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Sample records for activity mammographic density

  1. Background risk of breast cancer and the association between physical activity and mammographic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Thang; Eriksson, Mikael; Darabi, Hatef; Bonn, Stephanie E; Brand, Judith S; Cuzick, Jack; Czene, Kamila; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Katarina; Hall, Per

    2015-04-02

    High physical activity has been shown to decrease the risk of breast cancer, potentially by a mechanism that also reduces mammographic density. We tested the hypothesis that the risk of developing breast cancer in the next 10 years according to the Tyrer-Cuzick prediction model influences the association between physical activity and mammographic density. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 38,913 Swedish women aged 40-74 years. Physical activity was assessed using the validated web-questionnaire Active-Q and mammographic density was measured by the fully automated volumetric Volpara method. The 10-year risk of breast cancer was estimated using the Tyrer-Cuzick (TC) prediction model. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between physical activity and volumetric mammographic density and the potential interaction with the TC breast cancer risk. Overall, high physical activity was associated with lower absolute dense volume. As compared to women with the lowest total activity level (association was seen for any type of physical activity among women with association between total activity and absolute dense volume was modified by the TC breast cancer risk (P interaction = 0.05). As anticipated, high physical activity was also associated with lower non-dense volume. No consistent association was found between physical activity and percent dense volume. Our results suggest that physical activity may decrease breast cancer risk through reducing mammographic density, and that the physical activity needed to reduce mammographic density may depend on background risk of breast cancer.

  2. Ethnicity, Soybean Consumption, and Mammographic Densities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maskarinec, Gertraud

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether mammographic density patterns differ by ethnic background and to explore the possible association of a soy rich diet with mammographic density patterns...

  3. Influence of lifestyle factors on mammographic density in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Brand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT, little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. METHODS: We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI and HRT was studied. RESULTS: Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07. This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06: increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01 but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82. A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04. No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk.

  4. Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Verheus, Martijn; Tice, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density. PMID:22253990

  5. Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Tice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density.

  6. Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Jennifer K; Modugno, Francemary; Weissfeld, Joel L; Kuller, Lewis; Vogel, Victor; Constantino, Joseph P

    2005-01-01

    .... However, not all women on HRT will experience an increase in breast density. We propose a novel hypothesis to explain in part the individual variability in breast density seen among women on HRT...

  7. Mammographic breast density patterns among a group of women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Mammographic breast density is a measure of parenchymal breast patterns on film and in part a marker of cumulative exposure to oestrogen. The risk of breast cancer for women with increased density is up to six fold more than in women with less dense tissues. The pattern of mammographic breast density ...

  8. Changes in mammographic density and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokate, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among women worldwide. One of the most important risk factors for breast cancer is high mammographic density. Mammographic density represents the amount of fibroglandular tissue relative to the fat tissue in the breast. Women with >75% of their

  9. Serum osteoprotegerin levels and mammographic density among high-risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Olivia; Zaman, Tasnim; Eisen, Andrea; Demsky, Rochelle; Blackmore, Kristina; Knight, Julia A; Elser, Christine; Ginsburg, Ophira; Zbuk, Kevin; Yaffe, Martin; Narod, Steven A; Salmena, Leonardo; Kotsopoulos, Joanne

    2018-06-01

    Mammographic density is a risk factor for breast cancer but the mechanism behind this association is unclear. The receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL) pathway has been implicated in the development of breast cancer. Given the role of RANK signaling in mammary epithelial cell proliferation, we hypothesized this pathway may also be associated with mammographic density. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor for RANKL, is known to inhibit RANK signaling. Thus, it is of interest to evaluate whether OPG levels modify breast cancer risk through mammographic density. We quantified serum OPG levels in 57 premenopausal and 43 postmenopausal women using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cumulus was used to measure percent density, dense area, and non-dense area for each mammographic image. Subjects were classified into high versus low OPG levels based on the median serum OPG level in the entire cohort (115.1 pg/mL). Multivariate models were used to assess the relationship between serum OPG levels and the measures of mammographic density. Serum OPG levels were not associated with mammographic density among premenopausal women (P ≥ 0.42). Among postmenopausal women, those with low serum OPG levels had higher mean percent mammographic density (20.9% vs. 13.7%; P = 0.04) and mean dense area (23.4 cm 2 vs. 15.2 cm 2 ; P = 0.02) compared to those with high serum OPG levels after covariate adjustment. These findings suggest that low OPG levels may be associated with high mammographic density, particularly in postmenopausal women. Targeting RANK signaling may represent a plausible, non-surgical prevention option for high-risk women with high mammographic density, especially those with low circulating OPG levels.

  10. Mammographic Breast Density in a Cohort of Medically Underserved Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    was a training year and during Years 2 through 4 a case-control study of obesity , insulin resistance and mammographic breast density was conducted. A...factors including health literacy, and to collect anthropometric measurements and fasting blood, 3) to assay blood for select hormones and growth...factors, 4) to perform statistical analyses to determine the associations between obesity and insulin resistance and mammographic breast density, and 5

  11. Mammographic Breast Density in Malaysian Women with Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal; Humairah Samad Cheung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mammographic breast density of women with breast cancer detected on voluntary mammographic screening at two selected screening centers in Malaysia. This was a retrospective study of Full-Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) images of 150 Malaysian women with biopsy-proven breast cancer. The study population comprised 73 Malays (37.7 %), 59 Chinese (39.3 %) and 18 Indians (12.0 %). The Tabar breast density Patterns (I - V) were used to evaluate mammographic breast density. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results were compared with findings from a similar study on a group of 668 women who did not have breast cancer. The results showed that 44.7 % of the study population had dense breasts (Patterns IV and V), 14.7 % had predominantly fatty breasts (Patterns II and III) while 40.7 % had Pattern I. The proportion of study population with dense breasts decreased with age. In conclusion, the proportion of women with dense breasts decreased with age. Majority of the women with cancer (44.7 %) had dense breasts of Tabar Patterns IV and V, which has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer detected by voluntary mammographic screening. The results support the notion that increased breast density is a risk factor of breast cancer. (author)

  12. Mammographic density measurements are not affected by mammography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damases, Christine N; Brennan, Patrick C; McEntee, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density (MD) is a significant risk factor for breast cancer and has been shown to reduce the sensitivity of mammography screening. Knowledge of a woman's density can be used to predict her risk of developing breast cancer and personalize her imaging pathway. However, measurement of breast density has proven to be troublesome with wide variations in density recorded using radiologists' visual Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS). Several automated methods for assessing breast density have been proposed, each with their own source of measurement error. The use of differing mammographic imaging systems further complicates MD measurement, especially for the same women imaged over time. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether having a mammogram on differing manufacturer's equipment affects a woman's MD measurement. Raw mammographic images were acquired on two mammography imaging systems (General Electric and Hologic) one year apart and processed using VolparaDensity™ to obtain the Volpara Density Grade (VDG) and average volumetric breast density percentage (AvBD%). Visual BIRADS scores were also obtained from 20 expert readers. BIRADS scores for both systems showed strong positive correlation ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]), while the VDG ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) and AvBD% ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) showed stronger positive correlations. Substantial agreement was shown between the systems for BIRADS ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]), however, the systems demonstrated an almost perfect agreement for VDG ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]).

  13. Relationship between breast sound speed and mammographic percent density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Nebojsa; Boyd, Norman; Littrup, Peter; Myc, Lukasz; Faiz, Muhammad; Li, Cuiping; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2011-03-01

    Despite some shortcomings, mammography is currently the standard of care for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. However, breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to overcome the drawbacks of mammography. It is known that women with high breast densities have a greater risk of developing breast cancer. Measuring breast density is accomplished through the use of mammographic percent density, defined as the ratio of fibroglandular to total breast area. Using an ultrasound tomography (UST) prototype, we created sound speed images of the patient's breast, motivated by the fact that sound speed in a tissue is proportional to the density of the tissue. The purpose of this work is to compare the acoustic performance of the UST system with the measurement of mammographic percent density. A cohort of 251 patients was studied using both imaging modalities and the results suggest that the volume averaged breast sound speed is significantly related to mammographic percent density. The Spearman correlation coefficient was found to be 0.73 for the 175 film mammograms and 0.69 for the 76 digital mammograms obtained. Since sound speed measurements do not require ionizing radiation or physical compression, they have the potential to form the basis of a safe, more accurate surrogate marker of breast density.

  14. Agreement of mammographic measures of volumetric breast density to MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Wang

    Full Text Available Clinical scores of mammographic breast density are highly subjective. Automated technologies for mammography exist to quantify breast density objectively, but the technique that most accurately measures the quantity of breast fibroglandular tissue is not known.To compare the agreement of three automated mammographic techniques for measuring volumetric breast density with a quantitative volumetric MRI-based technique in a screening population.Women were selected from the UCSF Medical Center screening population that had received both a screening MRI and digital mammogram within one year of each other, had Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS assessments of normal or benign finding, and no history of breast cancer or surgery. Agreement was assessed of three mammographic techniques (Single-energy X-ray Absorptiometry [SXA], Quantra, and Volpara with MRI for percent fibroglandular tissue volume, absolute fibroglandular tissue volume, and total breast volume.Among 99 women, the automated mammographic density techniques were correlated with MRI measures with R(2 values ranging from 0.40 (log fibroglandular volume to 0.91 (total breast volume. Substantial agreement measured by kappa statistic was found between all percent fibroglandular tissue measures (0.72 to 0.63, but only moderate agreement for log fibroglandular volumes. The kappa statistics for all percent density measures were highest in the comparisons of the SXA and MRI results. The largest error source between MRI and the mammography techniques was found to be differences in measures of total breast volume.Automated volumetric fibroglandular tissue measures from screening digital mammograms were in substantial agreement with MRI and if associated with breast cancer could be used in clinical practice to enhance risk assessment and prevention.

  15. Agreement of mammographic measures of volumetric breast density to MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeff; Azziz, Ania; Fan, Bo; Malkov, Serghei; Klifa, Catherine; Newitt, David; Yitta, Silaja; Hylton, Nola; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A

    2013-01-01

    Clinical scores of mammographic breast density are highly subjective. Automated technologies for mammography exist to quantify breast density objectively, but the technique that most accurately measures the quantity of breast fibroglandular tissue is not known. To compare the agreement of three automated mammographic techniques for measuring volumetric breast density with a quantitative volumetric MRI-based technique in a screening population. Women were selected from the UCSF Medical Center screening population that had received both a screening MRI and digital mammogram within one year of each other, had Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessments of normal or benign finding, and no history of breast cancer or surgery. Agreement was assessed of three mammographic techniques (Single-energy X-ray Absorptiometry [SXA], Quantra, and Volpara) with MRI for percent fibroglandular tissue volume, absolute fibroglandular tissue volume, and total breast volume. Among 99 women, the automated mammographic density techniques were correlated with MRI measures with R(2) values ranging from 0.40 (log fibroglandular volume) to 0.91 (total breast volume). Substantial agreement measured by kappa statistic was found between all percent fibroglandular tissue measures (0.72 to 0.63), but only moderate agreement for log fibroglandular volumes. The kappa statistics for all percent density measures were highest in the comparisons of the SXA and MRI results. The largest error source between MRI and the mammography techniques was found to be differences in measures of total breast volume. Automated volumetric fibroglandular tissue measures from screening digital mammograms were in substantial agreement with MRI and if associated with breast cancer could be used in clinical practice to enhance risk assessment and prevention.

  16. A comprehensive tool for measuring mammographic density changes over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mikael; Li, Jingmei; Leifland, Karin; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per

    2018-06-01

    Mammographic density is a marker of breast cancer risk and diagnostics accuracy. Density change over time is a strong proxy for response to endocrine treatment and potentially a stronger predictor of breast cancer incidence. We developed STRATUS to analyse digital and analogue images and enable automated measurements of density changes over time. Raw and processed images from the same mammogram were randomly sampled from 41,353 healthy women. Measurements from raw images (using FDA approved software iCAD) were used as templates for STRATUS to measure density on processed images through machine learning. A similar two-step design was used to train density measures in analogue images. Relative risks of breast cancer were estimated in three unique datasets. An alignment protocol was developed using images from 11,409 women to reduce non-biological variability in density change. The protocol was evaluated in 55,073 women having two regular mammography screens. Differences and variances in densities were compared before and after image alignment. The average relative risk of breast cancer in the three datasets was 1.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-1.8] per standard deviation of percent mammographic density. The discrimination was AUC 0.62 (CI 0.60-0.64). The type of image did not significantly influence the risk associations. Alignment decreased the non-biological variability in density change and re-estimated the yearly overall percent density decrease from 1.5 to 0.9%, p density measures was not influenced by mammogram type. The alignment protocol reduced the non-biological variability between images over time. STRATUS has the potential to become a useful tool for epidemiological studies and clinical follow-up.

  17. Evaluation of mammographic density patterns: reproducibility and concordance among scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido-Estepa Macarena

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased mammographic breast density is a moderate risk factor for breast cancer. Different scales have been proposed for classifying mammographic density. This study sought to assess intra-rater agreement for the most widely used scales (Wolfe, Tabár, BI-RADS and Boyd and compare them in terms of classifying mammograms as high- or low-density. Methods The study covered 3572 mammograms drawn from women included in the DDM-Spain study, carried-out in seven Spanish Autonomous Regions. Each mammogram was read by an expert radiologist and classified using the Wolfe, Tabár, BI-RADS and Boyd scales. In addition, 375 mammograms randomly selected were read a second time to estimate intra-rater agreement for each scale using the kappa statistic. Owing to the ordinal nature of the scales, weighted kappa was computed. The entire set of mammograms (3572 was used to calculate agreement among the different scales in classifying high/low-density patterns, with the kappa statistic being computed on a pair-wise basis. High density was defined as follows: percentage of dense tissue greater than 50% for the Boyd, "heterogeneously dense and extremely dense" categories for the BI-RADS, categories P2 and DY for the Wolfe, and categories IV and V for the Tabár scales. Results There was good agreement between the first and second reading, with weighted kappa values of 0.84 for Wolfe, 0.71 for Tabár, 0.90 for BI-RADS, and 0.92 for Boyd scale. Furthermore, there was substantial agreement among the different scales in classifying high- versus low-density patterns. Agreement was almost perfect between the quantitative scales, Boyd and BI-RADS, and good for those based on the observed pattern, i.e., Tabár and Wolfe (kappa 0.81. Agreement was lower when comparing a pattern-based (Wolfe or Tabár versus a quantitative-based (BI-RADS or Boyd scale. Moreover, the Wolfe and Tabár scales classified more mammograms in the high-risk group, 46.61 and 37

  18. Cigarette smoking and mammographic density in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; Lynge, Elsebeth; Vejborg, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    with MD. METHODS: For the 5,356 women (4,489 postmenopausal) from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (1993-1997) who attended mammographic screening in Copenhagen (1993-2001), we used MD (mixed/dense or fatty) assessed at the first screening after cohort entry. Active smoking (status, duration......PURPOSE: Smoking before first childbirth increases breast cancer risk, but the biological mechanism remains unknown and may involve mammographic density (MD), one of the strongest biomarkers of breast cancer risk. We aimed to examine whether active smoking and passive smoking were associated......, and intensity) and passive smoking were assessed at cohort baseline (1993-1997) via questionnaire, together with other breast cancer risk factors. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations (odds ratios, 95 % confidence intervals) between smoking and MD, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Two...

  19. Mammographic breast density patterns in asymptomatic mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Sanabria-Mondragón, Mónica; Hernández-Beltrán, Lourdes; López-Amador, Noé; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M

    2012-01-01

    Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ(2)) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns.

  20. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Sanabria-Mondragón, Mónica; Hernández-Beltrán, Lourdes; López-Amador, Noé; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ 2 ) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns

  1. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garciduenas, A.L.C.; Amador, N.; Mondragon, M.S.; Hernaan, L.; Cerda-Flores, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (X 2 ) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns

  2. Automated mammographic breast density estimation using a fully convolutional network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhun; Nishikawa, Robert M

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a fully automated algorithm for mammographic breast density estimation using deep learning. Our algorithm used a fully convolutional network, which is a deep learning framework for image segmentation, to segment both the breast and the dense fibroglandular areas on mammographic images. Using the segmented breast and dense areas, our algorithm computed the breast percent density (PD), which is the faction of dense area in a breast. Our dataset included full-field digital screening mammograms of 604 women, which included 1208 mediolateral oblique (MLO) and 1208 craniocaudal (CC) views. We allocated 455, 58, and 91 of 604 women and their exams into training, testing, and validation datasets, respectively. We established ground truth for the breast and the dense fibroglandular areas via manual segmentation and segmentation using a simple thresholding based on BI-RADS density assessments by radiologists, respectively. Using the mammograms and ground truth, we fine-tuned a pretrained deep learning network to train the network to segment both the breast and the fibroglandular areas. Using the validation dataset, we evaluated the performance of the proposed algorithm against radiologists' BI-RADS density assessments. Specifically, we conducted a correlation analysis between a BI-RADS density assessment of a given breast and its corresponding PD estimate by the proposed algorithm. In addition, we evaluated our algorithm in terms of its ability to classify the BI-RADS density using PD estimates, and its ability to provide consistent PD estimates for the left and the right breast and the MLO and CC views of the same women. To show the effectiveness of our algorithm, we compared the performance of our algorithm against a state of the art algorithm, laboratory for individualized breast radiodensity assessment (LIBRA). The PD estimated by our algorithm correlated well with BI-RADS density ratings by radiologists. Pearson's rho values of

  3. Comparison of Danish dichotomous and BI-RADS classifications of mammographic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Rebecca; Hellmann, Sophie Sell; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Vejborg, Ilse; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2014-06-01

    In the Copenhagen mammography screening program from 1991 to 2001, mammographic density was classified either as fatty or mixed/dense. This dichotomous mammographic density classification system is unique internationally, and has not been validated before. To compare the Danish dichotomous mammographic density classification system from 1991 to 2001 with the density BI-RADS classifications, in an attempt to validate the Danish classification system. The study sample consisted of 120 mammograms taken in Copenhagen in 1991-2001, which tested false positive, and which were in 2012 re-assessed and classified according to the BI-RADS classification system. We calculated inter-rater agreement between the Danish dichotomous mammographic classification as fatty or mixed/dense and the four-level BI-RADS classification by the linear weighted Kappa statistic. Of the 120 women, 32 (26.7%) were classified as having fatty and 88 (73.3%) as mixed/dense mammographic density, according to Danish dichotomous classification. According to BI-RADS density classification, 12 (10.0%) women were classified as having predominantly fatty (BI-RADS code 1), 46 (38.3%) as having scattered fibroglandular (BI-RADS code 2), 57 (47.5%) as having heterogeneously dense (BI-RADS 3), and five (4.2%) as having extremely dense (BI-RADS code 4) mammographic density. The inter-rater variability assessed by weighted kappa statistic showed a substantial agreement (0.75). The dichotomous mammographic density classification system utilized in early years of Copenhagen's mammographic screening program (1991-2001) agreed well with the BI-RADS density classification system.

  4. Comparison of Danish dichotomous and BI-RADS classifications of mammographic density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Rebecca; Hellmann, Sophie Sell; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Copenhagen mammography screening program from 1991 to 2001, mammographic density was classified either as fatty or mixed/dense. This dichotomous mammographic density classification system is unique internationally, and has not been validated before. PURPOSE: To compare the Danish...... dichotomous mammographic density classification system from 1991 to 2001 with the density BI-RADS classifications, in an attempt to validate the Danish classification system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 120 mammograms taken in Copenhagen in 1991-2001, which tested false positive......, and which were in 2012 re-assessed and classified according to the BI-RADS classification system. We calculated inter-rater agreement between the Danish dichotomous mammographic classification as fatty or mixed/dense and the four-level BI-RADS classification by the linear weighted Kappa statistic. RESULTS...

  5. Novel Associations between Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Variants and Risk-Predicting Mammographic Density Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Jennifer; Thompson, Deborah J.; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Scott, Christopher; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Hazra, Aditi; Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Jensen, Matt; Cunningham, Julie; Olson, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density measures adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) are heritable predictors of breast cancer risk but few mammographic density-associated genetic variants have been identified. Using data for 10,727 women from two international consortia, we estimated associations between 77 common breast cancer susceptibility variants and absolute dense area, percent dense area and absolute non-dense area adjusted for study, age and BMI using mixed linear modeling. We found strong suppo...

  6. A deep learning method for classifying mammographic breast density categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Aly A; Berg, Wendie A; Peng, Hong; Luo, Yahong; Jankowitz, Rachel C; Wu, Shandong

    2018-01-01

    Mammographic breast density is an established risk marker for breast cancer and is visually assessed by radiologists in routine mammogram image reading, using four qualitative Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BI-RADS) breast density categories. It is particularly difficult for radiologists to consistently distinguish the two most common and most variably assigned BI-RADS categories, i.e., "scattered density" and "heterogeneously dense". The aim of this work was to investigate a deep learning-based breast density classifier to consistently distinguish these two categories, aiming at providing a potential computerized tool to assist radiologists in assigning a BI-RADS category in current clinical workflow. In this study, we constructed a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based model coupled with a large (i.e., 22,000 images) digital mammogram imaging dataset to evaluate the classification performance between the two aforementioned breast density categories. All images were collected from a cohort of 1,427 women who underwent standard digital mammography screening from 2005 to 2016 at our institution. The truths of the density categories were based on standard clinical assessment made by board-certified breast imaging radiologists. Effects of direct training from scratch solely using digital mammogram images and transfer learning of a pretrained model on a large nonmedical imaging dataset were evaluated for the specific task of breast density classification. In order to measure the classification performance, the CNN classifier was also tested on a refined version of the mammogram image dataset by removing some potentially inaccurately labeled images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the curve (AUC) were used to measure the accuracy of the classifier. The AUC was 0.9421 when the CNN-model was trained from scratch on our own mammogram images, and the accuracy increased gradually along with an increased size of training samples

  7. Occupation and mammographic density: A population-based study (DDM-Occup).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Javier; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; González-Sánchez, Mario; Cortés Barragán, Rosa Ana; Maqueda Blasco, Jerónimo; González-Galarzo, María Carmen; Alba, Miguel Ángel; van der Haar, Rudolf; Casas, Silvia; Vicente, Cándida; Medina, Pilar; Ederra, María; Santamariña, Carmen; Moreno, María Pilar; Casanova, Francisco; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Moreo, Pilar; Ascunce, Nieves; García, Montse; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Llobet, Rafael; Lope, Virginia

    2017-11-01

    High mammographic density is one of the main risk factors for breast cancer. Although several occupations have been associated with breast cancer, there are no previous occupational studies exploring the association with mammographic density. Our objective was to identify occupations associated with high mammographic density in Spanish female workers. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of occupational determinants of high mammographic density in Spain, based on 1476 women, aged 45-68 years, recruited from seven screening centers within the Spanish Breast Cancer Screening Program network. Reproductive, family, personal, and occupational history data were collected. The latest occupation of each woman was collected and coded according to the 1994 National Classification of Occupations. Mammographic density was assessed from the cranio-caudal mammogram of the left breast using a semi-automated computer-assisted tool. Association between mammographic density and occupation was evaluated by using mixed linear regression models, using log-transformed percentage of mammographic density as dependent variable. Models were adjusted for age, body mass index, menopausal status, parity, smoking, alcohol intake, educational level, type of mammography, first-degree relative with breast cancer, and hormonal replacement therapy use. Screening center and professional reader were included as random effects terms. Mammographic density was higher, although non-statistically significant, among secondary school teachers (e β = 1.41; 95%CI = 0.98-2.03) and nurses (e β = 1.23; 95%CI = 0.96-1.59), whereas workers engaged in the care of people (e β = 0.81; 95%CI = 0.66-1.00) and housewives (e β = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.79-0.95) showed an inverse association with mammographic density. A positive trend for every 5 years working as secondary school teachers was also detected (p-value = 0.035). Nurses and secondary school teachers were the occupations with the highest

  8. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Bihrmann, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight, child...

  9. Red clover-derived isoflavones and mammographic breast density: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN42940165

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, Charlotte; Warren, Ruth ML; Sala, Evis; Dowsett, Mitch; Dunning, Alison M; Healey, Catherine S; Runswick, Shirley; Day, Nicholas E; Bingham, Sheila A

    2004-01-01

    Isoflavones are hypothesized to protect against breast cancer, but it is not clear whether they act as oestrogens or anti-oestrogens in breast tissue. Our aim was to determine the effects of taking a red clover-derived isoflavone supplement daily for 1 year on mammographic breast density. Effects on oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), lymphocyte tyrosine kinase activity and menopausal symptoms were also assessed. A total of 205 women (age range 49–65 years) with Wolfe P2 or DY mammographic breast patterns were randomly assigned to receive either a red clover-derived isoflavone tablet (26 mg biochanin A, 16 mg formononetin, 1 mg genistein and 0.5 mg daidzein) or placebo. Change in mammographic breast density, serum oestradiol, FSH, LH, menopausal symptoms and lymphocyte tyrosine kinase activity from baseline to 12 months were assessed. A total of 177 women completed the trial. Mammographic breast density decreased in both groups but the difference between the treatment and placebo was not statistically significant. There was a significant interaction between treatment group and oestrogen receptor (ESR1) PvuII polymorphism for the change in estimated percentage breast density (mean ± standard deviation): TT isoflavone 1.4 ± 12.3% and TT placebo -9.6 ± 14.2%; CT isoflavone -5.2 ± 12.0% and CT placebo -2.8 ± 10.3%; and CC isoflavone -3.4 ± 9.7% and CC placebo -1.1 ± 9.5%. There were no statistically significant treatment effects on oestradiol, FSH, or LH (assessed only in postmenopausal women), or on lymphocyte tyrosine kinase activity. Baseline levels of menopausal symptoms were low, and there were no statistically significant treatment effects on frequency of hot flushes or other menopausal symptoms. In contrast to studies showing that conventional hormone replacement therapies increase mammographic breast density, the isoflavone supplement did not increase mammographic breast density in this population of women

  10. Fractal analysis of visual search activity for mass detection during mammographic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamudun, Folami; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Hudson, Kathleen B; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hammond, Tracy; Tourassi, Georgia D

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the complexity of human visual search activity during mammographic screening using fractal analysis and to investigate its relationship with case and reader characteristics. The study was performed for the task of mammographic screening with simultaneous viewing of four coordinated breast views as typically done in clinical practice. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions collected for 100 mammographic cases (25 normal, 25 benign, 50 malignant) from 10 readers (three board certified radiologists and seven Radiology residents), formed the corpus for this study. The fractal dimension of the readers' visual scanning pattern was computed with the Minkowski-Bouligand box-counting method and used as a measure of gaze complexity. Individual factor and group-based interaction ANOVA analysis was performed to study the association between fractal dimension, case pathology, breast density, and reader experience level. The consistency of the observed trends depending on gaze data representation was also examined. Case pathology, breast density, reader experience level, and individual reader differences are all independent predictors of the complexity of visual scanning pattern when screening for breast cancer. No higher order effects were found to be significant. Fractal characterization of visual search behavior during mammographic screening is dependent on case properties and image reader characteristics. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Breast Tissue Composition and Immunophenotype and Its Relationship with Mammographic Density in Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Min B Pang

    Full Text Available To investigate the cellular and immunophenotypic basis of mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer.Mammograms and targeted breast biopsies were accrued from 24 women at high risk of breast cancer. Mammographic density was classified into Wolfe categories and ranked by increasing density. The histological composition and immunophenotypic profile were quantified from digitized haematoxylin and eosin-stained and immunohistochemically-stained (ERα, ERβ, PgR, HER2, Ki-67, and CD31 slides and correlated to mammographic density.Increasing mammographic density was significantly correlated with increased fibrous stroma proportion (rs (22 = 0.5226, p = 0.0088 and significantly inversely associated with adipose tissue proportion (rs (22 = -0.5409, p = 0.0064. Contrary to previous reports, stromal expression of ERα was common (19/20 cases, 95%. There was significantly higher stromal PgR expression in mammographically-dense breasts (p=0.026.The proportion of stroma and fat underlies mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer. Increased expression of PgR in the stroma of mammographically dense breasts and frequent and unexpected presence of stromal ERα expression raises the possibility that hormone receptor expression in breast stroma may have a role in mediating the effects of exogenous hormonal therapy on mammographic density.

  12. Ethnic differences in mammographic densities: an Asian cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariapun, Shivaani; Li, Jingmei; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Teo, Soo-Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer and is highly variable, but, to date, few studies have examined density in Asian women, particularly those in low and middle-income Asian countries where genetic and lifestyle determinants may be significantly different. A total of 1,240 women who attended an opportunistic mammogram screening programme were eligible for analysis. Mammographic density was estimated using a fully-automated thresholding method and differences across ethnic groups were examined using linear regression in 205 randomly selected Chinese women, 138 Malay and 199 Indian women. Percent density was significantly higher in Chinese women (28.5%; 95% CI 27.0%, 30.0%) compared to Malay (24.2%; 95% CI 22.5%, 26.0%) and Indian (24.3%; 95% CI 22.8%, 25.7%) women (pChinese (72.2cm2; 95% CI 67.9cm2, 76.5cm2) women compared to Malay (92.1cm2; 95% CI 86.9cm2, 97.2cm2) and Indian (97.7cm2; 95% CI 93.4cm2, 101.9cm2) women (pChinese compared to Malay and Indian women in Malaysia. Known lifestyle determinants of mammographic density do not fully account for the ethnic variations observed in mammographic density in this Asian cohort.

  13. International Consortium on Mammographic Density : Methodology and population diversity captured across 22 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCormack, Valerie A; Burton, Anya; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Hipwell, John H; Dickens, Caroline; Salem, Dorria; Kamal, Rasha; Hartman, Mikael; Lee, Charmaine Pei Ling; Chia, Kee-Seng; Ozmen, Vahit; Aribal, Mustafa Erkin; Flugelman, Anath Arzee; Lajous, Martín; Lopez-Riduara, Ruy; Rice, Megan; Romieu, Isabelle; Ursin, Giske; Qureshi, Samera; Ma, Huiyan; Lee, Eunjung; van Gils, Carla H; Wanders, Johanna O P; Vinayak, Sudhir; Ndumia, Rose; Allen, Steve; Vinnicombe, Sarah; Moss, Sue; Won Lee, Jong; Kim, Jisun; Pereira, Ana; Garmendia, Maria Luisa; Sirous, Reza; Sirous, Mehri; Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Tamimi, Rulla M; Bertrand, Kimberly; Nagata, Chisato; Kwong, Ava; Vachon, Celine; Scott, Christopher; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Pollan, Marina; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Giles, Graham; Hopper, John; Stone, Jennifer; Rajaram, Nadia; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Mariapun, Shivaani; Yaffe, Martin J; Schüz, Joachim; Chiarelli, Anna M; Linton, Linda; Boyd, Norman F

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density (MD) is a quantitative trait, measurable in all women, and is among the strongest markers of breast cancer risk. The population-based epidemiology of MD has revealed genetic, lifestyle and societal/environmental determinants, but studies have largely been conducted in women with

  14. Residential traffic noise and mammographic breast density in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Traffic is the most important source of community noise, and it has been proposed to be associated with a range of disease outcomes, including breast cancer. As mammographic breast density (MD) is one of the strongest risk factors for developing breast cancer, the present study...

  15. Bilateral mammographic density asymmetry and breast cancer risk: A preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Bin; Sumkin, Jules H.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Wang, Xingwei; Klym, Amy H.; Gur, David

    2012-01-01

    To improve efficacy of breast cancer screening and prevention programs, it requires a risk assessment model with high discriminatory power. This study aimed to assess classification performance of using computed bilateral mammographic density asymmetry to predict risk of individual women developing breast cancer in near-term. The database includes 451 cases with multiple screening mammography examinations. The first (baseline) examinations of all case were interpreted negative. In the next sequential examinations, 187 cases developed cancer or surgically excised high-risk lesions, 155 remained negative (not-recalled), and 109 were recalled benign cases. From each of two bilateral cranio-caudal view images acquired from the baseline examination, we computed two features of average pixel value and local pixel value fluctuation. We then computed mean and difference of each feature computed from two images. When applying the computed features and other two risk factors (woman's age and subjectively rated mammographic density) to predict risk of cancer development, areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were computed to evaluate the discriminatory/classification performance. The AUCs are 0.633 ± 0.030, 0.535 ± 0.036, 0.567 ± 0.031, and 0.719 ± 0.027 when using woman's age, subjectively rated, computed mean and asymmetry of mammographic density, to classify between two groups of cancer-verified and negative cases, respectively. When using an equal-weighted fusion method to combine woman's age and computed density asymmetry, AUC increased to 0.761 ± 0.025 (p < 0.05). The study demonstrated that bilateral mammographic density asymmetry could be a significantly stronger risk factor associated to the risk of women developing breast cancer in near-term than woman's age and assessed mean mammographic density.

  16. Bilateral mammographic density asymmetry and breast cancer risk: A preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Bin, E-mail: zhengb@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Sumkin, Jules H., E-mail: jsumkin@mail.magee.edu [Department of Radiology, Magee Womens Hospital, 300 Halket Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Zuley, Margarita L., E-mail: zuleyml@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, Magee Womens Hospital, 300 Halket Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Wang, Xingwei, E-mail: wangx6@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Klym, Amy H., E-mail: klymah@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Gur, David, E-mail: gurd@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    To improve efficacy of breast cancer screening and prevention programs, it requires a risk assessment model with high discriminatory power. This study aimed to assess classification performance of using computed bilateral mammographic density asymmetry to predict risk of individual women developing breast cancer in near-term. The database includes 451 cases with multiple screening mammography examinations. The first (baseline) examinations of all case were interpreted negative. In the next sequential examinations, 187 cases developed cancer or surgically excised high-risk lesions, 155 remained negative (not-recalled), and 109 were recalled benign cases. From each of two bilateral cranio-caudal view images acquired from the baseline examination, we computed two features of average pixel value and local pixel value fluctuation. We then computed mean and difference of each feature computed from two images. When applying the computed features and other two risk factors (woman's age and subjectively rated mammographic density) to predict risk of cancer development, areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were computed to evaluate the discriminatory/classification performance. The AUCs are 0.633 {+-} 0.030, 0.535 {+-} 0.036, 0.567 {+-} 0.031, and 0.719 {+-} 0.027 when using woman's age, subjectively rated, computed mean and asymmetry of mammographic density, to classify between two groups of cancer-verified and negative cases, respectively. When using an equal-weighted fusion method to combine woman's age and computed density asymmetry, AUC increased to 0.761 {+-} 0.025 (p < 0.05). The study demonstrated that bilateral mammographic density asymmetry could be a significantly stronger risk factor associated to the risk of women developing breast cancer in near-term than woman's age and assessed mean mammographic density.

  17. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Masala

    Full Text Available A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83% and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories with those with low MBD (N1+P1 through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048 while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further

  18. Mammographic density in asymptomatic menopausal women: correlation with clinical and sonographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Regina Alvares

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate mammographic breast density in asymptomatic menopausal women in correlation with clinical and sonographic findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mammograms and clinical and sonographic findings of 238 asymptomatic patients were retrospectively reviewed in the period from February/2022 to June/2006. The following variables were analyzed: mammographic density patterns, sonographic findings, patients' age, parity, body mass index and use of hormone replacement therapy. RESULTS: Age, parity and body mass index showed a negative correlation with breast density pattern, while use of hormone replacement therapy showed a positive correlation. Supplementary breast ultrasonography was performed in 103 (43.2% patients. Alterations which could not be visualized at mammography were found in 34 (33% of them, most frequently in women with breast density patterns 3 and 4. CONCLUSION: The authors concluded that breast density patterns were influenced by age, parity, body mass index and time of hormone replacement therapy. Despite not having found any malignant abnormality in the studied cases, the authors have observed a predominance of benign sonographic abnormalities in women with high breast density patterns and without mammographic abnormalities, proving the relevance of supplementary ultrasonography to identify breast lesions in such patients.

  19. Feature extraction using convolutional neural network for classifying breast density in mammographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Ricardo L.; Carneiro, Pedro C.; Patrocinio, Ana C.

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of death for women in most countries. The high levels of mortality relate mostly to late diagnosis and to the direct proportionally relationship between breast density and breast cancer development. Therefore, the correct assessment of breast density is important to provide better screening for higher risk patients. However, in modern digital mammography the discrimination among breast densities is highly complex due to increased contrast and visual information for all densities. Thus, a computational system for classifying breast density might be a useful tool for aiding medical staff. Several machine-learning algorithms are already capable of classifying small number of classes with good accuracy. However, machinelearning algorithms main constraint relates to the set of features extracted and used for classification. Although well-known feature extraction techniques might provide a good set of features, it is a complex task to select an initial set during design of a classifier. Thus, we propose feature extraction using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for classifying breast density by a usual machine-learning classifier. We used 307 mammographic images downsampled to 260x200 pixels to train a CNN and extract features from a deep layer. After training, the activation of 8 neurons from a deep fully connected layer are extracted and used as features. Then, these features are feedforward to a single hidden layer neural network that is cross-validated using 10-folds to classify among four classes of breast density. The global accuracy of this method is 98.4%, presenting only 1.6% of misclassification. However, the small set of samples and memory constraints required the reuse of data in both CNN and MLP-NN, therefore overfitting might have influenced the results even though we cross-validated the network. Thus, although we presented a promising method for extracting features and classifying breast density, a greater database is

  20. Ethnic differences in mammographic densities: an Asian cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaani Mariapun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer and is highly variable, but, to date, few studies have examined density in Asian women, particularly those in low and middle-income Asian countries where genetic and lifestyle determinants may be significantly different. METHODS: A total of 1,240 women who attended an opportunistic mammogram screening programme were eligible for analysis. Mammographic density was estimated using a fully-automated thresholding method and differences across ethnic groups were examined using linear regression in 205 randomly selected Chinese women, 138 Malay and 199 Indian women. RESULTS: Percent density was significantly higher in Chinese women (28.5%; 95% CI 27.0%, 30.0% compared to Malay (24.2%; 95% CI 22.5%, 26.0% and Indian (24.3%; 95% CI 22.8%, 25.7% women (p<0.001, after adjustment for age, BMI, menopausal status, parity and age at first full term pregnancy. Correspondingly, adjusted nondense area was significantly lower in Chinese (72.2cm2; 95% CI 67.9cm2, 76.5cm2 women compared to Malay (92.1cm2; 95% CI 86.9cm2, 97.2cm2 and Indian (97.7cm2; 95% CI 93.4cm2, 101.9cm2 women (p<0.001, but dense area did not differ across the three ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that higher percent density and lower nondense area reflect the higher incidence of breast cancer in Chinese compared to Malay and Indian women in Malaysia. Known lifestyle determinants of mammographic density do not fully account for the ethnic variations observed in mammographic density in this Asian cohort.

  1. Ethnic Differences in Mammographic Densities: An Asian Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariapun, Shivaani; Li, Jingmei; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Teo, Soo-Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Background Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer and is highly variable, but, to date, few studies have examined density in Asian women, particularly those in low and middle-income Asian countries where genetic and lifestyle determinants may be significantly different. Methods A total of 1,240 women who attended an opportunistic mammogram screening programme were eligible for analysis. Mammographic density was estimated using a fully-automated thresholding method and differences across ethnic groups were examined using linear regression in 205 randomly selected Chinese women, 138 Malay and 199 Indian women. Results Percent density was significantly higher in Chinese women (28.5%; 95% CI 27.0%, 30.0%) compared to Malay (24.2%; 95% CI 22.5%, 26.0%) and Indian (24.3%; 95% CI 22.8%, 25.7%) women (p<0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, menopausal status, parity and age at first full term pregnancy. Correspondingly, adjusted nondense area was significantly lower in Chinese (72.2cm2; 95% CI 67.9cm2, 76.5cm2) women compared to Malay (92.1cm2; 95% CI 86.9cm2, 97.2cm2) and Indian (97.7cm2; 95% CI 93.4cm2, 101.9cm2) women (p<0.001), but dense area did not differ across the three ethnic groups. Conclusions Our study shows that higher percent density and lower nondense area reflect the higher incidence of breast cancer in Chinese compared to Malay and Indian women in Malaysia. Known lifestyle determinants of mammographic density do not fully account for the ethnic variations observed in mammographic density in this Asian cohort. PMID:25659139

  2. Unsupervised deep learning applied to breast density segmentation and mammographic risk scoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenberg, Michiel Gijsbertus J.; Petersen, Peter Kersten; Nielsen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic risk scoring has commonly been automated by extracting a set of handcrafted features from mammograms, and relating the responses directly or indirectly to breast cancer risk. We present a method that learns a feature hierarchy from unlabeled data. When the learned features are used...... as the input to a simple classifier, two different tasks can be addressed: i) breast density segmentation, and ii) scoring of mammographic texture. The proposed model learns features at multiple scales. To control the models capacity a novel sparsity regularizer is introduced that incorporates both lifetime...... and population sparsity. We evaluated our method on three different clinical datasets. Our state-of-the-art results show that the learned breast density scores have a very strong positive relationship with manual ones, and that the learned texture scores are predictive of breast cancer. The model is easy...

  3. Mammographic breast density in recent and longer-standing ethiopian immigrants to israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklair-Levy, Miri; Segev, Anat; Sella, Tamar; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Zippel, Douglas

    2018-04-23

    High breast density is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer development. Little is known concerning ethnic variations in breast density and its relevant contributing factors. We aimed to study breast density among Ethiopian immigrants to Israel in comparison with Israeli-born women and to determine any effect on breast density of the length of residency in the immigrant population. Mammographic breast density using the BI-RADS system was estimated and compared between 77 women of Ethiopian origin who live in Israel and 177 Israeli-born controls. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratios (OR) for high density (BI-RADS score ≥ 3) vs low density (BI-RADS score density compared with Israeli-born women. Adjustments for various cofounders did not affect the results. Time since immigration to Israel seemed to modify the relationship, with a stronger association for women who immigrated within 2 years prior to mammography (OR:0.07, 95% CI: 0.03-0.17) as opposed to women with a longer residency stay in Israel (OR:0.23, 95% CI:0.10-0.50). Adjustments of various confounders did not alter these findings. Breast density in Ethiopian immigrants to Israel is significantly lower than that of Israeli-born controls. Our study suggests a positive association between time since immigration and breast density. Future studies are required to define the possible effects of dietary change on mammographic density following immigration. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Fertility drug use and mammographic breast density in a mammography screening cohort of premenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Sprague, Brian L.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Terry, Mary Beth; Nichols, Hazel B.; Bersch, Andy J.; Buist, Diana S. M.

    2008-01-01

    The widespread use of ovulation-inducing drugs to enhance fertility has raised concerns regarding potential effects on breast cancer risk, as ovarian stimulation is associated with increases in estrogen and progesterone levels. We investigated the short-term relation between fertility drug use and mammographic breast density, a strong marker of breast cancer risk, among participants in the Group Health Breast Cancer Screening Program. Data linkage with Group Health’s automated pharmacy record...

  5. Cigarette smoking and mammographic density in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; Lynge, Elsebeth; Vejborg, Ilse; Tjønneland, Anne; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Andersen, Zorana J

    2016-02-01

    Smoking before first childbirth increases breast cancer risk, but the biological mechanism remains unknown and may involve mammographic density (MD), one of the strongest biomarkers of breast cancer risk. We aimed to examine whether active smoking and passive smoking were associated with MD. For the 5,356 women (4,489 postmenopausal) from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (1993-1997) who attended mammographic screening in Copenhagen (1993-2001), we used MD (mixed/dense or fatty) assessed at the first screening after cohort entry. Active smoking (status, duration, and intensity) and passive smoking were assessed at cohort baseline (1993-1997) via questionnaire, together with other breast cancer risk factors. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations (odds ratios, 95 % confidence intervals) between smoking and MD, adjusting for confounders. Two thousand and twenty-six (56.5 %) women had mixed/dense MD, 2,214 (41.4 %) were current, and 1,175 (21.9 %) former smokers. Current smokers had significantly lower odds (0.86, 0.75-0.99) of having mixed/dense MD compared to never smokers, while former smoking was not associated with MD. Inverse association between smoking and MD was strongest in women who initiated smoking before age of 16 years (0.79, 0.64-0.96), smoked ≥15 cigarettes/day (0.83, 0.71-0.98), smoked ≥5 pack-years (0.62, 0.43-0.89), smoked >30 years (0.86, 0.75-0.99), and smoked ≥11 years before first childbirth (0.70, 0.51-0.96). Association between smoking and MD diminished after smoking cessation, with increased odds of having mixed/dense breasts in women who quit smoking >20 years ago as compared to current smokers (1.37, 1.01-1.67). There was no association between passive smoking and MD. We found an inverse association between active smoking and MD.

  6. Double-blind randomized 12-month soy intervention had no effects on breast MRI fibroglandular tissue density or mammographic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H.; Spicer, Darcy; Garcia, Agustin; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Sheth, Pulin; Martin, Sue Ellen; Hawes, Debra; Russell, Christy; McDonald, Heather; Tripathy, Debu; Su, Min-Ying; Ursin, Giske; Pike, Malcolm C.

    2015-01-01

    Soy supplementation by breast cancer patients remains controversial. No controlled intervention studies have investigated the effects of soy supplementation on mammographic density in breast cancer patients. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study in previously treated breast cancer patients (n=66) and high-risk women (n=29). We obtained digital mammograms and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at baseline and after 12 months of daily soy (50 mg isoflavones per day) (n=46) or placebo (n=49) tablet supplementation. The total breast area (MA) and the area of mammographic density (MD) on the mammogram was measured using a validated computer-assisted method, and mammographic density percent (MD% = 100 × MD/MA) was determined. A well-tested computer algorithm was used to quantitatively measure the total breast volume (TBV) and fibroglandular tissue volume (FGV) on the breast MRI, and the FGV percent (FGV% = 100 × FGV/TBV) was calculated. On the basis of plasma soy isoflavone levels, compliance was excellent. Small decreases in MD% measured by the ratios of month 12 to baseline levels, were seen in the soy (0.95) and the placebo (0.87) groups; these changes did not differ between the treatments (P=0.38). Small decreases in FGV% were also found in both the soy (0.90) and the placebo (0.92) groups; these changes also did not differ between the treatments (P=0.48). Results were comparable in breast cancer patients and high-risk women. We found no evidence that soy supplementation would decrease mammographic density and that MRI might be more sensitive to changes in density than mammography. PMID:26276750

  7. International Consortium on Mammographic Density: Methodology and Population Diversity captured across 22 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Valerie A.; Burton, Anya; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Hipwell, John H.; Dickens, Caroline; Salem, Dorria; Kamal, Rasha; Hartman, Mikael; Ling Lee, Charmaine Pei; Chia, Kee-Seng; Ozmen, Vahit; Aribal, Mustafa Erkin; Flugelman, Anath Arzee; Lajous, Martín; Lopez-Riduara, Ruy; Rice, Megan; Romieu, Isabelle; Ursin, Giske; Qureshi, Samera; Ma, Huiyan; Lee, Eunjung; van Gils, Carla H.; Wanders, Johanna O.P.; Vinayak, Sudhir; Ndumia, Rose; Allen, Steve; Vinnicombe, Sarah; Moss, Sue; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Jisun; Pereira, Ana; Garmendia, Maria Luisa; Sirous, Reza; Sirous, Mehri; Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Bertrand, Kimberly; Nagata, Chisato; Kwong, Ava; Vachon, Celine; Scott, Christopher; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Pollan, Marina; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Giles, Graham; Hopper, John; Stone, Jennifer; Rajaram, Nadia; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Mariapun, Shivaani; Yaffe, Martin J.; Schüz, Joachim; Chiarelli, Anna; Linton, Linda; Boyd, Norman F.

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density (MD) is a quantitative trait, measurable in all women, and is among the strongest markers of breast cancer risk. The population-based epidemiology of MD has revealed genetic, lifestyle and societal/environmental determinants, but studies have largely been conducted in women with similar westernized lifestyles living in countries with high breast cancer incidence rates. To benefit from the heterogeneity in risk factors and their combinations worldwide, we created an International Consortium on Mammographic Density (ICMD) to pool individual-level epidemiological and MD data from general population studies worldwide. ICMD aims to characterize determinants of MD more precisely, and to evaluate whether they are consistent across populations worldwide. We included 11755 women, from 27 studies in 22 countries, on whom individual-level risk factor data were pooled and original mammographic images were re-read for ICMD by a core team to obtain standardized comparable MD data. In the present article, we present (i) the rationale for this consortium; (ii) characteristics of the studies and women included; and (iii) study methodology to obtain comparable MD data from original re-read films. We also highlight the risk factor heterogeneity captured by such an effort and, thus, the unique insight the pooled study promises to offer through wider exposure ranges, different confounding structures and enhanced power for sub-group analyses. PMID:26724463

  8. Mammographic density and breast cancer risk by family history in women of white and Asian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Nakamura, Kaylae L; Woolcott, Christy G; Conroy, Shannon M; Byrne, Celia; Nagata, Chisato; Ursin, Giske; Vachon, Celine M

    2015-04-01

    Mammographic density, i.e., the radiographic appearance of the breast, is a strong predictor of breast cancer risk. To determine whether the association of breast density with breast cancer is modified by a first-degree family history of breast cancer (FHBC) in women of white and Asian ancestry, we analyzed data from four case-control studies conducted in the USA and Japan. The study population included 1,699 breast cancer cases and 2,422 controls, of whom 45% reported white (N = 1,849) and 40% Asian (N = 1,633) ancestry. To standardize mammographic density assessment, a single observer re-read all mammograms using one type of interactive thresholding software. Logistic regression was applied to estimate odds ratios (OR) while adjusting for confounders. Overall, 496 (12%) of participants reported a FHBC, which was significantly associated with breast cancer risk in the adjusted model (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.23-1.84). There was a statistically significant interaction on a multiplicative scale between FHBC and continuous percent density (per 10 % density: p = 0.03). The OR per 10% increase in percent density was higher among women with a FHBC (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13-1.49) than among those without a FHBC (OR 1.14; 1.09-1.20). This pattern was apparent in whites and Asians. The respective ORs were 1.45 (95% CI 1.17-1.80) versus 1.22 (95% CI 1.14-1.32) in whites, whereas the values in Asians were only 1.24 (95% CI 0.97-1.58) versus 1.09 (95% CI 1.00-1.19). These findings support the hypothesis that women with a FHBC appear to have a higher risk of breast cancer associated with percent mammographic density than women without a FHBC.

  9. Affinity proteomic profiling of plasma for proteins associated to area-based mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byström, Sanna; Eklund, Martin; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Fredolini, Claudia; Eriksson, Mikael; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Schwenk, Jochen M; Gabrielson, Marike

    2018-02-14

    Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but molecular understanding of how breast density relates to cancer risk is less complete. Studies of proteins in blood plasma, possibly associated with mammographic density, are well-suited as these allow large-scale analyses and might shed light on the association between breast cancer and breast density. Plasma samples from 1329 women in the Swedish KARMA project, without prior history of breast cancer, were profiled with antibody suspension bead array (SBA) assays. Two sample sets comprising 729 and 600 women were screened by two different SBAs targeting a total number of 357 proteins. Protein targets were selected through searching the literature, for either being related to breast cancer or for being linked to the extracellular matrix. Association between proteins and absolute area-based breast density (AD) was assessed by quantile regression, adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). Plasma profiling revealed linear association between 20 proteins and AD, concordant in the two sets of samples (p density and processes of tissue homeostasis, DNA repair, cancer development and/or progression in breast cancer. Further validation and follow-up studies of the shortlisted protein candidates in independent cohorts will be needed to infer their role in breast density and its progression in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

  10. A comparison of five methods of measuring mammographic density: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Susan M; Harkness, Elaine F; Sergeant, Jamie C; Warwick, Jane; Stavrinos, Paula; Warren, Ruth; Wilson, Mary; Beetles, Ursula; Gadde, Soujanya; Lim, Yit; Jain, Anil; Bundred, Sara; Barr, Nicola; Reece, Valerie; Brentnall, Adam R; Cuzick, Jack; Howell, Tony; Evans, D Gareth

    2018-02-05

    High mammographic density is associated with both risk of cancers being missed at mammography, and increased risk of developing breast cancer. Stratification of breast cancer prevention and screening requires mammographic density measures predictive of cancer. This study compares five mammographic density measures to determine the association with subsequent diagnosis of breast cancer and the presence of breast cancer at screening. Women participating in the "Predicting Risk Of Cancer At Screening" (PROCAS) study, a study of cancer risk, completed questionnaires to provide personal information to enable computation of the Tyrer-Cuzick risk score. Mammographic density was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS), thresholding (Cumulus) and fully-automated methods (Densitas, Quantra, Volpara) in contralateral breasts of 366 women with unilateral breast cancer (cases) detected at screening on entry to the study (Cumulus 311/366) and in 338 women with cancer detected subsequently. Three controls per case were matched using age, body mass index category, hormone replacement therapy use and menopausal status. Odds ratios (OR) between the highest and lowest quintile, based on the density distribution in controls, for each density measure were estimated by conditional logistic regression, adjusting for classic risk factors. The strongest predictor of screen-detected cancer at study entry was VAS, OR 4.37 (95% CI 2.72-7.03) in the highest vs lowest quintile of percent density after adjustment for classical risk factors. Volpara, Densitas and Cumulus gave ORs for the highest vs lowest quintile of 2.42 (95% CI 1.56-3.78), 2.17 (95% CI 1.41-3.33) and 2.12 (95% CI 1.30-3.45), respectively. Quantra was not significantly associated with breast cancer (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.67-1.54). Similar results were found for subsequent cancers, with ORs of 4.48 (95% CI 2.79-7.18), 2.87 (95% CI 1.77-4.64) and 2.34 (95% CI 1.50-3.68) in highest vs lowest quintiles of VAS, Volpara and Densitas

  11. Mammographic density changes following discontinuation of tamoxifen in premenopausal women with oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Hwa; Cho, Nariya; Kim, Young-Seon; Yi, Ann

    2018-04-06

    To evaluate the changes in mammographic density after tamoxifen discontinuation in premenopausal women with oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancers and the underlying factors METHODS: A total of 213 consecutive premenopausal women with breast cancer who received tamoxifen treatment after curative surgery and underwent three mammograms (baseline, after tamoxifen treatment, after tamoxifen discontinuation) were included. Changes in mammographic density after tamoxifen discontinuation were assessed qualitatively (decrease, no change, or increase) by two readers and measured quantitatively by semi-automated software. The association between % density change and clinicopathological factors was evaluated using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. After tamoxifen discontinuation, a mammographic density increase was observed in 31.9% (68/213, reader 1) to 22.1% (47/213, reader 2) by qualitative assessment, with a mean density increase of 1.8% by quantitative assessment compared to density before tamoxifen discontinuation. In multivariate analysis, younger age (≤ 39 years) and greater % density decline after tamoxifen treatment (≥ 17.0%) were independent factors associated with density change after tamoxifen discontinuation (p density change with a mean density increase of 1.8%, which was associated with younger age and greater density change after tamoxifen treatment. • Increased mammographic density after tamoxifen discontinuation can occur in premenopausal women. • Mean density increase after tamoxifen discontinuation was 1.8%. • Density increase is associated with age and density decrease after tamoxifen.

  12. Local breast density assessment using reacquired mammographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Eloy; Diaz, Oliver; Martí, Robert; Diez, Yago; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Sentís, Melcior; Martí, Joan; Oliver, Arnau

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the spatial glandular volumetric tissue distribution as well as the density measures provided by Volpara™ using a dataset composed of repeated pairs of mammograms, where each pair was acquired in a short time frame and in a slightly changed position of the breast. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 99 pairs of repeatedly acquired full-field digital mammograms from 99 different patients. The commercial software Volpara™ Density Maps (Volpara Solutions, Wellington, New Zealand) is used to estimate both the global and the local glandular tissue distribution in each image. The global measures provided by Volpara™, such as breast volume, volume of glandular tissue, and volumetric breast density are compared between the two acquisitions. The evaluation of the local glandular information is performed using histogram similarity metrics, such as intersection and correlation, and local measures, such as statistics from the difference image and local gradient correlation measures. Global measures showed a high correlation (breast volume R=0.99, volume of glandular tissue R=0.94, and volumetric breast density R=0.96) regardless the anode/filter material. Similarly, histogram intersection and correlation metric showed that, for each pair, the images share a high degree of information. Regarding the local distribution of glandular tissue, small changes in the angle of view do not yield significant differences in the glandular pattern, whilst changes in the breast thickness between both acquisition affect the spatial parenchymal distribution. This study indicates that Volpara™ Density Maps is reliable in estimating the local glandular tissue distribution and can be used for its assessment and follow-up. Volpara™ Density Maps is robust to small variations of the acquisition angle and to the beam energy, although divergences arise due to different breast compression conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a sampling strategy and sample size calculation to estimate the distribution of mammographic breast density in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Mi Jin; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2012-01-01

    Mammographic breast density is a known risk factor for breast cancer. To conduct a survey to estimate the distribution of mammographic breast density in Korean women, appropriate sampling strategies for representative and efficient sampling design were evaluated through simulation. Using the target population from the National Cancer Screening Programme (NCSP) for breast cancer in 2009, we verified the distribution estimate by repeating the simulation 1,000 times using stratified random sampling to investigate the distribution of breast density of 1,340,362 women. According to the simulation results, using a sampling design stratifying the nation into three groups (metropolitan, urban, and rural), with a total sample size of 4,000, we estimated the distribution of breast density in Korean women at a level of 0.01% tolerance. Based on the results of our study, a nationwide survey for estimating the distribution of mammographic breast density among Korean women can be conducted efficiently.

  14. Deep convolutional neural network for mammographic density segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Li, Songfeng; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Lu, Yao; Zhou, Chuan; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Samala, Ravi K.

    2018-02-01

    Breast density is one of the most significant factors for cancer risk. In this study, we proposed a supervised deep learning approach for automated estimation of percentage density (PD) on digital mammography (DM). The deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) was trained to estimate a probability map of breast density (PMD). PD was calculated as the ratio of the dense area to the breast area based on the probability of each pixel belonging to dense region or fatty region at a decision threshold of 0.5. The DCNN estimate was compared to a feature-based statistical learning approach, in which gray level, texture and morphological features were extracted from each ROI and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) was used to select and combine the useful features to generate the PMD. The reference PD of each image was provided by two experienced MQSA radiologists. With IRB approval, we retrospectively collected 347 DMs from patient files at our institution. The 10-fold cross-validation results showed a strong correlation r=0.96 between the DCNN estimation and interactive segmentation by radiologists while that of the feature-based statistical learning approach vs radiologists' segmentation had a correlation r=0.78. The difference between the segmentation by DCNN and by radiologists was significantly smaller than that between the feature-based learning approach and radiologists (p approach has the potential to replace radiologists' interactive thresholding in PD estimation on DMs.

  15. The impact of mammographic imaging systems on density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damases, Christine N.; Brennan, Patrick C.; McEntee, Mark F.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether having a mammogram on differing manufacturer equipment will affect a woman's breast density (BD) measurement. The data set comprised of 40 cases, each containing a combined image of the left craniocaudal (LCC) and left mediolateral oblique (LMLO). These images were obtained from 20 women age between 42-89 years. The images were acquired on two imaging systems (GE and Hologic) one year apart. Volumetric BD was assessed by using Volpara Density Grade (VDG) and average BD% (AvBD%). Twenty American Board of Radiology (ABR) examiners assessed the same images using the BIRADS BD scale 1-4. Statistical comparisons were performed on the means using Mann-Whitney, on correlation using Spearman's rank coefficient of correlation and agreement using Cohen's Kappa. The absolute median BIRADS difference between GE and Hologic was 0.225 (2.00 versus 2.00; pperfect agreement for VDG (κ=0.933; p<0.001).

  16. The combined effect of mammographic texture and density on breast cancer risk: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Johanna O P; van Gils, Carla H; Karssemeijer, Nico; Holland, Katharina; Kallenberg, Michiel; Peeters, Petra H M; Nielsen, Mads; Lillholm, Martin

    2018-05-02

    Texture patterns have been shown to improve breast cancer risk segregation in addition to area-based mammographic density. The additional value of texture pattern scores on top of volumetric mammographic density measures in a large screening cohort has never been studied. Volumetric mammographic density and texture pattern scores were assessed automatically for the first available digital mammography (DM) screening examination of 51,400 women (50-75 years of age) participating in the Dutch biennial breast cancer screening program between 2003 and 2011. The texture assessment method was developed in a previous study and validated in the current study. Breast cancer information was obtained from the screening registration system and through linkage with the Netherlands Cancer Registry. All screen-detected breast cancers diagnosed at the first available digital screening examination were excluded. During a median follow-up period of 4.2 (interquartile range (IQR) 2.0-6.2) years, 301 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. The associations between texture pattern scores, volumetric breast density measures and breast cancer risk were determined using Cox proportional hazard analyses. Discriminatory performance was assessed using c-indices. The median age of the women at the time of the first available digital mammography examination was 56 years (IQR 51-63). Texture pattern scores were positively associated with breast cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR) 3.16 (95% CI 2.16-4.62) (p value for trend <0.001), for quartile (Q) 4 compared to Q1). The c-index of texture was 0.61 (95% CI 0.57-0.64). Dense volume and percentage dense volume showed positive associations with breast cancer risk (HR 1.85 (95% CI 1.32-2.59) (p value for trend <0.001) and HR 2.17 (95% CI 1.51-3.12) (p value for trend <0.001), respectively, for Q4 compared to Q1). When adding texture measures to models with dense volume or percentage dense volume, c-indices increased from 0.56 (95% CI 0.53-0.59) to 0

  17. Identification of a novel percent mammographic density locus at 12q24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kristen N; Lindstrom, Sara; Scott, Christopher G; Thompson, Deborah; Sellers, Thomas A; Wang, Xianshu; Wang, Alice; Atkinson, Elizabeth; Rider, David N; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Varghese, Jajini S; Audley, Tina; Brown, Judith; Leyland, Jean; Luben, Robert N; Warren, Ruth M L; Loos, Ruth J F; Wareham, Nicholas J; Li, Jingmei; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Olson, Janet E; Pankratz, V Shane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Diasio, Robert B; Lee, Adam M; Heit, John A; DeAndrade, Mariza; Goode, Ellen L; Vierkant, Robert A; Cunningham, Julie M; Armasu, Sebastian M; Weinshilboum, Richard; Fridley, Brooke L; Batzler, Anthony; Ingle, James N; Boyd, Norman F; Paterson, Andrew D; Rommens, Johanna; Martin, Lisa J; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Stone, Jennifer; Apicella, Carmel; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Hazra, Aditi; Hunter, David J; Easton, Douglas F; Couch, Fergus J; Tamimi, Rulla M; Vachon, Celine M

    2012-07-15

    Percent mammographic density adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer and has a heritable component that remains largely unidentified. We performed a three-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of percent mammographic density to identify novel genetic loci associated with this trait. In stage 1, we combined three GWASs of percent density comprised of 1241 women from studies at the Mayo Clinic and identified the top 48 loci (99 single nucleotide polymorphisms). We attempted replication of these loci in 7018 women from seven additional studies (stage 2). The meta-analysis of stage 1 and 2 data identified a novel locus, rs1265507 on 12q24, associated with percent density, adjusting for age and BMI (P = 4.43 × 10(-8)). We refined the 12q24 locus with 459 additional variants (stage 3) in a combined analysis of all three stages (n = 10 377) and confirmed that rs1265507 has the strongest association in the 12q24 region (P = 1.03 × 10(-8)). Rs1265507 is located between the genes TBX5 and TBX3, which are members of the phylogenetically conserved T-box gene family and encode transcription factors involved in developmental regulation. Understanding the mechanism underlying this association will provide insight into the genetics of breast tissue composition.

  18. Volumetric mammographic density: heritability and association with breast cancer susceptibility loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith S; Humphreys, Keith; Thompson, Deborah J; Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Mikael; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila

    2014-12-01

    Mammographic density is a strong heritable trait, but data on its genetic component are limited to area-based and qualitative measures. We studied the heritability of volumetric mammographic density ascertained by a fully-automated method and the association with breast cancer susceptibility loci. Heritability of volumetric mammographic density was estimated with a variance component model in a sib-pair sample (N pairs = 955) of a Swedish screening based cohort. Associations with 82 established breast cancer loci were assessed in an independent sample of the same cohort (N = 4025 unrelated women) using linear models, adjusting for age, body mass index, and menopausal status. All tests were two-sided, except for heritability analyses where one-sided tests were used. After multivariable adjustment, heritability estimates (standard error) for percent dense volume, absolute dense volume, and absolute nondense volume were 0.63 (0.06) and 0.43 (0.06) and 0.61 (0.06), respectively (all P associated with rs10995190 (ZNF365; P = 9.0 × 10(-6) and 8.9 × 10(-7), respectively) and rs9485372 (TAB2; P = 1.8 × 10(-5) and 1.8 × 10(-3), respectively). We also observed associations of rs9383938 (ESR1) and rs2046210 (ESR1) with the absolute dense volume (P = 2.6 × 10(-4) and 4.6 × 10(-4), respectively), and rs6001930 (MLK1) and rs17356907 (NTN4) with the absolute nondense volume (P = 6.7 × 10(-6) and 8.4 × 10(-5), respectively). Our results support the high heritability of mammographic density, though estimates are weaker for absolute than percent dense volume. We also demonstrate that the shared genetic component with breast cancer is not restricted to dense tissues only. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Minimization of annotation work: diagnosis of mammographic masses via active learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Jingyang; Xie, Hongzhi; Zhang, Shuyang; Gu, Lixu

    2018-06-01

    The prerequisite for establishing an effective prediction system for mammographic diagnosis is the annotation of each mammographic image. The manual annotation work is time-consuming and laborious, which becomes a great hindrance for researchers. In this article, we propose a novel active learning algorithm that can adequately address this problem, leading to the minimization of the labeling costs on the premise of guaranteed performance. Our proposed method is different from the existing active learning methods designed for the general problem as it is specifically designed for mammographic images. Through its modified discriminant functions and improved sample query criteria, the proposed method can fully utilize the pairing of mammographic images and select the most valuable images from both the mediolateral and craniocaudal views. Moreover, in order to extend active learning to the ordinal regression problem, which has no precedent in existing studies, but is essential for mammographic diagnosis (mammographic diagnosis is not only a classification task, but also an ordinal regression task for predicting an ordinal variable, viz. the malignancy risk of lesions), multiple sample query criteria need to be taken into consideration simultaneously. We formulate it as a criteria integration problem and further present an algorithm based on self-adaptive weighted rank aggregation to achieve a good solution. The efficacy of the proposed method was demonstrated on thousands of mammographic images from the digital database for screening mammography. The labeling costs of obtaining optimal performance in the classification and ordinal regression task respectively fell to 33.8 and 19.8 percent of their original costs. The proposed method also generated 1228 wins, 369 ties and 47 losses for the classification task, and 1933 wins, 258 ties and 185 losses for the ordinal regression task compared to the other state-of-the-art active learning algorithms. By taking the

  20. Association of Catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism Val158Met and mammographic density: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallionpää, Roope A; Uusitalo, Elina; Peltonen, Juha

    2017-08-15

    The Val158Met polymorphism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme reduces the methylation of catechol estrogens, which may affect mammographic density. High mammographic density is a known risk factor of breast cancer. Our aim was to perform meta-analysis of the effect of COMT Val158Met polymorphism on mammographic density. Original studies reporting data on mammographic density, stratified by the presence of COMT Val158Met polymorphism, were identified and combined using genetic models Met/Val vs. Val/Val, Met/Met vs. Val/Val, Val/Met+Met/Met vs. Val/Val (dominant model) and Met/Met vs. Val/Met+Val/Val (recessive model). Subgroup analyses by breast cancer status, menopausal status and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were also performed. Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall effect in percent mammographic density was -1.41 (CI -2.86 to 0.05; P=0.06) in the recessive model. Exclusion of breast cancer patients increased the effect size to -1.93 (CI -3.49 to -0.37; P=0.02). The results suggested opposite effect of COMT Val158Met for postmenopausal users of HRT versus premenopausal women or postmenopausal non-users of HRT. COMT Val158Met polymorphism may be associated with mammographic density at least in healthy women. Menopausal status and HRT should be taken into account in future studies to avoid masking of the underlying effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk stratification of women with false-positive test results in mammography screening based on mammographic morphology and density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Rikke Rass; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2017-01-01

    a case-control study nested in the population-based screening programme in Copenhagen, Denmark. We included 288 cases and 288 controls based on a cohort of 4743 women with at least one FP-test result in 1991–2005 who were followed up until 17 April 2008. Film-based mammograms were assessed using...... the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density classification, the Tabár classification, and two automated techniques quantifying percentage mammographic density (PMD) and mammographic texture (MTR), respectively. The association with breast cancer was estimated using binary logistic...

  2. High mammographic density is associated with an increase in stromal collagen and immune cells within the mammary epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Cecilia W; Chew, Grace; Hill, Prue; Huang, Dexing; Ingman, Wendy; Hodson, Leigh; Brown, Kristy A; Magenau, Astrid; Allam, Amr H; McGhee, Ewan; Timpson, Paul; Henderson, Michael A; Thompson, Erik W; Britt, Kara

    2015-06-04

    Mammographic density (MD), after adjustment for a women's age and body mass index, is a strong and independent risk factor for breast cancer (BC). Although the BC risk attributable to increased MD is significant in healthy women, the biological basis of high mammographic density (HMD) causation and how it raises BC risk remain elusive. We assessed the histological and immunohistochemical differences between matched HMD and low mammographic density (LMD) breast tissues from healthy women to define which cell features may mediate the increased MD and MD-associated BC risk. Tissues were obtained between 2008 and 2013 from 41 women undergoing prophylactic mastectomy because of their high BC risk profile. Tissue slices resected from the mastectomy specimens were X-rayed, then HMD and LMD regions were dissected based on radiological appearance. The histological composition, aromatase immunoreactivity, hormone receptor status and proliferation status were assessed, as were collagen amount and orientation, epithelial subsets and immune cell status. HMD tissue had a significantly greater proportion of stroma, collagen and epithelium, as well as less fat, than LMD tissue did. Second harmonic generation imaging demonstrated more organised stromal collagen in HMD tissues than in LMD tissues. There was significantly more aromatase immunoreactivity in both the stromal and glandular regions of HMD tissues than in those regions of LMD tissues, although no significant differences in levels of oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor or Ki-67 expression were detected. The number of macrophages within the epithelium or stroma did not change; however, HMD stroma exhibited less CD206(+) alternatively activated macrophages. Epithelial cell maturation was not altered in HMD samples, and no evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition was seen; however, there was a significant increase in vimentin(+)/CD45(+) immune cells within the epithelial layer in HMD tissues. We confirmed increased

  3. Mammographic density and breast cancer risk in breast screening assessment cases and women with a family history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Stephen W; Morrish, Oliver W E; Allgood, Prue C; Black, Richard; Gillan, Maureen G C; Willsher, Paula; Cooke, Julie; Duncan, Karen A; Michell, Michael J; Dobson, Hilary M; Maroni, Roberta; Lim, Yit Y; Purushothaman, Hema N; Suaris, Tamara; Astley, Susan M; Young, Kenneth C; Tucker, Lorraine; Gilbert, Fiona J

    2018-01-01

    Mammographic density has been shown to be a strong independent predictor of breast cancer and a causative factor in reducing the sensitivity of mammography. There remain questions as to the use of mammographic density information in the context of screening and risk management, and of the association with cancer in populations known to be at increased risk of breast cancer. To assess the association of breast density with presence of cancer by measuring mammographic density visually as a percentage, and with two automated volumetric methods, Quantra™ and VolparaDensity™. The TOMosynthesis with digital MammographY (TOMMY) study of digital breast tomosynthesis in the Breast Screening Programme of the National Health Service (NHS) of the United Kingdom (UK) included 6020 breast screening assessment cases (of whom 1158 had breast cancer) and 1040 screened women with a family history of breast cancer (of whom two had breast cancer). We assessed the association of each measure with breast cancer risk in these populations at enhanced risk, using logistic regression adjusted for age and total breast volume as a surrogate for body mass index (BMI). All density measures showed a positive association with presence of cancer and all declined with age. The strongest effect was seen with Volpara absolute density, with a significant 3% (95% CI 1-5%) increase in risk per 10 cm 3 of dense tissue. The effect of Volpara volumetric density on risk was stronger for large and grade 3 tumours. Automated absolute breast density is a predictor of breast cancer risk in populations at enhanced risk due to either positive mammographic findings or family history. In the screening context, density could be a trigger for more intensive imaging. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased COX-2 expression in epithelial and stromal cells of high mammographic density tissues and in a xenograft model of mammographic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, G L; Huo, C W; Huang, D; Hill, P; Cawson, J; Frazer, H; Hopper, J L; Haviv, I; Henderson, M A; Britt, K; Thompson, E W

    2015-08-01

    Mammographic density (MD) adjusted for age and body mass index is one of the strongest known risk factors for breast cancer. Given the high attributable risk of MD for breast cancer, chemoprevention with a safe and available agent that reduces MD and breast cancer risk would be beneficial. Cox-2 has been implicated in MD-related breast cancer risk, and was increased in stromal cells in high MD tissues in one study. Our study assessed differential Cox-2 expression in epithelial and stromal cells in paired samples of high and low MD human breast tissue, and in a validated xenograft biochamber model of MD. We also examined the effects of endocrine treatment upon Cox-2 expression in high and low MD tissues in the MD xenograft model. Paired high and low MD human breast tissue samples were immunostained for Cox-2, then assessed for differential expression and staining intensity in epithelial and stromal cells. High and low MD human breast tissues were separately maintained in biochambers in mice treated with Tamoxifen, oestrogen or placebo implants, then assessed for percentage Cox-2 staining in epithelial and stromal cells. Percentage Cox-2 staining was greater for both epithelial (p = 0.01) and stromal cells (p tissues. In high MD biochamber tissues, percentage Cox-2 staining was greater in stromal cells of oestrogen-treated versus placebo-treated tissues (p = 0.05).

  5. Comparison of subjective and fully automated methods for measuring mammographic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshina, Nataliia; Roman, Marta; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Waade, Gunvor G; Ursin, Giske; Hofvind, Solveig

    2018-02-01

    Background Breast radiologists of the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program subjectively classified mammographic density using a three-point scale between 1996 and 2012 and changed into the fourth edition of the BI-RADS classification since 2013. In 2015, an automated volumetric breast density assessment software was installed at two screening units. Purpose To compare volumetric breast density measurements from the automated method with two subjective methods: the three-point scale and the BI-RADS density classification. Material and Methods Information on subjective and automated density assessment was obtained from screening examinations of 3635 women recalled for further assessment due to positive screening mammography between 2007 and 2015. The score of the three-point scale (I = fatty; II = medium dense; III = dense) was available for 2310 women. The BI-RADS density score was provided for 1325 women. Mean volumetric breast density was estimated for each category of the subjective classifications. The automated software assigned volumetric breast density to four categories. The agreement between BI-RADS and volumetric breast density categories was assessed using weighted kappa (k w ). Results Mean volumetric breast density was 4.5%, 7.5%, and 13.4% for categories I, II, and III of the three-point scale, respectively, and 4.4%, 7.5%, 9.9%, and 13.9% for the BI-RADS density categories, respectively ( P for trend density categories was k w  = 0.5 (95% CI = 0.47-0.53; P density increased with increasing density category of the subjective classifications. The agreement between BI-RADS and volumetric breast density categories was moderate.

  6. Mammographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, L.

    1987-01-01

    For mammography to be an effective diagnostic method, it must be performed to a very high standard of quality. Otherwise many lesions, in particular cancer in its early stages, will simply not be detectable on the films, regardless of the skill of the mammographer. Mammographic interpretation consists of two basic steps: perception and analysis. The process of mammographic interpretation begins with perception of the lesion on the mammogram. Perception is influenced by several factors. One of the most important is the parenchymal pattern of the breast tissue, detection of pathologic lesions being easier with fatty involution. The mammographer should use a method for the systematic viewing of the mammograms that will ensure that all parts of each mammogram are carefully searched for the presence of lesions. The method of analysis proceeds according to the type of lesion. The contour analysis of primary importance in the evaluation of circumscribed tumors. After having analyzed the contour and density of a lesion and considered its size, the mammographer should be fairly certain whether the circumscribed tumor is benign or malignant. Fine-needle puncture and/or US may assist the mammographer in making this decision. Painstaking analysis is required because many circumscribed tumors do not need to be biopsied. The perception of circumscribed tumors seldom causes problems, but their analysis needs careful attention. On the other hand, the major challenge with star-shaped lesions is perception. They may be difficult to discover when small. Although the final diagnosis of a stellate lesion can be made only with the help of histologic examination, the preoperative mammorgraphic differential diagnosis can be highly accurate. The differential diagnostic problem is between malignant tumors (scirrhous carcinoma), on the one hand, and traumatic fat necrosis as well as radial scars on the other hand

  7. Age as a predictive factor of mammographic breast density in Jamaican women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Deanne; Reid, Marvin; James, Michael

    2002-01-01

    AIM: We sought to determine the relationship between age, and other clinical characteristics such as parity, oestrogen use, dietary factors and menstrual history on breast density in Jamaican women. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective study was done of 891 patients who attended the breast imaging unit. The clinical characteristics were extracted from the patient records. Mammograms were assessed independently by two radiologists who were blinded to the patient clinical characteristics. Breast densities were assigned using the American College of Radiology (ACR) classification. RESULTS: The concordance between the ACR classification of breast density between the two independent radiologists was 92% with k = 0.76 (SE = 0.02, P -2 vs 26.0 ± 5.2 kg m -2 , P < 0.0001). Mammographic breast density decreased with age. The age adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for predictors significantly related to high breast density were parity, OR = 0.79 (95%CI:0.71, 0.88), weight, OR = 0.92 (95% CI:0.91, 0.95), BMI, OR = 0.83 (95% CI:0.78, 0.89), menopause, OR = 0.51 (95% CI:0.36, 0.74) and a history of previous breast surgery, OR 1.6 (95% CI:1.1, 2.3). CONCLUSION: The rate decline of breast density with age in our population was influenced by parity and body composition. Soares, D. et al. (2002)

  8. Mammographic density and risk of breast cancer by tumor characteristics: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Kavitha; Baglietto, Laura; Stone, Jennifer; McLean, Catriona; Southey, Melissa C; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L

    2017-12-16

    In a previous paper, we had assumed that the risk of screen-detected breast cancer mostly reflects inherent risk, and the risk of whether a breast cancer is interval versus screen-detected mostly reflects risk of masking. We found that inherent risk was predicted by body mass index (BMI) and dense area (DA) or percent dense area (PDA), but not by non-dense area (NDA). Masking, however, was best predicted by PDA but not BMI. In this study, we aimed to investigate if these associations vary by tumor characteristics and mode of detection. We conducted a case-control study nested within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study of 244 screen-detected cases matched to 700 controls and 148 interval cases matched to 446 controls. DA, NDA and PDA were measured using the Cumulus software. Tumor characteristics included size, grade, lymph node involvement, and ER, PR, and HER2 status. Conditional and unconditional logistic regression were applied as appropriate to estimate the Odds per Adjusted Standard Deviation (OPERA) adjusted for age and BMI, allowing the association with BMI to be a function of age at diagnosis. For screen-detected cancer, both DA and PDA were associated to an increased risk of tumors of large size (OPERA ~ 1.6) and positive lymph node involvement (OPERA ~ 1.8); no association was observed for BMI and NDA. For risk of interval versus screen-detected breast cancer, the association with risk for any of the three mammographic measures did not vary by tumor characteristics; an association was observed for BMI for positive lymph nodes (OPERA ~ 0.6). No associations were observed for tumor grade and ER, PR and HER2 status of tumor. Both DA and PDA were predictors of inherent risk of larger breast tumors and positive nodal status, whereas for each of the three mammographic density measures the association with risk of masking did not vary by tumor characteristics. This might raise the hypothesis that the risk of breast tumours with poorer prognosis

  9. Identification of two novel mammographic density loci at 6Q25.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith S; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Karlsson, Robert; Eriksson, Mikael; Ivansson, Emma; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila

    2015-06-03

    Mammographic density (MD) is a strong heritable and intermediate phenotype for breast cancer, but much of its genetic variation remains unexplained. We performed a large-scale genetic association study including 8,419 women of European ancestry to identify MD loci. Participants of three Swedish studies were genotyped on a custom Illumina iSelect genotyping array and percent and absolute mammographic density were ascertained using semiautomated and fully automated methods from film and digital mammograms. Linear regression analysis was used to test for SNP-MD associations, adjusting for age, body mass index, menopausal status and six principal components. Meta-analyses were performed by combining P values taking sample size, study-specific inflation factor and direction of effect into account. Genome-wide significant associations were observed for two previously identified loci: ZNF365 (rs10995194, P = 2.3 × 10(-8) for percent MD and P = 8.7 × 10(-9) for absolute MD) and AREG (rs10034692, P = 6.7 × 10(-9) for absolute MD). In addition, we found evidence of association for two variants at 6q25.1, both of which are known breast cancer susceptibility loci: rs9485370 in the TAB2 gene (P = 4.8 × 10(-9) for percent MD and P = 2.5 × 10(-8) for absolute MD) and rs60705924 in the CCDC170/ESR1 region (P = 2.2 × 10(-8) for absolute MD). Both regions have been implicated in estrogen receptor signaling with TAB2 being a potential regulator of tamoxifen response. We identified two novel MD loci at 6q25.1. These findings underscore the importance of 6q25.1 as a susceptibility region and provide more insight into the mechanisms through which MD influences breast cancer risk.

  10. Inter-observer agreement according to three methods of evaluating mammographic density and parenchymal pattern in a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Rikke Rass; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    , Tabár's PIV and PV and the upper two quartiles (within density range) of PMD. The relative risk of breast cancer was estimated using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, which were compared between the two readers. RESULTS: Substantial inter-observer agreement was seen......, respectively. Inter-reader variability showed different impact on the relative risk of breast cancer estimated by the two readers on a multiple-category scale, however, not on a high/low-risk scale. Tabár's pattern IV demonstrated the highest ORs of all density patterns investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Our study......BACKGROUND: Mammographic breast density and parenchymal patterns are well-established risk factors for breast cancer. We aimed to report inter-observer agreement on three different subjective ways of assessing mammographic density and parenchymal pattern, and secondarily to examine what potential...

  11. Mammographic Breast Density and Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes: The Kenyan-African Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Jamal Shaikh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Data examining mammographic breast density (MBD among patients in Sub-Saharan Africa are sparse. We evaluated how MBD relates to breast cancer characteristics in Kenyan women undergoing diagnostic mammography. Methods. This cross-sectional study included women with pathologically confirmed breast cancers (n=123. Pretreatment mammograms of the unaffected breast were assessed to estimate absolute dense area (cm2, nondense area (cm2, and percent density (PD. Relationships between density measurements and clinical characteristics were evaluated using analysis of covariance. Results. Median PD and dense area were 24.9% and 85.3 cm2. Higher PD and dense area were observed in younger women (P<0.01. Higher dense and nondense areas were observed in obese women (P-trend < 0.01. Estrogen receptor (ER positive patients (73% had higher PD and dense area than ER-negative patients (P≤0.02. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC patients (17% had lower PD and dense area (P≤0.01 compared with non-TNBCs. No associations were observed between MBD and tumor size and grade. Conclusions. Our findings show discordant relationships between MBD and molecular tumor subtypes to those previously observed in Western populations. The relatively low breast density observed at diagnosis may have important implications for cancer prevention initiatives in Kenya. Subsequent larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Polymorphisms in genes involved in the estrogen pathway and mammographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumas Isabelle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes involved in the estrogen pathway appear to be associated with breast cancer risk and possibly with mammographic density (MD, but little is known of these associations among premenopausal women. This study examines the association of 11 polymorphisms in five estrogen-related genes (estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα, ERβ, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD17B1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1 with premenopausal MD. Effect modification of four estrogen-related factors (parity, age at menarche, hormonal derivatives use and body mass index (BMI on this relation is also assessed. Methods Polymorphisms were genotyped in 741 premenopausal Caucasian women whose MD was measured in absolute density (AD, cm2 and percent density using a computer-assisted method. Multivariate linear models were used to examine the associations (Ptrend and interactions (Pi. Results None of the SNPs showed a statistically significant association with AD. However, each additional rare allele of rs1056836 CYP1B1 was associated with a reduction in AD among nulliparous women (Ptrend = 0.004, while no association was observed among parous women (Ptrend = 0.62; Pi = 0.02. An increase in the number of rare alleles of the HSD17B1 SNP (rs598126 and rs2010750 was associated with an increase in AD among women who never used hormonal derivatives (Ptrend = 0.06 and Ptrend = 0.04, respectively, but with a decrease in AD among past hormonal derivatives users (Ptrend = 0.04; Pi = 0.02 and Ptrend = 0.08; Pi = 0.01, respectively. Moreover, a negative association of rs598126 HSD17B1 SNP with AD was observed among women with higher BMI (>median (Ptrend = 0.01; Pi = 0.02. A negative association between an increased number of rare alleles of COMT rs4680 SNP and AD was limited to women who never used hormonal derivatives (Ptrend = 0.02; Pi = 0.03 or with late age at menarche (>median

  13. Vision 20/20: Mammographic breast density and its clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Lau, Susie

    2015-01-01

    Breast density is a strong predictor of the failure of mammography screening to detect breast cancer and is a strong predictor of the risk of developing breast cancer. The many imaging options that are now available for imaging dense breasts show great promise, but there is still the question of determining which women are “dense” and what imaging modality is suitable for individual women. To date, mammographic breast density has been classified according to the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories from visual assessment, but this is known to be very subjective. Despite many research reports, the authors believe there has been a lack of physics-led and evidence-based arguments about what breast density actually is, how it should be measured, and how it should be used. In this paper, the authors attempt to start correcting this situation by reviewing the history of breast density research and the debates generated by the advocacy movement. The authors review the development of breast density estimation from pattern analysis to area-based analysis, and the current automated volumetric breast density (VBD) analysis. This is followed by a discussion on seeking the ground truth of VBD and mapping volumetric methods to BI-RADS density categories. The authors expect great improvement in VBD measurements that will satisfy the needs of radiologists, epidemiologists, surgeons, and physicists. The authors believe that they are now witnessing a paradigm shift toward personalized breast screening, which is going to see many more cancers being detected early, with the use of automated density measurement tools as an important component

  14. Vision 20/20: Mammographic breast density and its clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Kwan-Hoong, E-mail: ngkh@ummc.edu.my; Lau, Susie [Department of Biomedical Imaging and University of Malaya Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-12-15

    Breast density is a strong predictor of the failure of mammography screening to detect breast cancer and is a strong predictor of the risk of developing breast cancer. The many imaging options that are now available for imaging dense breasts show great promise, but there is still the question of determining which women are “dense” and what imaging modality is suitable for individual women. To date, mammographic breast density has been classified according to the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories from visual assessment, but this is known to be very subjective. Despite many research reports, the authors believe there has been a lack of physics-led and evidence-based arguments about what breast density actually is, how it should be measured, and how it should be used. In this paper, the authors attempt to start correcting this situation by reviewing the history of breast density research and the debates generated by the advocacy movement. The authors review the development of breast density estimation from pattern analysis to area-based analysis, and the current automated volumetric breast density (VBD) analysis. This is followed by a discussion on seeking the ground truth of VBD and mapping volumetric methods to BI-RADS density categories. The authors expect great improvement in VBD measurements that will satisfy the needs of radiologists, epidemiologists, surgeons, and physicists. The authors believe that they are now witnessing a paradigm shift toward personalized breast screening, which is going to see many more cancers being detected early, with the use of automated density measurement tools as an important component.

  15. Mammographic Density Reduction as a Prognostic Marker for Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: Results Using a Joint Longitudinal-Survival Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Therese M-L; Crowther, Michael J; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Humphreys, Keith

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have linked reductions in mammographic density after a breast cancer diagnosis to an improved prognosis. These studies focused on short-term change, using a 2-stage process, treating estimated change as a fixed covariate in a survival model. We propose the use of a joint longitudinal-survival model. This enables us to model long-term trends in density while accounting for dropout as well as for measurement error. We studied the change in mammographic density after a breast cancer diagnosis and its association with prognosis (measured by cause-specific mortality), overall and with respect to hormone replacement therapy and tamoxifen treatment. We included 1,740 women aged 50-74 years, diagnosed with breast cancer in Sweden during 1993-1995, with follow-up until 2008. They had a total of 6,317 mammographic density measures available from the first 5 years of follow-up, including baseline measures. We found that the impact of the withdrawal of hormone replacement therapy on density reduction was larger than that of tamoxifen treatment. Unlike previous studies, we found that there was an association between density reduction and survival, both for tamoxifen-treated women and women who were not treated with tamoxifen. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  16. Investigation of mammographic breast density as a risk factor for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernli, Karen J; O'Meara, Ellen S; Kerlikowske, Karla; Miglioretti, Diana L; Muller, Carolyn Y; Onega, Tracy; Sprague, Brian L; Henderson, Louise M; Buist, Diana S M

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous hormones and growth factors that increase mammographic breast density could increase ovarian cancer risk. We examined whether high breast density is associated with ovarian cancer risk. We conducted a cohort study of 724,603 women aged 40 to 79 years with 2,506,732 mammograms participating in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium from 1995 to 2009. Incident epithelial ovarian cancer was diagnosed in 1373 women. We used partly conditional Cox regression to estimate the association between breast density and 5-year risk of incident epithelial ovarian cancer overall and stratified by 10-year age group. All statistical tests were two-sided. Compared with women with scattered fibroglandular densities, women with heterogeneously dense and extremely dense breast tissue had 20% and 18% increased 5-year risk of incident epithelial ovarian cancer (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06 to 1.36; HR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.50, respectively; P(trend) = .01). Among women aged 50 to 59 years, we observed a trend in elevated risk associated with increased breast density (P(trend) = .02); women with heterogeneously and extremely dense breast tissue had 30% (HR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.64) and 65% (HR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.44) increased risk, respectively, compared with women with scattered fibroglandular densities. The pattern was similar but not statistically significant at age 40 to 49 years. There were no consistent patterns of breast density and ovarian cancer risk at age 60 to 79 years. Dense breast tissue was associated with a modest increase in 5-year ovarian cancer risk in women aged 50 to 59 years but was not associated with ovarian cancer at ages 40 to 49 or 60 to 79 years.

  17. Age as a predictive factor of mammographic breast density in Jamaican women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Deanne; Reid, Marvin; James, Michael

    2002-06-01

    AIM: We sought to determine the relationship between age, and other clinical characteristics such as parity, oestrogen use, dietary factors and menstrual history on breast density in Jamaican women. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective study was done of 891 patients who attended the breast imaging unit. The clinical characteristics were extracted from the patient records. Mammograms were assessed independently by two radiologists who were blinded to the patient clinical characteristics. Breast densities were assigned using the American College of Radiology (ACR) classification. RESULTS: The concordance between the ACR classification of breast density between the two independent radiologists was 92% with k = 0.76 (SE = 0.02, P < 0.001). Women with low breast density were heavier (81.3 {+-} 15.5 kg vs 68.4 {+-} 14.3 kg,P < 0.0001, mean {+-} standard deviation (SD)) and more obese (body mass index (BMI), 30.3 {+-} 5.8 kg m{sup -2} vs 26.0 {+-} 5.2 kg m{sup -2}, P < 0.0001). Mammographic breast density decreased with age. The age adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for predictors significantly related to high breast density were parity, OR = 0.79 (95%CI:0.71, 0.88), weight, OR = 0.92 (95% CI:0.91, 0.95), BMI, OR = 0.83 (95% CI:0.78, 0.89), menopause, OR = 0.51 (95% CI:0.36, 0.74) and a history of previous breast surgery, OR 1.6 (95% CI:1.1, 2.3). CONCLUSION: The rate decline of breast density with age in our population was influenced by parity and body composition. Soares, D. et al. (2002)

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci associated with both mammographic density and breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Sara; Thompson, Deborah J.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Li, Jingmei; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Scott, Christopher; Stone, Jennifer; Douglas, Julie A.; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fernandez-Navarro, Pablo; Verghase, Jajini; Smith, Paula; Brown, Judith; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Heit, John A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Norman, Aaron; Goode, Ellen L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; deAndrade, Mariza; Vierkant, Robert A.; Czene, Kamila; Fasching, Peter A.; Baglietto, Laura; Southey, Melissa C.; Giles, Graham G.; Shah, Kaanan P.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hazra, Aditi; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Pollan, Marina; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Couch, Fergus J.; Hopper, John L.; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Boyd, Norman F.; Vachon, Celine M.; Tamimi, Rulla M.

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density reflects the amount of stromal and epithelial tissues in relation to adipose tissue in the breast and is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Here we report the results from meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of three mammographic density phenotypes: dense area, non-dense area and percent density in up to 7,916 women in stage 1 and an additional 10,379 women in stage 2. We identify genome-wide significant (P<5×10−8) loci for dense area (AREG, ESR1, ZNF365, LSP1/TNNT3, IGF1, TMEM184B, SGSM3/MKL1), non-dense area (8p11.23) and percent density (PRDM6, 8p11.23, TMEM184B). Four of these regions are known breast cancer susceptibility loci, and four additional regions were found to be associated with breast cancer (P<0.05) in a large meta-analysis. These results provide further evidence of a shared genetic basis between mammographic density and breast cancer and illustrate the power of studying intermediate quantitative phenotypes to identify putative disease susceptibility loci. PMID:25342443

  19. Mammographic density and histopathologic characteristics of screen-detected tumors in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshina, Nataliia; Ursin, Giske; Hoff, Solveig Roth; Akslen, Lars A; Roman, Marta; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Hofvind, Solveig

    2015-01-01

    High mammographic density might mask breast tumors, resulting in delayed diagnosis or missed cancers. To investigate the association between mammographic density and histopathologic tumor characteristics (histologic type, size, grade, and lymph node status) among women screened in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Information about 1760 screen-detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 7366 invasive breast cancers diagnosed among women aged 50–69 years, 1996–2010, was analyzed. The screening mammograms were classified subjectively according to the amount of fibroglandular tissue into fatty, medium dense, and dense by breast radiologists. Chi-square test was used to compare the distribution of tumor characteristics by mammographic density. Odds ratio (OR) of tumor characteristics by density was estimated by means of logistic regression, adjusting for screening mode (screen-film and full-field digital mammography), and age. Mean and median tumor size of invasive breast cancers was 13.8 and 12 mm, respectively, for women with fatty breasts, and 16.2 and 14 mm for those with dense breasts. Lymph node positive tumors were identified among 20.6% of women with fatty breasts compared with 27.2% of those with dense breasts (P < 0.001). The proportion of DCIS was significantly lower for women with fatty (15.8%) compared with dense breasts (22.0%). Women with dense breasts had an increased risk of large (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18–1.73) and lymph node positive tumors (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05–1.51) compared with women with fatty and medium dense breasts. High mammographic density was positively associated with tumor size and lymph node positive tumors

  20. The effect of change in body mass index on volumetric measures of mammographic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Vicki; Reeves, Katherine W.; Sturgeon, Susan R.; Reich, Nicholas G.; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Kerlikowske, Karla; Ma, Lin; Shepherd, John; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Malkov, Serghei; Sprague, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding how changes in body mass index (BMI) relate to changes in mammographic density is necessary to evaluate adjustment for BMI gain/loss in studies of change in density and breast cancer risk. Increase in BMI has been associated with a decrease in percent density, but the effect on change in absolute dense area or volume is unclear. Methods We examined the association between change in BMI and change in volumetric breast density among 24,556 women in the San Francisco Mammography Registry from 2007-2013. Height and weight were self-reported at the time of mammography. Breast density was assessed using single x-ray absorptiometry measurements. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between BMI and dense volume (DV), non-dense volume (NDV) and percent dense volume (PDV) were assessed using multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for demographics, risk factors, and reproductive history. Results In cross-sectional analysis, BMI was positively associated with DV (β=2.95 cm3, 95% CI 2.69, 3.21) and inversely associated with PDV (β=-2.03%, 95% CI -2.09, -1.98). In contrast, increasing BMI was longitudinally associated with a decrease in both DV (β=-1.01 cm3, 95% CI -1.59, -0.42) and PDV (β=-1.17%, 95% CI -1.31, -1.04). These findings were consistent for both pre- and postmenopausal women. Conclusion Our findings support an inverse association between change in BMI and change in PDV. The association between increasing BMI and decreasing DV requires confirmation. Impact Longitudinal studies of PDV and breast cancer risk, or those using PDV as an indicator of breast cancer risk, should evaluate adjustment for change in BMI. PMID:26315554

  1. Association between mammographic density and pregnancies relative to age and BMI: a breast cancer case-only analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Carolin C; Emons, Julius; Jud, Sebastian M; Heusinger, Katharina; Adler, Werner; Gass, Paul; Haeberle, Lothar; Heindl, Felix; Hein, Alexander; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Uder, Michael; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fasching, Peter A; Pöhls, Uwe G

    2017-12-01

    Percentage mammographic density (PMD) is a major risk factor for breast cancer (BC). It is strongly associated with body mass index (BMI) and age, which are themselves risk factors for breast cancer. This analysis investigated the association between the number of full-term pregnancies and PMD in different subgroups relative to age and BMI. Patients were identified in the breast cancer database of the University Breast Center for Franconia. A total of 2410 patients were identified, for whom information on parity, age, and BMI, and a mammogram from the time of first diagnosis were available for assessing PMD. Linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the influence on PMD of the number of full-term pregnancies (FTPs), age, BMI, and interaction terms between them. As in previous studies, age, number of FTPs, and BMI were found to be associated with PMD in the expected direction. However, including the respective interaction terms improved the prediction of PMD even further. Specifically, the association between PMD and the number of FTPs differed in young patients under the age of 45 (mean decrease of 0.37 PMD units per pregnancy) from the association in older age groups (mean decrease between 2.29 and 2.39 PMD units). BMI did not alter the association between PMD and the number of FTPs. The effect of pregnancies on mammographic density does not appear to become apparent before the age of menopause. The mechanism that drives the effect of pregnancies on mammographic density appears to be counter-regulated by other influences on mammographic density in younger patients.

  2. Digital versus screen-film mammography: impact of mammographic density and hormone therapy on breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarelli, Anna M; Prummel, Maegan V; Muradali, Derek; Shumak, Rene S; Majpruz, Vicky; Brown, Patrick; Jiang, Hedy; Done, Susan J; Yaffe, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Most studies that have examined the effects of mammographic density and hormone therapy use on breast cancer detection have included screen-film mammography. This study further examines this association in post-menopausal women screened by digital mammography. Approved by the University of Toronto Research Ethics Board, this study identified 688,418 women of age 50-74 years screened with digital or screen-film mammography from 2008 to 2009 within the Ontario Breast Screening Program. Of 2993 eligible women with invasive breast cancer, 2450 were contacted and 1421 participated (847 screen-film mammography, 574 digital direct radiography). Mammographic density was measured by study radiologists using the standard BI-RADS classification system and by a computer-assisted method. Information on hormone therapy use was collected by a telephone-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression and two-tailed tests for significance evaluated associations between factors and detection method by mammography type. Women with >75 % radiologist-measured mammographic density compared to those with diagnosed with an interval than screen-detected cancer, with the difference being greater for those screened with screen-film (OR = 6.40, 95 % CI 2.30-17.85) than digital mammography (OR = 2.41, 95 % CI 0.67-8.58) and aged 50-64 years screened with screen-film mammography (OR = 10.86, 95 % CI 2.96-39.57). Recent former hormone therapy users were also at an increased risk of having an interval cancer with the association being significant for women screened with digital mammography (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI 1.17-3.71). Breast screening using digital mammography lowers the risk of having an interval cancer for post-menopausal women aged 50-64 with greater mammographic density.

  3. Tumor characteristics and family history in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer: The French E3N cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Dartois, Laureen; Delaloge, Suzette; Hopper, John; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Mammographic density is a known heritable risk factor for breast cancer, but reports how tumor characteristics and family history may modify this association are inconsistent. Dense and total breast areas were assessed using Cumulus™ from pre-diagnostic mammograms for 820 invasive breast cancer cases and 820 matched controls nested within the French E3N cohort study. To allow comparisons across models, percent mammographic density (PMD) was standardized to the distribution of the controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of breast cancer risk for mammographic density were estimated by conditional logistic regression while adjusting for age and body mass index. Heterogeneity according to tumor characteristic and family history was assessed using stratified analyses. Overall, the OR per 1 SD for PMD was 1.50 (95% CI, 1.33-1.69). No evidence for significant heterogeneity by tumor size, lymph node status, grade, and hormone receptor status (estrogen, progesterone, and HER2) was detected. However, the association of PMD was stronger for women reporting a family history of breast cancer (OR 1SD =2.25; 95% CI, 1.67-3.04) than in women reporting none (OR 1SD =1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60; p heterogeneity =0.002). Similarly, effect modification by FHBC was observed using categories of PMD (p heterogeneity =0.02) with respective ORs of 15.16 (95% CI, 4.23-54.28) vs. 3.14 (95% CI, 1.89-5.22) for ≥50% vs. breast cancer risk with a family history supports the hypothesis of shared genetic factors responsible for familial aggregation of breast cancer and the heritable component of mammographic density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Degree of urbanization and mammographic density in Dutch breast cancer screening participants: results from the EPIC-NL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaus, Marleen J; Bakker, Marije F; Beelen, Rob M J; Veldhuis, Wouter B; Peeters, Petra H M; van Gils, Carla H

    2014-12-01

    It has been observed that women living in urban areas have a higher mammographic density (MD) compared to women living in rural areas. This association might be explained by regional differences in reproductive and lifestyle factors or perhaps by variation in exposure to ambient air pollution as air pollution particles have been described to show estrogenic activity. We investigated the association between degree of urbanization and MD, and aimed to unravel the underlying etiology. 2,543 EPIC-NL participants were studied, and general linear models were used. Urbanization was categorized into five categories according to the number of addresses/km(2). Information on reproductive and lifestyle factors was obtained from the recruitment questionnaire. Air pollution exposure was estimated using land-use regression models. MD was expressed as percent density (PD) and dense area (DA), and was quantified using Cumulus. Women living in extremely urbanized areas had a higher PD (21.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.5-22.3%) compared to women living in not urbanized areas (16.1, 95% CI 14.5-17.8%, P trend air pollution (adjusted PDextremely_urbanized = 22.1%, 95% CI 18.0-26.5% versus adjusted PDnot_urbanized = 16.9%, 95% CI 13.0-21.2, P trend urbanization is associated with MD. The association could not be explained by differences in reproductive and lifestyle factors or by variation in air pollution exposure.

  5. Mammographic density and factors determining it from the point of view of high oncological risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Vasilyev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now extensive proof that high percentage of mammographic density (MD is an independent risk factor for breast cance.r Taking this into account, the research data are summarized with regard to relation of MD to anthropometric, as well as hormonal, genetic and genotoxic factors. There is a negative correlation between MD and such risk factors as age, number of deliveries, BMI and waist-hip ratio. Most inves- tigations show a direct connection between MD and prolactin level or insulin-like growth factor in blood, mostly in premenopaus al women. Relations of MD with blood estrogens, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin prove to be too diverse to be taken in account of. It is pos- sible that the action of hormones, especially estrogens, is mediated through their metabolites catecholestrogens and / or reactive oxygen spe- cies. There is certain evidence that a genetic component plays a role in MD. It refers to COMT Val158Met, IGF-I rs6220 A> G and UGT1A1 in premenopausal women, and to ESR1 (XbaI и PvuII in menopausal cases.Although it is obvious that the risk of breast cancer related to MD is brought about by many factors, there is a necessity for studying addi- tional criteria modifying the process, as well as for searching means for preventing it.

  6. Positive predictive values by mammographic density and screening mode in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshina, Nataliia; Ursin, Giske; Roman, Marta; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Hofvind, Solveig

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the probability of breast cancer among women recalled due to abnormal findings on the screening mammograms (PPV-1) and among women who underwent an invasive procedure (PPV-2) by mammographic density (MD), screening mode and age. We used information about 28,826 recall examinations from 26,951 subsequently screened women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program, 1996-2010. The radiologists who performed the recall examinations subjectively classified MD on the mammograms into three categories: fatty (70%). Screening mode was defined as screen-film mammography (SFM) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM). We examined trends of PPVs by MD, screening mode and age. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratio (OR) of screen-detected breast cancer associated with MD among women recalled, adjusting for screening mode and age. PPV-1 and PPV-2 decreased by increasing MD, regardless of screening mode (p for trend breasts. Among women recalled, the adjusted OR of breast cancer decreased with increasing MD. Compared with women with fatty breasts, the OR was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.84-0.96) for those with medium dense breasts and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.76-0.95) for those with dense breasts. PPVs decreased by increasing MD. Fewer women needed to be recalled or undergo an invasive procedure to detect one breast cancer among those with fatty versus dense breasts in the screening program in Norway, 1996-2010. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polymorphisms in genes involved in the estrogen pathway and mammographic density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, Isabelle; Diorio, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the estrogen pathway appear to be associated with breast cancer risk and possibly with mammographic density (MD), but little is known of these associations among premenopausal women. This study examines the association of 11 polymorphisms in five estrogen-related genes (estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα, ERβ), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD17B1), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1)) with premenopausal MD. Effect modification of four estrogen-related factors (parity, age at menarche, hormonal derivatives use and body mass index (BMI)) on this relation is also assessed. Polymorphisms were genotyped in 741 premenopausal Caucasian women whose MD was measured in absolute density (AD, cm 2 ) and percent density using a computer-assisted method. Multivariate linear models were used to examine the associations (P trend ) and interactions (P i ). None of the SNPs showed a statistically significant association with AD. However, each additional rare allele of rs1056836 CYP1B1 was associated with a reduction in AD among nulliparous women (P trend = 0.004), while no association was observed among parous women (P trend = 0.62; P i = 0.02). An increase in the number of rare alleles of the HSD17B1 SNP (rs598126 and rs2010750) was associated with an increase in AD among women who never used hormonal derivatives (P trend = 0.06 and P trend = 0.04, respectively), but with a decrease in AD among past hormonal derivatives users (P trend = 0.04; P i = 0.02 and P trend = 0.08; P i = 0.01, respectively). Moreover, a negative association of rs598126 HSD17B1 SNP with AD was observed among women with higher BMI (>median) (P trend = 0.01; P i = 0.02). A negative association between an increased number of rare alleles of COMT rs4680 SNP and AD was limited to women who never used hormonal derivatives (P trend = 0.02; P i = 0.03) or with late age at menarche (>median) (P trend = 0.03; P i

  8. Cost-effectiveness of annual versus biennial screening mammography for women with high mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Reka; Ismail, Zahra; Coldman, Andrew J; Elwood, Mark; Gelmon, Karen; Hedden, Lindsay; Hislop, Greg; Kan, Lisa; McCoy, Bonnie; Olivotto, Ivo A; Peacock, Stuart

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity of screening mammography is much lower among women who have dense breast tissue, compared with women who have largely fatty breasts, and they are also at much higher risk of developing the disease. Increasing mammography screening frequency from biennially to annually has been suggested as a policy option to address the elevated risk in this population. The purpose of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of annual versus biennial screening mammography among women aged 50-79 with dense breast tissue. A Markov model was constructed based on screening, diagnostic, and treatment pathways for the population-based screening and cancer care programme in British Columbia, Canada. Model probabilities and screening costs were calculated from screening programme data. Costs for breast cancer treatment were calculated from treatment data, and utility values were obtained from the literature. Incremental cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY), and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted. Compared with biennial screening, annual screening generated an additional 0.0014 QALYs (95% CI: -0.0480-0.0359) at a cost of $819 ($ = Canadian dollars) per patient (95% CI: 506-1185), resulting in an incremental cost effectiveness ratio of $565,912/QALY. Annual screening had a 37.5% probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/QALY. There is considerable uncertainty about the incremental cost-effectiveness of annual mammography. Further research on the comparative effectiveness of screening strategies for women with high mammographic breast density is warranted, particularly as digital mammography and density measurement become more widespread, before cost-effectiveness can be reevaluated. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Common genetic variation and novel loci associated with volumetric mammographic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith S; Humphreys, Keith; Li, Jingmei; Karlsson, Robert; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila

    2018-04-17

    Mammographic density (MD) is a strong and heritable intermediate phenotype of breast cancer, but much of its genetic variation remains unexplained. We conducted a genetic association study of volumetric MD in a Swedish mammography screening cohort (n = 9498) to identify novel MD loci. Associations with volumetric MD phenotypes (percent dense volume, absolute dense volume, and absolute nondense volume) were estimated using linear regression adjusting for age, body mass index, menopausal status, and six principal components. We also estimated the proportion of MD variance explained by additive contributions from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP-based heritability [h 2 SNP ]) in 4948 participants of the cohort. In total, three novel MD loci were identified (at P associated with breast cancer in available meta-analysis data including 122,977 breast cancer cases and 105,974 control subjects (P < 0.05). h 2 SNP (SE) estimates for percent dense, absolute dense, and nondense volume were 0.29 (0.07), 0.31 (0.07), and 0.25 (0.07), respectively. Corresponding ratios of h 2 SNP to previously observed narrow-sense h 2 estimates in the same cohort were 0.46, 0.72, and 0.41, respectively. These findings provide new insights into the genetic basis of MD and biological mechanisms linking MD to breast cancer risk. Apart from identifying three novel loci, we demonstrate that at least 25% of the MD variance is explained by common genetic variation with h 2 SNP /h 2 ratios varying between dense and nondense MD components.

  10. Genotypes and haplotypes in the insulin-like growth factors, their receptors and binding proteins in relation to plasma metabolic levels and mammographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanock Stephen J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased mammographic density is one of the strongest independent risk factors for breast cancer. It is believed that one third of breast cancers are derived from breasts with more than 50% density. Mammographic density is affected by age, BMI, parity, and genetic predisposition. It is also greatly influenced by hormonal and growth factor changes in a woman's life cycle, spanning from puberty through adult to menopause. Genetic variations in genes coding for hormones and growth factors involved in development of the breast are therefore of great interest. The associations between genetic polymorphisms in genes from the IGF pathway on mammographic density and circulating levels of IGF1, its binding protein IGFBP3, and their ratio in postmenopausal women are reported here. Methods Samples from 964 postmenopausal Norwegian women aged 55-71 years were collected as a part of the Tromsø Mammography and Breast Cancer Study. All samples were genotyped for 25 SNPs in IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R, IGFALS and IGFBP3 using Taqman (ABI. The main statistical analyses were conducted with the PROC HAPLOTYPE procedure within SAS/GENETICS™ (SAS 9.1.3. Results The haplotype analysis revealed six haploblocks within the studied genes. Of those, four had significant associations with circulating levels of IGF1 or IGFBP3 and/or mammographic density. One haplotype variant in the IGF1 gene was found to be associated with mammographic density. Within the IGF2 gene one haplotype variant was associated with levels of both IGF1 and IGFBP3. Two haplotype variants in the IGF2R were associated with the level of IGF1. Both variants of the IGFBP3 haplotype were associated with the IGFBP3 level and indicate regulation in cis. Conclusion Polymorphisms within the IGF1 gene and related genes were associated with plasma levels of IGF1, IGFBP3 and mammographic density in this study of postmenopausal women.

  11. Background parenchymal enhancement on breast MRI and mammographic breast density: correlation with tumour characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.Y.; Choi, N.; Yang, J.-H.; Yoo, Y.B.; Park, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between mammographic breast density (MGD) and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) at breast MRI and histopathological features of invasive breast cancers. Materials and methods: A total of 178 women with unilateral invasive breast cancer who preoperatively underwent mammography and breast MRI were included in the study. Two radiologists rated MGD and BPE according to BI-RADS criteria in consensus. The relationship between MGD and BPE was investigated, and compared with histopathological features of invasive breast cancers according to the level of MGD and BPE. Results: At MRI, there is no significant difference in the distribution of MGD and BPE of the contralateral breast in women with invasive breast cancer according to menopausal status (p=0.226, 0.384). Women with high MGD (>50% glandular) were more likely to have oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer (p=0.045) and progesterone receptor (PR)-positive breast cancer (p=0.020). With regard to BPE, PR positivity correlated with moderate or marked BPE with borderline significance (p=0.054). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that women with high MGD were less likely to have triple-negative (i.e., a cancer that is ER negative, PR negative, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 [HER2] negative) breast cancer compared with ER (+)/HER2 (−) cancer (OR=0.231, 95% CI: 0.070, 0.760; p=0.016). No association between the histological tumour characteristics and BPE was observed. Conclusion: In women with invasive breast cancer, high MGD is associated with ER positivity of the invasive breast cancer. However, at MRI, BPE of the contralateral breast seems to be independent of tumour characteristics. -- Highlights: •There is no difference in distribution of MGD and BPE of contralateral breast on MRI. •High MGD is associated with ER positivity of the invasive breast cancer. •BPE of the contralateral breast on MRI is independent of tumor

  12. A self-directed learning intervention for radiographers rating mammographic breast density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekpo, E.U.; Hogg, P.; Wasike, E.; McEntee, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Subjective methods of mammographic breast density (MBD) assessment are prone to inter-reader variability. This work aims to assess the impact of a short self-directed, experiential learning intervention on radiographers' reproducibility of MBD assessment. Method: The study used two sets of images (test and learning intervention) containing left craniocaudal and left mediolateral oblique views. The test set had MBD ratings from Volpara™ and radiologists using the fourth edition Breast Imaging and Data Systems (BI-RADS ® ). Seven radiographers rated the MBD of the test set before and after a self-directed learning intervention using the percentage descriptors in the fourth edition BI-RADS ® Atlas. The inter-reader agreement, the agreement between radiographers and Volpara™ as well as radiologists, was assessed using a Weighted Kappa (κ w ). Results: Overall, radiographers' inter-reader agreement (κ w ) was substantial (0.79; 95% CI: 0.70–0.87) before the intervention and almost perfect (0.84; 95% CI: 0.77–0.90) after the intervention. Before the intervention, radiographers demonstrated fair agreement with radiologists (0.24; 95% CI: −0.46–0.61) and Volpara™ (0.24; 95% CI: −0.41–0.59). A fair but slightly improved agreement was also observed between radiographers and radiologists (0.31; 95% CI: −0.33–0.64) as well as Volpara™ (0.28; 95% CI: −0.34–0.61) after the intervention. Conclusion: Findings demonstrate that a short duration self-directed, experiential learning intervention reduces inter-reader differences in MBD classification, but has a negligible impact on improving the agreement between inexperienced and expert readers. - Highlights: • Radiographers' MBD rating show fair agreement with radiologists and Volpara™. • Experiential learning intervention improved reproducibility of MBD classification. • Enhanced MBD rating training may be required to develop a standard fit for practice.

  13. Mammographic Density Phenotypes and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Rebecca E.; Ursin, Giske; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; McCormack, Valerie; Baglietto, Laura; Vachon, Celine; Bakker, Marije F.; Giles, Graham G.; Chia, Kee Seng; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Louise; Hall, Per; Hartman, Mikael; Warren, Ruth M. L.; Hislop, Greg; Chiarelli, Anna M.; Hopper, John L.; Krishnan, Kavitha; Li, Jingmei; Li, Qing; Pagano, Ian; Rosner, Bernard A.; Wong, Chia Siong; Scott, Christopher; Stone, Jennifer; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Boyd, Norman F.; van Gils, Carla H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibroglandular breast tissue appears dense on mammogram, whereas fat appears nondense. It is unclear whether absolute or percentage dense area more strongly predicts breast cancer risk and whether absolute nondense area is independently associated with risk. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of 13 case–control studies providing results from logistic regressions for associations between one standard deviation (SD) increments in mammographic density phenotypes and breast cancer risk. We used random-effects models to calculate pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All tests were two-sided with P less than .05 considered to be statistically significant. Results Among premenopausal women (n = 1776 case patients; n = 2834 control subjects), summary odds ratios were 1.37 (95% CI = 1.29 to 1.47) for absolute dense area, 0.78 (95% CI = 0.71 to 0.86) for absolute nondense area, and 1.52 (95% CI = 1.39 to 1.66) for percentage dense area when pooling estimates adjusted for age, body mass index, and parity. Corresponding odds ratios among postmenopausal women (n = 6643 case patients; n = 11187 control subjects) were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.31 to 1.44), 0.79 (95% CI = 0.73 to 0.85), and 1.53 (95% CI = 1.44 to 1.64). After additional adjustment for absolute dense area, associations between absolute nondense area and breast cancer became attenuated or null in several studies and summary odds ratios became 0.82 (95% CI = 0.71 to 0.94; P heterogeneity = .02) for premenopausal and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.75 to 0.96; P heterogeneity women. Conclusions The results suggest that percentage dense area is a stronger breast cancer risk factor than absolute dense area. Absolute nondense area was inversely associated with breast cancer risk, but it is unclear whether the association is independent of absolute dense area. PMID:24816206

  14. Minimal impact of adjuvant exemestane or tamoxifen treatment on mammographic breast density in postmenopausal breast cancer patients: A Dutch TEAM trial analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.H. van Nes; L.V. Beex (Louk); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); H. Putter (Hein); A. Sramek (Alexandr); S. Lardenoije (Susanne); M.D.-D.E. Carpentier (Marjolijn Duijm-D.E.); I. Van Rongen (Inge); J.W.R. Nortier (Johan W. R.); H.M. Zonderland (Harmine); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest independent risk factors for developing breast cancer. We examined the effect of exemestane and tamoxifen on breast density in Dutch postmenopausal early breast cancer patients participating in the Tamoxifen Exemestane

  15. Sleep patterns, sleep disorders and mammographic density in spanish women: The DDM-Spain/Var-DDM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Flechas, Ana María; Lope, Virginia; Moreo, Pilar; Ascunce, Nieves; Miranda-García, Josefa; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Llobet, Rafael; Aragonés, Nuria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz

    2017-05-01

    We explored the relationship between sleep patterns and sleep disorders and mammographic density (MD), a marker of breast cancer risk. Participants in the DDM-Spain/var-DDM study, which included 2878 middle-aged Spanish women, were interviewed via telephone and asked questions on sleep characteristics. Two radiologists assessed MD in their left craneo-caudal mammogram, assisted by a validated semiautomatic-computer tool (DM-scan). We used log-transformed percentage MD as the dependent variable and fitted mixed linear regression models, including known confounding variables. Our results showed that neither sleeping patterns nor sleep disorders were associated with MD. However, women with frequent changes in their bedtime due to anxiety or depression had higher MD (e β :1.53;95%CI:1.04-2.26). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diabetes, diabetes treatment, and mammographic density in Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschard, Karsten; Thomassen, Katrin; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: We examined whether diabetes and diabetes treatment are associated with MD in a cohort study of Danish women above age of 50 years. METHODS: Study cohort consisted of 5,644 women (4,500 postmenopausal) who participated in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort (1993......-1997) and subsequently attended mammographic screening in Copenhagen (1993-2001). We used MD assessed at the first screening after the cohort entry, defined as mixed/dense or fatty. Diabetes diagnoses and diabetes treatments (diet, insulin, or oral antidiabetic agents) were self-reported at the time of recruitment (1993.......61; 0.40-0.92). Similar inverse associations were observed for 44 women who controlled diabetes by diet only and did not receive any medication (0.56; 0.27-1.14), and 62 who took oral antidiabetic agents only for diabetes (0.59; 0.32-1.09), while women taking insulin had increased odds of mixed...

  17. Mammographic density and ageing: A collaborative pooled analysis of cross-sectional data from 22 countries worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Burton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mammographic density (MD is one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors. Its age-related characteristics have been studied in women in western countries, but whether these associations apply to women worldwide is not known.We examined cross-sectional differences in MD by age and menopausal status in over 11,000 breast-cancer-free women aged 35-85 years, from 40 ethnicity- and location-specific population groups across 22 countries in the International Consortium on Mammographic Density (ICMD. MD was read centrally using a quantitative method (Cumulus and its square-root metrics were analysed using meta-analysis of group-level estimates and linear regression models of pooled data, adjusted for body mass index, reproductive factors, mammogram view, image type, and reader. In all, 4,534 women were premenopausal, and 6,481 postmenopausal, at the time of mammography. A large age-adjusted difference in percent MD (PD between post- and premenopausal women was apparent (-0.46 cm [95% CI: -0.53, -0.39] and appeared greater in women with lower breast cancer risk profiles; variation across population groups due to heterogeneity (I2 was 16.5%. Among premenopausal women, the √PD difference per 10-year increase in age was -0.24 cm (95% CI: -0.34, -0.14; I2 = 30%, reflecting a compositional change (lower dense area and higher non-dense area, with no difference in breast area. In postmenopausal women, the corresponding difference in √PD (-0.38 cm [95% CI: -0.44, -0.33]; I2 = 30% was additionally driven by increasing breast area. The study is limited by different mammography systems and its cross-sectional rather than longitudinal nature.Declines in MD with increasing age are present premenopausally, continue postmenopausally, and are most pronounced over the menopausal transition. These effects were highly consistent across diverse groups of women worldwide, suggesting that they result from an intrinsic biological, likely hormonal, mechanism common to

  18. Pilot study of quantitative analysis of background enhancement on breast MR images: association with menstrual cycle and mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaranelo, Anabel M; Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Fleming, Rachel; Jacks, Lindsay M; Kulkarni, Supriya R; Crystal, Pavel

    2013-06-01

    To perform semiautomated quantitative analysis of the background enhancement (BE) in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and to correlate it with mammographic breast density and menstrual cycle. Informed consent was waived after the research ethics board approved this study. Results of 177 consecutive preoperative breast magnetic resonance (MR) examinations performed from February to December 2009 were reviewed; 147 female patients (median age, 48 years; range, 26-86 years) were included. Ordinal values of BE and breast density were described by two independent readers by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. The BE coefficient (BEC) was calculated thus: (SI2 · 100/SI1) - 100, where SI is signal intensity, SI2 is the SI enhancement measured in the largest anteroposterior dimension in the axial plane 1 minute after the contrast agent injection, and SI1is the SI before contrast agent injection. BEC was used for the quantitative analysis of BE. Menstrual cycle status was based on the last menstrual period. The Wilcoxon rank-sum or Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative assessment groups. Cohen weighted κ was used to evaluate agreement. Of 147 patients, 68 (46%) were premenopausal and 79 (54%) were postmenopausal. The quantitative BEC was associated with the menstrual status (BEC in premenopausal women, 31.48 ± 20.68 [standard deviation]; BEC in postmenopausal women, 25.65 ± 16.74; P = .02). The percentage of overall BE was higher when the MR imaging was performed in women in the inadequate phase of the cycle (quantitative BE than postmenopausal women. No association was found between BE and breast density.

  19. A Novel Fuzzy Topological Approach to the Detection of Mammographic Lesions and Quantification of Parenchymal Density

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Udupa, Jayaram

    2001-01-01

    .... During this project period, the following have been accomplished: The development and validation of a new method of lesion and density detection based on fuzzy connectedness that utilizes the relative strength of connectedness among objects...

  20. Benign breast disease, mammographic breast density, and the risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; O'Meara, Ellen S; Weaver, Donald L; Vachon, Celine; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2013-07-17

    Benign breast disease and high breast density are prevalent, strong risk factors for breast cancer. Women with both risk factors may be at very high risk. We included 42818 women participating in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium who had no prior diagnosis of breast cancer and had undergone at least one benign breast biopsy and mammogram; 1359 women developed incident breast cancer in 6.1 years of follow-up (78.1% invasive, 21.9% ductal carcinoma in situ). We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox regression analysis. The referent group was women with nonproliferative changes and average density. All P values are two-sided. Benign breast disease and breast density were independently associated with breast cancer. The combination of atypical hyperplasia and very high density was uncommon (0.6% of biopsies) but was associated with the highest risk for breast cancer (HR = 5.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.52 to 8.09, P < .001). Proliferative disease without atypia (25.6% of biopsies) was associated with elevated risk that varied little across levels of density: average (HR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.69, P = .003), high (HR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.68 to 2.44, P < .001), or very high (HR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.72, P < .001). Low breast density (4.5% of biopsies) was associated with low risk (HRs <1) for all benign pathology diagnoses. Women with high breast density and proliferative benign breast disease are at very high risk for future breast cancer. Women with low breast density are at low risk, regardless of their benign pathologic diagnosis.

  1. Should breast MRI be performed with adjustment for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle? Correlation between mammographic density, age, and background enhancement on breast MRI without adjusting for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi; Kasami, Masako; Watanabe, Junichiro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between mammographic density, age, and background enhancement on breast MRI without adjusting for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle. Material and methods: The background enhancement of bilateral breast MRI and the breast density of mammography in 146 consecutive women without adjusting for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle were reviewed. The breast density was classified into four categories according to the American College of Radiology the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. The background enhancement was classified into four categories: minimal, mild, moderate, and marked. The correlations of mammographic breast density as well as age with background enhancement on breast MRI were examined. Results: There was a significant correlation between mammographic breast density and background enhancement (p = 0.011). All nine cases with almost completely fat mammographic breast density showed minimal (78%) or mild (12%) background enhancement on breast MRI. There was a significant inverse correlation between age and background enhancement (p < 0.0001). Younger patients with dense breasts were more likely to demonstrate moderate/marked background enhancement. Conclusion: When no adjusting for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle, a significant correlation was observed between background enhancement and mammographic density. A significant inverse correlation was also observed between age and background enhancement.

  2. The association between breast tissue optical content and mammographic density in pre- and post-menopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Blackmore

    Full Text Available Mammographic density (MD, associated with higher water and lower fat content in the breast, is strongly related to breast cancer risk. Optical attenuation spectroscopy (OS is a non-imaging method of evaluating breast tissue composition by red and near-infrared light transmitted through the breast that, unlike mammography, does not involve radiation. OS provides information on wavelength dependent light scattering of tissue and on absorption by water, lipid, oxy-, deoxy-hemoglobin. We propose that OS could be an alternative marker of breast cancer risk and that OS breast tissue measures will be associated with MD. In the present analysis, we developed an algorithm to estimate breast tissue composition and light scattering parameters using a spectrally constrained global fitting procedure employing a diffuse light transport model. OS measurements were obtained from 202 pre- and post-menopausal women with normal mammograms. Percent density (PD and dense area (DA were measured using Cumulus. The association between OS tissue composition and PD and DA was analyzed using linear regression adjusted for body mass index. Among pre-menopausal women, lipid content was significantly inversely associated with square root transformed PD (β = -0.05, p = 0.0002 and DA (β = -0.05, p = 0.019; water content was significantly positively associated with PD (β = 0.06, p = 0.008. Tissue oxygen saturation was marginally inversely associated with PD (β = -0.03, p = 0.057 but significantly inversely associated with DA (β = -0.10, p = 0.002. Among post-menopausal women lipid and water content were significantly associated (negatively and positively, respectively with PD (β lipid = -0.08, β water = 0.14, both p<0.0001 and DA (β lipid = -0.10, p<0.0001; β water = 0.11, p = 0.001. The association between OS breast content and PD and DA is consistent with more proliferation in dense tissue of younger women, greater lipid content in low density tissue and higher water

  3. Vitamin D intake, month the mammogram was taken and mammographic density in Norwegian women aged 50-69.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Ellingjord-Dale

    Full Text Available The role of vitamin D in breast cancer etiology is unclear. There is some, but inconsistent, evidence that vitamin D is associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density (MD. We evaluated the associations of MD with month the mammogram was taken, and with vitamin D intake, in a population of women from Norway--a country with limited sunlight exposure for a large part of the year.3114 women aged 50-69, who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP in 2004 or 2006/07, completed risk factor and food frequency (FFQ questionnaires. Dietary and total (dietary plus supplements vitamin D, calcium and energy intakes were estimated by the FFQ. Month when the mammogram was taken was recorded on the mammogram. Percent MD was assessed using a computer assisted method (Madena, University of Southern California after digitization of the films. Linear regression models were used to investigate percent MD associations with month the mammogram was taken, and vitamin D and calcium intakes, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI, study year, estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT, education, parity, calcium intakes and energy intakes.There was no statistical significant association between the month the mammogram was taken and percent MD. Overall, there was no association between percent MD and quartiles of total or dietary vitamin D intakes, or of calcium intake. However, analysis restricted to women aged <55 years revealed a suggestive inverse association between total vitamin D intake and percent MD (p for trend = 0.03.Overall, we found no strong evidence that month the mammogram was taken was associated with percent MD. We found no inverse association between vitamin D intake and percent MD overall, but observed a suggestive inverse association between dietary vitamin D and MD for women less than 55 years old.

  4. Selective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in invasive lobular breast cancer based on mammographic density: does it lead to an appropriate change in surgical treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Gaurav J; Santosh, Divya; Davies, Eleri L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether high mammographic density can be used as one of the selection criteria for MRI in invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC). In our institute, high breast density has been used as one of the indications for performing MRI scan in patients with ILC. We divided the patients in two groups, one with MRI performed pre-operatively and other without MRI. We compared their surgical procedures and analyzed whether surgical plan was altered after MRI. In case of alteration of plan, we analyzed whether the change was adequate by comparing post-operative histological findings. Between 2011 and 2015, there were a total of 1601 breast cancers with 97 lobular cancers, out of which 36 had pre-operative MRI and 61 had no MRI scan. 12 (33.3%) had mastectomy following MRI, out of which 9 (25%) had change in surgical plan from conservation to mastectomy following MRI. There were no unnecessary mastectomies in the MRI group. However, utilization of MRI in this cohort of patients did not reduce reoperation rate (19.3%). Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) was identified in 60% of reoperations on post-surgical histology. Patients in the "No MRI" group had higher mastectomy rate 26 (42.6%), which was again appropriate. High mammographic density is a useful risk stratification criterion for selective MRI in ILC within a multidisciplinary team meeting setting. Provided additional lesions identified on MRI are confirmed with biopsy, pre-operative MRI does not cause unnecessary mastectomies. Used in this selective manner, reoperation rates were not eliminated, albeit reduced when compared to literature. High mammographic breast density can be used as one of the selection criteria for pre-operative MRI in ILC without an increase in inappropriate mastectomies with potential time and cost savings. In this cohort, re-excisions were not reduced markedly with pre-operative MRI.

  5. Association of infertility and fertility treatment with mammographic density in a large screening-based cohort of women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Frida E; Johansson, Anna L V; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny; Brand, Judith S; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Iliadou, Anastasia N

    2016-04-13

    Ovarian stimulation drugs, in particular hormonal agents used for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) required to perform in vitro fertilization, increase estrogen and progesterone levels and have therefore been suspected to influence breast cancer risk. This study aims to investigate whether infertility and hormonal fertility treatment influences mammographic density, a strong hormone-responsive risk factor for breast cancer. Cross-sectional study including 43,313 women recruited to the Karolinska Mammography Project between 2010 and 2013. Among women who reported having had infertility, 1576 had gone through COS, 1429 had had hormonal stimulation without COS and 5958 had not received any hormonal fertility treatment. Percent and absolute mammographic densities were obtained using the volumetric method Volpara™. Associations with mammographic density were assessed using multivariable generalized linear models, estimating mean differences (MD) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). After multivariable adjustment, women with a history of infertility had 1.53 cm(3) higher absolute dense volume compared to non-infertile women (95 % CI: 0.70 to 2.35). Among infertile women, only those who had gone through COS treatment had a higher absolute dense volume than those who had not received any hormone treatment (adjusted MD 3.22, 95 % CI: 1.10 to 5.33). No clear associations were observed between infertility, fertility treatment and percent volumetric density. Overall, women reporting infertility had more dense tissue in the breast. The higher absolute dense volume in women treated with COS may indicate a treatment effect, although part of the association might also be due to the underlying infertility. Continued monitoring of cancer risk in infertile women, especially those who undergo COS, is warranted.

  6. Possible effects of insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF-binding protein-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio on mammographic density: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggiorini, M L; Cipolla, V; Borgoni, G; Nofroni, I; Pala, A; de Felice, C

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possible effects of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio on mammographic density and assess whether this relationship was similar in subgroups of pre- and postmenopausal women. A group of 341 Italian women of childbearing age or naturally postmenopausal who had performed mammographic examination at the section of radiology of our department a maximum three months prior to recruitment were enrolled. A blood sample was drawn for determination of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 levels and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio was calculated. On the basis of recent mammograms the women were divided into two groups: dense breast (DB) and non-dense breast (NDB). To assess the association between mammographic density and IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and Molar ratio Student's t-test was employed before and after stratified by menopausal status. The analysis of the relationship between mammographic density and plasma levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio showed that IGF-1 levels and molar ratio varied in the two groups resulting in higher mean values in the DB group whereas IGFBP-3 showed similar values in both groups (DB and NDB). After stratification of the study population by menopausal status, no association was found. Our study provides strong evidence of a crude association between breast density, and plasma levels of IGF-1 and molar ratio. IGF-1 and molar ratio might increase mammographic density and thus the risk of developing breast cancer.

  7. Breast fat volume measurement using wide-bore 3 T MRI: comparison of traditional mammographic density evaluation with MRI density measurements using automatic segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridou, E; Kibiro, M; Gladwell, C; Malcolm, P; Toms, A; Juette, A; Borga, M; Dahlqvist Leinhard, O; Romu, T; Kasmai, B; Denton, E

    2017-07-01

    To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived breast density measurements using automatic segmentation algorithms with radiologist estimations using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS) density classification. Forty women undergoing mammography and dynamic breast MRI as part of their clinical management were recruited. Fat-water separated MRI images derived from a two-point Dixon technique, phase-sensitive reconstruction, and atlas-based segmentation were obtained before and after intravenous contrast medium administration. Breast density was assessed using software from Advanced MR Analytics (AMRA), Linköping, Sweden, with results compared to the widely used four-quartile quantitative BI-RADS scale. The proportion of glandular tissue in the breast on MRI was derived from the AMRA sequence. The mean unenhanced breast density was 0.31±0.22 (mean±SD; left) and 0.29±0.21 (right). Mean breast density on post-contrast images was 0.32±0.19 (left) and 0.32±0.2 (right). There was "almost perfect" correlation between pre- and post-contrast breast density quantification: Spearman's correlation rho=0.98 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.97-0.99; left) and rho=0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99; right). The 95% limits of agreement were -0.11-0.08 (left) and -0.08-0.03 (right). Interobserver reliability for BI-RADS was "substantial": weighted Kappa k=0.8 (95% CI: 0.74-0.87). The Spearman correlation coefficient between BI-RADS and MRI breast density was rho=0.73 (95% CI: 0.60-0.82; left) and rho=0.75 (95% CI: 0.63-0.83; right) which was also "substantial". The AMRA sequence provides a fully automated, reproducible, objective assessment of fibroglandular breast tissue proportion that correlates well with mammographic assessment of breast density with the added advantage of avoidance of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  8. A case-control study to assess the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Valentina; Massat, Nathalie J; Thomas, Susan; MacKay, James; Warwick, Jane; Kataoka, Masako; Warsi, Iqbal; Brentnall, Adam; Warren, Ruth; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-05-15

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but its potential application in risk management is not clear, partly due to uncertainties about its interaction with other breast cancer risk factors. We aimed to quantify the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer (average lifetime risk of 23%), in particular in premenopausal women, and to investigate its relationship with other breast cancer risk factors in this population. We present the results from a case-control study nested with the FH01 cohort study of 6,710 women mostly aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer. One hundred and three cases of breast cancer were age-matched to one or two controls. Density was measured by semiautomated interactive thresholding. Absolute density, but not percent density, was a significant risk factor for breast cancer in this population after adjusting for area of nondense tissue (OR per 10 cm(2) = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.15, p = 0.04). The effect was stronger in premenopausal women, who made up the majority of the study population. Absolute density remained a significant predictor of breast cancer risk after adjusting for age at menarche, age at first live birth, parity, past or present hormone replacement therapy, and the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate of breast cancer. Absolute density can improve breast cancer risk stratification and delineation of high-risk groups alongside the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate. © 2014 UICC.

  9. Are Qualitative Assessments of Background Parenchymal Enhancement, Amount of Fibroglandular Tissue on MR Images, and Mammographic Density Associated with Breast Cancer Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontchos, Brian N.; Partridge, Savannah C.; Korde, Larissa A.; Lam, Diana L.; Scheel, John R.; Peacock, Sue; Lehman, Constance D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether qualitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging assessments of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT), and mammographic density are associated with risk of developing breast cancer in women who are at high risk. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board–approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, all screening breast MR images obtained from January 2006 to December 2011 in women aged 18 years or older and at high risk for but without a history of breast cancer were identified. Women in whom breast cancer was diagnosed after index MR imaging comprised the cancer cohort, and one-to-one matching (age and BRCA status) of each woman with breast cancer to a control subject was performed by using MR images obtained in women who did not develop breast cancer with follow-up time maximized. Amount of BPE, BPE pattern (peripheral vs central), amount of FGT at MR imaging, and mammographic density were assessed on index images. Imaging features were compared between cancer and control cohorts by using conditional logistic regression. Results Twenty-three women at high risk (mean age, 47 years ± 10 [standard deviation]; six women had BRCA mutations) with no history of breast cancer underwent screening breast MR imaging; in these women, a diagnosis of breast cancer (invasive, n = 12; in situ, n = 11) was made during the follow-up interval. Women with mild, moderate, or marked BPE were nine times more likely to receive a diagnosis of breast cancer during the follow-up interval than were those with minimal BPE (P = .007; odds ratio = 9.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 71.0). BPE pattern, MR imaging amount of FGT, and mammographic density were not significantly different between the cohorts (P = .5, P = .5, and P = .4, respectively). Conclusion Greater BPE was associated with a higher probability of developing breast cancer in women at high risk for cancer and warrants further study. © RSNA

  10. Nonpalpable breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Seung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Cheon, Young Jik; Lee, Byung Chan [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical findings of nonpalpable breast cancer. Materials and Methods : In 28 of 607 breast cancer patients examined between January 1994 and April 1997, lesions were nonpalpable. We retrospectively analyzed the mammographic, clinical and pathologic features of 25 patients (28 lesions) whose mammograms we obtained. Results : Among these 25 patients (28 lesions) screening was abnormal in 22; other symptoms were bloody nipple discharge(n=4), and nipple eczema(n=2). The patients were 34-62 (mean 52)years old. Invasive ductal carcinoma(n=13), DCIS(ductal carcinoma in situ, n-12), Paget's disease (n=2), and LCIS(lobular carcinoma in situ, n=1) were found during surgery. Six of 28 lesions(21%) showed evidence of axillary nodal metastasis;the majority arose from the upper outer quadrant of the breast (n=21). The mammographic findings were mass (50%), (and mass with microcalcification, 11%); microcalcification(29%); asymmetrical density(14%); and normal (7%). According to the mammographic density of breast parenchyma, the major finding in the low density group(N1+P1) was mass(9/9), and in the high density group(P2+DY) was microcalcification (12/19). Conclusion : The most common mammographic findings of nonpalpable breast cancer were mass (50%) and microcalcification(29%). Its features varied according to the mammographic density of breast parenchyma;mass was the main finding in the low density group and microcalcification in the high density group.

  11. Nonpalpable breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jae Seung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Cheon, Young Jik; Lee, Byung Chan

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical findings of nonpalpable breast cancer. Materials and Methods : In 28 of 607 breast cancer patients examined between January 1994 and April 1997, lesions were nonpalpable. We retrospectively analyzed the mammographic, clinical and pathologic features of 25 patients (28 lesions) whose mammograms we obtained. Results : Among these 25 patients (28 lesions) screening was abnormal in 22; other symptoms were bloody nipple discharge(n=4), and nipple eczema(n=2). The patients were 34-62 (mean 52)years old. Invasive ductal carcinoma(n=13), DCIS(ductal carcinoma in situ, n-12), Paget's disease (n=2), and LCIS(lobular carcinoma in situ, n=1) were found during surgery. Six of 28 lesions(21%) showed evidence of axillary nodal metastasis;the majority arose from the upper outer quadrant of the breast (n=21). The mammographic findings were mass (50%), (and mass with microcalcification, 11%); microcalcification(29%); asymmetrical density(14%); and normal (7%). According to the mammographic density of breast parenchyma, the major finding in the low density group(N1+P1) was mass(9/9), and in the high density group(P2+DY) was microcalcification (12/19). Conclusion : The most common mammographic findings of nonpalpable breast cancer were mass (50%) and microcalcification(29%). Its features varied according to the mammographic density of breast parenchyma;mass was the main finding in the low density group and microcalcification in the high density group

  12. Interaction of mammographic breast density with menopausal status and postmenopausal hormone use in relation to the risk of aggressive breast cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghjyan, Lusine; Tamimi, Rulla M; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Scott, Christopher G; Jensen, Matthew R; Pankratz, V Shane; Brandt, Kathy; Visscher, Daniel; Norman, Aaron; Couch, Fergus; Shepherd, John; Fan, Bo; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Ma, Lin; Beck, Andrew H; Cummings, Steven R; Kerlikowske, Karla; Vachon, Celine M

    2017-09-01

    We examined the associations of mammographic breast density with breast cancer risk by tumor aggressiveness and by menopausal status and current postmenopausal hormone therapy. This study included 2596 invasive breast cancer cases and 4059 controls selected from participants of four nested case-control studies within four established cohorts: the Mayo Mammography Health Study, the Nurses' Health Study, Nurses' Health Study II, and San Francisco Mammography Registry. Percent breast density (PD), absolute dense (DA), and non-dense areas (NDA) were assessed from digitized film-screen mammograms using a computer-assisted threshold technique and standardized across studies. We used polytomous logistic regression to quantify the associations of breast density with breast cancer risk by tumor aggressiveness (defined as presence of at least two of the following tumor characteristics: size ≥2 cm, grade 2/3, ER-negative status, or positive nodes), stratified by menopausal status and current hormone therapy. Overall, the positive association of PD and borderline inverse association of NDA with breast cancer risk was stronger in aggressive vs. non-aggressive tumors (≥51 vs. 11-25% OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.94-3.22 vs. OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.70-2.43, p-heterogeneity = 0.03; NDA 4th vs. 2nd quartile OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.41-0.70 vs. OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.59-0.85, p-heterogeneity = 0.07). However, there were no differences in the association of DA with breast cancer by aggressive status. In the stratified analysis, there was also evidence of a stronger association of PD and NDA with aggressive tumors among postmenopausal women and, in particular, current estrogen+progesterone users (≥51 vs. 11-25% OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.75-6.00 vs. OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.25-2.98, p-heterogeneity = 0.01; NDA 4th vs. 2nd quartile OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.85 vs. OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.89, p-heterogeneity = 0.01), even though the interaction was not significant. Our findings suggest that associations of mammographic

  13. Long-term exposure to air pollution and mammographic density in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, Stephanie; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    investigated the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and MD in a prospective cohort of women 50 years and older. METHODS: For the 4,769 women (3,930 postmenopausal) participants in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (1993-1997) who attended mammographic screening...... 1971 until cohort baseline (1993-97) and MD was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for confounders, and separately by menopause, smoking status, and obesity. RESULTS: We found inverse, statistically borderline significant associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and having...... mixed/dense MD in our fully adjusted model (OR; 95% CI: 0.96; 0.93-1.01 per 20 μg/m(3) of NOx and 0.89; 0.80- 0.98 per 10 μg/m(3) of NO2). There was no interaction with menopause, smoking, or obesity. CONCLUSION: Traffic-related air pollution exposure does not increase MD, indicating that if air...

  14. Mammographic breast density as a risk factor for breast cancer: awareness in a recently screened clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Suzanne C; Leventhal, Kara Grace; Scarles, Marie; Evans, Chalanda N; Makariou, Erini; Pien, Edward; Willey, Shawna

    2014-01-01

    Breast density is an established, independent risk factor for breast cancer. Despite this, density has not been included in standard risk models or routinely disclosed to patients. However, this is changing in the face of legal mandates and advocacy efforts. Little information exists regarding women's awareness of density as a risk factor, their personal risk, and risk management options. We assessed awareness of density as a risk factor and whether sociodemographic variables, breast cancer risk factors. and perceived breast cancer risk were associated with awareness in 344 women with a recent screening mammogram at a tertiary care center. Overall, 62% of women had heard about density as a risk factor and 33% had spoken to a provider about breast density. Of the sample, 18% reported that their provider indicated that they had high breast density. Awareness of density as a risk factor was greater among White women and those with other breast cancer risk factors. Our results suggest that although a growing number of women are aware of breast density as a risk factor, this awareness varies. Growing mandates for disclosure suggest the need for patient education interventions for women at increased risk for the disease and to ensure all women are equally aware of their risks. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnostic implications of asymmetrical mammographic patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, M.; Ania, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the effect of asymmetrical mammographic patterns of the diagnosis of breast cancer. In a series of 6, 476 patients referred to a Breast Imaging Diagnosis Unit, we excluded males, women with previous breast surgery, and cases in which mammography was not performed, which left 5,203 women included. Each breast was classified according to one of four patterns of mammographic parenchymal density. Asymmetry was considered to exist when a patient's breasts had different patterns. Breast cancer was confirmed histologically in 282 (5.4%) women. The mammographic pattern was asymmetrical in 8% of the women with cancer and in 2% of the women without cancer (p<0.001). Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 78% and 96% (p=0.04), respectively, of the women with and without mammographic asymmetry who had neoplasms, and in 33% and 22% (p=0.02), respectively, of the women with and without mammographic asymmetry who did not have neoplasms. Asymmetrical mammographic pattern was four times more frequent in the women with breast cancer. This asymmetry decreased the frequency of needle biopsy in women with cancer, but increased the frequency of needle biopsy in women without cancer. (Author) 11 refs

  16. Using Clinical Factors and Mammographic Breast Density to Estimate Breast Cancer Risk: Development and Validation of a New Predictive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A.; Cummings, Steven R.; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Ichikawa, Laura; Barlow, William E.; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2009-01-01

    Background Current models for assessing breast cancer risk are complex and do not include breast density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer that is routinely reported with mammography. Objective To develop and validate an easy-to-use breast cancer risk prediction model that includes breast density. Design Empirical model based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results incidence, and relative hazards from a prospective cohort. Setting Screening mammography sites participating in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Patients 1 095 484 women undergoing mammography who had no previous diagnosis of breast cancer. Measurements Self-reported age, race or ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, and history of breast biopsy. Community radiologists rated breast density by using 4 Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System categories. Results During 5.3 years of follow-up, invasive breast cancer was diagnosed in 14 766 women. The breast density model was well calibrated overall (expected–observed ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.99 to 1.06]) and in racial and ethnic subgroups. It had modest discriminatory accuracy (concordance index, 0.66 [CI, 0.65 to 0.67]). Women with low-density mammograms had 5-year risks less than 1.67% unless they had a family history of breast cancer and were older than age 65 years. Limitation The model has only modest ability to discriminate between women who will develop breast cancer and those who will not. Conclusion A breast cancer prediction model that incorporates routinely reported measures of breast density can estimate 5-year risk for invasive breast cancer. Its accuracy needs to be further evaluated in independent populations before it can be recommended for clinical use. PMID:18316752

  17. Mammographic density and structural features can individually and jointly contribute to breast cancer risk assessment in mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Rikke Rass; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Nielsen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    and jointly with density can improve the ability to identify screening women at increased risk of breast cancer. METHODS: The study included 121 cases and 259 age- and time matched controls based on a cohort of 14,736 women with negative screening mammograms from a population-based screening programme...... in Denmark in 2007 (followed until 31 December 2010). Mammograms were assessed using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density classification, Tabár's classification on parenchymal patterns and a fully automated texture quantification technique. The individual and combined association...

  18. Influence of mammographic density on the diagnostic accuracy of tumor size assessment and association with breast cancer tumor characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasching, Peter A.; Heusinger, Katharina; Loehberg, Christian R.; Wenkel, Evelyn; Lux, Michael P.; Schrauder, Michael; Koscheck, Thomas; Bautz, Werner; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bani, Mayada R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The accuracy of breast cancer staging involves the estimation of the tumor size for the initial decision-making in the treatment. We investigated the accuracy of tumor size estimation and the association between tumor characteristics and breast density (BD). Materials and methods: A total of 434 women with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer were included in this prospective study at a specialist breast unit. Estimated tumor characteristics included tumor size, nodal status, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, Ki-67, HER2/neu, vascular invasion. Radiomorphological data included tumor size as assessed by mammography, breast ultrasonography, and clinical examination, and American College of Radiology (ACR) categories for BD. Results: BD did not have a significant impact on the assessment of tumor size using breast ultrasound (deviation from ACR categories 1-4: 0.55-0.68 cm; P = 0.331). The deviation in mammography was significantly different dependent on BD (0.42-0.9 cm; P 2 cm). Conclusion: Breast ultrasonography is more accurate than mammography for assessing tumor size in breasts with a higher BD. The difference in tumor size assessment needs to be taken into consideration in the design of clinical trials and treatment decisions

  19. Mammographic appearances of male breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, A H; Evans, G F; Levy, K R; Amirkhan, R H; Schumpert, T D

    1999-01-01

    Various male breast diseases have characteristic mammographic appearances that can be correlated with their pathologic diagnoses. Male breast cancer is usually subareolar and eccentric to the nipple. Margins of the lesions are more frequently well defined, and calcifications are rarer and coarser than those occurring in female breast cancer. Gynecomastia usually appears as a fan-shaped density emanating from the nipple, gradually blending into surrounding fat. It may have prominent extensions into surrounding fat and, in some cases, an appearance similar to that of a heterogeneously dense female breast. Although there are characteristic mammographic features that allow breast cancer in men to be recognized, there is substantial overlap between these features and the mammographic appearance of benign nodular lesions. The mammographic appearance of gynecomastia is not similar to that of male breast cancer, but in rare cases, it can mask malignancy. Gynecomastia can be mimicked by chronic inflammation. All mammographically lucent lesions of the male breast appear to be benign, similar to such lesions in the female breast.

  20. Mammographic screening programmes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; von Karsa, Lawrence; Tomatis, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe.......To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe....

  1. Anxiety in mammography: mammographers' and clients' perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galletta, S.; Joel, N.; Maguire, R.; Weaver, K.; Poulos, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify causes of anxiety experienced by mammographers and clients during mammography and strategies to decrease the anxiety generated by the mammographic procedure. Two questionnaires were distributed: one to mammographers in public and private centres within NSW, the other to women (clients) who have experienced mammography. Mammographers' and clients' rankings of causes of clients' anxiety demonstrated many similarities indicating the mammographers' acknowledgement of factors contributing to client anxiety. Thematic analysis provided important qualitative data concerning anxiety experienced by both mammographers and clients and the influence of mammographer and client behaviour on that anxiety. The results of this study have provided important new knowledge for mammographic practice and mammography education. By understanding the causes of anxiety experienced by clients, mammographers can provide an informed, empathetic approach to the mammographic process. By acknowledging factors which increase their own anxiety mammographers can reduce the impact of this on themselves and on their clients. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  2. Posterior breast cancer: Mammographic and ultrasonographic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Posterior breast cancers are located in the prepectoral region of the breast. Owing to this distinctive anatomical localization, physical examination and mammographic or ultrasonographic evaluation can be difficult. The purpose of the study was to assess possibilities of diagnostic mammography and breast ultrasonography in detection and differentiation of posterior breast cancers. Methods. The study included 40 women with palpable, histopathological confirmed posterior breast cancer. Mammographic and ultrasonographic features were defined according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS lexicon. Results. Based on standard two-view mammography 87.5%, of the cases were classified as BI-RADS 4 and 5 categories, while after additional mammographic views all the cases were defined as BIRADS 4 and 5 categories. Among 96 mammographic descriptors, the most frequent were: spiculated mass (24.0%, architectural distortion (16.7%, clustered microcalcifications (12.6% and focal asymmetric density (12.6%. The differentiation of the spiculated mass was significantly associated with the possibility to visualize the lesion at two-view mammography (p = 0.009, without the association with lesion diameter (p = 0.083 or histopathological type (p = 0.055. Mammographic signs of invasive lobular carcinoma were significantly different from other histopathological types (architectural distortion, p = 0.003; focal asymmetric density, p = 0.019; association of four or five subtle signs of malignancy, p = 0.006. All cancers were detectable by ultrasonography. Mass lesions were found in 82.0% of the cases. Among 153 ultrasonographic descriptors, the most frequent were: irregular mass (15.7%, lobulated mass (7.2%, abnormal color Doppler signals (20.3%, posterior acoustic attenuation (18.3%. Ultrasonographic BI-RADS 4 and 5 categories were defined in 72.5% of the cases, without a significant difference among various histopathological types (p = 0

  3. Enhancement and denoising of mammographic images for breast disease detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdani, S.; Yusof, R.; Karimian, A.; Hematian, A.; Yousefi, M.

    2012-01-01

    In these two decades breast cancer is one of the leading cause of death among women. In breast cancer research, Mammographic Image is being assessed as a potential tool for detecting breast disease and investigating response to chemotherapy. In first stage of breast disease discovery, the density measurement of the breast in mammographic images provides very useful information. Because of the importance of the role of mammographic images the need for accurate and robust automated image enhancement techniques is becoming clear. Mammographic images have some disadvantages such as, the high dependence of contrast upon the way the image is acquired, weak distinction in splitting cyst from tumor, intensity non uniformity, the existence of noise, etc. These limitations make problem to detect the typical signs such as masses and microcalcifications. For this reason, denoising and enhancing the quality of mammographic images is very important. The method which is used in this paper is in spatial domain which its input includes high, intermediate and even very low contrast mammographic images based on specialist physician's view, while its output is processed images that show the input images with higher quality, more contrast and more details. In this research, 38 mammographic images have been used. The result of purposed method shows details of abnormal zones and the areas with defects so that specialist could explore these zones more accurately and it could be deemed as an index for cancer diagnosis. In this study, mammographic images are initially converted into digital images and then to increase spatial resolution power, their noise is reduced and consequently their contrast is improved. The results demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methods. (authors)

  4. Mammographic compression in Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susie; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2017-01-01

    To investigate: (1) the variability of mammographic compression parameters amongst Asian women; and (2) the effects of reducing compression force on image quality and mean glandular dose (MGD) in Asian women based on phantom study. We retrospectively collected 15818 raw digital mammograms from 3772 Asian women aged 35-80 years who underwent screening or diagnostic mammography between Jan 2012 and Dec 2014 at our center. The mammograms were processed using a volumetric breast density (VBD) measurement software (Volpara) to assess compression force, compression pressure, compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast volume, VBD and MGD against breast contact area. The effects of reducing compression force on image quality and MGD were also evaluated based on measurement obtained from 105 Asian women, as well as using the RMI156 Mammographic Accreditation Phantom and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs. Compression force, compression pressure, CBT, breast volume, VBD and MGD correlated significantly with breast contact area (pAsian women. The median compression force should be about 8.1 daN compared to the current 12.0 daN. Decreasing compression force from 12.0 daN to 9.0 daN increased CBT by 3.3±1.4 mm, MGD by 6.2-11.0%, and caused no significant effects on image quality (p>0.05). Force-standardized protocol led to widely variable compression parameters in Asian women. Based on phantom study, it is feasible to reduce compression force up to 32.5% with minimal effects on image quality and MGD.

  5. Analysis of mammographic findings of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Joo; Han, Heon; Yang, Dal Mo; Chung, Hyo Sun; Kim, Jee Eun; Kim, Young Chae

    1995-01-01

    This study is to describe authors' experience on mammographic findings of breast cancer and to know if there is difference between 35 years of age or younger and older groups. Mammograms of 72 patients with breast cancer detected from January, 1991 to December, 1993 were retrospectively analysed. Mammographic findings were classified into mass only, mass with microcalcifications, microcalcifications only and others. Marginal characteristics of mass were classified into spiculated, poorly marginated and well marginated. Shape of microcalcifications were classified into casting, granular and mixed types. These findings were compared between 35 years of age or younger and older groups. Mammogram showed mass only in 33 patients (46%), mass with microcalcifications in 26 patients (36%), microcalcifications only in seven (10%) and other findings in six (8%). Other findings were architectural distortion, asymmetric high density and incidental breast carcinoma from paraffinoma in one patient respectively, and dense breast in three patients. The margins of the breast mass were spiculated in ten (17%). poorly marginated in 30 (51%), well-marginated in 19 (32%). Shape of microcalcifications were casting type in 13 (40%). granular in 14 (42%) and mixed in six (18%) cases. 3 patients had dense breast with which mammography did not demonstrate the lesion. 3 patients without mammographically demonstrable lesions due to dense breasts were under 35 years in age, and there was statistically significant difference between the two groups (ρ -value < 0.05). Microcalcifications only was more common findings in 35 years of age or younger. The most important mammographic findings of breast cancer were mass and microcalcifications. Architectural distortion and asymmetric high density were additional findings. In 35 years of age or younger, microcalcifications only was an important finding because mass lesions are frequently masked by dense breast. Thus other imaging modalities, such as

  6. Bilateral breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Jun, Hwang Yoon; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical features of bilateral breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records(n=23) and mammograms (n=15) of 23 patients with bilateral breast cancer. Patients' age, location of the tumor and pathologic staging were determined from clinical records. Mammographic features were classified as spiculated mass, nonspiculated mass, mass with microcalcification, microcalcification only, asymmetric density, and normal. Of the 23 cases of bilateral breast cancer, 8(34.8%) were synchronous and 15(65.2%) were metachronous. Age at diagnosis of cancer in the first breast was between 27 and 59(mean 43) years ; there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between patients with synchronous and metachronous cancer. The mean interval between the diagnosis of each lesion of the metachronous pairs was 9.1 years. In 11 of 23 cases(48%), tumors were locaated in the same quadrant, and in the other 12 cases(52%), they were in different quadrant. At mammography, five of 15 metachronous cancers(33%) were similar in appearance and 10 pairs(67%) were different. In 4 of 23 cases(17%), cancer in the first breast was at stage 0 and stage 1, and in 13 of 23(57%), cancer in the second breast was at this same stage. In bilateral breast cancer, the two breasts frequently show different mammographic features. Cancer of the second breast was at an early stage; this suggest that regular examination and mammography are important and can allow early detection of contralateral breast cancer

  7. Mammographic scar for stereotaxic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Tattis; Hincapie U, Ana Lucia; Patino P, Jairo Hernando

    1997-01-01

    It is reported the case of 56 years old woman who underwent a stereotactic biopsy because of having a circumscribed breast nodule. The histologic diagnosis was benign. After six months, during the mammographic control, it was noticed that the nodule showed irregular contours, because of that a surgical biopsy was performed. The histopathology was reported as benign. it is considered then, that the mammographic changes observed in the mammographic control are due to scar phenomenon after stereotactic biopsy. This findings has not been reported previously

  8. Automated effect-specific mammographic pattern measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundahl, Jakob; Loog, Marco; Pettersen, Paola

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the possibility to develop methodologies for assessing effect specific structural changes of the breast tissue using a general statistical machine learning framework. We present an approach of obtaining objective mammographic pattern measures quantifying a specific biological effect......, such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We compare results using this approach to using standard density measures. We show that the proposed method can quantify both age related effects and effects caused by HRT. Age effects are significantly detected by our method where standard methodologies fail...

  9. Force balancing in mammographic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branderhorst, W.; Groot, J. E. de; Lier, M. G. J. T. B. van; Grimbergen, C. A.; Neeter, L. M. F. H.; Heeten, G. J. den; Neeleman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In mammography, the height of the image receptor is adjusted to the patient before compressing the breast. An inadequate height setting can result in an imbalance between the forces applied by the image receptor and the paddle, causing the clamped breast to be pushed up or down relative to the body during compression. This leads to unnecessary stretching of the skin and other tissues around the breast, which can make the imaging procedure more painful for the patient. The goal of this study was to implement a method to measure and minimize the force imbalance, and to assess its feasibility as an objective and reproducible method of setting the image receptor height. Methods: A trial was conducted consisting of 13 craniocaudal mammographic compressions on a silicone breast phantom, each with the image receptor positioned at a different height. The image receptor height was varied over a range of 12 cm. In each compression, the force exerted by the compression paddle was increased up to 140 N in steps of 10 N. In addition to the paddle force, the authors measured the force exerted by the image receptor and the reaction force exerted on the patient body by the ground. The trial was repeated 8 times, with the phantom remounted at a slightly different orientation and position between the trials. Results: For a given paddle force, the obtained results showed that there is always exactly one image receptor height that leads to a balance of the forces on the breast. For the breast phantom, deviating from this specific height increased the force imbalance by 9.4 ± 1.9 N/cm (6.7%) for 140 N paddle force, and by 7.1 ± 1.6 N/cm (17.8%) for 40 N paddle force. The results also show that in situations where the force exerted by the image receptor is not measured, the craniocaudal force imbalance can still be determined by positioning the patient on a weighing scale and observing the changes in displayed weight during the procedure. Conclusions: In mammographic breast

  10. Malignant Lesions as Mammographically Appearing Intramammary Ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Miraveta, P.; Pons, M. J.; Pina, L. J.; Zornoza, G.

    2004-01-01

    Intramammary ganglia are frequent mammographic findings of no pathological importance. We present two cases of malignant breast lesions whose mammographic appearance could resemble that of intramammary ganglia. Although the mammographic appearance of a lesion is similar to that of intramammary ganglia, it should be carefully studied, especially if it presents a poorly defined border or is palpable. (Author)

  11. Mammographic features of breast carcinoma: mammographic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yajia; Wang Jiuhua; Chen Tongzhen; Zhang Tingqiu; Zhou Kangrong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the mammographic features of breast carcinoma and the correlation between the mammographic and pathologic findings. Methods: A prospective study of 397 consecutive mammograms in patients with breast carcinoma, including infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC, n=297), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and DCIS associated with small invasive foci (n=38), mucinous carcinoma (n=21), medullary carcinoma (n=22) and invasive lobular carcinoma (n=19), was performed to determine the correlations between the mammographic and pathologic findings. Results: (1) Microcalcifications appeared in 170 cases (42.8%), a mass in 258 cases (65.0%), and distortion in 33 cases (8.3%), respectively. (2) Microcalcifications were more commonly associated with DCIS and IDC (χ 2 =30.90, P 2 =30.87, P 2 =27.40, P 2 =6.22, P 2 =7.19, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The common features of breast carcinoma in mammography were microcalcifications, microcalcifications with a mass, a mass, and distortion IDC was the commonest in breast carcinoma, and could be considered when mammographic malignant features above mentioned were found except the appearance of microcalcifications alone, which was firstly suggestive of DCIS. A mass also appeared in medullary and mucinous carcinoma, and distortion appeared in invasive lobular carcinoma

  12. Ultrasonographic and mammographic findings of gynecomastia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Kyung; Choi, Gyo Chang; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kim, Young Beom; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang [Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiologic features and clinical utility of ultrasonography and mammography in cases of gynecomastia. This study involved 40 men in whom gynecomastia had been pathologically diagnosed by surgical incision. In 21 cases, a retrospective analysis of ultrasonographic and mammographic findings was performed. Causative factors of gynecomastia among the 40 pathologically-proven cases were idiopathic or pubertal in 33 cases, related to male hormone deficiency in three cases and to chronic liver disease in four. Bi-lateral involvement was seen in 14 cases, and unilateral involvement in 26;among unilateral cases, right side was involved in 10 cases, and the left side in 16. Mammographically, a subareolar discoid lesion was present in 12 cases, diffuse increased breast density was seen in five cases and dendritic marginated subareolar lesion without microcalcification in one. Ultrasonographically, a round smooth marginated low echogenic lesion in the subareolar region was seen in five cases, a diffuse hyperechogenic pattern without definite mass in two cases and an ill defined low echogenic lesion in one. The male breast is small, so in cases of gynecomastia, ultrasonography is an effective diagnostic modality. Mamography will, however, be helpful in the detection of microcalcification in cases of gynecomastia seen on sonography.

  13. Associação entre os polimorfismos HaeIII e MspI do gene para o receptor alfa de estrogênio e densidade mamográfica em mulheres após a menopausa Association between HaeIII and MspI polymorphisms of estrogen receptor alpha gene and mammographic density in post-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique de Moura Ramos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença dos polimorfismos HaeIII e MspI do gene para o receptor de estrogênio alfa, bem como fatores clínicos e suas possíveis associações com a densidade mamográfica em mulheres após a menopausa. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 115 mulheres após a menopausa, não usuárias de terapia hormonal e sem lesão mamária clínica ou mamograficamente identificada. A densidade mamográfica foi determinada por três observadores independentes, tomando-se como base a classificação dos padrões mamográficos do ACR-BIRADS®, 2003 (duas avaliações subjetivas e uma computadorizada - Adobe Photoshop® 7.0. Amostras de raspado bucal foram obtidas para extração de DNA e em seguida foi realizada uma PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reation - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism para análise de polimorfismos presentes no íntron 1 e éxon 1 do gene do REalfa (HaeIII e MspI. RESULTADOS: O polimorfismo HaeIII foi encontrado em 43 (37,4% das 115 mulheres, ao passo que o MspI estava presente em 96 (83,5% das mesmas. Houve alto grau de concordância entre os três observadores na determinação da densidade mamográfica. Trinta e quatro (29,6% mulheres tinham mamas densas, e 81 (70,4%, mamas lipossubstituídas. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve associação entre o polimorfismo HaeIII do gene para o receptor de estrogênio alfa e densidade mamográfica (Fisher = 0,712. Houve associação próxima à significância estatística entre o polimorfismo MspI e densidade (Fisher = 0,098. Idade, paridade e índice de massa corporal mostraram-se associados com densidade mamográfica.PURPOSE: To assess the presence of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms HaeIII and MspI as well as clinical factors, and their possible associations with high mammographic density in post-menopausal women. METHODS: One hundred and fifteen post-menopausal women, not in use of hormonal therapy and without clinical or mammographic lesions were evaluated. Three independent observers

  14. Mammographic Findings after Intraoperative Radiotherapy of the Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, R.; Holmes, D.R.; Smith-Bronstein, V.S.; Villegas-Mendez, S.; Rayhanabad, J.; Sheth, P.; Rashtian, A.

    2012-01-01

    Intraoperative Radiotherapy (IORT) is a form of accelerated partial breast radiation that has been shown to be equivalent to conventional whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in terms of local cancer control. However, questions have been raised about the potential of f IORT to produce breast parenchymal changes that could interfere with mammographic surveillance of cancer recurrence. The purpose of this study was to identify, quantify, and compare the mammographic findings of patients who received IORT and EBRT in a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial of women with early stage invasive breast cancer undergoing breast conserving therapy between July 2005 and December 2009. Treatment groups were compared with regard to the 1, 2 and 4-year incidence of 6 post-operative mammographic findings: architectural distortion, skin thickening, skin retraction, calcifications, fat necrosis, and mass density. Blinded review of 90 sets of mammograms of 15 IORT and 16 EBRT patients demonstrated a higher incidence of fat necrosis among IORT recipients at years 1, 2, and 4. However, none of the subjects were judged to have suspicious mammogram findings and fat necrosis did not interfere with mammographic interpretation.

  15. Ethnicity, Soybean Consumption, and Mammographic Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    46. Franke. A. A., Custer. L. J.. Cerna, C. M., and Narala, K. Rapid HPLC cleavage of flavonoids by human intestinal bacteria. Appl. Environ...study exploring dietary risk factors for breast cancer. urine, and feces using gas chromatography and HPLC (27, 33-41). Studies among various...01708. 2 To whom requests for reprints should be addressed, at Cancer Research Center 3 The abbreviations used are: DMA, O-desmethylangolensin; HPLC

  16. Task-Specific Optimization of Mammographic Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saunders, Robert

    2005-01-01

    .... This model was verified by a human observer performance experiment. The next objective explored the physical properties of a digital mammographic system, including resolution, noise, efficiency, and lag...

  17. Scattering influence in mammographic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, Martin Eduardo; Almeida, Adelaide de

    1996-01-01

    The quantification of mammographic images affected by scattered radiation is studied. The average glandular dose as a function of kVp and breast thickness for breast composition 50/50% is also evaluated. The results show that the contrast decreases with increasing of kVp and breast thickness, and the average glandular dose increase with increasing breast thickness and decreases with increasing kVp

  18. The clinical and mammographic features of plasma cell mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiurong; Luo Xiaohua; Yu Xuming; Zhong Shan; Huang Yufan; Wu Xinyi; Lin Yubin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical and mammographic features of plasma cell mastitis. Methods: Twenty-five patients (28 lesions) with histologically confirmed plasma cell mastitis, aged from 26 to 70 years (mean age 41 years), were examined with X-ray mammography. The clinical manifestations and imaging features were retrospectively reviewed. Results: No case was in lactation. The painful irregular masses, ranged from 1.3 to 8cm in size, were found in 22 patients, while 3 patients with acute episode. Recurrent episodes of breast masses were noted in 4 patients. Based on the mammographic appearances, the plasma cell mastitis were classified as the following four types: inflammation-like type (2/28), ductal ectasia type (3/28), focal infiltration type (10/28) and nodular type (13/28). The valuable radiographic signs: (1) An asymmetrically increased density along the lactiferous duct with a flame-like appearance, inhomogeneous low density tubular structures and scattered stick-shape calcifications. (2) Architectural distortion and oil cysts formation in adjacent area, (3) Subareolar ductal ectasia. Conclusions: The clinical and mammographic characteristics of plasma cell mastitis are critical to avoiding unnecessary surgery. Histopathological result is needed for the diagnosis in patients highly suspected of malignancy. (authors)

  19. Applying a new mammographic imaging marker to predict breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Faranak; Danala, Gopichandh; Hollingsworth, Alan B.; Stoug, Rebecca G.; Pearce, Melanie; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Identifying and developing new mammographic imaging markers to assist prediction of breast cancer risk has been attracting extensive research interest recently. Although mammographic density is considered an important breast cancer risk, its discriminatory power is lower for predicting short-term breast cancer risk, which is a prerequisite to establish a more effective personalized breast cancer screening paradigm. In this study, we presented a new interactive computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to generate a new quantitative mammographic imaging marker based on the bilateral mammographic tissue density asymmetry to predict risk of cancer detection in the next subsequent mammography screening. An image database involving 1,397 women was retrospectively assembled and tested. Each woman had two digital mammography screenings namely, the "current" and "prior" screenings with a time interval from 365 to 600 days. All "prior" images were originally interpreted negative. In "current" screenings, these cases were divided into 3 groups, which include 402 positive, 643 negative, and 352 biopsy-proved benign cases, respectively. There is no significant difference of BIRADS based mammographic density ratings between 3 case groups (p cancer detection in the "current" screening. Study demonstrated that this new imaging marker had potential to yield significantly higher discriminatory power to predict short-term breast cancer risk.

  20. Mammographic changes in postmenopausal women : comparative effects between continuous combined hormone and single estrogen replacement therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sug; Choi, Jong Tae; Jung, Kyoon Soon; Jung, Seung Hye [Jeil Women' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    As the use of hormone replacement therapy for the menopausal women increases, some caution is advised, since there is an increased risk of breast cancer. Accordingly, the importance of regular mammography has been addressed. This cross-setional study analyzed the effects of different hormone therapies on mammographic density. Sixty-seven postemenopausal women who had completed one year of hormone therapy and had undergone follow-up mammography, were divided into two groups : Group I : continuous conjugated equine estrogen, 0.625mg, plus continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5mg (n=48), Group II : continuous conjugated equine estrogen 0.625mg (n=19). The mammograms were read by two radiologists. With regard to the radiologists involved, interobserver reliabillity (kappa) was 0.70 and intraobserver reliability (kappa) was 0.51 and 0.67. Before hormone therapy, factors related to decreased mammographic density were age and number of full term pregnancies (p<0.05). After one year of hormone therapy, body fat showed a significant increase (p<0.05), but in spite of this, increased mammographic density induced by hormone therapy remained significantly high (p<0.05). Compared with Group II, Group I showed a significant increase in mammographic density (p<0.05). In Group I, mammographic density increased from P2 to DY pattern in two cases, but there was no such change in Group II. The increase of mammographic density seen in Group II was much more significant statistically than that seen in Group I. The mammograms of women who have undergone continuous combined hormone therapy should therefore be interpreted very cautiously.

  1. Mammographic changes in postmenopausal women : comparative effects between continuous combined hormone and single estrogen replacement therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sug; Choi, Jong Tae; Jung, Kyoon Soon; Jung, Seung Hye

    1997-01-01

    As the use of hormone replacement therapy for the menopausal women increases, some caution is advised, since there is an increased risk of breast cancer. Accordingly, the importance of regular mammography has been addressed. This cross-setional study analyzed the effects of different hormone therapies on mammographic density. Sixty-seven postemenopausal women who had completed one year of hormone therapy and had undergone follow-up mammography, were divided into two groups : Group I : continuous conjugated equine estrogen, 0.625mg, plus continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5mg (n=48), Group II : continuous conjugated equine estrogen 0.625mg (n=19). The mammograms were read by two radiologists. With regard to the radiologists involved, interobserver reliabillity (kappa) was 0.70 and intraobserver reliability (kappa) was 0.51 and 0.67. Before hormone therapy, factors related to decreased mammographic density were age and number of full term pregnancies (p<0.05). After one year of hormone therapy, body fat showed a significant increase (p<0.05), but in spite of this, increased mammographic density induced by hormone therapy remained significantly high (p<0.05). Compared with Group II, Group I showed a significant increase in mammographic density (p<0.05). In Group I, mammographic density increased from P2 to DY pattern in two cases, but there was no such change in Group II. The increase of mammographic density seen in Group II was much more significant statistically than that seen in Group I. The mammograms of women who have undergone continuous combined hormone therapy should therefore be interpreted very cautiously

  2. Ultrasound detection of nonpalpable mammographically occult malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.L.; Hermann, G.; Rausch, D.R.; Sherman, J.; Feig, S.A.; Bleiweiss, I.J.; Jaffer, S.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of occult malignancy with screening breast ultrasound. All ultrasound-guided core needle breast biopsies performed between January 1, 1999, and June 30, 2001, were retrospectively reviewed. Lesions were identified during screening breast ultrasound in high-risk women with no mammographic or palpable abnormality in either breast, a unilateral mammographic or palpable abnormality in the contralateral breast, or a unilateral mammographic or palpable abnormality in a different quadrant of the same breast. All ultrasound-detected lesions were histologically verified. Six hundred and fifty-two women with a mean age of 49 years underwent 698 biopsies during the study period. Three hundred and forty-nine of these lesions were detected at screening breast ultrasound. Out of 349, 11 (3.2%) had a mammographically and clinically occult malignancy. Nine cancers were found in women with no mammographic or palpable abnormality. Two cancers were found in the same breast as the mammographic or palpable abnormality. None were found in the breast contralateral to a palpable or mammographic abnormality. Screening breast ultrasound of high-risk women has a similar detection rate for occult carcinoma as screening mammography, but has a low positive predictive value in cases where biopsy is performed. (author)

  3. Mammographic features of isolated tuberculous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Marri, Mohammed R.; Aref, Essam; Omar, Ahamed J.

    2005-01-01

    To present the mammography findings in 8 patients with tuberculosis (TB) of the breast, with a review of the literature. This study is a retrospective data collection. Each chart with confirmed breast TB based on bacteriology or pathologic findings was analyzed for clinical presentation, gender, nationality, demographic data, prior history of TB, investigation, management, mammographic findings and ultrasound, when available. Mammograms were reviewed by 2 consultant radiologists without knowing the previous diagnosis or the nature of the study. The study was carried out at The State Tuberculosis Registry and Radiology Department, Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar, from 1990 to 2002. Out of 13 females with TB mastitis, only 8 cases had mammograms preoperatively. The incidence of breast TB in Qatar is rare (1/1000 mammograms per year). Three types of TB mastitis were identified in our study; the nodular (50%), the diffuse (37.5%) of which 77% were limited to one sector of the breast and the sclerosing (12.5%) mastitis. Three patients (43%) were reported as carcinoma. Although mammography identified 3 types of TB, it was not helpful in differentiating TB from carcinoma of the breast. However, the careful evaluation of the degree of density and trabecular thickening of the mass in relation to it size might reduce the number of false positive cases of carcinoma diagnosed with mammograms. Biopsy specimen remains the best diagnostic tool in TB mastitis. (author)

  4. Mammographic features of isolated tuberculous mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marri, Mohammed R; Aref, Essam; Omar, Ahamed J

    2005-04-01

    To present the mammography findings in 8 patients with tuberculosis (TB) of the breast, with a review of the literature. This study is a retrospective data collection. Each chart with confirmed breast TB based on bacteriology or pathologic findings was analyzed for clinical presentation, gender, nationality, demographic data, prior history of TB, investigation, management, mammographic findings and ultrasound, when available. Mammograms were reviewed by 2 consultant radiologists without knowing the previous diagnosis or the nature of the study. The study was carried out at The State Tuberculosis Registry and Radiology Department, Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar, from 1990 to 2002. Out of 13 females with TB mastitis, only 8 cases had mammograms preoperatively. The incidence of breast TB in Qatar is rare (1/1000 mammograms per year). Three types of TB mastitis were identified in our study; the nodular (50%), the diffuse (37.5%) of which 77% were limited to one sector of the breast and the sclerosing (12.5%) mastitis. Three patients (43%) were reported as carcinoma. Although mammography identified 3 types of TB, it was not helpful in differentiating TB from carcinoma of the breast. However, the careful evaluation of the degree of density and trabecular thickening of the mass in relation to it size might reduce the number of false positive cases of carcinoma diagnosed with mammograms. Biopsy specimen remains the best diagnostic tool in TB mastitis.

  5. Quality Control and Dosimetry in Mammographic Units in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flioni-Vysa, A; Xenofos, S; Stamatelatos, E; Georgolopoulou, P [Department of Medical Physics, Saint Savvas Hospital, 171 Alexandras Avenue, Athens 115 22, (Greece)

    1994-12-31

    Quality control measurements have been carried out on 29 mammographic units. It was found that a large percentage of users obtained Optical Densities outside the recommended values. Resolution under routine conditions was below the limit of 14 lp/mm in about 50% of the units. The skin entrance dose was in a few cases in excess of 10 micro Gray, but the mean value was well below this upper limit. Analysis of the results obtained has indicated that proper calibration of kilo voltage panel indications and automatic exposure control systems is of outmost importance and should be performed regularly. (authors). 11 refs, 2 figs 3 tabs.

  6. Mammographic follow-up after conservation therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yajia; Xiao Qin; Zheng Xiaojing; Wu Jiong; Chen Jiayi; Gu Rongfeng; Feng Xiaoyuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To recognize the mammographic changes after conservation therapy for breast carcinoma. Methods: A total of 139 follow-up mammographic examinations in 85 cases were studied during the period between 1999 and 2004. Mammography was performed at intervals of 6 months for the first 2 years, then annually. Attention was paid to mammographic change patterns of conservation therapy for breast carcinoma, including breast edema, skin thickening, architectural disturbance, asymmetric density, architectural distortion retraction, and calcifications. SPSS version 11.0 for windows was used to perform all statistical tests. Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for calculating the overall statistical differences between difference periods. Categorical data were expressed as percentages and analyzed by using the X 2 test. The age of the patients ranged from 25 to 63 years (mediate, 44 years old). The time of follow-up observation ranged from 1 week to 72 months. Results: Two cases were normal on mammograms. High proportion of abnormal mammography was seen in the period of 12 month (40.3%, 56/139) and 24 month (21.6%, 30/139), respectively. Various findings appeared in various periods and the difference was statistically significant(X 2 =30.998, v=6, P=0.001). Mild edema appeared in the first 3 years. Moderately severe or marked breast edema may be present between 6 months to 12 months, then slowly resolved. The appearance and disappearance of skin thickening were similar to the process of breast edema. The changes of architectural disturbance did not correlate with time (X 2 =8.634, P>0.05), but on sequential mammograms for same patient, the extent of architectural disturbance relieved over time (17/19). Asymmetric density was found in only 5 patients, and disappeared in later period of follow-up in 3. Architectural distortion retraction got more and more obvious with time, and kept stable after certain period of time. Calcifications were shown in 2 patients, including 1

  7. Advanced techniques in digital mammographic images recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliu, R. Azir

    2011-01-01

    Computer Aided Detection and Diagnosis is used in digital radiography as a second thought in the process of determining diagnoses, which reduces the percentage of wrong diagnoses of the established interpretation of mammographic images. The issues that are discussed in the dissertation are the analyses and improvement of advanced technologies in the field of artificial intelligence, more specifically in the field of machine learning for solving diagnostic problems and automatic detection of speculated lesions in digital mammograms. The developed of SVM-based ICAD system with cascade architecture for analyses and comparison mammographic images in both projections (CC and MLO) gives excellent result for detection and masses and microcalcifications. In order to develop a system with optimal performances of sensitivity, specificity and time complexity, a set of relevant characteristics need to be created which will show all the pathological regions that might be present in the mammographic image. The structure of the mammographic image, size and the large number of pathological structures in this area are the reason why the creation of a set of these features is necessary for the presentation of good indicators. These pathological structures are a real challenge today and the world of science is working in that direction. The doctoral dissertation showed that the system has optimal results, which are confirmed by experts, and institutions, which are dealing with these same issues. Also, the thesis presents a new approach for automatic identification of regions of interest in the mammographic image where regions of interest are automatically selected for further processing mammography in cases when the number of examined patients is higher. Out of 480 mammographic images downloaded from MIAS database and tested with ICAD system the author shows that, after separation and selection of relevant features of ICAD system the accuracy is 89.7% (96.4% for microcalcifications

  8. Establishment of quality assessment standard for mammographic equipment: evaluation of phantom and clinical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Hoon; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Chung, Soo Young

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a quality standard for mammographic equipment Korea and to eventually improve mammographic quality in clinics and hospitals throughout Korea by educating technicians and clinic personnel. For the phantom test and on site assessment, we visited 37 sites and examined 43 sets of mammographic equipment. Items that were examined include phantom test, radiation dose measurement, developer assessment, etc. The phantom images were assessed visually and by optical density measurements. For the clinical image assessment, clinical images from 371 sites were examined following the new Korean standard for clinical image evaluation. The items examined include labeling, positioning, contrast, exposure, artifacts, collimation among others. Quality standard of mammographic equipment was satisfied in all equipment on site visits. Average mean glandular dose was 114.9 mRad. All phantom image test scores were over 10 points (average, 10.8 points). However, optical density measurements were below 1.2 in 9 sets of equipment (20.9%). Clinical image evaluation revealed appropriate image quality in 83.5%, while images from non-radiologist clinics were adequate in 74.6% (91/122), which was the lowest score of any group. Images were satisfactory in 59.0% (219/371) based on evaluation by specialists following the new Korean standard for clinical image evaluation. Satisfactory images had a mean score of 81.7 (1 S.D. =8.9) and unsatisfactory images had a mean score of 61.9 (1 S.D = 11). The correlation coefficient between the two observers was 0.93 (ρ < 0.01) in 49 consecutive cases. The results of the phantom tests suggest that optical density measurements should be performed as part of a new quality standard for mammographic equipment. The new clinical evaluation criteria that was used in this study can be implemented with some modifications for future mammography quality control by the Korean government

  9. Indications and guidelines for mammographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalisher, L.; Schaffer, D.

    1977-01-01

    The value of mammography in evaluating the asymptomatic patient has been clearly demonstrated by the HIP program, as well as the National Cancer Institute's breast demonstration projects. A one-third reduction in mortality from breast cancer in mammographically screened women has been substantiated. Nonetheless, questions concerning the long-term effects of repeated radiation exposure associated with mammography have been raised, and for this reason judicious selection of women is urged. In general, women who are asymptomatic or at high risk for breast carcinoma should be evaluated with a planned regimen. Mammographic guidelines and recommendations for attaining the greatest benefit at the lowest possible risk are suggested

  10. Towards an automatic tool for resolution evaluation of mammographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, J. E. E. [FUMEC, Av. Alfonso Pena 3880, CEP 30130-009 Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil); Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: juliae@fumec.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Medical images are important for diagnosis purposes as they are related to patients medical history and pathology. Breast cancer represents a leading cause of death among women worldwide, and its early detection is the most effective method of reducing mortality. In a way to identify small structures with low density differences, a high image quality is required with the use of low doses of radiation. The analysis of the quality of the obtained image from a mammogram is performed from an image of a simulated breast and this is a fundamental key point for a program of quality control of mammography equipment s. In a control program of mammographic equipment s, besides the analysis of the quality of mammographic images, each element of the chain which composes the formation of the image is also analyzed: X-rays equipment s, radiographic films, and operating conditions. This control allows that an effective and efficient exam can be provided to the population and is within the standards of quality required for the early detection of breast cancer. However, according to the State Program of Quality Control in Mammography of Minas Gerais, Brazil, only 40% of the mammographies have provided a simulated image with a minimum level of quality, thus reinforcing the need for monitoring the images. The reduction of the morbidity and mortality indexes, with optimization and assurance of access to diagnosis and breast cancer treatment in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, may be the result of a mammographic exam which has a final image with good quality and which automatic evaluation is not subjective. The reason is that one has to consider the hypothesis that humans are subjective when performing the image analysis and that the evaluation of the image can be executed by a computer with objectivity. In 2007, in order to maintain the standard quality needed to mammography, the State Health Secretariat of Minas Gerais, Brazil, established a Program of Monthly Monitoring the

  11. Towards an automatic tool for resolution evaluation of mammographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Oliveira, J. E. E.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2014-08-01

    Medical images are important for diagnosis purposes as they are related to patients medical history and pathology. Breast cancer represents a leading cause of death among women worldwide, and its early detection is the most effective method of reducing mortality. In a way to identify small structures with low density differences, a high image quality is required with the use of low doses of radiation. The analysis of the quality of the obtained image from a mammogram is performed from an image of a simulated breast and this is a fundamental key point for a program of quality control of mammography equipment s. In a control program of mammographic equipment s, besides the analysis of the quality of mammographic images, each element of the chain which composes the formation of the image is also analyzed: X-rays equipment s, radiographic films, and operating conditions. This control allows that an effective and efficient exam can be provided to the population and is within the standards of quality required for the early detection of breast cancer. However, according to the State Program of Quality Control in Mammography of Minas Gerais, Brazil, only 40% of the mammographies have provided a simulated image with a minimum level of quality, thus reinforcing the need for monitoring the images. The reduction of the morbidity and mortality indexes, with optimization and assurance of access to diagnosis and breast cancer treatment in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, may be the result of a mammographic exam which has a final image with good quality and which automatic evaluation is not subjective. The reason is that one has to consider the hypothesis that humans are subjective when performing the image analysis and that the evaluation of the image can be executed by a computer with objectivity. In 2007, in order to maintain the standard quality needed to mammography, the State Health Secretariat of Minas Gerais, Brazil, established a Program of Monthly Monitoring the

  12. Development of breast phantom for quality assessment of mammographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvelos, Jeniffer Miranda; Flores, Mabel Bustos; Amaral, Fernando; Rio, Margarita Chevalier del; Mourao, Arnaldo Prata, E-mail: jenifferarvelos00@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Biomedica; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Madrid (Spain). Faculdad de Medicina. Departmento de Radiologia

    2017-11-01

    Diagnosis of breast cancer in young women may be impaired by the tissue composition of breast in this age group, as fibroglandular tissue is present in greater amount in young women and it has higher density than fibrous and fatty tissues which predominate in women older than 40 years old. The higher density of breast tissue makes it difficult to identify nodules in two-dimensional techniques, due to the overlapping of dense layers. Breast phantoms are used in evaluation and quality control of clinical images, and therefore, it is important to develop non-homogeneous phantoms that may better simulate a real breast. Grouped microcalcifications are often the earliest changes associated with malignant neoplasm of breast. In this work, a phantom was developed in the form of a compressed breast using acrylic resin blend. The resin blend used to fulfill the interior of the phantom has similar mammographic density to the one in fibroglandular tissue, representing a dense breast. The lesions were made of acrylic resin blend and calcium compounds that might simulate breast abnormalities, representing nodules, macrocalcifications and microcalcifications of different dimensions and densities. They were distributed into the ma-terial representing fibroglandular tissue. The developed phantom has a thickness of 1 cm, and it may be matched with other plates to represent a dense breast of thickness between 5 and 6 cm. The main goal of the project is to evaluate the sensitivity of detection of these calcifications in relation to their density and location in the breast in two-dimensional images generated in mammography equipment. Mammographic images allow the visualization of the changes implemented in the phantom. The developed phantom may be used in evaluation of diagnostic images generated through two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. (author)

  13. Development of breast phantom for quality assessment of mammographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvelos, Jeniffer Miranda; Flores, Mabel Bustos; Amaral, Fernando; Rio, Margarita Chevalier del; Mourao, Arnaldo Prata; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; Universidad Complutense de Madrid

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of breast cancer in young women may be impaired by the tissue composition of breast in this age group, as fibroglandular tissue is present in greater amount in young women and it has higher density than fibrous and fatty tissues which predominate in women older than 40 years old. The higher density of breast tissue makes it difficult to identify nodules in two-dimensional techniques, due to the overlapping of dense layers. Breast phantoms are used in evaluation and quality control of clinical images, and therefore, it is important to develop non-homogeneous phantoms that may better simulate a real breast. Grouped microcalcifications are often the earliest changes associated with malignant neoplasm of breast. In this work, a phantom was developed in the form of a compressed breast using acrylic resin blend. The resin blend used to fulfill the interior of the phantom has similar mammographic density to the one in fibroglandular tissue, representing a dense breast. The lesions were made of acrylic resin blend and calcium compounds that might simulate breast abnormalities, representing nodules, macrocalcifications and microcalcifications of different dimensions and densities. They were distributed into the ma-terial representing fibroglandular tissue. The developed phantom has a thickness of 1 cm, and it may be matched with other plates to represent a dense breast of thickness between 5 and 6 cm. The main goal of the project is to evaluate the sensitivity of detection of these calcifications in relation to their density and location in the breast in two-dimensional images generated in mammography equipment. Mammographic images allow the visualization of the changes implemented in the phantom. The developed phantom may be used in evaluation of diagnostic images generated through two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. (author)

  14. Presynaptic Active Zone Density during Development and Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gwenaëlle L; Chen, Jie; Nishimune, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Neural circuits transmit information through synapses, and the efficiency of synaptic transmission is closely related to the density of presynaptic active zones, where synaptic vesicles are released. The goal of this review is to highlight recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the number of active zones per presynaptic terminal (active zone density) during developmental and stimulus-dependent changes in synaptic efficacy. At the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), the active zone density is preserved across species, remains constant during development, and is the same between synapses with different activities. However, the NMJ active zones are not always stable, as exemplified by the change in active zone density during acute experimental manipulation or as a result of aging. Therefore, a mechanism must exist to maintain its density. In the central nervous system (CNS), active zones have restricted maximal size, exist in multiple numbers in larger presynaptic terminals, and maintain a constant density during development. These findings suggest that active zone density in the CNS is also controlled. However, in contrast to the NMJ, active zone density in the CNS can also be increased, as observed in hippocampal synapses in response to synaptic plasticity. Although the numbers of known active zone proteins and protein interactions have increased, less is known about the mechanism that controls the number or spacing of active zones. The following molecules are known to control active zone density and will be discussed herein: extracellular matrix laminins and voltage-dependent calcium channels, amyloid precursor proteins, the small GTPase Rab3, an endocytosis mechanism including synaptojanin, cytoskeleton protein spectrins and β-adducin, and a presynaptic web including spectrins. The molecular mechanisms that organize the active zone density are just beginning to be elucidated.

  15. Determination of the density of active uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piercy, G R

    1958-03-15

    A procedure was found to measure the density of irradiated uranium to an accuracy of 0.06% by measuring the weight of the sample in air and in n-octyl alcohol. The measurements were made using a gramatic balance that was readily adapted for remote control in the 'cave'. Since the n-octyl alcohol was inside the balance for all measurements, the complete apparatus was mobile. (author)

  16. Determination of the density of active uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piercy, G.R.

    1958-03-01

    A procedure was found to measure the density of irradiated uranium to an accuracy of 0.06% by measuring the weight of the sample in air and in n-octyl alcohol. The measurements were made using a gramatic balance that was readily adapted for remote control in the 'cave'. Since the n-octyl alcohol was inside the balance for all measurements, the complete apparatus was mobile. (author)

  17. Feature extraction from mammographic images using fast marching methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottigli, U.; Golosio, B.

    2002-01-01

    Features extraction from medical images represents a fundamental step for shape recognition and diagnostic support. The present work faces the problem of the detection of large features, such as massive lesions and organ contours, from mammographic images. The regions of interest are often characterized by an average grayness intensity that is different from the surrounding. In most cases, however, the desired features cannot be extracted by simple gray level thresholding, because of image noise and non-uniform density of the surrounding tissue. In this work, edge detection is achieved through the fast marching method (Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999), which is based on the theory of interface evolution. Starting from a seed point in the shape of interest, a front is generated which evolves according to an appropriate speed function. Such function is expressed in terms of geometric properties of the evolving interface and of image properties, and should become zero when the front reaches the desired boundary. Some examples of application of such method to mammographic images from the CALMA database (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 460 (2001) 107) are presented here and discussed

  18. Mammographic Texture Resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernoff, Konstantin; Christopher, S G; Karemore, Gopal

    PURPOSE Breast density has been established as a risk factor of breast cancer in numerous studies. Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) has shown to be a density independent risk factor, but only on a single study. We examine if the statistics of the texture recorded in one study generalize...... as an independent risk factor in an unrelated cohort. METHOD AND MATERIALS The statistics of texture were recorded in digitalized film-mammograms of one 4-year prospective study (S1, Dutch screening program) of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. From an independent cohort study (S2, Mayo Mammography...... Health Study cohort) 226 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed through 2008 and 442 matched controls (on age) were used for scoring screening digitized mammograms that were ascertained years prior to diagnosis 1993-2006. Mammographic percent density (PD), using Cumulus, and other major risk factors were...

  19. A novel and automatic mammographic texture resemblance marker is an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Karemore, Gopal; Loog, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether breast cancer is predicted by a breast cancer risk mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker. Methods: A previously published case-control study included 495 women of which 245 were diagnosed with breast cancer. In baseline mammograms, 2-4 years prior...... to diagnosis, the following mammographic parameters were analysed for relation to breast cancer risk: (C) categorical parenchymal pattern scores; (R) radiologist's percentage density, (P) computer-based percentage density; (H) computer-based breast cancer risk MTR marker; (E) computer-based hormone replacement...... treatment MTR marker; and (A) an aggregate of P and H. Results: Density scores, C, R, and P correlated (tau=0.3-0.6); no other pair of scores showed large (tau>0.2) correlation. For the parameters, the odds ratios of future incidence of breast cancer comparing highest to lowest categories (146 and 106...

  20. Mammographic varicosities indicative of a superior mediastinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, an abnormal calibre of the superficial veins can reflect not only underrying breast pathology, but a collateral venous return resulting from an upper mediastinal obstruction. A case mammographically demonstrating mammary varicosities resulting from a superior mediastinal syndrome is described. S. Afr. Med.

  1. State supervision of SONS in the mammographic departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jursikova, E.; Kodl, O.

    2008-01-01

    State Office for Nuclear Safety has been performed the state supervision over radiation protection at all mammographic centres in the Czech Republic. Inspections are carried out on the basis of requirements of: Act No. 18/1997 Coll., Atomic Act, subsequently amended; Act No. 552/1991 Coll., Supervision Act, subsequently amended; Decree No. 307 /2002 Coll., On radiation protection, as amended by Decree No. 499/2005 Coll. 137 mammography X-ray units have been used actively by 108 independent licensees since 1 September 2008. The mammography screening program started in September 2002. The screening program was carried out at 59 working places last year and already at 66 workplaces with accreditation from 1 up to 3 years this year. The activity of the centres is monitored and inspected continuously (not only by SONS). Inspections at 35 workplaces were carried out last year .The doses are significantly below guidance levels at major part of working places. Most of detected defects were eliminated after inspections. The quality of mammographic workplaces in the Czech Republic has been gradually increased and improved. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of mammographic screen-film combinations in the clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Six commercially available mammographic film-screen combinations were evaluated in the authors department. Film speed and contrast was measured by obtaining H and D curves. Sensitivity to processing conditions was determined by analyzing changes in the H and D cures as a function of development time and temperature and by examining artifacts in a uniformly exposed film. Radiographs of a 0.5 0 star pattern show relative screen unsharpness. The speed of the film-screen combination is indicated by calculating patient dose necessary to produce optical densities of 1.5 through phantom thicknesses of 3.5 cm of acrylic. Images of a modified RMI detail phantom obtained with each film-screen combination were evaluated by 22 radiologist. Results indicate the physicians' overall preference

  3. A uniform system for mammographic reporting BI-RADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masroor, I.; Ahmad, M. N.; Sheikh, M. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Breast image reporting and data system (BI-RADS) is a new system of categorizing and reporting mammographs and mammographic findings recommended by American College of Radiology. The importance of BI-RADS and final assessment categories are discussed. The purpose is to introduce the above-mentioned mammographic reporting system so that it becomes a standard terminology among the medical personnel, involved in the diagnosis and management of breast diseases. (author)

  4. Fibrocystic disease of breast: variable mammographic and sonography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Heon; Cha, Yoo Mi; Yang, Joo Hyun; Song, Ek Hyun; Hwang, Hee Yong; Chung, Hyo Sun; Park, Sung Hye [Chung Ang Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    Fibrocystic disease of the breast is a frequent cause of abnormal mammogram and ultrasonogram in patients with breast pain. The differentiation of fibrocystic disease form fibroadenoma or carcinoma is often difficult. The present study was performed to evaluate the mammographic and sonographic features of fibrocystic disease of the breast Mammograms and sonogram s of 45 patients with pathologically proven fibrocystic disease of breast were analyzed and correlated retrospectively with the pathologic specimens. Clinically the patients had palpable breast lumps or focal skin thickening. The patients were aged 19 to 64 years(average, 37 years) Histologic examination of 29 patients with abnormal findings in mammograms and/or sonograms revealed stromal fibrosis in 28(97%), cyst formation in 24(83%), epithelial hyperplasia in 29(90%), apocrine metaplasia in 7 (24%), chronic inflammation in 15 (52%), fibroadenomatous change in 2 (7%), large pseudocyst formation in 2 (7%), calcification in 1 (3%), and/or chondroid maseptol in 1 (3%). Of 43 patients with mammograms, 23 showed no detectable lesion, even in retrospect, because of dense mammograms there were well marginated mass in 7, poorly marginated mass in 4, multiple small nodules in 2, mixed density radio opaque mass in 3, radiolucent mass in one, and asymmetrical dense breast in 3. One case had calcification within the mass, and another one had very high density nodules that showed chondroid metaplasia. In 14 patients with sonograms, the echogenicity was variable; anechoic in 2, hypoechoic in 8, isoechoic in 3, or mixed echoic in one. The shape of the lesion was round in 2, ovoid in 8, tubular in 2, and irregular in 2. The margin was well marginated in 11 and poorly marginated in 3. Fibrocystic breast disease, which is a frequent cause of breast lumps, has variable findings in mammograms and sonograms. Therefore, fibrocystic disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of breast mass when the typical

  5. Fibrocystic disease of breast: variable mammographic and sonography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Heon; Cha, Yoo Mi; Yang, Joo Hyun; Song, Ek Hyun; Hwang, Hee Yong; Chung, Hyo Sun; Park, Sung Hye

    1993-01-01

    Fibrocystic disease of the breast is a frequent cause of abnormal mammogram and ultrasonogram in patients with breast pain. The differentiation of fibrocystic disease form fibroadenoma or carcinoma is often difficult. The present study was performed to evaluate the mammographic and sonographic features of fibrocystic disease of the breast Mammograms and sonogram s of 45 patients with pathologically proven fibrocystic disease of breast were analyzed and correlated retrospectively with the pathologic specimens. Clinically the patients had palpable breast lumps or focal skin thickening. The patients were aged 19 to 64 years(average, 37 years) Histologic examination of 29 patients with abnormal findings in mammograms and/or sonograms revealed stromal fibrosis in 28(97%), cyst formation in 24(83%), epithelial hyperplasia in 29(90%), apocrine metaplasia in 7 (24%), chronic inflammation in 15 (52%), fibroadenomatous change in 2 (7%), large pseudocyst formation in 2 (7%), calcification in 1 (3%), and/or chondroid maseptol in 1 (3%). Of 43 patients with mammograms, 23 showed no detectable lesion, even in retrospect, because of dense mammograms there were well marginated mass in 7, poorly marginated mass in 4, multiple small nodules in 2, mixed density radio opaque mass in 3, radiolucent mass in one, and asymmetrical dense breast in 3. One case had calcification within the mass, and another one had very high density nodules that showed chondroid metaplasia. In 14 patients with sonograms, theechogenicity was variable ; anechoic in 2, hypoechoic in 8, isoechoic in 3, or mixed echoic in one. The shape of the lesion was round in 2, ovoid in 8, tubular in 2, and irregular in 2. The margin was well marginated in 11 and poorly marginated in 3. Fibrocystic breast disease, which is a frequent cause of breast lumps, has variable findings in mammograms and sonograms. Therefore, fibrocystic disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of breast mass when the typical

  6. Association of mammographic image feature change and an increasing risk trend of developing breast cancer: an assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Maxine; Leader, Joseph K.; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We recently investigated a new mammographic image feature based risk factor to predict near-term breast cancer risk after a woman has a negative mammographic screening. We hypothesized that unlike the conventional epidemiology-based long-term (or lifetime) risk factors, the mammographic image feature based risk factor value will increase as the time lag between the negative and positive mammography screening decreases. The purpose of this study is to test this hypothesis. From a large and diverse full-field digital mammography (FFDM) image database with 1278 cases, we collected all available sequential FFDM examinations for each case including the "current" and 1 to 3 most recently "prior" examinations. All "prior" examinations were interpreted negative, and "current" ones were either malignant or recalled negative/benign. We computed 92 global mammographic texture and density based features, and included three clinical risk factors (woman's age, family history and subjective breast density BIRADS ratings). On this initial feature set, we applied a fast and accurate Sequential Forward Floating Selection (SFFS) feature selection algorithm to reduce feature dimensionality. The features computed on both mammographic views were individually/ separately trained using two artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers. The classification scores of the two ANNs were then merged with a sequential ANN. The results show that the maximum adjusted odds ratios were 5.59, 7.98, and 15.77 for using the 3rd, 2nd, and 1st "prior" FFDM examinations, respectively, which demonstrates a higher association of mammographic image feature change and an increasing risk trend of developing breast cancer in the near-term after a negative screening.

  7. Ultrasonographic Findings of Mammographic Architectural Distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jeong Hyun; Kang, Bong Joo; Cha, Eun Suk; Hwangbo, Seol; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Park, Chang Suk; Kim, Sung Hun; Choi, Jae Jeong; Chung, Yong An

    2008-01-01

    To review the sonographic findings of various diseases showing architectural distortion depicted under mammography. We collected and reviewed architectural distortions observed under mammography at our health institution between 1 March 2004, and 28 February 2007. We collected 23 cases of sonographically-detected mammographic architectural distortions that confirmed lesions after surgical resection. The sonographic findings of mammographic architectural distortion were analyzed by use of the BI-RADS lexicon for shape, margin, lesion boundary, echo pattern, posterior acoustic feature and orientation. There were variable diseases that showed architectural distortion depicted under mammography. Fibrocystic disease was the most common presentation (n = 6), followed by adenosis (n = 2), stromal fibrosis (n = 2), radial scar (n = 3), usual ductal hyperplasia (n = 1), atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 1) and mild fibrosis with microcalcification (n = 1). Malignant lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (n = 2), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) (n = 2), invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 2) and invasive lobular carcinoma (n = 1) were observed. As observed by sonography, shape was divided as irregular (n = 22) and round (n = 1). Margin was divided as circumscribed (n = 1), indistinct (n = 7), angular (n = 1), microlobulated (n = 1) and sipculated (n = 13). Lesion boundary was divided as abrupt interface (n = 11) and echogenic halo (n = 12). Echo pattern was divided as hypoechoic (n = 20), anechoic (n = 1), hyperechoic (n = 1) and isoechoic (n = 1). Posterior acoustic feature was divided as posterior acoustic feature (n = 7), posterior acoustic shadow (n = 15) and complex posterior acoustic feature (n = 1). Orientation was divided as parallel (n = 12) and not parallel (n = 11). There were no differential sonographic findings between benign and malignant lesions. This study presented various sonographic findings of mammographic architectural distortion and that it is

  8. Mammographic compression – A need for mechanical standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branderhorst, Woutjan, E-mail: w.branderhorst@amc.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering & Physics, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sigmascreening B.V., Meibergdreef 45, 1105 BA Amsterdam (Netherlands); Groot, Jerry E. de, E-mail: jerry.degroot@sigmascreening.com [Academic Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering & Physics, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); Highnam, Ralph, E-mail: ralph.highnam@volparasolutions.com [Volpara Solutions Limited, P.O. Box 24404, Manners St Central, Wellington 6142 (New Zealand); Chan, Ariane, E-mail: ariane.chan@volparasolutions.com [Volpara Solutions Limited, P.O. Box 24404, Manners St Central, Wellington 6142 (New Zealand); Böhm-Vélez, Marcela, E-mail: marcelabvelez@gmail.com [Weinstein Imaging Associates, 5850 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15206 (United States); Broeders, Mireille J.M., E-mail: mireille.broeders@radboudumc.nl [Radboud University Medical Center, Department for Health Evidence, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); LRCB Dutch Reference Center for Screening, P.O. Box 6873, 6503 GJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Heeten, Gerard J. den, E-mail: g.denheeten@lrcb.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); LRCB Dutch Reference Center for Screening, P.O. Box 6873, 6503 GJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Grimbergen, Cornelis A., E-mail: c.a.grimbergen@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering & Physics, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sigmascreening B.V., Meibergdreef 45, 1105 BA Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We studied mechanical breast compression practice in two different clinical sites. •We visualized the distributions of not only the applied force but also the pressure. •The applied pressure was highly variable, both within and between the data sets. •The average applied pressure and the variation were higher for smaller breasts. •A proposal for improved individualization, by standardizing pressure, is discussed. -- Abstract: Background: A lack of consistent guidelines regarding mammographic compression has led to wide variation in its technical execution. Breast compression is accomplished by means of a compression paddle, resulting in a certain contact area between the paddle and the breast. This procedure is associated with varying levels of discomfort or pain. On current mammography systems, the only mechanical parameter available in estimating the degree of compression is the physical entity of force (daN). Recently, researchers have suggested that pressure (kPa), resulting from a specific force divided by contact area on a breast, might be a more appropriate parameter for standardization. Software has now become available which enables device-independent cross-comparisons of key mammographic metrics, such as applied compression pressure (force divided by contact area), breast density and radiation dose, between patient populations. Purpose: To compare the current compression practice in mammography between different imaging sites in the Netherlands and the United States from a mechanical point of view, and to investigate whether the compression protocols in these countries can be improved by standardization of pressure (kPa) as an objective mechanical parameter. Materials and methods: We retrospectively studied the available parameters of a set of 37,518 mammographic compressions (9188 women) from the Dutch national breast cancer screening programme (NL data set) and of another set of 7171 compressions (1851 women) from a breast imaging

  9. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  10. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  11. Impact of contra-lateral breast reshaping on mammographic surveillance in women undergoing breast reconstruction following mastectomy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Maurizio B; Rocco, Nicola; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Falco, Giuseppe; Capalbo, Emanuela; Marano, Luigi; Bordoni, Daniele; Spano, Andrea; Scaperrotta, Gianfranco

    2015-08-01

    The ultimate goal of breast reconstruction is to achieve symmetry with the contra-lateral breast. Contra-lateral procedures with wide parenchymal rearrangements are suspected to impair mammographic surveillance. This study aims to evaluate the impact on mammographic detection of mastopexies and breast reductions for contralateral adjustment in breast reconstruction. We retrospectively evaluated 105 women affected by uni-lateral breast cancer who underwent mastectomy and immediate two-stage reconstruction between 2002 and 2007. We considered three groups according to the contra-lateral reshaping technique: mastopexy or breast reduction with inferior dermoglandular flap (group 1); mastopexy or breast reduction without inferior dermoglandular flap (group 2); no contra-lateral reshaping (group 3). We assessed qualitative mammographic variations and breast density in the three groups. Statistically significant differences have been found when comparing reshaped groups with non reshaped groups regarding parenchymal distortions, skin thickening and stromal edema, but these differences did not affect cancer surveillance. The surveillance mammography diagnostic accuracy in contra-lateral cancer detection was not significantly different between the three groups (p = 0.56), such as the need for MRI for equivocal findings at mammographic contra-lateral breast (p = 0.77) and the need for core-biopsies to confirm mammographic suspect of contra-lateral breast cancer (p = 0.90). This study confirms previous reports regarding the safety of mastopexies and breast reductions when performed in the setting of contra-lateral breast reshaping after breast reconstruction. Mammographic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are not affected by the glandular re-arrangement. These results provide a further validation of the safety of current reconstructive paradigms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation between mammographic findings and corresponding histopathology. Potential predictors for biological characteristics of breast diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Ishida, Takanori; Miyashita, Minoru; Amari, Masakazu; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Sasano, Hironobu

    2011-01-01

    The present study retrospectively evaluated the mammographic findings of 606 Japanese women with breast cancer (median age 50 years; range 27-89 years) and correlated them with histopathological characteristics. Mammographic findings were evaluated with an emphasis on mass shape, margin, density, calcification, and the presence of architectural distortion; these findings were correlated with histopathological characteristics such as intrinsic subtype, histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, and the Ki-67 labeling index. An irregular mass shape and masses with a spiculated margin were significantly higher in the group of patients with luminal A breast cancer than in patients with masses that were lobular or round, or in tumors with an indistinct or microlobulated periphery (P=0.017, P=0.024, P<0.001, and P=0.001, respectively). Irregular mass shape and spiculated periphery were significantly lower in patients with Grade 3 cancer (P<0.001 for both). In terms of lymphovascular invasion, there were significant differences between oval and irregular or round mass shape (P=0.008 and P=0.034), between tumors with a microlobulated and indistinct periphery (P=0.014), between tumors with a punctate and amorphous or pleomorphic calcification shape (P=0.030 and 0.038), and between the presence and absence of architectural distortion (P=0.027). Equivalent or low-density masses were also higher in Grade 1 breast cancers (P=0.007). There were significant differences in the Ki-67 labeling index between irregular and lobular or round tumors (P<0.001 and P=0.014), as well as between spiculated and indistinct or microlobulated tumors (P<0.001 for both). Significant differences were noted in the mammographic features of different primary breast cancer subtypes. These proposed mammographic diagnostic criteria based on biological characteristics may contribute to a more accurate prediction of biological behavior of breast malignancies. (author)

  13. Mammographic image enhancement using wavelet transform and homomorphic filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Majidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammography is the most effective method for the early diagnosis of breast cancer diseases. As mammographic images contain low signal to noise ratio and low contrast, it becomes too difficult for radiologists to analyze mammogram. To deal with the above stated problems, it is very important to enhance the mammographic images using image processing methods. This paper introduces a new image enhancement approach for mammographic images which uses the modified mathematical morphology, wavelet transform and homomorphic filter to suppress the noise of images. For performance evaluation of the proposed method, contrast improvement index (CII and edge preservation index (EPI are adopted. Experimental results on mammographic images from Pejvak Digital Imaging Center (PDIC show that the proposed algorithm improves the two indexes, thereby achieving the goal of enhancing mammographic images.

  14. Active learning for noisy oracle via density power divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogawa, Yasuhiro; Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Kawahara, Yoshinobu; Washio, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    The accuracy of active learning is critically influenced by the existence of noisy labels given by a noisy oracle. In this paper, we propose a novel pool-based active learning framework through robust measures based on density power divergence. By minimizing density power divergence, such as β-divergence and γ-divergence, one can estimate the model accurately even under the existence of noisy labels within data. Accordingly, we develop query selecting measures for pool-based active learning using these divergences. In addition, we propose an evaluation scheme for these measures based on asymptotic statistical analyses, which enables us to perform active learning by evaluating an estimation error directly. Experiments with benchmark datasets and real-world image datasets show that our active learning scheme performs better than several baseline methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Destiny from density

    OpenAIRE

    Seewaldt, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of a signalling protein that regulates the accumulation of fat and connective tissue in breasts may help to explain why high mammographic density is linked to breast-cancer risk and may provide a marker for predicting this risk.

  16. Density of Plutonium Turnings Generated from Machining Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, John Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vigil, Duane M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jachimowski, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Arellano, Gerald Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Melton, Vince Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-20

    The purpose of this project was to determine the density of plutonium (Pu) turnings generated from the range of machining activities, using both surrogate material and machined Pu turnings. Verify that 500 grams (g) of plutonium will fit in a one quart container using a surrogate equivalent volume and that 100 grams of Pu will fit in a one quart Savy container.

  17. Neural network recognition of mammographic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldham, W.J.B.; Downes, P.T.; Hunter, V.

    1987-01-01

    A method for recognition of mammographic lesions through the use of neural networks is presented. Neural networks have exhibited the ability to learn the shape andinternal structure of patterns. Digitized mammograms containing circumscribed and stelate lesions were used to train a feedfoward synchronous neural network that self-organizes to stable attractor states. Encoding of data for submission to the network was accomplished by performing a fractal analysis of the digitized image. This results in scale invariant representation of the lesions. Results are discussed

  18. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Vachon, Celine M.; Scott, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast...... density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population.METHODS:Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7years) film mammograms of a nested case-control study within the Dutch screening program (S1) comprising of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls...

  19. Volumetric breast density affects performance of digital screening mammography

    OpenAIRE

    Wanders, JO; Holland, K; Veldhuis, WB; Mann, RM; Pijnappel, RM; Peeters, PH; Van Gils, CH; Karssemeijer, N

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine to what extent automatically measured volumetric mammographic density influences screening performance when using digital mammography (DM). METHODS: We collected a consecutive series of 111,898 DM examinations (2003-2011) from one screening unit of the Dutch biennial screening program (age 50-75 years). Volumetric mammographic density was automatically assessed using Volpara. We determined screening performance measures for four density categories comparable to the Ameri...

  20. Single x-ray absorptiometry method for the quantitative mammographic measure of fibroglandular tissue volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkov, Serghei; Wang, Jeff; Kerlikowske, Karla; Cummings, Steven R.; Shepherd, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the design and characteristics of a highly accurate, precise, and automated single-energy method to quantify percent fibroglandular tissue volume (%FGV) and fibroglandular tissue volume (FGV) using digital screening mammography. Methods: The method uses a breast tissue-equivalent phantom in the unused portion of the mammogram as a reference to estimate breast composition. The phantom is used to calculate breast thickness and composition for each image regardless of x-ray technique or the presence of paddle tilt. The phantom adheres to the top of the mammographic compression paddle and stays in place for both craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique screening views. We describe the automated method to identify the phantom and paddle orientation with a three-dimensional reconstruction least-squares technique. A series of test phantoms, with a breast thickness range of 0.5-8 cm and a %FGV of 0%-100%, were made to test the accuracy and precision of the technique. Results: Using test phantoms, the estimated repeatability standard deviation equaled 2%, with a ±2% accuracy for the entire thickness and density ranges. Without correction, paddle tilt was found to create large errors in the measured density values of up to 7%/mm difference from actual breast thickness. This new density measurement is stable over time, with no significant drifts in calibration noted during a four-month period. Comparisons of %FGV to mammographic percent density and left to right breast %FGV were highly correlated (r=0.83 and 0.94, respectively). Conclusions: An automated method for quantifying fibroglandular tissue volume has been developed. It exhibited good accuracy and precision for a broad range of breast thicknesses, paddle tilt angles, and %FGV values. Clinical testing showed high correlation to mammographic density and between left and right breasts.

  1. Computer-aided detection of breast carcinoma in standard mammographic projections with digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destounis, S.; Hanson, S.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to retrospectively evaluate a computer-aided detection system's ability to detect breast carcinoma in multiple standard mammographic projections. Forty-five lesions in 44 patients imaged with digital mammography (Selenia registered , Hologic, Bedford, MA; Senographe registered , GE, Milwaukee, WI) and had computer-aided detection (CAD, Image-checker registered V 8.3.15, Hologic/R2, Santa Clara, CA) applied at the time of examination were identified for review; all were subsequently recommended to biopsy where cancer was revealed. These lesions were determined by the study Radiologist to be visible in both standard mammographic images (mediolateral oblique, MLO; craniocaudal, CC). For each patient, case data included patient age, tissue density, lesion type, BIRADS registered assessment, lesion size, lesion visibility-visible on MLO and/or CC view, ability of CAD to correctly mark the cancerous lesion, number of CAD marks per image, needle core biopsy results and surgical pathologic correlation. For this study cohort. CAD lesion/case sensitivity of 87% (n = 39) was found and image sensitivity was found to be 69% (n = 31) for MLO view and 78% (n = 35) for the CC view. For the study cohort, cases presented with a median of four marks per cases (range 0-13). Eighty-four percent (n = 38) of lesions proceeded to excision; initial needle biopsy pathology was upgraded at surgical excision from in situ disease to invasive for 24% (n = 9) lesions. CAD has demonstrated the potential to detect mammographically visible cancers in multiple standard mammographic projections in all categories of lesions in this study cohort. (orig.)

  2. Calcified trichinosis of pectoral muscle: mammographic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apesteguia, L.; Murillo, A.; Biurrun, J.; Garcia-Rostan, G.; Reta, A.; Dominguez, F.

    1995-01-01

    By mammographic screening we had detected six asymptomatic women who showed numerious tiny and well-delineated round to ovoid microcalcification superimposed on pectoral shadows, in the oblique medio-lateral (OML) view. Our objective was to achieve a better evaluation of these calcifications and investigate their origin. Magnified mammograms of pectoral muscles were done in the six women. A questionnaire concerning the patients' diets was also administered. Trichinella antibody titres were quantified by sero-agglutination. Microcalcifications within pectoral muscle fibres were demonstrated in all the cases. Five women admitted to having eaten home-made pork products in the past. One of them showed a slightly elevated antibody titre. We confirmed the suspected diagnosis of calcified trichinosis by a surgical biopsy of the pectoral muscle performed on one of the patients. We conclude that chronic calcified trichinosis of the pectoral muscle can be visualised in the OML view of a conventional mammogram. The mammographic appearance of this entity is very characteristic and biopsy would not be required for its diagnosis in the future. (orig.)

  3. Calcified trichinosis of pectoral muscle: mammographic appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apesteguia, L. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Murillo, A. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Biurrun, J. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Garcia-Rostan, G. [Servicio Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Reta, A. [Servicio de Analisis Clinicos, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Dominguez, F. [Servicio Cirugia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    By mammographic screening we had detected six asymptomatic women who showed numerious tiny and well-delineated round to ovoid microcalcification superimposed on pectoral shadows, in the oblique medio-lateral (OML) view. Our objective was to achieve a better evaluation of these calcifications and investigate their origin. Magnified mammograms of pectoral muscles were done in the six women. A questionnaire concerning the patients` diets was also administered. Trichinella antibody titres were quantified by sero-agglutination. Microcalcifications within pectoral muscle fibres were demonstrated in all the cases. Five women admitted to having eaten home-made pork products in the past. One of them showed a slightly elevated antibody titre. We confirmed the suspected diagnosis of calcified trichinosis by a surgical biopsy of the pectoral muscle performed on one of the patients. We conclude that chronic calcified trichinosis of the pectoral muscle can be visualised in the OML view of a conventional mammogram. The mammographic appearance of this entity is very characteristic and biopsy would not be required for its diagnosis in the future. (orig.)

  4. Tumor location and detectability in mammographic screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, E.L.; Threatt, B.

    1982-01-01

    The adequacy of a film mammogram that does not visualize the retromammary space or ribs has concerned radiologists. The 79 prevalent cancers detected in the 10,000 self-referred woman at the University of Michigan Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project were analyzed for number of films required to detect the cancer, relationship of the cancer to the posterior edge of the film, number of occult lesions, tumor size, histologic type, sensitivity of detection method, and number of interval carcinomas. The mammograms were obtained using a dedicated mammographic machine and the upright position, with visualization of the anterior axillary fold on the mediolateral view. The ribs were not imaged. Of the 79 cancers, 76 were detectable on the mammogram. All were visualized on the mediolateral view, while three were not imaged on the craniocaudal view. Twelve percent of the cancers were within 1 cm of the posterior edge of the film. Only six ''interval'' carcinomas were found in the 10,000 patients within the year of the initial examinations; these women had dense P2 or DY mammographic parenchymal patterns. The detected cancers were smaller and had a significantly higher percentage of noninvasive cancers than in a symptomatic clinical population. Thus, properly exposed film mammograms using vigorous breast compression examine the breast adequately without visualizing the ribs

  5. Multiscale wavelet representations for mammographic feature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Andrew F.; Song, Shuwu

    1992-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for accomplishing mammographic feature analysis through multiresolution representations. We show that efficient (nonredundant) representations may be identified from digital mammography and used to enhance specific mammographic features within a continuum of scale space. The multiresolution decomposition of wavelet transforms provides a natural hierarchy in which to embed an interactive paradigm for accomplishing scale space feature analysis. Choosing wavelets (or analyzing functions) that are simultaneously localized in both space and frequency, results in a powerful methodology for image analysis. Multiresolution and orientation selectivity, known biological mechanisms in primate vision, are ingrained in wavelet representations and inspire the techniques presented in this paper. Our approach includes local analysis of complete multiscale representations. Mammograms are reconstructed from wavelet coefficients, enhanced by linear, exponential and constant weight functions localized in scale space. By improving the visualization of breast pathology we can improve the changes of early detection of breast cancers (improve quality) while requiring less time to evaluate mammograms for most patients (lower costs).

  6. Mammographic feature enhancement by multiscale analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, A.F.; Schuler, S.; Fan, J.; Huda, W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for accomplishing mammographic feature analysis by overcomplete multiresolution representations. The authors show that efficient representations may be identified within a continuum of scale-space and used to enhance features of importance to mammography. Methods of contrast enhancement are described based on three overcomplete multiscale representations: (1) the dyadic wavelet transform (separable), (2) the var-phi-transform (nonseparable, nonorthogonal), and (3) the hexagonal wavelet transform (nonseparable). Multiscale edges identified within distinct levels of transform space provide local support for image enhancement. Mammograms are reconstructed from wavelet coefficients modified at one or more levels by local and global nonlinear operators. In each case, edges and gain parameters are identified adaptively by a measure of energy within each level of scale-space. The authors show quantitatively that transform coefficients, modified by adaptive nonlinear operators, can make more obvious unseen or barely seen features of mammography without requiring additional radiation. The results are compared with traditional image enhancement techniques by measuring the local contrast of known mammographic features. The authors demonstrate that features extracted from multiresolution representations can provide an adaptive mechanism for accomplishing local contrast enhancement. By improving the visualization of breast pathology, they can improve chances of early detection while requiring less time to evaluate mammograms for most patients

  7. Contour tracing for segmentation of mammographic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elter, Matthias; Held, Christian; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    CADx systems have the potential to support radiologists in the difficult task of discriminating benign and malignant mammographic lesions. The segmentation of mammographic masses from the background tissue is an important module of CADx systems designed for the characterization of mass lesions. In this work, a novel approach to this task is presented. The segmentation is performed by automatically tracing the mass' contour in-between manually provided landmark points defined on the mass' margin. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to the performance of implementations of three state-of-the-art approaches based on region growing and dynamic programming. For an unbiased comparison of the different segmentation approaches, optimal parameters are selected for each approach by means of tenfold cross-validation and a genetic algorithm. Furthermore, segmentation performance is evaluated on a dataset of ROI and ground-truth pairs. The proposed method outperforms the three state-of-the-art methods. The benchmark dataset will be made available with publication of this paper and will be the first publicly available benchmark dataset for mass segmentation.

  8. A prototype for a mammographic head and related developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Annovazzi, A.; Bigongiari, A.; Bisogni, M.G.; Catarsi, F.; Cesqui, F.; Cetronio, A.; Chianella, M.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M.E.; Galimberti, D.; Lanzieri, C.; Lavanga, S.; Novelli, M.; Passuello, G.; Stefanini, A.; Testa, A.; Venturelli, L

    2004-02-01

    The Integrated Mammographic Imaging (IMI) project aims to realize innovative instrumentations for morphological and functional mammography, in particular, one of the research topics is the design and development of a prototype of a mammographic head. Innovative industrial processes for the production of GaAs pixel detectors and for their bump-bonding to the read-out VLSI electronics have been developed by AMS. The data acquisition and processing have been developed by LABEN; the power supply and distribution system has been realized by CAEN; while the integration of the head in a standard mammograph has been carried on by the Laboratori di Ricerca Gilardoni.

  9. A prototype for a mammographic head and related developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Annovazzi, A.; Bigongiari, A.; Bisogni, M.G.; Catarsi, F.; Cesqui, F.; Cetronio, A.; Chianella, M.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M.E.; Galimberti, D.; Lanzieri, C.; Lavanga, S.; Novelli, M.; Passuello, G.; Stefanini, A.; Testa, A.; Venturelli, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Mammographic Imaging (IMI) project aims to realize innovative instrumentations for morphological and functional mammography, in particular, one of the research topics is the design and development of a prototype of a mammographic head. Innovative industrial processes for the production of GaAs pixel detectors and for their bump-bonding to the read-out VLSI electronics have been developed by AMS. The data acquisition and processing have been developed by LABEN; the power supply and distribution system has been realized by CAEN; while the integration of the head in a standard mammograph has been carried on by the Laboratori di Ricerca Gilardoni

  10. Anthropometric parameters: weight height, body mass index and mammary volume in relationship with the mammographic pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Candela, V.; Busto, C.; Avila, R.; Marrero, M. G.; Liminana, J. M.; Orengo, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height, weight, body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out. The study was performed in 1.000 women who underwent a mammography in cranial-caudal and medial lateral oblique projection of both breasts, independently of whether they were screened or diagnosed. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume. With the weight, the body mass index of Quetelet was calculated (weight [kg]/height''2 (ml). After reading the mammography, the patient was assigned to one of the four mammographic patterns considered in the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) established by the ACR (American College of Radiology): type I (fat). type II (disperse fibroglandular densities), type III (fibroglandular densities distributed heterogeneously), type 4 (dense). The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8.0 statistical program was applied, using the statistical model of multivariant logistic regression. In women under 40 years, with normal weight, the dense breast pattern accounted for 67.8% and as the body mass index (BMI) increased, this pattern decreased to 25.1%. The fat pattern is 20% and as the BMI increases, this increased to 80%. In 40-60 year old women with normal weight, the dense pattern accounts for 44% and decreases to 20.9% in the grades II, III and IV obese. The fat pattern is 11.1% and increases to 53.7% in the grade II, III and IV obese. In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for 19.3% and and decreases to 13% in the grade III obese. The fat pattern is 5.3% and increases to 20.2% in the grade iii of obesity. As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat image in the

  11. Sclerosing adenosis: mammographic and ultrasonographic findings with clinical and histopathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenhan-Bilgen, Isil; Memis, Aysenur; Uestuen, Esin Emin; Oezdemir, Necmettin; Erhan, Yildiz

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of sclerosing adenosis, a relatively uncommon entity which may sometimes mimic carcinoma. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the records of 33700 women, who have undergone mammographic examination at our institution between January 1985 and July 2001 revealed 43 histopathologically proven sclerosing adenosis. The history, physical examination, mammographic and ultrasonographic findings were analyzed in all patients. In 30 patients, the nonpalpable lesions were preoperatively localized by the needle-hookwire system under the guidance of mammography (n=22) or ultrasonography (US) (n=8). Radiological features were correlated with histopathological findings. Results: The age of the patients varied between 32 and 55 years (mean, 43.7 years). Only two patients had a family history of breast cancer. In six patients, the presenting complaint was mastalgia. A palpable mass was present in 13 cases. The mammographic findings were; microcalcifications in 24 (55.8%) (clustered in 22, diffuse in two), mass in five (11.6%), asymmetric focal density in three (6.9%), and focal architectural distortion in three (6.9%) patients. Four of the masses were irregularly contoured, while one was well-circumscribed. On US, focal acoustic shadowing without a mass configuration was noted in the three patients who showed asymmetrical focal density on mammography. In eight patients, who showed normal mammograms, a solid mass was detected on US. Two masses had discrete well-circumscribed oval or lobulated contours, while six showed microlobulation and irregularity. In one case, the irregularly contoured mass had marked posterior acoustic shadowing. Two of the three patients, who had focal architectural distortion on mammograms, had an irregularly contoured solid mass, while the third presented as focal acoustic shadowing without a mass configuration. Conclusion: Sclerosing adenosis mostly presents as a nonpalpable

  12. A GaAs pixel detectors-based digital mammographic system: Performances and imaging tests results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annovazzi, A.; Amendolia, S.R.; Bigongiari, A.; Bisogni, M.G.; Catarsi, F.; Cesqui, F.; Cetronio, A.; Colombo, F.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M.E.; Gilberti, A.; Lanzieri, C.; Lavagna, S.; Novelli, M.; Passuello, G.; Paternoster, G.; Pieracci, M.; Poletti, M.; Quattrocchi, M.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.; Testa, A.; Venturelli, L.

    2007-01-01

    The prototype presented in this paper is based on GaAs pixel detectors read-out by the PCC/MEDIPIX I circuit. The active area of a sensor is about 1 cm 2 therefore to cover the typical irradiation field used in mammography (18x24 cm 2 ), 18 GaAs detection units have been organized in two staggered rows of nine chips each and moved by a stepper motor in the orthogonal direction. The system is integrated in a mammographic equipment which comprehends the X-ray tube, the bias and data acquisition systems and the PC-based control system. The prototype has been developed in the framework of the Integrated Mammographic Imaging (IMI) project, an industrial research activity aiming to develop innovative instrumentation for morphologic and functional imaging. The project has been supported by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by five Italian High Tech companies, Alenia Marconi Systems (AMS), CAEN, Gilardoni, LABEN and Poli.Hi.Tech., in collaboration with the universities of Ferrara, Roma 'La Sapienza', Pisa and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). In this paper, we report on the electrical characterization and the first imaging test results of the digital mammographic system. To assess the imaging capability of such a detector we have built a phantom, which simulates the breast tissue with malignancies. The radiographs of the phantom, obtained by delivering an entrance dose of 4.8 mGy, have shown particulars with a measured contrast below 1%

  13. A GaAs pixel detectors-based digital mammographic system: Performances and imaging tests results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annovazzi, A.; Amendolia, S. R.; Bigongiari, A.; Bisogni, M. G.; Catarsi, F.; Cesqui, F.; Cetronio, A.; Colombo, F.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M. E.; Gilberti, A.; Lanzieri, C.; Lavagna, S.; Novelli, M.; Passuello, G.; Paternoster, G.; Pieracci, M.; Poletti, M.; Quattrocchi, M.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.; Testa, A.; Venturelli, L.

    2007-06-01

    The prototype presented in this paper is based on GaAs pixel detectors read-out by the PCC/MEDIPIX I circuit. The active area of a sensor is about 1 cm 2 therefore to cover the typical irradiation field used in mammography (18×24 cm 2), 18 GaAs detection units have been organized in two staggered rows of nine chips each and moved by a stepper motor in the orthogonal direction. The system is integrated in a mammographic equipment which comprehends the X-ray tube, the bias and data acquisition systems and the PC-based control system. The prototype has been developed in the framework of the Integrated Mammographic Imaging (IMI) project, an industrial research activity aiming to develop innovative instrumentation for morphologic and functional imaging. The project has been supported by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by five Italian High Tech companies, Alenia Marconi Systems (AMS), CAEN, Gilardoni, LABEN and Poli.Hi.Tech., in collaboration with the universities of Ferrara, Roma "La Sapienza", Pisa and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). In this paper, we report on the electrical characterization and the first imaging test results of the digital mammographic system. To assess the imaging capability of such a detector we have built a phantom, which simulates the breast tissue with malignancies. The radiographs of the phantom, obtained by delivering an entrance dose of 4.8 mGy, have shown particulars with a measured contrast below 1%.

  14. Biologic and Computational Modeling of Mammographic Density and Stromal Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Moderate Mild Micro- nucleoli Rare 2 Clustering Moderate Few Moderate Micro- nucleoli Occasional 3 Loss cohesion Conspicuous Absent Frequent Macro... nucleoli Frequent 4 M asood scores: 6-10 Normal; 11-13 Hyperplasia; 14-15 Atypia; 16-17 High-grade atypia; >17 Suspicious for cancer. 4 We

  15. Biological and Computational Modeling of Mammographic Density and Stromal Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    clumping Score Monolayer Absent Many Absent Absent Absent 1 Nucl. overlap Mild Moderate Mild Micro- nucleoli Rare 2 Clustering Moderate...Few Moderate Micro- nucleoli Occasional 3 Loss cohesion Conspicuous Absent Frequent Macro- nucleoli Frequent 4 We performed serial RPFNA

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of a mammographic test phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R. A.; Dance, D. R.; Pachoud, M.; Carlsson, G. A.; Sandborg, M.; Ullman, G.

    2005-01-01

    A test phantom, including a wide range of mammographic tissue equivalent materials and test details, was imaged on a digital mammographic system. In order to quantify the effect of scatter on the contrast obtained for the test details, calculations of the scatter-to-primary ratio (S/P) have been made using a Monte Carlo simulation of the digital mammographic imaging chain, grid and test phantom. The results show that the S/P values corresponding to the imaging conditions used were in the range 0.084-0.126. Calculated and measured pixel values in different regions of the image were compared as a validation of the model and showed excellent agreement. The results indicate the potential of Monte Carlo methods in the image quality-patient dose process optimisation, especially in the assessment of imaging conditions not available on standard mammographic units. (authors)

  17. The mammographic spectrum of intraductal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, D.M.; Andersson, I.

    1988-01-01

    To analyze the atypical radiographic spectrum of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the authors retrospectively reviewed the mammograms of 190 women who had biopsy-proved DCIS at Malmo General Hospital between January 1976 and March 1988. Of these, 117 (61.6%) showed clustered microcalcifications as the major abnormality, a finding often associated with DCIS. The remaining 73 women (38.4%) had either negative mammograms (30 women) or radiographic findings not usually associated with DCIS (43 women), including circumscribed masses (15 women) and focal conglomerates of prominent ducts and nodules (12 cases). Since treatment of DCIS may cure the disease, the radiologist should learn to recognize the more unusual mammographic manifestations of intraductal carcinoma

  18. Reduction of false-positive recalls using a computerized mammographic image feature analysis scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Maxine; Pu, Jiantao; Zheng, Bin

    2014-08-01

    The high false-positive recall rate is one of the major dilemmas that significantly reduce the efficacy of screening mammography, which harms a large fraction of women and increases healthcare cost. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of helping reduce false-positive recalls by developing a new computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme based on the analysis of global mammographic texture and density features computed from four-view images. Our database includes full-field digital mammography (FFDM) images acquired from 1052 recalled women (669 positive for cancer and 383 benign). Each case has four images: two craniocaudal (CC) and two mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. Our CAD scheme first computed global texture features related to the mammographic density distribution on the segmented breast regions of four images. Second, the computed features were given to two artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers that were separately trained and tested in a ten-fold cross-validation scheme on CC and MLO view images, respectively. Finally, two ANN classification scores were combined using a new adaptive scoring fusion method that automatically determined the optimal weights to assign to both views. CAD performance was tested using the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The AUC = 0.793  ±  0.026 was obtained for this four-view CAD scheme, which was significantly higher at the 5% significance level than the AUCs achieved when using only CC (p = 0.025) or MLO (p = 0.0004) view images, respectively. This study demonstrates that a quantitative assessment of global mammographic image texture and density features could provide useful and/or supplementary information to classify between malignant and benign cases among the recalled cases, which may eventually help reduce the false-positive recall rate in screening mammography.

  19. The Mammographic Head Demonstrator Developed in the Framework of the “IMI” Project:. First Imaging Tests Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we report on the performances and the first imaging test results of a digital mammographic demonstrator based on GaAs pixel detectors. The heart of this prototype is the X-ray detection unit, which is a GaAs pixel sensor read-out by the PCC/MEDIPIXI circuit. Since the active area of the sensor is 1 cm2, 18 detectors have been organized in two staggered rows of nine chips each. To cover the typical mammographic format (18 × 24 cm2) a linear scanning is performed by means of a stepper motor. The system is integrated in mammographic equipment comprehending the X-ray tube, the bias and data acquisition systems and the PC-based control system. The prototype has been developed in the framework of the integrated Mammographic Imaging (IMI) project, an industrial research activity aiming to develop innovative instrumentation for morphologic and functional imaging. The project has been supported by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by five Italian High Tech companies in collaboration with the universities of Ferrara, Roma “La Sapienza”, Pisa and the INFN.

  20. Image quality analysis of digital mammographic equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, P.; Pascual, A.; Verdu, G. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept. (Spain); Rodenas, F. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Applied Mathematical Dept. (Spain); Campayo, J.M. [Valencia Univ. Hospital Clinico, Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica (Spain); Villaescusa, J.I. [Hospital Clinico La Fe, Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica, Valencia (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The image quality assessment of a radiographic phantom image is one of the fundamental points in a complete quality control programme. The good functioning result of all the process must be an image with an appropriate quality to carry out a suitable diagnostic. Nowadays, the digital radiographic equipments are replacing the traditional film-screen equipments and it is necessary to update the parameters to guarantee the quality of the process. Contrast-detail phantoms are applied to digital radiography to study the threshold contrast detail sensitivity at operation conditions of the equipment. The phantom that is studied in this work is C.D.M.A.M. 3.4, which facilitates the evaluation of image contrast and detail resolution. One of the most extended indexes to measure the image quality in an objective way is the Image Quality Figure (I.Q.F.). This parameter is useful to calculate the image quality taking into account the contrast and detail resolution of the image analysed. The contrast-detail curve is useful as a measure of the image quality too, because it is a graphical representation in which the hole thickness and diameter are plotted for each contrast-detail combination detected in the radiographic image of the phantom. It is useful for the comparison of the functioning of different radiographic image systems, for phantom images under the same exposition conditions. The aim of this work is to study the image quality of different images contrast-detail phantom C.D.M.A.M. 3.4, carrying out the automatic detection of the contrast-detail combination and to establish a parameter which characterize in an objective way the mammographic image quality. This is useful to compare images obtained at different digital mammographic equipments to study the functioning of the equipments. (authors)

  1. Image quality analysis of digital mammographic equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, P.; Pascual, A.; Verdu, G.; Rodenas, F.; Campayo, J.M.; Villaescusa, J.I.

    2006-01-01

    The image quality assessment of a radiographic phantom image is one of the fundamental points in a complete quality control programme. The good functioning result of all the process must be an image with an appropriate quality to carry out a suitable diagnostic. Nowadays, the digital radiographic equipments are replacing the traditional film-screen equipments and it is necessary to update the parameters to guarantee the quality of the process. Contrast-detail phantoms are applied to digital radiography to study the threshold contrast detail sensitivity at operation conditions of the equipment. The phantom that is studied in this work is C.D.M.A.M. 3.4, which facilitates the evaluation of image contrast and detail resolution. One of the most extended indexes to measure the image quality in an objective way is the Image Quality Figure (I.Q.F.). This parameter is useful to calculate the image quality taking into account the contrast and detail resolution of the image analysed. The contrast-detail curve is useful as a measure of the image quality too, because it is a graphical representation in which the hole thickness and diameter are plotted for each contrast-detail combination detected in the radiographic image of the phantom. It is useful for the comparison of the functioning of different radiographic image systems, for phantom images under the same exposition conditions. The aim of this work is to study the image quality of different images contrast-detail phantom C.D.M.A.M. 3.4, carrying out the automatic detection of the contrast-detail combination and to establish a parameter which characterize in an objective way the mammographic image quality. This is useful to compare images obtained at different digital mammographic equipments to study the functioning of the equipments. (authors)

  2. Overview of the breast cancer and mammographic status in Asia and in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tokiko

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the top cancer in women both in the most Western and Asian countries. The incidence of the breast cancer is lower in Asia than in the western countries, but, is increasing due to increase life expectancy, increase urbanization and adoption of western life styles. Mammography screening is the only method that has proved to be effective and cost-effective. In Japan, the mammographic breast cancer screening was started in 2004, and quality control has been done by the Japan Central Organization on Quality Assurance of Breast Cancer Screening, which is consisted with nine major societies concerning the breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. The Japanese Society of Radiological Technology and the Japan Society of Medical Physics are the members of this organization and play impotent roles in mammographic quality control. The main activities of this organization are the education for radiological technicians and interpreters and the insurance the mammographic facilities meet radiation dose and image quality standard. I'll introduce the state of the breast cancer and the efforts for breast cancer screening in Asian countries and in Japan

  3. Development of terminology for mammographic techniques for radiological technologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagahara, Ayako; Yokooka, Yuki; Tsuji, Shintaro; Nishimoto, Naoki; Uesugi, Masahito; Muto, Hiroshi; Ohba, Hisateru; Kurowarabi, Kunio; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2011-07-01

    We are developing a mammographic ontology to share knowledge of the mammographic domain for radiologic technologists, with the aim of improving mammographic techniques. As a first step in constructing the ontology, we used mammography reference books to establish mammographic terminology for identifying currently available knowledge. This study proceeded in three steps: (1) determination of the domain and scope of the terminology, (2) lexical extraction, and (3) construction of hierarchical structures. We extracted terms mainly from three reference books and constructed the hierarchical structures manually. We compared features of the terms extracted from the three reference books. We constructed a terminology consisting of 440 subclasses grouped into 19 top-level classes: anatomic entity, image quality factor, findings, material, risk, breast, histological classification of breast tumors, role, foreign body, mammographic technique, physics, purpose of mammography examination, explanation of mammography examination, image development, abbreviation, quality control, equipment, interpretation, and evaluation of clinical imaging. The number of terms that occurred in the subclasses varied depending on which reference book was used. We developed a terminology of mammographic techniques for radiologic technologists consisting of 440 terms.

  4. Combining different views of mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker of breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, S.; Karemore, Gopal; Chernoff, Konstantin

    the subsequent 4 years whereas 245 cases had a diagnosis 2-4 years post mammography. We employed the MTR supervised texture learning framework to perform risk evaluation from a single mammography view. In the framework 20,000 pixels were sampled and classified by a kNN pixel classifier. A feature selection step......PURPOSE Mammographic density is a well established breast cancer risk factor. Texture analysis in terms of the Mammographoc Texture Resemblance (MTR) marker has recently shown to add to risk segregation. Hitherto only single view MTR analysis has been performed. Standard mammography examinations...

  5. Mammographic and sonographic findings of unilateral breast edema in congestive heart failure : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Seung Koo; Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    Unilateral breast edema has many causes, though among these, congestive heart failure is rare. We report mammographic and sonographic findings of unilateral breast edema due to congestive heart failure. Mammography showed diffuse increase density and skin thickening but no evidence of mass or calcification. Ultrasonography showed skin thickening and increased echogenicity in the subcutaneous fat layer, while in the dermal layer, with tubular and reticular anechoic structures suggestive of dilated lymphatics were seen. After treatment of the heart failure, resolution of the abnormalities seen on mammogram established that these were secondary findings.

  6. Mammographic and sonographic findings of unilateral breast edema in congestive heart failure : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Seung Koo; Oh, Ki Keun

    1997-01-01

    Unilateral breast edema has many causes, though among these, congestive heart failure is rare. We report mammographic and sonographic findings of unilateral breast edema due to congestive heart failure. Mammography showed diffuse increase density and skin thickening but no evidence of mass or calcification. Ultrasonography showed skin thickening and increased echogenicity in the subcutaneous fat layer, while in the dermal layer, with tubular and reticular anechoic structures suggestive of dilated lymphatics were seen. After treatment of the heart failure, resolution of the abnormalities seen on mammogram established that these were secondary findings

  7. The relationship between ionospheric temperature, electron density and solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.N.; Williams, P.J.S.

    1980-01-01

    In studying the F-region of the ionosphere several authors have concluded that the difference between the electron temperature Tsub(e) and the ion temperature Tsub(i) is related to the electron density N. It was later noted that solar activity (S) was involved and an empirical relationship of the following form was established: Tsub(e)-Tsub(i) = A-BN+CS. The present paper extends this work using day-time data over a four year period. The results are given and discussed. A modified form of the empirical relation is proposed. (U.K.)

  8. Density diagnostics of ionized outflows in active galacitc nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Kaastra, J.; Mehdipour, M.; Raassen, T.; Gu, L.

    2017-10-01

    Ionized outflows in Active Galactic Nuclei are thought to influence their nuclear and local galactic environment. However, the distance of outflows with respect to the central engine is poorly constrained, which limits our understanding of the kinetic power by the outflows. Therefore, the impact of AGN outflows on their host galaxies is uncertain. Given the density of the outflows, their distance can be immediately obtained by the definition of the ionization parameter. Here we carry out a theoretical study of density diagnostics of AGN outflows using absorption lines from metastable levels in Be-like to F-like ions. With the new self-consistent photoionization model (PION) in the SPEX code, we are able to calculate ground and metastable level populations. This enable us to determine under what physical conditions these levels are significantly populated. We then identify characteristic transitions from these metastable levels in the X-ray band. Firm detections of absorption lines from such metastable levels are challenging for current grating instruments. The next generation of spectrometers like X-IFU onboard Athena will certainly identify the presence/absence of these density- sensitive absorption lines, thus tightly constraining the location and the kinetic power of AGN outflows.

  9. Active zones of mammalian neuromuscular junctions: formation, density, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimune, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    Presynaptic active zones are synaptic vesicle release sites that play essential roles in the function and pathology of mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The molecular mechanisms of active zone organization use presynaptic voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) in NMJs as scaffolding proteins. VDCCs interact extracellularly with the muscle-derived synapse organizer, laminin β2 and interact intracellularly with active zone-specific proteins, such as Bassoon, CAST/Erc2/ELKS2alpha, ELKS, Piccolo, and RIMs. These molecular mechanisms are supported by studies in P/Q- and N-type VDCCs double-knockout mice, and they are consistent with the pathological conditions of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome and Pierson syndrome, which are caused by autoantibodies against VDCCs or by a laminin β2 mutation. During normal postnatal maturation, NMJs maintain the density of active zones, while NMJs triple their size. However, active zones become impaired during aging. Propitiously, muscle exercise ameliorates the active zone impairment in aged NMJs, which suggests the potential for therapeutic strategies. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Sulfurized activated carbon for high energy density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunxia; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Li, Yanwei; Li, Zhimin; Tian, Jianjun; Zhang, Lili; Cao, Guozhong

    2014-04-01

    Sulfurized activated carbon (SAC), made by coating the pore surface with thiophenic sulfur functional groups from the pyrolysis of sulfur flakes, were characterized and tested for supercapacitor applications. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the sulfur content in the SAC was found to be 2.7 at%. Electrochemical properties from potentiostatic and galvanostatic measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to evaluate the effect of sulfur on porous carbon electrodes. The SAC electrode exhibits better conductivity, and an obvious increase in specific capacitance that is almost 40% higher than plain activated carbons (ACs) electrode at a high current density of 1.4 A g-1. The proposed mechanism for improved conductivity and capacitive performance due to the sulfur functional groups on ACs will be discussed.

  11. Manifestation of solar activity in solar wind particle flux density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the origin of long-term variations in flux density of solar wind particles (nv) for different velocity regimes. The study revealed a relationship of these variations to the area of the polar coronal holes (CH). It is shown that within the framework of the model under development, the main longterm variations of nv are a result of the latitude redistribution of the solar wind mass flux in the heliosphere and are due to changes in the large-scale geometry of the solar plasma flow in the corona. A study has been made of the variations of nv for high speed solar wind streams. It is found that nv in high speed streams which are formed in CH, decreases from minimum to maximum solar activity. The analysis indicates that this decrease is attributable to the magnetic field strength increase in coronal holes. It has been found that periods of rapid global changes of background magnetic fields on the Sun are accompanied by a reconfiguration of coronal magnetic fields, rapid changes in the length of quiescent filaments, and by an increase in the density of the particle flux of a high speed solar wind. It has been established that these periods precede the formation of CH, corresponding to the increase in solar wind velocity near the Earth and to enhancement of the level of geomagnetic disturbance. (author)

  12. Automated Volumetric Mammographic Breast Density Measurements May Underestimate Percent Breast Density for High-density Breasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahbar, K.; Gubern Merida, A.; Patrie, J.T.; Harvey, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate discrepancy in breast composition measurements obtained from mammograms using two commercially available software methods for systematic trends in overestimation or underestimation compared to magnetic resonance-derived

  13. Mammographic features and misdiagnosed analysis on 92 cases with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Mingjuan; Zhang Xiaoling; Guo Yan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the atypical X-ray features in breast cancer and improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Methods: Mammographic features of 92 cases with pathologically confirmed breast cancer were analyzed retrospectively. Results: High-density mass with speculated margined, clusters of small calcification, stellate-like lesions were found in 51 cases, the rate of correct diagnosis was 96%-100%. Lobulated high-density mass were found in 17 cases, the correct diagnosis rate was about 88.3% cases with skin thickening were all correctly diagnosed. Round mass, focal parenchymal asymmetry and unidentified lesions were found in 20 cases, the diagnosing rate was less than 20%. Conclusion: Round mass, focal parenchymal asymmetry and unidentified lesions were atypical mammographic features of breast cancer. These lesions were misdiagnosed frequently. It is essential to find the indirect signs and associated finding to avoid misdiagnosis. On the other hand, further ultrasound or MRI were helpful to improve the diagnosis by detecting mass in breast, showing cystic lesions and blood supply. (authors)

  14. Mammographic image restoration using maximum entropy deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannetta, A; Jackson, J C; Kotre, C J; Birch, I P; Robson, K J; Padgett, R

    2004-01-01

    An image restoration approach based on a Bayesian maximum entropy method (MEM) has been applied to a radiological image deconvolution problem, that of reduction of geometric blurring in magnification mammography. The aim of the work is to demonstrate an improvement in image spatial resolution in realistic noisy radiological images with no associated penalty in terms of reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio perceived by the observer. Images of the TORMAM mammographic image quality phantom were recorded using the standard magnification settings of 1.8 magnification/fine focus and also at 1.8 magnification/broad focus and 3.0 magnification/fine focus; the latter two arrangements would normally give rise to unacceptable geometric blurring. Measured point-spread functions were used in conjunction with the MEM image processing to de-blur these images. The results are presented as comparative images of phantom test features and as observer scores for the raw and processed images. Visualization of high resolution features and the total image scores for the test phantom were improved by the application of the MEM processing. It is argued that this successful demonstration of image de-blurring in noisy radiological images offers the possibility of weakening the link between focal spot size and geometric blurring in radiology, thus opening up new approaches to system optimization

  15. Circumscribed breast carcinoma: Mammographic and sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Yul; Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Ke Sook [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Circumscribe breast cancer is a well demarcated mass with or without a lobulated border simulating a benign tumor like fibroadenoma on mammography or breast US and is reported as approximate 10% of the incidence among primary breast carcinoma(1.2). Pathologically medullary, colloid, papillary, intraductal and rarely invasive ductal carcinomas are included in this group which show the less intense desmoplastic reaction than the scirrhous type cancer, resulting in the most favorable prognosis of all carcinoma of the breast. Among 214 primary breast carcinoma during the past 8 years, we experienced 6 case of pathologically proven circumscribed breast cancer(2 cases of medullary carcinoma, 1 of colloid carcinoma, 1 of intracystic papillary carcinoma, 2 of comedo type intraductal carcinoma). Clinically 2 cases showed bloody nipple discharge from one hole of a unilateral nipple orifice. Mammography showed a well circumscribed nodule with or without partial lobular contour and no pathologic calcification. Breast sonographic findings were a well defined heterogeneous hypoechoic nodule with weak posterior acoustic enhancement. Characteristically a thin dilated lactiferous duct between the mass and the nipple on US could be detected in 2 cases which clinically was accompanied by bloody nipple discharge. Although the mammographic criteria is promising as benign tumor, the possibility of circumscribed as benign tumor, the possibility of circumscribed breast carcinoma must be considered in heterogeneous hypoechoic nodule with weak posterior acoustic enhancement in US, especially in the presence of a dilated lactiferous duct between the mass and the nipple with bloody nipple discharge.

  16. Mammographic features and subsequent risk of breast cancer: a comparison of qualitative and quantitative evaluations in the Guernsey prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; De Stavola, Bianca; Allen, Diane S; Pérez-Gavilán, Juan J; Ferreira, Jorge M; Fentiman, Ian S; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel

    2005-05-01

    Mammographic features are known to be associated with breast cancer but the magnitude of the effect differs markedly from study to study. Methods to assess mammographic features range from subjective qualitative classifications to computer-automated quantitative measures. We used data from the UK Guernsey prospective studies to examine the relative value of these methods in predicting breast cancer risk. In all, 3,211 women ages > or =35 years who had a mammogram taken in 1986 to 1989 were followed-up to the end of October 2003, with 111 developing breast cancer during this period. Mammograms were classified using the subjective qualitative Wolfe classification and several quantitative mammographic features measured using computer-based techniques. Breast cancer risk was positively associated with high-grade Wolfe classification, percent breast density and area of dense tissue, and negatively associated with area of lucent tissue, fractal dimension, and lacunarity. Inclusion of the quantitative measures in the same model identified area of dense tissue and lacunarity as the best predictors of breast cancer, with risk increasing by 59% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 29-94%] per SD increase in total area of dense tissue but declining by 39% (95% CI, 53-22%) per SD increase in lacunarity, after adjusting for each other and for other confounders. Comparison of models that included both the qualitative Wolfe classification and these two quantitative measures to models that included either the qualitative or the two quantitative variables showed that they all made significant contributions to prediction of breast cancer risk. These findings indicate that breast cancer risk is affected not only by the amount of mammographic density but also by the degree of heterogeneity of the parenchymal pattern and, presumably, by other features captured by the Wolfe classification.

  17. Fibroadenomas Frequency in uncertain mammographic lesions: Histology Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Uribe, Ana Lucia; Patino Pacheco, Jairo H; Restrepo Mejia, Ana Lucia

    1997-01-01

    Purpose was to determine the frequency of fibroadenomas in non-palpable mammographic lesions, histologically evaluated and describe its radiological characteristics according to the type of mammographic presentation and classification. 60 (8.6%) fibroadenomas were found in 692 biopsies performed. 50% of these were mammographicaly classified as category 3 and 50% in the category 4. 66.6% of them were nodules, 20% isolated calcifications and nodules with calcifications 13.3%. fibroadenomas were 26.4% of nodules in category 3 and 18.8% of them in category 4

  18. Mammographic dose survey in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Leos [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Rada, Jiri [National Radiation Protection Institute, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-01

    At present, it is generally accepted that the average dose to the glandular tissue is the most reasonable dose descriptor in mammography with regard to the risk of breast cancer induced by ionizing radiation. It is advantageous to use the quantity mean glandular dose M.G.D. for setting of diagnostic reference levels (D.R.L.) as well, although the quantity is not directly measurable as it is the case of D.R.L. quantities for other imaging modalities. The reason is that a directly measurable quantity suitable for mammography, incident air kerma Ki, depends a lot on a beam quality. The influence of the beam quality (expressed by tube voltage, half value layer and combination of anode/filter material) is already included in calculation of mean glandular dose. To assess a radiation burden of patients due to mammography at a national level a representative dose survey is needed to carry out. Such a study provides statistically significant dose data for setting of the national diagnostic reference levels. National Radiation Protection Institute is performing the study in the Czech Republic since the year 2005.On a basis of presented data, it could be concluded, that the situation in the Czech Republic with respect to patient doses in mammography is encouraging and that the requirements of European Commission are well fulfilled. However, it is obvious, that the obtained results can not be considered as statistically significant at the moment, because the data were not collected from a representative sample of centers, which should observe a distribution of X-ray unit types, type of a mammographic center (screening/non screening ones) and also a locality of a center. The dose survey still continues to cover the whole Czech Republic with the main task to determine new national diagnostic reference levels and to find out optimized standards for carrying out the examinations with respect to patient doses and image quality. (authors)

  19. A biomechanical model of mammographic compressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J H; Rajagopal, V; Nielsen, P M F; Nash, M P

    2008-02-01

    A number of biomechanical models have been proposed to improve nonrigid registration techniques for multimodal breast image alignment. A deformable breast model may also be useful for overcoming difficulties in interpreting 2D X-ray projections (mammograms) of 3D volumes (breast tissues). If a deformable model could accurately predict the shape changes that breasts undergo during mammography, then the model could serve to localize suspicious masses (visible in mammograms) in the unloaded state, or in any other deformed state required for further investigations (such as biopsy or other medical imaging modalities). In this paper, we present a validation study that was conducted in order to develop a biomechanical model based on the well-established theory of continuum mechanics (finite elasticity theory with contact mechanics) and demonstrate its use for this application. Experimental studies using gel phantoms were conducted to test the accuracy in predicting mammographic-like deformations. The material properties of the gel phantom were estimated using a nonlinear optimization process, which minimized the errors between the experimental and the model-predicted surface data by adjusting the parameter associated with the neo-Hookean constitutive relation. Two compressions (the equivalent of cranio-caudal and medio-lateral mammograms) were performed on the phantom, and the corresponding deformations were recorded using a MRI scanner. Finite element simulations were performed to mimic the experiments using the estimated material properties with appropriate boundary conditions. The simulation results matched the experimental recordings of the deformed phantom, with a sub-millimeter root-mean-square error for each compression state. Having now validated our finite element model of breast compression, the next stage is to apply the model to clinical images.

  20. Mammographic dose survey in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Leos; Rada, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    At present, it is generally accepted that the average dose to the glandular tissue is the most reasonable dose descriptor in mammography with regard to the risk of breast cancer induced by ionizing radiation. It is advantageous to use the quantity mean glandular dose M.G.D. for setting of diagnostic reference levels (D.R.L.) as well, although the quantity is not directly measurable as it is the case of D.R.L. quantities for other imaging modalities. The reason is that a directly measurable quantity suitable for mammography, incident air kerma Ki, depends a lot on a beam quality. The influence of the beam quality (expressed by tube voltage, half value layer and combination of anode/filter material) is already included in calculation of mean glandular dose. To assess a radiation burden of patients due to mammography at a national level a representative dose survey is needed to carry out. Such a study provides statistically significant dose data for setting of the national diagnostic reference levels. National Radiation Protection Institute is performing the study in the Czech Republic since the year 2005.On a basis of presented data, it could be concluded, that the situation in the Czech Republic with respect to patient doses in mammography is encouraging and that the requirements of European Commission are well fulfilled. However, it is obvious, that the obtained results can not be considered as statistically significant at the moment, because the data were not collected from a representative sample of centers, which should observe a distribution of X-ray unit types, type of a mammographic center (screening/non screening ones) and also a locality of a center. The dose survey still continues to cover the whole Czech Republic with the main task to determine new national diagnostic reference levels and to find out optimized standards for carrying out the examinations with respect to patient doses and image quality. (authors)

  1. Early detection of breast cancer: benefits and risks of supplemental breast ultrasound in asymptomatic women with mammographically dense breast tissue. A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nothacker, Monika; Duda, Volker; Hahn, Markus; Warm, Mathias; Degenhardt, Friedrich; Madjar, Helmut; Weinbrenner, Susanne; Albert, Ute-Susann

    2009-01-01

    Mammographic screening alone will miss a certain fraction of malignancies, as evidenced by retrospective reviews of mammograms following a subsequent screening. Mammographic breast density is a marker for increased breast cancer risk and is associated with a higher risk of interval breast cancer, i.e. cancer detected between screening tests. The purpose of this review is to estimate risks and benefits of supplemental breast ultrasound in women with negative mammographic screening with dense breast tissue. A systematic search and review of studies involving mammography and breast ultrasound for screening of breast cancer was conducted. The search was performed for the period 1/2000-8/2008 within the data source of PubMed, DARE, and Cochrane databases. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were determined prospectively, and the Oxford evidence classification system for diagnostic studies was used for evidence level. The parameters biopsy rate, positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy, cancer yield for breast ultrasound alone, and carcinoma detection rate by breast density were extracted or constructed. The systematic search identified no randomized controlled trials or systematic reviews, six cohort studies of intermediate level of evidence (3b) were found. Only two of the studies included adequate follow-up of subjects with negative or benign findings. Supplemental breast ultrasound after negative mammographic screening permitted diagnosis of primarily invasive carcinomas in 0.32% of women in breast density type categories 2-4 of the American College of Radiology (ACR); mean tumor size for those identified was 9.9 mm, 90% with negative lymph node status. Most detected cancers occurred in mammographically dense breast ACR types 3 and 4. Biopsy rates were in the range 2.3%-4.7%, with PPV of 8.4-13.7% for those biopsied due to positive ultrasound, or about one third of the PPV of biopsies due to mammography. Limitations: The study populations included wide age ranges, and

  2. A GaAs pixel detectors-based digital mammographic system: Performances and imaging tests results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annovazzi, A. [LABEN S.p.A., Vimodrone-Milan (Italy); Amendolia, S.R. [Str. Dip. di Matematica e Fisica dell' Universita, Sassari and Sezione I.N.F.N., Pisa (Italy); Bigongiari, A. [CAEN S.p.A., Viareggio-Lucca (Italy); Bisogni, M.G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' dell' Universita and Sezione I.N.F.N., Pisa (Italy); Catarsi, F. [CAEN S.p.A., Viareggio-Lucca (Italy); Cesqui, F. [AMS S.p.A, Rome (Italy); Cetronio, A. [AMS S.p.A, Rome (Italy); Colombo, F. [LABEN S.p.A., Vimodrone-Milan (Italy); Delogu, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' dell' Universita and Sezione I.N.F.N., Pisa (Italy); Fantacci, M.E. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' dell' Universita and Sezione I.N.F.N., Pisa (Italy); Gilberti, A. [LABEN S.p.A., Vimodrone-Milan (Italy); Lanzieri, C. [AMS S.p.A, Rome (Italy); Lavagna, S. [AMS S.p.A, Rome (Italy); Novelli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' dell' Universita and Sezione I.N.F.N., Pisa (Italy); Passuello, G. [CAEN S.p.A., Viareggio-Lucca (Italy); Paternoster, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' dell' Universita and Sezione I.N.F.N., Pisa (Italy); Pieracci, M. [CAEN S.p.A., Viareggio-Lucca (Italy); Poletti, M. [LABEN S.p.A., Vimodrone-Milan (Italy); Quattrocchi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' dell' Universita and Sezione I.N.F.N., Pisa (Italy); Rosso, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' dell' Universita and Sezione I.N.F.N., Pisa (Italy); Stefanini, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' dell' Universita and Sezione I.N.F.N., Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: arnaldo.stefanini@pi.infn.it; Testa, A. [CAEN S.p.A., Viareggio-Lucca (Italy); Venturelli, L. [AMS S.p.A, Rome (Italy)

    2007-06-11

    The prototype presented in this paper is based on GaAs pixel detectors read-out by the PCC/MEDIPIX I circuit. The active area of a sensor is about 1 cm{sup 2} therefore to cover the typical irradiation field used in mammography (18x24 cm{sup 2}), 18 GaAs detection units have been organized in two staggered rows of nine chips each and moved by a stepper motor in the orthogonal direction. The system is integrated in a mammographic equipment which comprehends the X-ray tube, the bias and data acquisition systems and the PC-based control system. The prototype has been developed in the framework of the Integrated Mammographic Imaging (IMI) project, an industrial research activity aiming to develop innovative instrumentation for morphologic and functional imaging. The project has been supported by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by five Italian High Tech companies, Alenia Marconi Systems (AMS), CAEN, Gilardoni, LABEN and Poli.Hi.Tech., in collaboration with the universities of Ferrara, Roma 'La Sapienza', Pisa and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). In this paper, we report on the electrical characterization and the first imaging test results of the digital mammographic system. To assess the imaging capability of such a detector we have built a phantom, which simulates the breast tissue with malignancies. The radiographs of the phantom, obtained by delivering an entrance dose of 4.8 mGy, have shown particulars with a measured contrast below 1%.

  3. False Negative Mammogram of Breast Cancer : Analysis of Mammographic and Sonographic Findings and Correlation with Clinical Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kil Jun; Lee, Ji Yeon; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Seong Ki; Tae, Seok; Shin, Kyoung Ja; Lee, Sang Chun

    1995-01-01

    Recent mammographic equipment have been of good quality and yielded high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of breast cancer. However, negative mammogram does not necessarily rule out breast cancer. Therefore were viewed cause of false negative mammography in confirmed breast cancer to improve diagnostic accuracy and for adequate clinical approach. We reviewed 19 cases of confirmed breast cancer, which showed false negative mammography with positive sonographic findings. Retrospective analysis was done by correlating the patient's age, sonographic finding and mass size, mammographic breast pattern and cause of false negative mammogram, and clinical symptoms. Among the 5 patients below 35 years in age, mass was not visible due to dense breast in 4 and due to small size in 1 case. In 14 patients over 35 years in age, 11 had normal mammographic findings, 4 had dense breast, and 7 had small sized mass. Remaining 3 cases showed asymmetric density in 2 and architecture distortion in 1 case. All showed mass lesion in sonography : ill defined malignant appearance in 14,well defined malignant appearance in 2, and well defined benign in 3 cases. Negative mammogram should be correlated with sonography in case of dense breast, below 35 years in age with palpable mass and under risk for breast cancer

  4. Computer-aided detection of breast carcinoma in standard mammographic projections with digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destounis, Stamatia [Elizabeth Wende Breast Care, LLC, Rochester, NY (United States); University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Hanson, Sarah; Morgan, Renee; Murphy, Philip; Somerville, Patricia; Seifert, Posy; Andolina, Valerie; Arieno, Andrea; Skolny, Melissa; Logan-Young, Wende [Elizabeth Wende Breast Care, LLC, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2009-06-15

    A retrospective evaluation of the ability of computer-aided detection (CAD) ability to identify breast carcinoma in standard mammographic projections. Forty-five biopsy proven lesions in 44 patients imaged digitally with CAD applied at examination were reviewed. Forty-four screening BIRADS {sup registered} category 1 digital mammography examinations were randomly identified to serve as a comparative normal/control population. Data included patient age; BIRADS {sup registered} breast density; lesion type, size, and visibility; number, type, and location of CAD marks per image; CAD ability to mark lesions; needle core and surgical pathologic correlation. The CAD lesion/case sensitivity of 87% (n=39), image sensitivity of 69% (n=31) for mediolateral oblique view and 78% (n=35) for the craniocaudal view was found. The average false positive rate in 44 normal screening cases was 2.0 (range 1-8). The 2.0 figure is based on 88 reported false positive CAD marks in 44 normal screening exams: 98% (n=44) lesions proceeded to excision; initial pathology upgraded at surgical excision from in situ to invasive disease in 24% (n=9) lesions. CAD demonstrated potential to detect mammographically visible cancers in standard projections for all lesion types. (orig.)

  5. Smoking and high-risk mammographic parenchymal patterns: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, Evis; Warren, Ruth; McCann, Jenny; Duffy, Stephen; Luben, Robert; Day, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    leaner than controls. A larger percentage of cases were nulliparous, premenopausal, current hormone replacement therapy users, had a personal history of benign breast diseases, and had had a hysterectomy. A larger proportion of controls had more than three births and were current smokers. Table 2 shows the unadjusted and adjusted OR estimates for Wolfe's high-risk mammographic parenchymal patterns and smoking in the total study population and in postmenopausal women separately. Current smoking was strongly and inversely associated with high-risk patterns, after adjustment for concomitant risk factors. Relative to never smokers, current smokers were significantly less likely to have a high-risk pattern (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.94). Similar results were obtained when the analysis was confined to postmenopausal women. Past smoking was not related to mammographic parenchymal patterns. The overall effect in postmenopausal women lost its significance when adjusted for other risk factors for P2/DY patterns that were found to be significant in the present study, although the results were still strongly suggestive. There was no interaction between cigarette smoking and body mass index. In the present study we found a strong inverse relationship between current smoking and high-risk mammographic parenchymal patterns of breast tissue as classified by Wolfe [12]. These findings are not completely unprecedented; Greendale et al [18] found a reduced risk of breast density in association with smoking, although the magnitude of the reduction was unclear. The present findings suggest that this reduction is large. Recent studies [9,10] have suggested that breast cancer risk may be reduced among current smokers. In a multicentre Italian case-control study, Braga et al [10] found that, relative to nonsmokers, current smokers had a reduced risk of breast cancer (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.7-1.0). These findings were recently supported by Gammon et al [9], who reported that breast cancer risk in

  6. Mammographic profiles of women with symptomatic breast diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This was a prospective descriptive analytical study of women with symptomatic breast diseases who had mammography between January 2012 and December 2016 at our health facilities. Data sheet was developed to record the patients' biodata, indication for referral, and mammographic findings. Results: During ...

  7. Mammographic and sonographic spectrum of non-puerperal mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Lequin (Maarten); J. van Spengler (J.); R. van Pel; C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); H. van Overhagen (H.)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe goal of this study was to explore possible specific mammographic and sonographic features in women with non-puerperal mastitis (NPM), in order to make an accurate diagnosis and prevent unnecessary surgical procedures. From a group of 93 patients with NPM diagnosed between 1987 and

  8. Mammographic classification of breast lesions amongst women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study was to classify lesions identified on mammograms using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) grading method. This was in view of ascertaining the rate of occurrence of breast malignancy of the studied population. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 416 mammographic reports of ...

  9. Mucinous carcinoma of the breast: mammographic features with histologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Chunyan; Zhang Ling; Wu Yaopan; Li Shuqin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To correlate the mammographic findings of mucinous carcinoma with histologic features. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the mammographic and pathologic findings of 37 patients with mucinous carcinomas of the breasts was performed. Results: Mammograms of ten (52.6%) women with mucinous carcinomas showed masses with well-defined, lobu-lated margins correlating well with the pure histologic type. Thirteen (81.3%) mixed type of mucinous carcinomas demonstrated poorly defined or spiculated margins (P<0.05). Most of the pure type carcinomas were hyperdense similar to most of mixed type carcinomas (P<0.05). Of 34 mucinous carcinomas tested, there were 25 ER-positive, 29 PR-positive, 24 C-erbB-2 negative expressions with pure type carcinomas accounting for 78.9%, 89.5% and 78.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The mammographic features of pure type are different from those of mixed type of mucinous breast carcinomas. The most common mammographic appearance of pure mucinous carcinoma is a well-defined mass without calcification whereas the mixed type carcinomas have more aggressive imaging characteristics. (authors)

  10. Mammographic CAD: Correlation of regions in ipsilateral views – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Radiologists analyse both standard mammographic views of a breast to confirm the presence of abnormalities and reduce false-positives. However, at present, no computer-aided diagnosis system uses ipsilateral mammograms to confirm the presence of suspicious features. Aim. The aim of this study was to ...

  11. Mammographer personality traits – elements of the optimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-07

    Nov 7, 2014 ... competency, good communication skills and the ability to limit patient anxiety and ... personality traits in mammographers in order of importance .... 1 (trust) is high, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.911 and inter- item reliability ...

  12. Controlled exstirpation of clinically occult but mammographically suspicious findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse-Vorholt, R

    1981-03-01

    Breast-volume, size and mammographical findings near the chest wall have a great influence on the excision for histological examination. The excision should be done as an controled excision by preoperative marking with a mixture of blue colour and contrast-medium followed by an intraoperative radiography of the exstirpated tissue. We reached in 30 cases a sure excision without any postoperative complications.

  13. Overdiagnosis in mammographic screening for breast cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puliti, Donella; Duffy, Stephen W; Miccinesi, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Overdiagnosis, the detection through screening of a breast cancer that would never have been identified in the lifetime of the woman, is an adverse outcome of screening. We aimed to determine an estimate range for overdiagnosis of breast cancer in European mammographic service screening programmes....

  14. COMBINED MAMMOGRAPHIC AND SONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF PALPABLE BREAST MASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Mathur

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast diseases are common in females. In developing countries like India, females are unaware of breast pathologies hence they are detected usually in advanced stages. We have studied 100 patients of palpable breast masses presenting to our department and evaluate the role of combined mammographic and sonographic imaging in patients with palpable abnormalities of the breast, which help in decision making by clinician as to lesion go for biopsy or follow up. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted at Department of Radiodiagnosis J. L.N. Medical College & Associated Groups of Hospitals, Ajmer. We included women equal to or more than 30 years referred to this centre with palpable abnormalities of breast during a period from March 2015 to August 2016. All these women underwent a combined mammographic and sonographic evaluation of breast. RESULTS 50 (50% of the 100 palpable abnormalities had benign assessment, 30 (60% of the benign lesions were visible both on mammography and sonography; 18 (36% of the 50 benign lesions were mammographically occult and identified at sonographic evaluation. 2 lesion was sonographically occult (4% and visualized on mammography. In 14 (14% of the 100 cases, imaging evaluation resulted in a suspicious assessment and all these lesions underwent biopsy and 4 were diagnosed as having malignancy. 36(36% of the 100 palpable abnormalities had negative imaging assessment finding: of these 14 patients underwent biopsy and all had benign findings. The sensitivity and negative predictive value for combined mammographic and sonographic assessment were 100%; the specificity was 78.26%. CONCLUSION Combined use of mammography and sonography plays an important role in the management of palpable breast lesions. It characterizes the palpable mass lesion, avoids unnecessary interventions in which imaging findings are unequivocally benign. Negative findings on combined mammographic and sonographic imaging have very high

  15. Characterization of mammographic masses based on level set segmentation with new image features and patient information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jiazheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan Heangping; Ge Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Helvie, Mark A.; Nees, Alexis; Wu Yita; Wei Jun; Zhou Chuan; Zhang Yiheng; Cui Jing

    2008-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for characterization of mammographic masses as malignant or benign has the potential to assist radiologists in reducing the biopsy rate without increasing false negatives. The purpose of this study was to develop an automated method for mammographic mass segmentation and explore new image based features in combination with patient information in order to improve the performance of mass characterization. The authors' previous CAD system, which used the active contour segmentation, and morphological, textural, and spiculation features, has achieved promising results in mass characterization. The new CAD system is based on the level set method and includes two new types of image features related to the presence of microcalcifications with the mass and abruptness of the mass margin, and patient age. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier with stepwise feature selection was used to merge the extracted features into a classification score. The classification accuracy was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The authors' primary data set consisted of 427 biopsy-proven masses (200 malignant and 227 benign) in 909 regions of interest (ROIs) (451 malignant and 458 benign) from multiple mammographic views. Leave-one-case-out resampling was used for training and testing. The new CAD system based on the level set segmentation and the new mammographic feature space achieved a view-based A z value of 0.83±0.01. The improvement compared to the previous CAD system was statistically significant (p=0.02). When patient age was included in the new CAD system, view-based and case-based A z values were 0.85±0.01 and 0.87±0.02, respectively. The study also demonstrated the consistency of the newly developed CAD system by evaluating the statistics of the weights of the LDA classifiers in leave-one-case-out classification. Finally, an independent test on the publicly available digital database for screening

  16. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon-Hor Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature.

  17. Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity of Platinum Thin Films with Different Densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergul, Busra; Begum, Mahbuba; Kariuki, Nancy; Myers, Deborah J.; Karabacak, Tansel

    2017-08-24

    Platinum thin films with different densities were grown on glassy carbon electrodes by high pressure sputtering deposition and evaluated as oxygen reduction reaction catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells using cyclic voltammetry and rotating disk electrode techniques in aqueous perchloric acid electrolyte. The electrochemically active surface area, ORR mass activity (MA) and specific activity (SA) of the thin film electrodes were obtained. MA and SA were found to be higher for low-density films than for high-density film.

  18. Antioxidant activity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HDL is a potent antioxidant in terms of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, ROS production and LDL oxidation. These may to some extent add to the antiatherogenic beyond reverse-cholesterol transport properties of HDL. Keywords: high-density lipoprotein; reverse cholesterol transport; apolipoprotein A1; antioxidant; in vitro.

  19. Mammographic manifestations of mammary hamartoma (with an analysis of 10 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Cheng; Luo Zebin; Chen Yun; Lin Wenmiao; Diao Shenglin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the mammographic characteristics and the pathological basis of mammary hamartoma. Methods: The mammogram of 10 cases of mammary hamartoma proved by pathology were retrospectively analyzed. The patients aged from 25 to 56 years with an average age of (40.1 ± 5.4 years ). Results: According to the fat/parenchyma ratio, the mammgraphic manifestations of mammary hamartoma were divided into three types. 2 highly radiolucent lesions were classified as fat type, 2 lesions with high density were classified as dense type and the rest 6 lesions were the mixed type composed of adipose and glandular tissue. The mixed type was the most distinctive, while the dense or rat type was easy to be misdiagnosed. Accurate diagnosis was made in 6 cases out of, and the overall diagnostic accuracy was 60%. Conclusion: Mammography is the choice of diagnosis, and an accurate diagnosis will help surgical planning. (authors)

  20. Occult inflammatory breast cancer: review of clinical, mammographic, US and pathologic signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumo, Francesca; Gaioni, Maria Berenice; Bonetti, Franco; Manfrin, Erminia; Remo, Andrea; Pattaro, Christian; Policlinico G.B. Rossi, Verona

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the clinical, radiologic and pathologic findings of occult inflammatory breast cancer (OIBC) in order to identify features useful for diagnosis. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 19 women with OIBC observed at our Department between 1992 and 2001. We analysed the clinical history, mammographic, ultrasonographic, and pathologic findings and investigated overall survival (OS), prognostic variables and radio-pathologic correlations. Results: The most common mammographic findings were: diffusely density (52.63%), trabecular thickening (42.1%), mass (36.84%). The most common US findings were axillary lymphadenopathy (68,75%), skin thickening (43.75%) and mass (56.25%). At least one inflammatory sign was found in 14 women (74%) at mammography (subcutaneous thickening, trabecular thickening, diffuse increase of density) or at US (subcutaneous thickening, diffuse increase in echogenicity due to oedema, lymph vessel dilatation). Estrogen receptors (ER) were present in 63.2% and Progesterone receptors (PgR) in 36.8%. Significant prognostic variables were ER and Ki 67. Conclusions: The typical radiological pattern of clinical inflammatory breast carcinoma is less frequently present in OIBC; nevertheless the radiologist must pay attention because frequently OIBC presents just one radiological sign and this should be enough for a diagnostic suspicion. Moreover, the absence of clinical and radiological inflammatory signs does not exclude inflammatory breasts cancer because OIBC can manifest at imaging as a mass or isolated calcification. ER and PgR are positive in a high percentage of patients and confirm that OIBC has a better prognosis that clinical inflammatory breast cancer [it

  1. Body mass index and participation in organized mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, Sophie Sell; Njor, Sisse Helle; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women, and early diagnosis is essential for future prognosis. Evidence from mainly cross-sectional US studies with self-reported exposure and outcome found positive association of body mass index (BMI) with non-participation in mammographic...... with normal weight. This association was limited to postmenopausal women (Wald test p = 0.08), with enhanced non-participation in underweight (2.83: 1.52-5.27) and obese women of class II and III (1.84: 1.15-2.95; 2.47: 1.20-5.06) as compared to normal weight postmenopausal women. There was no effect...... modification by HT, previous screening participation, or morbidities, besides suggestive evidence of enhanced non-participation in diabetic overweight and obese women. CONCLUSIONS: Underweight and very obese postmenopausal women were significantly less likely to participate in mammographic screening than women...

  2. Mammographic and sonographic features of fat necrosis of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, Vidya S; Uppoor, Raghuraj; Shetty, Lathika

    2013-01-01

    Imaging features of fat necrosis vary depending on its stage of evolution and can mimic malignancy in late stages. Imaging may suffice to differentiate fat necrosis in the early stages from malignancy and thus avoid unnecessary biopsy. In this pictorial essay, we present combination of benign features in mammography and/or ultrasonography (USG) that can lead to imaging diagnosis of fat necrosis. The follow-up imaging features of fat necrosis which mirror its pathophysiological evolution have also been demonstrated. To summarize, in the appropriate clinical setting, no mammographic features suspicious for malignancy should be present. When the typical mammographic features are not present, USG can aid with the diagnosis and follow up USG can confirm it

  3. Improved mammographic interpretation of masses using computer-aided diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leichter, I.; Fields, S.; Novak, B.; Nirel, R.; Bamberger, P.; Lederman, R.; Buchbinder, S.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of computerized image enhancement, to investigate criteria for discriminating benign from malignant mammographic findings by computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), and to test the role of quantitative analysis in improving the accuracy of interpretation of mass lesions. Forty sequential mammographically detected mass lesions referred for biopsy were digitized at high resolution for computerized evaluation. A prototype CAD system which included image enhancement algorithms was used for a better visualization of the lesions. Quantitative features which characterize the spiculation were automatically extracted by the CAD system for a user-defined region of interest (ROI). Reference ranges for malignant and benign cases were acquired from data generated by 214 known retrospective cases. The extracted parameters together with the reference ranges were presented to the radiologist for the analysis of 40 prospective cases. A pattern recognition scheme based on discriminant analysis was trained on the 214 retrospective cases, and applied to the prospective cases. Accuracy of interpretation with and without the CAD system, as well as the performance of the pattern recognition scheme, were analyzed using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. A significant difference (p z ) increased significantly (p z for the results of the pattern recognition scheme was higher (0.95). The results indicate that there is an improved accuracy of diagnosis with the use of the mammographic CAD system above that of the unassisted radiologist. Our findings suggest that objective quantitative features extracted from digitized mammographic findings may help in differentiating between benign and malignant masses, and can assist the radiologist in the interpretation of mass lesions. (orig.)

  4. Mammographic screening practices among Chinese-Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Cannas; Fethney, Judith; White, Kate

    2012-03-01

    To report mammographic screening practice among Chinese-Australian women, and to examine the relationship between demographic characteristics, acculturation factors (English proficiency and length of stay in Australia), cultural beliefs, and having a mammogram as recommended. Cross-sectional and descriptive. The study was conducted in 2009 in Sydney, Australia. Of 988 Chinese-Australian women over 18 years of age invited to participate in the study, 785 (79%) completed and returned the questionnaire. Of these women, 320 (40.8%) were in the target age range of 50 to 69 years. The Chinese Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (CBCSB) was used as a data collection instrument. Analysis included descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis using chi-square and t tests, and logistic regression. Of the 320 women in the targeted age range of 50 to 69 years, 238 (74.4%) had a mammogram as recommended biannually. Being married-de facto, in the 60 to 69 age group, and speaking Cantonese at home were positively associated with women's mammographic screening practice. However, no statistically significant differences in acculturation factors and having a mammogram as recommended were found. In terms of CBCSB score, women who had mammograms as recommended had more positive attitudes toward health checkups and perceived fewer barriers to mammographic screening. Effort should be focused on specific subgroups of Chinese-Australian women in order to fully understand the barriers involved in participating in mammographic screening. Nurses can use the findings from the present study to design culturally sensitive breast cancer screening programs to encourage women's participation in mammography. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Identification of simulated microcalcifications in white noise and mammographic backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, Ingrid; Nishikawa, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    This work investigates human performance in discriminating between differently shaped simulated microcalcifications embedded in white noise or mammographic backgrounds. Human performance was determined through two alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) experiments. The signals used were computer-generated simple shapes that were designed such that they had equal signal energy. This assured equal detectability. For experiments involving mammographic backgrounds, signals were blurred to account for the imaging system modulation transfer function (MTF). White noise backgrounds were computer generated; anatomic background patches were extracted from normal mammograms. We compared human performance levels as a function of signal energy in the expected difference template. In the discrimination task, the expected difference template is the difference between the two signals shown. In white noise backgrounds, human performance in the discrimination task was degraded compared to the detection task. In mammographic backgrounds, human performance in the discrimination task exceeded that of the detection task. This indicates that human observers do not follow the optimum decision strategy of correlating the expected signal template with the image. Human observer performance was qualitatively reproduced by non-prewhitening with eye filter (NPWE) model observer calculations, in which spatial uncertainty was explicitly included by shifting the locations of the expected difference templates. The results indicate that human strategy in the discrimination task may be to match individual signal templates with the image individually, rather than to perform template matching between the expected difference template and the image

  6. Invasive ductal carcinoma vs. invasive lobular carcinoma; mammographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Chun; Do, Young Soo; Oh, Hoon Il; Han, Yoon Hee; Kim, Ki Soo; Chin, Soo Yil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate mammographic findings of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma(ILC) and to find differential points between the two. 239 patients, who underwent mammography prior to surgery and were proved to have IDC(patients) or ILC(15 patients) pathologically, were analized retrospectively. On mammogram, presence of mass and microcalcification were analized. When there was a mass on mammogram, lesion opacity was classified into high, equal, or low opacity and border of the mass was classified into spiculated, poorly marginated, and well-marginated. When there was no definite mass, mammographic findings were classifie into asymmetric opacity and no mass. Masses were observed in 168 patients(75%) of IDC and 12 patients(80%) of ILC. Border of the masses were spiculated(n=50, 22.3%), poorly marginated(n=112, 50%), or well-marginated(n=6, 2.7%) in patients with IDC. Spiculated and poorly marginated borders were observed in 8 patients(53.3%) and 4 patients(26.7%) respectively, in patients with ILC. Microcalcifications were seen in 88 patients(17.3%) of IDC and patients(33.3%) of ILC. Although equal or low opacities were observed more frequently in ILC and microcalcifications were noted more frequently in IDC, it was difficult to differentiate the two diseases based on mammographic findings.

  7. Invasive ductal carcinoma vs. invasive lobular carcinoma; mammographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Chun; Do, Young Soo; Oh, Hoon Il; Han, Yoon Hee; Kim, Ki Soo; Chin, Soo Yil

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate mammographic findings of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma(ILC) and to find differential points between the two. 239 patients, who underwent mammography prior to surgery and were proved to have IDC(patients) or ILC(15 patients) pathologically, were analized retrospectively. On mammogram, presence of mass and microcalcification were analized. When there was a mass on mammogram, lesion opacity was classified into high, equal, or low opacity and border of the mass was classified into spiculated, poorly marginated, and well-marginated. When there was no definite mass, mammographic findings were classifie into asymmetric opacity and no mass. Masses were observed in 168 patients(75%) of IDC and 12 patients(80%) of ILC. Border of the masses were spiculated(n=50, 22.3%), poorly marginated(n=112, 50%), or well-marginated(n=6, 2.7%) in patients with IDC. Spiculated and poorly marginated borders were observed in 8 patients(53.3%) and 4 patients(26.7%) respectively, in patients with ILC. Microcalcifications were seen in 88 patients(17.3%) of IDC and patients(33.3%) of ILC. Although equal or low opacities were observed more frequently in ILC and microcalcifications were noted more frequently in IDC, it was difficult to differentiate the two diseases based on mammographic findings

  8. Electrocatalytic Activity and Selectivity - a Density Functional Theory Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamad, Mohammadreza

    -catalysts towards two appealing electrochemical reactions: 1)electroreduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons and alcohols, and 2) electrochemical production of hydrogen peroxide, i.e. H2O2, from its elements i.e. H2 and O2. The thesis is divided into three parts: In the first part, electro-catalytic activity of different...... metallic and functionalized graphene catalysts. Secondly, we considered CO2 reduction on RuO2, which has a distinctive catalytic activity and selectivity compared to Cu to get insight into mechanistic pathway of the CO2 reduction. Finally, in the last part, we have taken advantage of the isolated active...

  9. Fibrocystic change in breast; mammographic and ultrasonographic findings in lower risk lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Jung, Kyung Jae; Noh, In Gye

    1996-01-01

    We performed this study to define the characteristic mammographic and ultrasonographic findings in lower risk lesions of fibrocystic change and also tried to evaluate the role of both modalities in planning the treatment of these lesions. We retrospectively reviewed 38 cases of mammography and 46 cases of ultrasonography in biopsy proven 55 cases of fibrocystic change, histologically showing the nonproliferative pattern or proliferative pattern without atypia. We analyzed the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings, final assessments, and compared the effectiveness of each modality. On mammography, there were no abnormatlities in 20 cases(53%), nodules or masses in 9 cases(24%), microcalcifications in 6 cases(16%) and asymmetric density in 5 cases(14%). On ultrasonography, there were 40 cases(87%) of focal sonographic abnormality and no abnormality in 6 cases(13%). Most focal sonographic abnormalities were smooth(40 cases, 93%), well-defined(21 cases, 49%) or ill-defined(22 cases, 51%) round or oval(36 cases, 84%) shaped, homogeneous(31 cases, 67%), hypoechoic(30 cases, 65%) lesions. Final assessment revealed that only 7 cases(18%) of mammography and 8 cases(18%) of ultrasound examinations were included into the category of indeterminate and malignancy groups which were recommended biopsy. Mammography was excellent to demonstrate the microcalcifications and ultrasonography was effective in depiction of the focal lesions. The mammography and ultrasonography findings were not specific in diagnosing lower risk group of fibrocystic change. But complementary study of both modalities in conjunction with clinical findings will be helpful in making decision among biopsy, fine needle aspiration, and simple close follow up of the lesions

  10. Fibrocystic change in breast; mammographic and ultrasonographic findings in lower risk lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Jung, Kyung Jae; Noh, In Gye [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    We performed this study to define the characteristic mammographic and ultrasonographic findings in lower risk lesions of fibrocystic change and also tried to evaluate the role of both modalities in planning the treatment of these lesions. We retrospectively reviewed 38 cases of mammography and 46 cases of ultrasonography in biopsy proven 55 cases of fibrocystic change, histologically showing the nonproliferative pattern or proliferative pattern without atypia. We analyzed the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings, final assessments, and compared the effectiveness of each modality. On mammography, there were no abnormatlities in 20 cases(53%), nodules or masses in 9 cases(24%), microcalcifications in 6 cases(16%) and asymmetric density in 5 cases(14%). On ultrasonography, there were 40 cases(87%) of focal sonographic abnormality and no abnormality in 6 cases(13%). Most focal sonographic abnormalities were smooth(40 cases, 93%), well-defined(21 cases, 49%) or ill-defined(22 cases, 51%) round or oval(36 cases, 84%) shaped, homogeneous(31 cases, 67%), hypoechoic(30 cases, 65%) lesions. Final assessment revealed that only 7 cases(18%) of mammography and 8 cases(18%) of ultrasound examinations were included into the category of indeterminate and malignancy groups which were recommended biopsy. Mammography was excellent to demonstrate the microcalcifications and ultrasonography was effective in depiction of the focal lesions. The mammography and ultrasonography findings were not specific in diagnosing lower risk group of fibrocystic change. But complementary study of both modalities in conjunction with clinical findings will be helpful in making decision among biopsy, fine needle aspiration, and simple close follow up of the lesions.

  11. False-positive results in mammographic screening for breast cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofvind, Solveig; Ponti, Antonio; Patnick, Julietta

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening result in European mammographic screening programmes, and examine the rates and procedures of further assessment.......To estimate the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening result in European mammographic screening programmes, and examine the rates and procedures of further assessment....

  12. The impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeders, Mireille; Moss, Sue; Nyström, Lennarth

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of population-based mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality in Europe, considering different methodologies and limitations of the data.......To assess the impact of population-based mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality in Europe, considering different methodologies and limitations of the data....

  13. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and mammographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, L; Meggiorini, M L; Nofroni, I; Pala, A; De Felice, C; Meloni, P; Simari, T; Izzo, S; Pugliese, F; Impara, L; Merlini, G; Di Cello, P; Cipolla, V; Forcione, A R; Paliotta, A; Domenici, L; Bolognese, A

    2012-05-01

    The IGF system has recently been shown to play an important role in the regulation of breast tumor cell proliferation. However, also breast density is currently considered as the strongest breast cancer risk factor. It is not yet clear whether these factors are interrelated and if and how they are influenced by menopausal status. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible effects of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio on mammographic density stratified by menopausal status. A group of 341 Italian women were interviewed to collect the following data: family history of breast cancer, reproductive and menstrual factors, breast biopsies, previous administration of hormonal contraceptive therapy, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in menopause and lifestyle information. A blood sample was drawn for determination of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 levels. IGF-1/ IGFBP-3 molar ratio was then calculated. On the basis of recent mammograms the women were divided into two groups: dense breast (DB) and non-dense breast (NDB). Student's t-test was employed to assess the association between breast density and plasma level of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and molar ratio. To assess if this relationship was similar in subgroups of pre- and postmenopausal women, the study population was stratified by menopausal status and Student's t-test was performed. Finally, multivariate analysis was employed to evaluate if there were confounding factors that might influence the relationship between growth factors and breast density. The analysis of the relationship between mammographic density and plasma level of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/ IGFBP-3 molar ratio showed that IGF-1 levels and molar ratio varied in the two groups resulting in higher mean values in the DB group (IGF-1: 109.6 versus 96.6 ng/ml; p= 0.001 and molar ratio 29.4 versus 25.5 ng/ml; p= 0.001) whereas IGFBP-3 showed similar values in both groups (DB and NDB). Analysis of plasma level of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio

  14. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Use of density gradient centrifugation, magnetically activated cell sorting and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagnoli, C; Multhaupt, H A; Ludomirski, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a noninvasive method suitable for clinical prenatal diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Fetal nucleated erythrocytes were separated from peripheral blood of 17 healthy pregnant women using small magnetically activated cell sorting columns (MiniMACS) following density gradient centrifug...

  15. Stratification of mammographic computerized analysis by BI-RADS categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederman, Richard [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Kerem, Jerusalem (Israel); Leichter, Isaac [Department of Electro-Optics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Buchbinder, Shalom [Department of Radiology of The Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Novak, Boris [Department of Applied Mathematics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem 91160 (Israel); Bamberger, Philippe [Department of Electronics, Jerusalem College of Technology, POB 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Fields, Scott [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2003-02-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was implemented to standardize characterization of mammographic findings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in which BI-RADS categories the changes recommended by computerized mammographic analysis are most beneficial. Archival cases including, 170 masses (101 malignant, 69 benign) and 63 clusters of microcalcifications (MCs; 36 malignant, 27 benign), were evaluated retrospectively, using the BI-RADS categories, by several radiologists, blinded to the pathology results. A computerized system then automatically extracted from the digitized mammogram features characterizing mammographic lesions, which were used to classify the lesions. The results of the computerized classification scheme were compared, by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, to the conventional interpretation. In the ''low probability of malignancy group'' (excluding BI-RADS categories 4 and 5), computerized analysis improved the A{sub z}of the ROC curve significantly, from 0.57 to 0.89. In the ''high probability of malignancy group'' (mostly category 5) the computerized analysis yielded an ROC curve with an A {sub z}of 0.99. In the ''intermediate probability of malignancy group'' computerized analysis improved the A {sub z}significantly, from 0.66 for to 0.83. Pair-wise analysis showed that in the latter group the modifications resulting from computerized analysis were correct in 83% of cases. Computerized analysis has the ability to improve the performance of the radiologists exactly in the BI-RADS categories with the greatest difficulties in arriving at a correct diagnosis. It increased the performance significantly in the problematic group of ''intermediate probability of malignancy'' and pinpointed all the cases with missed cancers in the ''low probability'' group. (orig.)

  16. Stratification of mammographic computerized analysis by BI-RADS categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, Richard; Leichter, Isaac; Buchbinder, Shalom; Novak, Boris; Bamberger, Philippe; Fields, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was implemented to standardize characterization of mammographic findings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in which BI-RADS categories the changes recommended by computerized mammographic analysis are most beneficial. Archival cases including, 170 masses (101 malignant, 69 benign) and 63 clusters of microcalcifications (MCs; 36 malignant, 27 benign), were evaluated retrospectively, using the BI-RADS categories, by several radiologists, blinded to the pathology results. A computerized system then automatically extracted from the digitized mammogram features characterizing mammographic lesions, which were used to classify the lesions. The results of the computerized classification scheme were compared, by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, to the conventional interpretation. In the ''low probability of malignancy group'' (excluding BI-RADS categories 4 and 5), computerized analysis improved the A z of the ROC curve significantly, from 0.57 to 0.89. In the ''high probability of malignancy group'' (mostly category 5) the computerized analysis yielded an ROC curve with an A z of 0.99. In the ''intermediate probability of malignancy group'' computerized analysis improved the A z significantly, from 0.66 for to 0.83. Pair-wise analysis showed that in the latter group the modifications resulting from computerized analysis were correct in 83% of cases. Computerized analysis has the ability to improve the performance of the radiologists exactly in the BI-RADS categories with the greatest difficulties in arriving at a correct diagnosis. It increased the performance significantly in the problematic group of ''intermediate probability of malignancy'' and pinpointed all the cases with missed cancers in the ''low probability'' group. (orig.)

  17. Improved mammographic interpretation of masses using computer-aided diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichter, I. [Dept. of Electro-Optics, Jerusalem College of Technology (Israel); Fields, S.; Novak, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus Jerusalem (Israel); Nirel, R. [Dept. of Statistics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel); Bamberger, P. [Dept. of Electronics, Jerusalem College of Technology, Jerusalem (Israel); Lederman, R. [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Kerem, Jerusalem (Israel); Buchbinder, S. [Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, University Hospital for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of computerized image enhancement, to investigate criteria for discriminating benign from malignant mammographic findings by computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), and to test the role of quantitative analysis in improving the accuracy of interpretation of mass lesions. Forty sequential mammographically detected mass lesions referred for biopsy were digitized at high resolution for computerized evaluation. A prototype CAD system which included image enhancement algorithms was used for a better visualization of the lesions. Quantitative features which characterize the spiculation were automatically extracted by the CAD system for a user-defined region of interest (ROI). Reference ranges for malignant and benign cases were acquired from data generated by 214 known retrospective cases. The extracted parameters together with the reference ranges were presented to the radiologist for the analysis of 40 prospective cases. A pattern recognition scheme based on discriminant analysis was trained on the 214 retrospective cases, and applied to the prospective cases. Accuracy of interpretation with and without the CAD system, as well as the performance of the pattern recognition scheme, were analyzed using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. A significant difference (p < 0.005) was found between features extracted by the CAD system for benign and malignant cases. Specificity of the CAD-assisted diagnosis improved significantly (p < 0.02) from 14 % for the conventional assessment to 50 %, and the positive predictive value increased from 0.47 to 0.62 (p < 0.04). The area under the ROC curve (A{sub z}) increased significantly (p < 0.001) from 0.66 for the conventional assessment to 0.81 for the CAD-assisted analysis. The A{sub z} for the results of the pattern recognition scheme was higher (0.95). The results indicate that there is an improved accuracy of diagnosis with the use of the mammographic CAD system above that

  18. From a mammographic station to a federal mammalogic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhkova, N.I.; Kharchenko, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    Using the history of mammalogy development in Russian Scientific Center of Roentgenoradiology of the Ministry of Public Health of Russian Federation as an example the evolution of above trend in Russia is retraced. It is shown that during 20 years (from 1978) in the department of mammary gland diseases diagnosis of the Centre the rational, economically expedient and highly efficient diagnostic system for combined examination of mammary glands is developing and introducing in medical prophylactic installations of Russian Federation. This system consists of women selection for risk group, stage of additional examination in special mammographic rooms and therapeutic stage. Directions of researches of the Centre (technical, organizational-methodical, medical) are considered [ru

  19. Classification of mammographic masses using geometric symmetry and fractal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Qi; Ruiz, V.F. [Cybernetics, School of Systems Engineering, Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Shao Jiaqing [Dept. of Electronics, Univ. of Kent (United Kingdom); Guo Falei [WanDe Industrial Engineering Co. (China)

    2007-06-15

    In this paper, we propose a fuzzy symmetry measure based on geometrical operations to characterise shape irregularity of mammographic mass lesion. Group theory, a powerful tool in the investigation of geometric transformation, is employed in our work to define and describe the underlying mathematical relations. We investigate the usefulness of fuzzy symmetry measure in combination with fractal analysis for classification of masses. Comparative studies show that fuzzy symmetry measure is useful for shape characterisation of mass lesions and is a good complementary feature for benign-versus-malignant classification of masses. (orig.)

  20. Barriers and facillitators to compliance with routine mammographic screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, H.B.; Rimer, B.; Keintz, M.K.; Myers, R.E.; Engstrom, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Six hundred one randomly selected women were interviewed to determine their reasons for compliance or noncompliance with free HMO-sponsored mammographic examinations. Noncompliers were significantly more likely to believe mammograms are unnecessary without symptoms, too much trouble, or inconvenient and to perceive their physicians as not recommending mammograms. Compliers were more likely to believe that early breast cancer can be cured and to recognize that breast screening is for asymptomatic individuals. When cost is eliminated as a barrier to screening, a variety of socioeconomic, psychological, and access barriers are exposed. Radiologists must be cognizant of these factors in planning and participating in breast cancer screening programs

  1. Local activation time sampling density for atrial tachycardia contact mapping: how much is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Steven E; Harrison, James L; Chubb, Henry; Whitaker, John; Kiedrowicz, Radek; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Cooklin, Michael; Wright, Matthew; Niederer, Steven; O'Neill, Mark D

    2018-02-01

    Local activation time (LAT) mapping forms the cornerstone of atrial tachycardia diagnosis. Although anatomic and positional accuracy of electroanatomic mapping (EAM) systems have been validated, the effect of electrode sampling density on LAT map reconstruction is not known. Here, we study the effect of chamber geometry and activation complexity on optimal LAT sampling density using a combined in silico and in vivo approach. In vivo 21 atrial tachycardia maps were studied in three groups: (1) focal activation, (2) macro-re-entry, and (3) localized re-entry. In silico activation was simulated on a 4×4cm atrial monolayer, sampled randomly at 0.25-10 points/cm2 and used to re-interpolate LAT maps. Activation patterns were studied in the geometrically simple porcine right atrium (RA) and complex human left atrium (LA). Activation complexity was introduced into the porcine RA by incomplete inter-caval linear ablation. In all cases, optimal sampling density was defined as the highest density resulting in minimal further error reduction in the re-interpolated maps. Optimal sampling densities for LA tachycardias were 0.67 ± 0.17 points/cm2 (focal activation), 1.05 ± 0.32 points/cm2 (macro-re-entry) and 1.23 ± 0.26 points/cm2 (localized re-entry), P = 0.0031. Increasing activation complexity was associated with increased optimal sampling density both in silico (focal activation 1.09 ± 0.14 points/cm2; re-entry 1.44 ± 0.49 points/cm2; spiral-wave 1.50 ± 0.34 points/cm2, P density (0.61 ± 0.22 points/cm2 vs. 1.0 ± 0.34 points/cm2, P = 0.0015). Optimal sampling densities can be identified to maximize diagnostic yield of LAT maps. Greater sampling density is required to correctly reveal complex activation and represent activation across complex geometries. Overall, the optimal sampling density for LAT map interpolation defined in this study was ∼1.0-1.5 points/cm2. Published on behalf of the European Society of

  2. A novel track density measurement method by thermal neutron activation of DYECETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Mahdi, Sh.

    1995-01-01

    A novel track density evaluation method based on thermal neutron activation of some elements of dyed electrochemically etched tracks (DYECETs) of charged particles in detectors like polycarbonate (PC) followed by measurements of gamma activity of the activated detectors is introduced. In this method, the tracks of charged particles like fast neutron-induced recoils in PC detectors were electrochemically etched, dyed by ''QuicDYECET'' methods as recently introduced by us, activated by thermal neutrons and counted for gamma activity determination to be correlated with track density. The activities of elements such as bromine-82 ( 82 Br) and sodium-24 ( 24 Na) on dyes such as Eosin Yellowish, Eosin Bluish, etc. determined by a hyper-pure germanium detector, were found to be in good correlation with DYECET density and thus particle fluence or dose. The effects of different types of dyes and their elements, dye concentration, neutron fluences and ECE durations on the DYECET density responses were studied. This new development is a method of scientific interest, potentially possessing some interesting features, as an alternative method for ECE track density determination using a gamma activity measuring system. It also has the drawback of being applicable only in centres having thermal neutron facilities. The results of the above studies are presented and discussed. (Author)

  3. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  4. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Vas

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period. The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  5. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e. distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g. resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation. PMID:26657240

  6. Evaluating the B-cell density with various activation functions using White Noise Path Integral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aban, C. J. G.; Bacolod, R. O.; Confesor, M. N. P.

    2015-06-01

    A The White Noise Path Integral Approach is used in evaluating the B-cell density or the number of B-cell per unit volume for a basic type of immune system response based on the modeling done by Perelson and Wiegel. From the scaling principles of Perelson [1], the B- cell density is obtained where antigens and antibodies mutates and activation function f(|S-SA|) is defined describing the interaction between a specific antigen and a B-cell. If the activation function f(|S-SA|) is held constant, the major form of the B-cell density evaluated using white noise analysis is similar to the form of the B-cell density obtained by Perelson and Wiegel using a differential approach.A piecewise linear functionis also used to describe the activation f(|S-SA|). If f(|S-SA|) is zero, the density decreases exponentially. If f(|S-SA|) = S-SA-SB, the B- cell density increases exponentially until it reaches a certain maximum value. For f(|S-SA|) = 2SA-SB-S, the behavior of B-cell density is oscillating and remains to be in small values.

  7. Hyperdense dots mimicking microcalcifications : Mammographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam Hyeon; Park, Jeong Mi; Goo, Hyun Woo; Bang, Sun Woo

    1996-01-01

    To differentiate fine hyperdense dots mimicking microcalcifications from true microcalcifications on mammography. Mammograms showing hyperdense dots in ten patients (mean age, 59 years) were evaluated. Two radiologists were asked to differentiate with the naked eye the hyperdense dots seen on ten mammograms and proven microcalcifications seen on ten mammograms. Densitometry was also performed for all lesions and the contrast index was calculated. The shape and distribution of the hyperdense dots were evaluated and enquires were made regarding any history of breast disease and corresponding treatment. Biopsies were performed for two patients with hyperdense dots. Two radiologists made correct diagnoses in 19/20 cases(95%). The contrast index was 0.10-0.88 (mean 0.58) for hyperdense dots and 0.02-0.45 (mean 0.17) for true microcalcifications. The hyperdense dots were finer and homogeneously rounder than the microcalcifications. Distribution of the hyperdense dots was more superficial in subcutaneous fat (seven cases) and subareolar area (six cases). All ten patients with hyperdense dots had history of mastitis and abscesses and had been treated by open drainage (six cases) and/or folk remedy (four cases). In eight patients, herb patches had been attached. Biopsies of hyperdense dots did not show any microcalcification or evidence of malignancy. These hyperdense dots were seen mainly in older patients. Their characteristic density, shape, distribution and clinical history makes differential diagnosis from true microcalcifications easy and could reduce unnecessary diagnostic procedures such as surgical biopsy

  8. Hyperdense dots mimicking microcalcifications : Mammographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Hyeon; Park, Jeong Mi; Goo, Hyun Woo; Bang, Sun Woo [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    To differentiate fine hyperdense dots mimicking microcalcifications from true microcalcifications on mammography. Mammograms showing hyperdense dots in ten patients (mean age, 59 years) were evaluated. Two radiologists were asked to differentiate with the naked eye the hyperdense dots seen on ten mammograms and proven microcalcifications seen on ten mammograms. Densitometry was also performed for all lesions and the contrast index was calculated. The shape and distribution of the hyperdense dots were evaluated and enquires were made regarding any history of breast disease and corresponding treatment. Biopsies were performed for two patients with hyperdense dots. Two radiologists made correct diagnoses in 19/20 cases(95%). The contrast index was 0.10-0.88 (mean 0.58) for hyperdense dots and 0.02-0.45 (mean 0.17) for true microcalcifications. The hyperdense dots were finer and homogeneously rounder than the microcalcifications. Distribution of the hyperdense dots was more superficial in subcutaneous fat (seven cases) and subareolar area (six cases). All ten patients with hyperdense dots had history of mastitis and abscesses and had been treated by open drainage (six cases) and/or folk remedy (four cases). In eight patients, herb patches had been attached. Biopsies of hyperdense dots did not show any microcalcification or evidence of malignancy. These hyperdense dots were seen mainly in older patients. Their characteristic density, shape, distribution and clinical history makes differential diagnosis from true microcalcifications easy and could reduce unnecessary diagnostic procedures such as surgical biopsy.

  9. CADx of mammographic masses and clustered microcalcifications: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elter, Matthias; Horsch, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in the western world. While mammography is regarded as the most effective tool for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, the interpretation of mammograms is a difficult and error-prone task. Hence, computer aids have been developed that assist the radiologist in the interpretation of mammograms. Computer-aided detection (CADe) systems address the problem that radiologists often miss signs of cancers that are retrospectively visible in mammograms. Furthermore, computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) systems have been proposed that assist the radiologist in the classification of mammographic lesions as benign or malignant. While a broad variety of approaches to both CADe and CADx systems have been published in the past two decades, an extensive survey of the state of the art is only available for CADe approaches. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the state of the art of CADx approaches is presented in this work. Besides providing a summary, the goals for this article are to identify relations, contradictions, and gaps in literature, and to suggest directions for future research. Because of the vast amount of publications on the topic, this survey is restricted to the two most important types of mammographic lesions: masses and clustered microcalcifications. Furthermore, it focuses on articles published in international journals.

  10. CADx of mammographic masses and clustered microcalcifications: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elter, Matthias; Horsch, Alexander [Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits (IIS), Am Wolfsmantel 33, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, TU Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany) and Department of Computer Science, University of Tromsoe Breivika, N-9037 Tromsoe (Norway)

    2009-06-15

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in the western world. While mammography is regarded as the most effective tool for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, the interpretation of mammograms is a difficult and error-prone task. Hence, computer aids have been developed that assist the radiologist in the interpretation of mammograms. Computer-aided detection (CADe) systems address the problem that radiologists often miss signs of cancers that are retrospectively visible in mammograms. Furthermore, computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) systems have been proposed that assist the radiologist in the classification of mammographic lesions as benign or malignant. While a broad variety of approaches to both CADe and CADx systems have been published in the past two decades, an extensive survey of the state of the art is only available for CADe approaches. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the state of the art of CADx approaches is presented in this work. Besides providing a summary, the goals for this article are to identify relations, contradictions, and gaps in literature, and to suggest directions for future research. Because of the vast amount of publications on the topic, this survey is restricted to the two most important types of mammographic lesions: masses and clustered microcalcifications. Furthermore, it focuses on articles published in international journals.

  11. Benefit-risk evaluation of mammographic mass screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Nobuo; Ogura, Toshihiro

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the benefit-risk balance of mammography in mass screening by using survival rates from 3000 breast cancer patients at the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research Institute Hospital. Because the number of participants in mammographic mass screening was small, asymptomatic patients with pathologically proven early breast cancer were categorized as the screenee group. Symptomatic patients were categorized as the patient group. Survival rates were compared in both the screenee and the patient groups. Based on the difference in areas of survival curves between screenees and patients, the ratio of person-year gain (PYG) to person-year lost (PYL) was obtained. The ratio of PYG to PYL was multiplied by the detection rate resulting from a particular screening program to obtain the benefit/risk ratio. The detection rate of nonpalpable breast cancer was 15 times higher in the screenee group than the patient group. Breast cancer was detected in 7 (0.85%) of 824 patients in the screenee group. Even when mammographic mass screening was started at the age of 30, the benefit of mammography was far superior to the risk. The number of participants in mass screening stratified by age may be required for the conclusion of the benefit-risk balance of mammography in mass screening. (N.K.)

  12. Mammographic findings after breast cancer treatment with local excision and definitive irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dershaw, D.D.; Shank, B.; Reisinger, S.

    1987-01-01

    Following local excision and definitive irradiation of 163 breast cancers in 160 women, alterations in mammographic patterns were observed for up to 7 years. Skin thickening was observed in 96% of mammograms obtained within 1 year of completing therapy and was most pronounced in women treated with iridium implant, chemotherapy, or axillary dissection. In 76% of mammograms, alterations in the parenchymal pattern, including coarsening of stroma and increased breast density, were seen at 1 year. Neither skin nor parenchymal changes progressed after 1 year. Within 3 years of treatment the parenchymal density, which usually regressed, did not change in all patients. At 3 years skin thickness and the parenchymal pattern had returned to normal in less than 50% of the breasts of these women. Scars developed in approximately one-quarter of women. They were present on the initial post-treatment mammogram and remained unchanged on serial studies. Coarse, benign calcifications also developed in the breasts of about one-quarter of women. Microcalcifications developed in 11 breasts; biopsy specimens of six were benign. Benign microcalcifications may be related to therapy

  13. Collaborating with Mammographers to Address Their Work-Related Musculoskeletal Discomfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerich, Carolyn M.; Lavender, Steven A.; Evans, Kevin D.; Sanders, Elizabeth; Joines, Sharon; Lamar, Sabrina; Umar, Radin Zaid Radin; Yen, Wei-Ting; Park, SangHyun

    2017-01-01

    Mammographers are an understudied group of healthcare workers, yet the prevalence of musculoskeletal (MSK) symptoms in mammographers appears to be elevated, similar to many occupations in healthcare. In this study, we used a participatory approach to identify needs and opportunities for developing interventions to reduce mammographers’ exposures to risk factors that lead to development of MSK symptoms. In this paper, we present a number of those needs and several intervention concepts along with evaluations of those concepts from experienced mammographers. We include findings from a preliminary field test of a novel intervention concept to reduce the need to adopt awkward postures while positioning patients for a screening or diagnostic mammogram. PMID:26794257

  14. A High Power Density Integrated Charger for Electric Vehicles with Active Ripple Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Liwen; Zhang, Chengning

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests a high power density on-board integrated charger with active ripple compensation circuit for electric vehicles. To obtain a high power density and high efficiency, silicon carbide devices are reported to meet the requirement of high-switching-frequency operation. An integrated bidirectional converter is proposed to function as AC/DC battery charger and to transfer energy between battery pack and motor drive of the traction system. In addition, the conventional H-bridge cir...

  15. Mammographic x-ray unit kilovoltage test tool based on k-edge absorption effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Mary E; Trueblood, Jon H; Hertel, Nolan E; David, George

    2002-09-01

    A simple tool to determine the peak kilovoltage (kVp) of a mammographic x-ray unit has been designed. Tool design is based on comparing the effect of k-edge discontinuity of the attenuation coefficient for a series of element filters. Compatibility with the mammography accreditation phantom (MAP) to obtain a single quality control film is a second design objective. When the attenuation of a series of sequential elements is studied simultaneously, differences in the absorption characteristics due to the k-edge discontinuities are more evident. Specifically, when the incident photon energy is higher than the k-edge energy of a number of the elements and lower than the remainder, an inflection may be seen in the resulting attenuation data. The maximum energy of the incident photon spectra may be determined based on this inflection point for a series of element filters. Monte Carlo photon transport analysis was used to estimate the photon transmission probabilities for each of the sequential k-edge filter elements. The photon transmission corresponds directly to optical density recorded on mammographic x-ray film. To observe the inflection, the element filters chosen must have k-edge energies that span a range greater than the expected range of the end point energies to be determined. For the design, incident x-ray spectra ranging from 25 to 40 kVp were assumed to be from a molybdenum target. Over this range, the k-edge energy changes by approximately 1.5 keV between sequential elements. For this design 21 elements spanning an energy range from 20 to 50 keV were chosen. Optimum filter element thicknesses were calculated to maximize attenuation differences at the k-edge while maintaining optical densities between 0.10 and 3.00. Calculated relative transmission data show that the kVp could be determined to within +/-1 kV. To obtain experimental data, a phantom was constructed containing 21 different elements placed in an acrylic holder. MAP images were used to determine

  16. Mammographic x-ray unit kilovoltage test tool based on k-edge absorption effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolitano, Mary E.; Trueblood, Jon H.; Hertel, Nolan E.; David, George

    2002-01-01

    A simple tool to determine the peak kilovoltage (kVp) of a mammographic x-ray unit has been designed. Tool design is based on comparing the effect of k-edge discontinuity of the attenuation coefficient for a series of element filters. Compatibility with the mammography accreditation phantom (MAP) to obtain a single quality control film is a second design objective. When the attenuation of a series of sequential elements is studied simultaneously, differences in the absorption characteristics due to the k-edge discontinuities are more evident. Specifically, when the incident photon energy is higher than the k-edge energy of a number of the elements and lower than the remainder, an inflection may be seen in the resulting attenuation data. The maximum energy of the incident photon spectra may be determined based on this inflection point for a series of element filters. Monte Carlo photon transport analysis was used to estimate the photon transmission probabilities for each of the sequential k-edge filter elements. The photon transmission corresponds directly to optical density recorded on mammographic x-ray film. To observe the inflection, the element filters chosen must have k-edge energies that span a range greater than the expected range of the end point energies to be determined. For the design, incident x-ray spectra ranging from 25 to 40 kVp were assumed to be from a molybdenum target. Over this range, the k-edge energy changes by approximately 1.5 keV between sequential elements. For this design 21 elements spanning an energy range from 20 to 50 keV were chosen. Optimum filter element thicknesses were calculated to maximize attenuation differences at the k-edge while maintaining optical densities between 0.10 and 3.00. Calculated relative transmission data show that the kVp could be determined to within ±1 kV. To obtain experimental data, a phantom was constructed containing 21 different elements placed in an acrylic holder. MAP images were used to determine

  17. Activated platelets contribute to oxidized low-density lipoproteins and dysfunctional high-density lipoproteins through a phospholipase A2-dependent mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blache, Denis; Gautier, Thomas; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Lagrost, Laurent

    Plasma activity of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) increases in patients with cardiovascular disease. The present study investigated whether platelet-released sPLA2 induces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) modifications that translate into changes in lipoprotein

  18. BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE WOMEN ASSESSED BY ULTRASOUND DESINTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marijanac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and density. Physical activity has a positive effect on bone tissue, and it is recommended to prevent bone loss which comes with age. Methods: In purpose of determining bone mineral density in women who are physically active we examined 35 women divided into two groups – subjects who are premenopausal (n=20, 43.52 ± 7.56 years, and subjects who are postmenopausal (n=15, 55.89 ± 5.48. The subjects exercised Pilates method twice a week for one hour. Bone mineral density measurements were done by ultrasound densitometer „Sahara“ through the calcaneus. We get the data of the estimated bone density and T-score for right and left foot separate. Results: According to results premenopausal women have normal bone density, and postmenopausal values represent osteopenia, according to the WHO. There is no subjects who established osteoporosis. Discussion: Previous investigations have confirmed that physical activity is important for the preservation of the bone quality. Increasing steps, using simple everyday tasks, can prevent decrease in BMD in postmenopausal women (Muir et al., 2013, Ashe et al, 2008. There’s difference in the density of the calcaneus between physically active and those who are not, measured by ultrasound densitometry (Vainionpää et al, 2005. We use quantitative ultrasound densitometry to describe BMI of women who exercise Pilates and support the finding that physical activity is one of the ways that may prevent the BMD loss. These research was done as a part of long-term project entitled „Impact of physical activity of the working population“ which is co-financed by Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development.

  19. Use of border information in the classification of mammographic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, C; Timp, S; Karssemeijer, N

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a new method to characterize the margin of a mammographic mass lesion to improve the classification of benign and malignant masses. Towards this goal, we designed features that measure the degree of sharpness and microlobulation of mass margins. We calculated these features in a border region of the mass defined as a thin band along the mass contour. The importance of these features in the classification of benign and malignant masses was studied in relation to existing features used for mammographic mass detection. Features were divided into three groups, each representing a different mass segment: the interior region of a mass, the border and the outer area. The interior and the outer area of a mass were characterized using contrast and spiculation measures. Classification was done in two steps. First, features representing each of the three mass segments were merged into a neural network classifier resulting in a single regional classification score for each segment. Secondly, a classifier combined the three single scores into a final output to discriminate between benign and malignant lesions. We compared the classification performance of each regional classifier and the combined classifier on a data set of 1076 biopsy proved masses (590 malignant and 486 benign) from 481 women included in the Digital Database for Screening Mammography. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of the classifiers. The area under the ROC curve (A z ) was 0.69 for the interior mass segment, 0.76 for the border segment and 0.75 for the outer mass segment. The performance of the combined classifier was 0.81 for image-based and 0.83 for case-based evaluation. These results show that the combination of information from different mass segments is an effective approach for computer-aided characterization of mammographic masses. An advantage of this approach is that it allows the assessment of the contribution of regions rather

  20. Area and volumetric density estimation in processed full-field digital mammograms for risk assessment of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Cheddad

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density, the white radiolucent part of a mammogram, is a marker of breast cancer risk and mammographic sensitivity. There are several means of measuring mammographic density, among which are area-based and volumetric-based approaches. Current volumetric methods use only unprocessed, raw mammograms, which is a problematic restriction since such raw mammograms are normally not stored. We describe fully automated methods for measuring both area and volumetric mammographic density from processed images. METHODS: The data set used in this study comprises raw and processed images of the same view from 1462 women. We developed two algorithms for processed images, an automated area-based approach (CASAM-Area and a volumetric-based approach (CASAM-Vol. The latter method was based on training a random forest prediction model with image statistical features as predictors, against a volumetric measure, Volpara, for corresponding raw images. We contrast the three methods, CASAM-Area, CASAM-Vol and Volpara directly and in terms of association with breast cancer risk and a known genetic variant for mammographic density and breast cancer, rs10995190 in the gene ZNF365. Associations with breast cancer risk were evaluated using images from 47 breast cancer cases and 1011 control subjects. The genetic association analysis was based on 1011 control subjects. RESULTS: All three measures of mammographic density were associated with breast cancer risk and rs10995190 (p0.10 for risk, p>0.03 for rs10995190. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that it is possible to obtain reliable automated measures of volumetric and area mammographic density from processed digital images. Area and volumetric measures of density on processed digital images performed similar in terms of risk and genetic association.

  1. Demonstration Project on Mammographic Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Breast Cancer Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doi, Kunio

    2000-01-01

    ...) in mammographic detection of breast cancer. Our plan is to develop advanced CAD schemes for detection and characterization of clustered microcalcifications and masses by incorporating artificial neural networks and various image processing techniques...

  2. Demonstration Project on Mammographic Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Breast Cancer Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doi, Kunio

    2001-01-01

    ...) in mammographic detection of breast cancer. Our plan is to develop advanced CAD schemes for detection and characterization of clustered microcalcifications and masses by incorporating artificial neural networks and various image processing techniques...

  3. Demonstration Project on Mammographic Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Breast Cancer Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doi, Kunio

    1999-01-01

    ...) in mammographic detection of breast cancer. Our plan is to develop advanced CAD schemes for detection and characterization of clustered microcalcifications and masses by incorporating artificial neural networks and various image processing techniques...

  4. Demonstration Project on Mammographic Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Breast Cancer Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doi, Kunio

    2002-01-01

    ...) in mammographic detection of breast cancer. Our plan is to develop advanced CAD schemes for detection and characterization of clustered microcalcifications and masses by incorporating artificial neural networks and various image processing techniques...

  5. Physical activity and bone mineral density in Italian middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidoli, Ettore; Schinella, Domenico; Franceschi, Silvia

    1998-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health issue in postmenopausal women on account of the association between low bone mineral density and fractures. A role of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of low bone mineral density is possible but still unclear. The relationship between low spine bone mineral density measured by means of dual photon absorptiometry at lumbar spines, and levels of past and recent physical activity has been assessed by means of a population-based screening study carried out on 1373 women (age 40-64 years) in the North-East of Italy. Physical activity at work and in leisure time was investigated for three specific periods of life: at age 12, between 15 and 19 years (during bone formative years), and in the recent years prior to the interview (30-39 or 50-59 years). Data were analysed comparing low versus high bone mineral density tertile (i.e., 458 and 461 women, respectively), after controlling for other known contributory factors in the development of osteoporosis. A positive association emerged with leisure time physical activity, with significant trends at age 15-19 (odds ratio (OR) for low versus high tertile of leisure time activity: 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-2.4) and at most recent age (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Risk trends with occupational physical activity were less clear and non-statistically significant. The present Southern European cross-sectional study lends further support to the possibility that past and recent physical activity helps increasing bone mineral density in middle-aged women. Although the most beneficial type and intensity level of exercise has yet to be determined, the present results provide further evidence that participation in even moderate exercise programs should be encouraged

  6. Bone mineral density in subjects using central nervous system-active medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Mitsuyo; Setoguchi, Soko; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Solomon, Daniel H

    2005-12-01

    Decreased bone mineral density defines osteoporosis according to the World Health Organization and is an important predictor of future fractures. The use of several types of central nervous system-active drugs, including benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and opioids, have all been associated with increased risk of fracture. However, it is unclear whether such an increase in risk is related to an effect of bone mineral density or to other factors, such as increased risk of falls. We sought to examine the relationship between bone mineral density and the use of benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and opioids in a representative US population-based sample. We analyzed data on adults aged 17 years and older from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). Total femoral bone mineral density of 7114 male and 7532 female participants was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable linear regression models were used to quantify the relation between central nervous system medication exposure and total femoral bone mineral density. Models controlled for relevant covariates, including age, sex, and body mass index. In linear regression models, significantly reduced bone mineral density was found in subjects taking anticonvulsants (0.92 g/cm2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89 to 0.94) and opioids (0.92 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.95) compared with nonusers (0.95 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.95) after adjusting for several potential confounders. The other central nervous system-active drugs--benzodiazepines or antidepressants--were not associated with significantly reduced bone mineral density. In cross-sectional analysis of NHANES III, anticonvulsants and opioids (but not benzodiazepines or antidepressants) were associated with significantly reduced bone mineral density. These findings have implications for fracture-prevention strategies.

  7. Allelopathic activity of some grass species on Phleum pratense seed germination subject to their density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Lipińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient utilization of allelopathy in the agricultural practice requires searching for some species and developmental stages when the allelopathic substances are generated in bioactive concentrations. That also requires the knowledge of allelopathy mechanisms and primarily its separation from the other aspects of plant activity, mainly from competition for environmental resources. This task, however, has remained vital in the studies on plant interference, being extremely difficult to perform under field conditions. Therefore, the studies were conducted in the laboratory. To determine the activity of an allelopathic agent of the selected grass species, the density dependent phytotoxicity model was employed. The model is based on the fact that an increase of acceptor plants density evokes a decrease of their response to the allelopathic compounds, whereas the negative effects of the competition become more intense. A higher rate of acceptor plants growth accompanying their density increase in the given object does not agree with the competition rules and thus, it may imply an allelopathic background of the observed changes. In the presented studies, the allelopathic properties of grasses - donors were evaluated by studying the effect of two densities of the emerging seeds and two- and four weeks aged seedlings of F. arundinacea, L. multiflorum, L. perenne and P. pratensis. The tested species - acceptor Ph. pratensis was sown in the density of 10 and 20 seeds in a pan. The results revealed that the germination of acceptor seeds was differentiated depending on their density in the pan, and on the species, density and the age of the donor. Inhibition of Ph. pratense seed germination in objects with a lover density may prove allelopathic effects of the studied donor grasses.

  8. Investigation of support vector machine for the detection of architectural distortion in mammographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Q; Shao, J; Ruiz, V

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates detection of architectural distortion in mammographic images using support vector machine. Hausdorff dimension is used to characterise the texture feature of mammographic images. Support vector machine, a learning machine based on statistical learning theory, is trained through supervised learning to detect architectural distortion. Compared to the Radial Basis Function neural networks, SVM produced more accurate classification results in distinguishing architectural distortion abnormality from normal breast parenchyma

  9. Investigation of support vector machine for the detection of architectural distortion in mammographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Q [Department of Cybernetics, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AY (United Kingdom); Shao, J [Department of Electronics, University of Kent at Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NT (United Kingdom); Ruiz, V [Department of Cybernetics, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AY (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates detection of architectural distortion in mammographic images using support vector machine. Hausdorff dimension is used to characterise the texture feature of mammographic images. Support vector machine, a learning machine based on statistical learning theory, is trained through supervised learning to detect architectural distortion. Compared to the Radial Basis Function neural networks, SVM produced more accurate classification results in distinguishing architectural distortion abnormality from normal breast parenchyma.

  10. The impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, S M; Nyström, L; Jonsson, H.

    2012-01-01

    Analysing trends in population breast cancer mortality statistics appears a simple method of estimating the effectiveness of mammographic screening programmes. We reviewed such studies of population-based screening in Europe to assess their value.......Analysing trends in population breast cancer mortality statistics appears a simple method of estimating the effectiveness of mammographic screening programmes. We reviewed such studies of population-based screening in Europe to assess their value....

  11. Decision trees and integrated features for computer aided mammographic screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegelmeyer, W.P. Jr.; Groshong, B.; Allmen, M.; Woods, K.

    1997-02-01

    Breast cancer is a serious problem, which in the United States causes 43,000 deaths a year, eventually striking 1 in 9 women. Early detection is the only effective countermeasure, and mass mammography screening is the only reliable means for early detection. Mass screening has many shortcomings which could be addressed by a computer-aided mammographic screening system. Accordingly, we have applied the pattern recognition methods developed in earlier investigations of speculated lesions in mammograms to the detection of microcalcifications and circumscribed masses, generating new, more rigorous and uniform methods for the detection of both those signs. We have also improved the pattern recognition methods themselves, through the development of a new approach to combinations of multiple classifiers.

  12. Decision aids for improved accuracy and standardization of mammographic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Orsi, C.J.; Getty, D.J.; Swets, J.A.; Pickett, R.M.; Seltzer, S.E.; McNeil, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the gains in the accuracy of mammographic diagnosis of breast cancer achievable from a pair of decision aids. Twenty-three potentially relevant perceptual features of mammograms were identified through interviews, psychometric tests, and consensus meetings with mammography specialists. Statistical analyses determined the 12 independent features that were most information diagnostically and assigned a weight to each according to its importance. Two decision aids were developed: a checklist that solicits a scale value from the radiologist for each feature and a computer program that merges those values optimally in an advisory estimate of the probability of malignancy. Six radiologists read a set of 150 cases, first in their usual way and later with the aids

  13. Unc-51 controls active zone density and protein composition by downregulating ERK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairkar, Yogesh P; Toda, Hirofumi; Mochizuki, Hiroaki; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo; Tomoda, Toshifumi; Diantonio, Aaron

    2009-01-14

    Efficient synaptic transmission requires the apposition of neurotransmitter release sites opposite clusters of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Transmitter is released at active zones, which are composed of a large complex of proteins necessary for synaptic development and function. Many active zone proteins have been identified, but little is known of the mechanisms that ensure that each active zone receives the proper complement of proteins. Here we use a genetic analysis in Drosophila to demonstrate that the serine threonine kinase Unc-51 acts in the presynaptic motoneuron to regulate the localization of the active zone protein Bruchpilot opposite to glutamate receptors at each synapse. In the absence of Unc-51, many glutamate receptor clusters are unapposed to Bruchpilot, and ultrastructural analysis demonstrates that fewer active zones contain dense body T-bars. In addition to the presence of these aberrant synapses, there is also a decrease in the density of all synapses. This decrease in synaptic density and abnormal active zone composition is associated with impaired evoked transmitter release. Mechanistically, Unc-51 inhibits the activity of the MAP kinase ERK to promote synaptic development. In the unc-51 mutant, increased ERK activity leads to the decrease in synaptic density and the absence of Bruchpilot from many synapses. Hence, activated ERK negatively regulates synapse formation, resulting in either the absence of active zones or the formation of active zones without their proper complement of proteins. The Unc-51-dependent inhibition of ERK activity provides a potential mechanism for synapse-specific control of active zone protein composition and release probability.

  14. Male breast disease: clinical, mammographic, and ultrasonographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenhan-Bilgen, Isil; Bozkaya, Halil; Uestuen, Esin Emin; Memis, Aysenur

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and quantitate the radiological (mammographic and ultrasonographic) characteristics of male breast disease and to report the clinical and pathological findings. Materials and methods: Two-hundred-thirty-six male patients with different male breast diseases, diagnosed at our institution between January 1990 and July 2001, were retrospectively evaluated. The history, physical examination, mammographic and ultrasonographic findings were analyzed. Results: The spectrum of the disease in 236 male patients were gynecomastia (n=206), primary breast carcinoma (n=14), fat necrosis (n=5), lipoma (n=3), subareolar abscess (n=2), epidermal inclusion cyst (n=1), sebaceous cyst (n=1), hematoma (n=1), myeloma (n=1), and metastatic carcinoma (n=2). The distribution of patterns of gynecomastia were; 34% (n=71) nodular, 35% (n=73) dendritic and 31% (n=62) diffuse glandular. Gynecomastia was unilateral in 55% (n=113) and bilateral in 45% (n=93) of the patients. Male breast cancer presented as a mass without microcalcifications in 86% (n=12) and with microcalcifications in 7% (n=1) of patients. The mass was obscured by gynecomastia, partially in two, totally in one patient. The location of the mass was retroareolar in 46% (n=6) and eccentric to the nipple in 54% (n=7) of patients. On ultrasonography (US), the contours were well-circumscribed in 20% (n=3) and irregular in 80% (n=12) of the masses. Conclusion: Male breast has a wide spectrum of diseases, some of which have characteristic radiological appearances that can be correlated with their pathologic diagnosis. In the evaluation of the male breast, mammography and US are essential and should be performed along with physical examination

  15. Male breast disease: clinical, mammographic, and ultrasonographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenhan-Bilgen, Isil E-mail: isilbilgen@hotmail.com; Bozkaya, Halil; Uestuen, Esin Emin; Memis, Aysenur

    2002-09-01

    Purpose: To describe and quantitate the radiological (mammographic and ultrasonographic) characteristics of male breast disease and to report the clinical and pathological findings. Materials and methods: Two-hundred-thirty-six male patients with different male breast diseases, diagnosed at our institution between January 1990 and July 2001, were retrospectively evaluated. The history, physical examination, mammographic and ultrasonographic findings were analyzed. Results: The spectrum of the disease in 236 male patients were gynecomastia (n=206), primary breast carcinoma (n=14), fat necrosis (n=5), lipoma (n=3), subareolar abscess (n=2), epidermal inclusion cyst (n=1), sebaceous cyst (n=1), hematoma (n=1), myeloma (n=1), and metastatic carcinoma (n=2). The distribution of patterns of gynecomastia were; 34% (n=71) nodular, 35% (n=73) dendritic and 31% (n=62) diffuse glandular. Gynecomastia was unilateral in 55% (n=113) and bilateral in 45% (n=93) of the patients. Male breast cancer presented as a mass without microcalcifications in 86% (n=12) and with microcalcifications in 7% (n=1) of patients. The mass was obscured by gynecomastia, partially in two, totally in one patient. The location of the mass was retroareolar in 46% (n=6) and eccentric to the nipple in 54% (n=7) of patients. On ultrasonography (US), the contours were well-circumscribed in 20% (n=3) and irregular in 80% (n=12) of the masses. Conclusion: Male breast has a wide spectrum of diseases, some of which have characteristic radiological appearances that can be correlated with their pathologic diagnosis. In the evaluation of the male breast, mammography and US are essential and should be performed along with physical examination.

  16. Cone-beam volume CT mammographic imaging: feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Ning, Ruola

    2001-06-01

    X-ray projection mammography, using a film/screen combination or digital techniques, has proven to be the most effective imaging modality for early detection of breast cancer currently available. However, the inherent superimposition of structures makes small carcinoma (a few millimeters in size) difficult to detect in the occultation case or in dense breasts, resulting in a high false positive biopsy rate. The cone-beam x-ray projection based volume imaging using flat panel detectors (FPDs) makes it possible to obtain three-dimensional breast images. This may benefit diagnosis of the structure and pattern of the lesion while eliminating hard compression of the breast. This paper presents a novel cone-beam volume CT mammographic imaging protocol based on the above techniques. Through computer simulation, the key issues of the system and imaging techniques, including the x-ray imaging geometry and corresponding reconstruction algorithms, x-ray characteristics of breast tissues, x-ray setting techniques, the absorbed dose estimation and the quantitative effect of x-ray scattering on image quality, are addressed. The preliminary simulation results support the proposed cone-beam volume CT mammographic imaging modality in respect to feasibility and practicability for mammography. The absorbed dose level is comparable to that of current two-view mammography and would not be a prominent problem for this imaging protocol. Compared to traditional mammography, the proposed imaging protocol with isotropic spatial resolution will potentially provide significantly better low contrast detectability of breast tumors and more accurate location of breast lesions.

  17. Quality assurance applied to mammographic equipments using phantoms and software for its evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, Patricia, E-mail: p.mayo@titaniast.co [Titania Servicios Tecnologicos S.L., Grupo Dominguis, Apartado 46015, Valencia (Spain); Rodenas, Francisco [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 46022, Valencia (Spain); Manuel Campayo, Juan [Hospital Clinico Universitario de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez, Apartado 46017, Valencia (Spain); Verdu, Gumersido [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 46022, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-07-21

    The image quality assessment in radiographic equipments is a very important item for a complete quality control of the radiographic image chain. The periodic evaluation of the radiographic image quality must guarantee the constancy of this quality to carry out a suitable diagnosis. Mammographic phantom images are usually used to study the quality of images obtained by determined mammographic equipment. The digital image treatment techniques allow to carry out an automatic analysis of the phantom image. In this work we apply some techniques of digital image processing to analyze in an automatic way the image quality of mammographic phantoms, namely CIRS SP01 and RACON for different varying conditions of the mammographic equipment. The CIRS SP01 phantom is usually used in analogic mammographic equipments and the RACON phantom has been specifically developed by authors to be applied to acceptance and constancy tests of the image quality in digital radiographic equipments following recommendations of international associations. The purpose of this work consists in analyzing the image quality for both phantoms by means of an automatic software utility. This analysis allows us to study the functioning of the image chain of the mammographic system in an objective way, so an abnormal functioning of the radiographic equipment might be detected.

  18. Quality assurance applied to mammographic equipments using phantoms and software for its evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, Patricia; Rodenas, Francisco; Manuel Campayo, Juan; Verdu, Gumersido

    2010-01-01

    The image quality assessment in radiographic equipments is a very important item for a complete quality control of the radiographic image chain. The periodic evaluation of the radiographic image quality must guarantee the constancy of this quality to carry out a suitable diagnosis. Mammographic phantom images are usually used to study the quality of images obtained by determined mammographic equipment. The digital image treatment techniques allow to carry out an automatic analysis of the phantom image. In this work we apply some techniques of digital image processing to analyze in an automatic way the image quality of mammographic phantoms, namely CIRS SP01 and RACON for different varying conditions of the mammographic equipment. The CIRS SP01 phantom is usually used in analogic mammographic equipments and the RACON phantom has been specifically developed by authors to be applied to acceptance and constancy tests of the image quality in digital radiographic equipments following recommendations of international associations. The purpose of this work consists in analyzing the image quality for both phantoms by means of an automatic software utility. This analysis allows us to study the functioning of the image chain of the mammographic system in an objective way, so an abnormal functioning of the radiographic equipment might be detected.

  19. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents: relation to puberty, calcium intake, and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe association of height, weight, pubertal stage, calcium intake, and physical activity with bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in 500 children and adolescents (205 boys and 295 girls), aged 4-20 yr. The BMD (grams per cm2) of lumbar spine and total

  20. Temperature and Population Density Effects on Locomotor Activity of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, T. M.; Faurby, S.; Kjærsgaard, A.

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of ectotherm organisms is affected by both abiotic and biotic factors. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the synergistic effects on behavioral traits. This study examined the effect of temperature and density on locomotor activity of Musca domestica (L.). Locomot...

  1. Corrections in the gold foil activation method for determination of neutron beam density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1967-01-01

    A finite foil thickness and deviation in the cross section from the 1ν law imply corrections in the determination of neutron beam densities by means of foil activation. These corrections, which depend on the neutron velocity distribution, have been examined in general and are given in a specific...

  2. Comparative study on mammographic findings between conventional mammography and digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Calle, Aurelio; Saldarriaga Jaramillo, Ximena; Zapata Walliser, Luz Estela; Mejia Restrepo, Jorge Hernando; Arango Martinez, Adriana; Velez Arango, Jorge Mario

    2007-01-01

    We performed conventional-film mammograms in 180 patients between 35 and 6 years and additionally, we added 2 digital CR technique images to each patient, either craneocaudal (90 patients) or oblique (90 patients). All images were interpreted independently by four radiologists for a total of 720 evaluations, who compared film versus digital images through a 5 mega pixel monitor (soft-copy), using a score scale using the following parameters: mass visualization, detection of micro-calcifications, architectural distortion, visibility of the skin line, and image sharpness and noise. Additionally the tissue density was classified as well as the BIRADS score. The data was processed with the Teleform program and analyzed by de SPSSS program. Results: 52.6% of the micro-calcifications were equally visualized with both systems, in 13.5% of the cases they were better visualized with digital mammography. Similarly, in 50% of the cases, the skin line was better visualized with the digital CR modality. Conclusion: the sharpness of the image was also better seen with the digital CR technique in 48.2%. On the contrary, more noise was seen in digital CR images (63%). digital mammography is a diagnostic alternative that can improve mammographic findings detection and finally become a useful tool in breast cancer diagnosis

  3. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    OpenAIRE

    Molloi, Sabee; Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dua...

  4. Computerized analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns for assessing breast cancer risk: Effect of ROI size and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui; Giger, Maryellen L.; Huo Zhimin; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Lan Li; Weber, Barbara L.; Bonta, Ioana

    2004-01-01

    The long-term goal of our research is to develop computerized radiographic markers for assessing breast density and parenchymal patterns that may be used together with clinical measures for determining the risk of breast cancer and assessing the response to preventive treatment. In our earlier studies, we found that women at high risk tended to have dense breasts with mammographic patterns that were coarse and low in contrast. With our method, computerized texture analysis is performed on a region of interest (ROI) within the mammographic image. In our current study, we investigate the effect of ROI size and ROI location on the computerized texture features obtained from 90 subjects (30 BRCA1/BRCA2 gene-mutation carriers and 60 age-matched women deemed to be at low risk for breast cancer). Mammograms were digitized at 0.1 mm pixel size and various ROI sizes were extracted from different breast regions in the craniocaudal (CC) view. Seventeen features, which characterize the density and texture of the parenchymal patterns, were extracted from the ROIs on these digitized mammograms. Stepwise feature selection and linear discriminant analysis were applied to identify features that differentiate between the low-risk women and the BRCA1/BRCA2 gene-mutation carriers. ROC analysis was used to assess the performance of the features in the task of distinguishing between these two groups. Our results show that there was a statistically significant decrease in the performance of the computerized texture features, as the ROI location was varied from the central region behind the nipple. However, we failed to show a statistically significant decrease in the performance of the computerized texture features with decreasing ROI size for the range studied

  5. Impact of errors in recorded compressed breast thickness measurements on volumetric density classification using volpara v1.5.0 software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waade, Gunvor Gipling; Highnam, Ralph; Hauge, Ingrid H R; McEntee, Mark F; Hofvind, Solveig; Denton, Erika; Kelly, Judith; Sarwar, Jasmine J; Hogg, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Mammographic density has been demonstrated to predict breast cancer risk. It has been proposed that it could be used for stratifying screening pathways and recommending additional imaging. Volumetric density tools use the recorded compressed breast thickness (CBT) of the breast measured at the x-ray unit in their calculation; however, the accuracy of the recorded thickness can vary. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inaccuracies in recorded CBT impact upon volumetric density classification and to examine whether the current quality control (QC) standard is sufficient for assessing mammographic density. Raw data from 52 digital screening mammograms were included in the study. For each image, the clinically recorded CBT was artificially increased and decreased in increments of 1 mm to simulate measurement error, until ±15% from the recorded CBT was reached. New images were created for each 1 mm step in thickness resulting in a total of 974 images which then had volpara density grade (VDG) and volumetric density percentage assigned. A change in VDG was observed in 38.5% (n = 20) of mammograms when applying ±15% error to the recorded CBT and 11.5% (n = 6) was within the QC standard prescribed error of ±5 mm. The current QC standard of ±5 mm error in recorded CBT creates the potential for error in mammographic density measurement. This may lead to inaccurate classification of mammographic density. The current QC standard for assessing mammographic density should be reconsidered.

  6. Changes of the electron density distribution during MHD activity in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltwisch, H.; Tanaka, K.

    2000-09-01

    Density oscillations induced by MHD activities were observed in NBI heated plasmas on CHS by using an HCN laser interferometer. The accompanied changes of the density profiles were also observed. The oscillations are composition of m=0 sawteeth like crash and m=2 sinusoidal oscillations as a post courser of the crash. Possible models of the oscillation structure are examined in order to explain experimental data of the interferometer. Rotating plasma core, which is hollow profile and keeps constant elongation of the flux surface can explain amplitude and phase distribution of the sinusoidal oscillation. (author)

  7. Relationship of Physical Activity Type, Nutrition, and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hwan Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone density reaches its peak in the mid-20s, and it manifests as osteoporosis and osteopenia with aging. Bone density is affected by body mass index, muscle mass, nutritional calcium and vitamin D, various lifestyles, physical activity level, and high level of strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in diet and bone density according to physical activity level in growing male and female adolescents. This study involved 646 male and 581 female adolescents using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination in 2009-2011. The measurement of bone density consisted of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and they were classified into low, middle, and high groups at different ages based on total bone mineral density. The Korean version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire by the World Health Organization was used to measure physical activity level, and a survey regarding strength exercise and stretching was conducted. In the nutritional survey, data from a 24h recall were analyzed. One-way analysis of variance and chi-square test were conducted to examine the significance of any differences present. Even though there was no difference among groups in both males and females, there was a significant difference in weight (p0.05. In males, the high group showed significantly higher calorie intake (p=0.032, protein (p=0.015, calcium (p=0.043, and phosphorus (p=0.013 compared with the low group according to nutrition intake. In terms of physical activity level, there was significant a difference as the proportion of strength exercise more than 3 times a week was 18.1% and 27.2% in the low and high groups, respectively in males (p=0.046, and was 1.0% and 6.1% respectively in females (p=0.014. The proportion of high-intensity exercise 6-7 times a week also showed a significant difference as the low, middle, and high groups showed 5.1%, 5.5%, and 14.1%, respectively (p<0.001. Among adolescents, bone

  8. Relation between Mammographic Parenchymal Patterns and Breast Cancer Risk: Considering BMI, Compressed Breast Thickness and Age of Women in Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnati, Parinaz; Alizadeh, Hamed; Hoda, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic density determined according paranchymal patterns is a risk factor for breast cancer and its relationships with body and other breast characteristics of women is important. The purpose of the present study was to correlate breast parenchymal patterns and mammography abnormality findings with women's BMI, compressed breast thickness (CBT) and age in Tabriz city, Iran. From 1,100 mammograms interpreted by radiologists, breast parenchymal was classified into four categories from Types 1 (mostly fatty) through 4 (mostly fibroglandular tissue). Age, BMI, and CBT were recorded and their relation with risk for the development of breast abnormalities in mammograms was analyzed. In women with a mean age of 45.8±8.63 years 17.7% were in the high density group (Type 3 and 4). A comparison of four types of breast paranchymal with BMI, CBT and age showed inverse relations to breast density. Abnormal mammographic findings were 25.8% of all reported mammograms with a circular mass (12.7%) as the most common abnormality. About 21% abnormal cases were in less than 40 years. Increasing of BMI had significant relation with breast abnormality but in CBT was not observed. Measurement of women's body characteristics is useful for assistance in mammography diagnosis as well as selection of imaging instrument by high sensitivity for following patient in future. The effects of age, CBT and BMI groups on the breast paranchymal were significant.

  9. Visually assessed breast density, breast cancer risk and the importance of the craniocaudal view.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffy, S.W.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Astley, S.M.; Gillan, M.G.; McGee, M.A.; Boggis, C.R.; Wilson, M.; Beetles, U.M.; Griffiths, M.A.; Jain, A.K.; Johnson, J.; Roberts, R.; Deans, H.; Duncan, K.A.; Iyengar, G.; Griffiths, P.M.; Warwick, J.; Cuzick, J.; Gilbert, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density is known to be a strong risk factor for breast cancer. A particularly strong association with risk has been observed when density is measured using interactive threshold software. This, however, is a labour-intensive process for large-scale studies. METHODS: Our

  10. Low diversity, activity, and density of transposable elements in five avian genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Wang, Saisai; Wang, Yali; Shen, Dan; Xue, Songlei; Chen, Cai; Cui, Hengmi; Song, Chengyi

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we conducted the activity, diversity, and density analysis of transposable elements (TEs) across five avian genomes (budgerigar, chicken, turkey, medium ground finch, and zebra finch) to explore the potential reason of small genome sizes of birds. We found that these avian genomes exhibited low density of TEs by about 10% of genome coverages and low diversity of TEs with the TE landscapes dominated by CR1 and ERV elements, and contrasting proliferation dynamics both between TE types and between species were observed across the five avian genomes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CR1 clade was more diverse in the family structure compared with R2 clade in birds; avian ERVs were classified into four clades (alpha, beta, gamma, and ERV-L) and belonged to three classes of ERV with an uneven distributed in these lineages. The activities of DNA and SINE TEs were very low in the evolution history of avian genomes; most LINEs and LTRs were ancient copies with a substantial decrease of activity in recent, with only LTRs and LINEs in chicken and zebra finch exhibiting weak activity in very recent, and very few TEs were intact; however, the recent activity may be underestimated due to the sequencing/assembly technologies in some species. Overall, this study demonstrates low diversity, activity, and density of TEs in the five avian species; highlights the differences of TEs in these lineages; and suggests that the current and recent activity of TEs in avian genomes is very limited, which may be one of the reasons of small genome sizes in birds.

  11. Density, distribution, and activity of the ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae) in Southeast Mexican rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Irineo, Gabriela; Santos-Moreno, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The ocelot Leopardus pardalis is of particular significance in terrestrial communities due to its ecological role within the group of small-sized felids and as a mesopredator. However, despite the reduction of ocelot habitat in Southeast Mexico, there are still very few ecological studies. This research aimed to contribute with some ecological aspects of the species in this region. For this, 29 camera trap stations were established in a rain forest in Los Chimalapas (an area of 22 km2) during a two years period (March 2011-June, 2013), in Oaxaca state, Southeast Mexico. Data allowed the estimation of the population density, activity pattern, sex ratio, residence time, and spatial distribution. Population density was calculated using Capture-Recapture Models for demographically open populations; besides, circular techniques were used to determine if nocturnal and diurnal activity varied significantly over the seasons, and Multiple Discriminant Analysis was used to determine which of the selected environmental variables best explained ocelot abundance in the region. A total of 103 ocelot records were obtained, with a total sampling effort of 8,529 trap-days. Density of 22-38 individuals/100 km2 was estimated. Ocelot population had a high proportion of transient individuals in the zone (55%), and the sex ratio was statistically equal to 1:1. Ocelot activity was more frequent at night (1:00-6:00h), but it also exhibited diurnal activity throughout the study period. Ocelot spatial distribution was positively affected by the proximity to the village as well as by the amount of prey. The ocelot population here appears to be stable, with a density similar to other regions in Central and South America, which could be attributed to the diversity of prey species and a low degree of disturbance in Los Chimalapas.

  12. Local and Landscape Correlates of Spider Activity Density and Species Richness in Urban Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoshi, Michelle D; Bichier, Peter; Philpott, Stacy M

    2015-08-01

    Urbanization is a major threat to arthropod biodiversity and abundance due to reduction and loss of suitable natural habitat. Green spaces and small-scale agricultural areas may provide habitat and resources for arthropods within densely developed cities. We studied spider activity density (a measure of both abundance and degree of movement) and diversity in urban gardens in Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, and Monterey counties in central California, USA. We sampled for spiders with pitfall traps and sampled 38 local site characteristics for 5 mo in 19 garden sites to determine the relative importance of individual local factors. We also analyzed 16 landscape variables at 500-m and 1-km buffers surrounding each garden to determine the significance of landscape factors. We identified individuals from the most common families to species and identified individuals from other families to morphospecies. Species from the families Lycosidae and Gnaphosidae composed 81% of total adult spider individuals. Most of the significant factors that correlated with spider activity density and richness were local rather than landscape factors. Spider activity density and richness increased with mulch cover and flowering plant species, and decreased with bare soil. Thus, changes in local garden management have the potential to promote diversity of functionally important spiders in urban environments. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A High Power Density Integrated Charger for Electric Vehicles with Active Ripple Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a high power density on-board integrated charger with active ripple compensation circuit for electric vehicles. To obtain a high power density and high efficiency, silicon carbide devices are reported to meet the requirement of high-switching-frequency operation. An integrated bidirectional converter is proposed to function as AC/DC battery charger and to transfer energy between battery pack and motor drive of the traction system. In addition, the conventional H-bridge circuit suffers from ripple power pulsating at second-order line frequency, and a scheme of active ripple compensation circuit has been explored to solve this second-order ripple problem, in which a pair of power switches shared traction mode, a ripple energy storage capacitor, and an energy transfer inductor. Simulation results in MATLAB/Simulink validated the eligibility of the proposed topology. The integrated charger can work as a 70 kW motor drive circuit or a converter with an active ripple compensation circuit for 3 kW charging the battery. The impact of the proposed topology and control strategy on the integrated charger power losses, efficiency, power density, and thermal performance has also been analysed and simulated.

  14. Anti-hierarchical evolution of the active galactic nucleus space density in a hierarchical universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enoki, Motohiro; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagashima, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations show that the space density of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) peaks at higher redshifts than that of faint AGNs. This downsizing trend in the AGN evolution seems to be contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario. In this study, we present the AGN space density evolution predicted by a semi-analytic model of galaxy and AGN formation based on the hierarchical structure formation scenario. We demonstrate that our model can reproduce the downsizing trend of the AGN space density evolution. The reason for the downsizing trend in our model is a combination of the cold gas depletion as a consequence of star formation, the gas cooling suppression in massive halos, and the AGN lifetime scaling with the dynamical timescale. We assume that a major merger of galaxies causes a starburst, spheroid formation, and cold gas accretion onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also assume that this cold gas accretion triggers AGN activity. Since the cold gas is mainly depleted by star formation and gas cooling is suppressed in massive dark halos, the amount of cold gas accreted onto SMBHs decreases with cosmic time. Moreover, AGN lifetime increases with cosmic time. Thus, at low redshifts, major mergers do not always lead to luminous AGNs. Because the luminosity of AGNs is correlated with the mass of accreted gas onto SMBHs, the space density of luminous AGNs decreases more quickly than that of faint AGNs. We conclude that the anti-hierarchical evolution of the AGN space density is not contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario.

  15. Anti-hierarchical evolution of the active galactic nucleus space density in a hierarchical universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enoki, Motohiro [Faculty of Business Administration, Tokyo Keizai University, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8502 (Japan); Ishiyama, Tomoaki [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R. [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Nagashima, Masahiro, E-mail: enokimt@tku.ac.jp [Faculty of Education, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)

    2014-10-10

    Recent observations show that the space density of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) peaks at higher redshifts than that of faint AGNs. This downsizing trend in the AGN evolution seems to be contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario. In this study, we present the AGN space density evolution predicted by a semi-analytic model of galaxy and AGN formation based on the hierarchical structure formation scenario. We demonstrate that our model can reproduce the downsizing trend of the AGN space density evolution. The reason for the downsizing trend in our model is a combination of the cold gas depletion as a consequence of star formation, the gas cooling suppression in massive halos, and the AGN lifetime scaling with the dynamical timescale. We assume that a major merger of galaxies causes a starburst, spheroid formation, and cold gas accretion onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also assume that this cold gas accretion triggers AGN activity. Since the cold gas is mainly depleted by star formation and gas cooling is suppressed in massive dark halos, the amount of cold gas accreted onto SMBHs decreases with cosmic time. Moreover, AGN lifetime increases with cosmic time. Thus, at low redshifts, major mergers do not always lead to luminous AGNs. Because the luminosity of AGNs is correlated with the mass of accreted gas onto SMBHs, the space density of luminous AGNs decreases more quickly than that of faint AGNs. We conclude that the anti-hierarchical evolution of the AGN space density is not contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario.

  16. The effect of activation agent on surface morphology, density and porosity of palm shell and coconut shell activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Zakaria, S.; Salleh, M. N. M.; Sunar, N. M.; Feriyanto, D.; Nazri, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has one of the promising alternative technology for filtration and adsorption process. It inexpensive material because the sources is abundant especially in Malaysia. Main purpose of this project is to develop AC by chemical activation process to improve adsorption capacity by improving porosity of AC. AC developed via carbonization using designed burner at temperature of 650°C to 850 °C and activated by Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) in 12 hour and then dried at temperature of 300°C. Characterization and analysis is conducted by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for surface morphology analysis, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) for composition analysis, density and porosity analysis. Results shows that uneven surface has been observed both of AC and non-AC and also AC shows higher porosity as compared to non-AC materials. Density value of raw material has lower than AC up to 11.67% and 47.54% and porosity of raw material has higher than AC up to 31.45% and 45.69% for palm shell and coconut shell AC. It can be concluded that lower density represent higher porosity of material and higher porosity indicated higher adsorption capacity as well.

  17. Results of pilot project on introducing quality control of mammographic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasileva, Zh.; Lichev, A.; Dimov, A.; Kostova, E.; Dimov, G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective:The results from a pilot project, realized in the framework of the PHARE Project 'Radiation Protection and Safety in Medical Use of the Ionizing Radiation'. The main goal of the project is the elaboration a quality control program for mammographic equipment and its implementation in 4 radiological units in the country. Another task is to examine the possibility for conducting a mammographic screening using this equipment. Material and methods: The developed quality control program has the following components: test parameters; criteria for intervention; minimal frequency of measurement. Methodologies for measurement of the parameters and assessment of the results in accordance with the European Protocol for physical and technical aspects of the mammographic screening. Standard protocols have been elaborated. Results: The quality program has been tested for three month at different hospitals. Conclusions: Optimization and strict control of the process of film development are needed. The exposure equipment. The quality control program should be implemented on all mammographic equipment in the country. For the performance of mammographic screening a strict selection of the equipment is necessary

  18. The mammographic correlations of a new immunohistochemical classification of invasive breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taneja, S. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sheeba_taneja@yahoo.co.uk; Evans, A.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Rakha, E.A.; Green, A.R. [Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ball, G. [Nottingham Trent University, School of Biomedical and Natural Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ellis, I.O. [Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    Aim: Recent protein expression profiling of breast cancer has identified specific subtypes with clinical, biological, and therapeutic implications. The aim of this study was to identify the mammographic correlates of these novel molecular classes of invasive breast cancer. Materials and methods: The mammographic findings of 415 patients with operable breast cancer were correlated with the previously described protein expression classes identified by our group using immunohistochemical (IHC) assessment of a large series of breast cancer cases prepared as tissue microarrays (TMAs). Twenty-five proteins of known relevance in breast cancer were assessed, including hormone receptors, HER-2 status, basal and luminal markers, p53 expression, and E-cadherin. Results: The mammographic background pattern and proportion of lesions that were mammographically occult were similar in all groups. Groups characterized by luminal and hormone receptor positivity had significantly more spiculate lesions at mammography. Groups characterized by HER-2 overexpression, basal characteristics, and E-cadherin positivity had a significantly higher proportion of ill-defined masses. These findings were independent of histological grade. Conclusion: The mammographic features of breast cancer show significant correlation with molecular classes of invasive breast cancer identified by protein expression IHC analysis. The biological reasons for the findings and implications of these regarding imaging protocols require further study and may provide mechanisms for improvement of detection of these lesions.

  19. Computer-aided diagnosis of mammographic microcalcification clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallergi, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis techniques in medical imaging are developed for the automated differentiation between benign and malignant lesions and go beyond computer-aided detection by providing cancer likelihood for a detected lesion given image and/or patient characteristics. The goal of this study was the development and evaluation of a computer-aided detection and diagnosis algorithm for mammographic calcification clusters. The emphasis was on the diagnostic component, although the algorithm included automated detection, segmentation, and classification steps based on wavelet filters and artificial neural networks. Classification features were selected primarily from descriptors of the morphology of the individual calcifications and the distribution of the cluster. Thirteen such descriptors were selected and, combined with patient's age, were given as inputs to the network. The features were ranked and evaluated for the classification of 100 high-resolution, digitized mammograms containing biopsy-proven, benign and malignant calcification clusters. The classification performance of the algorithm reached a 100% sensitivity for a specificity of 85% (receiver operating characteristic area index A z =0.98±0.01). Tests of the algorithm under various conditions showed that the selected features were robust morphological and distributional descriptors, relatively insensitive to segmentation and detection errors such as false positive signals. The algorithm could exceed the performance of a similar visual analysis system that was used as basis for development and, combined with a simple image standardization process, could be applied to images from different imaging systems and film digitizers with similar sensitivity and specificity rates

  20. Effects of repeated mammographic screening on breast cancer stage distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerberg, G.; Baldetorp, L.; Groentoft, O.; Lundstroem, B.; Maanson, J.C.; Nordenskjoeld, B.

    1985-01-01

    A randomised controlled trial of mass screening for breast cancer by single-view mammography was begun in Sweden in 1977. All women aged 40 and older and resident in the counties of Koppaberg and Oestergoetland were enrolled. The present report is confined to the Oestergoetland study, which started in 1978 and comprised 92934 women. After randomisation, which was done on the basis of communities rather than individuals, 47001 women were allocated to the study group and offered repeated mammographic screening; 45933 were allocated to the control group. As compliance among women over 74 years of age was poor these were excluded from the present report. The yearly incidence of stage II or more advanced breast cancers after the initial screening round up to and including the second was reduced by 40 per cent in the study group compared with the controls. This effect was less marked in the age group 40-49. After 5.5 years average from the date of entry the absolute number of women with stage II-IV disease in the control group exceeded that for the study group by 44, whereas there was a large excess of cancer in situ and stage I cancer in the study group. (orig.)

  1. Classification of mammographic masses using generalized dynamic fuzzy neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Wei Keat; Er, Meng Joo

    2004-01-01

    In this article, computer-aided classification of mammographic masses using generalized dynamic fuzzy neural networks (GDFNN) is presented. The texture parameters, derived from first-order gradient distribution and gray-level co-occurrence matrices, were computed from the regions of interest. A total of 343 images containing 180 benign masses and 163 malignant masses from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography were analyzed. A fast approach of automatically generating fuzzy rules from training samples was implemented to classify tumors. This work is novel in that it alleviates the problem of requiring a designer to examine all the input-output relationships of a training database in order to obtain the most appropriate structure for the classifier in a conventional computer-aided diagnosis. In this approach, not only the connection weights can be adjusted, but also the structure can be self-adaptive during the learning process. By virtue of the automatic generation of the classifier by the GDFNN learning algorithm, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, A z , attains 0.868±0.020, which corresponds to a true-positive fraction of 95.0% at a false positive fraction of 52.8%. The corresponding accuracy is 70.0%, the positive predictive value is 62.0%, and the negative predictive value is 91.4%

  2. A study of mammographic and thermographic findings in breast diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Sik; Jeon, Woo Ki; Kim, Jeong Sook; Han, Chang Yul

    1989-01-01

    The ideal diagnostic methods in breast diseases consist of the physical examination and complementary radiologic examination. In radiologic examination mammography is the most popular screening methods and the older simple complementary method is thermography which is efficient under the conditions of elevated skin temperature in inflammatory and malignant lesions. From Jan. 1st 1987 through Jan. 30th, 1988, 110 pts. with complaints of mammary problems were examined by mammography and thermography at Paik Hospital, Inje University. The authors selected and analyzed 97 cases had been pathologically proved through the operation and the fine needle aspiration biopsy. The results were as follows: 1. The most prevalent age group was 5th decade (40%) in cancer, 4th decade (47%) in mammary dysplasia and followed by fibroadenoma (63%) in 4th decade. 2. The mammographic and thermographic findings were compared between the mammary dysplasia and the infiltrating ductal cancer. In mammary dysplasia abnormal hot emissions were appeared in 9/44 (17%) correlated with atypical hyperchromatic cytoplasm relates to pre-malignant group. 3. We hope and expect the early detection of breast cancer through the follow-up study in pre-malignant group of mammary dysplasia

  3. Mammographically detected breast arterial calcifications: Indicators for arteriosclerotic diseases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskin, Fuesun; Akdilli, Alev; Karaman, Can; Unsal, Alparslan; Koeseoglu, Kutsi; Ergin, Filiz

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of breast arterial calcifications (BAC) detected on mammography and search for conditions that may influence their existence. Materials and methods: The mammograms of 6156 consecutive patients were reevaluated for the presence of BAC. Four hundred eighty-five women having BAC were enrolled in the patient group. Additionally, randomly selected 500 women, without BAC constituted the control group. Hospital records of the participants were reviewed for parity, menopausal status, oral contraceptive agent (OCA) usage, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) usage, presence of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, albuminuria and history of myocardial infarction (MI). Results: Prevalence of BAC was 7.9% on mammograms. Ninety-four women were aged between 40 and 49 years, 165 were aged between 50 and 59 years and 226 were over 60 years among BAC positive 485 women. A significant relationship was found for the frequency of BAC versus age and HRT usage in all age groups (p 0.05). Conclusion: Most benign findings like BAC are not routinely reported during mammographic evaluation. Our study showed that, presence of BAC on mammography was strongly related to advancing age. However, these findings may signify a systemic risk and can be used as precautious indicators for undocumented systemic diseases, especially in premenopausal women

  4. Cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of human adipose tissue stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Seong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Ko, Young Jong; Chun, Yong Hoon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of cell density on the proliferation activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) over time in culture. Passage #4 (P4) and #12 (P12) AT-MSCs from two donors were plated at a density of 200 (culture condition 1, CC1) or 5000 (culture condition 2, CC2) cells cm(-2) . After 7 days of incubation, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs cultured in CC1 were thin and spindle-shaped, whereas those cultured in CC2 had extensive cell-to-cell contacts and an expanded cell volume. In addition, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs in CC1 divided more than three times, while those in CC2 divided less than once on average. Flow cytometric analysis using 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester dye showed that the fluorescence intensity of AT-MSCs was lower in CC1 than in CC2. Furthermore, expression of proliferation-associated genes, such as CDC45L, CDC20A and KIF20A, in P4 AT-MSCs was higher in CC1 than in CC2, and this difference was also observed in P12 AT-MSCs. These data demonstrated that cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of MSCs, suggesting that it is feasible to design a strategy to prepare suitable MSCs using specific culture conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier With Active Ripple Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruxi [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Wang, Fei [ORNL; Boroyevich, Dushan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Burgos, Rolando [ABB; Lai, Rixin [General Electric; Ning, Puqi [ORNL; Rajashekara, Kaushik [Rolls Royce

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that single-phase pulse width modulation rectifiers have second-order harmonic currents and corresponding ripple voltages on the dc bus. The low-frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus, which results in low power density. However, pursuing high power density in converter design is a very important goal in the aerospace applications. This paper studies methods for reducing the energy storage capacitor for single-phase rectifiers. The minimum ripple energy storage requirement is derived independently of a specific topology. Based on theminimum ripple energy requirement, the feasibility of the active capacitor s reduction schemes is verified. Then, we propose a bidirectional buck boost converter as the ripple energy storage circuit, which can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The analysis and design are validated by simulation and experimental results.

  6. Native High Density Lipoproteins (HDL Interfere with Platelet Activation Induced by Oxidized Low Density Lipoproteins (OxLDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Volf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Platelets and lipoproteins play a crucial role in atherogenesis, in part by their ability to modulate inflammation and oxidative stress. While oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDL play a central role in the development of this disease, high density lipoproteins (HDL represent an atheroprotective factor of utmost importance. As platelet function is remarkably sensitive to the influence of plasma lipoproteins, it was the aim of this study to clarify if HDL are able to counteract the stimulating effects of OxLDL with special emphasis on aspects of platelet function that are relevant to inflammation. Therefore, HDL were tested for their ability to interfere with pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory aspects of platelet function. We are able to show that HDL significantly impaired OxLDL-induced platelet aggregation and adhesion. In gel-filtered platelets, HDL decreased both the formation of reactive oxygen species and CD40L expression. Furthermore, HDL strongly interfered with OxLDL-induced formation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates in whole blood, suggesting that platelets represent a relevant and sensitive target for HDL. The finding that HDL effectively competed with the binding of OxLDL to the platelet surface might contribute to their atheroprotective and antithrombotic properties.

  7. Breast cancer detection using sonography in women with mammographically dense breasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okello, Jimmy; Kisembo, Harriet; Bugeza, Sam; Galukande, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Mammography, the gold standard for breast cancer screening misses some cancers, especially in women with dense breasts. Breast ultrasonography as a supplementary imaging tool for further evaluation of symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts may improve the detection of mass lesions otherwise missed at mammography. The purpose of this study was to determine the incremental breast cancer detection rate using US scanning in symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts in a resource poor environment. A cross sectional descriptive study. Women referred for mammography underwent bilateral breast ultrasound, and mammography for symptom evaluation. The lesions seen by both modalities were described using sonographic BI-RADS lexicon and categorized. Ultrasound guided core biopsies were performed. IRB approval was obtained and all participants provided informed written consent. In total 148 women with mammographically dense breasts were recruited over six months. The prevalence of breast cancer in symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts was 22/148 (15%). Mammography detected 16/22 (73%) of these cases and missed 6/22 (27%). The six breast cancer cases missed were correctly diagnosed on breast ultrasonography. Sonographic features typical of breast malignancy were irregular shape, non-parallel orientation, non circumscribed margin, echogenic halo, and increased lesion vascularity (p values < 0.005). Typical sonofeatures of benign mass lesions were: oval shape, parallel orientation and circumscribed margin (p values <0.005). Breast ultrasound scan as a supplementary imaging tool detected 27% more malignant mass lesions otherwise missed by mammography among these symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts. We recommend that ultra sound scanning in routine evaluation of symptomatic women with mammographically dense breasts

  8. Bone mineral density across a range of physical activity volumes: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Kohrt, Wendy M; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley K; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Kohl, Harold W

    2015-02-01

    The association between aerobic physical activity volume and bone mineral density (BMD) is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between BMD and aerobic activity across a broad range of activity volumes, particularly volumes between those recommended in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans and those of trained endurance athletes. Data from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to quantify the association between reported physical activity and BMD at the lumbar spine and proximal femur across the entire range of activity volumes reported by US adults. Participants were categorized into multiples of the minimum guideline-recommended volume based on reported moderate- and vigorous-intensity leisure activity. Lumbar and proximal femur BMD were assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Among women, multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses revealed no significant differences in lumbar BMD across activity categories, whereas proximal femur BMD was significantly higher among those who exceeded the guidelines by 2-4 times than those who reported no activity. Among men, multivariable-adjusted BMD at both sites neared its highest values among those who exceeded the guidelines by at least 4 times and was not progressively higher with additional activity. Logistic regression estimating the odds of low BMD generally echoed the linear regression results. The association between physical activity volume and BMD is complex. Among women, exceeding guidelines by 2-4 times may be important for maximizing BMD at the proximal femur, whereas among men, exceeding guidelines by ≥4 times may be beneficial for lumbar and proximal femur BMD.

  9. Mammographic findings predicting an extensive intraductal component in early stage invasive breast cancer : analysis on microcalcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Mi Hye; Lee, Mi Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2000-01-01

    To analyze the mammographic findings of extensive intraductal component (EIC)-positive early invasive breast carcinoma and to determine the mammographic features which predict an EIC positivity in an invasive carcinoma. The mammographic and pathologic findings in 71 patients aged 34-79 (mean 50) years in whom stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma had been diagnosed were retrospectively analysed. The mammographic findings were assigned to one of three groups: mass, mass with microcalcification, or microcalcification only. The shape and distribution of a calcification were classified according to the BI-RADS lexicon, and its extent was classified as either more or less than 3 cm. To detect the presence or absence of EIC and the type of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the findings were re-examined by means of slide mappings. Twenty-eight of 71 patients (39%) showed ECI positivity. The mammographic findings of EIC-positive invasive cancer (n=3D28) were mass with microcalcification (n=3D14), microcalcification only (n=3D7) and mass only (n=3D7). The mammographic finding which predicted EIC positivity was mass with microcalcification (PPV:0.67, NPV:0.33, p=3D0.02). A mammographic of mass only (n=3D39) showed a significantly high negative predictive value for EIC positivity. (PPV 0.18, NPV 0.82, P less than 0.01). A comparison of cases with or without calcification showed that those with microcalcifications (n=3D32) showed a significantly high PPV of 0.66 (NPV:0.34, p less than 0.01) while those without calcification (n=3D39) showed a significantly high NPV of 0.82 (PPV:0.18, p less than 0.01). There were no significant differences in positive predictive values for EIC between the shape, distribution and extent of calcifications. Whenever microcalcification with or without mass is seen on mammographs obtained during early breast cancer, we can predict EIC-positivity, regardless of shape or distribution according to the BI-RADS lexicon. (author)

  10. American College of Radiology Accreditation Program for mammographic screening sites: Physical evaluation criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrick, R.E.; Haus, A.G.; Hubbard, L.B.; Lasky, H.J.; McCrohan, J.; McLelland, R.; Rothenberg, L.N.; Tanner, R.L.; Zinninger, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The American College of Radiology has initiated a program for the accreditation of mammographic screening sites, which includes evaluation by mail of image quality and average glandular breast dose. Image quality is evaluated by use of a specially designed phantom (a modified RMI 152D Mammographic Phantom) containing simulated microcalcifications, fibrils and masses. Average glandular dose to a simulated 4.5-cm-thick (50% glandular, 50% fat) compressed breast is evaluated by thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements of entrance exposure and half value layer. Standards for acceptable image quality and patient doses are presented and preliminary results of the accreditation program are discussed

  11. Mammographic and sonographic findings of breast cancer in women younger than 35 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw de Paredes, E.; Marsteller, L.; Eden, B.

    1989-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is uncommon in women under 35 years of age and may be difficult to detect because clinically palpable masses are usually benign, and mammography may be limited by dense parenchyma. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the mammographic findings in young patients with breast cancer and the efficacy of mammography in identifying these lesions. During an 8-year period, 100 breast cancers were diagnosed mammography and sonography were performed in 678% and 19% of patients, respectively; mammography demonstrated the lesion in 90% of cases. Mammographic and sonographic findings are presented

  12. High-density EMG e-textile systems for the control of active prostheses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farina, Dario; Lorrain, Thomas; Negro, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Myoelectric control of active prostheses requires electrode systems that are easy to apply for daily repositioning of the electrodes by the user. In this study we propose the use of Smart Fabric and Interactive Textile (SFIT) systems as an alternative solution for recording high-density EMG signa...... classified with linear discriminant analysis. The average classification accuracy for the nine tasks was 89.1 1.9 %. These results show that SFIT systems can be used as an effective way for muscle-machine interfacing....

  13. Bone mineral density changes during pregnancy in actively exercising women as measured by quantitative ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, William W K; Wong, Margaret W N

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate whether bone mineral density (BMD) changes in women engaged in active exercises during pregnancy would be different from non-exercising women. Consecutive patients with singleton pregnancies who were engaged in active exercise training during pregnancy were prospectively recruited over a period of 6 months. Quantitative USG measurements of the os calcis BMD were performed at 14-20 weeks and at 36-38 weeks. These patients were compared to a control cohort of non-exercising low-risk women. A total of 24 physically active women undergoing active physical training of over 10 h per week at 20 weeks gestation and beyond (mean 13.1 h, SD 3.3) were compared to 94 non-exercising low-risk women. A marginal fall in BMD of 0.015 g/cm(2) (SD 0.034) was demonstrable from early to late gestation in the exercising women, which was significantly lower than that of non-exercising women (0.041 g/cm(2); SD 0.042; p = 0.005). Logistic regression models confirmed that active exercises in pregnancy were significantly associated with the absence of or less BMD loss in pregnancy. In women actively engaged in physical training during pregnancy, the physiological fall in BMD during pregnancy was apparently less compared to those who did not regularly exercise.

  14. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1. Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA. PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health.

  15. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity is associated with fatty acid composition of high density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshtam, Maryam; Razavi, Amirnader Emami; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Ani, Mohsen; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Basati, Gholam; Mansourian, Marjan; Dinani, Narges Jafari; Asgary, Seddigheh; Abdi, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω 6 fatty acids of HDL. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health.

  16. Generation of CR mammographic image for evaluation quality parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Mabel B.; Mourao, Arnaldo P.; Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais

    2017-01-01

    Currently, among the diseases most feared by women, breast cancer ranks first in the world with an incidence of more than 1.6 million cases and a mortality of more than 521.9 thousand cases by year, which makes this disease the type of cancer with higher incidence and mortality compared to the other types of cancer that mainly affect the female gender, without considering non-melanoma skin cancer. In Brazil, more than 14.4 thousand deaths were registered in 2013 and more than 57 thousand new cases were estimated for 2016. The use of computerized radiography (CR) for the generation of mammographic digital images is widely used in Brazil for the screening of breast cancer. The aim of this investigation is to study the variation of CR plate response to exposure to X-ray beams in a mammography unit. Two CR plates from different manufacturers and a compressed breast phantom containing calcium carbonate structures of different sizes simulating calcifications were used for this study. An X-ray beam generated by 30 kV was selected to realize successive exposures of each plate by performing a time variation of 0.5 to 3.5 s, obtaining the raw images. The acquired images were evaluated with the ImageJ software to determine the saturation time of the plates when exposed to X-ray beams and the qualitative resolution of each plate. The plates were found to saturate at different times when exposed under the same conditions to X-ray beams. By means of the images acquired with the breast phantom, it was possible to observe only structures of calcium carbonate with sizes greater than 177 μm. (author)

  17. A study of mammographic appearance of the breast disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kil Ho; Jung, Kyung Hee; Hwang, Mi Soo; Chang, Jae Chun; Kim, Myung Se; Shim, Min Chul; Min, Hyun Sik [College of Medicine, Yeung Nam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-08-15

    The history of the radiological examination of the breast has been long, and recently the methods for examining the breast are variable: mammography, thermography, xeroradiography, ultrasonography, water-path sonography, transillumination, mammary C.T., M.R imaging, infra-red scanning, nuclear medicine, and galactography. Most of these methods were not proven or have not been satisfied on their clinical testing but conventional mammography has been the gold standard for diagnosis of the breast cancer and no other method has reached its effectiveness. The authors performed mammography in 488 patients with breast abnormalities who had visited to Yeung Nam University hospital from May, 1983 to December, 1984. And we analyzed the mammographic findings and diagnostic accuracy in pathologically confirmed 53 cases by operations or biopsies. The results are as follows: 1. Among 16 cases of breast malignancies (1) the most prevalent age group is 6th decade (37.5%), followed by 5th decade (31.3%), (2) the most common pathologic type is ductal carcinoma (93.75%), (3) the masses are larger than 2cm in 8 cases, smaller than 2cm in 5 cases, and no visible mass is observed in 3 cases. 2. Among 37 cases of benign breast diseases, (1) the most prevalent age group is 4th and 5th decades (each 11 cases), and followed by 3rd decade (8 cases), (2) the most common disease is benign tumor (17 cases), followed by fibrocystic dysplasia (13 cases), and inflammating disease (7 cases), (3) radiologically visible masses are observed in 16 cases and the masses are smaller than 2cm in 11 cases. 3. The diagnostic accuracy of mammography compared with that of pathology, (1) in malignancy, the accuracy rate is 75% (12/16 cases), and 87% (32/37 cases) in benign diseases, (2) average accuracy rate is 81% (44/53 cases)

  18. A study of mammographic appearance of the breast disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kil Ho; Jung, Kyung Hee; Hwang, Mi Soo; Chang, Jae Chun; Kim, Myung Se; Shim, Min Chul; Min, Hyun Sik

    1985-01-01

    The history of the radiological examination of the breast has been long, and recently the methods for examining the breast are variable: mammography, thermography, xeroradiography, ultrasonography, water-path sonography, transillumination, mammary C.T., M.R imaging, infra-red scanning, nuclear medicine, and galactography. Most of these methods were not proven or have not been satisfied on their clinical testing but conventional mammography has been the gold standard for diagnosis of the breast cancer and no other method has reached its effectiveness. The authors performed mammography in 488 patients with breast abnormalities who had visited to Yeung Nam University hospital from May, 1983 to December, 1984. And we analyzed the mammographic findings and diagnostic accuracy in pathologically confirmed 53 cases by operations or biopsies. The results are as follows: 1. Among 16 cases of breast malignancies (1) the most prevalent age group is 6th decade (37.5%), followed by 5th decade (31.3%), (2) the most common pathologic type is ductal carcinoma (93.75%), (3) the masses are larger than 2cm in 8 cases, smaller than 2cm in 5 cases, and no visible mass is observed in 3 cases. 2. Among 37 cases of benign breast diseases, (1) the most prevalent age group is 4th and 5th decades (each 11 cases), and followed by 3rd decade (8 cases), (2) the most common disease is benign tumor (17 cases), followed by fibrocystic dysplasia (13 cases), and inflammating disease (7 cases), (3) radiologically visible masses are observed in 16 cases and the masses are smaller than 2cm in 11 cases. 3. The diagnostic accuracy of mammography compared with that of pathology, (1) in malignancy, the accuracy rate is 75% (12/16 cases), and 87% (32/37 cases) in benign diseases, (2) average accuracy rate is 81% (44/53 cases)

  19. Mammographic and Ultrasonographic Findings of the Chemoport Insertion Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seun Jung; Kang, Bong Joo; Cha, Eun Suk; Park, Hye Jung; Kim, Sung Hun; Choi, Jae Jeong; Lee, Ji Hye

    2010-01-01

    To describe mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of previous chemoport insertion sites. We included patients who had abnormal findings at chemoport insertion sites on mammography and ultrasonography from 224 patients who underwent chemoport insertion and breast imaging at our institution between January, 2005, and December, 2007. Abnormal findings were identified in 16 mammographies and 14 ultrasonographies in 10 patients. The mean age was 50.9 years and the age range was from 44 to 67 years. Abnormal findings on mammography and ultrasonography were retrospectively analyzed according to ACR/BI-RADS. All cases were followed up with imaging studies for 2 years to confirm changes after chemoport insertion. Of the abnormal findings identified on mammography, focal asymmetry (7/16) was the most common. Other abnormal findings included mass (6/16), skin retraction (2/16), residual chemoport tip (1/16), and trabecular thickening (1/16). Of the abnormal findings seen on ultrasonography, skin thickening (12/14) was the most common. Other abnormal findings included mass (5/14), diffuse increased echogenicity of subcutaneous tissue (1/14), and a localized skin nodule (1/14). Abnormal findings on mammography and ultrasonography were located in the upper outer quadrant in 5 patients, upper inner quadrant in 3 patients, and mid upper portion in 1 patient. In 1 patient, the abnormal finding was only identified in the mediolateral oblique view of her mammography. Radiologists should be aware of potential abnormal findings on mammography and ultrasonography following chemoport insertion. In particular, ultrasonography is a very useful modality for detecting skin complications after chemoport insertion

  20. Relevance analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Rendong; Lv Xiangyang; Li Shaolin; Gao Ming; Miao Liqiong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Discussing the relativity of Mammographic parenchymal patterns and breast cancer, implementing the intervention treatment and regularly traces to the breast high dangerous crowd, in order to reduce the occurrence rate of beast cancer and the mortality rate. Methods: Mammary gland type was marked according to X ray on 500 breast cancer subjects and 1000 control subjects. Peri-cancer histological sections of the subtypes of the breast cancer group and histological section of the subtypes of the control group were studied contrastively to analyze the breast cancer risk index in every subtype and the occurrence rate in every age group. The types and the occurrence rates were counted. Results: (1)The lowest risk group: the subtypes with OR 0.3 and the cancer incidence rate ranging from 5% to 10% were IV b, II b, III b. (4)High-risk group: the subtypes with OR> 1 and the cancer incidence rate above 10% were III c, IV c. High dangerous age sections of breast cancer: 35 to 55 years old in IVc and IIIc (the age section of IIIc may lengthen to 60 years old), 31 to 50 years old in IVb, 50 to 60 years old in IIIb and IIb. Conclusion: IIIc and IVc belong to the high dangerous subtypes. People of these subtypes reach 67.4% of all breast cancer examples, so these people are the main subjects of the mammary gland general survey and tracing. Patient aged from 35 to 55 should be reexamined once a year. When necessary, the intervention treatment may be carried out to prevent breast cancer and to reduce the occurrence rate of beast cancer. Discovery and treatment in early phase can improve the breast cancer's survival quality, and reduce the mortality rate. (authors)

  1. Spectral analysis of mammographic images using a multitaper method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gang; Mainprize, James G.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Power spectral analysis in radiographic images is conventionally performed using a windowed overlapping averaging periodogram. This study describes an alternative approach using a multitaper technique and compares its performance with that of the standard method. This tool will be valuable in power spectrum estimation of images, whose content deviates significantly from uniform white noise. The performance of the multitaper approach will be evaluated in terms of spectral stability, variance reduction, bias, and frequency precision. The ultimate goal is the development of a useful tool for image quality assurance. Methods: A multitaper approach uses successive data windows of increasing order. This mitigates spectral leakage allowing one to calculate a reduced-variance power spectrum. The multitaper approach will be compared with the conventional power spectrum method in several typical situations, including the noise power spectra (NPS) measurements of simulated projection images of a uniform phantom, NPS measurement of real detector images of a uniform phantom for two clinical digital mammography systems, and the estimation of the anatomic noise in mammographic images (simulated images and clinical mammograms). Results: Examination of spectrum variance versus frequency resolution and bias indicates that the multitaper approach is superior to the conventional single taper methods in the prevention of spectrum leakage and variance reduction. More than four times finer frequency precision can be achieved with equivalent or less variance and bias. Conclusions: Without any shortening of the image data length, the bias is smaller and the frequency resolution is higher with the multitaper method, and the need to compromise in the choice of regions of interest size to balance between the reduction of variance and the loss of frequency resolution is largely eliminated.

  2. Generation of CR mammographic image for evaluation quality parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Mabel B.; Mourao, Arnaldo P., E-mail: mbustos@ufmg.br, E-mail: apratabhz@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Politecnica

    2017-11-01

    Currently, among the diseases most feared by women, breast cancer ranks first in the world with an incidence of more than 1.6 million cases and a mortality of more than 521.9 thousand cases by year, which makes this disease the type of cancer with higher incidence and mortality compared to the other types of cancer that mainly affect the female gender, without considering non-melanoma skin cancer. In Brazil, more than 14.4 thousand deaths were registered in 2013 and more than 57 thousand new cases were estimated for 2016. The use of computerized radiography (CR) for the generation of mammographic digital images is widely used in Brazil for the screening of breast cancer. The aim of this investigation is to study the variation of CR plate response to exposure to X-ray beams in a mammography unit. Two CR plates from different manufacturers and a compressed breast phantom containing calcium carbonate structures of different sizes simulating calcifications were used for this study. An X-ray beam generated by 30 kV was selected to realize successive exposures of each plate by performing a time variation of 0.5 to 3.5 s, obtaining the raw images. The acquired images were evaluated with the ImageJ software to determine the saturation time of the plates when exposed to X-ray beams and the qualitative resolution of each plate. The plates were found to saturate at different times when exposed under the same conditions to X-ray beams. By means of the images acquired with the breast phantom, it was possible to observe only structures of calcium carbonate with sizes greater than 177 μm. (author)

  3. Breast ultrasonographic and histopathological characteristics without any mammographic abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Ishida, Takanori; Miyashita, Minoru; Amari, Masakazu; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated ultrasonographic findings and the corresponding histopathological characteristics of breast cancer patients with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 1 mammogram. We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasonographic findings and the corresponding histopathological features of 45 breast cancer patients with BI-RADS category 1 mammogram and 537 controls with mammographic abnormalities. We evaluated the ultrasonographic findings including mass shape, periphery, internal and posterior echo pattern, interruption of mammary borders and the distribution of low-echoic lesions, and the corresponding histopathological characteristics including histological classification, hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status of invasive ductal carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ, histological grade, mitotic counts and lymphovascular invasion in individual cases of BI-RADS category 1 mammograms and compared with those of the control group. The ultrasonographic characteristics of the BI-RADS category 1 group were characterized by a higher ratio of round shape (P<0.001), non-spiculated periphery (P=0.021), non-interruption of mammary borders (P<0.001) and non-attenuation (P=0.011) compared with the control group. A total of 52.6% of low-echoic lesions were associated with spotted distribution in the BI-RADS 1 group, whereas 25.8% of low-echoic lesions were associated with spotted distribution in the control group (P=0.012). As for histopathological characteristics, there was a statistically higher ratio of triple-negative subtype (P=0.021), and this particular tendency was detected in histological grade 3 in the BI-RADS category 1 group (P=0.094). We evaluated ultrasonographic findings and the corresponding histopathological characteristics for BI-RADS category 1 mammograms and noted significant differences among these findings in this study. Evaluation of these ultrasonographic and histopathological characteristics may provide

  4. Role of low density lipoprotein in the activation of plasma lysolecithin acyltransferase activity. Effect of chemical and enzymatic modifications of the lipoprotein on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaiah, P V; Chen, C H; Bagdade, J D; Albers, J J

    1985-01-01

    The effect of various chemical and enzymatic modifications of low density lipoprotein (LDL) on its ability to activate the isolated human plasma lysolecithin acyltransferase (LAT) was studied. Removal of all lipids from LDL resulted in the complete loss of LAT activation. Removal of only neutral lipids by extraction with heptane retained up to 50% of the original activity, which was not increased further by reconstitution of the LDL with the extracted lipids. Hydrolysis of the diacylphosphoglycerides of the LDL with phospholipases resulted in complete loss of LAT activation which was partially restored by the addition of egg lecithin. Hydrolysis of more than 4% of LDL protein by trypsin led to a linear decrease in activity with complete loss of activity occurring when about 25% of the LDL protein is hydrolyzed. Modification of the arginine groups of LDL reversibly inhibited the activation of LAT. Modification of lysine residues of LDL by acetylation, acetoacetylation or succinylation also abolished its ability to activate lysolecithin acylation.

  5. The Effects of Sex-Ratio and Density on Locomotor Activity in the House Fly, Musca domestica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjærsgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino; Loeschcke, Volker; Schou, Toke M.; Skovgård, Henrik; Hald, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    Although locomotor activity is involved in almost all behavioral traits, there is a lack of knowledge on what factors affect it. This study examined the effects of sex—ratio and density on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of adult Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) using an infra—red light system. Sex—ratio significantly affected locomotor activity, increasing with the percentage of males in the vials. In accordance with other studies, males were more active than females, but the circadian rhythm of the two sexes was not constant over time and changed during the light period. There was also an effect of density on locomotor activity, where males at intermediate densities showed higher activity. Further, the predictability of the locomotor activity, estimated as the degree of autocorrelation of the activity data, increased with the number of males present in the vials both with and without the presence of females. Overall, this study demonstrates that locomotor activity in M. domestica is affected by sex—ratio and density. Furthermore, the predictability of locomotor activity is affected by both sex—ratio, density, and circadian rhythm. These results add to our understanding of the behavioral interactions between houseflies and highlight the importance of these factors when designing behavioral experiments using M. domestica.

  6. Localization of endocardial ectopic activity by means of noninvasive endocardial surface current density reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai Dakun; Liu Chenguang; Eggen, Michael D; He Bin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, MN (United States); Iaizzo, Paul A, E-mail: binhe@umn.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, MN (United States)

    2011-07-07

    Localization of the source of cardiac ectopic activity has direct clinical benefits for determining the location of the corresponding ectopic focus. In this study, a recently developed current-density (CD)-based localization approach was experimentally evaluated in noninvasively localizing the origin of the cardiac ectopic activity from body-surface potential maps (BSPMs) in a well-controlled experimental setting. The cardiac ectopic activities were induced in four well-controlled intact pigs by single-site pacing at various sites within the left ventricle (LV). In each pacing study, the origin of the induced ectopic activity was localized by reconstructing the CD distribution on the endocardial surface of the LV from the measured BSPMs and compared with the estimated single moving dipole (SMD) solution and precise pacing site (PS). Over the 60 analyzed beats corresponding to ten pacing sites (six for each), the mean and standard deviation of the distance between the locations of maximum CD value and the corresponding PSs were 16.9 mm and 4.6 mm, respectively. In comparison, the averaged distance between the SMD locations and the corresponding PSs was slightly larger (18.4 {+-} 3.4 mm). The obtained CD distribution of activated sources extending from the stimulus site also showed high consistency with the endocardial potential maps estimated by a minimally invasive endocardial mapping system. The present experimental results suggest that the CD method is able to locate the approximate site of the origin of a cardiac ectopic activity, and that the distribution of the CD can portray the propagation of early activation of an ectopic beat.

  7. Lifetime physical activity and calcium intake related to bone density in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Ballard, Joyce E

    2002-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant public health problem associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Our aim in this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between lifetime physical activity and calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) and BMC (bone mineral content) in 42 regularly menstruating Caucasian women (age 21.26+/-1.91 years, BMI 23.83+/-5.85). BMD and BMC at the lumbar spine (L2-L4), hip (femoral neck, trochanter, total), and total body were assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Lifetime history of physical activity and calcium intake was obtained by a structured interview using valid and reliable instruments. Measures of both lifetime physical activity and calcium intake were highly correlated. In stepwise multiple regression analyses, lean mass was the most important and consistent factor for predicting BMD and BMC at all skeletal sites (attributable r2 = 28.8%-78.7%). Lifetime physical activity contributed to 3.0% of the variation in total body BMD, and life-time weight-bearing physical activity explained 15.1% of variance in lumbar spine BMC. Current calcium intake predicted 6% of the variance in BMD at the femoral neck and trochanter. We found lean mass to be a powerful predictor of BMD and BMC in young women. Because lean mass can be modified to some extent by physical activity, public health efforts must be directed at increasing physical activity throughout the lifespan. Furthermore, our results suggest that adequate calcium intake may help to enhance bone mass, thus decreasing the risk of osteoporotic fracture later in life.

  8. Predicting error in detecting mammographic masses among radiology trainees using statistical models based on BI-RADS features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Lars J., E-mail: Lars.grimm@duke.edu; Ghate, Sujata V.; Yoon, Sora C.; Kim, Connie [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Kuzmiak, Cherie M. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2006 Old Clinic, CB No. 7510, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Mazurowski, Maciej A. [Duke University Medical Center, Box 2731 Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) features as predictors of individual errors made by trainees when detecting masses in mammograms. Methods: Ten radiology trainees and three expert breast imagers reviewed 100 mammograms comprised of bilateral medial lateral oblique and craniocaudal views on a research workstation. The cases consisted of normal and biopsy proven benign and malignant masses. For cases with actionable abnormalities, the experts recorded breast (density and axillary lymph nodes) and mass (shape, margin, and density) features according to the BI-RADS lexicon, as well as the abnormality location (depth and clock face). For each trainee, a user-specific multivariate model was constructed to predict the trainee's likelihood of error based on BI-RADS features. The performance of the models was assessed using area under the receive operating characteristic curves (AUC). Results: Despite the variability in errors between different trainees, the individual models were able to predict the likelihood of error for the trainees with a mean AUC of 0.611 (range: 0.502–0.739, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.543–0.680,p < 0.002). Conclusions: Patterns in detection errors for mammographic masses made by radiology trainees can be modeled using BI-RADS features. These findings may have potential implications for the development of future educational materials that are personalized to individual trainees.

  9. Predicting error in detecting mammographic masses among radiology trainees using statistical models based on BI-RADS features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Ghate, Sujata V; Yoon, Sora C; Kuzmiak, Cherie M; Kim, Connie; Mazurowski, Maciej A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) features as predictors of individual errors made by trainees when detecting masses in mammograms. Ten radiology trainees and three expert breast imagers reviewed 100 mammograms comprised of bilateral medial lateral oblique and craniocaudal views on a research workstation. The cases consisted of normal and biopsy proven benign and malignant masses. For cases with actionable abnormalities, the experts recorded breast (density and axillary lymph nodes) and mass (shape, margin, and density) features according to the BI-RADS lexicon, as well as the abnormality location (depth and clock face). For each trainee, a user-specific multivariate model was constructed to predict the trainee's likelihood of error based on BI-RADS features. The performance of the models was assessed using area under the receive operating characteristic curves (AUC). Despite the variability in errors between different trainees, the individual models were able to predict the likelihood of error for the trainees with a mean AUC of 0.611 (range: 0.502-0.739, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.543-0.680,p errors for mammographic masses made by radiology trainees can be modeled using BI-RADS features. These findings may have potential implications for the development of future educational materials that are personalized to individual trainees.

  10. Predicting error in detecting mammographic masses among radiology trainees using statistical models based on BI-RADS features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, Lars J.; Ghate, Sujata V.; Yoon, Sora C.; Kim, Connie; Kuzmiak, Cherie M.; Mazurowski, Maciej A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) features as predictors of individual errors made by trainees when detecting masses in mammograms. Methods: Ten radiology trainees and three expert breast imagers reviewed 100 mammograms comprised of bilateral medial lateral oblique and craniocaudal views on a research workstation. The cases consisted of normal and biopsy proven benign and malignant masses. For cases with actionable abnormalities, the experts recorded breast (density and axillary lymph nodes) and mass (shape, margin, and density) features according to the BI-RADS lexicon, as well as the abnormality location (depth and clock face). For each trainee, a user-specific multivariate model was constructed to predict the trainee's likelihood of error based on BI-RADS features. The performance of the models was assessed using area under the receive operating characteristic curves (AUC). Results: Despite the variability in errors between different trainees, the individual models were able to predict the likelihood of error for the trainees with a mean AUC of 0.611 (range: 0.502–0.739, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.543–0.680,p < 0.002). Conclusions: Patterns in detection errors for mammographic masses made by radiology trainees can be modeled using BI-RADS features. These findings may have potential implications for the development of future educational materials that are personalized to individual trainees

  11. Screening of active metals for reactive adsorption desulfurization adsorbent using density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Liang, E-mail: liangzhao@cup.edu.cn; Xu, Chunming; Wang, Yuxian; Gao, Jinsen

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Electronic characteristics determined adsorption characteristics of transition metals. • Cobalt has the similar adsorption ability of thiophene as nickel. • Adsorption capacity of Cr and Mo was extremely fierce, while Cu has the potential ability for adsorbing thiophene. • The preference adsorption site for thiophene was hollow site on all the seven surface. - Abstract: To explore characteristics of active metals for reactive adsorption desulfurization (RADS) technology, the adsorption of thiophene on M (100) (M = Cr, Mo, Co, Ni, Cu, Au, and Ag) surfaces was systematically studied by density functional theory with vdW correction (DFT + D3). We found that, in all case, the most stable molecular adsorption site was the hollow site and adsorptive capabilities of thiophene followed the order: Cr > Mo > Co ≈ Ni > Cu > Au ≈ Ag. By analyzing the nature of binding between thiophene and corresponding metals and the electronic structure of metals, the excessive activities of Cr and Mo were found to have a negative regeneration, the passive activities of Au and Ag were found to have an inactive adsorption for RADS adsorbent alone, while Ni and Co have appropriate characteristics as the active metals for RADS, followed by Cu.

  12. Etiology and early detection of breast cancer : Biomarkers, lifestyle and mammographic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emaus, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, one in seven women will develop breast cancer at some point during her lifetime. Although breast cancer mortality has declined, still 23% of the breast cancer patients dies from the disease within 10 years after initial diagnosis. This emphasizes the importance of research on

  13. Soy protein containing isoflavones and mammographic density in a randomized controlled trial in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, Martijn; van Gils, Carla H.; Kreijkamp-Kaspers, Sanne; Kok, Linda; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The relatively high dietary intake of soy in Asian countries has been hypothesized to, at least partly, explain the lower breast cancer incidence patterns in these countries compared with the Western world. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of daily soy

  14. Alcohol consumption and mammographic density in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; Lynge, Elsebeth; Tjønneland, Anne

    2017-01-01

    screening in Copenhagen (1993-2001), we used MD (mixed/dense or fatty) assessed at the first screening after cohort entry. Alcohol consumption was assessed at the time of recruitment. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations [odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI)] between alcohol...

  15. Immediate and delayed effects of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality and incidence in birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripping, T. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M.; van der Waal, D.; Otten, J. D. M.; den Heeten, G. J.; Fracheboud, J.; de Koning, H. J.; Broeders, M. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Trend studies investigating the impact of mammographic screening usually display age-specific mortality and incidence rates over time, resulting in an underestimate of the benefit of screening, that is, mortality reduction, and an overestimate of its major harmful effect, that is, overdiagnosis.

  16. Immediate and delayed effects of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality and incidence in birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripping, T.M.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Waal, D. van der; Otten, J.D.M.; Heeten, G.J. den; Fracheboud, J.; Koning, H.J. de; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Trend studies investigating the impact of mammographic screening usually display age-specific mortality and incidence rates over time, resulting in an underestimate of the benefit of screening, that is, mortality reduction, and an overestimate of its major harmful effect, that is,

  17. Incremental clinical value of ultrasound in men with mammographically confirmed gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Hao; Slanetz, Priscilla J

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether ultrasound is of any value in male patients presenting with focal symptoms who have classic features of gynecomastia but no concerning findings on mammography. Over a 3-year period, all male patients who underwent mammographic evaluation were identified in this retrospective study. Patients with a mammographic diagnosis of gynecomastia and subsequent breast ultrasound at a large tertiary academic medical center comprised the study cohort. Men whose ultrasound diagnosis differed from the initial mammographic evaluation were analyzed for both additional benign findings as well as findings that warranted biopsy. A total of 353 mammograms were obtained from 327 unique patients (ages 18-95, mean 51 years). Of all mammographic examinations, gynecomastia was the sole finding in 73% (259). In those 259 studies, 85% were further evaluated with ultrasound, in which 6 (2.7%) showed additional benign findings, and 4 (1.8%) showed suspicious findings for which biopsy was recommended. No malignancies were detected in those patients. Furthermore, no malignancies were detected in patients whose mammogram revealed only normal fatty parenchyma or only gynecomastia. In all cases of cancer, mammography revealed visible masses. Judicious use of breast ultrasound in men improves outcome. Our data suggest that targeted ultrasound is of limited value in symptomatic male patients where mammography is negative or reveals only gynecomastia and leads to unnecessary benign biopsies in these patients. When mammography reveals concerning findings, ultrasound adds positively to clinical management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Incremental clinical value of ultrasound in men with mammographically confirmed gynecomastia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Po-Hao, E-mail: howard_chen@post.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadlephia, PA 19104 (United States); Slanetz, Priscilla J., E-mail: pslanetz@bidmc.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Radiology, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To determine whether ultrasound is of any value in male patients presenting with focal symptoms who have classic features of gynecomastia but no concerning findings on mammography. Materials and Methods: Over a 3-year period, all male patients who underwent mammographic evaluation were identified in this retrospective study. Patients with a mammographic diagnosis of gynecomastia and subsequent breast ultrasound at a large tertiary academic medical center comprised the study cohort. Men whose ultrasound diagnosis differed from the initial mammographic evaluation were analyzed for both additional benign findings as well as findings that warranted biopsy. Results: A total of 353 mammograms were obtained from 327 unique patients (ages 18–95, mean 51 years). Of all mammographic examinations, gynecomastia was the sole finding in 73% (259). In those 259 studies, 85% were further evaluated with ultrasound, in which 6 (2.7%) showed additional benign findings, and 4 (1.8%) showed suspicious findings for which biopsy was recommended. No malignancies were detected in those patients. Furthermore, no malignancies were detected in patients whose mammogram revealed only normal fatty parenchyma or only gynecomastia. In all cases of cancer, mammography revealed visible masses. Conclusion: Judicious use of breast ultrasound in men improves outcome. Our data suggest that targeted ultrasound is of limited value in symptomatic male patients where mammography is negative or reveals only gynecomastia and leads to unnecessary benign biopsies in these patients. When mammography reveals concerning findings, ultrasound adds positively to clinical management.

  19. Remote Patient Management in a Mammographic Screening Environment in Underserved Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    of 4,945 paired examinations. Radiology 2001; 218:873-880. 10. Malich A, Marx C, Facius M, Boehm T, Fleck M, Kaiser WA. Tumour 24. Venta LA, Hendrick...218:873-880. KF, Sickles EA. Mammographic character- factor determining the quality of com- 15. Venta LA, Hendrick RE, Adler YT, et al. iSicks of 115

  20. Effect of particle surface area on ice active site densities retrieved from droplet freezing spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Beydoun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice nucleation remains one of the outstanding problems in cloud physics and atmospheric science. Experimental challenges in properly simulating particle-induced freezing processes under atmospherically relevant conditions have largely contributed to the absence of a well-established parameterization of immersion freezing properties. Here, we formulate an ice active, surface-site-based stochastic model of heterogeneous freezing with the unique feature of invoking a continuum assumption on the ice nucleating activity (contact angle of an aerosol particle's surface that requires no assumptions about the size or number of active sites. The result is a particle-specific property g that defines a distribution of local ice nucleation rates. Upon integration, this yields a full freezing probability function for an ice nucleating particle. Current cold plate droplet freezing measurements provide a valuable and inexpensive resource for studying the freezing properties of many atmospheric aerosol systems. We apply our g framework to explain the observed dependence of the freezing temperature of droplets in a cold plate on the concentration of the particle species investigated. Normalizing to the total particle mass or surface area present to derive the commonly used ice nuclei active surface (INAS density (ns often cannot account for the effects of particle concentration, yet concentration is typically varied to span a wider measurable freezing temperature range. A method based on determining what is denoted an ice nucleating species' specific critical surface area is presented and explains the concentration dependence as a result of increasing the variability in ice nucleating active sites between droplets. By applying this method to experimental droplet freezing data from four different systems, we demonstrate its ability to interpret immersion freezing temperature spectra of droplets containing variable particle concentrations. It is shown

  1. Separation of active and inactive fractions from starved culture of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by density dependent cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Binaya Bhusan; Kamiya, Eriko; Nishino, Tomohiko; Wada, Minoru; Nishimura, Masahiko; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    The co-existence of physiologically different cells in bacterial cultures is a general phenomenon. We have examined the applicability of the density dependent cell sorting (DDCS) method to separate subpopulations from a long-term starvation culture of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The cells were subjected to Percoll density gradient and separated into 12 fractions of different buoyant densities, followed by measuring the cell numbers, culturability, respiratory activity and leucine incorporation activity. While more than 78% of cells were in lighter fractions, about 95% of culturable cells were present in heavier fractions. The high-density subpopulations also had high proportion of cells capable of forming formazan granules. Although this was accompanied by the cell specific INT-reduction rate, both leucine incorporation rates and INT-reduction rates per cell had a peak at mid-density fraction. The present results indicated that DDCS could be used to separate subpopulations of different physiological conditions.

  2. Activated Biomass-derived Graphene-based Carbons for Supercapacitors with High Energy and Power Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, SungHoon; Myung, Yusik; Kim, Bit Na; Kim, In Gyoo; You, In-Kyu; Kim, TaeYoung

    2018-01-30

    Here, we present a facile and low-cost method to produce hierarchically porous graphene-based carbons from a biomass source. Three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based carbons were produced through continuous sequential steps such as the formation and transformation of glucose-based polymers into 3D foam-like structures and their subsequent carbonization to form the corresponding macroporous carbons with thin graphene-based carbon walls of macropores and intersectional carbon skeletons. Physical and chemical activation was then performed on this carbon to create micro- and meso-pores, thereby producing hierarchically porous biomass-derived graphene-based carbons with a high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of 3,657 m 2  g -1 . Owing to its exceptionally high surface area, interconnected hierarchical pore networks, and a high degree of graphitization, this carbon exhibited a high specific capacitance of 175 F g -1 in ionic liquid electrolyte. A supercapacitor constructed with this carbon yielded a maximum energy density of 74 Wh kg -1 and a maximum power density of 408 kW kg -1 , based on the total mass of electrodes, which is comparable to those of the state-of-the-art graphene-based carbons. This approach holds promise for the low-cost and readily scalable production of high performance electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  3. Radical scavenging activity of some natural tropolones by density functional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Al-Sehemi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ground state neutral geometries of some natural tropolones, i.e. stipitatonic acid (AF1, stipitalide (AF2, stipitaldehydic acid (AF3 and methyl stipitate (AF4 have been optimized by using Density Functional Theory (DFT at B3LYP/6-31G*, B3LYP/6-31G**, B3LYP/6-31+G* and B3LYP/6-31+G** levels of theory. The excited state geometries of AF1-AF4 were optimized by adopting the Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT at the same levels of theory. The frequencies and cation species of AF1-AF4 were also computed at all the above mentioned levels of theory. We shed light on the electro-optical and molecular properties, e.g. energy gaps, highest occupied molecular orbitals, lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, absorption wavelengths, electronegativity (χ, hardness (η, electrophilicity (ω, softness (S, electrophilicity index (ωi and the radical scavenging activity (RSA. Hydrogen atom transfer (HAT and one-electron transfer mechanisms have been discussed to shed light on the RSA. The smallest ionization potential and bond dissociation energy of AF4 are revealing that this compound would have more RSA than those of other counterparts.

  4. Size, node status and grade of breast tumours: association with mammographic parenchymal patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, E.; Solomon, L.; McCann, J. [Department of Community Medicine, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Worts Causeway, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Warren, R. [Cambridge and Huntingdon Breast Screening Service, Rosie Maternity Hospital, Robinson Way, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Duffy, S. [MRC-Biostatistics Unit, Institute of Public Health, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Luben, R. [Department of Clinical Gerontology, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Day, N. [Department of Community Medicine, Institute of Public Health, Robinson Way, Cambridge, CB2 2SR (United Kingdom)

    2000-01-01

    A case-control study was designed to assess the association of mammographic parenchymal patterns with the risk of in-situ and invasive breast cancer. In addition, the relationship between tumour characteristics and mammographic patterns were also investigated. A total of 875 patients with breast cancer were selected and matched with 2601 controls. Mammographic parenchymal patterns of breast tissue were assessed according to Wolfe's classification, and statistical analysis was by conditional logistic regression. Relative to the N1 pattern, the odds ratios of having an invasive breast cancer associated with the P2 and DY patterns were 1.8 and 1.4, respectively. In addition, the odd ratios of having an invasive grade 3 breast cancer associated with the P2 and DY patterns were 2.8 and 3.9, respectively. Relative to the combined N1/P1 pattern, the odd ratios of having a breast cancer smaller than 14 mm, 15-29 mm, or larger than 30 mm associated with the combined high-risk P2/DY pattern (P2 + DY) were 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0, respectively. Finally, women with the P2/DY pattern were twice as likely to have a breast cancer which had already spread to the axillary nodes, compared to women with women with the N1/P1 pattern (odds ratios of 2.1 and 1.4, respectively). Our results confirm previous findings suggesting that mammographic parenchymal patterns may serve as indicators of risk for breast cancer. Our results also suggest that mammographic parenchymal patterns are associated with the stage at which breast cancer is detected. (orig.)

  5. Size, node status and grade of breast tumours: association with mammographic parenchymal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, E.; Solomon, L.; McCann, J.; Warren, R.; Duffy, S.; Luben, R.; Day, N.

    2000-01-01

    A case-control study was designed to assess the association of mammographic parenchymal patterns with the risk of in-situ and invasive breast cancer. In addition, the relationship between tumour characteristics and mammographic patterns were also investigated. A total of 875 patients with breast cancer were selected and matched with 2601 controls. Mammographic parenchymal patterns of breast tissue were assessed according to Wolfe's classification, and statistical analysis was by conditional logistic regression. Relative to the N1 pattern, the odds ratios of having an invasive breast cancer associated with the P2 and DY patterns were 1.8 and 1.4, respectively. In addition, the odd ratios of having an invasive grade 3 breast cancer associated with the P2 and DY patterns were 2.8 and 3.9, respectively. Relative to the combined N1/P1 pattern, the odd ratios of having a breast cancer smaller than 14 mm, 15-29 mm, or larger than 30 mm associated with the combined high-risk P2/DY pattern (P2 + DY) were 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0, respectively. Finally, women with the P2/DY pattern were twice as likely to have a breast cancer which had already spread to the axillary nodes, compared to women with women with the N1/P1 pattern (odds ratios of 2.1 and 1.4, respectively). Our results confirm previous findings suggesting that mammographic parenchymal patterns may serve as indicators of risk for breast cancer. Our results also suggest that mammographic parenchymal patterns are associated with the stage at which breast cancer is detected. (orig.)

  6. Topside electron density: comparison of experimental and IRI model profiles during low solar activity period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazo, K.; Coisson, P.; Radicella, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The pattern of the topside electron density profiles is not yet very well represented by the IRI model. In this work the topside profiles obtained by the ISIS-2 satellite during low solar activity conditions are compared to those modeled by IRI. We take the quantitative parameter ε to measure the deviation of the model from the observed profiles. The results showed that the IRI overestimation of the topside profile is higher for low dip latitudes. The dispersion of the epsilon values is from 40 to 140%, more in equinoctial months and some lower for Winter. The best modeling is about 20% to 40% in middle and high latitudes of the North Hemisphere. (author)

  7. Breast density pattern characterization by histogram features and texture descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cunha Carneiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is the first leading cause of death for women in Brazil as well as in most countries in the world. Due to the relation between the breast density and the risk of breast cancer, in medical practice, the breast density classification is merely visual and dependent on professional experience, making this task very subjective. The purpose of this paper is to investigate image features based on histograms and Haralick texture descriptors so as to separate mammographic images into categories of breast density using an Artificial Neural Network. Methods We used 307 mammographic images from the INbreast digital database, extracting histogram features and texture descriptors of all mammograms and selecting them with the K-means technique. Then, these groups of selected features were used as inputs of an Artificial Neural Network to classify the images automatically into the four categories reported by radiologists. Results An average accuracy of 92.9% was obtained in a few tests using only some of the Haralick texture descriptors. Also, the accuracy rate increased to 98.95% when texture descriptors were mixed with some features based on a histogram. Conclusion Texture descriptors have proven to be better than gray levels features at differentiating the breast densities in mammographic images. From this paper, it was possible to automate the feature selection and the classification with acceptable error rates since the extraction of the features is suitable to the characteristics of the images involving the problem.

  8. Implementation of several mathematical algorithms to breast tissue density classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, C.; Redondo, M.; Tirao, G.

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of mammographic abnormality detection methods is strongly dependent on breast tissue characteristics, where a dense breast tissue can hide lesions causing cancer to be detected at later stages. In addition, breast tissue density is widely accepted to be an important risk indicator for the development of breast cancer. This paper presents the implementation and the performance of different mathematical algorithms designed to standardize the categorization of mammographic images, according to the American College of Radiology classifications. These mathematical techniques are based on intrinsic properties calculations and on comparison with an ideal homogeneous image (joint entropy, mutual information, normalized cross correlation and index Q) as categorization parameters. The algorithms evaluation was performed on 100 cases of the mammographic data sets provided by the Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina—Programa de Prevención del Cáncer de Mama (Department of Public Health, Córdoba, Argentina, Breast Cancer Prevention Program). The obtained breast classifications were compared with the expert medical diagnostics, showing a good performance. The implemented algorithms revealed a high potentiality to classify breasts into tissue density categories. - Highlights: • Breast density classification can be obtained by suitable mathematical algorithms. • Mathematical processing help radiologists to obtain the BI-RADS classification. • The entropy and joint entropy show high performance for density classification

  9. Density Functional Theory Calculations of Activation Energies for Carrier Capture by Defects in Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modine, N. A.; Wright, A. F.; Lee, S. R.

    The rate of defect-induced carrier recombination is determined by both defect levels and carrier capture cross-sections. Density functional theory (DFT) has been widely and successfully used to predict defect levels, but only recently has work begun to focus on using DFT to determine carrier capture cross-sections. Lang and Henry developed the theory of carrier-capture by multiphonon emission in the 1970s and showed that carrier-capture cross-sections differ between defects primarily due to differences in their carrier capture activation energies. We present an approach to using DFT to calculate carrier capture activation energies that does not depend on an assumed configuration coordinate and that fully accounts for anharmonic effects, which can substantially modify carrier activation energies. We demonstrate our approach for intrinisic defects in GaAs and GaN and discuss how our results depend on the choice of exchange-correlation functional and the treatment of spin polarization. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Enhanced photocurrent density in graphene/Si based solar cell (GSSC) by optimizing active layer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad, E-mail: a.rosikhin86@yahoo.co.id; Hidayat, Aulia Fikri; Syuhada, Ibnu; Winata, Toto, E-mail: toto@fi.itb.ac.id [Department of physics, physics of electronic materials research division Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Jawa Barat – Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Thickness dependent photocurrent density in active layer of graphene/Si based solar cell has been investigated via analytical – simulation study. This report is a preliminary comparison of experimental and analytical investigation of graphene/Si based solar cell. Graphene sheet was interfaced with Si thin film forming heterojunction solar cell that was treated as a device model for photocurrent generator. Such current can be enhanced by optimizing active layer thickness and involving metal oxide as supporting layer to shift photons absorption. In this case there are two type of devices model with and without TiO{sub 2} in which the silicon thickness varied at 20 – 100 nm. All of them have examined and also compared with each other to obtain an optimum value. From this calculation it found that generated currents almost linear with thickness but there are saturated conditions that no more enhancements will be achieved. Furthermore TiO{sub 2} layer is effectively increases photon absorption but reducing device stability, maximum current is fluctuates enough. This may caused by the disturbance of excitons diffusion and resistivity inside each layer. Finally by controlling active layer thickness, it is quite useful to estimate optimization in order to develop the next solar cell devices.

  11. Enhanced photocurrent density in graphene/Si based solar cell (GSSC) by optimizing active layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad; Hidayat, Aulia Fikri; Syuhada, Ibnu; Winata, Toto

    2015-01-01

    Thickness dependent photocurrent density in active layer of graphene/Si based solar cell has been investigated via analytical – simulation study. This report is a preliminary comparison of experimental and analytical investigation of graphene/Si based solar cell. Graphene sheet was interfaced with Si thin film forming heterojunction solar cell that was treated as a device model for photocurrent generator. Such current can be enhanced by optimizing active layer thickness and involving metal oxide as supporting layer to shift photons absorption. In this case there are two type of devices model with and without TiO 2 in which the silicon thickness varied at 20 – 100 nm. All of them have examined and also compared with each other to obtain an optimum value. From this calculation it found that generated currents almost linear with thickness but there are saturated conditions that no more enhancements will be achieved. Furthermore TiO 2 layer is effectively increases photon absorption but reducing device stability, maximum current is fluctuates enough. This may caused by the disturbance of excitons diffusion and resistivity inside each layer. Finally by controlling active layer thickness, it is quite useful to estimate optimization in order to develop the next solar cell devices

  12. Adsorption and activation of methane and methanol on Pt(100) surface: a density functional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussounda, P.S.

    2006-11-01

    The activation of methane (CH 4 ) and methanol (CH 3 OH) on Pt(100) surface has been investigated using density functional theory calculations based on plane-wave basis and pseudo-potential. We optimised CH 4 /Pt(100) system. The calculated adsorption energies over the top, bridge and hollow sites are small, weakly dependent on the molecular orientation. The nature of the CH 4 -Pt interaction was examined through the electronic structure changes. The adsorption of methyl (CH 3 ) and hydrogen (H) and the co-adsorption of CH 3 +H were also calculated. From these results, we examined the dissociation of CH 4 to CH 3 +H, and the activation energies found are in good agreement with the experimental and theoretical values. The activation of CH 3 OH/Pt(100) has been studied. All the sites have almost the same adsorption energy. The adsorption of oxygen (O) and the co-adsorption of CH 4 and O were also examined. In addition, the formation of CH 3 OH assuming a one-step mechanism step via the co-adsorption of CH 4 +O has been studied and the barrier height was found to be high. (authors)

  13. New structures of power density spectra for four Kepler active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrotka, A.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Bajčičáková, I.

    2017-09-01

    Many nearby active galactic nuclei display a significant short-term variability. In this work, we reanalyse photometric data of four active galactic nuclei observed by Kepler in order to study the flickering activity, with our main goal to search for multiple components in the power density spectra. We find that all four objects have similar characteristics, with two break frequencies at approximately log( f /Hz) = -5.2 and -4.7. We consider some physical phenomena whose characteristic time-scales are consistent with those observed, in particular mass accretion fluctuations in the inner geometrically thick disc (hot X-ray corona) and unstable relativistic Rayleigh-Taylor modes. The former is supported by detection of the same break frequencies in the Swift X-ray data of ZW229-15. We also discuss rms-flux relations, and we detect a possible typical linear trend at lower flux levels. Our findings support the hypothesis of a multiplicative character of variability, in agreement with the propagating accretion fluctuation model.

  14. Logging Activity Adversely Impacts Primate Diversity and Density in the Kwabre Rainforest of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Danquah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the impacts of logging activity on inhabitant primate species in Kwabre Rainforest, Ghana, is vital for the development of a comprehensive conservation and management plan. With this background, primate density and diversity were recorded along line transects in logged and unlogged areas (strata to assess the impact of logging activity on these parameters. Six distinct primate species were confirmed including Roloway monkey (Cercopithecus roloway, listed as endangered in the IUCN List of Threatened Species, white-naped mangabey (Cercocebus lunulatus, vulnerable, and Geoffroy’s black-and-white colobus (Colobus vellerosus, vulnerable. There was a significant difference (Mann-Whitney U test: U=36.0, p<0.01 in primate encounter rates between the logged and unlogged strata with higher species diversity in unlogged stratum (H=2.91 compared to the logged stratum (H=1.44. Regression analysis indicated a significant effect (r2=0.945, p<0.01 of logging on primate encounter rates. Our results suggest that logging activity can alter composition of primate communities. One option to forestall further forest degradation and its adverse effects on primates would be to grant the Kwabre Rainforest protected area status under Ghanaian law and manage it under an integrated conservation plan that includes neighbouring Ankasa Conservation Area in Ghana and Tanoé Forest in Cote d’Ivoire.

  15. The Effects of Sex-Ratio and Density on Locomotor Activity in the House Fly, Musca domestica

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjærsgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino; Loeschcke, Volker; Schou, Toke M.; Skovgård, Henrik; Hald, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    Although locomotor activity is involved in almost all behavioral traits, there is a lack of knowledge on what factors affect it. This study examined the effects of sex-ratio and density on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of adult Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) using an infra-red light system. Sex-ratio significantly affected locomotor activity, increasing with the percentage of males in the vials. In accordance with other studies, males were more active than females, but th...

  16. High energy density supercapacitors from lignin derived submicron activated carbon fibers in aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sixiao; Zhang, Sanliang; Pan, Ning; Hsieh, You-Lo

    2014-12-01

    Highly porous submicron activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were robustly generated from low sulfonated alkali lignin and fabricated into supercapacitors for capacitive energy storage. The hydrophilic and high specific surface ACFs exhibited large-size nanographites and good electrical conductivity to demonstrate outstanding electrochemical performance. ACFs from KOH activation, in particular, showed very high 344 F g-1 specific capacitance at low 1.8 mg cm-2 mass loading and 10 mV s-1 scan rate in aqueous electrolytes. Even at relatively high scan rate of 50 mV s-1 and mass loading of 10 mg cm-2, a decent specific capacitance of 196 F g-1 and a remarkable areal capacitance of 0.55 F cm-2 was obtained, leading to high energy density of 8.1 Wh kg-1 based on averaged electrodes mass. Furthermore, over 96% capacitance retention rates were achieved after 5000 charge/discharge cycles. Such excellent performance demonstrated great potential of lignin derived carbons for electrical energy storage.

  17. Density-functional study on the equilibria in the ThDP activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Eduardo J; Alderete, Joel B; Jaña, Gonzalo A

    2011-11-01

    The equilibria among the various ionization and tautomeric states involved in the activation of ThDP is addressed using high level density functional theory calculations, X3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//X3LYP(PB)/6-31++G(d,p). This study provides the first theoretically derived thermodynamic data for the internal equilibria in the activation of ThDP. The role of the medium polarity on the geometry and thermodynamics of the diverse equilibria of ThDP is addressed. The media chosen are cyclohexane and water, as paradigms of apolar and polar media. The results suggest that all ionization and tautomeric states are accessible during the catalytic cycle, even in the absence of substrate, being APH(+) the form required to interconvert the AP and IP tautomers; and the generation of the ylide proceeds via the formation of the IP form. Additionally, the calculated ΔG° values allow to calculate all the equilibrium constants, including the pK(C2) for the thiazolium C2 atom whose ionization is believed to initiate the catalytic cycle.

  18. Tobacco Control: Visualisation of Research Activity Using Density-Equalizing Mapping and Scientometric Benchmarking Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Groneberg-Kloft

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoking continues to be a major preventable cause of death and disease and therefore tobacco control research is extremely important. However, research in this area is often hampered by a lack in funding and there is a need for scientometric techniques to display research efforts. Methods: The present study combines classical bibliometric tools with novel scientometric and visualizing techniques in order to analyse and categorise research in the field of tobacco control. Results: All studies related to tobacco control and listed in the ISI database since 1900 were identified by the use of defined search terms.Using bibliometric approaches, a continuous increase in qualitative markers such as collaboration numbers or citations were found for tobacco control research. The combination with density equalizing mapping revealed a distinct global pattern of research productivity and citation activity. Radar chart techniques were used to visualize bi- and multilateral research cooperation and institutional cooperation. Conclusions: The present study supplies a first scientometricapproach that visualises research activity in the field of tobacco control. It provides data that can be used for funding policy and the identification of research clusters.

  19. Dependence of regular background noise of VLF radiation and thunder-storm activity on solar wind proton density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, A.V.; Kozlov, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    Correlation of the intensity of slowly changing regular background noise within 9.7 kHz frequency in Yakutsk (L = 3) and of the solar wind density protons was determined. This result explains the reverse dependence of the intensity of the regular background noise on the solar activity, 27-day frequency, increase before and following geomagnetic storms, absence of relation with K p index of geomagnetic activity. Conclusion is made that growth of density of the solar wind protons results in increase of the regular background noise and thunderstorm activity

  20. Evaluation Of Digital Unsharp-Mask Filtering For The Detection Of Subtle Mammographic Microcalcifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heang-Ping; Vyborny, Carl J.; MacMahon, Heber; Metz, Charles E.; Doi, Kunio; Sickles, Edward A.

    1986-06-01

    We have conducted a study to assess the effects of digitization and unsharp-mask filtering on the ability of observers to detect subtle microcalcifications in mammograms. Thirty-two conventional screen-film mammograms were selected from patient files by two experienced mammographers. Twelve of the mammograms contained a suspicious cluster of microcalcifications in patients who subsequently underwent biopsy. Twenty of the mammograms were normal cases which were initially interpreted as being free of clustered microcalcifications and did not demonstrate such on careful review. The mammograms were digitized with a high-quality Fuji image processing/simulation system. The system consists of two drum scanners with which an original radiograph can be digitized, processed by a minicomputer, and reconstituted on film. In this study, we employed a sampling aperture of 0.1 mm X 0.1 mm and a sampling distance of 0.1 mm. The density range from 0.2 to 2.75 was digitized to 1024 grey levels per pixel. The digitized images were printed on a single emulsion film with a display aperture having the same size as the sampling aperture. The system was carefully calibrated so that the density and contrast of a digitized image were closely matched to those of the original radiograph. Initially, we evaluated the effects of the weighting factor and the mask size of a unsharp-mask filter on the appearance of mammograms for various types of breasts. Subjective visual comparisons suggested that a mask size of 91 X 91 pixels (9.1 mm X 9.1 mm) enhances the visibility of microcalcifications without excessively increasing the high-frequency noise. Further, a density-dependent weighting factor that increases linearly from 1.5 to 3.0 in the density range of 0.2 to 2.5 enhances the contrast of microcalcifications without introducing many potentially confusing artifacts in the low-density areas. An unsharp-mask filter with these parameters was used to process the digitized mammograms. We conducted

  1. Comparative analysis among X-ray mammographic findings, nuclear and histologic grading, and TNM staging of breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Sook; Sung, Ki Joon; Cho, Mee Yon; Hong, In Soo; Kim, Myung Soon; Oh, Ki Keun

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognosis of breast carcinoma by comparison with X-ray mammographic findings, nuclear and histologic grade, and TNM staging. We retrospectively reviewed 114 cases (113 patients) of breast carcinoma, analysing X-ray mammographic findings of all cases with regard to mass, calcification, and spiculation. In 80 cases of scirrhous invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Black's nuclear and Bloom-Richardson's histologic grade were also evaluated. Mammographic findings and nuclear and histologic grade were compared with TNM staging which might suggest the prognosis of breast carcinoma. X-ray mammographic findings (mass, calcification and spiculation) did not significantly correlate with T staging, but the clinical staging of the spiculation was advanced. These X-ray findings did not significantly correlate with the nuclear grading and the histologic grading. Nuclear grade did not correlate with T and M staging, but correlated significantly with N staging and clinical stage(p < 0.05). Histologic grade did not significantly correlate with TNM staging. The clinical staging of spiculation was advanced and nuclear grade correlated significantly with N stage and clinical staging. X-ray mammographic findings did not directly correlate with nuclear and histologic grading, but combined studies of the evaluation of mammographic findings and nuclear and histologic grade were useful for prognosing breast carcinoma

  2. Determination of power density distribution of fuel assemblies for research reactor by directly measuring the strontium-91 activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Liq-Ji

    1987-01-01

    This work described the investigations of reactor core power peaking and three dimensional power density distribution of present core configuration of Tsing Hua Open-pool reactor (THOR). An experimental program, based on non-destructive fuel gamma scanning of 91 Sr activities, provides the data of fission density distribution for individual fuel pin of four-rod TRIGA-LEU cluster or for MTR-type fuel assembly. The informations are essentially important for the safety of reactor operation and for fuel management especially for the mixed loading with three different types of fuel at present. The relative power peaking values and the power density distribution for present core are discussed. (author)

  3. Basic Study for Active Nucleation Site Density Evaluation in Subcooled Flow Boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, In Cheol; Song, Chul Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been performed on a active nucleation site density (ANSD) due to its governing influence on a heat transfer. However, most of the studies were focused on pool boiling conditions. Kocamustafaogullari and Ishii developed an ANSD correlation from a parametric study of the existing pool boiling data. Also, they extended the correlation to a convective flow boiling condition by adopting the nucleation suppression factor of Chen's heat transfer correlation. However, the appropriateness of applying the Chen's suppression factor to an ANSD correlation was not fully validated because there was not enough experimental data on ANSD in the forced convective flow boiling. Basu et al. performed forced convective boiling experiments and proposed a correlation of ANSD which is the only correlation based on experimental data for a forced convective boiling. They concluded that the ANSD is only dependent on the static contact angle and the wall superheat, and is independent of the flow rate and the subcooling, which contradict the general acceptance of the nucleation suppression in the forced convective boiling. It seems that no reliable ANSD correlation or model is available for a forced convective boiling. In the present study, the effect of the flow velocity on the suppression of the nucleation site was examined, and the effectiveness of a Brewster reflection technique for the identification of the nucleation site was also examined

  4. Positive predictive value of abnormal mammographic findings and role of assessment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menna, S.; Marra, V.; Di Virgilio, M.R.; Macchia, G.; Frigerio, A.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the positive predictive value for cancer of abnormal mammographic findings and the role of assessment, the authors reviewed a series of 962 patients recalled and examined in the first breast screening center of Turin (Italy), out of 18996 women aged 50-59 from 1991 to 1995, within a population-based mammography program. The results of this study confirm the accuracy of mammography in the early detection of breast cancer and the different role of assessment procedures in the various abnormal mammographic findings. The improvement in positive predictive value for screening demonstrates the importance of the learning curve within the screening team. Most of this improvement could be referred to refined diagnostic criteria for calcifications [it

  5. Breast calcifications. A standardized mammographic reporting and data system to improve positive predictive value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perugini, G.; Bonzanini, B.; Valentino, C.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the usefulness of a standardized reporting and data system in improving the positive predictive value of mammography in breast calcifications. Using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon developed by the American College of Radiology, it is defined 5 descriptive categories of breast calcifications and classified diagnostic suspicion of malignancy on a 3-grade scale (low, intermediate and high). Two radiologists reviewed 117 mammographic studies selected from those of the patients submitted to surgical biopsy for mammographically detected calcifications from January 1993 to December 1997, and classified them according to the above criteria. The positive predictive value was calculated for all examinations and for the stratified groups. Defining a standardized system for assessing and describing breast calcifications helps improve the diagnostic accuracy of mammography in clinical practice [it

  6. Regional trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Denmark prior to mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A H; Andersen, K W; Madsen, Mette

    1994-01-01

    To provide a basis for the evaluation of mammographic screening programmes in Denmark, a study was undertaken of the regional differences in breast cancer incidence and mortality. All 16 regions were followed for the 20 year period, 1970-89, before the start of the first population...... among women below age 60. The mortality was more stable, changing only from 24 to 28 (per 100,000 standardised WSP), but a significant increase occurred in the late 1980s. The study showed regional differences in both incidence and mortality of breast cancer in Denmark. Both the incidence......-based mammographic screening programme in the Copenhagen municipality in 1991. Multiplicative Poisson models were used for the analysis. In general, the incidence increased during this period from 55 to 70 [per 100,000 standardised world standard population (WSP)], and the analysis shows this to be most pronounced...

  7. Declining densities and reproductive activities of the queen conch Strombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae in Banco Chinchorro, Eastern Caribbean, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto De Jesús Navarrete

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Queen conch is a gastropod inhabiting the Caribbean Sea, it represents the second largest fishery after the spiny lobster, but it has been extensively captured in the area. In order to know its population status in Chinchorro Bank, we determined conch density changes and its effects on reproductive activities, between July and November 2009. For this, data on conch density, morphology and reproductive activities were obtained from 15 sites within three fishing zones, and compared with previously collected data (1990, 1992, 1994, and 1997. Data showed that adult density decreased with time, from 10 700ind./ha in 1990, to 198ind./h in 2009. Neither egg masses nor spawns were found and mating was only observed once in July 2009. In July, adult (lip>4mm density in the Southern zone was 23ind./ha whereas in the Northern zone and Central zone densities were 15 and 9ind./ha respectively. In November, density was somewhat higher: Southern zone 96ind./ha; Central zone 39ind./ha and Northern zone had 38ind./ha. In July, mean shell length was 170.80±46.28mm, with a higher median abundance at 180-189mm. In November, higher frequency was 187.63±45.14mm, maximum at 210-219mm interval. For the last 10 years period, mean adult conch densities have diminished in each zone, which might be the main cause of decreased reproductive activities of the conch at Banco Chinchorro. It is therefore an immediate need to analyse the management plan for this species in this Reserve and perhaps to promote a re-population of queen conch and culture activities. Rev. Biol. Trop. 61 (4: 1671-1679. Epub 2013 December 01.

  8. Evaluation of the optimum region for mammographic system using computer simulation to study modulation transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Isaura N. Sombra; Schiable, Homero; Porcel, Naider T.; Frere, Annie F.; Marques, Paulo M.A.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the 'optimum region' of the radiation field considering mammographic systems is studied. Such a region was defined in previous works as the field range where the system has its best performance and sharpest images. This study is based on a correlation of two methods for evaluating radiologic imaging systems, both using computer simulation in order to determine modulation transfer functions (MTFs) due to the X-ray tube focal spot in several field orientation and locations

  9. Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy of suspected mammographic breast diagnoses: predictive value of serum proteomic profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schittulli, F.; Ventrella, V.

    2009-01-01

    The project planned a series of actions oriented to different scientific questions: to complete the prospective collection of serum samples for serum proteomic analysis according to SOPs needed for the Italy-USA program; the identification of different mammographic signs for prediction of histological diagnosis of breast lesions through mammotone; the analysis of relationship between serum proteomic profile and micro histology characteristics of breast lesions

  10. US and mammographic findings of myofibroblastoma in the female breast: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seog Wan; Jeon, Soo Bin; Lee, Ji Shin; Kim, Dong Sug

    2005-01-01

    Myofibroblastoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor of the breast. It presents as a well circumscribed, solitary nodular mass, and it has been reported to mainly occur in male patients. To our knowledge, few reports have described the radiologic appearance of myofibroblastoma in the female breast and there has been no report from Korea. We describe the mammographic, sonographic and histologic findings of a case of myofibroblastoma that presented as a well defined mass mimicking fibroadenoma in a 44-year-old woman

  11. Prognosis for Mammographically Occult, Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conservation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tzu-I. J.; Yang Qifeng; Haffty, Bruce G.; Moran, Meena S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare mammographically occult (MamOcc) and mammographically positive (MamPos) early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast-conservation therapy (BCT), to analyze differences between the two cohorts. Methods and Materials: Our two cohorts consisted of 214 MamOcc and 2168 MamPos patients treated with BCT. Chart reviews were conducted to assess mammogram reports and method of detection. All clinical-pathologic and outcome parameters were analyzed to detect differences between the two cohorts. Results: Median follow-up was 7 years. There were no differences in final margins, T stage, nodal status, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, or 'triple-negative' status. Significant differences included younger age at diagnosis (p o histology (p < 0.0001). At 10 years, the differences in overall survival, cause-specific survival, and distant relapse between the two groups did not differ significantly. The MamOcc cohort had more breast relapses (15% vs. 8%; p = 0.0357), but on multivariate analysis this difference was not significant (hazard ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.993-1.007, p = 0.9296). Breast relapses were mammographically occult in 32% of the MamOcc and 12% of the MamPos cohorts (p = 0.0136). Conclusions: Although our study suggests that there are clinical-pathologic variations for the MamOcc cohort vs. MamPos patients that may ultimately affect management, breast relapse after BCT was not significantly different. Breast recurrences were more often mammographically occult in the MamOcc cohort; consideration should be given to closer follow-up and alternative imaging strategies (ultrasound, breast MRI) for routine posttreatment examination. To our knowledge, this represents the largest series addressing the prognostic significance of MamOcc cancers treated with BCT.

  12. US and mammographic findings of myofibroblastoma in the female breast: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seog Wan; Jeon, Soo Bin [Chonbuk University Medical College, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Shin [Chonnam University Medicine College, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Sug [Yeungnam University Medicine College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Myofibroblastoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor of the breast. It presents as a well circumscribed, solitary nodular mass, and it has been reported to mainly occur in male patients. To our knowledge, few reports have described the radiologic appearance of myofibroblastoma in the female breast and there has been no report from Korea. We describe the mammographic, sonographic and histologic findings of a case of myofibroblastoma that presented as a well defined mass mimicking fibroadenoma in a 44-year-old woman.

  13. Patients Mammographic Dose Survey in a Sample of Slovak Mammography Departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, D.; Horvathova, M.; Gbelcova, L.

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer and the most frequent cause of cancer induced deaths in Europe. Demographic trends indicate a continuing increase in this substantial public health problem. Systematic early detection, effective diagnostic pathways and high quality services have the ability for lowering the breast cancer mortality rates and for reducing the burden of this disease in the population The widespread use of mammography for early breast cancer detection is highly accepted all over the world. For achievement of a successful national mammography programme in Slovakia, a national QA/QC mammography system was introduced. Coming from alarming values of increase of malignant neoplasm of breast in Slovakia a national mammography audit has been initiated, performed in three runs and working in three phases: assessment of existing status of practice and equipment performance, as well as education and training of radiologists and radiographers of 42 mammography departments; implementation of technical quality programme and patient dose evaluation; clinical image evaluation. Preventive mammography in spite of being a reasonable examination, which represents health benefit for patient, exceed also the health risk. In 1991-1996 mammographic examination created 1.3% from all medical radiodiagnostic expositions made in Slovakia. In 2005 there were realized 241 208 mammographic examinations, 140 798 of them were noticed like preventive examinations. In 2006 the number of all mammographic examinations in Slovakia increased to 271 755 and of them 156 199 were preventive mammographic examinations. In our presentation we tried to establish the average absorbed glandular doses of patients undergoing mammography examinations in 10 selected departments and to compare the obtained results with European diagnostic reference values. The obtained values were used for the proposal of a new national diagnostic reference value for mammography examinations

  14. Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Karen, E-mail: kdrukker@uchicago.edu; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Duewer, Fred; Malkov, Serghei; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A. [Radiology Department, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Flowers, Chris I. [Department of Radiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Drukteinis, Jennifer S. [Department of Radiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether biologic image composition of mammographic lesions can improve upon existing mammographic quantitative image analysis (QIA) in estimating the probability of malignancy. Methods: The study population consisted of 45 breast lesions imaged with dual-energy mammography prior to breast biopsy with final diagnosis resulting in 10 invasive ductal carcinomas, 5 ductal carcinomain situ, 11 fibroadenomas, and 19 other benign diagnoses. Analysis was threefold: (1) The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method, “QIA alone,” (2) the three-compartment breast (3CB) composition measure—derived from the dual-energy mammography—of water, lipid, and protein thickness were assessed, “3CB alone”, and (3) information from QIA and 3CB was combined, “QIA + 3CB.” Analysis was initiated from radiologist-indicated lesion centers and was otherwise fully automated. Steps of the QIA and 3CB methods were lesion segmentation, characterization, and subsequent classification for malignancy in leave-one-case-out cross-validation. Performance assessment included box plots, Bland–Altman plots, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions (invasive and DCIS) was 0.81 (standard error 0.07) for the “QIA alone” method, 0.72 (0.07) for “3CB alone” method, and 0.86 (0.04) for “QIA+3CB” combined. The difference in AUC was 0.043 between “QIA + 3CB” and “QIA alone” but failed to reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval [–0.17 to + 0.26]). Conclusions: In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of the composition of breast lesions and their periphery appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between different benign and malignant lesion types.

  15. Low dose transdermal estradiol induces breast density and heterogeneity changes comparable to those of raloxifene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Raundahl, Jakob; Pettersen, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether transdermal low dose estradiol treatment induces changes in mammographic density or heterogeneity compared to raloxifene. Secondarily, if these changes relate to changes in bone formation/resorption markers, and if these findings indicate elevation of breast canc...

  16. Textural Classification of Mammographic Parenchymal Patterns with the SONNET Selforganizing Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Howard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In nationwide mammography screening, thousands of mammography examinations must be processed. Each consists of two standard views of each breast, and each mammogram must be visually examined by an experienced radiologist to assess it for any anomalies. The ability to detect an anomaly in mammographic texture is important to successful outcomes in mammography screening and, in this study, a large number of mammograms were digitized with a highly accurate scanner; and textural features were derived from the mammograms as input data to a SONNET selforganizing neural network. The paper discusses how SONNET was used to produce a taxonomic organization of the mammography archive in an unsupervised manner. This process is subject to certain choices of SONNET parameters, in these numerical experiments using the craniocaudal view, and typically produced O(10, for example, 39 mammogram classes, by analysis of features from O(103 mammogram images. The mammogram taxonomy captured typical subtleties to discriminate mammograms, and it is submitted that this may be exploited to aid the detection of mammographic anomalies, for example, by acting as a preprocessing stage to simplify the task for a computational detection scheme, or by ordering mammography examinations by mammogram taxonomic class prior to screening in order to encourage more successful visual examination during screening. The resulting taxonomy may help train screening radiologists and conceivably help to settle legal cases concerning a mammography screening examination because the taxonomy can reveal the frequency of mammographic patterns in a population.

  17. Evaluation of high density lipoprotein as a circulating biomarker of Gaucher disease activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Philip; Yang, Ruhua; Liu, Jun; Pastores, Gregory M.; Mistry, Pramod K.

    2011-01-01

    Circulating biomarkers are important surrogates for monitoring disease activity in type I Gaucher disease (GD1). We and others have reported low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in GD1. We assessed HDL cholesterol as a biomarker of GD1, with respect to its correlation with indicators of disease severity and its response to imiglucerase enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). In 278 consecutively evaluated GD1 patients, we correlated HDL cholesterol, chitotriosidase, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with indicators of disease severity. Additionally, we measured the response of these biomarkers to ERT. HDL cholesterol was negatively correlated with spleen volume, liver volume, and GD severity score index; the magnitude of this association of disease severity with HDL cholesterol was similar to that for ACE and for chitotriosidase. Within individual patients monitored over many years, there was a strikingly strong correlation of HDL with liver and spleen volumes; there was a similarly strong correlation of chitotriosidase and ACE with disease severity in individual patients monitored serially over many years (chitotriosidase r=0.96 to 0.98, ACE r =0.88 to 0.94, and HDL r=−0.84 to −0.94, p<0.001). ERT for 3 years resulted in a striking increase of HDL while serum levels of chitotriosidase and ACE decreased. Our results reveal markedly low HDL cholesterol in untreated GD1, a correlation with indicators of disease severity in GD1, and a rise towards normal after ERT. These findings suggest HDL cholesterol merits inclusion within the “biomarker basket” for monitoring of patients with GD1. PMID:21290183

  18. Implementation of several mathematical algorithms to breast tissue density classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, C.; Redondo, M.; Tirao, G.

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of mammographic abnormality detection methods is strongly dependent on breast tissue characteristics, where a dense breast tissue can hide lesions causing cancer to be detected at later stages. In addition, breast tissue density is widely accepted to be an important risk indicator for the development of breast cancer. This paper presents the implementation and the performance of different mathematical algorithms designed to standardize the categorization of mammographic images, according to the American College of Radiology classifications. These mathematical techniques are based on intrinsic properties calculations and on comparison with an ideal homogeneous image (joint entropy, mutual information, normalized cross correlation and index Q) as categorization parameters. The algorithms evaluation was performed on 100 cases of the mammographic data sets provided by the Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina—Programa de Prevención del Cáncer de Mama (Department of Public Health, Córdoba, Argentina, Breast Cancer Prevention Program). The obtained breast classifications were compared with the expert medical diagnostics, showing a good performance. The implemented algorithms revealed a high potentiality to classify breasts into tissue density categories.

  19. Changes in osteocyte density correspond with changes in osteoblast and osteoclast activity in an osteoporotic sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrinkalam, M R; Mulaibrahimovic, A; Atkins, G J; Moore, R J

    2012-04-01

    Histomorphometric assessment of trabecular bone in osteoporotic sheep showed that bone volume, osteoid surface area, bone formation rate, and osteocyte density were reduced. In contrast, eroded surface area and empty lacunae density were increased. Changes in osteocyte density correlated with changes in osteoblast and osteoclast activity. Osteocytes contribute to the regulation of the activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts that together control bone mass. Osteocytes therefore likely play a role in the loss of bone mass associated with osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between osteocyte lacunar density and other bone histomorphometric parameters in the iliac crest (IC) and lumbar spine (LS) of osteoporotic sheep. Osteoporosis was induced in ten mature ewes by an established protocol involving a combination of ovariectomy, dexamethasone injection, and low calcium diet for 6 months. Five ewes were used as controls. Post-mortem IC and LS biopsies were collected and processed for further histomorphometric assessment. Bone volume, osteoid surface, and bone formation rate in the IC and LS of osteoporotic sheep were reduced compared to those of the controls. In contrast, eroded surface area was increased in osteoporotic sheep. In the osteoporotic group, osteocyte density was reduced in the LS region and to a greater extent in the IC region. The empty osteocyte lacunae were increased 1.7-fold in LS and 2.1-fold in IC in the osteoporotic group. The osteocyte density correlated positively with markers of osteoblast activity and negatively with those of osteoclast activity. Depletion of osteocytes and an increase in the empty lacunae could be important factors contributing to bone loss in this model since they may adversely affect intercellular communication between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The regional differences in histology suggest that there may be different pathological mechanisms operating at different anatomical sites.

  20. Histamine H3 receptor density is negatively correlated with neural activity related to working memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takehito; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Seki, Chie; Ichise, Masanori; Yokokawa, Keita; Kawamura, Kazunori; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Higuchi, Makoto; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Suhara, Tetsuya; Yamada, Makiko

    2018-06-14

    The histamine H 3 receptor is regarded as a drug target for cognitive impairments in psychiatric disorders. H 3 receptors are expressed in neocortical areas, including the prefrontal cortex, the key region of cognitive functions such as working memory. However, the role of prefrontal H 3 receptors in working memory has not yet been clarified. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques, we aimed to investigate the association between the neural activity of working memory and the density of H 3 receptors in the prefrontal cortex. Ten healthy volunteers underwent both fMRI and PET scans. The N-back task was used to assess the neural activities related to working memory. H 3 receptor density was measured with the selective PET radioligand [ 11 C] TASP457. The neural activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the performance of the N-back task was negatively correlated with the density of H 3 receptors in this region. Higher neural activity of working memory was associated with lower H 3 receptor density in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This finding elucidates the role of H 3 receptors in working memory and indicates the potential of H 3 receptors as a therapeutic target for the cognitive impairments associated with neuropsychiatric disorders.

  1. ERK1/2 Activation Is Necessary for BDNF to Increase Dendritic Spine Density in Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Mariana; Medina, Jorge H.; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2004-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent modulator of synaptic transmission and plasticity in the CNS, acting both pre- and postsynaptically. We demonstrated recently that BDNF/TrkB signaling increases dendritic spine density in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Here, we tested whether activation of the prominent ERK (MAPK) signaling…

  2. Mammographic features of screening detected pT1 (a–b) invasive breast cancer using BI-RADS lexicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargalló, Xavier, E-mail: xbarga@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Santamaría, Gorane, E-mail: gsanta@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Velasco, Martín, E-mail: mvelasco@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Amo, Montse del, E-mail: mdelamo@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Arguis, Pedro, E-mail: parguis@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Burrel, Marta, E-mail: mburrel@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Capurro, Sebastian, E-mail: scapurro@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Aim: To describe mammographic features in screening detected invasive breast cancer less than or equal to 10 mm using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon in full-field digital mammography. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of 123 pT1 (a–b) invasive breast cancers in women aged 50–69 years from our screening program. Radiologic patterns were: masses, calcifications, distortions, asymmetries and mixed. Masses: shape, margins and density, and calcifications: morphology, number of flecks and size of the cluster were taken into account, following Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System terminology. Results: We found 61 masses (49.6%), 8 masses with calcifications (6.5%), 30 groups of calcifications (24.4%), 19 architectural distortions (15.4%), 1 architectural distortion with calcifications (0.8%), 4 asymmetries (3.2%). Sixty out of 69 masses were irregular in shape, 6 lobular, 2 ovals and 1 round. Thirty-four showed ill-defined margins, 29 spiculated and 6 microlobulated. Most of them showed a density similar to surrounding fibroglandular tissue. Calcifications were pleomorphic or fine linear in 24 of 30 (80%). Most of cases showed more than 10 flecks and a size greater than 1 cm. Conclusion: The predominant radiologic finding is an irregular, isodense mass those margins tend to share different descriptors, being ill-defined margins the most constant finding. Calcifications representing invasive cancer are predominantly pleomorphic with more than 10 flecks per cm. Architectural distortion and invasive tubular carcinoma are more common than reported in general series.

  3. Mammographic features of screening detected pT1 (a–b) invasive breast cancer using BI-RADS lexicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargalló, Xavier; Santamaría, Gorane; Velasco, Martín; Amo, Montse del; Arguis, Pedro; Burrel, Marta; Capurro, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To describe mammographic features in screening detected invasive breast cancer less than or equal to 10 mm using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon in full-field digital mammography. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of 123 pT1 (a–b) invasive breast cancers in women aged 50–69 years from our screening program. Radiologic patterns were: masses, calcifications, distortions, asymmetries and mixed. Masses: shape, margins and density, and calcifications: morphology, number of flecks and size of the cluster were taken into account, following Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System terminology. Results: We found 61 masses (49.6%), 8 masses with calcifications (6.5%), 30 groups of calcifications (24.4%), 19 architectural distortions (15.4%), 1 architectural distortion with calcifications (0.8%), 4 asymmetries (3.2%). Sixty out of 69 masses were irregular in shape, 6 lobular, 2 ovals and 1 round. Thirty-four showed ill-defined margins, 29 spiculated and 6 microlobulated. Most of them showed a density similar to surrounding fibroglandular tissue. Calcifications were pleomorphic or fine linear in 24 of 30 (80%). Most of cases showed more than 10 flecks and a size greater than 1 cm. Conclusion: The predominant radiologic finding is an irregular, isodense mass those margins tend to share different descriptors, being ill-defined margins the most constant finding. Calcifications representing invasive cancer are predominantly pleomorphic with more than 10 flecks per cm. Architectural distortion and invasive tubular carcinoma are more common than reported in general series

  4. Otimização de imagens mamográficas Optimization of mammographic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rodrigues de Pina

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho tem como objetivo a otimização de imagens mamográficas, com consideráveis reduções de doses. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Neste estudo o feixe de raios-X foi calibrado para cada tensão (kVp, de modo a determinar a melhor combinação de kVp e mAs que irá proporcionar uma densidade ótica (DO em torno de 1.0 acima da base mais véu do filme utilizado. RESULTADOS: Serão discutidas questões sobre os métodos empregados para a seleção de parâmetros de exposição do feixe de raios-X, seleção da melhor imagem utilizando o método de avaliação gradativa visual, comparações entre as doses e carga do tubo (kVp × mAs proporcionadas pelas técnicas determinadas neste estudo e pelas utilizadas na rotina clínica do Serviço de Diagnóstico por Imagem do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu. Neste estudo foram obtidas imagens radiográficas de mama de excelente qualidade, com redução de dose e carga de tubo, respectivamente, de 36,8% e 46,2%, quando comparadas com a técnica utilizada pela rotina clínica da instituição. CONCLUSÃO: Esta pesquisa vem contribuir com a otimização da relação risco-benefício para o paciente e custo-benefício para a instituição.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is the optimization of mammographic images with a considerable radiation dose reduction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study the X-ray beam was calibrated for each tension (kVp, aiming at determining the best combination between kVp and mAs, resulting in optical densities of about 1.0 above the base-plus-fog density. RESULTS: This study will bring into question the methods for X-ray beam calibration, the choice of the best image by means of visual grading analysis, comparisons between doses and tube load (kVp × mAs delivered by the techniques described in this study and by those adopted in the clinical routine at Service of Diagnostic Imaging of Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu Clinics

  5. Radiological and pathological findings of interval cancers in a multi-centre, randomized, controlled trial of mammographic screening in women from age 40-41 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.J.; Kutt, E.; Record, C.; Waller, M.; Bobrow, L.; Moss, S.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse the radiographic findings of the screening mammograms of women with interval cancer who participated in a multi-centre, randomized, controlled trial of mammographic screening in women from age 40-48 years. Materials and methods: The screening and diagnostic mammograms of 208 women with interval cancers were reviewed. Abnormalities were classified as malignant, subtle and non-specific. Results: Eighty-seven (42%) of women had true, 66 (32%) occult and 55 (26%) false-negative interval cancers. The features most frequently missed or misinterpreted were granular microcalcification (38%), asymmetric density (27%) and distortion (22%). Thirty-seven percent of abnormal previous screens were classified as malignant, 39% subtle change and 21% as non-specific. Granular calcifications were significantly more common on the diagnostic mammograms of false-negative interval cancers than those of true interval cancers (28 versus 14%, p = 0.04). Occult interval cancers were more likely to be <10 mm and <15 mm in invasive pathological size than other interval cancers (p = 0.03 and 0.005, respectively). True interval cancers were more likely to be histologically grade 3 than other interval cancers (p = 0.04). Women who developed true and false-negative interval cancers had similar background patterns, but women with occult cancers had a higher proportion of dense patterns (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Interval cancers in a young screening population have a high proportion of occult lesions that are small and occur in dense background patterns. The proportion of interval cancers that are false negative is similar that seen in older populations and granular microcalcification is the commonest missed mammographic feature

  6. A Quantitative Study on Packing Density and Pozzolanic Activity of Cementitious Materials Based on the Compaction Packing Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Jianqing; Chou, Kai; Huang, Zheng Yu; Zhao, Minghua

    2014-01-01

    A brief introduction to the theoretical basis of compaction packing model (CPM) and an over-view of the principle of the specific strength method provided the starting point of this study. Then, research on quantitative relations was carried out to find the correlation between the contribution rate of the pozzolanic activity and the contribution value of packing density when CPM was applied to fine powder mixture systems. The concept of the contribution value of the packing density being in direct correspondence with the contribution rate was proved by the compressive strength results and SEM images. The results indicated that the variation rule of the contribution rate of the pozzolanic activity is similar to that of the contribution value of packing density as calculated by CPM. This means the contribution value of the packing density could approximately simulate the change tendency of the contribution rate of the pozzolanic activity, which is of significant value for the future of mix designs for high and ultra-high performance concrete

  7. Mammographic surveillance in the follow up of early primary breast cancer in England: A cross-sectional survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood-Haigh, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine current practice in the clinical setting at national and regional level of the use of mammographic surveillance in the follow up of patients surgically treated for early breast cancer. Method: A cross-sectional survey method was employed. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to a random selection of symptomatic breast imaging units representing all the cancer networks in England nationally, and all symptomatic breast imaging units in one cancer network regionally. Questions were designed to determine frequency and duration of mammographic surveillance for patients aged < 50 years and ≥50 years surgically treated by mastectomy or breast conserving surgery and the number of units with protocols based on the risk of local recurrence or development of a new primary breast cancer. Results: The protocols demonstrated a striking diversity in both the frequency and duration of mammographic surveillance; however the variation was less marked regionally. The duration of mammography for patient's aged ≥70 years surgically treated by mastectomy, demonstrated the greatest diversity (range: 0-15 years). Four protocols had regimes tailored to risk. Conclusion: The introduction of protocols based on risk of development of a local recurrence or new primary could prove cost effective by targeting mammographic surveillance to those who would benefit the most. The survey has demonstrated that a 'post-code lottery' exists for both the frequency and duration of mammographic surveillance in this patient group indicating an urgent need for evidence based national guidance.

  8. The implementation of an AR (augmented reality) approach to support mammographic interpretation training: an initial feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiang; Chen, Yan; Gale, Alastair G.

    2017-03-01

    Appropriate feedback plays an important role in optimising mammographic interpretation training whilst also ensuring good interpretation performance. The traditional keyboard, mouse and workstation technical approach has a critical limitation in providing supplementary image-related information and providing complex feedback in real time. Augmented Reality (AR) provides a possible superior approach in this situation, as feedback can be provided directly overlaying the displayed mammographic images so making a generic approach which can also be vendor neutral. In this study, radiological feedback was dynamically remapped virtually into the real world, using perspective transformation, in order to provide a richer user experience in mammographic interpretation training. This is an initial attempt of an AR approach to dynamically superimpose pre-defined feedback information of a DICOM image on top of a radiologist's view, whilst the radiologist is examining images on a clinical workstation. The study demonstrates the feasibility of the approach, although there are limitations on interactive operations which are due to the hardware used. The results of this fully functional approach provide appropriate feedback/image correspondence in a simulated mammographic interpretation environment. Thus, it is argued that employing AR is a feasible way to provide rich feedback in the delivery of mammographic interpretation training.

  9. Effectiveness and feasibility of lowering playground density during recess to promote physical activity and decrease sedentary time at primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Sara; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet

    2013-12-10

    This pilot study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of lowering playground density on increasing children's physical activity and decreasing sedentary time. Also the feasibility of this intervention was tested. Data were collected in September and October 2012 in three Belgian schools in 187, 9-12 year old children. During the intervention, playground density was decreased by splitting up recesses and decreasing the number of children sharing the playground. A within-subject design was used. Children wore accelerometers during the study week. Three-level (class - participant - measurement (baseline or intervention)) linear regression models were used to determine intervention effects. After the intervention week the school principals filled out a questionnaire concerning the feasibility of the intervention. The available play space was 12.18 ± 4.19 m²/child at baseline and increased to 24.24 ± 8.51 m²/child during intervention. During the intervention sedentary time decreased (-0.58 min/recess; -3.21%/recess) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (+1.04 min/recess; +5.9%/recess) increased during recess and during the entire school day (sedentary time: -3.29%/school day; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity +1.16%/school day). All principals agreed that children enjoyed the intervention; but some difficulties were reported. Lowering playground density can be an effective intervention for decreasing children's sedentary time and increasing their physical activity levels during recess; especially in least active children.

  10. Pathological upgrading in prostate cancer patients eligible for active surveillance: Does prostate-specific antigen density matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Byung-Soo; Kang, Seok-Hyun; Kim, Duk-Yoon; Oh, Hoon-Gyu; Kim, Chun-Il; Moon, Gi-Hak; Kwon, Tae-Gyun; Park, Jae-Shin

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate prospectively the role of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density in predicting Gleason score upgrading in prostate cancer patients eligible for active surveillance (T1/T2, biopsy Gleason score≤6, PSA≤10 ng/mL, and ≤2 positive biopsy cores). Between January 2010 and November 2013, among patients who underwent greater than 10-core transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy, 60 patients eligible for active surveillance underwent radical prostatectomy. By use of the modified Gleason criteria, the tumor grade of the surgical specimens was examined and compared with the biopsy results. Tumor upgrading occurred in 24 patients (40.0%). Extracapsular disease and positive surgical margins were found in 6 patients (10.0%) and 8 patients (17.30%), respectively. A statistically significant correlation between PSA density and postoperative upgrading was found (p=0.030); this was in contrast with the other studied parameters, which failed to reach significance, including PSA, prostate volume, number of biopsy cores, and number of positive cores. Tumor upgrading was also highly associated with extracapsular cancer extension (p=0.000). The estimated optimal cutoff value of PSA density was 0.13 ng/mL(2), obtained by receiver operating characteristic analysis (area under the curve=0.66; p=0.020; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.78). PSA density is a strong predictor of Gleason score upgrading after radical prostatectomy in patients eligible for active surveillance. Because tumor upgrading increases the potential for postoperative pathological adverse findings and prognosis, PSA density should be considered when treating and consulting patients eligible for active surveillance.

  11. Using FDG-PET activity as a surrogate for tumor cell density and its effect on equivalent uniform dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Sumin; Wong, Terence Z.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD) has been suggested as a means to quantitatively consider heterogeneous dose distributions within targets. Tumor cell density/function is typically assumed to be uniform. We herein propose to use 18 F-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) tumor imaging activity as a surrogate marker for tumor cell density to allow the EUD concept to include intratumor heterogeneities and to study its effect on EUD calculation. Thirty-one patients with lung cancer who had computerized tomography (CT)-based 3D planning and PET imaging were studied. Treatment beams were designed based on the information from both the CT and PET scans. Doses were calculated in 3D based on CT images to reflect tissue heterogeneity. The EUD was calculated in two different ways: first, assuming a uniform tumor cell density within the tumor target; second, using FDG-PET activity (counts/cm 3 ) as a surrogate for tumor cell density at different parts of tumor to calculate the functional-imaging-weighted EUD (therefore will be labeled fEUD for convenience). The EUD calculation can be easily incorporated into the treatment planning process. For 28/31 patients, their fEUD and EUD differed by less than 6%. Twenty-one of these twenty-eight patients had tumor volumes 3 . In the three patients with larger tumor volume, the fEUD and EUD differed by 8%-14%. Incorporating information from PET imaging to represent tumor cell density in the EUD calculation is straightforward. This approach provides the opportunity to include heterogeneity in tumor function/metabolism into the EUD calculation. The difference between fEUD and EUD, i.e., whether including or not including the possible tumor cell density heterogeneity within tumor can be significant with large tumor volumes. Further research is needed to assess the usefulness of the fEUD concept in radiation treatment

  12. The Density Functional Theory of Flies: Predicting distributions of interacting active organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkhabwala, Yunus; Valderrama, Juan; Cohen, Itai; Arias, Tomas

    On October 2nd, 2016, 52 people were crushed in a stampede when a crowd panicked at a religious gathering in Ethiopia. The ability to predict the state of a crowd and whether it is susceptible to such transitions could help prevent such catastrophes. While current techniques such as agent based models can predict transitions in emergent behaviors of crowds, the assumptions used to describe the agents are often ad hoc and the simulations are computationally expensive making their application to real-time crowd prediction challenging. Here, we pursue an orthogonal approach and ask whether a reduced set of variables, such as the local densities, are sufficient to describe the state of a crowd. Inspired by the theoretical framework of Density Functional Theory, we have developed a system that uses only measurements of local densities to extract two independent crowd behavior functions: (1) preferences for locations and (2) interactions between individuals. With these two functions, we have accurately predicted how a model system of walking Drosophila melanogaster distributes itself in an arbitrary 2D environment. In addition, this density-based approach measures properties of the crowd from only observations of the crowd itself without any knowledge of the detailed interactions and thus it can make predictions about the resulting distributions of these flies in arbitrary environments, in real-time. This research was supported in part by ARO W911NF-16-1-0433.

  13. Combined roles of human IgG subclass, alternative complement pathway activation, and epitope density in the bactericidal activity of antibodies to meningococcal factor h binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, Serena; Reason, Donald C; Granoff, Dan M

    2012-01-01

    Meningococcal vaccines containing factor H binding protein (fHbp) are in clinical development. fHbp binds human fH, which enables the meningococcus to resist complement-mediated bacteriolysis. Previously, we found that chimeric human IgG1 mouse anti-fHbp monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) had human complement-mediated bactericidal activity only if the MAb inhibited fH binding. Since IgG subclasses differ in their ability to activate complement, we investigated the role of human IgG subclasses on antibody functional activity. We constructed chimeric MAbs in which three different murine fHbp-specific binding domains were each paired with human IgG1, IgG2, or IgG3. Against a wild-type group B isolate, all three IgG3 MAbs, irrespective of their ability to inhibit fH binding, had bactericidal activity that was >5-fold higher than the respective IgG1 MAbs, while the IgG2 MAbs had the least activity. Against a mutant with increased fHbp expression, the anti-fHbp MAbs elicited greater C4b deposition (classical pathway) and greater bactericidal activity than against the wild-type strain, and the IgG1 MAbs had similar or greater activity than the respective IgG3 MAbs. The bactericidal activity against both wild-type and mutant strains also was dependent, in part, on activation of the alternative complement pathway. Thus, at lower epitope density in the wild-type strain, the IgG3 anti-fHbp MAbs had the greatest bactericidal activity. At a higher epitope density in the mutant, the IgG1 MAbs had similar or greater bactericidal activity than the IgG3 MAbs, and the activity was less dependent on the inhibition of fH binding than at a lower epitope density.

  14. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Voshell, J Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO(4)-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R(2) = 0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R(2) = 0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO(4)-P were weaker, but were also significant (R(2) = 0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO(4)-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO(4)-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Voshell, J. Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations > 1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (> 1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R2 = 0.56–0.81) and E2Eq (R2 = 0.39–0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R2 = 0.27–0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms.

  16. Establishment of a low recycling state with full density control by active pumping of the closed helical divertor at LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motojima, G.; Masuzaki, S.; Tanaka, H.; Morisaki, T.; Sakamoto, R.; Murase, T.; Tsuchibushi, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Schmitz, O.; Shoji, M.; Tokitani, M.; Yamada, H.; Takeiri, Y.; The LHD Experiment Group

    2018-01-01

    Superior control of particle recycling and hence full governance of plasma density has been established in the Large Helical Device (LHD) using largely enhanced active pumping of the closed helical divertor (CHD). In-vessel cryo-sorption pumping systems inside the CHD in five out of ten inner toroidal divertor sections have been developed and installed step by step in the LHD. The total effective pumping speed obtained was 67  ±  5 m3 s-1 in hydrogen, which is approximately seven times larger than previously obtained. As a result, a low recycling state was observed with CHD pumping for the first time in LHD featuring excellent density control even under intense pellet fueling conditions. A global particle confinement time (τ p* ) is used for comparison of operation with and without the CHD pumping. The τ p* was evaluated from the density decay after the fueling of hydrogen pellet injection or gas puffing in NBI plasmas. A reliably low base density before the fueling and short τ p* after the fueling were obtained during the CHD pumping, demonstrating for the first time full control of the particle balance with active pumping in the CHD.

  17. Gas-phase formaldehyde adsorption isotherm studies on activated carbon: correlations of adsorption capacity to surface functional group density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ellison M; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E; Ramirez, David

    2011-08-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) adsorption isotherms were developed for the first time on three activated carbons representing one activated carbon fiber (ACF) cloth, one all-purpose granular activated carbon (GAC), and one GAC commercially promoted for gas-phase HCHO removal. The three activated carbons were evaluated for HCHO removal in the low-ppm(v) range and for water vapor adsorption from relative pressures of 0.1-0.9 at 26 °C where, according to the IUPAC isotherm classification system, the adsorption isotherms observed exhibited Type V behavior. A Type V adsorption isotherm model recently proposed by Qi and LeVan (Q-L) was selected to model the observed adsorption behavior because it reduces to a finite, nonzero limit at low partial pressures and it describes the entire range of adsorption considered in this study. The Q-L model was applied to a polar organic adsorbate to fit HCHO adsorption isotherms for the three activated carbons. The physical and chemical characteristics of the activated carbon surfaces were characterized using nitrogen adsorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Boehm titrations. At low concentrations, HCHO adsorption capacity was most strongly related to the density of basic surface functional groups (SFGs), while water vapor adsorption was most strongly influenced by the density of acidic SFGs.

  18. Comparison of Visual Assessment of Breast Density in BI-RADS 4th and 5th Editions With Automated Volumetric Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, So Jung; Son, Eun Ju; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong-Ah

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare visual assessments of mammographic breast density by radiologists using BI-RADS 4th and 5th editions in correlation with automated volumetric breast density measurements. A total of 337 consecutive full-field digital mammographic examinations with standard views were retrospectively assessed by two radiologists for mammographic breast density according to BI-RADS 4th and 5th editions. Fully automated measurement of the volume of fibroglandular tissue and total breast and percentage breast density was performed with a commercially available software program. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement was assessed with kappa statistics. The distributions of breast density categories for both editions of BI-RADS were compared and correlated with volumetric data. Interobserver agreement on breast density category was moderate to substantial (κ = 0.58-0.63) with use of BI-RADS 4th edition and substantial (κ = 0.63-0.66) with use of the 5th edition but without significant difference between the two editions. For intraobserver agreement between the two editions, the distributions of density category were significantly different (p density data, including percentage breast density, were significantly different among density categories (p density assessment had good correlation with visual assessment for both editions of BI-RADS.

  19. Ultrasound guided core biopsy of suspicious mammographic calcifications using high frequency and power Doppler ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, W.L.; Wilson, A.R.M; Evans, A.J.; Burrell, H.; Pinder, S.E.; Ellis, I.O.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: The pre-operative diagnosis of suspicious mammographic microcalcifications usually requires stereotactic needle biopsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate if high frequency 13 MHz ultrasound (HFUS) and power Doppler (PD) can aid visualization and biopsy of microcalcifications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four consecutive patients presenting with microcalcifications without associated mammographic or palpable masses were examined with HFUS and PD. Ultrasound-guided core biopsy (USCB) was performed where possible. Stereotactic biopsy was carried out when US-guided biopsy was unsuccessful. Surgery was performed if a diagnosis of malignancy was made on core biopsy or if the repeat core biopsy was non-diagnostic. RESULTS: Forty-one patients (93%) had ultrasound abnormalities corresponding to mammographic calcification. USCB was performed on 37 patients. In 29/37, USCB obtained a definitive result (78.4%). USCB was non-diagnostic in 4/9 benign (44.4%) and 4/28 (14.3%) malignant lesions biopsied. The complete and absolute sensitivities for malignancy using USCB were 85.7% (24/28) and 81% (23/28), respectively. USCB correctly identified invasive disease in 12/23 (52.2%) cases. There was no significant difference in the presence of abnormal flow on PD between benign and malignant lesions. However, abnormal PD vascularity was present in 43.5% of invasive cancer and was useful in directing successful biopsy in eight cases. CONCLUSION: The combination of high frequency US with PD is useful in the detection and guidance of successful needle biopsy of microcalcifications particularly where there is an invasive focus within larger areas of DCIS. Teh, W.L. (2000)

  20. Impact of full field digital mammography on the classification and mammographic characteristics of interval breast cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Mark, E-mail: marktknox@gmail.com; O’Brien, Angela, E-mail: angelaobrien@doctors.org.uk; Szabó, Endre, E-mail: endrebacsi@freemail.hu; Smith, Clare S., E-mail: csmith@mater.ie; Fenlon, Helen M., E-mail: helen.fenlon@cancerscreening.ie; McNicholas, Michelle M., E-mail: michelle.mcnicholas@cancerscreening.ie; Flanagan, Fidelma L., E-mail: fidelma.flanagan@cancerscreening.ie

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Digital mammography has changed the presentation of interval breast cancer. • Less interval breast cancers are associated with microcalcifications following FFDM. • Interval breast cancer audit remains a key feature of any breast screening program. - Abstract: Objective: Full field digital mammography (FFDM) is increasingly replacing screen film mammography (SFM) in breast screening programs. Interval breast cancers are an issue in all screening programs and the purpose of our study is to assess the impact of FFDM on the classification of interval breast cancers at independent blind review and to compare the mammographic features of interval cancers at FFDM and SFM. Materials and methods: This study included 138 cases of interval breast cancer, 76 following an FFDM screening examination and 62 following screening with SFM. The prior screening mammogram was assessed by each of five consultant breast radiologists who were blinded to the site of subsequent cancer. Subsequent review of the diagnostic mammogram was performed and cases were classified as missed, minimal signs, occult or true interval. Mammographic features of the interval cancer at diagnosis and any abnormality identified on the prior screening mammogram were recorded. Results: The percentages of cancers classified as missed at FFDM and SFM did not differ significantly, 10.5% (8 of 76) at FFDM and 8.1% (5 of 62) at SFM (p = .77). There were significantly less interval cancers presenting as microcalcifications (alone or in association with another abnormality) following screening with FFDM, 16% (12 of 76) than following a SFM examination, 32% (20 of 62) (p = .02). Conclusion: Interval breast cancers continue to pose a problem at FFDM. The switch to FFDM has changed the mammographic presentation of interval breast cancer, with less interval cancers presenting in association with microcalcifications.

  1. Varying performance in mammographic interpretation across two countries: Do results indicate reader or population variances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, BaoLin P.; Lee, Warwick B.; Wong, Jill; Sim, Llewellyn; Hillis, Stephen L.; Tapia, Kriscia A.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2016-03-01

    Aim: To compare the performance of Australian and Singapore breast readers interpreting a single test-set that consisted of mammographic examinations collected from the Australian population. Background: In the teleradiology era, breast readers are interpreting mammographic examinations from different populations. The question arises whether two groups of readers with similar training backgrounds, demonstrate the same level of performance when presented with a population familiar only to one of the groups. Methods: Fifty-three Australian and 15 Singaporean breast radiologists participated in this study. All radiologists were trained in mammogram interpretation and had a median of 9 and 15 years of experience in reading mammograms respectively. Each reader interpreted the same BREAST test-set consisting of sixty de-identified mammographic examinations arising from an Australian population. Performance parameters including JAFROC, ROC, case sensitivity as well as specificity were compared between Australian and Singaporean readers using a Mann Whitney U test. Results: A significant difference (P=0.036) was demonstrated between the JAFROC scores of the Australian and Singaporean breast radiologists. No other significant differences were observed. Conclusion: JAFROC scores for Australian radiologists were higher than those obtained by the Singaporean counterparts. Whilst it is tempting to suggest this is down to reader expertise, this may be a simplistic explanation considering the very similar training and audit backgrounds of the two populations of radiologists. The influence of reading images that are different from those that radiologists normally encounter cannot be ruled out and requires further investigation, particularly in the light of increasing international outsourcing of radiologic reporting.

  2. Impact of full field digital mammography on the classification and mammographic characteristics of interval breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, Mark; O’Brien, Angela; Szabó, Endre; Smith, Clare S.; Fenlon, Helen M.; McNicholas, Michelle M.; Flanagan, Fidelma L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Digital mammography has changed the presentation of interval breast cancer. • Less interval breast cancers are associated with microcalcifications following FFDM. • Interval breast cancer audit remains a key feature of any breast screening program. - Abstract: Objective: Full field digital mammography (FFDM) is increasingly replacing screen film mammography (SFM) in breast screening programs. Interval breast cancers are an issue in all screening programs and the purpose of our study is to assess the impact of FFDM on the classification of interval breast cancers at independent blind review and to compare the mammographic features of interval cancers at FFDM and SFM. Materials and methods: This study included 138 cases of interval breast cancer, 76 following an FFDM screening examination and 62 following screening with SFM. The prior screening mammogram was assessed by each of five consultant breast radiologists who were blinded to the site of subsequent cancer. Subsequent review of the diagnostic mammogram was performed and cases were classified as missed, minimal signs, occult or true interval. Mammographic features of the interval cancer at diagnosis and any abnormality identified on the prior screening mammogram were recorded. Results: The percentages of cancers classified as missed at FFDM and SFM did not differ significantly, 10.5% (8 of 76) at FFDM and 8.1% (5 of 62) at SFM (p = .77). There were significantly less interval cancers presenting as microcalcifications (alone or in association with another abnormality) following screening with FFDM, 16% (12 of 76) than following a SFM examination, 32% (20 of 62) (p = .02). Conclusion: Interval breast cancers continue to pose a problem at FFDM. The switch to FFDM has changed the mammographic presentation of interval breast cancer, with less interval cancers presenting in association with microcalcifications

  3. Activity pattern of medium and large sized mammals and density estimates of Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae in the Brazilian Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leuchtenberger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between July 2014 and April 2015, we conducted weekly inventories of the circadian activity patterns of mammals in Passo Novo locality, municipality of Alegrete, southern Brazil. The vegetation is comprised by a grassy-woody steppe (grassland. We used two camera traps alternately located on one of four 1 km transects, each separated by 1 km. We classified the activity pattern of species by the percentage of photographic records taken in each daily period. We identify Cuniculus paca individuals by differences in the patterns of flank spots. We then estimate the density 1 considering the area of riparian forest present in the sampling area, and 2 through capture/recapture analysis. Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were nocturnal, Cerdocyon thous had a crepuscular/nocturnal pattern, while Mazama gouazoubira was cathemeral. The patterns of circadian activity observed for medium and large mammals in this Pampa region (southern grasslands may reflect not only evolutionary, biological and ecological affects, but also human impacts not assessed in this study. We identified ten individuals of C. paca through skin spot patterns during the study period, which were recorded in different transects and months. The minimum population density of C. paca was 3.5 individuals per km2 (resident animals only and the total density estimates varied from 7.1 to 11.8 individuals per km2, when considering all individuals recorded or the result of the capture/recapture analysis, respectively.

  4. Activity pattern of medium and large sized mammals and density estimates of Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae) in the Brazilian Pampa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchtenberger, C; de Oliveira, Ê S; Cariolatto, L P; Kasper, C B

    2018-02-22

    Between July 2014 and April 2015, we conducted weekly inventories of the circadian activity patterns of mammals in Passo Novo locality, municipality of Alegrete, southern Brazil. The vegetation is comprised by a grassy-woody steppe (grassland). We used two camera traps alternately located on one of four 1 km transects, each separated by 1 km. We classified the activity pattern of species by the percentage of photographic records taken in each daily period. We identify Cuniculus paca individuals by differences in the patterns of flank spots. We then estimate the density 1) considering the area of riparian forest present in the sampling area, and 2) through capture/recapture analysis. Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were nocturnal, Cerdocyon thous had a crepuscular/nocturnal pattern, while Mazama gouazoubira was cathemeral. The patterns of circadian activity observed for medium and large mammals in this Pampa region (southern grasslands) may reflect not only evolutionary, biological and ecological affects, but also human impacts not assessed in this study. We identified ten individuals of C. paca through skin spot patterns during the study period, which were recorded in different transects and months. The minimum population density of C. paca was 3.5 individuals per km2 (resident animals only) and the total density estimates varied from 7.1 to 11.8 individuals per km2, when considering all individuals recorded or the result of the capture/recapture analysis, respectively.

  5. Comparison of Mammographic Changes Across Three Different Fractionation Schedules for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Sibo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, New Jersey (United States); Paster, Lina F. [Department of Radiology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, New Jersey (United States); Kim, Sinae [Biometrics Division, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, and Department of Biostatistics, Rutgers School of Public Health, Rutgers, New Jersey (United States); Kirstein, Laurie [Division of Surgical Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, New Jersey (United States); Haffty, Bruce G.; Ferro, Adam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, New Jersey (United States); Amorosa, Judith [Department of Radiology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, New Jersey (United States); Goyal, Sharad, E-mail: goyalsh@rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, New Jersey (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: As the use of hypofractionated breast radiation therapy (RT) increases, so will the need for long-term data on post-RT mammographic changes. The purpose of the present study was to longitudinally compare the incidence of common mammographic sequelae seen after breast conserving surgery and RT in patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (HWBI), and conventionally fractionated whole breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Patients treated with either APBI or HWBI after breast conserving therapy and with ≥3 mammograms of the treated breast were identified. They were matched 1:1 by age ±5 years to patients treated with WBI. The mammograms were evaluated for common post-RT breast findings by a mammographer who was unaware of the treatment. The outcomes were analyzed using a cumulative logistic regression model; P<.05 indicated statistically significance. Results: Of 89 patients treated with RT from 2006 to 2011, 29 had received APBI, 30 had received HWBI, and 30 had received WBI. Their median age was 60 years (range 33-83). A total of 605 mammograms were evaluated, with a median follow-up of 48 months. The treatment technique did not affect the severity of architectural distortion when the groups were evaluated longitudinally. The likelihood of finding skin thickening decreased with increasing follow-up duration (odds ratio 0.6; P<.001) adjusted for fractionation schemes. No differences were seen with respect to changes in skin thickening, fluid collections, or calcifications among the treatment groups, after adjustment for the follow-up time. The clinical characteristics, including age, race, T stage, and chemotherapy use, were not linked to the likelihood of finding several mammographic phenomena over time. Conclusions: Although specific post-treatment imaging findings evolved over time, RT fractionation did not alter the relative incidence or severity of architectural

  6. Controlled single-blind clinical evaluation of low-dose mammographic screen: film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickles, E.A.; Genant, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of five low-dose mammographic screen-film systems to portray normal and abnormal breast structures was evaluated in parallel with a study of physical image properties. Single-blind evaluations of the visibility of normal breast architecture, mass lesions, and calcifications were made on the mammograms of 100 patients radiographed with each of the systems. There was increased noise and slightly poorer resolution of the faster recording systems, but there was no difference in final diagnostic impressions among the five systems. These results suggest that the faster systems will result in substantial dose reduction without sacrificing diagnostic accuracy

  7. Mucinous (colloid) breast cancer: mammographic and US features with histologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memis, Aysenur; Ozdemir, Necmettin; Parildar, Mustafa; Ustun, Esin Emin; Erhan, Yildiz

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Mucinous carcinoma of the breast presents with different survival rates in pure and mixed types. The purpose of this study was to correlate the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of mucinous carcinoma with histologic features in different types and mucin rates. Material and methods: Thirty-four patients (2.3%) had mucinous cancer after retrospective review of the 1439 breast cancers diagnosed between 1990 and 1996. Twenty-seven patients, 19 pure and eight mixed type of mucinous carcinomas of the breast, were included in this study to evaluate the imaging findings. In 22 of these, the microscopic slides were available and re-evaluated to estimate the volume of extracellular mucin. The volume of the extracellular mucin was classified histologically as: (+), less than 50% of mucin; (++), 50-80% of mucin; and (+++), more than 80% of mucin. Mammographic features with emphasis on margin characteristics and sonographic echo pattern of tumors were correlated with histologic findings. Results: Ten cases (53%) of pure mucinous type carcinomas had a circumscribed mass lesion on the mammograms. The well-defined, lobulated margins of the masses were well correlated with pure histologic type (P 2 analysis) Two-thirds of these tumors had high volume extracellular mucin. All mixed type mucinous carcinomas demonstrated poorly defined or spiculated margins with no relation to the mucin rates (P<0.01). The sonographic appearances of the tumors showed correlation with histologic types. Most of the pure type carcinomas (53%) were seen with isoechogenic echo texture relative to that of subcutaneous fat, while all of the mixed type carcinomas were hypoechogenic (P<0.01). Conclusion: The mammographic and sonographic features of mucinous breast carcinoma show differences in pure and mixed types of the tumor. The most common mammographic appearance of pure mucinous carcinomas with high percentages of mucin is a mass lesion having well-defined margins, which is

  8. Study of the Spacecraft Potential Under Active Control and Plasma Density Estimates During the MMS Commissioning Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriopoulou, M.; Nakamura, R.; Torkar, K.; Baumjohann, W.; Torbert, R. B.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Dorelli, John Charles; Burch, J. L.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Each spacecraft of the recently launched magnetospheric multiscale MMS mission is equipped with Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) Instruments, which control the spacecraft potential in order to reduce spacecraft charging effects. ASPOC typically reduces the spacecraft potential to a few volts. On several occasions during the commissioning phase of the mission, the ASPOC instruments were operating only on one spacecraft at a time. Taking advantage of such intervals, we derive photoelectron curves and also perform reconstructions of the uncontrolled spacecraft potential for the spacecraft with active control and estimate the electron plasma density during those periods. We also establish the criteria under which our methods can be applied.

  9. Average glandular dose in patients submitted to mammographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, M.S.; Silva, T.A. da; Oliveira, M. de; Joana, G.S.; Oliveira, A.L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Doses in mammography should be maintained as low as possible without reducing the high image quality needed to the early detection of the breast cancer. As the breast is composed of tissues with very soft composition and densities, it increases the difficulty to detect small changes in the normal anatomical structures that may be associated with breast cancer. To achieve the standards of resolution and contrast for mammography, the quality and intensity of the X-ray beam, the breast positioning and compression, the film screen system, and the film processing must be in optimal operational conditions. This study intended to evaluate the mean glandular dose of patients undergoing routine exams in one mammography unit. Patient image analyses were done by a radiologist doctor who took into account 10 evaluation criteria for each CC and MLO incidences. For estimating each patient glandular dose the radiographic technique parameters (kV and mAs) and the thickness of the compressed breast were recorded. European image quality criteria were adopted by the radiologist doctor to accept the image for diagnostic purpose. For breast densities of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues the incident air-kerma was measured and the glandular dose calculated considering the x-ray output during the exam. In the study of 50 patients the mean glandular dose varied from 0.90 to 3.27 mGy with a mean value of 1.98 mGy for CC incidences. For MLO incidences the mean glandular doses ranged from 0.97 to 3.98 mGy and a mean value of 2.60 mGy. (author)

  10. Region-dependent hamstrings activity in Nordic hamstring exercise and stiff-leg deadlift defined with high-density electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, A; Péter, A; Finni, T; Cronin, N J

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies suggest region-specific metabolic activity in hamstring muscles during injury prevention exercises, but the neural representation of this phenomenon is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether regional differences are evident in the activity of biceps femoris long head (BFlh) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles during two common injury prevention exercises. Twelve male participants without a history of hamstring injury performed the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) and stiff-leg deadlift (SDL) while BFlh and ST activities were recorded with high-density electromyography (HD-EMG). Normalized activity was calculated from the distal, middle, and proximal regions in the eccentric phase of each exercise. In NHE, ST overall activity was substantially higher than in BFlh (d = 1.06 ± 0.45), compared to trivial differences between muscles in SDL (d = 0.19 ± 0.34). Regional differences were found in NHE for both muscles, with different proximal-distal patterns: The distal region showed the lowest activity level in ST (regional differences, d range = 0.55-1.41) but the highest activity level in BFlh (regional differences, d range = 0.38-1.25). In SDL, regional differences were smaller in both muscles (d range = 0.29-0.67 and 0.16-0.63 in ST and BFlh, respectively) than in NHE. The use of HD-EMG in hamstrings revealed heterogeneous hamstrings activity during typical injury prevention exercises. High-density EMG might be useful in future studies to provide a comprehensive overview of hamstring muscle activity in other exercises and high-injury risk tasks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Prevalence of Low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Among Adults, by Physical Activity: United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwald, Marissa L; Akinbami, Lara J; Fakhouri, Tala H I; Fryar, Chryl D

    2017-03-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey •The prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly higher among adults who did not meet recommended physical activity guidelines (21.0%) than adults who met the guidelines (17.7%). •Low HDL cholesterol prevalence differed significantly for both men and women by adherence to physical activity guidelines. •Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol declined as age increased for both those who did and did not meet the physical activity guidelines. •Non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black adults who did not meet the physical activity guidelines had a higher prevalence than those who met the guidelines. •Low HDL cholesterol prevalence declined with increasing education level regardless of adherence to physical activity guidelines. Regular physical activity can improve cholesterol levels among adults, including increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (1). HDL cholesterol is known as "good" cholesterol because high levels can reduce cardiovascular disease risk (2). The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend that adults engage in 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, or an equivalent combination (3). Adherence to these guidelines is expected to decrease the prevalence of low HDL cholesterol levels (4-8). This report presents national data for 2011-2014 on low HDL cholesterol prevalence among U.S. adults aged 20 and over, by whether they met these guidelines. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  12. [Density, size structure and reproductive activity of the pink conch Eustrombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae) in Banco Chinchorro, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala, Yuself R; Navarrete, Alberto de Jesús; Ocaña, Frank A; Rivera, José Oliva

    2013-12-01

    The pink conch Eustrombus gigas is an important fisheries resource. At the regional level in the Caribbean, over-exploitation and habitat destruction have caused a decrease in the abundance of this resource. In order to provide necessary information for the species management in Mexico, this work aimed to analyze the total density, adult density, size structure and reproductive behavior of pink conch population at Banco Chinchorro during 2009-2010. Data from three seasons were obtained (rainy, dry and cold fronts periods) in three areas: Norte (North), Centro (Center) and Sur (South). The organisms were separated into two groups: (a) the criteria based upon legal harvest in Mexico: legal size conchs (siphonal length > 200 mm) and illegal size conchs (siphonal length sexual maturity using the 15 mm lip thickness standard: lip or = 15 mm as adult conch. Copulation, spawning, egg masses and aggregations were evaluated as reproductive evidences. The highest total density was observed during the dry season with 384ind./ha, and the lowest during the rainy season with 127ind./ha. The highest density was reported at Sur (385ind./ha) and the lowest at Norte (198ind./ ha). The highest adult density was observed during the rainy season (8.33ind./ha), and the lowest occurred in the dry season (6.1 ind./ha). Adult density values were 5.55, 7.05 and 8.33ind./ha for Centro, Sur and Norte areas, respectively. Adult densities were lower than the threshold needed for reproduction, and 42% of the population may be vulnerable to fishing, as they had the minimum size for catch (Lsi 200 mm). Furthermore, only 2.2% of the population reached a Gl > 15 mm as sexual maturity indicator. During the study period, only six evidences of reproductive activity were observed. The smaller densities reported at Banco Chinchorro may cause reproduction events to be almost absent which in turn is sufficient evidence to show that the Allee Effect is acting on the queen conch population and there is an

  13. Unc-51 controls active zone density and protein composition by downregulating ERK signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Wairkar, Yogesh P.; Toda, Hirofumi; Mochizuki, Hiroaki; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo; Tomoda, Toshifumi; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Efficient synaptic transmission requires the apposition of neurotransmitter release sites opposite clusters of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Transmitter is released at active zones, which are composed of a large complex of proteins necessary for synaptic development and function. Many active zone proteins have been identified, but little is known of the mechanisms that ensure that each active zone receives the proper complement of proteins. Here we use a genetic analysis in Drosoph...

  14. The effects of sex-ratio and density on locomotor activity in the house fly, Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjaersgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino

    2012-01-01

    Although locomotor activity is involved in almost all behavioral traits, there is a lack of knowledge on what factors affect it. This study examined the effects of sex-ratio and density on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of adult Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) using an infra......-red light system. Sex-ratio significantly affected locomotor activity, increasing with the percentage of males in the vials. In accordance with other studies, males were more active than females, but the circadian rhythm of the two sexes was not constant over time and changed during the light period...... of the behavioral interactions between houseflies and highlight the importance of these factors when designing behavioral experiments using M. domestica....

  15. Activity of gypsy moth dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons under increased rearing density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrdaković Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar caterpillars were reared under two different rearing densities for the first three days of the 4th larval instar: 5 larvae that were kept in a Petri dish (V = 80 ml belonged to the intense stress (D1 group; 5 larvae that were kept in a plastic cup (V = 300ml belonged to the group exposed to less intense stress (D2 group. In the control group, single larvae were reared in a Petri dish. Morphometric changes in L1, L2 and L2’ dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons (nsn were analyzed. After keeping 5 larvae in a Petri dish, the size of L2 neurosecretory neurons (nsn significantly increased. Rearing 5 larvae in a plastic cup significantly increased the size of L1 nsn nuclei and the number of L2’nsn. A decrease in relative band densities in the region of molecular masses (11-15 kD that correspond to prothoracicotropic hormones in the gypsy moth was observed in the electrophoretic profiles that were obtained after both treatments in comparison to the control group. [Acknowledgments. This study was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science (Grant No. 173027.

  16. Rauvolfia grandiflora (Apocynaceae extract interferes with staphylococcal density, enterotoxin production and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanamar de Almeida Carlos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci bacteria are involved in many human and animal infections and development of alternative antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic bacteria is of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. This study investigated the in vitro effect of Rauvolfia grandiflora methanol extract (root bark fraction (RGE on the density of ATCC strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and a clinical enterotoxin-producer, S. aureus bovine strain. The alkaloid, isoreserpiline, obtained from dichloromethane extract of R. grandiflora was ineffective against the strains tested. After incubation of staphylococci strains in the presence of 1.2 mg.mL-1 RGE, a significant inhibition of cell growth was observed using both spectrophotometry and ELISA assays. Twelve drugs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on culture RGE-treated cells using the disk diffusion method. Penicillin resistant strains became sensitive to the drug after RGE treatment. Furthermore, enterotoxin production by RGE-treated S. aureus was evaluated using a standardized ELISA method. Although staphylococcal LSA 88 bovine strain cells remained viable after exposure to the extract, enterotoxin production was precluded in 20% after RGE treatment. Significant interference in staphylococci cell density, drug sensitivity and enterotoxin secretion was observed after treatment. The study highlights the necessity to find new methods of disease prevention and new antibiotic therapies against staphylococcal infections.

  17. Rauvolfia grandiflora (apocynaceae) extract interferes with staphylococcal density, enterotoxin production and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Carlos, Lanamar; da Silva Amaral, Kenas Aguiar; Curcino Vieira, Ivo José; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Silva Samarão, Solange; Vieira-da-Motta, Olney

    2010-07-01

    Staphylococci bacteria are involved in many human and animal infections and development of alternative antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic bacteria is of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. This study investigated the in vitro effect of Rauvolfia grandiflora methanol extract (root bark fraction) (RGE) on the density of ATCC strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and a clinical enterotoxin-producer, S. aureus bovine strain. The alkaloid, isoreserpiline, obtained from dichloromethane extract of R. grandiflora was ineffective against the strains tested. After incubation of staphylococci strains in the presence of 1.2 μg.mL(-1) RGE, a significant inhibition of cell growth was observed using both spectrophotometry and ELISA assays. Twelve drugs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on culture RGE-treated cells using the disk diffusion method. Penicillin resistant strains became sensitive to the drug after RGE treatment. Furthermore, enterotoxin production by RGE-treated S. aureus was evaluated using a standardized ELISA method. Although staphylococcal LSA 88 bovine strain cells remained viable after exposure to the extract, enterotoxin production was precluded in 20% after RGE treatment. Significant interference in staphylococci cell density, drug sensitivity and enterotoxin secretion was observed after treatment. The study highlights the necessity to find new methods of disease prevention and new antibiotic therapies against staphylococcal infections.

  18. Background enhancement in breast MR: Correlation with breast density in mammography and background echotexture in ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Eun Sook; Lee, Byung Hee; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Rock Bum; Noh, Woo-Chul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine whether background enhancement on MR was related to mammographic breast density or ultrasonographic background echotexture in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: We studied 142 patients (79 premenopausal, 63 postmenopausal) who underwent mammography, ultrasonography, and breast MR. We reviewed the mammography for overall breast density of the contralateral normal breast according to the four-point scale of the BI-RADS classification. Ultrasound findings were classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous background echotexture according to the BI-RADS lexicon. We rated background enhancement on a contralateral breast MR into four categories based on subtraction images: absent, mild, moderate, and marked. All imaging findings were interpreted independently by two readers without knowledge of menstrual status, imaging findings of other modalities. Results: There were significant differences between the premenopausal and postmenopausal group in distribution of mammographic breast density, ultrasonographic background echotexture, and degree of background enhancement. Regarding the relationship between mammographic density and background enhancement, there was no significant correlation. There was significant relationship between ultrasonographic background echotexture and background enhancement in both premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between ultrasonographic background echotexture and background enhancement in MR regardless of menopausal status. Interpreting breast MR, or scheduling for breast MR of women showing heterogeneous background echotexture needs more caution.

  19. A novel deep learning-based approach to high accuracy breast density estimation in digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chul Kyun; Heo, Changyong; Jin, Heongmin; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2017-03-01

    Mammographic breast density is a well-established marker for breast cancer risk. However, accurate measurement of dense tissue is a difficult task due to faint contrast and significant variations in background fatty tissue. This study presents a novel method for automated mammographic density estimation based on Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). A total of 397 full-field digital mammograms were selected from Seoul National University Hospital. Among them, 297 mammograms were randomly selected as a training set and the rest 100 mammograms were used for a test set. We designed a CNN architecture suitable to learn the imaging characteristic from a multitudes of sub-images and classify them into dense and fatty tissues. To train the CNN, not only local statistics but also global statistics extracted from an image set were used. The image set was composed of original mammogram and eigen-image which was able to capture the X-ray characteristics in despite of the fact that CNN is well known to effectively extract features on original image. The 100 test images which was not used in training the CNN was used to validate the performance. The correlation coefficient between the breast estimates by the CNN and those by the expert's manual measurement was 0.96. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of incorporating the deep learning technology into radiology practice, especially for breast density estimation. The proposed method has a potential to be used as an automated and quantitative assessment tool for mammographic breast density in routine practice.

  20. Work- and travel-related physical activity and alcohol consumption: relationship with bone mineral density and calcaneal quantitative ultrasonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritara, Chanika; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong; Pornsuriyasak, Prapaporn; Warodomwichit, Daruneewan; Akrawichien, Tawatchai; Vathesatogkit, Prin; Sritara, Piyamitr

    2015-01-01

    A number of healthy workers rarely exercise because of a lack of time or resources. Physical activity related to work and everyday travel may be more feasible, but evidence of its beneficial effect on bone health is scarce. We assessed if this form of physical activity was associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD) and stiffness index (SI) when adjusted for recreational physical activity, age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Healthy workers, aged 25-54 yr, of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand were surveyed. The outcomes were BMD (lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip) and calcaneal SI. Physical activity was estimated using the global physical activity questionnaire and considered active when >600 metabolic equivalent tasks (min). Of 2268 subjects, 74% were men. Active male subjects had significantly higher BMD at the femoral neck and total hip (pwomen (p>0.05). In men, work and travel physical activity seems beneficial to male bone health; hence, it should be encouraged. Furthermore, smoking appeared harmful while moderate alcohol consumption was beneficial. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinicopathogical characteristics and mammographic features of breast cancer showing architectural distortion on a mammogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzaki, Masao; Hirose, Naoko; Suwa, Kaori; Yoshida, Masayuki; Otuki, Yoshiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Seven hundred and twenty-seven cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in this clinic between January 2003 and December 2010. Of those, 97 patients who showed architectural distortion on mammography were examined regarding the clinicopathological characteristics and mammographic features. The overall rate of architectural distortion was 13.3%, which became higher with progression of the clinical stage. The rate of lymph node metastasis was 50.5% histologically, and the most common histological type was scirrhous carcinoma at 36.2%, papillotubular carcinoma at 33%, invasive lobular carcinoma at 12.1%, and ductal carcinoma in situ at 11%. Cases of extensive ductal spread beyond the breast quadrant, accompanied by microcalcifications or showing architectural distortion in two views on mammography, were present at significantly high rates. Cases showing architectural distortion in two views on mammography accounted for 66% of the total, and, when these cases were not associated with any other mammographic findings, the most suspected histology of the lesion was invasive lobular carcinoma or carcinoma in situ. (author)

  2. Radiologists' preferences for digital mammographic display. The International Digital Mammography Development Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, E D; Cole, E B; Major, S; Zong, S; Hemminger, B M; Muller, K E; Johnston, R E; Walsh, R; Conant, E; Fajardo, L L; Feig, S A; Nishikawa, R M; Yaffe, M J; Williams, M B; Aylward, S R

    2000-09-01

    To determine the preferences of radiologists among eight different image processing algorithms applied to digital mammograms obtained for screening and diagnostic imaging tasks. Twenty-eight images representing histologically proved masses or calcifications were obtained by using three clinically available digital mammographic units. Images were processed and printed on film by using manual intensity windowing, histogram-based intensity windowing, mixture model intensity windowing, peripheral equalization, multiscale image contrast amplification (MUSICA), contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization, Trex processing, and unsharp masking. Twelve radiologists compared the processed digital images with screen-film mammograms obtained in the same patient for breast cancer screening and breast lesion diagnosis. For the screening task, screen-film mammograms were preferred to all digital presentations, but the acceptability of images processed with Trex and MUSICA algorithms were not significantly different. All printed digital images were preferred to screen-film radiographs in the diagnosis of masses; mammograms processed with unsharp masking were significantly preferred. For the diagnosis of calcifications, no processed digital mammogram was preferred to screen-film mammograms. When digital mammograms were preferred to screen-film mammograms, radiologists selected different digital processing algorithms for each of three mammographic reading tasks and for different lesion types. Soft-copy display will eventually allow radiologists to select among these options more easily.

  3. The power and the pain: Mammographic compression research from the service-users' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Leslie; Hogg, Peter; Newton-Hughes, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: to explore the value service-users can add to our understanding of inter-practitioner compression variability in mammography. Imaging of the breast for the screening and detection of breast carcinoma is generally carried out by mammographic examination the technique for which includes compression of the breast. Evolving research calls into question compression practice in terms of practitioner consistency thus raising the possibility that strong compression may not be required. We were interested to know whether this was important to service-users and if such knowledge might influence their behaviour. Methods: and sample: A qualitative study involving 3 focus groups interviews (n = 4, 6 and 5). Participants were first asked to reflect on their own experiences of breast compression within the context of a breast screening examination, then interpret the results of the evolving research detailed above. We then explored whether these participants might behave differently during future mammography in light being appraised of these research findings. Results: A grounded approach was used to analyse the data into themes. The two overarching themes were i) Service-User Empowerment, which illustrates the difficulties participants believe women would encounter in exercising power in the breast screening mammographic examination; and ii) Service User Experience of Mammography, which unearthed unanticipated aspects of the examination, other than compression, that contribute to pain and discomfort and which therefore need investigation. Conclusion: Involving service-users more collaboratively in research can help investigators understand the impact of their work and highlight patient-relevant areas for further investigation

  4. Diagnostic Performance of Mammographic Texture Analysis in the Differential Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Breast Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiming; Yu, Lan; Wang, Xin; Yu, Haiyang; Gao, Yuanxiang; Ren, Yande; Wang, Gang; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2017-11-09

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of mammographic texture analysis in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors. Digital mammography images were obtained from the Picture Archiving and Communication System at our institute. Texture features of mammographic images were calculated. Mann-Whitney U test was used to identify differences between the benign and malignant group. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance of texture features. Significant differences of texture features of histogram, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and run length matrix (RLM) were found between the benign and malignant breast group (P  .05). The AUROCs of imaging-based diagnosis, texture analysis, and imaging-based diagnosis combined with texture analysis were 0.873, 0.863, and 0.961, respectively. When imaging-based diagnosis was combined with texture analysis, the AUROC was higher than that of imaging-based diagnosis or texture analysis (P benign and malignant breast tumors. Furthermore, the combination of imaging-based diagnosis and texture analysis can significantly improve diagnostic performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Image enhancement by using IDL for a mammographic x-ray image in Medical Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmaliza Hashim; Md Saion Salikin; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Norriza Mohd Isa; Azuhar Ripin

    2004-01-01

    Digital image enhancement technique can have a significant impact on the diagnostic quality of a radiographic image. The main aim of image enhancement is to process the image so that the enhanced image is clearer and more useful for specific application. There are three types of image enhancement namely noise reduction, edge enhancement and contrast enhancement. The objective of this project is to enhance the mammographic image by using Interactive Data Language (IDL) software in spatial and frequency domain by using various methods. In spatial domain method, direct manipulation of pixel in an image is used whereas, in frequency domain method, modifying the spectral component or Fourier Transform of an image is used In order to obtain the good quality mammographic image, breast phantom Model 12A with 4.0 cm compressed thickness and Bennett Model DMF- 150 Mammography Machine with various kV and mA are employed. The results of enhanced image with selected technique by using IDL are presented in this paper. (Author)

  6. Computer-aided diagnosis of mammographic masses using geometric verification-based image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingliang; Shi, Weili; Yang, Huamin; Zhang, Huimao; Li, Guoxin; Chen, Tao; Mori, Kensaku; Jiang, Zhengang

    2017-03-01

    Computer-Aided Diagnosis of masses in mammograms is an important indicator of breast cancer. The use of retrieval systems in breast examination is increasing gradually. In this respect, the method of exploiting the vocabulary tree framework and the inverted file in the mammographic masse retrieval have been proved high accuracy and excellent scalability. However it just considered the features in each image as a visual word and had ignored the spatial configurations of features. It greatly affect the retrieval performance. To overcome this drawback, we introduce the geometric verification method to retrieval in mammographic masses. First of all, we obtain corresponding match features based on the vocabulary tree framework and the inverted file. After that, we grasps the main point of local similarity characteristic of deformations in the local regions by constructing the circle regions of corresponding pairs. Meanwhile we segment the circle to express the geometric relationship of local matches in the area and generate the spatial encoding strictly. Finally we judge whether the matched features are correct or not, based on verifying the all spatial encoding are whether satisfied the geometric consistency. Experiments show the promising results of our approach.

  7. Effect of dose reduction on the detection of mammographic lesions: A mathematical observer model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, Amarpreet S.; Samei, Ehsan; Saunders, Robert; Abbey, Craig; Delong, David

    2007-01-01

    The effect of reduction in dose levels normally used in mammographic screening procedures on the detection of breast lesions were analyzed. Four types of breast lesions were simulated and inserted into clinically-acquired digital mammograms. Dose reduction by 50% and 75% of the original clinically-relevant exposure levels were simulated by adding corresponding simulated noise into the original mammograms. The mammograms were converted into luminance values corresponding to those displayed on a clinical soft-copy display station and subsequently analyzed by Laguerre-Gauss and Gabor channelized Hotelling observer models for differences in detectability performance with reduction in radiation dose. Performance was measured under a signal known exactly but variable detection task paradigm in terms of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and area under the ROC curves. The results suggested that luminance mapping of digital mammograms affects performance of model observers. Reduction in dose levels by 50% lowered the detectability of masses with borderline statistical significance. Dose reduction did not have a statistically significant effect on detection of microcalcifications. The model results indicate that there is room for optimization of dose level in mammographic screening procedures

  8. Mass Detection in Mammographic Images Using Wavelet Processing and Adaptive Threshold Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhe, P S; Thool, V R

    2016-04-01

    Detection of mass in mammogram for early diagnosis of breast cancer is a significant assignment in the reduction of the mortality rate. However, in some cases, screening of mass is difficult task for radiologist, due to variation in contrast, fuzzy edges and noisy mammograms. Masses and micro-calcifications are the distinctive signs for diagnosis of breast cancer. This paper presents, a method for mass enhancement using piecewise linear operator in combination with wavelet processing from mammographic images. The method includes, artifact suppression and pectoral muscle removal based on morphological operations. Finally, mass segmentation for detection using adaptive threshold technique is carried out to separate the mass from background. The proposed method has been tested on 130 (45 + 85) images with 90.9 and 91 % True Positive Fraction (TPF) at 2.35 and 2.1 average False Positive Per Image(FP/I) from two different databases, namely Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) and Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). The obtained results show that, the proposed technique gives improved diagnosis in the early breast cancer detection.

  9. Mammographic Screening of Women Attending a Reference Service Center in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiro Lopes, Tiara Cristina; Franca Gravena, Angela Andreia; Demitto, Marcela de Oliveira; Brischiliari, Sheila Cristina Rocha; Borghesan, Deise Helena Pelloso; Dell Agnolo, Catia Millene; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with performance of annual mammography by women above 40 years of age. This cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted at an oncology reference service in Southern Brazil from October 2013 to October 2014 with 525 women aged 40 years or older. The prevalence of annual mammography was 54.1%; annual mammographic screening was performed for women without private medical insurance, who were under hormone replacement therapy and who had used contraception in the past. An association was found between non-performance of breast clinical and self-examination and non-performance of mammographic screening. Use of mammography for breast cancer screening in the public health care setting proved to be accessible; nevertheless, the proportion of screened women was low, and they exhibited poor adherence to the basic measures of care recommended for breast assessment. Thus, control of breast cancer requires implementing actions targeting the population most vulnerable to non-adherence to screening in addition to continuously monitoring and assessing that population to reduce the prevalence of this disease.

  10. Neighbourhood food and physical activity environments in England, UK: does ethnic density matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molaodi Oarabile R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In England, obesity is more common in some ethnic minority groups than in Whites. This study examines the relationship between ethnic concentration and access to fast food outlets, supermarkets and physical activity facilities. Methods Data on ethnic concentration, fast food outlets, supermarkets and physical activity facilities were obtained at the lower super output area (LSOA (popul