meter to the collection unit. User privacy is preserved by symmetric homomorphic encryption, which allows smart meters to participate in the aggregation without seeing any intermediate or final result. Aggregated data is further integrated with an aggregate signature to achieve data integrity and smart meter authentication in such a way that dishonest or fake smart meters cannot falsify data en route. Only the collection unit can obtain the aggregated data and verify its integrity while the individual plain data are not exposed to the collection unit. Therefore, user privacy and security are improved for the smart metering in a smart grid network.

  10. Fission Meter Information Barrier Attribute Measurement System: Task 1 Report: Document existing Fission Meter neutron IB system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, P. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    An SNM attribute Information Barrier (IB) system was developed for a 2011 US/UK Exercise. The system was modified and extensively tested in a 2013-2014 US-UK Measurement Campaign. This work demonstrated rapid deployment of an IB system for potential treaty use. The system utilizes an Ortec Fission Meter neutron multiplicity counter and custom computer code. The system demonstrates a proof-of-principle automated Pu-240 mass determination with an information barrier. After a software start command is issued, the system automatically acquires and downloads data, performs an analysis, and displays the results. This system conveys the results of a Pu mass threshold measurements in a way the does not reveal sensitive information. In full IB mode, only red/green ‘lights’ are displayed in the software. In test mode, more detailed information is displayed. The code can also read in, analyze, and display results from previously acquired or simulated data. Because the equipment is commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), the system demonstrates a low-cost short-lead-time technology for treaty SNM attribute measurements. A deployed system will likely require integration of additional authentication and tamper-indicating technologies. This will be discussed for the project in this and future progress reports.

  11. Thirty Meter Telescope: observatory software requirements, architecture, and preliminary implementation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, David R.; Angeli, George; Boyer, Corinne; Sirota, Mark; Trinh, Thang

    2008-07-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be a ground-based, 30-m optical-IR alt-az telescope with a highly segmented primary mirror located in a remote location. Efficient science operations require the asynchronous coordination of many different sub-systems including telescope mount, three independent active optics sub-systems, adaptive optics, laser guide stars, and user-configured science instrument. An important high-level requirement is target acquisition and observatory system configuration must be completed in less than 5 minutes (or 10 minutes if moving to a new instrument). To meet this coordination challenge and target acquisition time requirement, a distributed software architecture is envisioned consisting of software components linked by a service-based software communications backbone. A master sequencer coordinates the activities of mid-layer sequencers for the telescope, adaptive optics, and selected instrument. In turn, these mid-layer sequencers coordinate the activities of groups of sub-systems. In this paper, TMT observatory requirements are presented in more detail, followed by a description of the design reference software architecture and a discussion of preliminary implementation strategies.

  12. ACCURATE KAP METER CALIBRATION AS A PREREQUISITE FOR OPTIMISATION IN PROJECTION RADIOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusek, A; Sandborg, M; Carlsson, G Alm

    2016-06-01

    Modern X-ray units register the air kerma-area product, PKA, with a built-in KAP meter. Some KAP meters show an energy-dependent bias comparable with the maximum uncertainty articulated by the IEC (25 %), adversely affecting dose-optimisation processes. To correct for the bias, a reference KAP meter calibrated at a standards laboratory and two calibration methods described here can be used to achieve an uncertainty of energy-independent dosemeter via a reference beam quality in the clinic, Q1, to beam quality, Q Biases up to 35 % of built-in KAP meter readings were noted. Energy-dependent calibration factors are needed for unbiased PKA Accurate KAP meter calibration as a prerequisite for optimisation in projection radiography.

  13. Study on Negative-pressure Precision Millet Seed-metering Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huali Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional millet drilling method has a problem of labor-intensive artificial thinning-out, so a negative-pressure precision millet seed-metering device was designed to realize millet precision dibble seeding. Single factor experiment researches effect of rotational speed and air-chamber vacuum of seed-metering device on its seed-metering passing rate, repeat-sowing rate and leak-sowing rate. By means of orthogonal experiment method, optimal parameters of seed-metering device were defined, which was 20 r/min rotational speed, 4 mm bore diameter, 1.5 KPa air-chamber vacuum and 55 mm air cut valve arc length. The field test result shows that the seed-metering device meets completely standards of “Single-seed (Precise Seeder Technological Requirements” and agronomic requirements.

  14. Design and Implementation of an Ultrasonic Heat Meter Based on MSP430F437

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue; HE Yu-zhu; ZHOU Hai-li; CHEN Gong; ZHANG Qingrong

    2011-01-01

    Flowing with the reform of the hot water heating method in China, heat meter will enter into households in the near future. A portable ultrasonic heat meter is designed in this paper. The meter uses chip microprocessor MSP430F437 as the data process core, and uses ultrasonic flow sensor to measure flow rate of the hot water, and capture input and output temperatures of the hot water using the thermal resistance sensor Ptl000, and then household energy consumption is calculated via temperature difference between input temperature and output temperature of the hot water multiplied by volume of hot water that is calculated though flow rate integration of hot water. In order to test the performance of the proposed heat meter, experiments is carried out. Both the temperature and flow measurement results satisfy the requirements of accuracy and the heat meter is effective in the heat measurement.

  15. The numerical analysis about the flow-hunting characteristics of the orifice meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang Hoon; Ahn, Seung Hee; Chung, Jong Tae; Her, Jae Young; Kim, Woo Sik [Korea Gas Corporation, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Generally, the flow hunting is observed in almost all of the orifice meters but the intensity of the flow hunting is different at each metering system. So, we are getting the questions as follows; why such a difference occurs and whether it influence to metering error rate or not. To investigate the flow hunting characteristics, we are trying to examine the flow characteristics around the orifice meter when the transient flow or pressure is generated at after the PCV(Pressure Control Valve) by 3D CFD method. And we have compared numerical results with experimental results at M - PCV station in order to clarify the relations with both the metering-pipeline diameter and flow rate. Finally, we can show some major factors influencing to the flow hunting and propose some correcting scheme of the flow hunting equation.

  16. Development of a contour meter; Desarrollo de un contornimetro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrada C, F.A. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Libertador 8250, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sanz, D.E. [Fundacion Escuela de Medicina Nuclear, Garibaldi 405, Capital, Mendoza (Argentina)]. e-mail: andrada@argentina.com

    2006-07-01

    The dosimetric calculation in patients that receive radiotherapy treatment it requires the one knowledge of the geometry of some anatomical portions, which differs from a patient to another. Making reference to the specific case of mammary neoplasia, one of the measurements that is carried out on the patient is the acquisition of the contour of the breast, which is determined from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the lateral of the thorax, below the armpit, with the patient located in the irradiation position. This measurement is carried out with the help of a mechanical contour meter that is a device conformed by a series of wires with a polymeric coating, which support on the breast of the patient and it reproduces its form. Then it is transported in the more careful possible form on a paper and the contour is traced with a tracer one. The geometric error associated to this procedure is of {+-}1 cm, which is sensitive of being reduced. The present work finds its motivation in the patient's radiological protection radiotherapy. The maximum error in dose allowed in radiotherapeutic treatments is 5%. It would be increase the precision and with it to optimize the treatment received by the patient, reducing the error in the acquisition process of the mammary contour. With this objective, a digital device is designed whose operation is based in the application of a spatial transformation on a picture of the mammary contour, which corrects the geometric distortion introduced in the process of the photographic acquisition. An algorithm that allows to obtain a front image (without distortion) of the plane of the contour was developed. A software tool especially developed carries out the processing of the digital images. The maximum geometric error detected in the validation process is 2 mm located on a small portion of the contour. (Author)

  17. Liquid Metering Centrifuge Sticks (LMCS): A Centrifugal Approach to Metering Known Sample Volumes for Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Schultz, John R.; Clarke, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    Phase separation is one of the most significant obstacles encountered during the development of analytical methods for water quality monitoring in spacecraft environments. Removing air bubbles from water samples prior to analysis is a routine task on earth; however, in the absence of gravity, this routine task becomes extremely difficult. This paper details the development and initial ground testing of liquid metering centrifuge sticks (LMCS), devices designed to collect and meter a known volume of bubble-free water in microgravity. The LMCS uses centrifugal force to eliminate entrapped air and reproducibly meter liquid sample volumes for analysis with Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE). C-SPE is a sorption-spectrophotometric platform that is being developed as a potential spacecraft water quality monitoring system. C-SPE utilizes solid phase extraction membranes impregnated with analyte-specific colorimetric reagents to concentrate and complex target analytes in spacecraft water samples. The mass of analyte extracted from the water sample is determined using diffuse reflectance (DR) data collected from the membrane surface and an analyte-specific calibration curve. The analyte concentration can then be calculated from the mass of extracted analyte and the volume of the sample analyzed. Previous flight experiments conducted in microgravity conditions aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft demonstrated that the inability to collect and meter a known volume of water using a syringe was a limiting factor in the accuracy of C-SPE measurements. Herein, results obtained from ground based C-SPE experiments using ionic silver as a test analyte and either the LMCS or syringes for sample metering are compared to evaluate the performance of the LMCS. These results indicate very good agreement between the two sample metering methods and clearly illustrate the potential of utilizing centrifugal forces to achieve phase separation and metering of water samples in microgravity.

  18. System modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope alignment and phasing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekens, Frank G.; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Troy, Mitchell

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a system model using the System Modeling Language (SysML) for the Alignment and Phasing System (APS) on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). APS is a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor that will be used to measure the alignment and phasing of the primary mirror segments, and the alignment of the secondary and tertiary mirrors. The APS system model contains the ow-down of the Level 1 TMT requirements to APS (Level 2) requirements, and from there to the APS sub-systems (Level 3) requirements. The model also contains the operating modes and scenarios for various activities, such as maintenance alignment, post-segment exchange alignment, and calibration activities. The requirements ow-down is captured in SysML requirements diagrams, and we describe the process of maintaining the DOORS database as the single-source-of-truth for requirements, while using the SysML model to capture the logic and notes associated with the ow-down. We also use the system model to capture any needed communications from APS to other TMT systems, and between the APS sub-systems. The operations are modeled using SysML activity diagrams, and will be used to specify the APS interface documents. The modeling tool can simulate the top level activities to produce sequence diagrams, which contain all the communications between the system and subsystem needed for that activity. By adding time estimates for the lowest level APS activities, a robust estimate for the total time on-sky that APS requires to align and phase the telescope can be obtained. This estimate will be used to verify that the time APS requires on-sky meets the Level 1 TMT requirements.

  19. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  20. Carryover of bovine leukemia virus antibodies in samples from shared milk meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, O A; Sanchez, J; Keefe, G P

    2015-08-01

    Screening for infectious diseases of cattle using milk from the dairy herd improvement (DHI) sampling process is very convenient. However, when samples from shared milk meters are used, carryover of antibodies or other diagnostic targets can complicate the interpretation of the diagnostic test results for diseases, including bovine leukosis. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential for carryover of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in milk samples obtained from shared meters, and (2) to determine if adjustment of the diagnostic test cut-off value would improve the test characteristics for meter-collected milk ELISA results. Eight dairy farms were randomly selected from herds with a wide range of BLV prevalence levels in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Within each chosen farm, 2 to 4milk meters were randomly selected. During the routine procedures of DHI sampling, 2 simultaneous milk samples, 1 hand-collected at the beginning of milking (after udder preparation) and the other from the corresponding milk meter, were taken from all lactating cows (n=236) that were milked at the selected meters (n=26). The sequence of cows using each meter was recorded. All samples were tested for BLV antibodies using a commercial indirect ELISA. Antibody carryover potential was assessed in meter-collected samples which were preceded by other cows using the same meters. Applying the hand-collected sample results as our reference standard, a new cut-off was defined for meter-collected samples to optimize the test characteristics. At the standard cut-off value of the diagnostic test, 110 (46.6%) of the hand-collected and 136 (57.6%) of the meter-collected samples were positive. For low-titer cows (e.g., true negatives), the likelihood of antibody carryover significantly increased as the titer of preceding cows increased, whereas this change was not substantial for high-titer cows. The odds of obtaining false diagnoses in meter-positive samples became

  1. The NASA/AFRL Meter Class Autonomous Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Buckalew, B.; Frith, J.; Hickson, P.; Glesne, T.; Anz-Meador, P.; Barker, E.; Stansbery, G.; Kervin, P.

    2016-01-01

    For the past decade, the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has relied on using various ground-based telescopes in Chile to acquire statistical survey data as well as photometric and spectroscopic data of orbital debris in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). The statistical survey data have been used to supply the Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) v.3.0 with debris detections in GEO to better model the environment at altitudes where radar detections are limited. The data produced for the statistical survey ranged from 30 to 40 nights per year, which only accounted for 10% of the possible observing time. Data collection was restricted by ODPO resources and weather conditions. In order to improve the statistical sampling in GEO, as well as observe and sample other orbits, NASA's ODPO with support from the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), has constructed a new observatory dedicated to orbital debris - the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island. This location provides MCAT with the unique ability to access targets orbiting at an altitude of less than 1,000 km and low inclinations (< 20 deg). This orbital regime currently has little to no coverage by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network. Unlike previous ODPO optical assets, the ability to operate autonomously will allow rapid response observations of break-up events, an observing mode that was only available via radar tasking prior to MCAT's deployment. The primary goal of MCAT is to statistically characterize GEO via daily tasking files uploaded from ODPO. These tasking files define which operating mode to follow, providing the field center, rates, and/or targets to observe over the entire observing period. The system is also capable of tracking fast-moving targets in low Earth orbit (LEO), middle Earth orbit (MEO), as well as highly eccentric orbits like geostationary transfer orbits. On 25 August 2015, MCAT successfully acquired scientific first light, imaging the Bug Nebula and

  2. Observations of solar radio emissions in meter wavelengths carried by CALLISTO-BR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, F. C. R.; Silva, R. D. C.; Sodré, Z. A. L.; Costa, J. E. R.; Sawant, H. S.

    2012-04-01

    Two Callisto-type (Compound Astronomical Low-cost Low frequency Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatory) spectrographs are in operation in Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil, since 2010. The CALLISTO-BR integrates the e-Callisto network consisting of several radio spectrographs distributed around the world, for provide continuous monitoring (24 hours) of the solar activity in the meter frequency range of 45 - 870 MHz. The solar radio emissions observations carried out by Callisto can be used as a diagnostic of several physical processes on the Sun. Here, we present the observations of several bursts recorded by CALLISTO-BR, such as type I bursts associated with a long lasting noise storm, recorded on March 30, 2010 in the typical frequency band around 200 MHz; a group of normal drifting type III bursts recorded in March 31, 2010 and also in February 15, 2011 and a rarely observed broadband (~180 - 800 MHz) continuum emission presenting positive frequency drifting (from low to high frequencies), suggesting the source is moving towards photosphere. Observations of type II and type IV bursts were also recorded. Details of these and many other solar radio emissions recorded by CALLISTO-BR will be presented and their implications for the solar activity and space weather investigations will be discussed.

  3. Feeling music: integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin; Hsiao, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear, but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information in "feeling" musical rhythm, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, 'duple' (march-like rhythms) and 'triple' (waltz-like rhythms) presented in three conditions: 1) Unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone), 2) Various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts, and 3) Simultaneously presented bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70%-85%) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70%-90%) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60% when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90%). Performance drops dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10%), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60%), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. We believe that these results are the first demonstration of cross-modal sensory grouping between any two senses.

  4. Feeling music: integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Huang

    Full Text Available Musicians often say that they not only hear, but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information in "feeling" musical rhythm, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, 'duple' (march-like rhythms and 'triple' (waltz-like rhythms presented in three conditions: 1 Unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone, 2 Various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts, and 3 Simultaneously presented bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70%-85% when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70%-90% when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60% when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90%. Performance drops dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10%, as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60%, demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. We believe that these results are the first demonstration of cross-modal sensory grouping between any two senses.

  5. Doses monitoring in radiology: calibration of air kerma-area product (PKA meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrade Terini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The authors have sought to study the calibration of a clinical PKA meter (Diamentor E2 and a calibrator for clinical meters (PDC in the Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology at Instituto de Energia e Ambiente - Universidade de São Paulo. Materials and Methods Different qualities of both incident and transmitted beams were utilized in conditions similar to a clinical setting, analyzing the influence from the reference dosimeter, from the distance between meters, from the filtration and from the average beam energy. Calibrations were performed directly against a standard 30 cm3 cylindrical chamber or a parallel-plate monitor chamber, and indirectly against the PDC meter. Results The lowest energy dependence was observed for transmitted beams. The cross calibration between the Diamentor E2 and the PDC meters, and the PDC presented the greatest propagation of uncertainties. Conclusion The calibration coefficient of the PDC meter showed to be more stable with voltage, while the Diamentor E2 calibration coefficient was more variable. On the other hand, the PDC meter presented greater uncertainty in readings (5.0% than with the use of the monitor chamber (3.5% as a reference.

  6. Current meter and other data from meters on fixed platforms from the Chukchi Sea as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 14 July 1985 to 04 October 1987 (NODC Accession 8800032)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and other data were collected from meters on NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER AND NOAA Ship SURVEYOR in the Chukchi Sea by the University of Alaska - Fairbanks;...

  7. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean as part of the Ocean Prediction Through Observation Modeling and Analysis (OPTOMA) project, 26 September 1984 - 16 July 1985 (NODC Accession 9600075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean from September 26, 1984 to July 16, 1985. Data were submitted by...

  8. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of S. Alaska as part of the Fisheries-Oceanography Cooperative Investigations (FOCI) project from 21 August 1984 - 01 July 1985 (NCEI Accession 8700053)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of S. Alaska from August 21, 1984 to July 1, 1985. Data were submitted by...

  9. Current meter data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from 03 November 1992 - 05 December 1992 (NODC Accession 9600018)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from November 3, 1992 to...

  10. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the South Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 21 November 1981 - 20 November 1983 (NODC Accession 8500258)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the South Pacific Ocean from November 21, 1981 to November 20, 1983. Data were submitted by...

  11. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 20 January 1979 - 01 April 1984 (NODC Accession 8700077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from January 20, 1979 to April 1, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  12. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 30 April 1990 - 15 May 1991 (NODC Accession 9400005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from April 30, 1990 to May 15, 1991. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  13. Current meter and temperature profile data from current meter and buoy casts in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean from 27 April 1993 to 09 June 1994 (NODC Accession 9700042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using current meter and buoy casts in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean from 27 April 1993 to 09 June 1994....

  14. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 16 April 1984 - 01 October 1985 (NODC Accession 8700147)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from April 16, 1984 to October 1, 1985. Data were...

  15. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the SW Pacific (limit-147 E to 140 W) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 29 September 1985 to 01 April 1986 (NODC Accession 8800136)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the SW Pacific (limit-147 E to 140 W) from September 29, 1985 to June 1, 1986. Data were...

  16. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 20 January 1979 to 26 April 1984 (NODC Accession 8500007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from January 20, 1979 to April 26, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  17. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 01 May 1987 to 05 May 1987 (NODC Accession 9000211)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 01 May 1987 to 06 August 1988. Data were submitted...

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 28 May 1986 to 11 May 1987 (NODC Accession 8900168)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from 28 May 1986 to 01 May 1983. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  19. Current meter and other data from current meter casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North and South Pacific Ocean from 1984-06-28 to 1984-07-01 (NCEI Accession 8500226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and other data were collected using current meter casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean from June 28, 1984 to July 1, 1984....

  20. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 27 September 1979 - 01 December 1979 (NODC Accession 8100607)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea from September 27, 1979 to December 1, 1979. Data were submitted by...

  1. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 15 February 1979 - 01 February 1980 (NODC Accession 8100608)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea from February 15, 1979 to February 1, 1980. Data were submitted by University...

  2. Current meter data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest and Southwest Pacific Ocean from 01 October 1992 to 15 March 1993 (NODC Accession 9400088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest and Southwest Pacific Ocean from October 1, 1992 to March...

  3. Current meter components, physical, and other data from current meters and CTD casts from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN and other platforms as part of the VENTS program from 14 June 1996 to 05 October 1997 (NODC Accession 9800031)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components and physical data were collected from current meters and CTD casts from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN and other platforms from 14 June 1996 to...

  4. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit -40 W) as part of the Ocean Dumping project, 24 May 1990 - 17 June 1991 (NODC Accession 9300112)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit -40 W) from May 24, 1990 to June 17, 1991. Data were...

  5. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - Georges Bank (OCS -Georges Bank) project from 27 October 1980 - 01 November 1982 (NODC Accession 8600087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) from November 27, 1980 to November 1, 1982. Data were...

  6. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - Georges Bank (OCS -Georges Bank) project from 18 June 1978 - 28 August 1978 (NODC Accession 7900256)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from June 18, 1978 to August 28, 1978. Data were submitted by...

  7. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - Georges Bank (OCS -Georges Bank) project from 22 September 1977 - 10 November 1978 (NODC Accession 7900325)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from September 22, 1977 to November 10, 1978. Data were submitted by...

  8. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - Georges Bank (OCS -Georges Bank) project from 08 September 1978 - 01 October 1979 (NODC Accession 8100506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from September 8, 1978 to October 1, 1979. Data were submitted by...

  9. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - Georges Bank (OCS -Georges Bank) project from 12 May 1977 - 28 August 1979 (NODC Accession 7900300)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from May 12, 1977 to August 28, 1979. Data were submitted by Edgerton,...

  10. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - Georges Bank (OCS -Georges Bank) project from 25 October 1980 - 01 November 1982 (NODC Accession 8600046)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) from October 25, 1980 to November 1, 1982. Data were...

  11. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - Georges Bank (OCS -Georges Bank) project from 02 November 1977 - 14 September 1978 (NODC Accession 7900289)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from November 2, 1977 to September 14, 1978. Data were submitted by...

  12. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean as part of the Flow Over Abrupt Topography project from 06 January 1990 - 03 December 1991 (NODC Accession 9500077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean from January 6, 1990 to December 3, 1991. Data were submitted by...

  13. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - South Atlantic (OCS-South Atlantic) project from 01 August 1978 - 20 March 1979 (NODC Accession 7900312)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from August 1, 1978 to March 20, 1979. Data were submitted by Science...

  14. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North American Coastline-South as part of the Florida Atlantic Coastal Transport Study (FACTS) project 07 March 1984 - 01 September 1985 (NODC Accession 8600136)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North American Coastline-South from March 7, 1984 to September 1, 1985. Data were submitted...

  15. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of Hawaii as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 23 September 1980 - 01 December 1980 (NODC Accession 8100469)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of Hawaii from September 23, 1980 to December 1, 1980. Data were submitted...

  16. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon as part of the Low Level Waste Ocean Disposal project from 13 August 1979 - 27 September 1984 (NODC Accession 9500016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon from August 13, 1979 to September 27, 1984. Data...

  17. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon as part of the Land-Margin Ecosystem Research (LEML) project, 06 May 1997 - 19 October 1997 (NODC Accession 9800193)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon from May 6, 1997 to October 19, 1997. Data were...

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 27 December 1980 - 26 June 1986 (NODC Accession 9400011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from December 27, 1980 to June 26, 1986. Data were...

  19. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 18 October 1977-10-18 to 1979-07-01 (NCEI Accession 8000284)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico from October 18, 1977 to June 1, 1979. Data were submitted by Atlantic...

  20. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the High Energy Benthic Boundary Exp. (HEBBLE) project from 19 March 1983 - 01 August 1984 (NODC Accession 8900107)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from March 19, 1983 to August 1, 1984. Data were submitted by Woods...

  1. Current meter, phytoplankton, and wind data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Deep Ocean Mining and Environmental Study (DOMES) project, 29 August 1975 - 24 February 1977 (NODC Accession 7700458)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter, phytoplankton, and wind data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from August 29, 1975 to...

  2. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 21 March 1979 - 02 November 1979 (NODC Accession 8000032)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from March 21, 1979 to November 2, 1979. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  3. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 25 February 1976 - 01 September 1977 (NODC Accession 7800051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from February 25, 1976 to September 1, 1977. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  4. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 17 June 1977 - 01 August 1977 (NODC Accession 7800337)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from June 17, 1977 to August 1, 1977. Data were submitted by University of the...

  5. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 19 December 1977 - 29 October 1978 (NODC Accession 7900097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from December 19, 1977 to October 29, 1978. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  6. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 23 February 1977 - 11 December 1977 (NODC Accession 7900307)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from February 23, 1977 to December 11, 1977. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  7. Current meter and pressure gauge data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Alaska as part of the Fisheries-Oceanography Cooperative Investigations (FOCI) project, 26 April 1989 - 26 September 1989 (NODC Accession 9100068)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and pressure gauge data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Alaska from April 22, 1989 to September...

  8. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 16 September 1975 - 01 April 1976 (NODC Accession 7601229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from September 16, 1975 to April 1, 1976. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  9. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Long-Range Effects Program Puget Sound project from 29 November 1983 - 01 August 1984 (NODC Accession 8800119)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from November 29, 1983 to August 1, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  10. Design of SMS Prepaid Energy Meter for a Cashless Economy with Recharge Option and Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawuni Adeolu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the current trend of Information Technology in our present time, the lot in our daily life is developing accordingly, and energy meters are no exception to this phenomenon. An intelligent GSM based prepaid energy meter is developed to be able to accurately calculate the amount of consumed energy by a certain building, display the remaining energy available from a pre-purchase of electricity, by which is done by the means of recharge through SMS service. The energy meter provide the utility company with regular status of the meter on a predefined interval, and also display a real time on the user’s account update, which contributes to the retrieval of the balance of the meter, as well as keeping log of the consumed energy and remaining electricity of each user by the means of SMS. It also provide utility company the ability to send updated consumption rates according to the Time of Day Tariff (TDF to the meter on pre-defined intervals The methodology used is embedded system with control system. The prepaid energy meter concept is shown by Proteus 8 software simulation. The major components are AVR microcontroller, Voltage and Current transformer, LCD, Relay and a load. Electricity has become one of the basic requirements for people and widely used for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes. The software for this system was implemented with the use of embedded system code written onto the microcontroller. And the designed and implementation is an efficient way to collect billings for electricity consumptions, which further facilitate the recharge process of meters currently being used to the generalization and the acceptability in other to revolutionaries the entire metering system used in the 21st century.

  11. Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, E.K. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

  12. Study on the system-level test method of digital metering in smart substation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Min; Hu, Juan; Li, Fuchao; Luo, Ruixi; Li, Jinsong; Ai, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, the test methods of digital metering system in smart substation are used to test and evaluate the performance of a single device, but these methods can only effectively guarantee the accuracy and reliability of the measurement results of a digital metering device in a single run, it does not completely reflect the performance when each device constitutes a complete system. This paper introduced the shortages of the existing test methods. A system-level test method of digital metering in smart substation was proposed, and the feasibility of the method was proved by the actual test.

  13. Calibration of Soil Moisture Measurement Using Pr2 Moisture Meter and Gravimetric-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research study strongly focused on creating strong mechanism for measuring and evaluating soil moisture content comparing PR2 capacitance moisture meter and gravimetric approach. PR2 moisture meter shows a better performance accuracy of ± 6%; 0.06 m 3 /m 3 and intercept a0 =1.8; indicating the field is heavy clay. It measures to 1000 mm depth with high precision; while realistic result could not be obtained from gravimetric method at this measuring depth. Therefore, effective soil moisture measuring, monitoring and evaluation can be achieved with PR2 moisture meter.

  14. Experience of application of clamp-on cross-correlation flow meter in nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, Y. [Daystar Technology Inc., Ontario (Canada); Ton, V.; Kotenyov, S.; Zhao, C. [Ontario Power Generation, Ontario (Canada); Sharp, B.; Lopez, A. [Advanced Measurements and Analysis Group Inc., Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The cross-correlation clamp-on flow meter, CROSSFLOW, developed and manufactured by AMAG, has been used over the world for over 15 years for flow measurements in various systems in nuclear and fossil power plants. Prior that, OPG has used similar technology in Canadian nuclear power plants since 1980-ies. Two recent examples of the application of the clamp-on cross-correlation technology are presented in this paper. In first example OPG meter was used to verify accuracy of ASME nozzles installed in condensate flow lines. In second example AMAG meter was used to measure Diesel Cooling Water (DCW). (author)

  15. Smart Meter (Gateways). Attacks and implementation of a cost effective security solution; Smart Meter (Gateways). Angriffe und Umsetzung einer kostenguenstigen Sicherheitsloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Christoph [Fraunhofer Research Institution AISEC, Garching (Germany); Sigl, Georg [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Stumpf, Frederic

    2012-07-01

    Smart Meter (Gateways) are a central component of future Smart Grids and their secure operation must be ensured. In this paper, we first present several attacks on actual smart meter and gateway systems. Next, we describe a possible security solution which meets the requirements of the protection profile specified by the German Federal Office for Information Security (BIS) as far as possible with current available technology and includes additional security mechanisms. To realize a cost-efficient solution, we use off-the-shelf hardware for the mandatory Hardware Security Module (HSM) in form of a Trusted Platform Module (TPM). Finally, we give a brief overview on alternative approaches. (orig.)

  16. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S.; Stansbery, E. G.; Cowardin, H. M.; Kervin, P.; Hickson, P.

    2013-09-01

    The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is the newest optical sensor dedicated to NASA's mission to characterize the space debris environment. It is the successor to a series of optical telescopes developed and operated by the JSC Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) to monitor and assess the debris environment in (1) Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and (3) Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), with emphasis on LEO and GEO altitudes. A joint NASA-Air Force Research Labs project, MCAT is a 1.3m optical telescope dedicated to debris research. Its optical path and sensor yield a large survey fence at the cutting edge of current detector performance. It has four primary operational observing modes, two of which were not computationally feasible a decade ago. Operations are supported by a sophisticated software suite that monitors clouds and weather conditions, and controls everything from data collection to dome rotation to processing tens of GB of imagery data nightly. With fainter detection limits, precision detection, acquisition and tracking of targets, multi-color photometry, precision astrometry, automated re-acquisition capability, and the ability to process all data at the acquisition rate, MCAT is capable of producing and processing a volume and quality of data far in excess of any current (or prior) ODPO operations. This means higher fidelity population inputs and eliminating the multi-year backlog from acquisition-to-product typical of optical campaigns. All of this is possible given a suitable observing location. Originally planned for the island of Legan, part of the Kwajalein Atoll Islands, recent developments have led to a change in venue. Specifically, the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance, or GEODSS, System of telescopes is the United States' major tracking system for deep space. This network consists of telescopes in Maui, Hawaii; Diego Garcia (Indian Ocean), and Socorro, New Mexico. A fourth optical telescope, though

  17. Meter-scale characterization of surface processes and fault-related deformation using LiDAR topography (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrowsmith, R.; Crosby, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquake slip, fault zone geometric evolution, and geomorphic response to surface displacements from faulting are phenomena well manifest in topography at the meter scale. With laser ground return densities of multiple per square meter, LiDAR-derived topography provide a powerful tool to characterize features related to these processes at the appropriate scale. Many of the active faults in the western US, in particular the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system, have been scanned using LiDAR by community-oriented projects such as B4 and EarthScope. These data and many others (along with processed derivatives, dataset citation information, and educational and training materials) are available from the OpenTopography Facility (http://opentopography.org/). New meter-scale offsets along the SAF and other faults have been discovered and measured and known ones remeasured to provide a rich description of slip in the last few earthquakes. However, this method requires direct association of earthquake timing with measured (often cumulative) slip. Surface ruptures of recent earthquakes (Hector Mine, Denali, Sierra El Mayor) have been spectacularly documented by various research teams using LiDAR and other methods, and prepare us for future opportunities to directly measure post-event near field deformation with multi-temporal LiDAR surveys (the original motivator of the B4 project for the southern SAF and San Jacinto Fault). Cumulative ground deformation associated with repeated late Quaternary earthquakes produces the discontinuous fault zones well manifest in few km-wide swaths of LiDAR topography. Mapping these traces and associated landforms provides important ground rupture hazard information, locations of possible paleoseismic sites, and improved understanding of the structural geometry, mechanical behavior, and evolution of the shallow, velocity-strengthening portion of active fault zones. Fault-related deformation, in particular localized by geometric discontinuities

  18. The Meter arrives. A study of the information around the introduction of individual electricity meters; Maetaren kommer. En studie av informationen kring infoerandet av individuella elmaetare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maardsjoe Blume, Karin; Lindstedt, Inger

    2008-10-15

    From 1st July 2009 all electricity meters will be read once a month, which means that individual electricity meters will be installed for all users - private customers and businesses alike. This change will create the need for information to be circulated to the users about what will happen, why and what is expected of users. With a specific focus on the relation with private customers, the aim of this study has been to describe and analyse the information and communication strategies used by electricity and energy companies. The methodology has largely consisted of text and material analyses, in combination with an in-depth interview in order to study a company's entire communication chain. The material studied has consisted of ELAN-companies' information material and campaigns. The study's long-term objective is to contribute to a better understanding between user and company and improved knowledge of the field. Which information and communication strategies have been identified in the analysis? Three main areas are in focus here: the choice of genre, the choice of rhetorical approach and the interplay and overlap of texts and images. In terms of genre, it is clear that the spectrum is both wide and varied: letters, brochures, advertisements, postcards, 'road shows' with celebrities as attractions, etc. As the information requirement is great, the choice of genre and the creation of different kinds of material and campaigns are also wide-ranging. The companies have chosen to work in different ways, however, and the dividing line seems to be set between large and small companies, or in other words, companies with or without strong local ties. The companies with strong local connections - and generally speaking not very large - tend to use letters and personal contact. The large international companies make use of a number of contact channels to both stimulate customer interest and make contact. The rhetorical approach relates to the focus

  19. High Temperature, High Frequency Fuel Metering Valve Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Active Signal Technologies and its subcontractor Moog propose to develop a high-frequency actuator driven valve intended to achieve TRL 6 by the end of Phase II....

  20. Mental abilities and performance efficacy under a simulated 480 meters helium-oxygen saturation diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gonglin ehou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress in extreme environment severely disrupts human physiology and mental abilities. The present study investigated the cognition and performance efficacy of four divers during a simulated 480 meters helium-oxygen saturation diving. We analyzed the spatial memory, 2D/3D mental rotation functioning, grip strength, and hand-eye coordination ability in four divers during the 0 – 480 meters compression and decompression processes of the simulated diving. The results showed that except for its mild decrease on grip strength, the high atmosphere pressure condition significantly impaired the hand-eye coordination (especially at 300 meters, the reaction time and correct rate of mental rotation, as well as the spatial memory (especially as 410 meters, showing high individual variability. We conclude that the human cognition and performance efficacy are significantly affected during deep water saturation diving.

  1. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of the United States, with relief shading...

  2. USGS 100-Meter Resolution Land Cover of the Conterminous United States 201501 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains land cover data for the conterminous United States, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The land...

  3. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Alaska 201303 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Alaska is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Each color tint...

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii 201303 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Each color tint...

  5. 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Each color tint...

  6. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for the conterminous United States, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree...

  7. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Hawaii 201301 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  8. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Alaska 201301 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  9. Color Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution, Albers projection - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED is...

  10. Optimal Dimensioning of FiWi Networks over Advanced Metering Infrastructure for the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inga, Esteban; Peralta-Sevilla, Arturo; Hincapié, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    —In this paper, we propose a hybrid wireless mesh network infrastructure which connects the smart meters of each consumer with the data aggregation points (DAP). We suppose a set of smart meters that need to send information, and receive information from a central office on electrical enterprises...... through of the meter data management system (MDMS), and so forming the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) stage of smart grids. We consider a multi-hop system, where information is routed through several nodes which act as DAP. Wireless mesh networks are known to extend coverage and increase...... deployment efficiency, so they could be an alternative for the connection between Home Area Network (HAN) and the Neighborhood Area Network (NAN). However, the NAN data must be send through wider area cabled networks to Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), and based on the WDM-PON architecture. We consider...

  11. 100-Meter Resolution Land Cover of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains land cover data for the conterminous United States, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The land...

  12. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Color Hawaii Shaded Relief - 200-Meter Resolution 200512 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED is...

  13. Stellwagen Bank bathymetry - Percent slope derived from 5-meter bathymetric contour lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Percent slope of Stellwagen Bank bathymetry. Raster derived from 5-meter bathymetric contour lines (Quads 1-18). Collected on surveys carried out in 4 cruises 1994 -...

  14. Stellwagen Bank bathymetry - Degree slope derived from 5-meter bathymetric contour lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Degree slope of Stellwagen Bank bathymetry. Raster derived from 5-meter bathymetric contour lines (Quads 1-18). Collected on surveys carried out in 4 cruises 1994 -...

  15. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Hawaii 201301 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  16. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Alaska 201301 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  17. EnviroAtlas -- Paterson, New Jersey -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Paterson, New Jersey EnviroAtlas One Meter-scale Urban Land Cover data comprises approximately 66 km2 around the city of Paterson. The land cover data were...

  18. EnviroAtlas -- Austin, TX -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Austin, TX EnviroAtlas One Meter-scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data were generated from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural...

  19. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, New Jersey - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover (2010) Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Paterson, New Jersey EnviroAtlas One Meter-scale Urban Land Cover Web Service comprises approximately 66 km2 around the city of Paterson. The land cover data...

  20. 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of the Conterminous United States is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of the United States, in an Albers Equal-Area...

  1. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 100-Meter Resolution Elevation of Hawaii 201403 BIL

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing elevation for Hawaii, in meters relative to mean sea level. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  2. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Grayscale Hawaii Shaded Relief - 200-Meter Resolution 200509 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  3. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Hawaii 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Hawaii. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker green...

  4. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Alaska, with relief shading added to accentuate...

  5. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  6. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Alaska 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Alaska. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker green...

  7. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of the United States, with...

  8. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Hawaii, with relief shading added to accentuate...

  9. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of the United States, in an Albers...

  10. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Grayscale Alaska Shaded Relief - 200-Meter Resolution 200509 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  11. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Color Alaska Shaded Relief - 200-Meter Resolution 200512 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED is...

  12. Color Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution, Albers projection - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED is...

  13. Grayscale Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution, Albers projection - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  14. Grayscale Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution, Albers projection - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  15. A deployable 4-meter 180 to 680 GHz antenna for the Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Build and test a full size (4x2 meter aperture) breadboard antenna for SMLS. Demonstrate critical azimuth scanning capability of a 4m SMLS antenna and its...

  16. 100-Meter Resolution Land/Water Mask of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Land/Water Mask is a 100-meter resolution image of Alaska, with separate values for oceans and for land areas of the United States, Canada, and Russia.

  17. EnviroAtlas -- Memphis, TN (2012) -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Memphis, TN EnviroAtlas One Meter-scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) dataset comprises 2,733 km2 around the city of Memphis, surrounding towns, and rural areas. These...

  18. 27 CFR 24.28 - Installation of meters, tanks, and other apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Authorities § 24.28 Installation of meters, tanks, and other apparatus. The appropriate...

  19. 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Alaska is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Each color tint...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2011 and 2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Cleveland, OH EnviroAtlas Meter-scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) dataset comprises 2,737 km2 around the city of Cleveland and portions of surrounding counties. The...

  1. EnviroAtlas -- Green Bay, Wisconsin -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Green Bay, WI one meter-scale urban land cover (LC) dataset comprises 936 km2 around the city of Green Bay, surrounding towns, tribal lands and rural areas in...

  2. Tilt meters for the Alignment System of the CMS Experiment: Users Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.

    2007-09-27

    We present the instructions for the use of the electrolytic tilt meters installed in the link alignments system of the CMS experimental and give the Data Base to be used as a Handbook during CMS operation. (Author) 16 refs.

  3. 100-Meter Resolution Land/Water Mask of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Land/Water Mask is a 100-meter resolution image of the conterminous United States, with separate values for oceans and for land areas of the United States,...

  4. Low dose creatine supplementation enhances sprint phase of 400 meters swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anomasiri, Wilai; Sanguanrungsirikul, Sompol; Saichandee, Pisut

    2004-09-01

    This study demonstrated the effect of low dose creatine supplement (10 g. per day) on the sprinting time in the last 50 meters of 400 meters swimming competition, as well as the effect on exertion. Nineteen swimmers in the experimental group received creatine monohydrate 5 g with orange solution 15 g, twice per day for 7 days and nineteen swimmers in the control group received the same quantity of orange solution. The results showed that the swimmers who received creatine supplement lessened the sprinting time in the last 50 meters of 400 meters swimming competition than the control group. (pcreatine supplement in the experiment group. Therefore, the creatine supplement in amateur swimmers in the present study enhanced the physical performance up to the maximum capacity.

  5. Southern Ocean JGOFS Time Series CTD and Current Meters (NODC Accession 9900167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and current meter data sets were collected in the Southern Oceans from ROGER REVILLE and moored CTD. Data were collected from 30 October 1997 to 16 March 1998 by...

  6. NODC Standard Format Current Meter (Components) (F015) Data (1962-1992) (NCEI Accession 0066358)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains time series measurements of ocean currents. These data are obtained from current meter moorings and represent the Eulerian method of current...

  7. Evaluation of energy responses for neutron dose-equivalent meters made in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saegusa, J. E-mail: saegusa@popsvr.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Yoshizawa, M.; Tanimura, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Yamano, T.; Nakaoka, H

    2004-01-01

    Energy responses of three types of Japanese neutron dose-equivalent (DE) meters were evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations and measurements. The energy responses were evaluated for thermal neutrons, monoenergetic neutrons with energies up to 15.2 MeV, and also for neutrons from such radionuclide sources as {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}Am-Be. The calculated results were corroborated with the measured ones. The angular dependence of the response and the DE response were also evaluated. As a result, reliable energy responses were obtained by careful simulations of the proportional counter, moderator and absorber of the DE meters. Furthermore, the relationship between pressure of counting gas and response of the DE meter was discussed. By using the obtained responses, relations between predicted readings of the DE meters and true DE values were studied for various workplace spectra.

  8. EnviroAtlas -- Fresno, California -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Fresno, CA EnviroAtlas One-Meter-scale Urban Land Cover Data were generated via supervised classification of combined aerial photography and LiDAR data. The air...

  9. EnviroAtlas -- Des Moines, IA -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Des Moines, IA EnviroAtlas Meter-scale Urban Land Cover Data were generated from the High Resolution Land Cover (HRLC) product created by the Iowa Department of...

  10. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The New York, NY EnviroAtlas Meter-scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data were generated by the University of Vermont Spatial Analysis Laboratory (SAL) under the...

  11. The ac and dc electric field meters developed for the US Department of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, H.; Johnston, A.; Jackson, S.; Sheu, K.

    1987-01-01

    Two space-potential electric field meters developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy are described. One of the meters was designed to measure dc fields, the other ac fields. Both meters use fiber optics to couple a small measuring probe to a remote readout device, so as to minimize field perturbation due to the presence of the probe. By using coherent detection, it has been possible to produce instruments whose operating range extends from about 10 V/m up to about 2.5 kV/cm, without the need for range switching on the probe. The electrical and mechanical design of both meters are described in detail. Data from laboratory tests are presented, as well as the results of the tests at the National Bureau of Standards and the Electric Power Research Institute's High Voltage Transmission Research Facility.

  12. Compact Mass Flow Meter Based on a Micro Coriolis Flow Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco Wiegerink

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate a compact ready-to-use micro Coriolis mass flow meter. The full scale flow is 1 g/h (for water at a pressure drop < 1 bar. It has a zero stability of 2 mg/h and an accuracy of 0.5% reading for both liquids and gases. The temperature drift between 10 and 50 °C is below 1 mg/h/°C. The meter is robust, has standard fluidic connections and can be read out by means of a PC or laptop via USB. Its performance was tested for several common gases (hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, argon and air and liquids (water and isopropanol. As in all Coriolis mass flow meters, the meter is also able to measure the actual density of the medium flowing through the tube. The sensitivity of the measured density is ~1 Hz.m3/kg.

  13. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for the conterminous United States, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The...

  14. Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a 20 meter shuttle run test in female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Özgür Bulduk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of physical exercise on oxidant stress and antioxidants has been investigated extensively in the last twenty years. Cells continuously produce free radicals under normal conditions during mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC. Experimental studies have shown elevated metabolic rate by strenuous physical exercise induces oxidative stress and production of excessive amounts of free radicals. Lipid peroxidation occurs when free radicals react with cellular components involving polyunsaturated fatty acid residues of phospholipids which are very sensitive to oxidation. This study aimed to determine plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a 20 meter shuttle run test in female volleyball players. Ten female volleyball players from the same team, and ten sedentary female ages between 18-24 years old volunteered to participate in this study. They were in good health and 48 hours before the test did not receive any drug or alcohol. None of them had any endocrine, orthopedic problems. Before the study, Informed, written consent was obtained from all the participants after full explanation of the procedures involved. All procedures were approved by the Selçuk University Meram Medical School of Ethical Committee. 20 meter shuttle run test was designed to estimate the maximal aerobic power of athletes performing in sports with frequent stops and starts (eg. Basketball, volleyball, fencing and so on. Findings of our study demonstrate that in both female groups 20 meter shuttle run test leads to production of more reactive oxygen species than the antioxidant systems can scavenge. Decrease in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes may be due to their inactivation caused by the higher production of the free radicals. it seems that the vulnerability of the body to oxidative stress is significantly enhanced after strenuous exercise test.

  15. Design And Construction Of Digital Multi-Meter Using PIC Microcontroller

    OpenAIRE

    Khawn Nue; Dr. KyawSoe Lwin; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis describes the design and construction of digital multi-meter using PIC microcontroller. In this system a typical multi-meter may include features such as the ability to measure ACDC voltage DC current resistance temperature diodes frequency and connectivity. This design uses of the PIC microcontroller voltage rectifiers voltage divide potentiometer LCD and other instruments to complete the measure. When we used what we have learned of microprocessors and adjust the progra...

  16. Simple Wide Frequency Range Impedance Meter Based on AD5933 Integrated Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Chabowski Konrad; Piasecki Tomasz; Dzierka Andrzej; Nitsch Karol

    2015-01-01

    As it contains elements of complete digital impedance meter, the AD5933 integrated circuit is an interesting solution for impedance measurements. However, its use for measurements in a wide range of impedances and frequencies requires an additional digital and analogue circuitry. This paper presents the design and performance of a simple impedance meter based on the AD5933 IC. Apart from the AD5933 IC it consists of a clock generator with a programmable prescaler, a novel DC offset canceller ...

  17. Energy Autonomous Wireless Water Meter with Integrated Turbine Driven Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P.; Folkmer, B.; Goepfert, R.; Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Manoli, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate meter reading is the fundamental task of the home water system for the handling of payments. Meters need to be read correctly, to avoid an effect of adding events that increase unnecessary cost and create customer dissatisfaction. This paper presents a fully integrated wireless, energy autonomous water metering system based on the European Standard EN 13757 "Communication systems for meters and remote reading of meters". The system can be used in multiple water metering scenarios. No maintenance will be required and the system will provide precise and secure data transmission as well as timely and accurate recording of the consumption of water. The identification of any leakages will be improved through the analysis of the actual quantity supplied and recorded by the meters. The system is powered by an energy harvester, based on a water driven turbine wheel that is directly coupled to an electromagnetic energy transducer. The power delivered by the generator is dependent of the amount of flowing water and the pressure in the water pipes. Therefor the power is commonly non-continuous, fluctuant and unstable in the voltage amplitude. To be able to report the meter readings at all times, the system needs to be powered not only in times when the energy harvester delivers energy. Therefor an energy buffer, that stores the harvested energy, is installed to compensate the energy requirement between the actual generator output and the energy consumption of the application. Besides a complete system overview, the presentation will focus on the power management and energy aware battery charging circuitry. The design, fabrication, measuring results and the preparations for field tests in rural and urban environment will be presented and discussed.

  18. A transit-time flow meter for measuring milliliter per minute liquid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Canqian; Kymmel, Mogens; Søeberg, Henrik

    1988-01-01

    A transit-time flow meter, using periodic temperature fluctuations as tracers, has been developed for measuring liquid flow as small as 0.1 ml/min in microchannels. By injecting square waves of heat into the liquid flow upstream with a tiny resistance wire heater, periodic temperature fluctuations....... This flow meter will be used to measure and control the small liquid flow in microchannels in flow injection analysis. Review of Scientific Instruments is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  19. Dance and Music in "Gangnam Style": How Dance Observation Affects Meter Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Myun Lee

    Full Text Available Dance and music often co-occur as evidenced when viewing choreographed dances or singers moving while performing. This study investigated how the viewing of dance motions shapes sound perception. Previous research has shown that dance reflects the temporal structure of its accompanying music, communicating musical meter (i.e. a hierarchical organization of beats via coordinated movement patterns that indicate where strong and weak beats occur. Experiments here investigated the effects of dance cues on meter perception, hypothesizing that dance could embody the musical meter, thereby shaping participant reaction times (RTs to sound targets occurring at different metrical positions.In experiment 1, participants viewed a video with dance choreography indicating 4/4 meter (dance condition or a series of color changes repeated in sequences of four to indicate 4/4 meter (picture condition. A sound track accompanied these videos and participants reacted to timbre targets at different metrical positions. Participants had the slowest RT's at the strongest beats in the dance condition only. In experiment 2, participants viewed the choreography of the horse-riding dance from Psy's "Gangnam Style" in order to examine how a familiar dance might affect meter perception. Moreover, participants in this experiment were divided into a group with experience dancing this choreography and a group without experience. Results again showed slower RTs to stronger metrical positions and the group with experience demonstrated a more refined perception of metrical hierarchy. Results likely stem from the temporally selective division of attention between auditory and visual domains. This study has implications for understanding: 1 the impact of splitting attention among different sensory modalities, and 2 the impact of embodiment, on perception of musical meter. Viewing dance may interfere with sound processing, particularly at critical metrical positions, but embodied

  20. Dance and Music in "Gangnam Style": How Dance Observation Affects Meter Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Myun; Barrett, Karen Chan; Kim, Yeonhwa; Lim, Yeoeun; Lee, Kyogu

    2015-01-01

    Dance and music often co-occur as evidenced when viewing choreographed dances or singers moving while performing. This study investigated how the viewing of dance motions shapes sound perception. Previous research has shown that dance reflects the temporal structure of its accompanying music, communicating musical meter (i.e. a hierarchical organization of beats) via coordinated movement patterns that indicate where strong and weak beats occur. Experiments here investigated the effects of dance cues on meter perception, hypothesizing that dance could embody the musical meter, thereby shaping participant reaction times (RTs) to sound targets occurring at different metrical positions.In experiment 1, participants viewed a video with dance choreography indicating 4/4 meter (dance condition) or a series of color changes repeated in sequences of four to indicate 4/4 meter (picture condition). A sound track accompanied these videos and participants reacted to timbre targets at different metrical positions. Participants had the slowest RT's at the strongest beats in the dance condition only. In experiment 2, participants viewed the choreography of the horse-riding dance from Psy's "Gangnam Style" in order to examine how a familiar dance might affect meter perception. Moreover, participants in this experiment were divided into a group with experience dancing this choreography and a group without experience. Results again showed slower RTs to stronger metrical positions and the group with experience demonstrated a more refined perception of metrical hierarchy. Results likely stem from the temporally selective division of attention between auditory and visual domains. This study has implications for understanding: 1) the impact of splitting attention among different sensory modalities, and 2) the impact of embodiment, on perception of musical meter. Viewing dance may interfere with sound processing, particularly at critical metrical positions, but embodied familiarity with

  1. Hayward Fault rate constraints at Berkeley: Evaluation of the 335-meter Strawberry Creek offset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. L.

    2007-12-01

    At UC Berkeley the active channel of Strawberry Creek is offset 335 meters by the Hayward fault and two abandoned channels of Strawberry Creek are laterally offset 580 and 730 meters. These relationships record the displacement of the northern Hayward fault at Berkeley over a period of tens of millennia. The Strawberry Creek site has a similar geometry to the central San Andreas fault's Wallace Creek site, which arguably provides the best geological evidence of "millennial" fault kinematics in California (Sieh and Jahns, 1984). Slip rate determinations are an essential component of overall hazard evaluation for the Hayward fault, and this site is ripe to disclose a long-term form of this parameter, to contrast with geodetic and other geological rate evidence. Large offsets at the site may lower uncertainty in the rate equation relative to younger sites, as the affect of stream abandonment age, generally the greatest source of rate uncertainty, is greatly reduced. This is helpful here because it more-than-offsets uncertainties resulting from piercing projections to the fault. Strawberry Creek and its ancestral channels suggest west-side-up vertical deformation across the Hayward fault at this location. The development of the vertical deformation parameter will complement ongoing geodetic measurements, particularly InSAR, and motivate testing of other geological constraints. Up-to-the-west motion across the Hayward fault at Berkeley has important implications for the partitioning of strain and kinematics of the northern Hayward fault, and may explain anomalous up-on-the-west landforms elsewhere along the fault. For example, geological features of the western Berkeley Hills are consistent with rapid and recent uplift to the west of the fault. On the basis of a preliminary analysis of the offset channels of Strawberry Creek, up-to-the-west uplift is about 0.5mm/yr across the Hayward fault at Berkeley. If this is in fact the long-term rate, the 150 m height of the Hills

  2. The response of various neutron dose meters considering the application at a high energy particle accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Gutermuth, F; Fehrenbacher, G; Festag, J G

    2003-01-01

    The applicability of several neutron detectors for dose measurements at a neutron field typical for high energy particle accelerators is investigated. The response of four commercially available active neutron dose meters and two passive detectors to neutrons from a sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be(alpha,n) source and to neutrons at the CERN EU high energy reference field was determined experimentally and simulated using the Monte-Carlo code FLUKA. Fluence response functions and dose responses for the different detectors were calculated in the energy range between 1 keV and 10 GeV. The results show that the dose response to the high energy neutron field at CERN of the conventional rem-counters is lower by a factor of 2 to 2.5 if compared to the dose response to a sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be(alpha,n) neutron source. The rem-counters exhibiting an additional layer of lead inside the moderating structure showed dose readings which differ only up to 25%. A thermoluminescent based neutron detector was tested for comparison. Th...

  3. Evaluation and testing of metering pumps for high-level nuclear waste slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.E.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Blair, H.T.

    1986-06-01

    The metering pump system that delivers high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) slurry to a melter is an integral subsystem of the vitrification process. The process of selecting a pump for this application began with a technical review of pumps typically used for slurry applications. The design and operating characteristics of numerous pumps were evaluated against established criteria. Two pumps, an air-displacement slurry (ADS) pump and an air-lift pump, were selected for further development. In the development activity, from FY 1983 to FY 1985, the two pumps were subjected to long-term tests using simulated melter feed slurries to evaluate the pumps' performances. Throughout this period, the designs of both pumps were modified to better adapt them for this application. Final reference designs were developed for both the air-displacement slurry pump and the air-lift pump. Successful operation of the final reference designs has demonstrated the feasibility of both pumps. A fully remote design of the ADS pump has been developed and is currently undergoing testing at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Five designs of the ADS pump were tested and evaluated. The initial four designs proved the operating concept of the ADS pump. Weaknesses in the ADS pump system were identified and eliminated in later designs. A full-scale air-lift pump was designed and tested as a final demonstration of the air-lift pump's capabilities.

  4. Autonomous Scheduling of the 1.3-meter Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Gelderman, Richard; Carini, Michael T.; Davis, Donald R.; Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, Edward F.; McGruder, Charles H., III; Tedesco, Edward F.; Walter, Donald K.

    2011-03-01

    The 1.3-meter telescope at Kitt Peak operates as a fully robotic instrument for optical imaging. An autonomous scheduling algorithm is an essential component of this observatory, and has been designed to manage numerous requests in various imaging modes in a manner similar to how requests are managed at queue-scheduled observatories, but with greater efficiency. Built from the INSGEN list generator and process spawner originally developed for the Berkeley Automatic Imaging Telescope, the RCT scheduler manages and integrates multi-user observations in real time, according to target and exposure information and program-specific constraints (e.g., user assigned priority, moon avoidance, airmass, or temporal constraints), while accounting for instrument limitations, meteorologic conditions, and other technical constraints. The robust system supports time-critical requests, such as with coordinated observations, while also providing short-term (hours) and long-term (days) monitoring capabilities, and one-off observations. We discuss the RCT scheduler, its current decision tree, and future prospects including integration with active partner-share monitoring (which factor into future observation requests) to insure fairness and parity of requests.

  5. Isothermal calorimetry: a predictive tool to model drug-propellant interactions in pressurized metered dose systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jesslynn; Gaisford, Simon; Boyd, Ben J; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2014-01-30

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate gas perfusion isothermal calorimetry (ITC) as a method to characterize the physicochemical changes of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) intended to be formulated in pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) after exposure to a model propellant. Spray dried samples of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) and salbutamol sulphate (SS) were exposed to controlled quantities of 2H,3H-decafluoropentane (HPFP) to determine whether ITC could be used as a suitable analytical method for gathering data on the behavioural properties of the powders in real time. The crystallization kinetics of BDP and the physiochemical properties of SS were successfully characterized using ITC and supported by a variety of other analytical techniques. Correlations between real and model propellant systems were also established using hydrofluoroalkane (HFA-227) propellant. In summary, ITC was found to be suitable for gathering data on the crystallization kinetics of BDP and SS. In a wider context, this work will have implications on the use of ITC for stability testing of APIs in HFA-based pMDIs.

  6. 关于计量管理中智能电能表的研究%Research(on(the(management(of(smart(metering(energy(meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张遥奇; 康峰

    2013-01-01

    随着智能电网的建设,智能电能表也广泛应用,具有精度高、频带宽、过载能力强等特点。智能电网的目的是提高电网运营的安全性、可靠性和经济性,降低用户的电费支出,并提高能源利用效率,实现节能减排。本文在研究了感应式电能表存在问题的基础上,着重论述了智能电能表的特点、类型和功能以及智能电能表的应用。%With the construction of the smart grid, smart meter is also widely used, with high precision, frequency bandwidth, overload, and other characteristics. The purpose of the smart grid is to improve the grid operator safety, reliability and economy, and reduce elec-tricity costs and improve energy efficiency, energy-saving and emission reduction. Based on the study of the basic problems of the induc-tion meter, focuses on the characteristics of smart meter, types and applications as well as smart energy meter.

  7. Development of oxygen meters for the use in lead-bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konys, J.; Muscher, H.; Voß, Z.; Wedemeyer, O.

    2001-07-01

    Liquid lead and the eutectic lead-bismuth alloy (PbBi) are considered both as a spallation target and coolant of an accelerator driven system (ADS) for the transmutation of long-lived actinides from nuclear waste into shorter living isotopes. It is known that both, pure lead and PbBi, exhibit a high corrosivity against austenitic and ferritic steels, because of the high solubility of nickel and iron in PbBi. One way of reducing the strong corrosion is the in situ formation of stable oxide scales on the steel surfaces. Thermodynamic calculations and experimental results have confirmed, that the control of oxygen in lead or PbBi within a defined activity range can lead to acceptable corrosion rates. To control the level of oxygen dissolved in lead or PbBi, a sensor for measuring the oxygen activity is required. Within the sodium fast breeder reactor development, an adequate technique was established for estimating oxygen in liquid sodium. This knowledge can be used for other metal/oxygen systems like oxygen in PbBi. For measuring the oxygen activity and calculating its concentration, the relevant thermodynamic and solubility data have to be considered. Two reference electrode systems: Pt/air and In/In 2O 3 (both based on yttria-stabilized zirconia as solid electrolyte) are investigated to evaluate their electromotive force (EMF)-temperature dependency in saturated and unsaturated oxygen solutions. Results with both types of oxygen meters in PbBi at different oxygen levels were compared with theoretical calculations. The experimental data indicate that the design, construction and integration of an oxygen control unit in a large scale PbBi-loop seems to be very feasible.

  8. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ji Feng; Chang, Yan; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%).

  9. How reliable are ATP bioluminescence meters in assessing decontamination of environmental surfaces in healthcare settings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Omidbakhsh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Meters based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP bioluminescence measurements in relative light units (RLU are often used to rapidly assess the level of cleanliness of environmental surfaces in healthcare and other settings. Can such ATP measurements be adversely affected by factors such as soil and cleaner-disinfectant chemistry? OBJECTIVE: This study tested a number of leading ATP meters for their sensitivity, linearity of the measurements, correlation of the readings to the actual microbial contamination, and the potential disinfectant chemicals' interference in their readings. METHODS: First, solutions of pure ATP in various concentrations were used to construct a standard curve and determine linearity and sensitivity. Serial dilutions of a broth culture of Staphylococcus aureus, as a representative nosocomial pathogen, were then used to determine if a given meter's ATP readings correlated with the actual CFUs. Next, various types of disinfectant chemistries were tested for their potential to interfere with the standard ATP readings. RESULTS: All four ATP meters tested herein demonstrated acceptable linearity and repeatability in their readings. However, there were significant differences in their sensitivity to detect the levels of viable microorganisms on experimentally contaminated surfaces. Further, most disinfectant chemistries tested here quenched the ATP readings variably in different ATP meters evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Apart from their limited sensitivity in detecting low levels of microbial contamination, the ATP meters tested were also prone to interference by different disinfectant chemistries.

  10. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ji Feng; Chang, Yan; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%).

  11. Expanding the Use of Time-Based Metering: Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Steven J.; Farley, Todd; Hoang, Ty

    2005-01-01

    Time-based metering is an efficient air traffic management alternative to the more common practice of distance-based metering (or "miles-in-trail spacing"). Despite having demonstrated significant operational benefit to airspace users and service providers, time-based metering is used in the United States for arrivals to just nine airports and is not used at all for non-arrival traffic flows. The Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor promises to bring time-based metering into the mainstream of air traffic management techniques. Not constrained to operate solely on arrival traffic, Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor is flexible enough to work in highly congested or heavily partitioned airspace for any and all traffic flows in a region. This broader and more general application of time-based metering is expected to bring the operational benefits of time-based metering to a much wider pool of beneficiaries than is possible with existing technology. It also promises to facilitate more collaborative traffic management on a regional basis. This paper focuses on the operational concept of the Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, touching also on its system architecture, field test results, and prospects for near-term deployment to the United States National Airspace System.

  12. Using a Personal Glucose Meter and Alkaline Phosphatase for Point-of-Care Quantification of Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyltransferase in Clinical Galactosemia Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xiang, Yu; Novak, Donna E; Hoganson, George E; Zhu, Junjie; Lu, Yi

    2015-10-01

    The personal glucose meter (PGM) was recently shown to be a general meter to detect many targets. Most studies, however, focus on transforming either target binding or enzymatic activity that cleaves an artificial substrate into the production of glucose. More importantly, almost all reports exhibit their methods by using artificial samples, such as buffers or serum samples spiked with the targets. To expand the technology to even broader targets and to validate its potential in authentic, more complex clinical samples, we herein report expansion of the PGM method by using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) that links the enzymatic activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase to the production of glucose, which allows point-of-care galactosemia diagnosis in authentic human clinical samples. Given the presence of ALP in numerous enzymatic assays for clinical diagnostics, the methods demonstrated herein advance the field closer to point-of-care detection of a wide range of targets in real clinical samples.

  13. IEEE Committee on Man and Radiation--COMAR technical information statement radiofrequency safety and utility Smart Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushberg, Jerrold T; Foster, Kenneth R; Hatfield, James B; Thansandote, Arthur; Tell, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    This Technical Information Statement describes Smart Meter technology as used with modern electric power metering systems and focuses on the radio frequency (RF) emissions associated with their operation relative to human RF exposure limits. Smart Meters typically employ low power (-1 W or less) transmitters that wirelessly send electric energy usage data to the utility company several times per day in the form of brief, pulsed emissions in the unlicensed frequency bands of 902-928 MHz and 2.4-2.48 GHz or on other nearby frequencies. Most Smart Meters operate as wireless mesh networks where each Smart Meter can communicate with other neighboring meters to relay data to a data collection point in the region. This communication process includes RF emissions from Smart Meters representing energy usage as well as the relaying of data from other meters and emissions associated with maintaining the meter's hierarchy within the wireless network. As a consequence, most Smart Meters emit RF pulses throughout the day, more at certain times and less at others. However, the duty cycle associated with all of these emissions is very small, typically less than 1%, and most of the time far less than 1%, meaning that most Smart Meters actually transmit RF fields for only a few minutes per day at most. The low peak power of Smart Meters and the very low duty cycles lead to the fact that accessible RF fields near Smart Meters are far below both U.S. and international RF safety limits whether judged on the basis of instantaneous peak power densities or time-averaged exposures. This conclusion holds for Smart Meters alone or installed in large banks of meters.

  14. Specific Previous Experience Affects Perception of Harmony and Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior knowledge shapes our experiences, but which prior knowledge shapes which experiences? This question is addressed in the domain of music perception. Three experiments were used to determine whether listeners activate specific musical memories during music listening. Each experiment provided listeners with one of two musical contexts that was…

  15. Genetic Types of Meter-Scale Cyclic Sequences and Fabric Natures of Facies Succession

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Different genetic types of meter-scale cyclic sequences in stratigraphic records result from episodic accumulation of strata related to Milankovitch cycles. The distinctive fabric natures of facies succession result from the sedimentation governed by different sediment sources and sedimentary dynamic conditions in different paleogeographical backgrounds, corresponding to high-frequency sea-level changes. Naturally, this is the fundamental criterion for the classification of genetic types of meter-scale cyclic sequences. The widespread development in stratigraphic records and the regular vertical stacking patterns in long-term sequences, the evolution characters of earth history and the genetic types reflected by specific fabric natures of facies successions in different paleogeographical settings, all that show meterscale cyclic sequences are not only the elementary working units in stratigraphy and sedimentology, but also the replenishment and extension of parasequence of sequence stratigraphy. Two genetic kinds of facies succession for meter-scale cyclic sequence in neritic-facies strata of carbonate and clastic rocks, are normal grading succession mainly formed by tidal sedimentation and inverse grading succession chiefly made by wave sedimentation, and both of them constitute generally shallowing upward succession, the thickness of which ranges from several tens of centimeters to several meters. The classification of genetic types of meter-scale cyclic sequence could be made in terms of the fabric natures of facies succession, and carbonate meter-scale cyclic sequences could be divided into four types: L-M type, deep-water asymmetrical type, subtidal type and peritidal type. Clastic meter-scale cyclic sequences could be grouped into two types: tidal-dynamic type and wave-dynamic type. The boundaries of meter-scale cyclic sequences are marked by instantaneous punctuated surface formed by non-deposition resulting from high-frequency level changes, which include

  16. A 15-meter Multi-Gigabit W-band Bidirectional Wireless Bridge in Fiber-Optic Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Lebedev, Alexander;

    2013-01-01

    We present a bidirectional wireless bridge in the W-band enabling the seamless convergence between the wireless and fiber-optic access networks. In the downlink, a 16 Gbit/s QPSK signal is photonically up-converted at the wireless transmitter and electrically down-converted at the wireless receiver....... The down-converted signal is re-modulated on to the lightwave and transmit further through the fiber-optic system. In the uplink, both up-and down-conversion are performed by electrical means. Furthermore, we investigate both passive and active wireless transmitters in this work for both downlink...... and uplink transmissions. With an active wireless transmitter, up to 15 meters wireless transmission is successfully achieved with a BER below the 7% FEC limit in the downlink....

  17. Using Wireless Power Meters to Measure Energy Use of Miscellaneous and Electronic Devices in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA USA; Brown, Richard; Lanzisera, Steven; Cheung, Hoi Ying (Iris); Lai, Judy; Jiang, Xiaofan; Dawson-Haggerty, Stephen; Taneja, Jay; Ortiz, Jorge; Culler, David

    2011-05-24

    Miscellaneous and electronic devices consume about one-third of the primary energy used in U.S. buildings, and their energy use is increasing faster than other end-uses. Despite the success of policies, such as Energy Star, that promote more efficient miscellaneous and electronic products, much remains to be done to address the energy use of these devices if we are to achieve our energy and carbon reduction goals. Developing efficiency strategies for these products depends on better data about their actual usage, but very few studies have collected field data on the long-term energy used by a large sample of devices due to the difficulty and expense of collecting device-level energy data. This paper describes the development of an improved method for collecting device-level energy and power data using small, relatively inexpensive wireless power meters. These meters form a mesh network based on Internet standard protocols and can form networks of hundreds of metering points in a single building. Because the meters are relatively inexpensive and do not require manual data downloading, they can be left in the field for months or years to collect long time-series energy use data. In addition to the metering technology, we also describe a field protocol used to collect comprehensive, robust data on the miscellaneous and electronic devices in a building. The paper presents sample results from several case study buildings, in which all the plug-in devices for several homes were metered, and a representative sample of several hundred plug-in devices in a commercial office building were metered for several months.

  18. Making the connection: The relationship between fuel poverty, electricity disconnection, and prepayment metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, Kimberley C., E-mail: kimberley.osullivan@otago.ac.n [Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington, PO Box 7343, Wellington 6242 (New Zealand); Howden-Chapman, Philippa L.; Fougere, Geoff [Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington, PO Box 7343, Wellington 6242 (New Zealand)

    2011-02-15

    Fuel poverty, or inability to afford adequate heating for a reasonable outlay of expenditure, is a significant and under-researched problem in New Zealand. The connection between fuel poverty, and electricity disconnection or 'self-disconnection' is analysed for four cities using prepayment metering to pay for electricity. A price comparison analysis on a government-sponsored website showed that prepayment metering was more expensive than other payment options. This website analysis was supplemented by qualitative data from older people with chronic respiratory disease expressing their views about electricity disconnection and prepayment metering. We show that prepayment metering for electricity is more expensive than other payment methods in New Zealand and that older people's insights provide valuable context to these issues. Under the present payment schedule, the use of prepayment metering to pay for electricity is not a suitable policy instrument to address fuel poverty, which remains problematic. The deregulated electricity market continues to lead to increases in the real price of residential electricity and in the number of people in fuel poverty. We offer policy suggestions for reducing fuel poverty in New Zealand. - Research highlights: {yields} Fuel poverty is a significant and under-researched problem in New Zealand. {yields} Prepayment metering is more expensive than other electricity payment options in NZ. {yields} Older people express fear of disconnection and find using prepayment stressful. {yields} Prepayment metering, as currently used in New Zealand, may contribute to fuel poverty. {yields} Better regulation of domestic pricing structures could reduce fuel poverty in NZ.

  19. Selective neuronal entrainment to the beat and meter embedded in a musical rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaradan, Sylvie; Peretz, Isabelle; Mouraux, André

    2012-12-05

    Fundamental to the experience of music, beat and meter perception refers to the perception of periodicities while listening to music occurring within the frequency range of musical tempo. Here, we explored the spontaneous building of beat and meter hypothesized to emerge from the selective entrainment of neuronal populations at beat and meter frequencies. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while human participants listened to rhythms consisting of short sounds alternating with silences to induce a spontaneous perception of beat and meter. We found that the rhythmic stimuli elicited multiple steady state-evoked potentials (SS-EPs) observed in the EEG spectrum at frequencies corresponding to the rhythmic pattern envelope. Most importantly, the amplitude of the SS-EPs obtained at beat and meter frequencies were selectively enhanced even though the acoustic energy was not necessarily predominant at these frequencies. Furthermore, accelerating the tempo of the rhythmic stimuli so as to move away from the range of frequencies at which beats are usually perceived impaired the selective enhancement of SS-EPs at these frequencies. The observation that beat- and meter-related SS-EPs are selectively enhanced at frequencies compatible with beat and meter perception indicates that these responses do not merely reflect the physical structure of the sound envelope but, instead, reflect the spontaneous emergence of an internal representation of beat, possibly through a mechanism of selective neuronal entrainment within a resonance frequency range. Taken together, these results suggest that musical rhythms constitute a unique context to gain insight on general mechanisms of entrainment, from the neuronal level to individual level.

  20. A tool to increase information-processing capacity for consumer water meter data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz E. Jacobs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water service providers invoice most South African urban consumers for the water they use every month. A secure treasury system generates water invoices at municipalities’ financial departments. Information about the water usage of customers initially comes from reading the water meters, usually located in gardens near the front boundaries of properties. Until as recently as 1990, the main purpose of the water meter readings was to generate invoices for water usage. There are various treasury systems for this purpose.Objective: The objective of this research article was to describe the development of Swift, a locally developed software tool for analysing water meter data from an information management perspective, which engineers in the water field generally use, and to assess critically the influence of Swift on published research and industry. This article focuses on water usage and the challenge of data interchange and extraction as issues that various industries face.Method: This article presents the first detailed report on Swift. It uses a detailed knowledge review and presents and summarises the findings chronologically.Results: The water meter data flow path used to be quite simple. The risk of breaches in confidentiality was limited. Technological advances over the years have led to additional knowledge coming from the same water meter readings with subsequent research outputs. However, there are also complicated data flow paths and increased risks. Users have used Swift to analyse more than two million consumers’ water meter readings to date. Studies have culminated in 10 peer-reviewed journal articles using the data. Seven of them were in the last five years.Conclusion: Swift-based data was the basis of various research studies in the past decade. Practical guidelines in the civil engineering fraternity for estimating water use in South Africa have incorporated knowledge from these studies. Developments after 1995 have